Basic english grammar structures and vocaBulary

A short course in english for Adult students

Prof. Juan gmo. moya montaña
DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY
A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO 2da. EDICIÓN

Profesor Juan Guillermo Moya Montaña Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y Traductor de la División Doctrina del Ejército de Chile.

jmoyam@profing.tie.cl Cel. : 08-3619605 Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual Nº151.465 I.S.B.N. Nº 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar Julio 2008 2da. Edición

ÍNDICE
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• Presentación _____________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apéndices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Presentación
Presentación En la actualidad, nadie pone en duda que las exigencias que la sociedad le atribuye a las instituciones armadas son variadas y complejas. En este sentido y ya en pleno siglo XXI, las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional, impulsan a nuestros soldados a tener un dominio cada vez mayor del idioma anglosajón. El material que se presenta a continuación, ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las esctructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal. Por este motivo, el Ejército decidió reimprimir este completo manual de autoaprendizaje, cuyo autor es el profesor Juan Moya Montaña, con el propósito de seguir contribuyendo a la formación y perfeccionamiento de todos sus integrantes.

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO.

A short course in english for adult students

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estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. 7. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. adjetivos. Leer. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. 6. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. Estudiar las ilustraciones. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. verbos. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. A short course in english for adult students 7 .).Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. 2. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. estudiar y estudiar. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores. 5. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. 9. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). 8. etc. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. 4. discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. 3. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. preposiciones.

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. etc. every month. never. sugar. you. 59 ..NO . For • Now.. milk. 77 . theirs. at this time. little. etc. There are 3 cars in the garage • How much? How many? • Much. your. • How old?. A(N). yesterday. quarter past / to. Always. UNIT 6 P. usually.Adjectives KEY TO ANSWERS 37 39 39 41 43 45 • • • • • • He has got a big house Uncountable nouns: money. Past and Future) THE ENGLISH ALPHABET THE PHONETIC ALPHABET KEY TO ANSWERS 15 22 23 25 • What?.Clothes • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • He works here every day Every day. books. you. How long?. a lot. at the moment.36 • THERE TO BE (Present. sometimes. How?. half past. tomorrow. Once a day.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 P.. UNIT 5 • ARTICLES II .NOT ANY . How far?. his. What time?. Where?. How much?. O´clock. How fast?. 37 . • My. How wide?..Professions And Occupations • KEY TO ANSWERS 77 78 83 84 86 87 89 • • • • He worked here yesterday Last week. yours.etc.45 • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I . students. ours. • Me. midnight PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS TIME AND DATES ORDINAL NUMBERS QUESTION WORDS 1 UNIT 4 For describing people and things. 47 . Yesterday morning. three times a year. How many?. etc. How tall?. etc. Why?. On. Until. Who?.90 • SIMPLE PAST TENSE • REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS • USED TO + INFINITIVE • POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND PRONOUNS • SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS • VOCABULARY: . P. lots of. him. etc. temporarily. at night Noon / midday. What?. How often?. A short course in english for adult students 9 . few. At. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening. 15 . last night. 1996. Which?. Whose?. water. our. Countable nouns: people. her. men.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and P. very little. How thick?. That. last week / last year / last Monday. • Mine. the day before yesterday. generally. etc. What kind of?. What color?. for the time being.25 • • • • TO BE (Present. every week. How old? How long? What time? • This. What sort of?. Who?. Past and Future) • SOME . on the fifth of May. yours. What shape?. last month.. your. it. Those. etc. These. In . The .. How deep?. work. thirty minutes ago. Time and Dates • KEY TO ANSWERS • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • TIME EXPRESSIONS (I): ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • • • • • 47 48 52 52 54 55 57 59 61 66 67 68 71 73 • He is working at the moment • Now. at present. next week. them. his her. its. us. hers. like? • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. Why?. the day after tomorrow. What is / are . many. What size?. very few • • • UNIT 3 • • P. 27 .. their. How big?. last Monday.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: . How? Whom?.75 Which • VOCABULARY: . often. Two weeks ago. When?. How long?. two days ago UNIT 2 P. etc. yesterday evening.57 • VOCABULARY: . twice a week. How high?.Numerals. today.People • KEY TO ANSWERS 27 27 33 34 36 • There is a car in the garage.ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: .

. • Bob can swim very well. in the USA. etc... • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. • It takes me 20 minutes to. SHOULD. Cpt. too / as well.. OUGHT TO UNIT 10 • HAVE TO = TENER QUE P. etc. not anybody / not anyone... SOMEWHERE UNIT 8 AND DERIVED WORDS P. Please... etc. • Good .. • How long does it take to. a secretary. in North Carolina.. AS WELL. In Salt Lake City. don´t do that. 115 . SO.best. SOMETHING. You may use the phone now. an Englishman.• PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III . = DEMORAR UNIT 9 • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES P. Bob sent her some flowers. the most intelligent • As fast as.. etc. professions. etc. When Peter arrived this morning.The City • KEY TO ANSWERS 103 106 109 111 113 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO.. cities. • An American. Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. Scott. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary. not anywhere.140 • VOCABULARY: . but the girl doesn´t.126 • VOCABULARY: . The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl.shorter than. nobody / no one. something. • A doctor. etc. 103 . • Somebody / someone.. Whom. please. NOT.154 • 150 152 153 • • • • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow...Nationalities. 127 . not anything.. In Canada.Parts of the Body Time Expressions (II) • KEY TO ANSWERS • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO. streets. an engineer.. etc.. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight. countries and UNIT 7 geographical names.better . Jones. • The boy speaks Italian. This one is too old UNIT 11 P. • He said that he was tired.Our Health KEY TO ANSWERS 127 129 131 135 136 139 141 143 144 145 146 147 • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. 91 .. • Open the door.. • What a tall woman!. in the West Indies.EITHER. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now.. more intelligent than. • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. etc. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I..... etc.. • Mr. • On Fifth Avenue. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend.. 10 A short course in english for adult students .Food • KEY TO ANSWERS 115 116 119 123 125 • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week. when they got married. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE. / IT TOOK. / IT WILL TAKE. • IT TAKES.. somewhere. nothing. What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year.. He speaks Italian.The house • KEY TO ANSWERS 91 94 95 96 99 101 • He was working here at 9:30 last night • At that time.. MUST. at 10:30 last night. Dr.. TOO.. nowhere • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who.. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: .102 • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: . P. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow.... 141 ... titles and ranks. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian. MAY. The man whose car is parked outside.the shortest • Intelligent.? • Short .. White. etc.114 • VOCABULARY: .. He told me that he was tired. a Chilean..

Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C. etc. 191 . He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . Verb + to-infinitive B. 157 . 175 . keep talking. did he? 191 194 196 198 199 201 • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. 170 173 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. He himself did it. etc. not yet. three times. knife / knives. brush / brushes. harder. etc. too I saw her crossing / cross the road. MIGHT. etc.The Weather • KEY TO ANSWERS 203 205 205 207 207 207 209 • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder.before. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . lately. 203 . He cut himself. / P. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: . doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting. day / days.Sports and Recreation • KEY TO ANSWERS • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS UNIT 14 • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” P.214 CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . certainly.Nature • KEY TO ANSWERS 175 177 177 178 179 179 181 184 187 189 • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. more carefully. early.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING UNIT 15 .MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. twice. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. since. earlier. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop 210 212 213 A short course in english for adult students 11 .174 • KEY TO ANSWERS 157 161 164 • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. Sooner.202 • VOCABULARY: . already. for. Verb + gerund / bare UNIT 13 infinitive P. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E.MAY. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. etc. go shopping. Fast. yet / already?. never. He will let them play He wants us to go. Go skiing. soon More quickly. late.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND UNIT 12 • VOCABULARY: .Prepositions and Connectors P. once. carefully. baby / babies. hard.190 D. etc. ever Book / books.

Regular and Irregular Verbs • KEY TO ANSWERS • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS 225 231 233 235 • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 237 244 245 248 251 253 253 254 254 257 261 263 • • • • • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes. UNIT 16 • USE OF ELSE. 237 .The Workshop • KEY TO ANSWERS 215 217 218 • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired.. 263 . or else I´ll miss my flight. 215 . 277 .The Armed Forces I P. QUESTIONS C. When I see her tomorrow.. STATEMENTS B.261 .252 • KEY TO ANSWERS • REPORTED SPEECH A. He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 P.. ORDERS UNIT 19 • VOCABULARY: P.296 • TEACHER’S TEXT SCRIPT • KEY TO ANSWERS 277 279 283 291 293 295 APENDICES • CHART 1 BASIC VERB TENSES • CHART 2 BASIC VERB TENSES A) CONTINUOUS TENSES B) SIMPLE TENSES C) PERFECT TENSES 4) PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES 297 299 299 300 302 303 12 A short course in english for adult students . 219 221 223 210 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO UNIT 17 • VOCABULARY: . OR ELSE / OTHERWISE P. UNTIL..223 • VOCABULARY: .The Armed Forces II P.275 • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping • ASSESSMENT TEST • QUESTION BOOKLET (Listening Part) • QUESTION BOOKLET (Reading Part) UNIT 21 • ANSWER SHEET P.236 • KEY TO ANSWERS • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE UNIT 18 • VOCABULARY: . 253 .• FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN. AS SOON AS. Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. 225 . ETC... COMMANDS.

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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Jones. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ . !ei á:r. the new instructor. That /!æt/ ese/a. las. Who are those men? /hú: a:r !óuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz !e ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz !e búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r !e ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r !e stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r !e tchíldrn/ It is a pen. ARE /a:r/ 1. thank you. It´s a pen /iés. /!eir !e stiú:dents/ He´s at home. /!éir in !e læb/ I´m fine. la. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT. the secretary. It´s. Now /náu/ ahora. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . You´re. the students. Those /!óuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons. /!ei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. its a pén/ Yes. They´re books. Thanks /"æ#ks/ gracias. He´s. "æ#ks/ They´re very well. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. !ei á:r. thanks. It´s a house. We´re. These /!í:z/ estos/as. they are. Fine /fáin/ bien.) . normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. /iés.They´re cars.it iz. /hí:z mátch béter. !i/ (antes de vocal) el. /áim fáin. They´re. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. /!eir véri wél "æ#k iu/ 2. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz !is a pén/ Is that a house? /is !æt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r !í:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r !óuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz !æt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z !æt wúman/ .) un/a. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. Thank you /"æ#k iu:/ gracias. Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. /hi:z !e niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. it is. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. /its in !e gæridll/ It´s on the desk. /!éir in !e ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. This /!is/ este/a. normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ I am not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /!ei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /!ei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /!eir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . "æ#ks/ He´s much better. they are. It is. In /in/ en.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. /shi:z !e sékretri/ They´re Bob. thanks.UNIT 1 PART I. On /on/ encima de. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. IS /iz/..!eir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r !óuz/. Jim and Tom. At /æt/ en. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz !is/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots !æt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r !í:z/. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. los. Escuche. She´s. The / !e (antes de cons. /iés. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación.IS . Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. !eir búks/ Yes.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /!éi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. /!eir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. /its on !e désk/ They´re in the car park.

They´re tables /téiblz/. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. Are you in the office? 2. 8. He´s not very well. 3.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful. Clark? 3. 2. aren´t /á:rent/. 1. Escuche. He is not here /híar/. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1.Escuche. isn´t /íznt/ .) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ ¿No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi.rent !ei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche. 10. (It´s not a pen. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r !ei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á.) They´re magazines. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. It´s not a train. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. 9. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. he is. He´s a pilot. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. I ______ an undergraduate student. (armas-poderosas) 6. they aren´t. here /híar/ aquí. The men ______ tired. Are the students in class? 6. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. they aren´t. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. is not /iz nót/. He isn´t here. They´re not there.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a kæptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r !ei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/¿Está correcta mi respuesta? EXERCISES Ex. 7. They´re not in the lab. They are not there /!éar/ It is not a train. are not /a:r nót/. (It´s not a tank.) It´s a truck. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. (They´re not chairs). it isn´t. /pénsl/ No._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . It isn´t a train. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración. They aren´t there. John and Mary _____ good friends. Am I a good instructor? 5. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent !ei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt !is kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. The train _____ ten minutes late. Is that man Mr. Yes. (sala de profs. Answer these questions. it isn´t. there /!éar/ allí. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. 4. over there /óuver !éar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. /mægazinz/ No. /trák/ No. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. Are we ready to go? 4.) It´s a pencil. (They´re not books. 5. He´s not here. He isn´t very well. 3. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. 2. They aren´t in the lab. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæ#k/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No.

_________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. The course / interesting 4. thanks 5. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. 5.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . 1.at home 1. Are you thirsty? sediento (hungry) 3. It´s a knife 2. How?. They´re books 3. Your friends / from Canada 5.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex.8. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. claras) 8. I´m fine. Are your friends American? (British) 7. Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. The pictures / clear (nítidas. Where?. Peter and John / in class 3. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. The children are tired 10. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. as in the example: It´s a plane. 4 Ask questions. Is the bank open? 10. Who?. The manager / in his office 2. they are not. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. The computer / connected to the Internet 6.Is Cpt. It´s a chair 7. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. 3. The cat´s under the sofa 6. That boy´s my brother 8. The books are on the table 9. as in the example below: The Browns . Ask questions using the wh-words What?. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. The children / in the playground.(patio) 9.

I ______ from Appleton. Pleased to meet you. she ______ ______. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Peter. That´s bad news. She ______ my classmate . She ______ married. Where ______ you. I´m glad to meet you. Jim? I ______ here. 18 A short course in english for adult students . éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. Hello. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. I ______ with my friend Janet. too. Yesterday /iésterdi/ ayer. in the library. I ______ an instructor. I ______ ______. I ______ not. 1. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ la semana pasada. How ______ you? I ______ fine. B. Hello. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. ______ you alone? No. That ______ very interesting. Mike Hello. She ______ a new student.WERE /we:r/ 1. Jack. Sir. (pausa) This ______ Janet. Where ______ you from. /míster djækson woz híar "rí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris el año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). Jackson was here three weeks ago. Hello. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/ ¿Cuándo?. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /!ei wé:r/ (Ellos/eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. 6.Ex. ______ you a student here? No. ______ she single? No. /!ei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr. thanks. I ______ glad to meet you. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today. The day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ anteayer. Mr. She ______ from London. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. Why? /wái/ ¿Por qué?. Oh. My name ______ Frank. EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. Wisconsin. Oh. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días. Jane. / méri woz !e bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. Oh. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. Come and meet her. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. Brown? I ______ American.WERE /we:r/ I was /ai wóz/ (Yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (Era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. Frank John Frank John Frank 3.

4. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. 4. 1. 5.Why?.Y. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. They ______ free today. 6. 3. 6. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. Escuche. The men were tired after the long walk. Liz was in bed because she was sick. present or past: 1. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1. 6. 7.M. 2. John was in the car at that moment. George was a little better this morning. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. /!ei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérki#/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. but they ______ at work yesterday. The secretary was busy at midday. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. Who? 1. 2. How?. 5. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. They were good friends at school. Ask questions using wh-words like What?. Mary was late for the train this morning. When?. 3. 4. but he ______ much better today. 2. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás !is mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at !is táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex.2. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/. but it ______ working well now. /dllón wóznt at hóum !is mórni#/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. 2. Today ______ Monday. How old. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. Tom was at home at midnight last night. Where?. The weather was fine that day. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. 5. Yesterday ______ Sunday.

/dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. as in the example: John is not at home today. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. serán / estarán) They will be /!ei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ella será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. John isn´t absent today. A short course in english for adult students . The day after tomorrow /!e déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /!eil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening. 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. Escuche. Mr. /ái wil bí: véri bízi !is a:fternú:n/ . 20 (will be at home) tomorrow. I am not in my office at the moment. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. 6.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. The weather was not very nice last month. For /for/ por. Escuche. para What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. 7. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. bi: at !e mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil !ei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu lo# wil !ei bí: in wóshi#ton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. 5. 3. It is not very cold now. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. 4. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. Complete the sentences. They won´t be here all day.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. but they _______________________________ next semester. but he 1.C. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrow. 1. /ai wil nót bí: véri bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vni#/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil !e tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil !ei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿Estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. We are not busy right now. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. /!ei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu ló#/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE. but it _____________________________________________ next month.

Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. ¿Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? 11. in English. It´ll be hot tomorrow. 3. 3. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. When is the next general meeting? 9. How?. Mary will be in New York next weekend. 2. Los informes no estaban listos todavía. 14. Este no es un libro muy interesante. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. 4. 3. 4. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? 5. I will be free next Tuesday morning. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. 6. Answer the following questions. 9. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. 2. Mr. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. 7. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. 5. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. The program will be interesting. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . Where were you last weekend? 7.When?. My friends will be here before 12. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? 4.Ex. 13.Why?. When will you be on vacation again? 3. 3. They will be here at ten-thirty. 5. How long?. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. The weather will be very nice this month. 9. 7. I´ll be in the first team. John will be in class today. 1. etc. How are you today? 4. 6. Ella será una excelente secretaria. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio 8. 7. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. They will be in the next town before midday. Ask questions using Where?. 6. 10. 5. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. 1. Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. 1. 4. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. 2. ¿Quién era ese hombre? 12. 2. What time?. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. 8. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex.

/tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.W .X .M .I .A -E 2.G .H .F 4.D .I .Q .O .O . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1.E . E . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio.N .G .U .M . U .B .E . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z. 2. THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se llama /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.U . !æts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.N .I .L .B .H . P .V .I .T .O .K . My last name is Vasquez.J .K .A .L .Q .B . lea y aprenda: 1.A .W .O .C .P . Tom works for IBM in LA.Y . B: Can you spell that.F .E .U .V -B 3.V .W .B .T .G .Y . please? A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /"æ#kiu:/ /kán iu: spél !æt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái brá!erz néim iz ignásio/ 2. ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .X .A Ex.C .O .X .I .G . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex.L .R .T .E .Q . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2.L .S .O .S .PART II. I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mán" ái bó:t it at !e pí: éks/ B: No.N .Z . J .C . 1.X .Y .Z . A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á. 4.I .W .J . E . Escuche.X .X .A 5. ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1.Y . /mái la:st néim is váskes.C .F .R .A .r/ B: Last month. 3.D .I .A .K .Q .

D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ MBA MBT ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /tá#gou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iá#ki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1.C. FBI OK ITT a. A. I spell: J for Juliett.m.D. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph. I spell: C as in Charlie. U for uniform.m.Ex. L as in Lima. The commander´s last name is CLARK. My name is JUAN. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B. A as in Alfa. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. 5. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 . BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p.

Bl 24 .

Was . Ex. Yes. 7. 14. Clark. They´re updated. 2. Who was that man? 12.? 6. they´re not. 3. Is the course interesting? 4.. I´m a army officer. 4. 6. What´s this / that? 2. What´s this / that? 7.. 1. Yes... 3.? 2. 1. It won´t be . Was . are 4. How old was Mr Clark when. is 7.were 3. Who´s that boy? 8.. / Was Mary. Who was here this morning? 5... 4. I´m not. They´re young. it is. No.Are J: am . Are . You´re a good instructor. Yes. 6.... They aren´t old. will be very cold 4. Is .... She´s a secretary.. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. They´re sad. 1. They´re British..? 4. Were . Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. / Will the program be. He´s at work. 1. The men weren´t ... / Will my friends be...was 4...you are. he´s not. They aren´t happy.... No. will be very nice.. Henry wasn´t . Are the maps in the library? Ex. Was .. 1. / Will it be... he is..are R: am . What are these / those? 3. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. How are the children? 10.. Mary wasn´t . / Was the secretary . 6... No. How are you? 5.? 5.are F: am . Ex. 1.am J: is 2. 2...are Ex. they´re not. / Will I be ... No. He isn´t a doctor. Now.. My friends won´t be. Mr Jackson was in the office all day.. Yes. Where are the books? 9... The secretary wasn´t. they are.? Ex. He´s an engineer. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 . 1. 10. 5.. 2.? 2. When will she be back in Chile? 8. / Will John be . He´s off duty. Why was Liz in bed? 4. Yes. 1. 1. They´re in class.. is 10. It´s a modern plane. I´m not an navy officer. 1.. 6. (open answers) Ex. 5.. he´s not.is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t . I am. she is. Ex...? 4.. Yes. They were good friends at school. I´m hungry.... The weather wasn´t .is Ex.No. 5. Yes. Was . Where are the cigarettes?. They´re hungry.... Ex./ Will they be...... Where are your friends now? 4. / Were they.. Are your friends from Canada? 5. He isn´t on duty.? 2. 8. How was George. John won´t be.. is 8. M: is P: is .? 7. I am.. We weren´t here last week..is J: is ....R: is J: is . Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening . I´m not thirsty.? 3. Is the computer connected to internet? 6.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A.. It isn´t clean. / Was the weather.. 9.. 4. Mary won´t be.are Ja: am B. 7. He isn´t at home.am (pause) is .? 6. / Was Henry. Ex.am 3. He´s Mr. I won´t be. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4. No. They aren´t angry..? C. Why will they be at home all day? 9.. 3.. It´s dirty. When will Mary be in New York? 7. 2. 13.. 10. Where´s the cat? 6.is Ja: am . 8. he´s not. 9. Ex.. 4... Are the children in the playground? 9. F: is . they are. 3. At what time will they be here? 5...? 6. Who´s that woman? Ex..? 5.. I´m not.? Ex.. are 5. No...? 3. is 2. it is.is 4. am 9. it´s not. When are they free all day? 11. They weren´t. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7.. 2. They aren´t American. will be at the meeting 7. 1. Are Peter and John in class? 3. 1.. 1. The reports weren´t ready yet.. 5. Yes. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not .. Where was Tom at.is 2.was 7. No.is 6. 1.? 5.. 3.. I´m in the office. we are-We´re ready to go. 1. I´m hungry. Are the pictures clear? 8. 10. Is the manager in his office? 2. 8. they´re not. will be in my office 6. / Were the men . are 6.? 4. 9. 3..? 3. will be in the same class 2. They won´t be. will be very busy 5.. Is the package light or heavy? 7. This isn´t a very interesting book.. will be absent 3. No. they´re not.. / Will Mary be.. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2..are 5. Yes. It´s open.. 1.is .. Yes. Those children are not very good students.. How will the weather be this month? 6. When will you be free? 3. Who was in the car. 2. The program won´t be .are 3. When were the Smiths .

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There´s only one (door). THERE TO BE (HABER. EXISTIR) A. Normalmente. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /!éar á:r sam trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. There are three (windows). There is a book on the desk /!ear íz e búk on !e désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park. /!ear íznt éni wóter in !e glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. There isn´t any (water). /!ear iz nót e búk on !e désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. /!ear a:r nóu tchéarz in !e rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. /!ear á:rent éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. /!éarz sam wóter in !e glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. /!ear á:r nóu trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz !ear éni wóter in !e glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . Is there a book on the desk? /íz !ear e búk on !e désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz !ear e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz !éar éni wóter in !e glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r !ear tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r !ear éni tchéarz in !e rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). THERE IS /!ear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. There´s a lot (of ice). /!ear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. en castellano. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo. ha advertido. se usa la contracción THERE´S /!éarz/. /!éarz e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. /a:r !ear éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . There´s no water. /háu match/ Como ud. en el singular. algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. /!ear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class.THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/.PART I. There aren´t any (chairs). Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. /!ear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /!ear á:r sam tchéarz in !e rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /!ear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /!ear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. / !éar íznt e ká:r in !e ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. THERE ARE /!ear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. /!ear á:rent éni trí:z in !e gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass. /!éar íznt éni wóter in !e glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . There are no chairs. /!éarz nóu wóter in !e glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden.

/!éarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. only one student in the lab now. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. very little money left in the box. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /!éarz e lót ov shúgar in !e bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. por lo tanto se omite. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden. There are many trees in the garden. La expresión A LOT OF normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. There are flowers in the garden. /!éar á:rent méni buks on !e shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz !éar match shúgar in !e bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r !éar méni buks on !e shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. EXERCISES Ex. There´s no water in that bottle. /!ear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. 3. 1. . Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). 2. Normalmente el artículo A/ AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /!éarz véri lítl wó:ter in !e glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. /!ear a:r véri fiú: desks in !e rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras MUCH o MANY. very few people at the conference. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. There is a tree in the garden. /!éar íznt match shúgar in !e bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf. /!éar á:r e lót ov buks on !e shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. 4.

There are a lot of people in the room. 4. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. FEW. There are some more books. There are more women than men... two. There are very ______________________________ books in the school library. There are 30 days in February. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. a lot of work. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug.. Use LITTLE. There are some students absent today.IS THERE? or HOW MANY. several helicopters in the airfield. 3. ___________________ secretaries____________here? 9. 6. a lot. 9. There´s central heating in the room. ___________________ doors ________________ in the lab? 3. 5. very few. There are some more clean glasses. There is another chair in that room 8. 10. some letters for you on the desk. 3. 8. ARE THERE? in the questions.. ___________________ video tapes ___________? 5. There´s a telephone in the room. just one. just a little. no milk in it. five or six. There´s some more money in my pocket.: How many dictionaries are there? 1.. There´s ____________________________________ milk left in the bottle.. 2... 4. 1. 2. There are a lot of students absent.. 10.. There are some extra chairs in the room. 4.. There are more than 10 students. A short course in english for adult students 29 . Ej. ___________________ money _______________? 2. no time left. There are 24 hours in a day. 3. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. 5. 1. 7. ___________________ people _______________ in the room?. Use HOW MUCH. Complete the following questions and answers. 7. 8. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the answers . There´s a hotel near the Training Center. a lot of mistakes in your composition. There´s some more meat in the fridge. 6. four men. 2.. ___________________ women_______________ in that group? 10. Ex.. 7. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. 9. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. A LOT in the blank spaces. ___________________ butter ________________in the dish? 8. 2..5. There are 8. 5. ___________________ men _________________ in the crew? Ex. ___________________ work _________________ today? 6. ___________________ milk _________________ in the jug? 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. 7. 10. 6. sir. 9. no more CDs in the box. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. There´s some more coffee in the cup. Change the following statements into the negative form.

because it was a leap year) ( Yes. There´s just a_______________________________ B. There are __________________________________ 8. 2. How much milk is there in the fridge? 4. 1. Change into the Past Tense: 1. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE. There are __________________________________ 6. 5./ !ear wóz nou bíar. There wasn´t any beer in the can. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. Are there many errors in the bill? 10. There are __________________________________ 10.3. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /!ear woz e lot ov nóis in !e rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. There were many people absent.. /!ear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes.. not more than 30) (very little. How many students were there in this class last year? 2. How much coffee was there? / háu match kófi woz !ear / ¿Cuánto café había? EXERCISES: Ex. Escuche.. There are only a ____________________________ 7. 9. tickets available.. students absent from class today. There aren´t many hotels in this town. /!ear wóznt éni bíar in !e kæn/There was no beer. lots of cars) . There´s very ________________________________ 4.THERE WERE ice in my glass. 3. How many days were there in February that year? 7. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /!ear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /!ear wé:rent/. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (about 20) (No. There´s ____________________________________ 5. There´s ____________________________________ 9. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS . There are two books missing from the shelf. of trees in that park. Were there many cars in the street at that time? 30 A short course in english for adult students (yes. more than enough) ( not any) (29. of noise in this room. Was there enough bread for all the people? 5. of sugar in my coffee. How many students were there in the laboratory? 6. whisky left in the bottle./No había nada de cerveza en la lata. There weren´t many books on the desk. of course) 3. 8. of errors in my check. There´s very little whisky left. 2. There isn´t much time to talk. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? 4. It´s very sweet. /!ear wé:rnt méni buks on !e désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. Was there a TV in the room? / woz !ear e tÍ: ví: in !e rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r !ear at !e pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). How many people are there on board? 7. Is there enough money for the trip? 6. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /!ear wóz/ / THERE WERE /!ear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. There are very few people in the pub. There´s a lot of work in the office today. Answer these questions.

very few flowers in our garden. 5. ____________________________________________ 4. ____________________________________________ 6. 1. Just one or two bottles. ______________________________________________________________ 2. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil !ear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. There will not be another meeting this evening. 1. 6. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /!ear wil bí: e véri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. ____________________________________________ 3. There´ll be another meeting this evening. How many women ____________________________ 2. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 31 . 2. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. next time? very little food in the fridge now. in your class last year? much milk left. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. How many students ___________________________ 10. /!earl bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ . /!ear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil !ear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: !is í:vni#/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil !ear bí. 2. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present.1. 7. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. /!ear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . 3. ____________________________________________ 8. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /!earl bí:/. ____________________________________________ 7. /!ear wil not bí: aná!er mí:ti# !is í:vni#/ There won´t be two more tests next week. Change into the future tense. There are some women at the meeting. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. There is a lot of free time in the evening.C. 3. Escuche. ______________________________________________________________ 3. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. a lot of noise at the disco last night. not any more exercises in the book now. ____________________________________________ Ex. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. Escuche. En las preguntas. There will be two more tests next week. /!ear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. 4. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. How much free time __________________________ 5. /!earl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /!ear wil bí:/. ____________________________________________ 9. Past or Future). ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. several trees in the park now. 1.

No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. No hay tiempo para conversar. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 7. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? 4. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. How many days will there be in February next year? 3. Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? 9. 7. How many days are there in a week? 2. How many computers are there in your office? 5. How much money is there in your wallet? 10.. 5. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. __________________________________________ No. No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. 8. 6. __________________________________________ No. ¿Cuántos autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? 10. 6. __________________________________________ Yes. How many students were there in your class last year? 4. Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. 8. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. 1. 9.4. ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? 5. Will there be another meeting this week? 7. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? 8. 5. 10. 11. How many people were there in the room at 8:30? 6. 3. 4. 12. 9. 2. Answer these questions in English. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana.

12. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario.PART II. 68 sixty-eight..394 e) 33 l) 24. el punto es coma y la coma es punto. 365 three hundred and sixty-five. Ej. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés. Ej. 400 four hundred. 32 thirty-two. las palabras thousand.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred "áuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú: hándred/ 2.687.365.000 five thousand. NUMBERS Escuche.000. 2. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5. Ej. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. million y billion no van seguidas de and. 94 ninety-four.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv "áuzand "ri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45. 21.. two hundred and sixty-five.80 Ex. Ej. thousand. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium.000 three million. Las palabras twenty. Las palabras hundred. forty. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand. 5.” Ej. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. Al escribir cifras en inglés. 4. Las palabras hundred. 5.000. 45 fortyfive. 3. thirty.000 two thousand /tú: "áuzand/ 2.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 .875 g) 148 n) 5. twenty-one.285 d) 94 k) 6. 463. 3.5% . three hundred and eighty-seven. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ 30 thirty /"é:rti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /"ri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /"e:rtí:n/ 18 eighteen /eití:n/ 40 forty /fó:rti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtí:n/ 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. 70.387 five thousand. US$ 4.000 one thousand /uán "áuzand/ 200.971 forty-five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv "áuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of.973 f) 28 m) 256.45 km.000 two million /tú: mílion/ 5.

mummy /mam. grandma/græni. personas niño/s. mujer padre madre hijos. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad. mum.papi mamá. grænmá/ father-in-law /fá:!er in ló:/ mother-in-law /má!er in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /brá!er in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:!er/ step-mother /step má!er/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step brá!er/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:!er/ foster-mother /fóster má!er/ god-father /god fá:!er/ god-mother /god má!er/ papá. daddy /dæd. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman/gentlemen /dlléntlman/-men/ lady/ladies /léidi/léidiz/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero/os dama/as chicos. marido esposa. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina 34 A short course in english for adult students . dædi/ mom. mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE (Personas) GENERAL (General) person /pe:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /ge:rl/ persona gente. niños FAMILY AND RELATIVES (La familia y los parientes) grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfá:!er/ grandmother /grandmá!er/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:!er/ mother /má!er/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /brá!er/ sister /síster/ uncle /á#kl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo.

8. No. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8. 3.. 10..... little B. How many. 9.. 1. There won´t be any. There is 3. 7. 5. Yes. 2... How much money will there be.. a lot 5. How many people were there. 6..Is there a restaurant near here. How many... There isn´t much.. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. No.? 6. 3. there are no spelling mistakes. 6.. Ex. Is there another.? 6.. 9. 2. 1.. 3. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4. 4.... There was very little free time during the morning.. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10. Ex. a lot 10. Ex.. Ex. There are 7. There won´t be another concert until next week. Were there. How much. Will there be 5. Are there any students... There´s only 25 dollars. 1..? There are. 8.. 1.? There are.. Are there more than.. 10.. 2. 5. 6.? 9.. 1.. 2. How many people will there be. How many... 1. There are seven days.. How many. There isn´t any more. There aren´t any more. 5. There won´t be many football games / matches this week end... 8.. There will be a lot... 2. There´s 6..... 4. 3.? 2..... 1.? 4.. Are there any more.. 3.. 2.. there aren´t any... 7. of course.? 5.. There is 4.. How much milk was there. 4.? 4. There weren´t. few 8. There was... few 7. 1. 7. A short course in english for adult students 35 . There´s 3. How much. How many.. There are 2.... computers. 3..... 1. are there. No. 4.. 2... There weren´t any 6. There isn´t Ex...Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora.. There was very little.. is there.. C.. / No.. 1.. is there....? 10.. 9... / There are no extra. There aren´t 30. There were.. There isn´t much money in it..? 5. There was 8. There´ll be 28 days... 3. There were only two hotels in that town. There will be another general meeting next Friday.. How many. Ex.. 2.. There are 9.. There were. 2. How much money is there in the wallet? 5.. 5. 11.. 4.. No hay mucha leche sobrante. are there? There are. 9.? 6. There are 7. There are 5.. There aren´t many. Is there much free.. Are there 24... Is there a hotel.? There´s. There are twelve eggs.There are 10. 1. There isn´t a. 3.. There isn´t any more. 8. / There are no more. there was more than enough. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2. There wasn´t. Is there any more.? 10. 1.. 5.. there weren´t more than 30 3. There will be some. students.? There´s. 4. It was a leap year. 6.. there won´t be another meeting 7. / There´s no more.. There was.. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10... are there. How much. There´s no central. There were 29.? 7. 4. There were.? 7.. 1.. are there.. There is no time to talk. Ex. are there.. 5.? Ex. Will there be any... few 2. there was a lot of work.. is there.. Yes.. Ex. Will there be more than. 10. little 4.? There are.. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6.. are there. 5. Were there 2..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A.. There´s a lot of noise in this room now. there were lots of cars... little 3. is there? There´s. There were. Are there more.? There´s.? There´s... There are Ex. There is 8. 3.. / There´s no more... 9. Sólo una o dos botellas. 2. a lot 6. There are 4.There aren´t any extra. There is 6. There were about 20 ..? Ex. There are 9.? 7.. There weren´t many people in the building at that time. How much. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5.. There were very few children in the street that day... 1. There´s just one / There are.people.. 12.? 8...? There are.. Was there enough. Is there a train... 7.were there 10. 8. 4. 1..... Yes. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9... Ex. There aren´t many.... a lot 9.? 3.

Ex. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand.Part II. six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. 1. three hundred and twenty-eight. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. 36 A short course in english for adult students . eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million.

they haven´t. / No. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ Peter´s got many friends.. /mai dóg hæzent gót. I´ve only got 5 dollars./ My dog has not got long ears... /!ei hav not gót. Yes..... Hans ____________________________ long black hair . 3.. he´s got a lot. They´ve got a small one./ I haven´t got a car.. John _____________________________ a new uniform. /!e rú:mz hav not gót ./ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav !e ru:mz got... lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót.. /!e rú:mz hævent gót.. /!e rú:mz hav gót séntral hí:ti#/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NOT GOT y HAS NOT GOT... tienen) (ellos tienen) Peter has got many friends.1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1. /!ei hav gót e bíg háus/ They´ve got a big house. lea y aprenda: I have got a car. /pí:terz gót... es decir./ Peter has not got many friends... But they´ve got a radio./ They haven´t got a big house.. Yes. (of friends) No./ The rooms haven´t got central heating. /ai hav not gót.... A short course in english for adult students Yes./ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche. it has../ Has the dog got long ears? /haz !e dóg gót.UNIT 3 PART I. 2. (ones = ears) No./ They have got a big house. /mai dóg haz not gót../ Peter hasn´t got many friends./ Have they got a big house? /hav !ei gót. 37 ./ The rooms have not got central heating. /mai dógz gót.. tenemos) (uds./ My dog hasn´t got long ears. HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad.. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /!éi hav gót/ Escuche. /pí:ter haz not gót. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) (Peter tiene muchos amigos) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /!éiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos. He´s got one sister and two brothers... /!eiv gót...../ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) My dog has got long ears./ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex./ They have not got a big house. they haven´t got one. significa TENER. I haven´t. lea y aprenda: I have not got a car./ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót. /!ei hævent got. I´ve got very little (money). I have. It´s got very long ones. Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´ T GOT /hævent got/ y HASN´ T GOT /hæzent got/ Escuche. The soldiers ______________________ a very good instructor. /mai dóg haz gót lo# íarz/ My dog´s got long ears... /ai hævent gót. /pí:ter hæzent gót../ The rooms have got central heating.

6. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. They´ve got our telephone number. two bedrooms. You´ve got many things to do today. 4. 8. They ´ve got very little free time. 5. Mary _____________________________ 8. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. 5 Answer these questions: 1. 3. 2. 200 pages. Bob´s got a big family. 7. The boy has got black shoes. The car __________________________ Ex. 10. Bob´s got five dollars. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. My father´s got a modern car. Nancy´s got a computer. 10. 6. I ________________________________ 7. My friends have got a telephone. The students have got a new instructor. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. Bob´s sister has got a car. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4.. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. We ______________________________ 5. 6.. Have you got a big library at home? 9. Bob´s got our address. The students have got some experience. I´ve got some cigarettes. 2. The book _________________________ 6. 5. 3. They´ve got a big family. a small house in the country. They´ve got a lot of friends there.4. My friends ________________________ 9.. a lot of money. You´ve got a lighter. I´ve got three children. a son and two daughters. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk. 9. A car has got four wheels . Bob´s got some money.. The flat has got two bathrooms. 2 Change into the negative form 1. How many rooms has your house got? 8. Ex. They´ve got two cars. How many children have you got? 3. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. Have you got a computer at home? 38 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . 7. 4. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. 5. 3. My flat ___________________________ 10. a new blue dress. We´ve got a small classroom. 7. three children. 2.? 1. 4. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. four wheels. Ex.? / HOW MANY. 9. You´ve got your passport here. The house has got a garden.

/hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). An apple (noun) A dollar (noun) An exercise (noun) A hotel (noun) B. That´s an animal /!æts an æ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). /!æts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). /!i:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. This is an apple. la. /!is iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. /!is iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). The books are old. Además. Ej. That´s an orange. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como SOME sam/ (algunos/as). The book is old. Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. There is a book on the desk. These are houses. /!æts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). Ejemplo. Ej. Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. This is a house /!is iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa). Those are trees /!óuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el.PART II. masculino o femenino. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. This is a book. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /!is iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /!is iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). The man is very tall. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. plural. /!is iz an æ´pl/ (Esta es una manzana). The woman is very tall. pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. altas. son invariables. Those are animals /!óuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). Ej. todos los sustantivos (noun) actúan (noun) como adjetivos (adj) cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. /!is iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). There are several books on the desk. He is an honest man. The women are very tall. Ej. The men are very tall. A. SEVERAL /séveral/ (varios/as) o MANY /méni/ (muchos/as). altos. Por lo tanto. /!éarz a ká:r in !e strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). That is a tree /!æt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden / An apple (adj) tree A one-dollar (adj) bill One exercise (adj) book A hotel (adj) manager Three apple (adj) trees A five-dollar (adj) bill Ten exercise (adj) books Two hotel (adj) managers 2. ARTICLES (I) 1. ADJECTIVES En inglés. no específico. una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. That´s a girl. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. There´s a car in the street. EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. alta. los. Compare: This is an orange. determinados. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. This is an old car /!is iz an óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). This is a one-way ticket.

There will be an interesting program tonight 6. 11. 13. They´ve got a horse on the farm. 1. This is a car. Is this an envelope? 4. use SOME. 8. ________ 24. ________ 32. That man isn´t a teacher. ________ 22. 4. 12. ________ 29. 6. 15. ________ 28. Mr. 7. 5. There´s a tree in the garden. 11. 12. 7. 16.Ex. 15. ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. 5. There´s a textbook on the teacher´s desk. 2. 7. Is that woman a nurse? 11. There is a new student in this class. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . I´ve got a magazine on my desk. The boy´s got a book in English. 14. Change these sentences into the plural. There was a car accident last Sunday. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. I´ve got a question for you. ________ 27. MANY or SEVERAL 1. There is a student in the laboratory now. 9. 4. This boy isn´t a new student. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? 14. 10. There is a letter for you. Smith. ________ 23. There´s a woman in the office. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ________ 20. 10. Peter´s got a new pen. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco. Is that man an engineer? 12. This is an interesting novel. Change the following sentences into the plural. 2. ________ 26. 3. 9. ________ 30. 2. 9. ________ 18. ________ 31. ________ 19. 13. ________ 21. 3. 6. There´s a yellow flower in the garden. That is a picture 2. I haven´t got a cigarette. 1. Use the indefinite articles A or AN 1. 8. 13. 5. 3. Please show me a photograph. ________ 25. They´ve got an interesting book in the library 8. 14. 10. 3. The student has got a new notebook.

/pí: ém/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ (en la mañana. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. 10:00 p. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. /éi ém/ p. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a. It´s ten to five 6. It´s a quarter past two 3.m. D. J. It´s twenty-five past six 12. It´s five to nine 5. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. K. L. please? /wóts !e táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea.m. It´s ten past three 4.m. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A. 04:00 p. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. It´s five past seven 8. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight.m. C. It´s twenty to one 2. de18:00 .m. /pi: em/ It´s ten o´clock p. G.m.m. It´s twenty past twelve 10. 1. EXERCISES Ex. 07:00 p. It´s half past eight 9. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. /pi: em/ It´s seven o´clock p.m.m. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. F. H. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a.PART III. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time. It´s a quarter to ten 11. B. /pi: em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . de 13:00 .m. I. /ei em/ It´s four o´clock p.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. E.17:00) in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ (en la tarde / noche.

02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 21. 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 20.m. 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 22.Ex. 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.m. 2. 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 14.m. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Write down the times and read: What time is it? / What´s the time? It´s 8 o´clock 1. 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 17. 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 08:00 a. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11. 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 16. 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 11:00 p. 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 23. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 13. 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 19. 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 04:00 p.

liviano largo angosto. orange /órindll/ gray. estrecho nuevo bonito. agitado triste agudo. sano pesado. grey /gr i/ purple /pé:rpl/ pink /pi#k/ dark blue /dá. firme gordo tonto. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. sensato maravilloso equivocado. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /lo#/ narrow /nærrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /"ik/ thin /"in/ thirsty /"é:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /ro#/ young /ja#/ SPANISH tarde. precursor fácil vacío parejo. no plano temperado ancho. fome temprano. fijo. brusco. dificil esforzado saludable. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. gratis lleno.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES (Adjetivos) ENGLISH angry /ængri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /ké:rvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /é:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd wé:rki#/ healthy /hél"i/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /há#gri/ ill. amplio sabio. sik/ interesting /íntresti#/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado. leso. adinerado correcto. enojado malo grande romo. par (números) caro rápido. agradable raro. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. sick /il. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. white and red. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. puntiagudo corto.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . It´s blue.derecho tosco. bajo de estatura tonto. impar (números) viejo satisfecho. leso libre.contento pobre. insatisfactorio bonito rico. incorrecto joven COLOURS (Colores) What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo. completo bueno feliz duro. atrasado flojo claro.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris.

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...10.6 Ex. There are some trees. It´s ten to nine 3. / The students have got no experience.... an 8.a 17. How many children have you got? 3. It´s nine o´clock 2.? 9. a 31.. 4.. We haven´t got a.. 1.. 7. There are many women. They´ve got some interesting books. a 25. It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23.4 G . 1. These are interesting novels 10. 1. It´s quarter to twelve 5... 13. has got Ex. have got 4. 3. has got 10. a 19..4. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7..11 L . There are yellow flowers... It´s half past eleven 19.. 1. a 15. Has the boy got black.. Have you got your. Part III. B.. Those are pictures 2.9 B . Have you got many.... 4.. an 28. 5. Have they got our. 3. How much milk have we got? / How many bottles of milk have we got? 7. 8.2 E .. has got 6. Has Bob got any money? 3.10 D . I´ve got friends in S.They haven´t got many friends..5 I . I haven´t got any cigarettes. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 .... The boy has got some books.. It´s five past ten 17. It´s twenty-five past five 20. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14.. Ex. There are many students.... 1... How many cars have they got? 2. 2. 1. The house hasn´t got. Ex. a 27. a 2. 2.. There are many textbooks..8 C . have got 7.. 9. 12. 6. an 26. It´s half past three 4. Ex. The students haven´t got any experience. a 10. Have the students got a... It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. an 30. 3.? 6. It´s quarter past one 6. It´s twenty-five past three 14. She hasn´t got blue.. have got 5. an 7.. 11. Are those women nurses? 11. A .. How much money has Bob got? 5.. The student has got some new notebooks 14. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13. It´s quarter to two 18. an 6.... I haven´t got cigarettes Ex. I´ve got several magazines. There were several car accidents.an 4. There will be many new students. show me some photographs.3 H .? 10... Are these envelopes? 4. Ex. How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6. an 22. an 3.? 4. 10. 1.? 7.. It´s twenty past three 16. There are some new students. They´ve got horses.. Bob hasn´t got a. a 14. 1. It´s five past nine 7. 2. 1. has got 3. an 16. 3. (open answers) Part II. 2. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15.. Please. an 12. 5.. a 29. a 18. These boys aren´t new students 9. 8..7 F . 1. Has Bob´s sister got a. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24... How much free time have they got? Ex.12 J . 9. It´s twenty-five to five 22.? 8... a 9.F.a 23. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11. 1. I´ve got several questions.... 15.? Ex. Have they got a. 5.? 2.. a 20. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I.? 5. a Ex. an 32. has got 2. My father hasn´t got a. Has Bob got our. 6. Nancy hasn´t go a.. I´ve got some coins. These are cars 3. My friends haven´t got. an 13. 13.1 K . a 24. a 11. It´s quarter past eight 21. There are several letters. have got 9. How many wheels has a car got? 4. 7. Those men aren´t teachers 5. 2.. Are those men engineers? 12. 6. Peter´s got new pens 8. a 21. Have you got a. has got 8. It´s three minutes to three 10. an 5.

Bl 46 .

estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE. Mary is not working in Room 10 now. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: to live /liv/ to write /ráit/ (vivir) (escribir) living /lívi#/ writing /ráiti#/ (viviendo) (escribiendo) Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/IS/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at !is táim/ (a esta hora). I´m living with my brother John. /!éi a:r livi# in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. They´re not living in New York at present. actualmente). lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. Este sufijo se pronuncia /i#/ . lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present.UNIT 4 PART I. /hé:rberts hævi# lántch at !e móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). Escuche. + vocal + cons. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ To cut /kat/ To stop /stop/ To swim /suim/ (sentarse) (cortar) (detener.Y. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. They aren´t living in New York at present. Escuche. +cons.transitoriamente). parando) swimming /suími#/ (nadando) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO. El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. en la actualidad). For the time being.. FOR THE TIME BEING /for !e táim bí: i!/ (mientras tanto. AT THE MOMENT /at !e móument/ (en este momento). AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. I´m not living with my brother John A short course in english for adult students 47 . Mary´s working in Room 10 now. /mériz wé:rki# in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:ki#/ (hablando) eating /í:ti#/ (comiendo) working /wé:rki#/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. /for !e táim bí:i# áim lívi# wi! mai brá!er dllón/ (Transitoriamente.10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. I am not living with my brother John.parar) (nadar) sitting /síti#/ (sentándose) cutting /káti#/ (cortando) stopping /stópi#/ (deteniendo. Hay tres grupos de verbos. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL.

How. Escuche. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. The children are playing soccer.. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. arreglar/arreglando. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. Where.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´ T / AREN´ T delante del sujeto. IS. tocar/tocando (un instr. fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseri#/ arriving /erráivi#/ asking /á:ski#/ asking for /á:ski# fo:r// buying /báii#/ closing /klóuzi#/ coming /kámi#/ cutting /káti#/ doing /dú:i#/ drinking /drí#ki#/ driving /dráivi#/ drying /dráii#/ eating /í:ti#/ finishing /fínishi#/ fixing /fíksi#/ giving /gívi#/ going /góui#/ helping /hélpi#/ inviting /inváiti#/ learning /lé:rni#/ leaving /lí:vi#/ listening to /lísni# tu/ living /livi#/ looking at /lúki# at/ making /méiki#/ opening /óupni#/ paying /péii#/ playing /pléii#/ putting /púti#/ reading /rí:di#/ receiving /risí:vi#/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando pedir/pidiendo. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. ARE) con el sujeto. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: i#/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex. etc. When. How often. Escuche. Escuche. dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. 1.) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo .

lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /géti# ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hævi# e ba:"/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /géti# drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hævi# brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góui# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráivi# hóum/tu we:rk/tu !i ófis/.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réini#/ running /ráni#/ saying /séii#/ selling /séli#/ sending /séndi#/ singing /sí#i#/ sitting /síti#/ sleeping /slí:pi#/ speaking /spí:ki#/ spending /spéndi#/ starting /stá:rti#/ staying /stéii#/ studying /stádii#/ taking /téiki#/ talking /tó:ki#/ telling /téli#/ thinking /"í#ki#/ travelling /træveli#/ trying to /tráii# tu/ waiting for /wéiti# fo:r/ walking /wó:ki#/ washing /wóshi#/ watching /wótchi#/ wearing /wéari#/ working /wé:rki#/ writing /ráiti#/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo. 2. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 . funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex.comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando./ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:di# létez/!e niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rki# in !i ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:ki# wi! fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:vi# !i ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:i# !e shópi#/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báii# !e péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchi# tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísni# tu !e niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráiti# tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóli# áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléii# kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:ki# tu !e pa:rk/ Running across the park /ráni# akrós !e pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:i# éksersaiz/ Working out /wérki# áut/ Visiting a museum /víziti# a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádii# for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshi# !e ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíini# !e háus/ Making the bed /méiki# !e béd/ Tidying up the room /táidii# áp !e rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúki# a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéari# sam drí#ks/ Going to bed /góui# tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando (ropas) trabajar/trabajando.pasar/pasando (tiempo) empezar/empezando. Escuche.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando.

Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) 11. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . I´m answering a letter. Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) 10. Mary´s eating an apple now. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday.The men are running now. The students are writing a composition. I´m helping John with the work 5. 11. (visit) 6. Why. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. 12. They´re living in Bristol at present. 9. 1. You´re doing the exercise correctly. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. (wait) 4. 12. It´s raining very hard now. The boy´s singing an English song. John and his friends are watching TV.They´re looking at the horses. (work) 5. 3. 6. 3. The students _________________________ to school now. Ask questions using questions word like What. 8. 8. Complete the following sentences. 7. 4.Ex. 10. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. 10. 4. I´m singing because I´m happy. Bill´s answering the phone. 5. 3. The dog´s drinking milk. 7. The girl´s washing the dishes. 11. John´s having breakfast now. 6. The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. (listen) 2. For the time being. etc. George is travelling by plane. 9. 5. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. (cut) 12.I´m trying to open the window. Mr. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (spend) 9. (arrive) 7. The cadet´s sleeping in class. There´s a man in the garden. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 1. (do) 8. There are several students in the gym. You ___________________________ the exercises well now. The students are reading a story. (go) 3. Where. 2. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. He__________________________ the grass. Mary __________________________ as a secretary. They __________________________ the weekend in Miami. We´re making a lot of progress. The children are watching TV 2. 4.

6. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep). let´s go for a walk. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. He ____________ (study) for a test.. No. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. too. Mary : Great! Let´s do that.Ex. A short course in english for adult students 51 . That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. you know. I ___________ (go) there. He ____________ (sleep). And Betty´s in the kitchen. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). And Jim´s in his room.then. 3. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes. Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. he isn´t. of course! Robert : Well.

The months of the year are: January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on ó:gast !e fiftí:n" náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). o también. "áuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. "áuzand tú:/. Spring /spri#/ Primavera. The date today is Wednesday. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on !e tuénti fíf" ov dllú:n/. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mán"s/ in a year. Summer /sámer/ Verano. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. A. The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /"é:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. Los números ordinales son: 1st. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. I was born on August the fifteenth. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi méi !e fé:rst tú. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /"é:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:r"/ 5th Fifth /fif"/ 6th Sixth /six"/ 7th Seventh /séven"/ 8th Eighth /éit"/ 9th Ninth /náin"/ 10th Tenth /tén"/ Escuche. se usan para expresar fechas. o también. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. May the first. two thousand two /!e déit tudéi iz wénzdi !e fé:rst ov méi tú. Jane´s birthday is on June the twenty-fifth /dlléinz bé:r"ei is on dllú:n !e tuénti fíf"/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /iléven"/ Twelfth /tuélf"/ Thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ Fourteenth /fortí:n"/ Fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ Sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ Seventeenth /seventí:n"/ Eighteenth /eití:n"/ Nineteenth /naintí:n"/ Twentieth /tuéntie"/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti "é:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:r"/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fíf"/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síks"/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti séven"/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éit"/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náin"/ Thirtieth /"értie"/ Thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. o también.PART II. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on !e fiftí:n" ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /man"/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year.

nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 05. 10. 07.1938 3. 01. 18. When is your birthday? 2.2001 7. What´s the first month of the year? 11. as in the examples: 1. How many months are there in a year? 14.12. When is New Year´s Day? 16.1978 9. 12.2003 The twelfth of September. 06.1900 5. Write the following dates. 2.02.1810 8.08.09.EXERCISES Ex.11. What´s the third day of the week? 12. What day is today? 4.1963 2. 05. What´s the last month of the year? 13. What´s your favo(u)rite season? 8. What´s the date today? 5.2000 6. 18. 12.1999 11. What are the seasons of the year? 7. When was your father born? 3.09. 1. 04.07.03.27. What are the days of the week? 9.12. 10.03. 02.1893 10.01. What are the months of the year? 10. Answer the following questions: 1.30. How many hours are there in a day? 15.1492 14. 02.28.05. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth. How many days are there in a week? 6.1956 15.1906 4.1987 12. When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 . 08.1956 13.

.láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /le#"/ longitud width /wi"/ anchura thickness /"iknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /dep"/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura.? /háu wel/ How heavy.. round /ráund/ redondo.. long. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche.. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex. 1. square /skwear/ cuadrado.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1. shallow /shælou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto.. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano. etc. Nota importante: Como Ud. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz. viejo.B. altura size /saiz/ tamaño. Iz /a:r. new /niú:/ nuevo long /lo#/ largo. light /láit/ claro 54 A short course in english for adult students .... short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.200 mt. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu ló#/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu fæst/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu "ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big. habrá advertido.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are..? /háu big?/ How well.) para describir objetos.. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular. big /big/ grande huge /hiu:dll/ enorme tiny /táini/ diminuto. thin /"in/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. How high is that hill? It´s about 1.. dark /da:rk/ oscuro.like?* /wot. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt.70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /"ik/ grueso. young /ya#/ joven old /ould/ viejo.. oval /óuval/ ovalado light /láit/ liviano heavy /hévi/ pesado. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm.

DAYS OF THE WEEK (Días de la semana) Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /"e:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ´te:rdi/ Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo Nota: En Inglés.000 one thousand /wan "áuznd/ mil 1.000. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.000.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS (Numerales) CARDINAL NUMBERS (Números cardinales) 1 one /wan/ uno dos 2 two /tu:/ 3 three /"ri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho nueve 9 nine /nain/ 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /"é:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /"é:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /"é:rti wán/ treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1.000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS (Números ordinales) first /fé:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /"é:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:r"/ cuarto fifth /fif"/ quinto sixth /siks"/ sexto seventh /sévn"/ séptimo eighth /éit"/ octavo ninth /náin"/ noveno tenth /tén"/ décimo eleventh /ilévn"/ décimo primero twelfth /twelf"/ décimo segundo thirteenth /"e:rtí:n"/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:n"/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:n"/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:n"/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:n"/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:n"/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:n"/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntie"/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fé:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /"é:rtie"/ trigésimo thirty-first /"é:rti fé:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtie"/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftie"/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstie"/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntie"/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitie"/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintie"/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándre"/ centésimo one thousandth /wan "áuznd"/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílion"/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES (Tiempo y Fechas) 1.000th 1. temporada año siglo 2. UNITS OF TIME (Unidades de tiempo) second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ segundo minuto hora día semana month /mán"/ season /sí:zon/ year /íar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación. A short course in english for adult students 55 .

DATES (Fechas) Today is Monday.3. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre winter /wínter/ spring /spri#/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . MONTHS OF THE YEAR (Meses del año) January /dllæniuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5. 2001 (the second of May. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. 2nd May. SEASONS OF THE YEAR (Estaciones del año) summer /sámer/ verano autumn / fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ otoño 4.

The students aren´t writing..doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is . I´m not helping John. The days of the week are Monday. is working 5. is arriving 7. 2. 2. August.going Hans : am going / are . 4. eighteen ten 8. June the third two thousand three Ex..? 5... September. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3.. am listening 2.. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex. 8. The cadet isn´t sleeping. / Is the boy singing.. The seasons of the year are Winter. are spending 9. The twelfth of March. nineteen fifty-six 13. We aren´t making much.driving Bob: are fixing 2. Hans: are ..? 9. 3.studying / is doing Peter: is planning . 1. What are you trying to do? 12. / Am I helping John. October.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. are visiting 6. Friday. are doing 8.. What are John and his friends doing? 3. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6... He was born on. Why are you singing? 10. Summer and Autumn / Fall 7. August the twenty-seventh. February the twenty-eighth. The months of the year are January. nineteen oh six 4. 16. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. Wednesday. The first of January. What are the men doing now? 11. July.. What´s Mary eating now? 2.. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth A short course in english for adult students 57 . The tenth of August.The first month of the year is January 11. are going 3. 9. Saturday and Sunday.. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. is coming 10. What are they looking at? Ex.. You aren´t doing the exercises.? Ex. February. is waiting 4.. 1. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. are working out Ex.... Jane: is . Today´s.. The date today is. Thursday. What are the students reading? 6... The second of November... Spring. is cutting 12. October the twelfth... is my favority season. eighteen ninety-three 11. The eighteenth of July.. 1. 6. Where are they living at present? 4. two thousand one 7. The last month of the year is December 13. 5. two thousand 6. / Are you doing the exercises... The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2.? 12. June. / Are we making much. are speaking 11. The boy isn´t singing.. Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9..? 8.. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11. It isn´t raining. nineteen seventy-eight 9.. Tuesday. April. 2. There are seven days 6. The fifth of May. How´s George travelling? 7. / Is it raining.3. What are you doing? 5. nineteen thirty-eight 3. 1. nineteen eighty-seven 12. There are twelve months in a year 14. 3. fourteen ninety-two 14... November and December 10.? 10. Why isn´t he working? 8.. 1. 4. / Is the cadet sleeping. nineteen hundred 5.? 7. The eighteenth of September. March. 5. nineteen fifty-six 15... New Year´s day is on the first of January.. / Are the students writing. The fifth of December. It´s on. 1. May.. July the second.

Bl 58 .

lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. En la forma afirmativa. many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). three times /"ri: táimz/ (tres veces). watches /wótshiz/. usually /íushuali/ (usualmente).). rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). it). /dllón tchéidlliz !e bátriz wáns e mán"/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). el SUJETO (I. /!e sékretri ánserz !e télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día). the boy. /hi: spí:ks spæ´nish and í#glish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bien) The secretary answers the telephone. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). Cuando decimos. y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. she.rises /ráiziz/.changes /tchéindlliz/. the telephone. como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). -x. Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. seldom / séldom/ (raramente). etc.UNIT 5 PART I. every morning /évri mó:ni#/ (todas las mañanas). The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. /!e bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * Bob washes the car on saturday. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. etc. Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). etc. mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). /ai spí:k spænish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) ´ We go to the beach every summer. a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). You. -ce. Los verbos have.studies. /wi: góu tu !e bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. You and I. it. Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). plays /pléiz/. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. /ai ófn sí: méri at !e kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday. /!e sán ráiziz in !i í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. The students. /!e stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana) Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. do. does /daz/. -ch-. pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . -sh. goes /góuz/. en forma habitual. she. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in !i í:vni#/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. /bób wóshiz !e ka:r on sæ My wife watches TV in the evening. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega tenis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. never /néver/ (nunca). Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/.vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. change /tchéindll/ . A short course in english for adult students 59 . se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular.También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez). often /ófn/ ( a menudo).) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. persona del singular (he. Escuche. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:ni#/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). /!éi ólwiz kám híar on sæ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week.etc. a month /e mán"/ (al mes).

lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. We go to the beach every summer. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´ T / DOESN´ T. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home?. Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday?. Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada. My wife watches TV in the morning. o experimentar. HOW MUCH. Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. divertirse). Do the students play /du !e stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót læ#guidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du !ei góu tu !e bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz !e bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll !e bæteriz évri mán"/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. Escuche.. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car?. WHERE. Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada?. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. He speaks English well. My friends haven´t got a new car. Escuche. Escuche. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. Does the bus stop /dáz !e bás stóp/ here?. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. etc. The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning?. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). beber. Mary has got many friends in Canada. We have lunch at school every day. Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month?. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada. Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day?. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es). se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones). como en to have breakfast (desayunar). We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. The students play soccer every day. Mary has many friends in Canada. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well?. comer. Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. The bus stops here. My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. HOW.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students .En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. WHEN.

Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 .21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex. 1.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 . Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri "é:rzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:ni#/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæte:rdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vni#/ Every morning /évri mó:ni#/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vni#/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mán"/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /"ri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mán"/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in !e sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in !i ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in !e wínter/ In the spring /in !e spri#/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. I watch TV after dinner You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a. 2.TIME EXPRESSIONS (I) EXERCISES Ex. I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b.

I have dinner at work. (get up) 2. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. I do the exercises well You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. (wash) 9. The students sometimes ______________________ rugby at school. I never __________________________________Spanish at school. Mr Smith ______________________ TV after dinner every evening. (watch) Ex. (speak) 10. (go) 3. Myriam________________________the floor once or twice a week. 4. The train ___________________ in London at 7:50 every morning. b) interrogative. We seldom ________________________ to the North in the summer. The manager generally _______________ the office after 8:00 p. (read) 5. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. The children _____________________ at this time every morning. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . (play) 6. I ____________________________breakfast at 7:15 every morning. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk.c. (have) 4. (eat) 12. (arrive) 8. John _____________________ the newspaper on the train every day. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. (play) 7. (optional) 1.m. and c) Wh-questions: 1. They live near here. 3. (leave) 11. 2. Then translate them into Spanish. I study English every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses. Peter _________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. My wife and I often ___________________________ in that restaurant. Change the following sentences into a) negative.

The bus leaves at 7:45 5. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. Mary comes to work by bus.3. They need twenty dollars. Peter watches TV every night. Are there any trees in your garden? _________________________________________________ 5. 5. 9. They have two cars now. She lives near Wimbledon. Ex. That man speaks German. How many weeks are there in a year? _________________________________________________ 2. WHEN. 5. 7. How much free time is there in an intensive course? _________________________________________________ 8. 7. 13. 4. They play golf twice a week. 6. She usually sleeps six hours every night. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. They go to the park on Sunday. 6. Bob always drinks beer. 6. They get up at 7:15 every morning. How many legs has a dog got? _________________________________________________ 4. 8. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 63 . 10. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in class? _________________________________________________ 9. HOW. Ex. What do you do after dinner every evening? _________________________________________________ 7. Where do you usually spend your summer vacation? _________________________________________________ 10. 2. etc. The students need more practice. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. They have two cars. They come here twice a week. We go to the club on Friday. Bob is in the office. John goes to Pucón in the summer. 8. What are they doing? _________________________________________________ 6. 11. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. The children are in the park. 12. WHERE. 3. Peter does everything well. 10. Answer these questions in English: 1. 1. 14. What´s he doing? _________________________________________________ 3. They work out every morning. 9.

(come) 6. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. Bees __________________________________ honey. 3. 7. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. (not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (banks / close) A: Where __________________________________from? (Martin / come) B: He’s Scottish. Ex. Look! John __________________________ over there. 5. 5. (do / watch) 14. You must always speak to him in English. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. 2. (go) 5. Who can it be? (play) 17. For the time being. 4. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. 4. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. 1. Mr. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. (leave) 3. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. Look at that man. 6. 7. 4. We_______ just ____________ TV. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. 9. (work) 2. He ___________________________ a green uniform. 10. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. 3. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. 6. (watch) 4. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. (understand) 16. The sun _____________________________________ in the east.m. Rice ___________________________________ in Britain. (come) 7. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. Janet _______________________________ tea very often. He must be a police officer. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. Hello. 7.Ex. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now. I never ___________________________ coffee. 3. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. (begin) 12. 8. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11. every day. (work) 8. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. 9. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. Put the verb into the correct form. 5.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. 2. A: What __________________________________? (you / do) B: I’m an electrical engineer. 2. (open / close) 13. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. 8. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. I don’t understand this sentence. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. 6. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. Ex. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18.

1. 6. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. I usually (sit) _______________________ at the same desk in class every day. It´s 7 o´clock now. Look out of the window. not) ___________________________________ it. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. Black´s at home. not) __________________________ TV either. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. (Take. They (play) ____________________________ with their toys instead. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . It´s 7:30 a. (Rain. 4. Mrs.He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. but this morning they (pay. Alice (take. 3. 2. It (rain. 7. Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . (Rain. or (walk. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. There´s a cartoon on TV now. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. it). The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. not) __________________right now. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. 5. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. Arabic is his native language. They (like.Ex. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. but the children (watch. Our teacher (stand. not) _____________________up right now. She always (eat) ______________________ dinner with her family around six o´clock. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV.m. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. 10. 11. Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. Mrs.

PART II.
A. QUESTION WORDS. (II) Study the following list of interrogative words
ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where...from?* /wéar ..from/ Where...to?* /wéar .. tu/ Who...with?* /hu:...wi$/ Who...about?* /hu: .. abáut/ Who...for?* /hu:.. for/ What...for?* /wot...for/ What...with?* /wot...wi$/ What... about?* /wot...abáut/ What...at?* /wot...at/ What do /does...look like?
/wót du /daz...lúk láik/

SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son...? (Descripción de personas - físico)

EXAMPLE What is that? ; What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?; What´s your opinion? Who is that man?; Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin.

Nota:

Muy a menudo, las preguntas que comienzan con PREPOSICIÓN + WHOM / WHAT / WHERE, normalmente trasladan la preposición al final. Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?; About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?; With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición, whom vuelve a ser who)

Ex. 1. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes. 2. They need twenty-five dollars. 3. Ann likes apples, oranges and pears 4. We go to the South in the summer. 5. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning. 6. My friends come from San Diego, California 7. Jack visits his parents twice a month. 8. The boys usually talk about football. 9. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes 10. It takes me about 20 minutes to get there. 11. I go there three times a week. 12. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday. 13. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 14. They look at the stars with the telescope. 15. We take photographs with a camera. 16. I like Mary because she´s very friendly.
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_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

17. 18. 19. 20.

Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. Ann writes detective stories. The students go to the gym after lunch. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired.

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ?

B. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales, es decir, se traduce como el, la, los y las . El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. The books which I want are on the table. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún artículo con los suntantivos incontables (water, milk, money, experience, happiness, etc) o sustantivos plurales (books, cats, students, people, men, etc.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. Gold is an important metal. Books are expensive in Chile. Girls work harder than boys. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. The gold in this ring is of good quality. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard.

Ex. 1. Supply the definite article (the), where necessary, in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. (Fresh air is good for the health). 1. ______________ air in this room is not good. 2. ______________ history is an interesting subject. 3. We are studying ______________history of France. 4. We have ______________ good light in our classroom. 5. ______________ light in this room is not good. 6. I always drink ________________water with my meals. 7. ______________ water in this glass is dirty. 8. ______________ leather in these shoes is very good. 9. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. 10.We all need _______________fresh air. 11. ______________ air in large cities is not very fresh. 12. We like _________ animals. 13. ______________ animals in that photograph are wild animals. 14. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. 15. ______________ fish in the refrigerator is fresh. 16. ______________ children like to watch cartoons. 17.Do you sell ____________ stamps here?
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18.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. 20.Mr.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. C. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona, animal o cosa estamos hablando, debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. En inglés, el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas, mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH.. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. This is the book which we use in class. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. 2. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. This is the book we use in class.

3. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man who is in Mr. Smith´s office. The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. Ex. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. 2. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. 3. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. 4. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? 5. Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? 6. The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. 7. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. 8. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. 9. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? 10. The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. 11. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good. 12. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? 13. Are these the envelopes __________________you need? 14. The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. 15. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. 16. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? 17. The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. 18. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? 19. Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? 20. That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. (I would like = me gustaría) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. I don´t know the man in Mr. Smith´s office. The woman crossing the road is my wife. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. The cars imported from Japan are really good. The men trained at our school are good pilots.

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Ex. 2. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Ex. 3, Rewrite the sentences in Ex. 1, omitting the relative pronoun WHICH, or the word groups WHO IS/ ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible, as in the example: 1. The girl with him is his sister 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. 1. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. Smith. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________
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5. Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words
CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllæket/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarri#/ sunglasses /sanglá.siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro, arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stóki#z/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fí#ger ri#/ parka /pá:rka /, anorak /ænorak/ leather jacket /lé!er dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar

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72 A short course in english for adult students .

? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex....? Does Ann work here.. Bill goes to the movies.... Ann goes to the movies.get up 2... 3.... You don´t watch TV. They have dinner at work... 1.. /Does the bus leave. Ann plays tennis. You don´t have dinner. They don´t go to the movies. We don´t watch TV..... We don´t study English.? Do we go to the movies..... /Do they work out... We go to the movies. /Do they live .... You have dinner at work....arrives 8...../ What does Mary like to drink? 2...?/ When do they work out? 7.. They don´t play tennis.... We don´t work here.....? Do they study English.......?/ Where do they live? 3.... You don´t play tennis. We don´t play tennis.. We study English...reads 5......? Does Bill play tennis. They don´t have.. We don´t have dinner..? Does Bill work here...? What language does that man speak? 6.. Ann doesn´t play tennis.go 3...... /Does Mary like..? Do you study English.... Ann doesn´t work here.?/ What does Bob always drink? 8.. Mary doesn´t like. Interrogative Do you work here.? Do we play tennis.. We play tennis. /Does Peter watch..? Do you play tennis.. They study English.......plays 7.? Does Bill go to the movies. Bill doesn´t go to the movies..........? Do they work here.... Bob doesn´t always drink. We don´t go to the movies.? Do you go to the movies. They don´t study English..speak 10... Bill doesn´t work here.....? Does Ann watch TV..? Does Ann study English.. We don´t do the exercises.. Ann has dinner at work. Bill doesn´t do the exercises. You study English every day Bill studies English. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here... The bus doesn´t leave.. They don´t live... 1.... Bill doesn´t have dinner. They don´t work out.. Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every... Bill doesn´t study English.eat 12. They play tennis. Peter doesn´t watch.... They don´t watch TV... You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis..... We have dinner at work.. Bill doesn´t play tennis.....? Do they go to the movies.? Do they watch TV..... You don´t do the exercises... Ann doesn´t have dinner.? Does Ann play tennis..leaves 11.... You don´t go to the movies.?/ What time does the bus leave? 5. They don´t do the exercises.? Does Bill study English.......? Do they play tennis....watches Ex...?/ What does Peter do every night? 4....? Do we work here..? Do you watch TV.? Do we watch TV. Ann doesn´t go to the movies. 2.. Ann doesn´t study English. 4. /Does that man speak..... Bill doesn´t watch TV.. They don´t have dinner..play 6.....? Does Ann go to the movies. Ann doesn´t watch TV... They don´t work here.? Does Bill watch TV..washes 9... Ann studies English. They go to the movies.. /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 . /Does Bob always drink... You don´t study English.? Do we study English. Ann doesn´t do the exercises.....have 4. Bill has dinner at work. That man doesn´t speak.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex....

. The air 12. 1. The book which I want is on the table 3. stamps . There are fifty-two weeks in a year. opens-closes 13. Where does she live? 2. do you do 5. The animals 14. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. the history 4. opens . leaves 3.. is not raining / is shining / is 7. is eating/eats 6. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. do-go 10. do the banks close 3. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. comes 7. 1. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. Peter doesn´t do. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. /Do they come. 11. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. 7. 5. 1. leather 10. go 5. 8.don´t play 7. is watching 4.they have.. Does it rain 8. The light 6. How long does it take you to get there? 11. They don´t come. good light 5. The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. is sleeping/sleeps 2. Where do your friends come from? 7. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. Where does John go in the summer? 6. 6. goes 2. drink 3.coins 19. At what time do they get up every morning? 4.. doesn´t believe 7. How much money do they need? 11. Where do you go in the summer? 5. 7. doesn´t drink 2. They´re playing /running/ etc.. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. animals 13. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. How much money do they need? 3. It´s got four legs 4. 9. does Martin come 4. are-doing/are-watching 14. don´t eat 6. Children 17. 9. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. He´s working 3. doesn´t tell 9. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. takes/does it take 6. causes 5. A. 1. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. History 3.. John is the student who speaks English well. Ex. 8. How often do you go there? 12. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. The water 8. Ex.water 7. 2. 10..the coins 20. do-like 18. stamps 18. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. 6.?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. What does Susan look like? 2. are-doing 15. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. 1.The men who are working in that room are engineers. How many cars do they have now? 12.. is playing 17. /Does Peter do. 1. 1. How often do they play golf? 3. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. What do the students need? 5. 74 A short course in english for adult students . 1. speaks 2..?/ How often do they come here? Ex. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. Ex. English books / The magazines C. 1. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14.. meat 15. When does Bob go to bed early? B. does this word mean? Ex. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. speaks/is speaking 4. is beginning 12. When do you go to the club? 8. The air 2. How does Mary come to work? 7. are-studying 19. is wearing Ex. Is it raining 9. are-living 9. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. Why do you like Mary? 17. rises 4. I usually spend my summer vacation in. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9. is coming 6. What do you take photographs with? 16. The stamps . 15. there aren´t any trees 5. take place Ex. 12. am sitting/sit 3. 1. does-understand 16. 16.. is not standing/is sitting 5. 1. That is exactly the car which I would like to have. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. make 5. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. isdoing 11.?/ How many cars do they have? 9.closes 4. doesn´t grow 3. 1. 1. is working 2. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex. there are some trees/No. is working 8. What do they do on Sunday? 9. The fish 16. fresh air 11.. Yes. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. translates 8. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/ she is sick Ex. There is very little free time 8. live 6. play . He hardly ever/never uses it. 10. flows Ex. The leather 9. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. do-get 20.

15.Ex. 4. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes.The people who are working in that office are engineers. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. 1. Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. John is the student who speaks English well. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. necesita? 14. 2. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. 3. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. 1. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . Is this the computer you use every day? 19. 1. The shoes which we make are of very good quality. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. 12. The book I want is on the table 3. That is exactly the car I would like to have. lee todos los días? 13. The people described in the story are very interesting. usa todos los días? 19. The man driving the car is my father 4. The girl with him is his sister 2. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener. 8.The men working in that room are engineers. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. ¿Es el Sr. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. Ex. The books which are on that chair are mine. Ex. 16. 2. 12. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. The man walking down the road is a postman 18. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero. 16. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9.18. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. 5. 10. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. 15. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. ¿Es este el diario que ud. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. ¿Es este el computador que ud. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. 8. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. 3. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8.

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También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO.stopped .To buy . Escuche. 5. como To want.. the day before yesterday (anteayer). EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado. /ai dídnt bái./ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado. tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). last year (el año pasado). va en INFINITIVO. /!éi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4. Peter came here three days ago.3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares. pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores. 1810).-de. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (no el pasado) de un verbo principal.. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). last night (anoche). Los verbos terminados en -t. 4. Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning.bought. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple.cleaned . They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /!ei stópt tó:ki# wen !e tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó) Como ud. Escuche. To work .worked . 3. en la conversación diaria. To complete.... / A short course in english for adult students 77 .bought . /méri didnt klí:n. aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year”.saw . -te. lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). o una hora o fecha pasada.. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado). To decide también agregan -ed/-d. 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1.worked 6./ We didn´t work hard that day./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal. that day (ese día). To clean .came . 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre. /pí:ter kéim híar "rí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: To stop . mientras que los de los ejemplos 4.../ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd !éi sí:. 2. -d.. /pí:ter didnt kám.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4). Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST. lea y aprenda: (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 1. needed /ní:did/. To stop . A menudo.2. al igual que en la forma negativa.stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!).. como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana).seen. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd !at déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. /méri klí:nd !e háus iésterdi mó:rni#/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana) 5. To come ./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. completed /komplí:tid/. To see .come. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal. se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/. on September 18th.cleaned. como last week (la semana pasada). /wí: dídnt wé:rk.. Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer). /!éi dídnt sí:. como two days ago (hace dos días)./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago... several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”..UNIT 6 PART I./ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái..etc.. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. Escuche./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. To need. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/. They saw a good film yesterday.. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t !e ká:r lá:st íar/ 2. En los Ejemplos 1.. decided /disáidid/. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche). We worked hard that day.

. WHERE. pedir transportar./ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. responder llegar preguntar.. esforzarse usar.?) EXERCISES: Ex./ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám./ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk.. utilizar visitar esperar.. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used. etc.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám. HOW./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT.. partir quedarse./ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd !éi sí:. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar.. gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar.... 1. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche. no gustar ayudar esperar.. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái. atender . pedir fumar comenzar... gustar terminar odiar. localizar mirar amar. arreglar repetir solicitar.../ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dú:/ (¿Qué hizo ud.. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar.. WHEN. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n..

salir. narrar. funcionar Ex. colocar leer correr. extraviar hacer. administrar (un negocio) decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. conocer aprender. llevar enseñar contar. enterarse partir. mantener saber. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. 2. conocer pagar poner. comer. Study the Past Tense form of the following irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar. dejar prestar perder. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. decir pensar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. encontrar olvidar conseguir. fabricar reunirse. creer brillar entender. obtener. servirse oir guardar. mirar desear trabajar. saber.

3. 19. I give the boy a present every year. 2. Mary visits her parents every month. It rains a lot here every winter. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. 18. 4. 2. Father tells the boy a story every night. 17. The boy did the exercise well. I sleep well every night. We went to work by bus. 9. We enjoy our vacation every summer. 3. 6. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. They bought the car in Paris. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. The boy reads a book every month. 4. 11. Peter comes here every week. 16.000 dollars. I wanted to drink tea. 7. They go to Europe every year. 7. 13. Bob washes the car every Saturday. They receive a letter every week. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. We had dinner at the Club. 9. Change the following sentences into a) negative.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. 4. 8. 15. They saw the car accident. 10. 6. Peter came here yesterday. We have a test every week. 8. 20. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . We wrote the letter in Spanish. The postman brings a letter every Monday. __________________________________________ last week. We watch TV every night. 5. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. desgastar escribir Ex. They sell lots of books every year. 10. I write to Mary every week-end. John sold his house for 120. They studied English in London. 14. 12. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. 5. 3. They eat fish every Friday. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1.

2. What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex.Ex. HOW OFTEN. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. Did Mr. When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ 3. He went to the doctor because he was ill. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. 10. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ 5. 6. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. The boy wanted to play. He didn´t go because he was tired. ___________________________________________________ 6 Did you watch TV last night? If so. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. I didn´t (go by bus). HOW MUCH. Bob did the same exercise three times. 7. WHEN. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . They came here by taxi. Peter saw the film last week. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ 4. I went by taxi. 9. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. 8. 1. 7. 5. HOW. WHERE. Bill spent one hundred dollars. What did you eat for dinner last night?. what did you watch? _________________________________________________ 7. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. He went to the zoo yesterday. 4. 6. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ 2. 5. In each case. The children got up at 6:30 3. etc. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex.

Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19.16. Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students . Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17.

(not... I don´t play well now.. Peter was a good student. EXERCISES Ex 1. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9.. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ Bob worked in the car factory. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /!ei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not. Mother played the piano well.. as in the examples Bob used to work in the car factory. We exported shoes to the USA. Bill helped me with my homework.. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. (not. not. Bob used to love ama).. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much. (Jim no trabajaba mucho en el colegio. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. (Bob la amaba mucho. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. (not.. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) 1.... anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7.. Scott used to smoke cigars.. He no longer loves her now.PART II. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal). (not. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano). (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos.. Escuche. John Kerry went to that school. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven. Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school.. I rode the subway to work. (not.. (not. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 83 .. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas). (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. (not. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs. Equivale a la terminación -aba o -ía del español. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr.. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young. Ann came to class on time every day. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? (¿Dónde pasabas tus vacaciones de verano cuando eras joven?). Bill brought her flowers every Friday. anymore. (not. Mary spoke Italian at home. Explain the change in meaning. Scott smoked cigars. Mr. Uncle Paul lived in that house.

PART III. Mr. They went back to ___________ seats and began to write. Escuche. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. The house is ours. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new.(su auto). o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /!éar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. The house of Mr Smith is very big. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /!éi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. (de ella) We´ve got a house. de ud. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). The students´ books are new. 7. This is my book. Clark goes to ___________ office every day 5. 3. 1. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. EXERCISES Ex.. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. You walk to ___________ school every morning. agregando un APÓSTROFE + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. This is John´s book. 1. 8. The car is hers. 6. Mrs. 4. A. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. Smith´s house is very big. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. That´s my brother´s car. es decir. I walk to ___________ chair 2. (mío) Mary bought this car last year. (mi libro) The book is mine. Escuche. The teacher writes with ___________ pen. His /hiz/= suyo. This is my parents´ house. This is the house of my parents. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /!éarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. That is the car of my brother. We moved to ___________ new house last month. Mr and Mrs. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim. . Escuche. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y a un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. Jones take ___________ children to the park on Sunday. It is her car. The books of the students are new. This is our house (nuestra casa). John walks to___________ desk.

12. 12. 6. This is John’s office. The dog wags ______ tail. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. 8. This is the notebook of William. Jones has a new car. as in the example: 1. Is this your pencil? 10. the dog and the cat are _______________. Smith is very large. The office of Mr. That’s the home of my teacher. These are Peter´s cigarettes. 6. Is this your coat or her coat? 11. the English books are _______________. the cat is _______________. He’s the teacher of Helen. 4. 10. 9. 3.. A short course in english for adult students 85 . 3. The friend of my sister is very sick. John has a dog. This is the teacher’s desk. the car is _______________. Ex.2 . 5. 5. We have two English books. 10. You have a pen. 8. You have a dog and a cat. Mary has a new pen. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. 11. 3. This is my book. This is the pen of Helen. He took his book and left my book. 13. 9. the dog is _______________. 9. 4. That is Helen’s notebook. This is her room. This is the book of John. 5. the English books are _______________. the pen is _______________. These are our seats. the pen is _______________. 7. These are their newspapers. Mr. 2. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. ____________________________________________________ This room ___________________________________________ This office ___________________________________________ He took his book and left _____________________________ These newspapers ___________________________________ These ______________________________________________ That ________________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Is this_____________________________________________ ? or Is this coat ________________________________________ ? These ______________________________________________ This ________________________________________________ Ex. 8. I have a dog and a cat. 2. What´s the name of that man? 14. The desk of the teacher is new. Helen and Mary have two English books. 6. This is the wife of Mr Smith. He’s also the teacher of my friend. That is the room of the teachers. I have a dog.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The house of my friends is beautiful. 2. 3. 4. the dog is mine . 10. 7. Change the underlined words into the Possessive form. My brother drives ______ car every day. This book is mine. 4. 7.9. This is my notebook. Helen has a cat. the dog and the cat are _______________.

When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) 6. it. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. us. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. 13. her.B. When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) 7. When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) 4. I know William and his wife very well. 14. When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) 3. 7. por lo tanto. him. They are talking about the accident. When did she spend the money. (last summer) 9. Is this letter for Mr. William studies the book 3. 10. 9. James goes with John and Alice to the club. When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) 10. When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). She speaks with John. 11. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /!ei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /!em/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración. When did he invite you? (last month) 11. Bob studies his book every day. John likes Mary. When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) 8. 6. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. I like this song very much. EXERCISES Ex. I understand the teacher very well. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . Substitute the correct pronoun for the underlined word or words: 1. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. When did she send the letters? (last Monday) 5. 12. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. 2. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. 8. Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un DIRECT OBJECT (complemento directo) o a un INDIRECT OBJECT (complemento indirecto) y. 2. When did they eat the apples? (this morning) 12. 1. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) 2. The teacher likes Mary and William. Use object pronouns (me. you. them) instead of the underlined word or words: 1. 5. 4.

cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . boticario clergyman /kle ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. sacerdote clerk /kle´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero inspector (trenes) conductor /kondáktor/ doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS (Profesiones y oficios) actor actor /æktor/ actress /æktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barbero. cura corredor de propiedades corredor de propiedades recepcionista vendedor (de tienda) secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario. gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote. conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dréser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllænitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dlló:rnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ abogado manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póusman/ priest /pri:st/ real state agent /rial steil éidllent/ realtor /riáltor/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretari/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /sí#ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /tekníshan/ teacher /tí:tcher/ telephonist /teléfonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wótchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. peluquero barber /bá:rber/ butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico.

88 A short course in english for adult students .

4... Mary visited her.. He said “No” 7.. I didn´t. Where did he go yesterday? 2.. Ann used to come to class on time every day. When did Peter see the film? 5. How did they come here? 6. I slept well.. Peter drove to. / Did we go to. Study List of Regular and Irregular Verbs Ex.. No. They didn´t see the. 10.? / What did I want to drink? 4. She sent me a letter. I began to study English (.your. We used to export shoes to the USA.. 2. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4.. No. 1. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. He doesn´t go to that school now 10.. No.. No.. No. / Did they study. 9.. No.. I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. she didn´t (wear a short skirt). Mary used to speak Italian at home. No. He felt weak and tired. Ex. 11... I got up at. What did the boy want to do? 7.. 14... He doesn´t live there now 2.their 9. I used to ride the subway to work.. he didn´t (say “yes”). 1.. Bill used to help me with my homework. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. 20. she didn’t (leave early). 4.. 3.17.. they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 2. It rained a lot. He no longer is a good student 5... We didn´t go to.. I didn´t (eat fish).? / What did they see? 5. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. 1.. 8... They drank wine.his / her 7. they didn´t (watch TV).KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 6 Part I Ex.. I watched. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday anymore 7. he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . / Did we have dinner.their 6. No.. 10. No. Mother used to play the piano well.. That´s my teacher´s home 5. 11.. Part III. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. I wrote to. I ate chicken. No. John Kerry used to go to that school.. 14... I don´t ride it to work any longer 6.. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. They didn´t study. 16. 1.. The postman brought a.? / What language did we write the letter in? 10.. They went to .... 4.her 5... Ex. How much money did Bill spend? 10. / Did I want to drink.. 12. 1.. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. 18. 6. 5. They listened to the radio. Why didn´t he go? 8. No. We didn´t have dinner.. He / she told me to. We didn´t write the. She wore a long one. Peter didn´t come. 5.. The boy read / red / a. They sold lots of.. Mother made an. No. What are those men´s names? A short course in english for adult students 89 ..? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. 6. Yes. ago / last. No. 1. 9. Father told the. We enjoyed our.. No. / Did the boy do the.. The teacher´s desk is new. / Did Peter come.13.. She bought a jacket. We watched TV. he didn´t (go out). 5. They ate fish. This is Mr Smith´s wife.. / Did we write the.our 8.. 5. He stayed at home. he didn´t (come in the morning). 12.. 6.? / How did we go to work? 2. I ate. The boy didn´t do the. John didn´t sell his. 17. This is Helen´s pen... Ex. I didn´t (see her last week). What´s that man´s name? 14.. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. No. He wrote a short story.. 4.? / Where did we have dinner? 9. I went to..its 10.. / Where did they study English? Ex. 7... & 2... (didn´t = did not) 1. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3..... I read it in French. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. 13. 8. I saw her yesterday.. (open answers) 1. he didn´t (write a poem). 20.. 4. That´s the teachers´ room.? / When did Peter come here? 3. 19. She doesn´t play it well now 8. 2. she didn´t (buy a dress). I did. I didn´t (read it in English). This is William´s notebook 8. No she didn´t (send me a fax) .. 3.. 2. They received a.my 2.3. I didn´t (give him an apple) . We no longer export shoes to the USA.. No. He spoke to me in French. I didn´t want to drink. 19. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9.. At what time did the children get up? 3. 15... 2... It took me about. 1. 18. We had a. I bought the.. I gave the... he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. / Did they see the. No. / in.... / Did they buy the. Peter came here.. he didn´t (break his arm). Peter used to be a good student. Part II Ex. he didn´t (feel weel) . 7. 7. No. 1...4. I gave him some money. She left late. He came at midday.. they didn´t (drink beer) . 13. 16.his 3. / Did John sell his. 15....? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.. 11.) 3. No...his Ex. Bob washed the. / No. 3. He broke his leg. 6.? / Where did they buy the car? 7..They didn´t buy the. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. A.

hers 7. 5. 2. 11. her 11. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. He invited me last month. 9. This office is John´s 4.hers 4. him or her?. I spoke to him yesterday morning. These newspapers are theirs. Is this pencil yours? 10. Ex. it 3. They ate them this morning. She sent them last Monday 5. These cigarettes are Peter´s.yours 5.ours 8. 2. it 7.yours B.his 6. 1. 9. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. I bought it 5 years ago. 8. 4.Ex. These seats are ours. them 6. She spent it last summer. them 10. them 12. She met him last Friday morning. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. This notebook is mine. 12. 12. 10. He got it a long time ago. 90 A short course in english for adult students . 7. 3. us 13. it 9. He took his book and left mine. him 4. 3. Ex. 2. 8. 7. Ex. I visited them last weekend. him / her 5.mine 10. 4. This desk is the teacher´s. us 8. This room is hers. 1. it 14. 6.his 3. her 2.theirs 9. 3. 1.mine 2. That notebook is Helen´s.

EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r !éi pléii#./ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /hí: woz víziti# hiz péarents in ditróit on !e fif" ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado.. como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók !is mó:ni#/. /wi: wé:rent hævi# lántch. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/.. /hi: wóznt víziti#../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hævi# lántch. / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´ T/WEREN´ T) Lea./ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June./ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:pi#... /ai woz dráivi# tu !i éarpo:rt at ten oklók !is mó:ni#/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday.. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´ T /wóznt/ o WEREN´ T /wé:rent/: Lea. /wí: we:r hævi# lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were./ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night. at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/... En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/.. escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráivi#. o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal.. Lea./ A short course in english for adult students 91 ../ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: víziti#...... /ái woz slí:pi# wen ! télifoun ræ# la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday.. /ai wóznt dráivi#./ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday.. /ai wóznt sli:pi#. /dei wé:rent pléii#. etc. /!éi we:r pléi# fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June.UNIT 7 PART 1. escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning..

/ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r !ei pléii# fútbol. (camp) 8. The boys were studying for a test. (do) 12.. Alice was making the beds. (play) 4. escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:di#.. (leave) 10. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident.. 3. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning.. (cross) 5. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. The children were watching TV. In each case. 1. b) interrogative form : 1.En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como WHAT. WHERE.. At that time. everyone _________________________to go to work. (have dinner) 11. ______________________________________________ 92 A short course in english for adult students . 1. the train ________________________ . WHAT./ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rki#. Ask questions using question words like WHO. (walk) Ex. 5. 2. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea.. We were running down the road. Change the following sentences into a) negative form and. Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. HOW.. The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. 3. I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. The men were going to work. We ________________________near the river that evening.. the underlined part must be the answer to your question... When we got to the station. ___________________________________________________ 2.. (drive) 7./ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. She was having a bath. (live) 9. WHY. Mrs. ___________________________________________________ 4. Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (read) 3. We ________________________when the lights went out last night. 7. etc. ___________________________________________________ 5. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1.? /wót we:r iú: dú:i#../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. 6. etc. They were walking in the park at midday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex../ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt !ei hævi# lántch. Jenkins entered the room. (shine) 2. We ________________________the road when the accident happened.. Bill _________________________the report when Mr. 2. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. The soldiers were doing exercise 4.. WHERE. (get ready) 6. The generals were working in the conference room.?) EXERCISES Ex. ___________________________________________________ 3.

(Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. (work.. I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night.6. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. (sleep) 2. More than ten people were standing outside the building. (work. ___________________________________________________ Ex. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. live) 5.. 5.. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. __________________________________________ 10..._________________________________________________ 7.have dinner) 8.. Mr. 9. 4.drive) 9. (play. _______________________________________________ Ex. 8.. 2. They _______________________ to the office when I ___________________________them this morning.. 6. Mrs. (go. Give complete answers.see) 4. they were living in the north of France. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . 3. When the war broke out. 5. What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) 10. Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room.. we ____________________________ ( call on.begin) 6..arrive) 3. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2.. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. 6. ___________________________________________________ 9.. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4.. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 11. (have. todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. (read. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired. Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet.. 1. I ___________________________ very well last night. When John ______________________ us last night.become) 12. Answer the following questions in English.ride) A short course in english for adult students 93 . 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. (sleep.. 4.. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento.walk) 7. 1.. ___________________________________________________ 8.

2. A. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. please. 9. You have another cup of coffee. You call me up after 9 o´clock. please EXERCISES Ex. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please.PART II. Look at the map. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. please 3. por favor (so /sou/= tan) Ex. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. 10. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche Por favor. Eat my bread and butter. You study hard every day. please Don´t speak so slowly please. You spell your first name. 3. Take a taxi. /pli:z óupn !e wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. You eat more slowly. 5. You listen to the story carefully. You drink milk every morning. Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. 6. please. Give Mary my new address. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. Come again this afternoon. Work hard. 4. Listen to him please. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. 9. You write your answer on the whiteboard. Drive fast please. 8. 1. You fill up the tank. Say that again. 10. 5. Drink black coffee. (you) open the window. abra la ventana Hable más lento. 8. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. 1. 4. 2. please. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. (so /sou/= tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . 7. don´t open the window Don´t speak so fast. please 6. Work slowly please. 7. 2. You come here tomorrow morning. esta implícito en la orden).

(adj.) o grados (Gen. 1. A short course in english for adult students 95 . países.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adjetivo+Sustantivo (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). Mr De Ponti invited Dr. 5. montes. Sgt.B. estados. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement.. etc. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday. cuando éstos son usados como nombres propios. canales. lea y compare New York is a large city.. Gen. where necessary: 1. 6. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. mares. Supply the definite article THE. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies. volcanes.) EXERCISES Ex. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido THE. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. 4.. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. 3. Miss.. Dr. continentes. 7. Sir. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. cordilleras. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido THE delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. The New York City subways go very fast. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. (adj. 10. Cpt.. President. Escuche.) Santiago is the capital of Chile. __________ United States. ciudades. __________ China. No se usa THE delante de los nombres de continentes.) 2. calles.. He lives on Fifth Avenue. Lady. Johnson ordered Sgt. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. Prof. 9. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. Smith to send the message right away.They´ve climbed Mount Everest..Ms. They are coming back from China. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic.. Mrs. Senator. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. 8. etc..) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain.etc. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Council.

__________ London School of Economics is very famous. 6. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. 11. 5. 3. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. 1. 4. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 10. (He lives in Mexico. 8. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (La forma exclamativa) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles. __________ Europe is a large continent. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj. where needed: 1. 8. Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 14 15. 3. 13. He lives in __________ Mexico. 6. 7. 2. 12. _________ English language is easy. 10. / adv. __________ Mexican climate is warm. 5. 12. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. 96 A short course in english for adult students . 4. __________. __________ England is a small country. __________ Broadway buses are slow. 9. C. Ex.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. We walked along __________ Broadway. 11. in __________ Utah. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj.11.) 2. 7. 9. 2.

_____________________ hot day it is today! 12. 5. 2. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! A short course in english for adult students 97 . ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. These shoes are very expensive. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7. John is a very intelligent person. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. 4.!... The movie was very exciting. These photographs are very beautiful 11... WHAT. This is a very incredible story. 4. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. This trip is very interesting.. 9. He runs very fast.!. 2. 12.Ex. New York is a fascinating city. 3. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. They are very beautiful women.. as indicated: 1. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. b) WHAT. These exercises are very difficult. What.. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. Supply HOW. She plays the piano well.!. It is a beautiful day. a) What a tall man Peter is! b) How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This whisky is very good 10. 2. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using a) HOW. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13.!. 14. Mary is a very friendly person 13.. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14.. 6. 7. ______________________ pretty she is! 3. as in the examples Peter is a very tall man 1. ______________________ well she swims! 5. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4.. I was a very stupid person. 4. This music is very romantic. 3. Make exclamations using What a(n). or How.! or c) WHAT A(N). ______________________ pretty girl! 2.!... She is an excellent pianist. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. 8. 3.

It is very cold today. 9. 7. She is wearing a beautiful dress. 6. 17. She is very pretty. Grandfather told us a sad story. We were very tired after the walk. 11. 14. He is a very tall man. 8. 12. Bob acted very foolishly. 16. It´s a cold day today. It was a very fast train. He is a handsome fellow. Ann was a generous woman. It was very cold last night. 15. 10. You have a beautiful new car.5. She plays the violin beautifully. 18. 13. __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! __________________________________________________ ! 98 A short course in english for adult students .

.quinta detached house /ditætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov !e háus/ (Partes de la casa) ceiling /síli#/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændi#/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana farm house /fá. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /!e bédrum/ (El dormitorio) alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæ#kit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda. cabaña casa pareada casa en hilera casa de veraneo c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov !e háus/ (Piezas de la casa) attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:"rum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáini#rum / kitchen /kítchen/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega (vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /síti#rum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (UK) despensa living estudio baño.w.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi./ terrace house /térris háus/ villa /víla/ casa de campo departamento (UK) casa choza..(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos.c. (UK) bungalow /bá#galou/ bungalow condominio condominium /kondomínium/ cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo. d) The Sitting-room /!e síti#rum/ (El living) arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:rpit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /ké:rtenz/ fireplace /fáiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (UK) reproductor de CD silla loza fina. excusado.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE (La casa) a) Housing /háusi#/ (Vivienda) departamento (USA) apartment /apa:rment/ apartment building /apá:rment bíldi#/ edificio de dptos.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero A short course in english for adult students 99 .

) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .f) The Kitchen /!e kítchin/ (La cocina) broom /brú:m/ escoba can opener /kæn óupner/ abrelatas (USA) cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /kó:rkskru:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza aparador cupboard /kábord/ cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora refrigerador fridge /frídll/ frying pan /fráii# pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro-ondas g) The Bathroom /!e bá:"rum/ (La sala de baño) bath tub /bá:" tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /mírror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar shaving brush /shéivi#brash/ shaving cream /shéivi# krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /tú"brash/ tooth paste /tú:"péist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (UK) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos mixer /míkser/ máquina licuadora napkin /næpkin/ servilleta oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refrídllereitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (UK) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /si#k/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spu:n/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (UK) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshi# mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa h) The Studio /!e stúdiou/ (La sala de estudio) book shelf /búk shélf/ bookcase /búk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiú:ter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /désk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáili# kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ (El exterior) fence /fens/ garage /gæri:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:"/ sendero swimming pool /suími# pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.

the Suez Canal 12... York.UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex.. 15.. 10.. The soldiers weren´t doing...Clark Street. 6. 12. Write your answer on the whiteboard. please 5.What a.. Europe. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10.doing 11....Italy.Don´t drive so fast... White lying on the sofa? 7. 4. was getting ready 6. European cities. 2.What. / Were we running. please. slept 2. 8. Ex. A short course in english for adult students 101 . please.? 4.. 4. was sleeping / arrived. Don´t give Mary my new address.. please... She wasn´t having.) 2.. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6.working / walked 7..... 4. 8..... please.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2... Don´t work so slowly.. 2..the Mediterranean Sea. 3... What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9.. 1. were going / saw 4. 1. 6.. 3.. Don´t say that again... Have another cup of coffee. 3.. England.. B... was working / became 12.. 4. 4. 9. please.. The boys weren´t studying.What a. C. called on / were having dinner 8. (at this time yesterday... were playing / began 6.. Drink milk every morning. 7. 14. please.They were playing bridge at that time. Spain 10. please 7.. Central Park Station 11. was living 9. Where were the generals working? 5. were walking Ex...What a. Fill up the tank. I was working. please. Eat more slowly.What a. the United States 6..What a.? 5. 8.the Dominican Republic 3... Why wasn´t Peter working? 4. Why weren´t they working that day? 7.Broadway...Berlin 9. were camping 8.What. The men weren´t going.. What was Mary eating in her room? 3. 5... Call me up after 9 o´clock. please 5.. Don´t drink black coffee. met / was living 5.. When I arrived. 5... 1. 5.What a. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9. 6. The children weren´t watching. The Mexican climate.. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. were ... 1. 10. I was listening to the news at that moment.... / Was she having.. please. 9. Don´t work so hard. What were you doing at that time? 6.. (when he phoned me last night) Ex.. 1. 2. was driving 7.. 4.. 2. was reading 3.. please. Don´t take a taxi.? 3. please. / Were the children watching.. 9. Don´t listen to him. (in December last year). read / was riding PART II A.. 3... China.. were having dinner 11..The West Indies 7. 2. please.What. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex.. please. 11.. 10. was shining 2. 9. were crossing 5. 8. Salt Lake City..Germany... was .. Why was Mrs.do 10. 10. 13. 6..? 7. 3. 5. London. Ex.were playing 4... Where were your parents living when they met? 8.The Panama Canal. Study hard every day. (when they got married / then). please. 3. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8...? 2... 2..the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8.. The New York City traffic.. 3... 1.. (Open answers) 1. The Broadway buses. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived.. 1.What.The United States. We weren´t running.. 3. / Was Alice making. Don´t come again this afternoon. 11.the Persian Gulf. please.? Ex..What a... / Were the soldiers doing. 1. please 2..Madison Avenue. Spell your first name.What an.The Atlantic Ocean. was leaving 10. had / was driving 9. Ex. They were living in. Alice wasn´t making. everyone was talking.. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. / were the men going. What a... The English language.? 6. please.What a.. did .. Come here tomorrow morning.France. 1. please.The Hudson River / New York City 4. Don´t eat my bread and butter. 1. 2. 2. The London School of Economics. 7. Ex.English cities 7. 4...Utah Ex..... 1. / Were the boys studying. 1. I was. Listen to the story carefully. 6..What. I was. Ex. was doing 12...

How.. What a. What.. How.. 9. What a pleasant man Mr. 8. What a beautiful day it is today! 4.. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. 5. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13. What an.. What a beautiful new car you have! 14... What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13.. How well she plays the piano! 2. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4.. Ex.. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3. 12. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15.Ex. 4... How. What a cold day it is today! 8. 3. 3.. 13. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9. What. 1. Johnson is!.. How fast she runs! 5. 10.. How cold it was last night! 10.. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. How. 4. 1. How. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. How cold it is today! 7. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. 7. Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. 6..7.What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6.What a.. 2.... How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students . 14.. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14. How tire we were after the walk! 16. How pretty she is! 11. 11.. How. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. What a... What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12. What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8.. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5. What a tall man he is! 9... 1. What a fast train it was! 17. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. What a. What. 2.

En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple.. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana.. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras./ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. En la interrogación. in three months /in "rí: mán"s/ dentro de tres meses... They won´t visit us next weekend./ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. by the end of this year /bai !i énd ov !is yíar/ hacia fines de este año. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end. 3. Lea. When.. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. /méri wóunt kám. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. Dgo.. Peter is coming to Chile next month. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones.. Peter is going to come to Chile next month. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil !ei vízit. y sugiere la idea de decisión./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil !ei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámi! tu tchíle nekst mán!/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . Where. /pí:ter iz góui! tu kám tu tchíle nékst man!/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana./ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt !ei vízit. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo.. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro. /!ei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. /!éi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow.UNIT 8 PART 1. promesas o determinaciones.. I won´t be at home. Peter will come to Chile next month. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/. acordadas o previstas con antelación. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas. next month /nékst man"/ el próximo mes. tu wé:rk tumó:rou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday.. etc. promesa o determinación. the day after tomorrow /!e déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana.. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mán!/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. Mary won´t come to work tomorrow. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. intenciones. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx.

My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. (march) 2. We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ 9.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: WHAT WILL YOU DO? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. ___________________________________________________ 5. Bob will sell the car because it´s old. (sell) 5. ___________________________________________________ 7. Where. using WILL 1. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. 4. (move) Ex. They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ 8. The instructor ________________________ the data show. The soldiers will wait there until dawn. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué hará ud. How long. ___________________________________________________ 4. (use) 6. Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. and b) interrogative. Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. (hire) 12. (send) 3. The train will arrive soon. They´ll get married in May 6. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 10. We ________________________ a new house soon. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. They´ll need five volunteers. You will send them a fax. (dig) 7.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. ___________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ 2. (be) 10. NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. Ask questions using question words like When. 3. In each case. John will accept the offer. 3. I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ 6. 5. 1. How. The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. John will give the answer next week. Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport.? Ex. 1. I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. They´ll go to the north in the summer. (attend) 9. 1. Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. 2. Mary will go out this evening. (buy) 11. (have) 4. What. They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . (launch) 8. etc.

PART II.
A. USE OF SAY AND TELL (Uso de los verbos SAY / TELL) Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR), pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen), “I love you, Helen” Mary said, “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. Jackson said (to his students), “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”, he said. “I am very tired after the long walk”, said Mary. 2. Antes de la conjunción that (la que puede ser omitida) John said (that) he loved Helen Mary said (that) she was very tired after the long walk. 3. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. Sorry, what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor, es decir, la persona a quien se le habló. John told Helen that he loved her. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. Mr. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her, please. EXERCISES Ex.1. Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. 2. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. 3. John ________________________ yesterday, “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” 4. Yesterday, Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. 5. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. 6. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. 7. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. 8. “I will be back at about 10:30”, ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. 9. “This book is very interesting “, she ________________________ 10. Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 11. Can you ________________________ me where the office is, please? 12. Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. 13. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. 14. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. 2 Change SAY to TELL. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. She said (to me) that she was sick. __________________________________________________________________ 2. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. __________________________________________________________________ 3. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. __________________________________________________________________
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4. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student. _____________________________________________________________________ 9. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change TELL to SAY.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 1. Bob told me that he could speak French well. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play, too. _____________________________________________________________________ 6. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. _____________________________________________________________________ 8. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. _____________________________________________________________________ B. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO, WHOM, WHOSE (Los pronombres relativos WHO, WHOM, WHOSE)

Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which, en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? (¿Quién es ese hombre? The man who is in the car is a policeman. (El hombre que está en el auto es un policia) The car which is outside is a police car. (El auto que está afuera es un auto policial) WHOM es un pronombre interrogativo que significa a ¿a quién?. Whom did you see at the party? (¿A quién viste en la fiesta?) La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo, y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. With whom will you go to the party?/ Who will you go to the party with? (¿Con quién irás a la fiesta?) I met a man in the street. The man whom I met was John´s father. (Me encontre con un hombre en la calle. El hombre con quien me encontre era el padre de John) Jim was talking about a woman. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. (Jim estaba conversando acerca de una mujer. La mujer acerca de quien Jim estaba hablando era su esposa)

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La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones, pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? / Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo puede ir al final o junto a whose) (¿De quién es este sombrero) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (¿De quién son estos cigarrillos?) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) (¿De quién es ese suéter amarillo?) Whose is that book (which is) on the desk? (aquí solo una estructura es posible por que el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) (¿De quién es ese libro que está sobre el escritorio?) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you, Mr Clark. (El hombre cuya hija lo llamó por teléfono esta mañana desea verlo a usted, Sr. Clark) The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. (El hombre cuyo auto está estacionado a fuera del edificio es un médico) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Choose the correct form. 1. To (who,whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. With (who, whom) does he want to speak? 3. (Who, whom) is the best student in your class? 4. (Who, whom) did you meet at the party? 5. The man (who, whom) telephoned you is my brother. 6. The woman (who, whom) you saw is my new teacher. 7. About (who, whom ) are they talking? 8. The girl with (who, whom) I danced was very beautiful. 9. From (who, whom) did you get the money? 10. The boy (who, whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. Ex. 2. Fill in the blank spaces with Who, Which, Whom, Whose 1. __________________ jacket do you like best, the blue one or the brown one? 2. __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s, but I´m not quite sure. 3. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? 4. He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 5. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. 6. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player 7. __________________ will you ask for help? 8. __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? 9. The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. 10. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. 11. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. 12. __________________ are they talking about? 13. The man __________________ Prof. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. 14. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 15. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? 16. __________________ are you talking to? 17. The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean. They are American. 18. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? 19. With __________________ will you work on the thesis?
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20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

I don´t know __________________ watch this is. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. Smith read in class yesterday.. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love.

Ex. 3. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence,using WHO, WHOM or WHOSE 1. I met a man yesterday. He wrote detective stories. I_________________________________________________________________________________________________ met a man yesterday who wrote detective stories 2. I met a woman yesterday. Her husband died in a car accident. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Peter came to the party with a young woman. This is the young woman. This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The policemen interrogated the old man. His car was parked outside the school. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. There´s a man in the lobby. He wants to speak with you. There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. They contacted a man. They found his wallet in the street. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. You were talking to a man in the lobby. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. Exercise 4. Ask questions with whose, as in the example. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? Whose car is this? Whose is this car? To whom does this car belong? ___________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ ? To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ ?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Ex. 5. Make synonymous sentences using the verb BELONG instead of the possessives. 1. This pen is mine 2. That house is ours. 3. That´s not your leather jacket. 4. Those keys are mine. 5. Is that car yours? 6. That is not John´s bicycle.. 7. These aren´t Mary´s shoes. 8. Are these cigarettes yours? 9. Whose is this watch? 10.Whose glasses are these? 11.I think that this wallet is yours. 12.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. 13.This house is ours. It isn´t theirs. 14.That car isn´t his. It´s hers. 15.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. It´s my brother´s _________________________________________________ This pen belongs to me _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? To ______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

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C. SOMEBODY, SOMETHING, SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS (Alguien, algo, algún lugar y sus derivados) Study the following chart
Afirmative Negative Some Not...any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not... Anybody Not...anyone Nobody / No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not...anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not...anywhere Nowhere Anywhere

En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2 (p.27), habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas, y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT... ANY o NO. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas, es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo, alguna cosa). Somewhere (algun lugar, alguna parte), etc. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta (Yo tengo algunos amigos en Atlanta) I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2. I saw somebody in the car (Yo ví a alguien en el auto) I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3. They need something now. (Yo necesito algo ahora) They don´t need anything now. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. They will go somewhere after the lesson (Ellos irán a algún lugar después de la clase) They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to negative form Use a) NOT... ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. I saw somebody in the corridor. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. Please put it somewhere in this room. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. There is someone at the door. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. He lives somewhere in New York. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. He told somebody about it. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. He gave the book to somebody. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. He said something to her. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________
A short course in english for adult students

1. There is someone in the room

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11. He has something to do. 12. He´s going to do something now. 13. They found the money somewhere. 14. They will send the goods to someone. Ex. 2. Change to question form 1. I saw somebody at the desk. 2. He went somewhere last night. 3. She has something to do. 4. He told somebody about it. 5. She put it somewhere. 6. There is someone in the next room. 7. Somebody wants to speak to him. 8. I saw somebody I knew. 9. He brought something with him. 10. He gave it to someone. 11. He took them somewhere on Long Island. 12. I liked something about her.

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Ex. 3. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT ... ANY” negative form: 1. They found nobody at home. 2. There is no more coffee. 3. They want nothing to drink. 4. There is nowhere for him to sit. 5. She spoke to no one about it. 6. I want no more, thank you. 7. He can see nothing without his glasses. 8. We saw nobody at all in the park. 9. They gave us nothing to eat. 10. We went nowhere after the dance. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (UK) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /"íater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camión (USA) tunnel /tánel/ túnel underground /ándergráund/ tren subterráneo (UK) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (UK) zebra crossing /zibra krósi#/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 . escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (UK) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art. tintorería dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (UK) cuartel de bomberos fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería almacén (UK) grocer’s /gróuserz/ grocery store /gróuseri stó:r/ almacén (USA) ferretería hardware store /hárdwear stó:r/ hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel hotel /houtél/ jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósi#/ cruce FFCC (UK) lorry /lórri/ camión (UK) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (UK) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos farmacia chemist’s /kémists/ church /tché:rtch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine bus interurbano coach /kóutch/ coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería escuela (univ. calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.) college /kólidll/ corner /kó:rner/ esquina cruce crossroads /krósroudz/ department store /dipá:rment stó:r/ tienda de depart.escrit.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY (La ciudad) airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstorant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte panadería baker’s /béikerz/ book shop /búk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldi#/ edificio bus /bás/ bus paradero de buses bus stop /bás stop/ bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café café /kæfei/ cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda. disco /dískou/ discoteca lavaseco.

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William told the doctor that. 4.whose husband died in a car accident 3... 6.. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex.. will move Ex. 15.. will have 4.. Who 4... 3. It belongs to my brother. 2..... Helen told the travel agent that. 4.. A. will be 10. will sell 5.. Whose 3. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. 8....... 6... 3. The train won´t arrive. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7.. said Ex. John told his friends that.5. The teacher said that. whom 8. Ex.UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A. says 11. 1.. will launch 8 will attend 9. will hire 12. 1.who wants to speak with you.. will buy 11. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. will send 3. You won`t send. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister.? 4. Ex.. said 4. 3. Whom 5... John said that... That car doesn´t belong to him. 7. Whose is this brand new car? 4. The teacher told Paul`s parents that. Mr Smith said that. A short course in english for adult students 113 . Mr Smith won`t see. whom 20.. 2.? 5. whom 10. 1. whom 2. who 22. 1. 4. which 23. Those keys belong to me 5. She told me that.. says 8. 1. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. 7. told 3.. told 7. whom 11. Where will they go in the summer? 2. 1.woman with whom Peter came to the party.. He says that she. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. whose 21. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. whom 4... 1... will use 6... 5. / Will you send. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II.. Ex. 5. whose 5.. It doesn`t belong to them.. Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8. That house belongs to us 3. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. Who 19.whom 10.. / Will John accept. They won`t get married. 13. 7. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them . whom Ex. Whose is this gold ring? 6.. I think (that) this wallet belongs to you.. The boy says that. whom 18.. Ann told the office that. 2..the old man whose car was parked outside the school. I said that... Why will Bob sell the car? 4.which 16. Who(m) 8. / Will they get married? 6. says 6. whom 7. Who 13.. Mary will not go out. said 10. Does that car belong to you? 6..whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10. the boy told us that. 12. / Will Mr Smith see. 3. 1.. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9.. whom 14. whom 7. When will John give the answer? 3... tell 13. which 24. John will not accept. whom Ex. / Will Mary go out.. whom 3. It belongs to her. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5.. Mr Smith told Peter that.. 2. whose 15.? 2. 8. will dig 7.. told 14. told 5. said 9. which 12...to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. will march 2. Bob said that he. Ex.. whose wallet they found in the street. whom 9.. 5. tell 12. Whose . 6...? 3. 7... Which 2. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. 2. I said that. which 6. Who 17.? Ex. 9. 2. The man tells me that. 1. / Will the train arrive. How many volunteers will they need? 10.. 1.... This house belongs to us. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. 14. 4. B. says 2. 2. 3. Whose 9.whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. 1. 2... who 6..

Does she have anything to do? 4... He didn´t tell anybody.. Don`t tell anybody about. They don´t want anything to drink 4.. / Tell nobody about.. 3. don´t put it anywhere in. Please. 3. Ex.. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13.. We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . There isn`t anyone at. Is there anyone in the next room? 7. 1. / He lives nowhere in... 2... Did I see anybody I knew? 9. He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12.... They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. Did he bring anything with him? 10.. They didn´t find anybody at home 2. 2...3. thank you. 1. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5. / There`s no one at. / He told nobody. put it nowhere in. I didn`t put the money anywhere. 8.? 2.... 10.. They didn´t give us anything to eat . 7. / There´s no one in. He can´t see anything without his glasses. 1..... We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. He didn´t say anything. / He said nothing. 10... They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. 7. 9. 6. Did he go anywhere last night? 3. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14. 11.C. I don´t want any more.. Did she put it anywhere? 6. Did I like anything about her? Ex. He doesn´t live anywhere in. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8.. / Please... / I put the money nowhere.. There isn`t anyone in.. Did he tell anybody about it? 5. Did I see anybody at the desk. There isn´t any more coffee. 1.. 5.. 4. Ex. Did he give it to anyone? 11. I didn´t see anybody in. She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6.. / I saw nobody in.

”. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Equivale a la expresión “YO VOY A . 7. 8. 7. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/.. “ÉL VA A . /méri íznt góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. Lea. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevarán a cabo en el futuro cercano. 1. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end.... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 5. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . 4. 8. etc. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. 5.UNIT 9 PART 1. 6.A. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r !éi góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góui# tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góui# tu dú:/ ¿Qué va a hacer usted? EXERCISES Ex. The instructor will use a video. They´ll travel to Mexico in March.”. 3. /!éi á:rent góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. /!éi a:r góui# tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana.”. Lea. Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 2. 4. Tom will come to Chile next year. Mr.. When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r !éi góui# tu vízit as/.. I will send Mary a post-card from L. 6. “TÚ VAS A . 3. 2. Paul will go to Germany and France.

” Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”.”. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked.... 5... They´re going to fix the engine.Ex.?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took FUTURE It will take Escuche. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway. 3. Bill is going to answer the question. Where. 5. She´s not going to go because she´s tired. 2. A. Bob and Jim are going to swim. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions.” / “IT TOOK. Translate the following sentences into English 1. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr. 1.. 4.. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ the students the men me ________________ you the men ____________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche.. “It didn´t take. 6.. /it tuk !e stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser !e kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. 4. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina. We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. 6. “Did it take.?”. Bill is going to travel by plane. etc.”.. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. 7. How long. o “Will it take.” / “IT WILL TAKE. It will take you at least an hour to type the report.. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take..”..?”. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds. 3. o “It won´t take. 2. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 3... I´m going to get back from work at 6:30. 4. Ask questions using question words like When. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA “IT TAKES. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip !e ripó:rt/ Ud....

en... I walked to the station in fifteen minutes. It takes me seven minutes to walk there. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. ___________________________________________________ 5. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions.. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk to work? How long did it take Herbert to walk to work? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? A short course in english for adult students ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud.? How long did it take you to. 2... 4. They will complete the work in six years.. I wrote the letter in a few minutes. IT TOOK.. He does his homework every day in one hour. en.... I do my homework every night in a short time. en.) 2. They will build the bridge in two years.. ___________________________________________________ Ex. I found my mistake in a few minutes. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes.. ___________________________________________________ 6.. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office..? 117 . She learned to speak English in only one year. It took them many years to build the road. ___________________________________________________ 7.? Escuche. ___________________________________________________ 9.. 5. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. ___________________________________________________ 8. 1. 3. ___________________________________________________ 11. ___________________________________________________ 12.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. ___________________________________________________ 4.. I finished the work in an hour.. We drove to Philadelphia in one hour. ___________________________________________________ 3. 2. It took Herbert a long time to walk to work. Change to negative and to interrogative form.? How long will it take you to.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? .Escuche.. or IT WILL TAKE. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. I did my exercise in one hour. ___________________________________________________ 10.. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex.: 1. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk to work. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus. It took him several hours to finish the report.

It takes an hour to do this exercise. 8. It will take a long time to get to the airport. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ ? Ex. It takes much time to learn English. 7. 9. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . Translate the following sentences into English 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It will take you a week to read this book. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. 11. It took a month to complete the work. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. It took them two days to find him. 12. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. 3. Uds. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. It took an hour to discover the mistake. 10.6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Ud. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago a Puerto Montt en avión. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.

(Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. short .hotter. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice.thinner c. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one.B. (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one.smaller. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . 1.taller. (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . thin . Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. tall . Mary is a beautiful girl. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3.shorter b. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2. intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood. big.bigger. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful.more intelligent important . Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. es decir son iguales. hot . (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alice) Bob is more intelligent than George. old.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . Grado Comparativo. (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know.

as o not so. Compare: pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e.+vocal+cons...prettiest common .most much . Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent .worst far .. debemos duplicar la última consonante big . pretty . The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. (large) 2.most modern e. + as. (interesting) 120 A short course in english for adult students . si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more.tallest short .most important d.most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj.best bad . Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses + THAN 1. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er . Philadelphia is.shortest b.. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a.smallest tall . John is ____________________________ William.hottest thin . (short) 3.most common clever .Washington.thinnest c.. This article is ____________________________ that one. (bad) 6. 1. This summer is ____________________________ last summer.farthest little . (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex. dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother.+vocal+cons. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most. (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother. This book is ____________________________ that book . Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. (hot) 7.(larger than)..least many . Henry is ____________________________ I.most intelligent important . (tall) 4... o doble cons. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small . (old) 5.as.cleverest modern . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.d.biggest hot . (El es tan alto como su hermano) He is not as tall as his brother.

Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school. introduce the superlative form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States. The Mississippi River is.. Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) 13..8.. Henry is ___________________________________________________________________ 2....... Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) 9. This is ____________________________ room in the whole building. (light) 12.The weather today is _________________________________ Ex.. John is a. (good) 10.(intelligent) 4. This exercise is _______________________________________ 6. New York is not smaller than Chicago..(tall) 2.. Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. These apples are ____________________________ those. (few) 15....... 4... This book was not more expensive than my French book.... Helen is __________________________________________________________ 4. This book is not thicker than my French book.. This book is.. This book was __________________________________ 8.. John is ____________________________ boy in the class. This is ____________________________ apple of all.. New York is _____________________________________________________ 3... (tall) 2.(interesting) 5...(pretty) 3.... The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday. Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: shorter than I 1. This book is ______________________________________________ 7.(tall) 7. This is ____________________________ park in the city.. Today is ____________________________ day of the year. is. (large) 5. Frank is. Bill is. (sweet) 6.. (intelligent) 8. and second in superlative form..... Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) 11. This street is not wider than that street... Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) 14.. This street is... (young) 6.. (hot) 3. (little) Ex.. Helen is not younger than her sister. The Empire State Bldg.. Henry is not taller than I. first in comparative form... Henry is.. New York is ____________________________ city in the United States. (bad) 10.. Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex. (healthy) 11. (beautiful) 7. John is ____________________________ boy in the class... This street is ____________________________________________________ 5...... The weather today is not better than it was yesterday.. (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 . 2. 3. That city has ____________________________ parks in the region. Grace is. Some people are ____________________________ others...(long) 8.. The weather today is ________________________________ 9.... (light) 12. He is also ____________________________ student in the class.. (interesting) 4. This room is ____________________________ that one..... John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group. (good) 9. State the adjectives in parentheses.(wide) 9. This exercise is not more difficult than the last one.. In the following.

The sky is darker than it was yesterday. This exercise is longer than the last one. 9. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.C. 5. 12. This book is better than the other. 11. Helen is more beautiful than Mary. Our apartment is larger than yours. 5. 7. 2. 6. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1. Peter has more money than Henry 14.. This street is wider than that one. 10..There are more people today than yesterday 13. This corridor is larger than the room. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison. John is as tall as his brother. New York is more important than Washington D. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother.John makes more mistakes than Henry. John has less experience in computers than I.. John is taller than his brother. This exercise is...The weather today is worse than it was yesterday.. 8.10. 3.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students .. 4.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ (Los alimentos) 1. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo. pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students .merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skælop/ shellfish /shélfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ (Pescados y mariscos) abalone /abalóuni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérri#/ loco almeja caracol. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora. Meats /mi:ts/ (Carnes) beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchíkin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. Meals /mi:lz/ (Las comidas) breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /æpetáizer/ 3. Provisions /províllnz/ (Abarrotes) bread /bred/ biscuit /bískit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drési#/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /sé:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wi#/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (UK) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (UK) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada. mejillón ostra gambas. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa o jurel cholga.

Fruits /fru:ts/ (Frutas) apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /baná:na/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /túna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nat/ pineapple /páinæpl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6. Vegetables /védlletablz/ (Verduras) celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /dri#k/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago infusión de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft dri#k/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students .king crab /ki# kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5.

4.? 12. / Am I going to send Mary... 5....? / How long will it take you to.. 12.? Ex. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. It took me a few minutes to find my mistake. 4. 2.? Ex. What are you / we going to buy? 4.. / Is Mr Jackson going to play...... 6. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A...? 8. Ex.... Mr Jackson´s going to play. 8..? / How long will it take to.... / Does it take an hour to. / Did it take a month to. It won´t take you a week to. 2.. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report. Mr Jackson isn´t going to play.. 1.? / How long does it take to. Jane isn´t going to buy.. 7... 3. 9.. Ex.? 3.. I´m going to send Mary.? 6. more difficult than 9. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions...? / How long does it take me to get. / Did it take them many years to build.. hotter than 7..? 7... Ex. / Is the instructor going to use... 3... / Did it take him several hours to.. What are they going to do? 6.? / How long does it take me to..? 7... 1..... How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. better than 10. It will take them six years to complete the work.They aren´t going to come to the party tonight.. / Does it take much time to.? 4.. / Will it take you a week to. They aren´t going to travel to.? 6...? / How long did it take to.. B. The instructor isn´t going to use.. 2. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. 5. 2.. 1. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6. It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station . It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office.. / Does it take me ten minutes to get. Why isn´t she going to go? 7... 8. healthier than 11.? / How long does it take to. She´s going to buy another pair of shoes. I´m not going to send Mary.. It didn´t take them many years to build. / Will it take a long time to... It won´t take you very long to read that article. Tom isn´t going to come to. It didn´t take him several hours to...? 5. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend. How is Bill going to travel? 2. 1. 1. / Did it take an hour to..? 4. It took her only one year to learn to speak English. The Johnsons are going to spend.. / Are the Johnsons going to spend.. Paul isn´t going to go to... Are you going to be at home this evening? 5.? 9. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer..... older than 5. The instructor´s going to use.... It didn´t take them two days to. 3..UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex. It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get... 1.3... It doesn´t take me seven minutes to. 3.... 9...... / Are they going to travel to.? / How long did it take them to build.. 1.... Paul`s going to go to.? 2.? 8. / Is Paul going to go to.? / How long did it take them to. taller than 4. 1. It took me an hour to finish the work 10. worse than 6... 11. It took me a few minutes to write the letter. lighter than 12. 8.... Tom is going to come to.? / How long did it take to.. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane.... It doesn`t take much time to.? 5. It won´t take a long time to. 6..? 11..? 10. What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5. / How long did it take him to... Jane´s going to buy. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia. 2.. It didn´t take a month to. 2.. It doesn´t take an hour to. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7.. / Is Tom going to come to.? 3.. 4. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 .. 4. / Does it take me seven minutes to.... Ex. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3. shorter than 3. They are going to travel to. 2. It didn´t take an hour to. 2. / Is Jane going to buy.. It will take them two years to build the bridge. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day.. more interesting than 8... / Did it take them two days to. Who is going to answer the question? Ex.

4. the least Ex. the most interesting 4. 12. 2. There are as many people today as yesterday. 4. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. 6. 2. / This is the widest street in this town. 126 A short course in english for adult students . The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. 7. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary. 7. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. narrower than 5. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. 4. the largest 11. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last one. the hottest 3. Peter has as much money as Henry. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. bigger than Chicago 3. cheaper than my French book 8. Ex. This street is as wide as that one. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. 10.. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. Grace is prettier than her sister. 9. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. 2. 1. Our apartment is as large as yours. 2. the best 9. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. John has as little experience in computers as I. / This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5.New York is as important as Washington.Ex. This exercise is as long as the last. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. Ex. the tallest 2. the most 13. 3. thinner than my French book 7. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. 4. older than her sister. 9. 3. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. This book is more interesting than that one. the sweetest 6. This exercise is easier than the previous one. worse than it was yesterday.5. 13. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. 9. the most beautiful 7. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. 11. This book is as good as the other. the largest 5. This street is wider than my street. Bill is more intelligent than James. 3. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. the most intelligent 8. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. (Open answers) 1. 5. the worst 10. 14.This corridor is as large as the room. the lightest 12. 8. the fewest 15. 10. easier than 6. the most 14.

/mériz kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar.UNIT 10 PART 1. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. We´re leaving on January 21st. Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. (¿Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. etc.?) EXERCISES Ex. to attend. por ejemplo: to go. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). ha advertido. He´s attending a meeting. We´re going to Cancun again. /!éi á:rent víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. to arrive. /!éi a:r víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. I accepted their invitation. 1. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. /méri íznt kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r !éi víziti# as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r !éi víziti# ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámi# tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:i# tumórou mó:rni#/on sándi/ etc. to come. We´re staying there for 10 days. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. Lea. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 . Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/. to stay. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. 2. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. to leave. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. to drive. Ex. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. to fly. to visit. to have lunch/dinner. agendadas. to travel. 1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. to come back. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities.

“ Yes. at 16:00. late in the evening. After dinner. As you can see. I want to play tennis tomorrow. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues.. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. 4. 4. In the evening. We just got a telegram from our daughter. On Wednesday morning. Novoa´s Schedule Mon. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 07:40 Fly to Houston. When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ 5. “I´m afraid. Brown said to us. Mr. ____________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Answer these questions in English. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. Let´s hurry up. Make complete sentences: 1. Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ 3. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It´s 8:15 now. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. 10:00 Visit the Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Right after lunch. at the Kennedy Center Thurs. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ 3.Texas 14:00 Conference at the Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference.3. On Monday evening. Dr. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. It says. Use the information given below: Dr. he ______________________________________________________________________ 9. What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ 2._________________________________________________________________________ 7. the Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at the Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. Ex. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. On Friday morning. Sat. We must hurry up. _________________________________________________________________________________ 6. At 10:15 on Saturday. How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. he ____________________________________________________________________ 13. I´ll be away on a business trip”. 3. After that. Fri. On Thursday afternoon. What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ 4. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ 7. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ 6. Dr. Ex. he _____________________________________________________at the Nasa Space Center 11. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. Dr. The departure of our train is at 8:25. On Monday morning. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. he _______________________________________________________________________ 10. Texas. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. 1. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. At midday. 2. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at the Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at the US. Mary: “Yes. Write sentences indicating Dr. Surgeons Club Wed. Mary?”. 12. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. 14. At 7:40 AM on Thursday. He is arriving in Washington DC. He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Novoa is going to the USA next week.

probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. have to 2. = Bob is able to swim well 2. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1. 2. MODAL VERBS (I) A.. 5. CAN. este fin de semana. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. ___________________________________________________ 6. Ej.. You can use my computer. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. 1. Ej.. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1. Translate the following sentences into English 1.Ex. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidad) 2. Según el itinerario. recomendación 1. DEBERÍA = consejo. PODER = ser posible 3. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. You can see the lake from here.. 2. ___________________________________________________ 5. ¿a qué hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. 1. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto.. be likely to. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ 8. = You have to obey orders. 2. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. = I think / assume he is over. ___________________________________________________ 3. I think. OUGHT TO) Ej. A short course in english for adult students 129 . / I assume. (No se debe decir. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. Be able to 2. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. ___________________________________________________ 2. You must obey orders. You should study every day. ¿Cuándo tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ 9. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. It may rain tomorrow. Be allowed to Example 1.. (No se debe decir. Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. Bob can swim well. He can swim well. MAY. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. ___________________________________________________ 7. Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. be allowed to 2. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. He must be over 70 years old. MUST. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. PODER = ser capaz de. He can swim well. ¿A qué hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ 10. Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. Jones ___________________________________________________ 4. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day. 1. Be possible to 3. You had better study every day MUST 1.

(Ud.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro. It´s dangerous. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. Gentlemen. 4. Now I ____________ read better. You ____________ not do that again. (No debería fumar tanto. He ____________ be over 65 years old now. Para dar consejos. ____________ I have another piece of cake. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. 4. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. 1. 2. 2. Tommy. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. if you wish. Sir? 8. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now .. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. (formal). Must (Deber) 1. mother? 9.. if you like. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. 2. 6. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. (El está usando un uniforme verde. He must be a policeman. papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. (Ud. Complete the blanks with CAN. John. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. She must know where Mr Jackson is now.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. (Ud. It´s not good for your health. You may fall down and break an arm. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. 5. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. 7. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. Tommy. 3. puede retirarse. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. Para indicar capacidad. It´s out of order. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. He is a retired civil servant. habilidad o destreza. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. (Se está nublando. Peter. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. 3. John can swim very well. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. (Uds. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. (No te subas a esa silla. 1. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. Sr. 2.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. I think that you should see a doctor /. Para indicar obligación. It may rain tomorrow. 130 A short course in english for adult students . Joe. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. MUST. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar.?) It´s getting cloudy. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. I just put on my glasses. según corresponda. MAY o SHOULD. (Negative). (Puedes retirarte ahora. ____________ I use your pen please.

Translate the following sentences into English 1. El trabajó muy duro. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. Ex. Uds. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. El no puede hablar español bien. It´s almost midnight now. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. 23. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t even know how to start a car. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet. The boss gets very angry when people are late. señor? 9. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. They ____________ be working instead. Billy . 3. A pesar de ser sinónimos. I think you ____________ go on a diet. They´re very poor. 24. Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. 4. 19. 14. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. 11. 10. They may use Room 203. 2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. B. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. debe venir mañana nuevamente. 4. 21. 2.10. You are too fat. He sometimes goes home for lunch. 2. ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? ____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ ? __________________________________________________________ ? Ex. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. 12. He ____________n´t be an engineer. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. You ____________ come and visit us any day. John. 18. 13. El puede correr muy rápido. It´s too young. Lea.We don´t accept cash. 20. We must go because it´s late. 17. He ____________ be there. 3. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. The man is very strong. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. 22. Bob can speak three languages. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. Ud. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. 15. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. I don´t know why they´re talking. 5. b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. They should take a taxi. Debe estar cansado. Why don´t you phone at his home. 6. 16. 3. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. You´ll be welcome to our home. pueden fumar aquí.

I must get up early every day. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. We must prepare our lessons every night. 3. DID. I must write many letters. John must go out of town this afternoon.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. 6. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. 4. WON´T. Mary must study French next year. Lea. We must learn many new words every day. 12. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. 9. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. You must read this article. I must work tonight. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. We must write a composition each night. 1. = Peter has to work until late every evening. John must also take another language. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. los verbos modales DO / DOES. 2. 10. Substitute the correct form of HAVE TO for MUST in the following: 1. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. Lea. 5. 7. 8. 11. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. DIDN´T. al igual que con los verbos principales. They must stay there at least an hour. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students .

7. We have to get up early. I must leave at once. We all have to write a short story. He __________ go to the hospital right away. I had to leave at once.Ex. 3. 4. 3. 8. We __________ make reservations at once. He had to be there at two o’clock. They have to study very hard. We have to study tonight. I have to work today. 2. I ____________ answer this letter at once. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. Then. 3. We __________ telephone her right away. 2. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . 8. 4. They have to come back later. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. Ex. 3. 6. Ex. He has to see a doctor. 5. He __________ stay at home and rest. I have to get up early. 5. We had to meet him at noon. We have to write a composition tonight. 5. 10. John has to stop his English lessons. 4. 7. You have to wait a few minutes. 9. Mr. 12. He __________ spend more time on his English. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. They have to write many letters. change to past and future time: 1. 6. Smith has to go out of town. John has to be here at two o’clock. 10. Change to past and future time: 1. Read the following with MUST. 9. Mary has to come with him. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. Change to negative form: 1. 4. 11. 2. He __________ learn all the new words. She__________ attend class every day.

He had to return yesterday. 7. 12. They had to leave early. They have to rent an apartment soon. He had to buy several new books. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. I have to buy a new pen. 10. 11. WHERE. He will have to wait a few minutes. 10. 2. We have to prepare our homework every day. 8. 9. ask questions with WHEN. 5. 4. WHAT TIME. 8. etc. We have to work on Sunday. She has to rest a while because she´s tired. Then. 5. They will have to come back later. 12. Change to interrogative form. WHY. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Did he have to leave at noon? ___________________________________________________ What time/ When did he have to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students .7. We have to get up at 6. They have to study every day. 3. 1. He had to leave a tip for the waiter. 11. He had to leave at noon. 9.00 every morning. 6. John had to go to the hospital. We will have to learn many new words. He has to take more exercise.

The Head /(e hed/ (La cabeza) beard /bíard/ brains /bréinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /íar/ eye /ái/ eyebrow /áibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fó:red/ hair /héar/ head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. The Trunk /!e tru#k/ (El tronco) back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /blæder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. ti:"/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3. The Limbs /!e limz/ (Las extremidades) ankle /æ#kl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fí#ger/ foot / feet /fu:t. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ (Palabras relacionadas) corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /ió:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 . entrañas pecho (mamas) nalgas pecho. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /la#/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mau"/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piú:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /"rout/ tongue /tá#/ tooth /teeth /tu:". fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fí#ger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ní:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo (mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fí#ger/ middle finger /mídl fí#ger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /rí# fí#ger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /"ai/ thumb /"am / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo (del pie) muñeca 4.BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov !e bódi/ (Las partes del cuerpo) 1.

lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente . por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato. “al tiro” lo antes posible. un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at the moment /at !e móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for !e táim bi:i#/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /iésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /!is mó:rni#/ this afternoon /!is a:fternú:n/ this evening /!is í:vni#/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:ni#/ yesterday afternoon /iésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rni#/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /!e déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /!e déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in !e mó:rni#/ in the afternoon /in !i a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in !i í:vni#/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in !e sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mán"/ every year /évri iíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:ni#/ every other day /évri á!er déi/ every other three days /évri á!er "rí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mán"/ many times a year /méni táimz e iiar/ a long time ago /e ló# táim agóu/ many years ago /méni iiarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri lo# agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /imídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible. ASAP /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ (Expresiones de tiempo) ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente.

A short course in english for adult students 137 .sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an !én/ off and on /óf an on/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando. de vez en cuando. de vez en cuando.

Bl 138 .

He had to see. 1.. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. 3. / May they use. / He´ll have to go. 5. / We´ll have to write. / John´ll have to stop. 6.. Ex. According to the schedule. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center. / Must we go. 2. We had to hurry. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. / We´ll have to study. Should / ought to 7. John has to go out. Must 6. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday.. 4... They didn´t have to leave. Ex. 4. 6. Ex. He´s flying back to Washington DC... Can 12. 4... 1. He worked very hard. What should I do now? 7. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight... Should / ought to 4. He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center.... Mary had to come. Should / ought to 18. 5... / They´ll have to come back. He had to go..Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I.. 8. You can / may smoke here.... Can 9. They may visit us tomorrow 5. 9. / He´ll have to spend 7. 9... He must be tired. I have to get up.. I had to work.. 11.. 2. -I had to get up. Can´t 15. I had to answer. John also has to take.. 2.5. Can / must 16. 5.. Can´t 13.. You had to wait. Attending a reception at the White House 3. May 8. Mary has to study.. 7. 10.. 10. 6... You have to read. I promise you I will never do that again. When are they traveling to the USA? 9. 1. / He´ll have to see.. 3....8..... / We´ll have to go. We don´t have to write. They shouldn´t take. 2... We had to go. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. 6. 3. I don´t have to buy.. May 2. We have to prepare. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. John had to stop.. 1. I have to write. / You´ll have to wait.? / Why must we go? 4.. / I´ll have to get up.. Should / ought to 24... Must / should . We had to study...We have to learn Ex. Mary and John have to fly. 3. She had to attend... That may / can happen again. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week.. 3.. 5. 9.. 2.. 4.. He had to stay. We had to telephone. What will they do with the money they received? 8. A short course in english for adult students 139 . Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. 3....You must come again tomorrow. Our train is leaving in ten minutes.? / What should they do? 3. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. He didn´t have to be.. 12. 2.... Sir? 9.... Can . 8. May 17... 10.8... 7.. Open answers Ex.can´t 14.. 10. 8. 5.. 7. He can´t speak Spanish well.. 7.. / He´ll have to learn.11. They´re going to stay several days with us. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. 1. / They´ll have to write.. 2. 6.. 3... 6. / Mary will have to come.. John had to be..10. He´s flying to Texas.. They had to come back. 1. 9....? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2... 1. He can run very fast.. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning.. at what time are we getting there? PART II... Ex. / We´ll have to make. May I sit here. B. We must not go. Mr Smith doesn´t have to go.. A. / He´ll have to stay. Can 5. 1. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel. We had to make. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial.. 4.. / I´ll have to answer. 6.. He had to spend. They have to stay...... 4.... 2..can / may 10.. 3... Must 22.... Bob can´t speak. He had to learn. 4. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10. 4. Ex. We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening.. I have to work. 7.. Must 11. Must 20.... 11.. Ex. 5. 1.. 14.12.. 2. Should / ought to 21.. We didn´t have to meet. 2. / Should they take. We don´t have to get up. / Can Bob speak. 4. We have to write. Should 19. 5. They had to write.? / Which room may they use? Ex.. They don´t have to study... He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport. / We´ll have to telephone. Can´t Ex.. 9.. / John will have to be.. Mary will come to see us next week.. Must 3. 2. / We´ll have to hurry. Ex.. Can you help me this afternoon? 8. We all had to write.. 12..He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center. 3. / I´ll have to work. 3.. They may not use. 1. / She´ll have to attend.. Must 23.

What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students .. 10. How long will he have to wait? 9. Why does she have to rest a while? 12. 12. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. We won´t have to learn. John didn´t have to go... What did he have to buy? 6. We don´t have to prepare. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7.. When did he have to return? 8.11.We don´t have to work. Ex.. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3.. 2... What do they have to do every day? 4. When will they have to come back? 10. 5.

at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæterdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado).?) EXERCISES: Ex. I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. /!e tchíldren wil bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche. We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. (play) 8. EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. (watch) 10. 4. 5. (visit) 6. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. (work) 2. 4. in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. (do) 7. at this time tomorrow /at !is táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). lea y aprenda: 1. (drive) 4. (travel) 3. The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) 5. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). o when the program starts tonight /wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. (work out) 9. Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. /wi: wil bí: hævi# lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. es decir. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. /!éi wil bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. 2. /línda wil bí: tráveli# in iúrop at !is táim nékst mán"/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. 3. we ________________________ in the USA. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. cuando otra acción ocurra. /!éi wóunt bí: wé:rki# in !e labóratri at !is táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. lea y aprenda: 1. What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . etc. 3. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. 2. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum !is í:vni#/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde).UNIT 11 PART I. Escuche. At this time next month. I ________________________ here. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /!e prézident wil bí: fláii# tu tókiou at !is táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. 1. I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. /!e tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:pi# wen !e próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl !éi bí: tráveli# in iú:rop at !is táim nékst mán"/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil !e prézident bí: dú:i# at !is táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:i#/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud.

___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They ________________________ Brazil next month. _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) 15. 3. we ________________________. At 10:30 last night. The students will be taking a test at 10. ___________________________________________________ 7. (practise) 7. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. Mr. They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. What___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) 11. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) 12. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. Review Practice. HOW LONG. the Past or the Future tenses. What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) 10. What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) 142 A short course in english for adult students . (cook) 8. (come) 5. (come) 13. we ______________________________ television. What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) 8. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. 1. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) 10. (visit) 3. ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. (spend) 3. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1. (have) 2. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) 14. 4. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. ___________________________________________________ 2. 2. Use the Present. (live) 6. (read) 9. ___________________________________________________ 5.2. (work) 4. Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) 16. Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) 9. 4. Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. (see) 6. 3. Mr. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. of course. Ask questions using question words like WHAT. (watch) 4. 5. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. ___________________________________________________ 4. Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. ___________________________________________________ 3. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening.Ex. (play) 2. (have dinner) 7. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. (come) 5. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future (WILL + INF) or the Future Contínuous Tense (WILL BE + ING): 1. Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. WHERE. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. They _________ not ________________________ English very often. Mr. At this time tomorrow. How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) 17. etc. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) 18. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year.

... (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. 6. Take off your hat. MAKING REQUESTS . 21. A: Will you lend me your pen. please? Would you mind waiting outside..ing. Help me open the suitcase. 3..PLEASE?. or WILL YOU.. 2.PLEASE? or WOULD YOU.. 24. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying. 6. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you. PART II A..(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor. Ask somebody to do the following things. instead of the simple imperative form. 23. 5. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. please? (Formal) Would you mind +.please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. 20. using COULD YOU.. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold. 3. Repeat your question.... please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wi! pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche. PLEASE?... lea y aprenda: 1. 1.. 2. (instead of = en vez de) 1. Use the other elevator. Pay attention. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. please? Would you sign your name here. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. Come back this afternoon.. Wait for me in the lobby. will you? Could you speak more slowly. please? B: Sure Ex. PLEASE? 1. 5. 7.. please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please. Speak more slowly.. Sit on this chair. please? (Informal) Imperative. Open the window. using CAN YOU. Speak more slowly. 22.. Be quiet. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex.. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive. 7.. as a rule. 4. Turn the radio down. 2. Sign your name here. A: Could you help me. 4..+ infinitive.19. Ask somebody to do the following things. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 .

7. Escuche. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. Sign your name here. Make requests. 3. It´s too cold. Take off your hat. B. go ahead. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. PLEASE? 1 Speak more slowly. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). 6. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. 4. You: ____________________________________________________________ . • Please do. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (solicitando permiso) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. 3.. Follow the instructions carefully. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. 1.Ex. 144 A short course in english for adult students . lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. You : María. please? Stranger: Sure. You : _________________________________________________________ . Repeat your question. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes. Turn the radio down. John? B: Sure. certainly. You : __________________________________________________________ . Tom? Tom:: Of course. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. 5. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. 6. Ask him/her politely.ING. Ask him. • Please don´t. John? John : Certainly. 2.. go ahead. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. 4. Ask him. Ask him. Use the other elevator. Wait for me in the lobby. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form WOULD YOU MIND. Ask her to do that informally. I didn´t know you were studying. of course. You want Sr. Smith 4. S-M-I-T-H. 3. Ask him. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish.

EXERCISES Ex. Ask his permission. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . I´m working. A short course in english for adult students 145 . Mr. please. Ask permission to do things. Ask your mother´s permission. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. please • No. Follow the instructions carefully. I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex. 7. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. 1. You want to take a look at his newspaper. please. You: ______________________________________________________________________________________ . You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. You´re at a conference. Mr Jackson is working in his office. It´s all yours. You want to turn on the TV. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • • • • Shall I + Infinitive? Do you want me to + Infinitive? Would you like me to + Infinitive? Can/May I + Infinitive. please. I´ve got a bad cold. You want to open the window. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. please. Ask his permission. 3. It´s too cold outside. C. here you are. to spell your last name. Ask his permission. You are at a friend´s house. Bob? Bob: Sure. to turn the light on. mum? Your mother: Yes. 2. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. Jackson: Sure. 1. Ask the speaker´s permission. 3. Ask his permission. You want to go in . to shut the window. You: _________________________________________________________________________________ . Ask your host´s permission. 6. Jack? Jack. You want to ask a question. please do. I read it this morning.Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. You want to use your friend´s lighter. You: _________________________________________________________________________________________. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. thank you.. Mr Jackson. I don´t need it now. but keep the volume down. Sir? Can/May I help you? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. 1. 2.? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. 4.. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. go ahead. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. 5. come in please.

to help me complete the application form. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. I don´t understand French. 1. 2. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. of course. 5. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to. please. To go to the seaside next weekend. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea. Sure.. I´m a bit busy right now.4. Let´s do that. 3. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. I can manage myself. 7.. 4. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. thanks. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. 8. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. please. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. It´s getting late. etc. 146 A short course in english for adult students . I don´t understand English very well yet. certainly / Yes. please. to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. EXERCISES Ex. that´s a good idea. D. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. 10. 9. Sorry I can´t. to tell Mary that I want to see her. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. to repeat your question. I´m a little hungry. to call back later today.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. Why not? Yes. thanks. 6. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. please. To spend the summer holidays with us. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. to speak more slowly.

To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. John went to the party. Peter went to the party. Mary will come to the party tonight. / BUT +S+ MV 1. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. Peter didn´t go to the party either. They´re very nice people.too.5. Peter: And Janet will come too! A short course in english for adult students 147 . but Peter did. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. To stay at home and watch TV . let´s do that. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane. Las palabras ALSO. but Peter liked the party. NOT.. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. lea y aprenda. It´s much cheaper. John didn´t go to the party. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. but Peter didn´t. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. 10. 6. John didn´t like the party. Jane: So do I . I´d love to. How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. Escuche. Jane: I also like it very much. ALSO. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). Peter also went to the party. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress.TOO.. Tom: And so was his brother . Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. 2. Peter went to the party as well.. A. It´s a very interesting exhibition. John went to the party. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones.. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. let´s do that. John went to the party and so did Peter. John didn´t like the party. Why not. 9. Peter: And so will Janet! 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. 7. John went to the party. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. but Peter didn´t go to the party. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. To play tennis tomorrow morning. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. 2) John. It´s a pleasant evening. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO). To go to the arts exhibition. 1) Mary: I really like that dress. John went to the party. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr.

Escuche. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. I eat lunch in the cafeteria. or do you speak another language? 10. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE. We´ve got a big house. Mary: Neither do I. or BUT 1.. He liked the picture. ___________________ John is not going to go there. John walks to school. (he) 5. lea y aprenda. 7.3. So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. (Jane) 1. 9. EITHER. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. What language do you speak. (We) 7. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ 2. (my wife) 8. 3. Las palabras NOT. (I) 4. (the secretary) 3. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. lea y aprenda. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. I don´t understand it ___________________ 6. She comes here every day. Ann: Nor did I! 4. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish. 148 A short course in english for adult students . 5. I watch TV after dinner. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ 4. then? Ex. 1. Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting.. He´s going to go to France. (Carmen) 2. ___________________ my husband can. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ 8. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. 2a. Mary is going to go to Spain. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. Mary: I don´t like it either. Mary can speak Italian well. Escuche. John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. Mary likes pie for dessert. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). Ann: I didn´t see you either. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. EXERCISES Ex. They´ve ___________________ got a big one. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. I can´t drive a car.

(you) 14. I ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. (Carmen) 2.EITHER. (My friends) 10. (I) 13. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . I didn´t eat there yesterday. Now. (my wife’s car) 12. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. (Peter) 6. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (They) 11. I eat lunch in the cafeteria..9. (Jane) 1. They mustn´t pay more. They weren´t very busy. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. John doesn´t go to school . (the secretary) 3. (Carmen) 2. 1. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (I) Bob likes coffee. Mary can´t speak Italian well. We will go by train. (I) 4. My car is very old. first use NOT. (he) 5. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). 3. (the secretary) 3. but Jane doesn´t. They must pay more. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. She doesn´t come here every day. (The children) 9. (I) 13. My car isn´t very old. John didn´t go to the movies. (you) 14. 2b. We won´t go by train.(My wife´s car) 12. Mary can speak Italian well. but Jane does.. Complete these sentences with BUT. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER (o NOR) DOES JANE. John walks to school. They were very busy. Mary should work harder. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. Bob doesn´t like coffee. (they) 11.

John went to the movies with us. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. (the children) 9. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones TO o FOR. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. (they) 11. (he) 5. 1. El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. (Peter) 6.4. She brought the book to me. 150 A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . Mary bought him a pair of shoes. (you) 14. El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. He liked the picture. 5. He sent some candy to his sister. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. “What did Peter send yesterday”. Mary shouldn´t work harder. He gave the money to me. 3. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). (my wife) 8. (my wife’s car) 12. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones TO o FOR. They must pay more. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. (my friends) 10. He told the story to us. 6. A su vez. I watch TV after dinner. He sent a letter to me. My car is very old. “What did Mary buy?. (We) 7. Ex. The teacher gave some dictation to us. I ate there yesterday. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. (I) 13. lea y aprenda. 4. Del mismo modo. Como ud. We will go by train. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. She comes here every day. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. They were very busy. Mary likes pie for dessert. 2.

6. They sent us an invitation to the party. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. Please give us some dictation today. 9. Ex. 8. 10. 11. He gave me some books. 4. 2. They gave us some magazines. He bought some flowers for his wife 8. Please hand me that book. 9. 5. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . They sent an invitation to us. He gave some excellent advice to all of us. John lent some money to his friends. 10. They brought us many presents from abroad. 11. 3. Will you lend your pen to me? 12. I gave him the note which you sent. John gladly lent me the money. Henry told us the story of his trip. He sent his mother several letters. 7. 2. He gave a ring to (=phoned) his girlfriend. They sent us the material right away.7. 12.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél"/ (La salud) arthritis /a:r"ráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hél"/ heart attack /ha:rt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rú:matizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r "róut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tú" eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:pi# kof/ tos convulsiva. 152 A short course in english for adult students .

.. me to get you.. will be playing 8. Were ...KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex. will be travelling 3. please? 4.? 3. will be living 6. 9.come 13.. will .. 4.. 4. D. will ...? 7... will be entertaining 5.. 6.. will visit 3.5... 1. will be doing 7. Can you / Will you come... play.... will be visiting. Mike won´t be washing. me to speak. please? 7. will . will be working 4..3.. / Will Hans be working. Will . 1.. 3.going to go / are ..going 20. did . Ex.please? 5.? 2. don´t we travel. Can you / Will you call me up..Would you mind speaking. sitting..? 3.. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3.. Do .... please? 4. me to help you. 8... 10...phone 14. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2. will have dinner 7.... please? / Would you mind spelling.? Ex.. 5.. Could you / Would you show me. does ...? 2... were . 1. please? 3.do 10.be / are . were watching 4.write 17... will be cooking 8... / Will they be running.. 10.. May I / Do you mind if I use. please? 5..living 16. Can I turn. 1. me to repeat my. please? 6.. Would you mind taking.. Could you / Would you use. 1. will . 2. 1. 1. are . Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6.. like to go.be doing Ex. will ..come 5. 9.. please? Ex.. Can you / Will you give me.... 6.. May I / Do you mind if I go in... Mr Perez? 2. don´t we go..reading 9.? C.stay 9.. Would you mind turning. Could you / Would you repeat.. Can you / Will you turn down..? 4.put on 24..and watching. 7. like to spend. comes 5... will be watching 10. Could you / Would you spell..practice 7.? 6.? 4.. please? 5.. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3. please? 4. 2. 1 They won´t be running. and resting. / Will the students be taking. 1.. will .? 6... were . Could you / Would you take.arrive / are . Could you / Would you speak... Would you mind waiting. turn. did .going to be 19.? 3... please? 6... will be having 2. 1.. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex.doing 8.? 5. 1. call back. smokes 23. Would you mind signing. shut... Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4. please? Ex. 5...staying 22.. please? / Would you mind showing me... Did .. The students won´t be taking..be doing 11. Ex..please? 7.... please? Ex.. Can I take.. please? B.. 4.. tell Mary that you. staying.be doing 10. to spell my. 4... Can I use your. Hans won´t be working... Can you / Will you speak. will .going to stay / are . please? 6. go.. Can you / Will you pay.please? 3 Can you / Will you open .. 3. Could you / Would you turn.. 7. me to translate. saw 6.. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.expecting 15. is playing 2. 3. Can you / Will you sit.. don´t we invite. did .. 1... please? 2.buy 12...? 2.. please? 7....please? 2.? 5.. Would you mind using. please? 2 Could you / Would you wait... did . 8. Ex.. will..stay / are .. please? 3.. Could you / Would you help me. May I / Do you mind if I open. Ex... do . 6..travel PART II A.Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5. will be working 2.. At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7. does . 1..spend . Ex. Could you / Would you sign. Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me...go / are . Would you mind repeating. 1.. will be driving 4. Can you / Will you help.... Can you / Will you be. 1...... don´t we take.. / Will Mike be washing. A short course in english for adult students 153 .. will be working out 9..going to arrive / are .arriving 21..get up 18.... May I / Do you mind if I ask... 1. will . 2.please? 4.

but the children do. We will go..and so does he 5. but we did. but he does.. 3 He sent me a letter 4. and neither / nor should you.. I eat. 13..... but I don´t... Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes. / John didn´t go.. and neither / nor do I 4... 7... I don´t eat. 8. either / I don´t eat. Mary likes.... 13.. 11. and the children also like... and my wife also watches.... 6.. / I don´t watch. I diidn´t eat... but they won´t. 1.. and I was...either / We won´t go..... The teacher gave us some dictation 6. My car is.. They sent an invitation to the party to us. Mary can.either / Mary should work. / We´ll go.. They weren´t. John went. 11. He gave his friend a ring.... / They must pay.7.. and they won´t go. as well / He liked.... 3. and we mustn´t pay. either / They must pay. either 6.12.. 10. He liked. but the secretary does 3... but 7. either / Mary can´t. also 5. John walks. but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat. / Mary likes. and so should you. 12.. They must pay and we must pay..too / Mary should work. and they will also go... She brought me the book. They were. 5... Ex.. Mary can´t.. / John doesn´t walk. and we liked.. Please give some dictation to us today. and I walk.. 14.but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat.. Mary can speak. He sent his sister some candy. but I was.... They mustn´t pay. They sent us an invitation. and my wife doesn´t watch..... but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak. and I wasn´t... I ate.. too.... but I wasn´t... / I ate. He didn´t like.. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t.either / Mary doesn´t like.. John didn´t go.. 10.8. 14..... John doesn´t walk. and you shouldn´t work. I don´t watch.either. and neither / nor do the children 9..... Mary doesn´t like.. They gave some magazines to us... She comes.. but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work. 3. I watch.. / We won´t go. 6. 2.PART III A. and so was I 13...... too / as well 2... and so must we Ex. We´ll go. and Peter didin´t go. He sent several letters to his mother...9... 2... 3... either / They weren´t.. He liked. John walks. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. too / She comes. and neither / nor did my friends.. My wife´s car is.. / John went. Mary should work.. either / He didn´t like. 1. and my friends also ate. and neither / nor was I. too / Mary can. 6. and so does my wife 8. and Carmen can.. 6.5.. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come.... Henry told the story of his trip to us.11. and he doesn´t come.. and so do the children 9.. too / as well 8.... 14. and neither / nor must we Ex........ Ex. She comes... and neither / nor does the secretary. and Carmen can´t... 10. 3. 4. either / John doesn´t walk... 2a...... John lent his friends some money 11....and neither / nor does he 5... but 9......... 2b. but my friends did.either / She doesn´t come. 8. and so did my friends. but they will. My car isn´t.. as well / They were.. 11.. / I watch... 7... and the secretary doesn´t eat... 1. and so does the secretary...and so did Peter. 9.... but Peter did.... She doesn´t come. 1.. and Peter also went. but my wife does.. but Carmen can 2.. / Mary doesn´t like. and so will they.. either Ex.... 4.. / I eat. and my wife´s car isn´t. but 3. I ate. but the children don´t. 1 gave the note which you sent to him.... and so do I 4. but my wife doesn´t. 9. They must pay... They sent the material to us right away. but I do... and so did we 7.. He bought his wife some flowers. Mary shouldn´t work... Mary likes. as well. but we must B. 10... either 4... 1..... I eat.... He gave some books to me.. and you should work... but we didn´t / He didn´t like.either / I didn´t eat. They were. 1.. and neither / nor can Carmen 2. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. and neither / nor did we 7.either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12. John went. Mary should work.. as well / John walks... and so can Carmen 2. I watch... 10... He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex. and the secreatry also eats.... 1. / I don´t watch... He told us the story 5. and my wife´s car is.. Will you lend me your pen? 12.. but you should . and neither / nor will they. but my wife´s car is. and we didn´t like..... and he comes.They brought many presents to us from abroad.and neither / nor did Peter.. John gladly lent the money to me. He gave me the money 2. We won´t go.. also 10. and I don´t walk. Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students . / They weren´t. and my friends didn´t eat.. and neither / nor does my wife 8. 1.. and the children don´t like..

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

/!éiv á:nserd !e léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes.. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. Escuche.studied . He´s. To work . /méri haz ríten aná!er nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car. Curiosamente. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter.worked. To study . Ej. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. She´s /shí:z. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (HAVE /hæv/ o HAS /hæz/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. /aiv/. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. A short course in english for adult students 157 . Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo. habremos Uds. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente.studied. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. /iu:v/. /áiv bí:n !éar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel.. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job. habíamos Uds.. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente.. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos. Como Ud.worked . puede ver.decided . Ellos han contestado la carta. /ái hav sí:n !æt mú:vi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. etc.. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones. To decide .decided. forma) de un verbo principal. y por lo tanto Ud.. como por ejemplo: I´ve. hemos Uds. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra. You´ve. /hí:z/.

. several times /sévral támiz/. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. since 10:30 /sins tén "é:rti/. three or four times /"rí: or fó:r támiz/. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/.? vez.. many times /méni támiz/. hasta este momento. for ten years /for tén yíarz/. /áiv sí:n !at dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times.EL PRESENTE PERFECTO SE USA EN LOS SIGUIENTES CASOS: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá:st mándi/.. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. They visited me in the winter of 1995. /!éiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió. never /nóu/néver/ No. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992... for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún)./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. en las negaciones se debe usar yet.? Lea. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. twice /twáis/. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio. Lea. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. /áim shó:r !at áiv sí:n !t fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. tambien.. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv !éi éver vízitid iú: in !e wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. etc. /!e tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. /wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes.. durante). /hav iú éver. /yés wáns !éi vízitid mi in !e wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before. once. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. Lea. Yes. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora.. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students . Lea. una vez. Lea. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræ#k tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No.

/!éi hævent sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ ´ Have they seen that documentary? /hav !éi sí:n "t dokiuméntari/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav !éi sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Mary has sold her car. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. Generalmente ´ ´ se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævent/ HASN´T /hæznt/). /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . servirse. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz !e tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal.? EXERCISES Ex. mantener saber. Mary hasn´t sold her car. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. /!éi hav sí:n "æt dokiuméntari/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ ´ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /fo:rgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/.Lea. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún. 1. dejar prestar perder. escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /fo:rgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigæn/ ´ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /fo:rgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. /áiv olrédi sí:n "æt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. haber oir guardar. conocer aprender. encontrar olvidar conseguir. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. salir. We haven´t had breakfast yet. enterarse partir. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar.

(go) 8. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. 5. You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. (leave) 4. (be) 3. 1. (speak) 12. comprender usar (ropa). Sir. llevar enseñar decir pensar. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. colocar leer correr. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. (go) 10. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. I ________________ that man before. but I´m sure I know him. (live) 6. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. (see) 5.conocer pagar poner. creer entender. The soccer game has already finished. (receive) 7. Hurry up! (start) 2. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. He________________ to America. The tennis game________________ just ________________. He´s reading it now. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. (meet) Ex.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /"i#k/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. 3. 3. Your train ________________ already ________________. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . They have studied the report. He isn´t in Chile. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. John ________________ for that company since 1987. I don´t remember when. (work) 9. fabricar. The plane has already left. 4. 2. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. John has sent them a fax. confeccionar reunirse. He knows it well. vestir escribir Ex. Peter has had dinner already. 6. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. 2.

es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. /b/. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. 5. como /m/. 6. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. etc. ______________________________________________ No. como /k/. etc. 4. 1. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. WHEN. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. etc. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. 2. ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. ___________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________ 8. ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. /p/. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como WHAT. El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. 1. /t/. 5. ___________________________________________________ 3. 4.Ex. 7. 4. 8. John? ___________________________________________________ 5. HOW LONG. ___________________________________________________ 4. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda.____________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. 12. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). ___________________________________________________ 6. Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. _________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. todavía? ___________________________________________________ 9. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. 6. Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes.. ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. /g/. 9. 11. 3. pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. /l/. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. /d/. 6. Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. 10. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes. ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ 7. 2. _______________________________________________ Yes. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ 10. 5. WHERE. HOW. 7. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house.

-oof. solo. soprano. no siguen la regla anterior. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. etc). Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como. banjo. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. -ff. -ge. -sh. -ch. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . -x. piano. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. -ce.

: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . volcanos/volcanoes / volkéinouz/ . zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /"í:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /!í:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipó"esis/ parenthesis /parén"esis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipó"esi:z/ parentheses /parén"esi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memor!da/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:"/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:"/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7. tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. tornado / to:rnéidou /.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/.

gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). no aceptar como cierto To dislike /disláik/ disgustar o desagradar To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. speaking. abandonar To risk /risk/ arriesgar. writing.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópi#/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. aceptar como cierto To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. They went sightseeing in the morning. to write. I enjoy playing tennis. 164 A short course in english for adult students . USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. etc. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. to speak. Además. continuar. parar. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). Ann will soon finish typing the letter.B. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóuti#/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuli#/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpi#/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsi#/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhi#/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hæ# gláidi#/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háiki#/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógi#/ ir a trotar To go running /góu ráni#/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séili#/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópi#/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:i#/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéiti#/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:i#/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáivi#/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swími#/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu tréki#/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:i#/ ir a esquiar (acuat. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). they went to the library. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun. detenerse To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. seguramente recordará. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. salir. etc. 1. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To practise /práktis/ practicar To quit /kuit/ dejar. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO. como ud. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. correr el riesgo de To stop /stop/ dejar de. After playing tennis. I heard some surprising news.

I can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. mantenerse esperar con ansia. mantenerse soñar con. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de. 1.. Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. A short course in english for adult students 165 . dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. (leave) 7.Todas las preposiciones van seguidas de un GERUNDIO...we:r"/ ¿Vale la pena. 2. (pay) 4. We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course. seguir. rendirse continuar. the old woman locked all the doors.?) There´s no use waiting any longer.. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /!eaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena. 1. ______________________________ to bed. Ann is fond of gardening. (take) 6. (work) 5. planificar Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:r"wail/ ¿Vale la pena. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get "ru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ To think about /"i#k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex.. Bob will soon get used to living in this country. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ Es inutil There´s not much point in /!eaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this. They kept on talking for hours. (go) Ex.. He left the house ______________________________ good bye. seguir insistir en continuar. They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other.. We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. 3.. (say) 2. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? 2. I look forward to seeing you soon. Por lo tanto. discutir pensar en. seguir.esta/e. (eat) 3. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v... Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? 4. It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. worth /iz !is. He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it.

Bob: We could go the cinema. You can´t stop me doing what I want. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? 6. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. 1. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer apply be be listen make see try use wash work write 1. He tried to avoid _____answering ____my question. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Bob: No. instead of today? Shall we postpone _________________________________ until _______________________________________? 166 A short course in english for adult students . I didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! 10. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. I enjoy _______________________ to music. 9. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? 3. 4. I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. 7. it’s true. 5. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 9. 8. 2. 4. 1. Ex. 10. 3. If you walk ínto the road without looking. I aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. 7. Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. Use -ING. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? 12. 2. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. 2.5. 6. He wants to carry on _______________________. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. I don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. Ann: You broke into the shop. 8. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. Ann: Do you want to play tennis? Bob: No. Shall we go away tomorrow. I really must do it today. Sorry! Bob admitted __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. I dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. 5. It´s not a good idea to travel during the rush hour. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. not really. Ex. no problem. 11.

We look forward _______________________ you soon. (hit) 6. John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. She won’t go to the university. They will not drive in their new car. I will play tennis. She’s a very interesting person. (do) 8. ________________________________________________________________________ 5. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable. He will marry Helen. 4. (finish) Ex. ________________________________________________________________________ 4. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. There is little chance _______________________ her again. 1. (see) 5. The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. I aIways enjoy talking to her. 3. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. ________________________________________________________________________ 6. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. (wait) 11. 8. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. (see) 7. Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. ________________________________________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________________________________ 8. (take) 12. John will study to be an engineer. He will not remain a bachelor. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. Use gerunds.4. They won’t go abroad. l’m not feeling very well. John got tired _______________________ for us. 5. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. She will study music. Could you turn the radio down. (go) 3. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. ________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . They will fly to Mexico. 2. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. We are thinking _______________________ French. ________________________________________________________________________ 7. 6. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 5. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. 6. Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) 4. We will not visit the Smiths. We’re going to the movie tonight. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. (study) 9. 7. He will live in a dormitory. He will not work in his father’s store. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. (drive) 10. They will stay home this summer. Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) 2. 2.

if necessary. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. yesterday. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. Well. It´s driving me crazy. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. They’re considering _______________________ 3. 10. 6. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ . I´d be glad to. 8. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. B: Oh. then. Ex. Add a preposition after the gerund. she dusted the furniture. could you help me in the kitchen? B: Sure. try. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ . Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. 14. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. 4. I’m listening to you. 1. 10. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. 8. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. and I still don’t understand it. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. 11. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. 2. B: Let´s go. The Porters´ house is too small. 12. 9. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months. it has. 168 A short course in english for adult students .m. It was cold and rainy yesterday. I´m not tired yet.. Sometimes students put off_______________________ their homework. 2. I enjoy _______________________ sports.Ex. B: Well. A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes. lt’s slowly falling apart. Keep _______________________. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. 6. We had a blizzard. news! I feel great. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________. don’t give up. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. 13. A: Good. try again. 7. Beth doesn’t like her job. I don’t cough any more. 5. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. 9.

Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. Use the expressions GO +. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. My sister goes to the beach almost every day.ING 1.9. She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. 14. He usually takes long walks in the woods.. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. I said. When there’s a strong wind. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. 11. Mr. Mr. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . The ice is smooth. Jim Clark is a nature lover. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. “ Ex. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. What do they like to do? They like ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . It´s winter now. A: I didn’t understand what you said. George and Jane know all the latest dances. so the lake is completely frozen. Answer the questions. She runs a couple of miles every day. “Three free trees. Jim and his wife live near the sea. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. She spends hours in the water. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. On weekends in the winter.

a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para.BASIC VOCABULARY: A. por desde. at 4.r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:"/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúri#/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in ! kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /"ru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wi!/ within /wi!in/ without /wi!áut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students. en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. hacia hacia. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES (Preposiciones y frases preposicionales) English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / ló#/ among / má#/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t ! bæk v/ ´ at the bottom of / t ! bótom v/ at the top of / t ! tóp #v/ before /bifó. for 3 days from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money .

por otra parte sin embargo.. He´s my best friend. he seems to know a lot about our customs.. my roommate is not doing so well. First... The yard is too big.... He didn´t study hard enough. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. o. en realidad además a pesar de ello en primer lugar mientras tanto del mismo modo por un lado por otro lado para comenzar para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar.. 6.but also /nót óunli. en consecuencia posteriormente. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ in addition /in adíshon/ in spite of that /in spáit v !æt/ in the first place /in ! fé:rst pléis/ in the meantime /in ! mí:ntaim/ in the same way /in ! seim wéi/ on the one hand / n ! wan hænd/ ´ on the other hand / n !i á! r hænd/ ´ to begin with /tu bigín wi!/ to start with /tu stá:rt wi!/ de hecho. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital. no obstante nonetheless /nan!eles/ igualmente otherwise /á!erwaiz/ finalmente.nor /ní:!er... acto seguido sin embargo. no obstante therefore /!éarfo:r/ en efecto. 4..bat ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto.. 3. con posterioridad por lo tanto. no sólo. 2..como. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdi#li/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ól!ou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /fé:r!ermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando. por consiguiente así. Mary was sick.. she came to class. we´ve known each other all our lives.. furthermore.and/ either. de lo contrario similarmente. por cierto thus /!as/ inicialmente. nonetheless. he went to the bank. so he failed the exam..ni. yet she didn´t pass her exam.. entonces.. del mismo modo por lo tanto.. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. but he didn´t do well in the test.. CONNECTORS (Conectores) Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque.or /í:!er. moreover.. de este modo en cambio.. 5.. así mismo mientras tanto además. /bóu".and. Alice studied very hard. 9. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néver!elés/ en consecuencia. in addition. nevertheless. besides. enseguida. sin embargo. 11. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad. 12. then. 8. he took her to Europe. por lo tanto then /!en/ sin embargo.. 7.. I´m getting along quite well. however..no:r/ not only.sino que también. no obstante después. debido a que no both. it has an excellent location 14... On the one hand. ni.. The student speaks English well. ya sea. we have to wash the car. on the other hand.. 10. no obstante ello de otro modo.o:r/ neither.. He gave her a beautiful diamond. pues por lo tanto. next /nékst/ a pesar de. 13. he went to the post office. we can´t afford the house.B. aunque. It´s cold outside. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan "i#/ for that reason /for !æt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1.. the house is not very comfortable... He studied hard as well.

Bl 172 .

visiting 12. Breaking / having broken 6..instead of working in his father´s store 6.. They´ve studied English for more than two years. No. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3. No. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 . 4. has . 1. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. by working 5. has worked 9.. They´ve been here several times before. 6. moving into a larger house 3.. of waiting 11. What have you eaten? 8. have . / Have they given her. How long have you worked in the army? 10. 1. John? 5.. laughing 6.? Ex. from hitting 6. answering 11. being 7.. What has Mary told you about that? 7.. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. 8. he´s lived abroad several times 6. 5. doing 6.. What have they bought? 3.Yes. she´s been there twice 3. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. reading 4. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. has . going out this evening 3. Yes..1 1. not having a license 5. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5. playing tennis 3. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. 1. before leaving 7. 4. (Possible answers) 2. How many books have they sold today? 6. instead of going abroad 4. having 10. on going 3. they´ve never seen one 4. of doing 8. 3. listening 4. Ex. turning the radio down. Why has he gone to bed? 4. speaking 13. about studying 9. working 8. she´s come here a couple of times. before eating 3. waiting a few minutes. working 14. going for a swim 5.. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2.. before going Ex.left 4. without / after saying 2. 6.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. going to 4. to seeing 5. of seeing 7. 1. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. of driving 10. trying Ex.instead of going to the university 3. I´ve never been there 2.. 2. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6.. hitting 9. going away. 3. visiting Ex. 5. Ex. has . (Possible answers) 2. No. being 12. 2. has .instead of driving in their new car Ex. I haven´t read that book yet 2. 6. What have the boys done today? 11. has spoken 12. The general has already gone to the meeting. of taking 12. Yes. has been 3. using 9. washing 6... applying 5. waiting 2. instead of remaining a bachelor 8..read 11. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. breaking down Ex. 9. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4.. seeing 10. of swimming 2... vacuuming 5. 1. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2. I´ve driven one once or twice 5. Ex. eating 6. please? 6. have met Ex. 1. Ex. 2. Yes. I´ve never seen him in person 7. of finishing Ex. 7. Where has John been? 9. have lived 6. 3. 2. has gone 8.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7. going out for a walk 5. standing up 4. taking 9. in speaking 4. being 8. 1. looking for 10.. making 3. riding 7. taking 5. 8. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. have seen 5. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening.. speaking 3.. 4. without / after paying 4..started 2. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. practising 11.. buying 8. travelling during the rush hour 3.. instead of visiting the Smiths 5.received 7. about taking 6.. snowing 7.been 10. They haven´t given her. 2. tomorrow 4.

reading a good book 4. etc. repeating that Ex.Ex. doing things / doing his homework 7. 11. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. like to go sailing 12. likes trekking 8. 174 A short course in english for adult students . like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. helping him 8. to go water-skiing 3. like to go sky-diving 14. 2. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. go sight-seeing 13. to go shopping 5. went camping 4. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. goes bowling 9. are going to go ice-skating 11. smoking 5. 2. goes jogging 6. go dancing 10. 10. like to go skiing 7. trying 6.

Miami desde 1985. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8.? EXERCISES Ex. That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours.UNIT 13 PART 1. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. Lea. /wí:v bí:n stádii# i#glish for óuver tú: mán"s/ It´s been raining for about an hour. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rki# !éar for mó:ar !an tú: áuarz/ ´ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav !ei bí:n lívi# !éar véri ló#/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu lo# hav iú: bi:n præktisi# í#glish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado ´ practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:i#/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. /!éiv lívd in !e sáu" éver sins !éi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el ´ sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months. /hi:z bí:n wérki# !éar for abáut tú: áuarz/. Lea. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y ´ ´ en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rki# !éar sins éit "é:rti/. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. /!éi hav bí:n lívi# in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. /!éiv bi:n lívi# in !e sáu" for at lí:st tú mán"s/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. /hi:z wé:rkt !éar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. 1. (sit) 4. (work) 3. hasta esta fecha. /its bí:n réini# for abáut an áuar/.30. 2. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox.

etc. Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. a) ______________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________ 5.5. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. Jane´s been feeling well since March. (discuss) Ex. How long. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. 1. (run) 7. 3. Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. Change the following sentences into a) negative. and b) interrogative. _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Ask questions using question words like What. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. a) ______________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ b)____________________________________________________ Ex. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 _____________________________________________________________________ 6. a) ______________________________________ 2. Bob´s been swimming all morning. 2. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. Where. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. (read) 8. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) 6. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. a) ______________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 176 A short course in english for adult students . 1. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. (write) 9. _____________________________________________________________________ 4. (work out) 10. When. a) ______________________________________ 5.

II (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) A. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice.PART II. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. They seem to be doing well now. verse. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. I promise to help you. simular. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. 2. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. TO WISH /wish/ desear. He pretended to be reading the paper. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To allow /aláu/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disé:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Permitir. /si:m/ parecer. etc. negarse a Amenazar. She promised not to be late. tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. The students tend to be negligent. TO PLAN /plæn/ To hope /houp/ To learn /lé:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /"réten/ To want /wont/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. verse. simular. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. no lograr Olvidar Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. Peter wants to study engineering. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . autorizar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. pensar. que son las siguientes: 1. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a. simular Prometer Rehusar. so I agreed to lend him some money. TO DECIDE planear. The woman pretends to know everything.

4. We expect you to be there soon. I begged to see the photos. solicitar To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar. saber. señora) Please let me go out. pedir. Do you understand what to do? 5. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. TO TELL /tel/ decir. 6. me. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. the student. madam. (Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola) Let me carry your bag for you. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. I´d hate to do that here. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. I begged them to see the photos. Bob taught us how to use the computer. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar. etc. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. “You make me TO feel happy”. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far.3. Verb + Wh.Mary. I´d love to go to the club. mostrar. They don´t mean to do it now. déjeme salir) 178 A short course in english for adult students B I want you to go there He asked us to take part. I´d prefer to do it now. TO ASK /a:sk/ preguntar o consultar. (Permítame llevarle su bolso. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. I want to go there. (El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado) Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. I would prefer /wud prife´:r/ preferiría I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. He asked them where to go. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. him. when. preguntar. He asked to take part.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. implorar. I don´t mean you to do it now. suplicar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. I´d hate the boys to do it here. (No se debe decir. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir.. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. them. TO KNOW /nóu/. . (Tú me haces sentir feliz) The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. We expect to be there soon.. (El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta) Hot weather makes me feel tired. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. B. (Por favor. where. I would like to go.

Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. Jack : Please help me. When I’m tired. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. (acción completa) D. Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. (go) 6. 1. (bark) 7. 3.C. Ex. 5. It’s driving me mad. I can manage myself. 2. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. (watch) 2. It’s a nice day. Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) 4. We’ve got a new computer in our office. I’m not in a hurry. 179 . VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . Put the verb into the correct form TO-INFINITIVE or -ING 1. She promised not_____________________________ late. They don’t have much money. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. Complete the sentences for each situation. (go) 3. 1. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often. (parte de la acción) We´ ve heard them sing ten songs. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. 2. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. van seguidos de un GERUND cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. thanks. (call) A short course in english for adult students La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle Los hemos oído cantando una canción Los hemos oído cantar 10 canciones. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. 1. It’s relaxing. Hans: OK. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________ to the airport in time. I wonder where Sue is. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. (acción completa) We´ ve heard them singing a song. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. I enjoy _____________________________ television. please? EXERCISES Ex. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) 5. 4. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. Mary: OK. 3. It was a nice day. 6. We were all too afraid to speak. fine.

2. My father said I could use his car. 2. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Jane. CompIete the sentences for each situation. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. 5. I was really astonished. Sylvia warned Hans: OK. (seem) My English is getting better.(seem) Tom is worried about something.8. (find) Ex. (have) 9. Sue: Lock the door. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can I go now or do _______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. 5. 1. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. 3. 6. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. 7. He has lost weight. (appear) You know a lot of people. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. TO SHOW. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. I was surprised that it rained.. We were hungry. TO WAIT 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. 2. Ex. 3. TO LEND. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. 3. Sue told Hans to lock the door. Sylvia: Be careful. of course. Tom asked _____________________________________________________________________ Ex. Complete the questions. 4. 2. 8. 4. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. 6. I didn’t know _____________________________.. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? _____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No _____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. 6. 1. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. 4. 4.. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. 7.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO.(tend) They have solved the problem. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. TO SHUT. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students . 5. TO REPEAT. I will. (miss) 10. 6. (seem) That car has broken down. (appear) David forgets things. Tom & Betty: John: Yes.. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. Yes.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME.

a diferencia de los anteriores. Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) 7. Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. A short course in english for adult students 181 . TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. (I said that. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. TO LOVE /lav/ encantarle a uno. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. It made me _____________________________ (cry) 9.3. He looks older when he wears glasses. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. (go) 3. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. (read) 5. TO STOP / detenerse. 1. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. stop/ parar. (smoke) 2. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. (I remembered I had to do that.continuar. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar.. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) 4. Put the verb in the right form : -ING or INFINITIVE (with or without TO). The minister went on talking for two hours. My lawyer said I shouldn’t say anything to the police. I regret saying what I said. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. The food is awful (eat) 8. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior. sin cambiar de significado. 9. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. I’m in a difficult position. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar. After discussing the economy. I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. My lawyer advised. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. I love to go to baseball games. I think you should know the truth. you are able to travel round more easily. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight.. I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) 6. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso. I was told that I shouldn’t believe everything he says. I remember doing that. I remembered to do that. recordarse. arrepentirse. She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. We continued to work until 10:30. If you’ve got a car. estos cambian el significado de la oración. The film was very sad. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. VERBS +. Después de hablar acerca de la economía.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. (study) E.

(meet) 8. I want _____________________________this afternoon. One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. (get). I need to study tonight (study) 2. (be) 14. (meet) I hope _________________________ you again soon. (say) 23. The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. 3. (drive) 3._____________________________you any money. (watch) 11. (see) 15. I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. She didn’t answer the phone. 3. Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 13. (answer) 10. Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) 6. I’ll phone her tomorrow. I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. (go) (shop) 24. I haven’t got enough money. (get) 5. Helen started talking/to talk about her problem. They denied _____________________________the money. (help) 10.EXERCISES Ex. The company will continue _____________________________ (hire) new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. 2. (eat) 6. I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. (write) 20. Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) 12. I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. (want) (go) (sail) Ex. Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) 7. Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. (pay) 12. 1. My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. 1. (steal) 2. Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) 7. (jog) 21. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. I like _____________________________ new people. Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. I’m too tired. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) 9.’ (shut) 14. Sometimes either form is possible. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) 13. I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) 8. (break) 11. I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. (cry) 16. I won’t be late. I clean (= completely) forgot. The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. (lock) 18. (go) 5. 2. (come) 22. (live) 19. Some children hate _____________________________ to school. (go) 4. Ex. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. We finished _____________________________ around seven. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. I promise _____________________________ on time. I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) 3. That’s not what I meant! I meant _____________________________ just the opposite. I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. (go) 17. What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) 16. “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. B: Did l? Are you sure? I don’t remember . Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses. (talk) 4. (camp) 9. I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. 1. The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. 1. 182 A short course in english for adult students . (move) 15.

Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. I´ve already done my homework. As a matter of fact I do it every day. I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. Ex. Where did they agree_____________________________. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. 14. It is too expensive. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. When I came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. TO-INFINITIVE. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. BARE INFINITIVE. (lock) 20. 7. or did you forget? (phone) 4. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) 5. Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. Someone must have taken my bag.4. (move) 19. remember _____________________________ her my regards. I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. mum. (go) 6. This jacket is dirty. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. (live) 9. (talk) 15. 4. 12. I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. (wash) 2. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately. 10. I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. She looked up and said hello to me.George? (do) 11. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning. I don’t regret _____________________________ it. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. (watch) 17. GERUND. won’t you? 5. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. (move) 18. 1. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. (go) 7. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. I believe that what I said was fair. It needs _____________________________. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. (rain) 8. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) 13. When you see Mandy tomorrow. 3. Smith. I want a different job. I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. 9. I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. 8. (wash). I saw him _____________________________ his car. This is very urgent. (do) 10. I haven´t phoned her at her home lately.(buy) 16. 6. 11. (watch) 12. The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour.

Mary is at home now. ________________________________________? 4. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. Mr. He has many friends here. It is beginning to rain. Both men look very much alike. You were absent from class yesterday. _________________________? 3. _________________________________________? 6. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. Helen and her sister are both studying English. I´m your best friend. She studies with you. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. He comes here every day. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. ________________________________? Ex. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. ___________________________________ ? 3. They will be here early. ____________________________________ ? 2. has he? Como Ud. There´s some more milk in the fridge. I´m doing the exercise well. He left at two o’clock. ___________________________________? 7. He has to work tomorrow. John is a good student. _________________________? 9. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. Add the proper tag ending. ______________________________________? 2. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. You are busy today. ________________________________? 13. They were both absent from the lesson. The boy can´t speak French. You know him well. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. is she? You don´t know him well. Smith has seen that movie. ____________________________________? 6. _____________________________________? 11. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. The wind is blowing very hard. 2. ________________________________________? 9. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: isn’t he? 1. _________________________________? 4. _________________________________________? 14. ________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students .PART III TAG ENDINGS. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. __________________? 5. ____________________________________? 7. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. _________________________________________? 10. He will be back later. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t he? 1. did he? The boys can´t speak French. You don´t know him well. isn´t she? You know him well. ____________________________________________? 8. ha advertido. Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?. 1. You live uptown. _____________________________________? 8. The boy can speak French. George is a very tall boy. ________________________________________? 5. Henry left at two o’clock. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. ___________________________? 12. She can speak French well. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación.

. ___________________________? 5. 4. __________________________________________? 5. ______________________________? 11. Smith is out of town. _____________________________ 10. He gave him the stamps. William was born in Cardiff. _______________________________________________? 3.. ___________________________________ 12. William has been working very hard today. ___________________________________________? 6. He didn’t mail any packages. _____________________________ 9. ____________________________________? 4. _________________________________ doesn’t he? 2. They are leaving early in the morning. _________________________________________? 4. José used to work in this office.10. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. He doesn’t always buy stamps. _____________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 185 . _____________________________________ 14. The sun sets at about six o’clock. _______________________? Ex. Mary goes shopping every day. _________________________? 10. ________________________________________? 12. They didn’t come with her. _______________________________? 8. ___________________________________ 5. Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. _________________________? 3. They don’t live uptown.”. The shopping district extends for many blocks. _______________________________________? 9. She can’t speak French. __________________________________? 9. _____________________________________? 2. ______________________________ 6. Sue was at home when you called last night. ______________________ 4. They didn’t arrive on time. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. Add the proper tag ending: 1. Add the proper tag ending: does he? 1. __________________________________________? 11. She isn’t busy now. __________________________________ 13. He didn’t visit us last night. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. There are only a few people ahead of him. ________________________________________? 6. _________________________________? 11. They didn’t have to work yesterday. Mr. _______________________________? 12. _________________________________________? Ex. There are many people ahead of him. He put a stamp on the envelope. The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. The sun is setting now. He never goes there in the morning. ________________________________________? 7. _________________________________________? 12. John often walks to the post office. He doesn’t come here every day. ______________________________? Ex. ____________________________________________? 10. __________________? 8. They don’t know each other. But he dropped the letter into the box. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. John didn’t receive any change. They went into the church. He hasn’t got any money. William will be here soon. 5. 3. ______________________________ 8. __________________________ 7. ___________________________________? 2. There are many students absent today. _______________________________ 3. __________________________________________? 7. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. Add the proper tag ending: doesn’t she? 1. _________________________________________ 11.

You think my friends come from Wisconsin. You think John`s been to England twice. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. Ask questions. but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6.Ex. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think they have to work a little faster. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again. 6. You think the boy has had dinner already. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You think John put on his new sweater. You think I was at the meeting too. You say: The children can`t swim well. but you`re not sure. You think there was too much noise in the room. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday. can they? 1. using tag endings. You think. You think you´re a good student. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. but you`re not sure. You think the boys worked harder than the girls. but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. but you are not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 186 A short course in english for adult students . but you`re not sure. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish.

excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /tréki#/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /trá#ks/ pantalones de atlet.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION (Deportes y recreación) amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ængli#/ ´ athletics /a"létiks/ baths /ba:"s/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuli#/ boxing /bóksi#/ car-racing /ka:r réisi#/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimi#/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikli#/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáivi#/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsi#/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhi#/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidi#/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidi#/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisi#/ hunting /hánti#/ hurdling /hé:rdli#/ ice-skating /áis skéiti#/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógi#/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpi#/ parque de diversiones. etc rink /ri#k/ cancha de patines rowing /róui#/ remo running /ráni#/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:i# túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéiti#/ patinaje skiing /skí:i#/ esquí skiing resort /skí:i# rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfi#/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suími#/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /!íater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje. pesca de río atletismo baños. termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíi#/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit lífti#/ pesas A short course in english for adult students 187 .valla paddling /pædli#/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /pénta"lon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo.box) movie theater /múvi "íater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo. partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo jabalina trote viaje salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol.

Bl 188 .

Bob hasn`t been swimming.. to tell 8. to get married 2. has been sitting 4.. Ex. 2. David tends to forget things. Jane to give him a hand. / Have they been discussing. 3.. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2.. going / to go 17. 6. raining 6.? 4. you to travel round more easily. has been writing 9. to go 6. (how) to use 5. to post. to go 3. meeting / to meet 8. 2. to do 4. 8. 7. asking 9. Ex. whether to go Ex. have been working out 10. Ex. Ex. 3. writing 20.. me to use his car. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. / Has Bob been swimming.. / Has Jane been feeling. have been working 3. how to get 2. working 10. missing 10. 3. barking 7.. 7. to arrive 16. 6. 2. 7. having 9. you to know the truth. 1. to go 6. He seems to have lost weight 2. 4.? `t Ex. to feed 13. Jane hasn`t been feeling. to go 5. to lock 18. 1 has been living 2. 4. read 5. not to say anything to the police. to give 5. reading 11. 4. Ex. have been standing 5. 1. living 19. eating 6. to pay 12. cry 9.? 3. driving 3. to tell the man her name Ex. Bob use her phone 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. shut it 4. 3. How long have they been waiting for a taxi? PART II. to help 10. 1... watching 2. have been discussing Ex. moving 15. how to use 3.. to talk / to meet A short course in english for adult students 189 . 1. to help Jack 3. you want me to wait Ex. 5. to become 9. go with you? 2. to buy 7. it to rain / it would rain.? 5. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. 3. They haven`t been playing. to take 7. 1. what to do 4.That car appears to have broken down 6. 1. 2. having left / leaving 6. Ex. cleaning 12. 4. 9. You seem to know a lot of people. 2. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to want to go sailing Ex. saying / having said 7. They claim to have solved the problem. B. to call 8. jogging 21.. / Have they been playing. My English seems to be getting better. 9.. He hasn`t been living. what to say 6. cracking 12. have been waiting 6.. Where have they been staying? 4. to be 14. have been running 7. asking 8. to smoke 2. 10. 1. / Has he been living.to say 23. breaking / having broken 11. 1.to see 15. to go 7. 8. to shut 14. to say Ex. Why have they been saving money? 5. Hans to be careful 5. to buy 4.? 2. to get 5. me to apply for the job. 2. to eat 8. to phone. lend you some 3. 5. 4. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. to believe everything he says. has been reading 8. to cry / crying 16.. you want me to repeat what I said 6. waiting 5. to go 3. camping 9. A. to go 4.. to get 3. to go shopping 24. meeting. 1. me to phone my sister. Tom appears to be worried about something. him look older.. 1. ... to get Ex. 1.. going 4.Key to answers UNIT 13 PART I. to be 6. to study. watching / to watch 11. eating 13. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. how to ride 5. stealing / having stolen 2. to answer 10.. (Possible answers) 1. to find Ex. 1. They haven`t been discussing.coming 22. him do what he wants. lending / having lent you 3. 5... you like to show you how to use it 5. to hire / hiring .. 2.

.. They didn`t have to work.. wasn`t there? 9. The boys worked harder than the girls. John put on his new sweater..... wash 2.... He didn`t mail... The wind`s blowing. do / to do 11......... 2. George`s a very. doesn`t it? 9... 4... aren`t there? 6.. They`re leaving. He put.. He first goes to. won`t he? 10. He doesn`t always have to wait. didn`t he? 13. Jane shouldn`t do that again. The boy has had dinner already. He gave. I`m doing.... He didn`t visit. had it? 190 A short course in english for adult students . wasn`t he? 6.. 2. didn`t they? 11.. talking 15..... hasn`t he? 8. aren`t there? 7.. is she? 3.. isn`t it? 4... hasn`t he? Ex. You wouldn´t like to go there again..... He doesn`t always buy... did he? 14.. aren`t there? Ex. isn´t there? 12.. didn`t he? 11. Helen and her sister are both. They have to work a little faster. hasn`t he? 5. You live.. doesn`t it. to rain / raining 8... They didn`t arrive. don`t they? 13.. William will be.. He didn`t have to wait.... aren`t I? 7.. 1. The sun`s setting. There are many people.... isn`t he? 11. He has many. isn`t he? 8.... has he? 12. William was born in.. does he? 8.. didn`t they? 12. There are only a few.. to phone 4. did he? 4. I`m your..to go 7. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle.. weren`t they? 3... You were absent. He hasn`t got.. will he? 10... to watch 17. did they? 4. There`s some.. didn´t he? 4..... Mr Smith`s out of. to living 9. Sue was at home. 1........ 1. She won`t be. won`t he? 7.. doing 10... didn`t he? 13.. did they? 11. wasn`t it? 8.. did they? Ex. The traffic on this street was very.. to move 19..Ex... (in order) to rest 14.... watch 12. don`t you? 8. It`s beginning.. They`ll be.. He won`t have to wait. They don`t live.. Ex... doesn`t she? 9.. They were both absent. The shopping district extends....... You`re busy. Mr Smith``s seen.. He has to work. aren`t I? 14.. José used to work. 2.. hasn`t he? 2.. phoning 5... aren´t I? 10. to working C. don`t they? 6... wasn`t she? 3. Bob`s going to buy.. locking 20...... 2.. 4. 5.... doesn`t he? 4. There are many. You were at the meeting too.. He left. Henry left. to meet 13.. He never goes. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station. But he dropped. to buy 16. William`s been working... do they? 6. moving 18... would you? 12. don´t they? 3.. 6. aren`t they? 12. Ex. isn`t it? 10.... didn`t he? Ex. did he? 12. washing 3..... He`ll be back. The sun sets. She can`t speak.. Both men look.... 3. 2.... doesn`t he? 6... She can speak. She isn`t busy. I´m a good student. do we? 10... They don`t know. weren`t you? 9.. John didn`t receive. They went. didn`t he? 11. is there? 5. won`t they? 4. She studies.. We don`t have to come.... doesn`t he? 7... They didn`t come. can she? 5... John`s been to England twice. There was too much noise in the room. can`t she? 3. Your friends come from Wisconsin. did he? 7. does he? 5. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday... does he? 3. do they? 9...... aren`t you? 6.. 2. aren`t they? 5. isn`t it? 10.. did he? 9... didn`t he? 5. isn`t he? 11. to going 6...... will she? 8. should she? 7.. weren`t you? 14.

When Paul arrived at the theatre. pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple.. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). The old man died at 11:25. etc. Lea. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning. las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo. /bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd !e óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó. /!éi we:r hævi# lántch wen iú: kó. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. By the time the ambulance arrived. De dos acciones pasadas. how. la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). the old man had already died. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. /háns had nót léft iét wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater.UNIT 14 PART 1. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). By the time the ambulance arrived.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. /háns had olrédi léft wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. /!e shóu hædént stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. Escuche.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. /!éi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó. el viejo ya había fallecido. /!i óuld mæn hædént dáid iét bai !e táim !e æmbiulans arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund !is mó:rni#/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had !e shóu stá:rtid iét wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had !éi lívd bifó:r !éi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud. You phoned at 8:25. where. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning.?) A short course in english for adult students 191 . En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what. /!e shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at !e "íater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro.

Yesterday at a restaurant.(start) 3. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. I (see. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. 2. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. (go) 2. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. 1. I (recognize. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. All of the other passengers (board. (put out) 10. Ex. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. Tom had already left the office. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room.(finish) 4. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. (be) 6. Gloria almost missed her plane. When the police arrived.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night. 4. 4. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. not) ______________________ ______________________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived. 1. They´d already spent all the money. Jane had seen that movie twice. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ______________________ the art gallery. 9. 3. 2. 5. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. 10. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . Millions of years ago. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine.EXERCISES Ex. By the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. 7. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. the rain __________________________ already (stop) 6. At first. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. (leave) 9. The children had already had supper. 1. The show (begin. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. Paul had already sent her a fax. (steal) 7. 1. 3. (disappear) 5. She said she ______________________ there several times before. (go) Ex. and b) the interrogative. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. not)_______________________________ him in years. As soon as he opened the door. (take) 8. an old friend of mine. but they (become. 3. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. The teacher (give. 6. The students (see. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. 2. By the time the firemen arrived.already) ______________________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8.

¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? 4. 5. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. Ella no había leído ese libro aún. 6. How long. When. 7. Ask questions using question words like What. Black had studied at Harvard University. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. 10. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.UU. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. Ex. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. How. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 7. They´d spent over US $ 3. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . etc. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? 5. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Paul had sold his house the previous year. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 10. John had visited them that evening. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.Ex. 4. The girl had studied French at school. 9. 1. Where. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? 8. Bill had made the same mistake three times. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a EE. 2. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 3. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Dr.

I got up a little earlier than usual today.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . A. atrasados) 2. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. He drives carefully (adverbio). tempranamente. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /se:rten/ cierto ´ safe /sé:if/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /se:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. Peter hardly works on Saturday. adelantado. LATE y HARD. apenas) I haven´t seen John lately . (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver. FAST. (casi no. late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: ´ rápido/rápidamente. Examples: This is a hard (adj. We arrived there early (adv. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. I have to study hard (adv. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. Bob works harder than any of the other students. This train is very slow. Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob. difícil. dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. fast /fæst/ hard /ha:rd/ duro. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. A bus runs more slowly than a train. intenso/intensamente.PART II. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1. Mr Blake will call later tonight.) train.). (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde.) lesson. EARLY. Con los adverbios SOON. A dog runs faster than a horse. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo. es decir. They took the early (adj. early /é:rli / temprano. vimos que.). no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio.

(fast) 11. (foolish) 9. He studies __________________________________________________________ Mary. She prepares her lessons ____________________________. (bad) Ex. (careful) 3. I go there _______________________________________________________ he does. (careful) 2.Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo.(regular) 4. We walked very ____________________________. (wise) 11. John was very ____________________________. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. Bill behaves badly in class. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. 3. (easy) 6. He certainly acted ____________________________. He did the work____________________________. He is a very ____________________________ student. EXERCISES Ex. We went farther. (careful) 2. This is an ____________________________ exercise. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. (good) 10. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. (frequent) 6. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening. John works better than William. John works _________________________________________ I. (easy) 7. (beautiful) 8. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. He speaks very ____________________________. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . as usual. He learns his lesson ____________________________. (often) 3. (good) 7. He comes here _____________________________________________ she. (fast) Ex. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. that. Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. (easy) 5. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. She works very ____________________________ every day. (wise) 12. He always drives ____________________________. He gets up as early as I do.+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. He can run much _____________________________________________________________ I. 8. They get up every morning _________________________________________________ we. He always does his work ____________________________. She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________. (careless) 12. He always does his work ____________________________. (beautiful) 7. (quick) 2. (quick) 4. (early) 5. They acted ____________________________ in doing. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. He comes here ___________________________________________________ he did before. (fast). (good) 9. (foolish) 10. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________. She speaks English_____________________________. John left the office __________________________ that afternoon. (beautiful) 3. She plays the guitar ___________________________________________________ anyone else. 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. John works _______________________________________________________ I (hard) 9. (quick) 8. (careful) 4. They went very far. (hard) 5. (early) 6. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________. 2.

AS o NOT SO.. He can run ____________________________ his brother. He doesn’t walk (as fast as / so fast as) I do. (good) 8. using equality of comparison (as. You can do it ____________________________ I . (careful) 7.. He can’t come ____________________________ we. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated area... (quick) 8. (late) 2. Express in full form. 9. speak __________________________possible. He didn’t arrive here ____________________________ we expected him. Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. (soft) 10. (beautiful) 6. He came here ____________________________ he could. (fast) 3.10. Remember that you can use NOT AS. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (early) Ex.. (hard) 7. (early) 3. (regular) 10. Please. John speaks English ____________________________I do. (easy) (bright) (fast) 5. They came to work ________________________________________________________usual. He goes to bed ____________________________ I. He works ____________________________ he can.. (late) 11. (early) 11. Se usan para expresar énfasis. I go to bed ___________________________________________________________ you. 12. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. as): 1. He came ____________________________ he could. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. (bad) 9. using equality of comparison. (early) 5. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. AS: 1. Express in full form. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. Bob cut himself with the knife. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she does. (easy) 5. She sings ____________________________ she plays. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . (fast) 2. (good) 4. (hard) B.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. (soon) 12. 4. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. (early) 6. He will arrive________________________________________________________ they. She doesn’t speak Spanish ____________________________ her sister. (good) 4. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /!emsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. She can’t play the piano ____________________________ she can sing.

The poor man lives all by himself in an old house. Both the boys and the girls study alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 197 . 8. He works alone in a small office. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. Peter. William shaves ______________________________ every day. He prefers to work alone. I do not think he can do it alone. 3. 11. 10. She likes to study alone. sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). He wrote the entire book alone. 7. 7. 6. I myself will do it. boys. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 4. 4. You ______________________________ must speak to him. 12. 4. 11. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ 8. 2. Ex. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. 3. The President ______________________________ attended the meeting. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. Do you like to talk about______________________________? 9. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 5. John ______________________________ wrote to me. 3. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. You ______________________________ have to do it. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. The poor man killed ______________________________. 7. 11. 10. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell on the pavement. 2. 8.3. 10. I went to the movie alone. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. John lives alone in an apartment 2. 5. The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife. 12. 6. I do not like to eat alone. pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. 12. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. I shave ______________________________ every morning. 9. (El pobre hombre vive completamente solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. 2. He likes to walk alone in the park. (Hans estudia en un grupo. The little boy cannot dress ______________________________. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. He is only 2 3. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo. 6. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. We ______________________________ will wait for you. Ex. 9.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. no se llevaron a cabo por algún motivo. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. Answer the questions as in the example 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (to call on = to visit). verbs: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. Substitute the past form of GOING TO for the italicized. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________ 198 A short course in english for adult students . habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (SUBJECT + WAS / WERE + GOING TO + INFINITIVE) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que. 2. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. 2.C. I didn´t. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. I didn´t . 1. I didn´t. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us. We intended to wait for you but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No. I didn´t.

mata árbol tronco 199 . colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ (La naturaleza) a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ (Geografía) air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:r"/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /í"mas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque. tierra rada. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito. rooster /rúster/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave. satélite nat. pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /má#ki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono A short course in english for adult students rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /tra#k/ planta raíces semilla arbusto. summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shó:ar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spri#/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna. villa volcán agua cataratas b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ (Vegetación) branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ (Animales) ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ´ ant /ænt/ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ buffalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/. foresta galaxia suelo. bahía cerro.

cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dó#ki/ ´ dragonfly /drægonflai/ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flamí#gou/ vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/ ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena 200 A short course in english for adult students .

quickly 4. 4. yet. earlier than Ex. faster than 8.had not seen ..got . foolishly 10. They had not studied there very long... as quickly as 8. had . 2. She hadn`t read that book before. badly Ex..already / yet? 4.She`d never been abroad before. 5 .had taken 3. roamed . himself / herself 9. as fast as 12. himself 4.didn`t recognize . carelessly 12. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7... How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9.got 10. 2 . 2. ourselves 6.yet / Had Mrs.Key to answers UNIT 14 PART I Ex.? 5. Where had they been that morning? 8.foolish 9. better than 7.. more seriously than 10. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. as early as 11. Tom hadn`t left. Bentley hadn´t gone.became 2. as hard as 7. quickly 2.. as late as 2.3.had already become . as beautifully as 6. 1. 7. had left 9. himself 3. / Had the children had. 1. himself 10.yet / already? 2. as easily as Ex.appeared 8. / Had they spent all.yet / Had Tom left. 1.gone 2. more often than 3.visited 9..finished 4. as softly as 10. Ex. 3. as / so fast as 2. had already begun . Jane hadn`t seen. later than 11. Bentley gone. 2 1. themselves 5. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex.started 3.. as fast as 3. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. Who had visited them that evening? 10. as / so early as 6. had .got 4. 5. left . himself 2. 1. himself 7.. yourselves A short course in english for adult students 201 . fast 11. had .. herself 3. as / so early as 3.. 1. herself 7. herself 4. more frequently than 6. herself 8. easily 7. well 9. PART II. She´d worked hard very long. beautifully 8. as / so well as 8. as well as 4. had been 6. Had you eaten / had this before? 4.yet / Had Paul sent. Paul hadn`t sent.put out 10. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before.. 1 1..yet. A. The children hadn`t had. 3. had already given . had been . ourselves 6. earlier than 5.gone Ex. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. was .disappeared 5. had stolen 7. 2 . wisely 12. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8.. well 10.had lost Ex. themselves 8..had stopped 6.beautiful 7. fast Ex.had collected 5.sooner than 12. early 6. himself 5. had taken 8. Black studied? 3. wise 11. as early as 5. as / so well as 4. / Had Jane seen. beautifully 3. herself 11.. B.They hadn`t spent all. easy 5. had . saw . 1. already / yet? Ex. felt . careful 2 carefully 3. himself Ex. as / so regularly as 10. 3 1. harder than 9. 10. as / so easily as 5. hard 5. Ex 1 1. as / so hard as . had . Mrs. carefully 4.took 7. myself 11. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. yourself / yourselves 9. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4.. yourself 12. already / yet? 6. easily 6. herself 10. had never seen . 4 1.. himself 12. as brightly as 9.. had . 1.. as / so carefully as 7. had already boarded .. more regularly than 4. 9. Where had Dr. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. quickly 8. as / so badly as 9. more carefully than 2.already / yet? . He said (that) he`d been very busy that day..

. 3.3. 202 A short course in english for adult students . He works by himself in a small office 8. They were going to leave New York yesterday but. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. but. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead. 11.. We were going to telephone you but. We were going to walk in the park but. 2..7.... 7. 2. We were going to eat early but. He prefers to work by himself.. I was going to go to the beach but. (Possible answers) 2. 2. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5... Ex. He wrote the entire book by himself. 4. Ex. We were going to go to a movie first but. 6. We were going to wait for you but. 3. 4. She likes to study by herself 3. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6.. I went to the movie by myself 4... C... I was going to write you a letter last week but. 1. 9. 8. 12... 5. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model.. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12.. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage.Ex... 11... I was going to come back earlier but. 10. I was going to go home early. We were going to study for our examination but. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm.

Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. (watch) 2. The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night.UNIT 15 PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD ´ al sujeto: Lea. /! mæn had bin wé:rki# o:l déi/ ´ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. 1. (fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) 6.?) EXERCISES Ex. /!éi had nót bi:n wé:rki# o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. báut tú: áuarz/ La forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædent/. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed. (drink) 7. (study) 4. Lea. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had !éi bi:n pléi# sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu ló# had !ei bi:n pléi# sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:i#/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud. They´d played soccer for about two hours. /!éid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de dos horas. We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. escuche y aprenda: ´ The man had worked all day /! mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. The man had been working all day. (walk) 3. (rain) 5. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. /!éid bi:n pléii# sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1.

________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. La Sra. 3. 1. 5. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 4. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? Ex. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. and b) the interrogative 1. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Mr. The patient had been feeling better. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. Change the following sentence into a) the negative.Ex. The students had been practising Spanish. etc. Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. 2. They´d been studying the report that evening. Ask questions using question words like What. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. She´d been reading a magazine.30. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. Bob had been sleeping since 8. 6. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 4. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. Where. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. How long. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y ella se sentía muy cansada. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara.

tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. You telephoned him at his office. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. He sent the package by regular mail. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. 9. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. .) 2.OUGHT TO) Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera). pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. but he should________________________________________________________ 9. We went to Mexico on our vacation. Complete the following in your own words. 2. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. 7. He left the books in Room 10. He invested his money in real estate. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. 12. 4. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. 1. en Unit 10 . (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. We sent her a fax. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. but they should ____________________________________________ B. She gave the money to John. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. It was excellent. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street.PART II. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier.) 2.Smith yesterday 11. He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night.p.129. expresa un reproche o crítica. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. as usual. 5. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. It was very interesting. Ex. You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) 3. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. He studied engineering in college. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”).OUGHT TO (El tiempo pasado de SHOULD . but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. 6. You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. A. but you came late. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. 10. but I did not. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. Compare: I should start to study French now. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . 8. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE . He started to study English last month.

1. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. She prefers to come back later. ___________________________________________________ 10. ___________________________________________________ 3. It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness. ___________________________________________________ 7. 7.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. It will be better if you come back later.) 2. I like chicken ______________________________ beef. 5. 1. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. When I’m hot and thirsty.. What had I better do.. 4.. _______________________________________________ 6. 7. TO. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. ___________________________________________________ 8. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. It will be better if he takes private lessons. = I prefer to see a movie than to go to the opera He should see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. ________________________________________ Ex. It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. 206 A short course in english for adult students .. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. I like hip-hop ______________________________ classical music.. _______________________________________________ 9. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. 2. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. 3. ___________________________________________________ 5.. 6. I prefer to stay at home and watch television.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción. 3.. 4. It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. = He´d better see a doctor immediately. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. When I’m hot and thirsty. It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away. When I’m hot and thirsty. 2. When I choose a book. It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. 5. ___________________________________________________ 4... What would you rather drink. o LIKE.... They prefer to speak to him at his home. 6. 10. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. EXERCISES Ex.. 8. BETTER THAN or TO.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. I prefer to wait here . 2. Ex. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. (I’d rather wait here. It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. It will be better if you rest a while. I prefer not to go to the party alone.. (You’d better come back later. 8. They prefer not to wait outside. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. 9.

• John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. 16. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. 18. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? 14. There´s a very good film on at the Rex. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. I can hear something. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. C. 10. etc. 17. • When you go to New York next month. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. no se realizaron o no sucedieron. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. podríamos. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). I could hear something (Podia oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. It could be Tim. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. • The phone´s ringing. ser capaz de) • Listen. En este caso COULD significa podría. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. 12. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time.9. podrías. You could have stayed with us. • Jim: If you need money. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. 13. Mr. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. • I listened. 15. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). They enjoy their jobs. He could have hurt himself badly. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. 11. • It´s a nice day. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. My parents would rather work______________________________ retire.

We could go to the cinema. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. When shall I phone Angela? (right now) 5. You ______________________________ for it. Ex. 1. 8. 1. 208 A short course in english for adult students . 7. 2. • The trip was cancelled last week. Complete the sentences. 4. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. A: The phone is ringing. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. we ______________________________ have dinner now. 2. When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) 6. We ______________________________ watch that’.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. but it ______________________________ be in the car. EXERCISES Ex. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. 3. 1. Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. Ken was short of money last week. Ken had to work on Friday evening. 3. Ex. A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. It’s so nice here. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. Answer the questions with a suggestion. 1. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. 1. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. I ______________________________ eat a horse! 3. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). I’m really hungry. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. ‘I can’t find my bag. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. Sometimes either word is possible. 4. What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) 4. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. So he didn’t do any of these things. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. 4. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement.’ 6. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. If you’re very hungry. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. 5. 5. Use COULD. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) 3. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Peter is a keen musician.

6. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. It’s always full of people. Ted isn’t at work today. debemos usar CAN´T.______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. o conclusión. 2.___________________ have walked very fast. es decir. 5. They haven’t lived here very long. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchi# tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:pi#/ EXERCISES Ex.(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I’ve lost one of my gloves.. You’re going on holiday next week. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. que no puede ser cierto. Tom was in his bedroom. so they ___________________ be short of money. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. You’ve been travelling all day. Congratulations on passing your exam. Put in MUST or CAN’T. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. CAN´T. You ___________________ be very tired. 1. MUST. 1. You can´t be hungry already. She does the same thing every day. Ex. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine. 8. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. He must have been watching the news on TV. 3. 2. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. You got here very quickly. 4. A short course in english for adult students 209 . Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. You ___________________ be looking forward to it. MUST HAVE. 1.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. It rained every day during their holiday. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. You. I must have been asleep. You ___________________ be very pleased. /!ei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así. 3. You must be very tired. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. It’s always empty. They can´t know many people. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV. He must _____________________________ ill. She can´t have seen me. They can’t _____________________________many people. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired.

(the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He must _____________________________ out. Ex. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. There is a man walking behind us. 9. the light was on. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. I can’t find my umbrella. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more.4. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t 210 A short course in english for adult students . The jacket you bought is very good quality. When I woke up this morning. He must _____________________________ us. 6. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (Quizás ella sabe lo que sucedió) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. 8. I may not have enough. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes.. 1. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Jane walked past me without speaking. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. Ann was in a very difficult situation. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday. She knew everything about our plans. 7. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa lo que sucedió) She might know what happened (Ella podría tal vez saber lo que sucedió) = perhaps she knows what happened. (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot. Ted wasn’t at work last week. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. B: She may have been asleep. (I/asleep) I must have been asleep. She’s still at work at this time. Carol knows a lot about films. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money. 3. The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. It can’t ____________________ Mary. 2. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. B: He may not have been feeling well. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. B: She might not have known about it. 10. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. He must ___________________________ ill. 5.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Look. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.Somebody must _____________________________ it.

the police aren´t sure. I can’t find my umbrella. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. 7. ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. It might ________________________________________ her brother. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. I can’t find George anywhere. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure.’ 5. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.’ Ex. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4.’ 4. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. 6. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. B: Yes. Perhaps she isn’t working today. MIGHT NOT or COULD. 4. ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. 1. She couldn´t have seen me 2. I wonder where he is. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. He might ___________________________________ it already. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ She might be in her office. Do you think it was an accident? B. B: That´s possible. ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. 2. Perhaps she is working. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. 8. He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. He might ___be having lunch. 4. 11. ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. 1. 3. COULDN’T. it´s possible. 5. Perhaps Margaret is busy. 9. In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. 1. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. Perhaps she was working yesterday. B: Well. Perhaps she went home early. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. she was too far away.’ 3. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). It might ______________________ her brother. MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). Perhaps she wants to be alone.feeling well) EXERCISES Ex. She might not have seen you. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. A: I wonder how the fire started. Perhaps she had to go home early. B: I agree. 1. A: Tom loves parties. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. They might_________________________ for a bus. I’m looking for Helen. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. Perhaps she didn´t see me. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. 1. Use MAY or MIGHT. 10. 3.’ 2.

remolino tifón remolino viento ventoso 212 A short course in english for adult students . eléctica) tornado tromba. bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ ´ scattered showers /skæterd sháuerz/ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /"ánder/ thunderbolt /"ánderboult/ thunderstorm /"ándersto:rm/ thundery /"ánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubascos ocasionales chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /!e wé!er/ (El tiempo atmosférico) blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpo:r/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ ´ flashflood /flæshflad/ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárrikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitni# flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente. aluvión de agua neblina.

You should have gone.. have sent her an e-mail. He ought to have started. Ex.. 1. 4. can / could 6. have gone to Tahiti 10. They´d rather not wait outside 5.. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B. He ought to have come.. could A short course in english for adult students 213 . 2. 5.? 6... 7. 7.? 3.. Ex. have given it to Jane 4. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. Brown had been working hard that day and she felt very tired. 4.. They´d rather speak to him at his home.been doing 6. 3. 12.. 4. 3. The students had not been practicing.. She´d rather come back later.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. You ought to have telephoned. 8. We could hang it in the kitchen.. 6. better than 9. 7. than 18... I´d rather go to South America on my vacation. 7. 6. / Had she been reading. 6. Mrs. He´d better take private lessons.? 5... Ex. He´d better go to a doctor at once.. 4. You´d better not work so hard after your illness...... It´d been raining all morning . 3. could 5. She hadn`t been reading. PART II A. 1. We´d rather not say anything to him about it. Ex. / Had I been working.. 8. 7. 1. than 13. can / could 2.. They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived. / Had Bob been sleeping.? Ex. You should not have told l her... / Had it been raining. 9.. I´d rather not go to the party alone. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. What had you been doing that morning? 2. 9. 3. We´d better send him an e-mail right away. Why had Mr. to 17. could 3. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. The sky was clear and the sun was shining. to 16. better than C. / Had the patient been feeling. Ex.. She´d better spend more time on her homework. We´d better not stand so close to the curb.. 1.. I ought not to have gone. better than 14. 5.. 1. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time. to 12. than 7. had been studying 4.. Helen had better begin more time on her English. had . How long had he been teaching Physics in that school before he retired? Ex. have sent it by air mail 3. had been walking 3. 10. We´d better not mention it to him. 3. 9.been drinking 7... / Had the students been practicing.. better than 11. 10.. had been raining 5. You could phone her now . 6. 2. 10. 1. We could go and see him on Friday. 9. 11.. 2. 5. to have telephoned him at his home 6.. Smith been saving money? 4.? 2. We could have fish 3. She´d been working on that report since the previous week.. You ought to have given....1.. Ex. 1. than 10. 5..What had they been doing that evening? 2. had been flying Ex. can 7. . You should not have given. What had the boy been watching? 3.? 4. You should have told. You could give her a book. I hadn´t been working. You should have attended. 6. can / could 4. have studied medicine. 2. better than 6. could 8.. 2.. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV. 1. Ex. 5. John would rather go to the party with Helen. 1. 2. have left them in Room 11. to have invested it in stocks / shares. had been watching 2. It hadn`t been raing.The patient hadn´t been feeling. You´d better rest a while 4. than 15. 8. 2. to 8. (Possible answers) 2. 8. 3. 4. to 5. had .

4. 2a. can´t Ex. She may / might have gone out 3a. could come Ex.They must have gone away. She may / might have been ill yesterday . 3. He may / might not have heard the bell. 2. Ex. 2. 3. 3. He may / might have been in the bathroom. C. 1.2. Ex.Ex. 11.could have gone 3. 6. 2. 8.She can´t have seen me. 3. The driver can´t have seen the red light. 4. She can´t have understood what I said. 2. 2b. must 5. must 2. She may / might be watching TV in her room. (Possible answers)2. 3.She may / might have been working yesterday. She must have listened to our conversation. She may / might not want to see me. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. be going 8. have bought Ex. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. (Possible answers) 1. She may / might be working 4. 6. 3b. might have been an accident. She may / might have had to go home early 8. 1. She may / might have gone home early 7. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. know 3. C. 6. have been 4. be waiting 5. have left 2. I must have forgotten to turn it off. 6. 2. might have come if he´d been invited. 2.The neighbors must have been having a party . 4. be following Ex. go 7. might not have been invited. be 6. 10. 3. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . have been 10. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. 3. have taken / stolen 9. have been 5. 9. She may / might want to be alone 5. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. It may / might be in the car. 5. 5. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. must 8. 4.could have gone 5. 4b. could apply 4. She may / might not be working today 11. It must have been very expensive 4. 5. She may / might be busy. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. Ex. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. b e 3. can´t 4. 3.must 7. can´t 6. be 4. Ex. must 3. 1. 10.. 9.

Escuche.. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud. EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro. I will have had dinner already.. When Peter gets home tonight. etc. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30. (Yo tengo la información ahora) When I have the information this afternoon. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto.UNIT 16 PART I. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. /bai !i énd ov !is mán" !e spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllú:piter/ Hacia fines de este mes. Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th.. etc. (Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde.... /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche. When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana). (Tú vienes acá todos los días) When you come here tomorrow. Escuche. lea y aprenda : By December 15th.) I have the information now. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. by the end of this month. /bai disémber !e fift:n" wi wil hav lívd in !is kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre. nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas. (Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez. nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo.) She is free now... /if auar tí:m winz !e nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar "e:rd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. we will have gotten our third trophy. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. /wen wi gét tu !æt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld mó:ar !an tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana.) A short course in english for adult students 215 .. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana). yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow. by this time next week.? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day... we will have lived in this country five years. (Ella está libre ahora) When she is free next time.. ´ If our team wins the next game. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. (Cuando tú vengas acá mañana.

(come . If he doesn´t hurry. the Johnsons ____________________________________ already. (leave) 2. (learn) 10. the students ___________________________________________ their first course. 1. (finish) 4. ___________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. Before they leave New York next Sunday. (change) 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. we ________________________________________________ the work. By two o´clock. they ________________________________ and _______________________________ . you _____________________________________________ from your illness. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I _____________________________________________________ all these grammar rules. Antes de las seis de la tarde. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 2.EXERCISES Ex. By tomorrow. 2. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. he _____________________________________________________ many things. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years 2. If you come at noon tomorrow. (go) 5. I________________________________________ in this country two years next October. By December. they _____________________________________________ home. (visit) 12. a) By the end of this month. 216 A short course in english for adult students . When he becomes a man. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. (be) 8. they___________________________________ the most important places of interest. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro. Si no tomamos un taxi. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. the weather ______________________________________________ considerably. (complete) 7. If he gets here at 6 o´clock. (recover) 11. I will have completed this course in English. 3. 2. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. ___________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I will have finished reading this book. 1.go) Ex. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. By this time next month. they ____________________________________________ dinner when he gets there. By the end of March. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. (have) 6. (forget) 9. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.

La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. must. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. would. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. De acuerdo con esta regla. A.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . might.) He says that his first name is Robert. have / has. could. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. __________________________________________________________________________________ 8. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. SUBORDINATE VERB PRESENT FUTURE PAST POTENCIAL a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30. __________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. Escuche. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. had. __________________________________________________________________________________ 6. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. did. __________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Antes de la medianoche. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL.______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. los verbos modales am / is / are. muy pronto Ud. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. do / does. had to. will. can. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. Hacia fines de este curso. se habrá recuperado de su operación. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés.

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change to past tense, following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. He says he will be here at noon. 2. I think I can meet you. 3. He hopes he can be there early 4. I think it may rain this evening. 5. He wants to know where she is. 6. He says he is very sorry. 7. The young man tells us he is married. 8. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. 9. I think he will be there by ten o´clock 10. He believes he can do it. 11. The weather man predicts it will rain. 12. He says he has to work hard every day 13. I know where she lives. 14. Bob wants to know how many people there are. 15. The boy says he has seen the movie. 16. The girl says she is studying for a test. 17. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 18. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. 19. I don´t know where Mary is. 20. I don´t think Bob will like the new job. Ex. 2. Choose the correct form: 1. He said he (will, would) be here. 2. He thinks he (can, could) do it easily. 3. He asked me where I (live, lived). 4. I didn’t know what the word (means, meant). 5. The newspaper says it (will, would) rain. 6. She said she (was going, is going) away. 7. I told him that I (cannot, could not) go. 8. He said he (has been, had been) a soldier. 9. She said she (does not, did not) feel well. 10. I don’t know what his name (is, was). 11. I didn’t know what he (is, was) trying to do. 12. She said she (may, might) be late. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

B. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF, aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. Escuche, lea y aprenda : If John comes (no, “if John will come” ) tomorrow, he will see Mary. If it rains (no, “if will rain”) next Sunday, they will not go to the beach. Del mismo modo, debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando), UNTIL (hasta que), AS SOON AS (en cuanto), BEFORE (antes que), AFTER (después que), UNLESS (a menos que), AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que), u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro.

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Escuche, lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening, he will see Mary. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde, él verá a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow, I will give him your message. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives, within ten or fifteen minutes. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue, dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning, he can go with us on the city tour. 2. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow, we may go to the beach. 3. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening, they will not wait for him. 4. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon, please let me know. 5. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. 6. Do not leave before I ________________________________________ (tell) you to go. 7.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week, he will keep it. 8. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow, we will go to the beach. 9. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today, please give him the message. 10. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. 11. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. 12. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon, we will have to leave without him. Ex. 2. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL, WHEN, AS SOON AS, AS LONG AS, WHILE, BEFORE, etc.: 1. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go, too. 2. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. 3. Don´t start moving. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. 4 They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. 5. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. 6. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. 7. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. 8. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. 9. The doctor will arrive within a few minutes. Please, wait here____________________ he arrives. 10. I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it

PART III. USE OF “ELSE” /éls/ Y “OR ELSE”/o:r éls/. A. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME, ANY y NO (somebody, someone, something, somewhere; anybody, anyone, anything, anywhere; nobody, no one, nothing, nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person, any other person, no other person, some other thing, any other thing, etc. Escuche, lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?)

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B. OR ELSE /o:r éls/ / OTHERWISE /á!erwáiz/(De lo contrario o de otro modo) OR ELSE se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). También se puede usar en este caso la palabra OTHERWISE (= de lo contrario o de otro modo) Escuche, lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. = We must hurry, otherwise we will be late for the train. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. = He´d better wait here, otherwise he will miss her. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. = You´d better tell him about it, otherwise he´ll be angry with you. EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. Did they go any other place? 2. No other person helped him with the work. 3. You must ask some other person about it. 4. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. 6. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. Let’s do some other thing tonight. 8. I didn’t tell any other person about it. 9. Can I show you any other thing, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was no other person in the room at that time. 11. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 2. Join the following pairs of sentences, substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry. If we don’t, we´ll be late. ________________________________________________________________________________ 2. You must do as your mother says. If you don’t, she´ll punish you. ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We had better hurry. If we don´t, we´ll miss the train. ________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Turn off the radio. If you don’t, you’ll wake the baby. ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Save your money. If you don’t, you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. ________________________________________________________________________________ 6. You must study hard. If you don’t, you won’t pass the course. ________________________________________________________________________________ 7. You must practise your English every day. If you don’t, you will soon forget it. ________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I must go home right away. If I don’t, my mother will be angry with me. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Helen must rest more. If she doesn’t, she may have a nervous breakdown. ________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Put the dog outside. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. ________________________________________________________________________________

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A short course in english for adult students

Ex. 3. Repeat the previous exercise, but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1. We must hurry; otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(! axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ blowtorch / blóuto:rtch/ chisel /tchízel/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /lei!/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /méllori# téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde soplete cincel taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates
wé:rkshop/

(El taller) serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo alambre llave inglesa

saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderi# áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldi# tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wire /wáiar/ wrench /réntch/

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Key to answers

UNIT 16
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1. will have left 2. will have changed 3. will have finished 4. will have gone 5. will have had 6. will have completed 7. will have been 8. will have forgotten 9. will have learnt (or learned) 10. will have recovered 11. will have visited 12. will have come - (will have ) gone Ex. 2. (Open answers) Ex. 3. 1. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. 2. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. 3. Before 6 this evening, we´ll have processed all the information. 4. If we don´t take a taxi / cab, the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. 5. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 6. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. 7. I you follow your doctor´s advice, very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. Before midnight, the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. He said he would be here at noon 2. I thought I could meet you. 3. He hoped he could be there. 4. I thought it might rain this evening. 5. He wanted to know where she was. 6. He said he was very sorry. 7. The young man told us he was married. 8. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon.9. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. 10. He believed he could do it. 11. The weather man predicted it would rain. 12. He said he had to work.hard every day. 13. I knew where she lived. 14. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. 15. The boy said he had seen the movie.16. The girl said she was studying for a test. 17. I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. 18. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. 19. I didn´t know where Mary was. 20. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. Ex. 2. 1. would 2. can 3. lived 4. meant 5. will 6. was going 7. could not 8. had been 9. did not 10. is 11. was 12. might B. Ex. 1 1. arrives 2. does - rain 3. is 4. comes 5. gets 6. tell 7. likes 8. is 9. telephones 10. comes 11. go 12. does - come Ex. 2. 1. unless 2. as soon as 3. until 4. as long as 5. until 6. while 7. when / as soon as 8. before 9. until 10. when / as soon as

PART III.
Ex. 1. 1. Did they go anwhere else? 2. Nobody else helped him with the work. 3. You must ask somebody else about it. 4. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. Let’s do something else tonight. 8. 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. 9. Can I show you anything else, Mrs. Smith? 10. There was nobody else in the room at that time. 11. Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. 2. 1. We must hurry; or else we´ll be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; or else she´ll punish you. 3. We had better hurry; or else we´ll miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; or else you’ll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; or else you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; or else you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; or else my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; or else she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; or else he will bark and wake everyone up. Ex. 3. 1. We must hurry; otherwise we´ll be late. 2. You must do as your mother says; otherwise she´ll punish you. 3. We had better hurry; otherwise we´ll miss the train. 4. Turn off the radio; otherwise you’ll wake the baby. 5. Save your money; otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 6. You must study hard; otherwise you won’t pass the course. 7 You must practice your English every day; otherwise you will soon forget it. 8. 1 must go home right away; otherwise my mother will be angry with me. 9. Helen must rest more; otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. 10. Put the dog outside; otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up.
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People will forget it in a few days. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. They had finished the work by noon. 225 . Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal BE más el participio pasado del verbo principal. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). He had fixed the car. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. (P. The car will be fixed. He will do the work this afternoon. 6. (S) (Tr. They will leave the tickets for you. 15. 14. She ate the cake this morning.V) (D. He took the money last Monday evening. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). They have found the child at last. He has fixed the car. He will have fixed the car.Jackson saw the accident.O).) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres.p.) (doer) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. They will bring the boy tomorrow. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración. 8. Somebody has taken my book. Change to passive voice: 1. The car has been fixed. 2. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante.p.) (be + p. es decir.) (be + p.V) (D. (S) (Tr. Mrs. 16. They fought a big battle here many years ago. The car will have been fixed. (P.S. 7. The car was fixed. She has just taken the newspaper. Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer).) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river. He will fix the car. 1.O). 12.S.V) (D. 13. Smith wrote the book last summer. (P. THE PASSIVE VOICE (La voz pasiva) A. En la voz pasiva. 5. Smith teaches that class on Friday. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car.) (be + p. 3. 11. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. 4. Mr. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut.S. Mr. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). She broke the plate on purpose.p. 17. Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ ACTIVA y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en VOZ PASIVA.O). He fixed the car. perfect) EXERCISES Ex. He will deliver the merchandise today. 10.UNIT 17 PART 1. People speak English all over the world. The car had been fixed. 9. The wind blew the smoke away soon. 18. Peter wrote the letter last year.

9. The house was built in 1950. 22. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. The work will be done by Mr. The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. They ______________________________________________ 4. 2. America was discovered in 1492. The book was found by Mary. Smith. __________________________________________________ 8. The town will have been captured by Wednesday. 6. He was struck by an automobile. He _______________________________________________ 10. 8. America was discovered in 1492. ___________________________________________________ 7. Thompson. The book will be published next spring. 3. The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). ___________________________________________________ 15. Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. 5. The work will be completed tomorrow. My grandfather _____________________________________ 12. The house was struck by lightning. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. 21. The money was stolen by a thief. 3.19. ___________________________________________________ 3. The lesson is taught by Mr. Smith. 2. 12. He broke his leg in an accident. The work had been finished by June. The books will be brought by John. 7. 20. ___________________________________________________ 13. 23. This book was written by Mr. The cries of the child were heard clearly. They will send the book next week. 2. 13. 15. They made this gun by hand. The book has been returned by John. They left the wounded soldiers behind. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. Longman __________________________________________ 6. __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Scott. The book will be published in June. 14. The work won’t be done by Mr. 10. ___________________________________________________ 9. 4. Columbus _________________________________________ 14. The city was destroyed by bombs. 24. ___________________________________________________ 5. Change to negative and to question form: 1. Smith. Smith. The dish was broken by the maid. Will the work be done by Mr. ___________________________________________________ Ex. The e-mail was sent this morning. The lecture was attended by many people. Our class is taught by Mr. Change to active voice: 1. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. The book was written by Mr. Mary found the book. 11. They ______________________________________________ 11. The money has been found.

MUST. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. When will the work be completed? 13. etc. By whom was America discovered? 2. _________________________________________ in the safe. (Active) They have to send this report today. (How) ________________________________________________? 3. (When) ________________________________________________? 4. How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. Where were they married? 14. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. By whom was the plate broken? 16. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. America was discovered in 1492. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: When was America discovered 1. The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. When was the news released? 12. When was this book published? 4. The child was finally found in the park. was. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. (When) ________________________________________________? 2. The house was destroyed by fire. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there C. may. The book will be published in June. _____________________________ by the end of the month. La voz pasiva de los tiempos PRESENTE Y PASADO CONTINUO se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal BE (am. ___________________________________________ in 1492. (Active) They must finish this job today. The tree was planted by my father. LA VOZ PASIVA CON VERBOS MODALES CAN. Why was the train delayed? 10. The house was built in 1945. have to. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. should. A short course in english for adult students 227 . HAVE TO Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. were) + BEING + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. _________________________________________by the chef. MAY. (At what time) ____________________________________________? 8. Where was this book published? 5. __________________________________one of the servants. Change to question form. By whom are your exercises corrected? 9.. (When) ________________________________________________? 7. a la voz pasiva.. Who will the dinner be prepared by? 8.. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. In what country was Helen born? 15. The work will be completed next month. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily.. (Who. SHOULD. Where was the child finally found? 7. ________________________________________about 10:30. ____________________________________________in 1999. Answer these questions: 1. are. must. B.Ex. se debe usar el VERBO MODAL + BE + el PASADO PARTICIPIO del verbo principal. (Who. _________________________________________in Scotland. Where was the money put? 17.by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. In what year was America discovered? 3. ____________________________________ by our instructor. LA VOZ PASIVA EN LOS TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. The money was stolen by one of the servants. is. _____________________________ because of bad weather. He was injured in an automobile accident. _________________________________________ in Chicago. 4.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? 6. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today. Where was the money hidden? 11. (In what year) ________________________________________________? 10. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? 9. Who was the money stolen by? 6. ________________________________________ by the maid. (Where) ________________________________________________? 5. 5. _________________________________________ in the park.

Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 228 A short course in english for adult students . You can use this room for the lesson. John has brought the mail every day. 4. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ The material is being sent (by them) today. 12. 5. We are using this room. Change to passive voice : 1. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 9. 5. We can finish this right away. 4. 10. They are defending the city well. 6. We have to write these exercises at home. Ex. 9. 11. 11. Change to negative and to question form. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ This can be finished (by us) right away. 8. He has to do it immediately. We must find him immediately. She is typing that letter now. They are holding the meeting today. 2. They are considering that question now. etc. 7. 12. We must lose no time. They cannot put those things here. 10. 3.: 1. By whom. We must help him. John brings the mail every day. 5. 10. The police may hold him for several days. They were cleaning the office this morning. 8. 6. John may bring the mail tomorrow. They are transferring him to another class. John will bring the mail tomorrow. The mail is brought by John every day. 2. Change to passive voice: 1. They are sending the material today. 9. 3. 7. This must be checked twice. Change to passive voice: 1. John has to bring the mail every day. 12.Ex. John is bringing the mail now. 9. He should send this message right away. They have put the chairs in the room. They may send the fax tomorrow. 3. 8. They are sending troops there today. They are sending the merchandise today. 2. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. They are examining him now. How. He is finishing the work now. 7. They were discussing the question when I went in. They have to deliver the books today. State each question twice. He cannot finish this today. 6. 8. John brought the mail yesterday. 3. 11. The story is being published today. 7. He sent the e-mail last week. He wasn’t killed in an accident. . He was killed in an accident. Ex. Where. 6.

Smith. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? D. lt can be done three or four times a month. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 11. This book was published in 1945. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. EL SIGNO “SE” EN ESPAÑOL En español. The class is taught by Mr. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país.4. 9. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. The money has been sent to New York. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . It should be sent immediately. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. “A big battle was fought here”. 6. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “Spanish is spoken in this country”. The material is being prepared by Mr. lt has to be sent right away. 5. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar. 12.Reese. This room can be used for our meetings. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 10. no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It has to be done at once. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 8.

During this week. 10. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 1. using the word “SE” in each case. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. Several different techniques may be applied. The data was being processed at that moment. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. By the end of the 90’s. most goals had been successfully attained. Ex.8. Next time. A new type of missile has been tested recently. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. 11. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. It is considered that English has become a universal language. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. All kinds of computers are repaired here. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 230 A short course in english for adult students .

Se supone que Bob está aquí ahora. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. 2. Change to negative and to question form. 3. 11. 3. 6. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. We expect her to bring the book with her. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. 3. 9. He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. 7. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. We expect the bus to stop here. State each question twice. We expected him to arrive last night. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. 8. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. 6. 9. 10. He was supposed to bring the money last night. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. They expected the war to be over sooner. (Passive Voice) Ex.: 1. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. We expect John to come at six o’clock. (Passive Voice) 14. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning.PART II. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. 12. WHERE. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 231 . We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. (Passive Voice) 13. 4. 4. 8. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. 7. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” (La expresión idiomatica “se supone que”) Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. 2. 10. 5. He ______________________________ (be) here now. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. 2. 11. WHAT TIME. 2. 1. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975. Ex. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. They expect the train to arrive at four o‘clock. etc. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. 12.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We expect the parade to begin soon. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. 5. (Passive Voice) 15. He ______________________________ (know) her well. We expect our lesson to last one hour.

They´re supposed to start the work soon. The book is supposed to be published in June. He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L. 10. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May..3.A. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday. 5. 9. 6. 7. ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? ___________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 232 A short course in english for adult students . They´re supposed to finish the job tomorrow. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. 8. 4. The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday.

VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ (Las Fuerzas Armadas (I)) Army /á:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ ´ Ranks /ræ#ks/ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræ#k/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango. BRANCHES /bræntchiz/(Ramas o servicios) Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Medical /médikal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Artillery /a:rtílori/ Artillería Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ Engineers /endlliníarz/ Ingenieros Signal /sígnal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Transportation /transportéishon/ Infantería Infantry /ínfantri/ Sanidad Mecanizado material de guerra Telecomunicaciones Transportes COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ (Oficiales comisionados) Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Major /méidllor/ Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/Teniente General Captain /kæptin/ ´ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General First Lieutenant /fé:rst luténant/ Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Brigadier General Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Ensign /énsin/ Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Teniente Coronel Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ (Suboficiales) Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sargento Mayor (UK) Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent fé:rst kla:s/Sargento Primero Private /práivit/ Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Sargento Segundo Recruit /rékrut/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ ´ Squad /skwod/ Platoon /platú:n/ Troop /tru:p/ Company /kámpni/ Squadron /skuódron/ Battery /bæteri/ (Unidades tácticas) escuadra pelotón escuadrón (cab. pistola ´ granada de mano Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Knife /naif/ cuchillo Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/arma de destrucción masiva Missile /mízil/ misil Mortar /mó:rtar/ mortero Mine /main/ mina Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ fusil Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ lanzacohetes Sword /só:rd/ espada Shell /shel/ proyectil. grado Oficial superior ´ ARMS /á:rmz/armas. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 .) Battalion /batælion/ ´ Regiment ´/rédlliment/ Brigade /brigéid/ Division /dividllon/ Corps /ko:r/ Army /a:rmi Mayor Capitán Teniente Subteniente Alférez (en la marina) Cadete Soldado Primero (US) Soldado Primero (UK) Soldado Soldado conscripto batallón regimiento brigada división cuerpo Ejército propelente o pólvora metralla o esquirla ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ (Tiro de munición) Bullet /búlit/ bala.blin.) batería (art.) compañía grupo (cab. proyectil Propellant /propélant/ Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ vainilla Shrapnel /shræpnel/ ´ Primer /práimer/ estopin TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ (Armas tácticas) bomba Bomb /bom/ Bullet /búlit/ bala Dagger /dæger/ ´ daga Flame-thrower /fléim "róuer/ lanzallamas Gun /gan/ cañón.

criterio rasgo. gatillo guardamonte Tank driver /tæ#k dráiver/ ´ Tank commander /tæ#k komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Turret /tárit/ Wheel /wi:l/ conductor del tanque comandante del tanque orugas torreta rueda posición de pie posición en cuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiari# posillonz/ (Posiciones de disparo) Kneeling /ní:li#/ position posición arrodillada Standing /stændi#/ position ´ Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Sitting /síti#/ position posición sentada 234 A short course in english for adult students .TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ (Vehículos tácticos) ´ Airplane /éarplein/ avión ´ Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Bomber /bómer/ bombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero cazabombardero Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ Helicopter /hélikopter/ helicóptero LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ (Liderazgo) conducta Behavior /bihéivior/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ cadena de mando Command /komænd/ ´ mando Commander /kománder/ comandante Confidence /kónfidens/ confianza Control /kontróul/ control Cooperation /kuoperéishon/ cooperación Courage /káridll/ valor. característica obediencia espontánea Magazine /mægazi:n/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Rear sight /ríar sáit/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sighting mechanism /sáiti# mekanízm/ Sling /sli#/ Stock /stok/ Trigger /trígger/ Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ cargador trompetilla alza caja de mecanismos mecanismo de puntería correa porta fusil cantonera disparador. comandante moral orgullo ámbito de control subalterno tacto. coraje decisión Decisiveness /disáisivnes/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ confiabilidad Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Dignity /dígniti/ dignidad Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Endurance /endiúarans/ resistencia PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rts v ráifl/ (Partes del fusil) Aiming mechanism /éimi# mékanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Barrel /bærel/ ´ cañón Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Butt /bat/ culata Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing mechanism /fáiari# mékanízm/ mecanismo de disparo Firing pin /fáiari# pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Hammer /hæmer/ ´ martillo Locking lug /lóki# lag/ asegurador THE TANK /!e tæ#k/ (El tanque) ´ Armor /á:mor/ Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun /gan/ Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Gunner /gáner/ blindaje plancha de blindaje cañón tubo del cañón artilllero Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæ#k/ tanque de combate Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino Tank /tæ#k/ tanque Truck /trak/ camión Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra ´ Enthusiasm /en"usiázn/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Initiative /iníshiativ/ Integrity /intégriti/ Justice /dllástis/ Leader /lí:der/ Morale /morá:l/ Pride /práid/ Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ´ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Tact /tækt/ ´ Trait /tréit/ Willing obedience /wíli# obí:diens/ entusiasmo espíritu de cuerpo iniciativa integridad justicia líder.

The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow. It was released at about 10:30 12. 10. 14. 14.? Ex./ Will the work be completed. Ex. 13. The work will be done by him this afternoon. 2. They´re corrected by our instructor.. 3. 11. 15. 10. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. This room is being used by us.. 5. 5..In what year was the house built? 10. 4.? 12. 4. It has to be done by him immediately. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. 2. Smith last summer 5. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. That question is being considered by them now. 15. The city is being defended by them well 11. John will bring the books.Scott wrote this book. He was held for about two hours. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. 2. The enemy has destroyed the city. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 9. 19. These exercises have to be written by us at home. 10. 21. 5. 2. This cannot be finished by him today.? 15. / Was America discovered in. 14. 10. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. 4. He must be helped by us . 12. 7. Thompson. Mr. / Will the book be published in. 7. 4. He´s being transferred by them to another class. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. Ex. 1. Where was the child finally found? 5. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow.? 3. 9.? 4. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night.. My grandfather built the house in 1910.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I. / Had the money been stolen by. 3. It was stolen by one of the servants. 2.. Those things cannot be put by them here. It was published in 1999. 1. It was hidden in a wooden box.The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. The mail has been A short course in english for adult students 235 . 8. 20. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. The work had been finished by them by noon. Ex.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. 17. The office was being cleaned by them this morning.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs.. 6. 6. 5. 9. This gun was made (by them) by hand .The house wasn´t struck by lightning. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. 11. It was discovered in 1492. 7. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid.The lesson isn´t taught by Mr.The book hasn´t been returned by John. 2. She was born in Scotland.? 14. He was finally found in the park. No time must be lost by us. 10. 3. 7. He had finished the work by June. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. 12. The work is being finished by him now. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 9. 7. The book wasn´t written by Mr. 3. He may be held by the police for several days. 13. / Has the money been found? 13.. 3. Mr.The book won´t be published in June.The money hasn´t been found. Ex. 2. It will be completed by the end of the month. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions. The accident was seen by Mrs. 2. Columbus discovered America in 1492.. 6 Many people attended the lecture. 8. 3. That letter is being typed by her now.. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them). A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. 6. Jackson. 8. / Was the dish broken by. The child has been found by them at last 15. 8. When will the work be completed? 4. This message should be sent by him right away.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys. The book will be sent by them next week. 5.. Troops are being sent (by them) there today.. 8. English is spoken (by people) all over the world.? 10. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9.? 9. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 12. 23. Longman will publish the book next spring. 2../ Is the lesson taught by.. / Was the house struck by. It was published in Chicago... An automobile struck him 9. 11. It was broken by the maid.. How was the house destroyed? 3. 8. A thief stole the money. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 12. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. 6. 11. 22. They were married in Valparaiso.? 8... This room can be used by you for the lesson. It was put in the safe. The meeting is being held by them today. Ex. 24. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. / Was it discovered by.? 6... / Was the book written by. / Was the city destroyed by. The mail was brought by John yesterday. Smith. It will be prepared by the chef. 18. / Has the book been returned by. 17. 13. 16. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. That class is taught by Mr. My book has been taken by somebody..(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8.? 5.. / Was the telegram delivered. He´s being examined by them now. The tickets will be left for you by them. Ex. Smith on Friday.? 11. 4. 16. Smith teaches our class.. When will the book be published? 7. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room.. 4. The book was written by Mr.

10. Reese. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. several important projects have been carried out.. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. It doesn´t have to be done at once. Our lesson is supposed to last. 10. It doesn´t have to be sent right away. 8. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. 2.. 12. 10.. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. 1.. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6.. He wasn´t supposed to telephone. He must be found by us immediately. The King isn´t supposed to visit. During that year... 7.... 9. The bank is supposed to open at. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. 5. 1. 5. Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación. 9.. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow.. 7... / Was he supposed to telephone. This room can´t be used for our meetings. The e-mail was sent by him last week. 7. was supposed to send 5. The money hasn´t been sent to NY. 5.brought by John every day. 3. This book wasn´t published in 1945. The train is supposed to arrive at. 2. The parade is supposed to begin.. are supposed to be put Ex. is supposed to call 9. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. The bus is supposed to stop. New methods are being developed to control inflation. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. 5. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9.? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr.. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. We aren´t supposed to meet them. 2. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10.. The class isn´t taught by Mr. 1.... Ex. is supposed to be 8. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4. The books have to be delivered by them today.. / Are we supposed to meet them.. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6.? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. / Is the King supposed to visit.. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. La próxima vez. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas. He is supposed to leave for. 4. The war was supposed to be over.. he was supposed to arrive... He isn´t supposed to be living. 6. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a month / How often can it be done? 5. 8. was supposed to be 11.. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente. 11. / Is he supposed to be living. 3... 2.. The weather is supposed to be hot.. is supposed to come 3. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years.. 4. 7.Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. 3. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. It can´t be done three or four times a month. Ex. This book has been translated into several languages. Public transport services should be improved in this city.. is supposed to be sent 13. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. 2... 2. 11.. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur... 9. were supposed to deliver 4. This mustn´t be checked twice. The mail is being brought by John now. 8. / Was he supposed to bring it. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. / Must this be checked twice? / How many times must this be checked? 4. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. 10. 6. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10. Ex. 2. 6. 12.. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. Ex. is supposed to have been sent 14.. The merchandise is being sent by them today. 8. is supposed to be 6. 6. The mail has to be brought by John every day.11. se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. 9.? / When are they supposed to finish? 5.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8.? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. 3. 10.. is supposed to meet 10. She is supposed to bring the. 9.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students . All the invitations were sent by air mail. 4. is supposed to be 7. is supposed to know 12. He wasn´t supposed to bring it...

cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa. listen and repeat these examples: 1. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer.. you will see him. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. you would see him more often.UNIT 18 PART I. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow.. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. 6. you would have seen him... Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. tú lo verías más seguido también) c. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales. 3. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. (Si.). we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3..) .. (Si él viene mañana.. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. 5. If he comes tomorrow. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often.. no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. you will not get a good mark. tú lo verás. b.. you will be able to see everything. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. you will see him. lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. introducida por la palabra IF. (Si él viene mañana. (Si él viniera acá más seguido. too. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo. tú lo habrías visto) I. If the weather is good tomorrow. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. 4.. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta. If he comes tomorrow. (Si te sientas aquí. (Si él viene mañana. you will see him. I´ll give him your message. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 . 2. you´ll have an accident. 4.) 2. (Si no estudias duro. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. she´ll miss her train. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas.

10. If John were here now he would help us. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. como tomorrow. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. etc. he could go with her to the party. we could study better. she would go to the beach more often. I would study French. 7. BEFORE (antes que). (Si John estuviera aquí. UNLESS (a menos que). lf John ________________________ (be) here now. next Monday morning. he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). he would be a better student. If I ________________________(be) in your position. If Mary comes tomorrow (No.) 2. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. she would speak English better. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. AFTER (después que). I will give her your message. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II.1. etc. 238 A short course in english for adult students . es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. 4. “If Mary will come”). (Si Mary supiera nadar. this evening. (Si yo fuera millonario. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. she will see the Prince. 3. Del mismo modo. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. 12. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. 5. 8. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. he will tell us what happened. I would buy that suit. WHILE (mientras). listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. we would go for a walk. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. 6. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. she would study more. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). (lf Mary had more time. If he ________________________ (know) her better. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. 11. she would study more. 9. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim. UNTIL (hasta que). cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. Read. he would help us..

If we have more practice... ___________________________________________________ 6. 3. he ________________________ (be) a better student. but if.... If I could speak French. John does not study hard but if. Mary isn’t here now. If he came to class on time. he________________________ (learn) more.. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. ___________________________________________________ 12. If he came to class more often. He has very little free time.Ex. If he studied more. __________________________________________________ 10.. but if. but if. He has very little practice in speaking. but if. ___________________________________________________ 12.. (If he had time. 6. 4. 3. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex.. he. I will read more books. 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 .. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1.. he. I.. I can’t speak French.... he ________________________ (feel) better. If he had more time. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more.. 4..) 2. 6. 9. If he prepares his lessons. lf he were here. lf I knew her. 8. 5. lf he had more money. 7. he.. 8. ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ 9. 10... If he has time. I. lf I am free tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 9. but if.. ___________________________________________________ 5. I am not in Florida now. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1. Mary does not prepare her lessons. ___________________________________________________ 3... ___________________________________________________ 4. we. lf I don’t have to work. he would go) 2. ___________________________________________________ 8. If he were stronger . He has very few friends. ___________________________________________________ 11.. If he came to class regularly. ___________________________________________________ 4.. 4. he can help us. I ________________________ (speak) to her.. She has very little money. they will succeed. If the weather is cold... If he studies hard. but if. ___________________________________________________ 7.. 11. 9. lf John prepared his lessons every night. If he comes.. he ___________________________ (work) harder.. If I knew her well. I don’t speak English well. I will go to the movie. If I were free tomorrow. If he goes to the party. If today were a holiday. he ________________________ (help) us. would be very happy.. we will not go. If l were in Florida now. 5.. he will go. 2 ... If he is here. ___________________________________________________ 7. (If he were here.. he. 11. William never comes to class on time. He doesn’t like to study English. 5... If I were you. ___________________________________________________ 11. he will see her. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy.. 7. ___________________________________________________ 5. lf John were here. ___________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ 3. we will speak better. he will pass. I will go to the beach. (John does not study hard. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan.. I. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1. he will meet her. 2... but if. but if. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. ___________________________________________________ Ex. I. ___________________________________________________ 8. 3. but if. If I have more time . If he went to bed earlier. he will make good progress. ___________________________________________________ 10. If today were a holiday. He would speak better if. Complete the following: 1.) 2. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly.. 10. lf they try hard... but if.. but if. he would help us. he.

Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 9. If I were you. Mary told me that she (can. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. 12. will be) nice tomorrow.. We would go for a walk in the park if. how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. If you had much money. If today were Sunday. If John had studied hard. If I (know. If you studied harder. could) help us. If I (was. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III... 11. If you could visit any country in the world. he would have passed his examination.. 6. I am sure he would. When John (comes. will come) here tomorrow. I would go swimming every day. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. Mary would go with us if. would) be here soon. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. would) walk to school. they would have called you up.. could) not come. 7. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.. If today were a holiday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.. I would study French. he could telephone me. 15. were) in your position. 8. we may drive to the country. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. 10. knew) my number. I would. He said he (may.. If today were Sunday. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. If the weather (is. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. If he (knows. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.. Answer these questions: 1.. Mary will talk with him. I will go to the movie.) 2. 14. Ex. had) the time. If he (can. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 6. He would speak better if. 4. Choose the correct form: 1. we. (lf I were in your position. I (will. If I (had. have) time tomorrow. John said he (will. might) be late. 3. If you knew English perfectly. habría aprobado su examen). 13.12. knew) how to swim. would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 5. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condición If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . If you had an automobile.

he would have come to see you . we would have gone to the beach. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. 7. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 3. 9. I would have been glad to go. I would have told him. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. If you ________________________ (call) me. John didn’t prepare his lessons. I didn’t know his name. este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. 7. 4. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. EXERCISES Ex. He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. I would have called on you. they would have gone to the park. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 2. 5. but if. (succeed) . Had he known that you were ill. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. I didn’t have your telephone number. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. 10. 6. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. 3. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he had not worn his overcoat. 8. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If I________________________ (be) in your place. 1. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. I didn’t have a car last winter.En situaciones formales o literarias. She didn’t come on time. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. he would not have caught cold. 2. Ex. 8. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. 2. He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. 2. I wasn’t in his position. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. he he would have succeeded. She didn’t wear her raincoat. If he had studied more. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Ex. 4. If I________________________(have) your address. 9. He didn’t tell me about it. 10. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. He couldn’t speak English at the time. he ________________________(catch ) cold. 6. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. 3. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. 5. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I would not have been so angry. I wasn’t in Florida last winter.

he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he has the money. If the weather is nice. she will speak to him. 4. If he comes. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. If John is present. 2. he will go with us a. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. If I see her. I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If he came. If he had telephoned me. If it rains. they will go to the beach a. she would have spoken to him. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he were here. 5. If he had come. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. If I had known about it. If I am free next week. a. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. If I can do it. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. If you had asked me. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If he is here. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5.Ex. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . she would speak to him. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. If he has time. he would take part in the game 2. If he works harder. If I were you. If he goes there. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. b. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

If I (would be. were) a holiday. had been) here last week. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 5. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. If the weather had been nice. we may not go away. were) you. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16.. He acted as if he (had. 12. If you had had last week off. 7. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. 15. 8. were) sick.. Choose the correct form: 1.I feel as if I (ate. If it (rains. He acts as if he (was. would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. 16. (lf I were you. were) the manager of the place. I would certainly do it. I (could go. will come) before noon. If England had been better prepared for war. If you hadn´t had to study last night. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If I had more time.) 2. has been. I would have acted differently. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. had eaten) a large dinner. 10. 4. Answer these questions: 1. I (will. we could go to the beach. If I had been invited. had had) a great shock. If yesterday had been a holiday. 13. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.If today (was. If the weather were nice. I would not accept the work.If yesterday (was. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . 6.9. If I (knew. could have gone) if they had asked me. would have come) if we had asked him. If I (was. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. had been) a holiday. John looks as though he (was. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. will go) too.I think he (would come. 9. 11. we could have gone to the beach. Ex. had known) this yesterday. 3. If you had studied harder.) (as though = as if = como si. I would certainly do it. If he (was. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. he would have taken part in the discussion. 7. will rain) tomorrow. If you had known it was going to rain. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.He will not go unless she (goes. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 14. were) in his position. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Call me if he (comes. 6. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10.

9... I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas.. John wishes she were here now.I can’t speak English well but I wish. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday. Ex. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. este siempre debe ir seguido por el MODO SUBJUNTIVO. 1.... 3. es decir. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now. 244 A short course in english for adult students S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional I don´t have a car but I wish I had one. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy..) 2...” I don´t know how to swim. Complete the following sentences: 1... 10.. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish. I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off.. 5. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales... Mary isn’t here but I wish. I don´t have a car but I wish. A. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. I wish it would stop raining soon.I have to work this afternoon but I wish. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday. I am not a millionaire but I wish.”. I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 2.. Mary is not here now. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . 5. 8. 7. “Me gustaría. 11.. 8. I wish I had seen her. o “Me habría gustado.. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. 2. 9. I wish I weren´t so busy. I wish I knew how to swim. 7...PART II. 12. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night.. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon.. I cannot swim but I wish. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. 6.. 4.. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo TO WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. 4. I´d certainly invite her to the party. 3. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex. (I wish John were here now.”. 6. John won’t do it for us but I wish. It´s been raining hard for about five hours.... I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better. 11. 10. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura..

12.. He asked that it__________________________ done right away. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach that day.”. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. “It´s essential that. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. “It´s imperative that. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular. _______________________________________________ 4.. 1. (come) 6. _______________________________________________ 7. (go) 10. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. EXERCISES Ex. “It´s advisable that. 3.. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) 2. TO SUGGEST. _______________________________________________ 5. (be) 8. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: I wish he spoke English well. (visit) 7. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach today.) I suggested that you see the manager today. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. (be) 4. He proposed that John __________________________ chairman of the committee.”. It is imperative that they _________________________ there on time. He insisted that she _________________________ on with the work. TO REQUIRE. I recommended that you _________________________ back later. _______________________________________________ B. He recommended that she _________________ with him.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas.. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. _______________________________________________ 2. The doctor suggested that Mr.”.. TO DEMAND. _______________________________________________ 3. 1a. (go) (He recommended that she go with him. “It is necessary that.) 2.. etc. (wait) 3. En el Presente del Subjuntivo.”. _______________________________________________ 8.. (take) A short course in english for adult students 245 . VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO 1. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara... Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are.. They insisted that we _________________________ them again. _______________________________________________ 9. También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. (be) 5. I´m sorry John is not here with us. Smith _________________________ a long vacation. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater. _______________________________________________ 10.. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday. Is it necessary that this _________________________ finished today? (be) 9. He suggested that John_______________________ a few minutes. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. I suggested that you should see the manager today. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli.. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo.) 3. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. TO ASK. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier 4. Los verbos TO RECOMMEND. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. _______________________________________________ 6. She asked that we should be there before midday..

Had I known your number. 4. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. would be) in Florida now. They insisted that we ______________________________ them again. 2. I (may sleep. 11. Choose the correct form: 1. Were I you.) 2. may be sleeping). Ex. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. He asked me to lend him the money. He proposed that John ______________________________ chairman of the committee. If he felt better. I wish I (went. We asked them to go with us in our car. 2. 246 A short course in english for adult students . have seen) John yesterday. John said he (will. Had I had more time. If I (were. 2. I recommended that you ______________________________ back later. 9. He suggested that John__________________________ a few minutes. to be sent) tomorrow. would) be here tomorrow. He asked me to be there on time. If you come too early. The merchandise is supposed (to send. 6. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: I suggested that John wait / should wait for me. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. (insist) ___________________________________________ 9. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. He suggested that John (come. 9. had seen) that movie already. comes) soon. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 7. I ______________________________ (do) it. 11. I asked John to wait for me. He insisted that she ______________________________ on with the work. He said he (saw. comes) back later. (take) Ex. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ finished today? (be) 9. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. 10. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). John asked me to take a walk with him. John sat between Mary and (I. 10. 6. I would go swimming. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. has been living) here many years. I (saw. me). (suggest) ___________________________________________ 8. (wait) 3. would be) in Florida now. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 2. is sitting) at this desk. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. The doctor suggested that Mr. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). If he (will come. 4. 8. 1. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? 4. 13. 12. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. John always (sits. (suggest) ___________________________________________ Ex. (come) 6. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. (insist) ___________________________________________ 6. I wish I (were. (insist) ___________________________________________ 3. 3. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. If he had felt better. please let me know. 8. he would spend it at the beach. Smith ______________________________ a long vacation. He recommended that she __________________ with him. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. (be) 4. 7. 14. 7. He (is living. 3. 5. 1b.Ex. be) there early. 5. The owner of the store asked me to call back later. If John were here. 12. He recommended that I (am. had gone) with you to the party last night. (visit) 7. I asked her to come back later. (go) 10. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 10. he would have spent it at the beach. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. (be) 5. (be) 8. It is imperative that they __________________________ there on time. (go) (He recommended that she should go with him. (recommend) ___________________________________________ 4. If he had been well. He asked that it______________________________ done right away. 3. (suggest) ___________________________________________ 5. Repeat the previous exercise using SHOULD : 1.

to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Which would you prefer. 5 Answer these questions: 1. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.Ex. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Which would you prefer. Which would you prefer. Which would you prefer to study in the future. Which would you prefer to be. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.

asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /!i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atæki# iunit/ ´ ´ Barrack /bærak/ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /difénsiv æktchon/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæ#k/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza. combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:pi# fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva /priémptiv æktchon/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchon/ acción preventiva ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ prisionero Raid /reid/ incursión Ranger /réindller/ comando Rear /ríar/ retaguardia Rear position /ríar posíshon/ posición de retaguardia Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ reconocimiento Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ refuerzo Relief /rilí:f/ ayuda.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio. auxilio Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ equipo de rescate Reservist /rése:rvist/ reservista Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ toque de diana Retreat /ritrí:t/ recogida. retreta Review /riviú:/ revista Revolt /rivólt/ revuelta Riot /ráiot/ revuelta Salute /saliút/ saludo Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ tirador escogido Skirmish /ské:rmish/ escaramuza Slaughter /sló:ter/ matanza Spy /spái/ espía Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ estrategia Struggle /strægl/ ´ lucha Surrender /sarénder/ rendición Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ vigilancia Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ táctica Truce /tru:s/ tregua 248 A short course in english for adult students .

Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuó:rterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíli#/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kó#ker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To inspect /inspékt/ To invade /invéid/ guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas. conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse A short course in english for adult students 249 . pelear disparar rendirse inspeccionar invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverrán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wi"dró:/ matar guiar. bajas maniobras Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wi"dróal/ no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero retirada llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar. asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar.

Bl 250 .

they would go to the beach.he had more friends.I had had one. she had come.. 14... 6.. 7.. would go 12. had been 4. had been Ex. I had known it. we would not go. 2..If the weather were nice. 2.he´d be a better student.. If he prepared his lessons.. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . have 9.. would have told 9. 3.. he would play tennis more often...... If he´d gone there. would have gone 10.she had more money. would have caught 3. If I saw her. If I were free tomorrow. I´d speak a lot better .would buy a modern car.. 10. 4. would make 5.. 6. 5.I had been there.. I would have included it in the list of guests 7. would go to the beach. If he went. would feel 8. Ex.. would have come 6. (Possible answers) 2. would speak 3.could go on a picnic. we would speak better. I´d be planning a trip to France... If he were here. 8.. I´d have given her the message. I´d read more books. And I´d. 4. would 4.. 4. would learn 4. Ex. / If he had had time. 6. 7..she had the day off / free. had gone 9.. If he were here. had told 10. they would stay at A short course in english for adult students 251 . 15. I´d would visit... 8. he might he1p us... 5.. had Ex. would learn faster 4. I´d buy.. 1.she had wore it... 9. C) Ex. he´d make good progress. 10. they would have gone to the beach. had been 8.it were not so cold.. he ´d have gotten a better job. he could help us. she wouldn´t have caught cold.. he would meet her. 2.. he would go with us.. 3.would plan a trip to France. 5. 2. If he came.. 8. I´d drive to. (Possible answers) 2. 5. I´d have acted differently.. 2. 8... were 3.. If I didn´t have to work. 2. I´d getter better marks. would be 7.he had more practice in conversation.. I´d go to. 4. 9. of course. were 8. 9. 1 would do it gladly...she were here I would be talking with her now. I ´d have done it gladly. knew Ex. / I´d go to. would have been 7. 2. would have been 5. / If I´d been able to do it.. would have written 8.. If it rained.. 2. 12. 11. 12..he had spoken it. comes 10.. would visit Ex. I´d beging to study.. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera. / If I´d seen her. 13. 9. If I could do it. 12..would invite her out to dinner.he liked to do it... might 12. (Possible answers)... 8.would do more things every day.... / If I had been free yesterday. if he studied hard. he would have gone with us. were 6. would go 10... would work 11.. I would have called you up. If 1 were free now. 10. had called 5. he will let us know. He´d certainly speak better. 2.. he´d speak it better. is 3.I had been in his position.. they would succeed. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more.. 4. 10. she´d be able to travel abroad more often.. I´d go to the movie. Ex. I´d go to. she would have taken part in the competition. he would have let us know. If they tried hard.. could 6.. he came to class on time he´d be a better student. first. 11. If I had more time. 3. he studied harder 3. / If he´d been here. would have helped 4. I would call you up. Yes..... If we had much practice. Ex. 3. would have driven Ex. knew 4. I´d give her the message.. 7.. 2 .Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex. had 11. he had told me. If the weather were cold... I´d have called you up. 1. / If the weather had been nice. were 9. / . were 7. he´d enjoy living here. Oh yes. 6. 2. 11. I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss.... had known 7... knew 8... If he had time. 7. 4. 5. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better. were 12. 6. (Suggested answers) 1. would 5. I´d go to the beach... 6. 9.I were there now I would visiting Orlando. had 5.. 12.. 8.. 4. 11. 3. 5. he might have helped us.he had more free time.I could speak it.. 3. could 7. 3... If he went there.he had been there. he would pass 5. had worn 6. I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. would take 9. Yes. she had come on time. 9. 7... 6. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer).... prepared 10.he´d learn more. would speak 6. had had 3. he would see her.I had had it..I spoke it well. had 11.would visit Epcot Center 7. you would have seen him..

5. would have come Ex. had known it started today. 9. 5. comes 8. 3.. would have come 8. 3. I´d be very sorry to hear that. could 3. I didn´t have to work.. You´d be wrong if you said that. she were here. 2. were 11.. he had worked harder during the term. they would have stayed at home. 8. be / should be 9. 4. I would have certainly helped him. of course. 10. I´d prefer to be in good health. 1. He hates sports. 3.home. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. he would be promoted.. 13. of course. had had 12. he would do it 9. 2. 9. 5. rains 6.... a) y 1. I would have gone. Ex. 16. He loves sports / No.. be / should be 5. may be sleeping 11. If John were present. I love the rain. of course. of course. had gone 3. (Suggested answers) 2. come 5. You´d be very wrong if you said that. (Suggested answers) 1. would have telephoned 3. I wish he had gone with us last night.. I think. 6. 1. I´d be sorry to hear that. of course / No. sits Ex. You´d be right or wrong. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. come / should come 6. would 7. were 7. had hurried 6. had eaten 16. visit / should visit 7. had 11. 252 A short course in english for adult students . had been 12. would begin 5. I wish I knew her better 7. 2. 3. were 14. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. 1. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. 2. had been 8. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies. 12. goes 15. be 4. 1. I wouldn´t have helped him. the meeting would have been good. had gone 6. has been living 12. had known 9. I hate the rain / Yes.. I´d have gone to a concert instead. I was too busy at that moment. would watch TV every day 11. saw 13....b) 2. would buy a Japanese car. 7.would have attended the conference.. No. of course. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. she were.. were 2. me 9. were 3. 2 . Yes. 11. 10.. were 10.were 4. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. Ex. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. 5. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3. I´d have gone to. would go 9. go / should go 10. 7. were 11. take / should take Ex. Ex.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening. be / should be 8. I would have gotten a better mark.. I´d be very sorry to hear that... 12. 2. would have I´d have told him you were here.. would go out for a walk 14. had known 5. would have phoned you 3. had studied 4..wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. 2. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. I wish John were here with us. 10. 5. 7. I wouln´t have gone. 5. If he worked harder. it would have been the same 8. 2. he might have gone with us. the meeting would be good. I were 8. If he´d worked harder. 8... would 10. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly. 2. / If John had been present. If it had rained. 5.. could have gone 7.. / No. I wish today were a holiday. had had 4. I´d prefer to own a horse. My English is not very good. 11. he wouldn´t have gone. 8. 9. had the day off . We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. 10. it were nice 7. 11. be / should be 4. 6.. 3. it had been a holiday 6. 4... I like riding horses. He suggested that I be / should be there on time. were 9.. If he had the money. 12. Yes. 9.. It depends. would have gone 10. were 5.we had asked him to help us. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him.. he would have been promoted. 7. . Yes. knew Ex. / . of course.. I had studied 4.. could Ex.. 5. I could swim 3. it were a holiday. Of course he would have gone. had been 12. would have helped you 6. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. would 8. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful. Ex. I would have gone to. (Possible answers) 1. 7. I´d prefer to be rich. I would have gone all the same. PART II A) Ex. I´d be pleased to hear that. of course. comes 13. to be sent 10.. would have done 7. 10.. wait / should wait 3. 12. I could speak it . 4.. had already seen 14.had been invited 4. / . 6. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home.. would have gone out for a walk 15. 8.. 2. I wish it weren´t raining so hard. 4. were 6. 10... 4.. of course.. Yes. 6. 6.

“I like New York. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona.” He said that he was working very hard. He said. “I always work hard. lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés).” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York. He said. He said. John said. He said. “I will work hard all day.” He said that he would work hard all day. “I have to do that again.” He said that he could use a computer. dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont.” He said that he had worked very hard. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). “I like these books” He said that liked those books.” He said that he had been busy the day before. He said. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. “It may rain again. “I have worked very hard. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS (STATEMENTS) Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. “I´m very busy. He said.” He said that he was busy then. “I´m busy now. “I must do the job well.” He said that he had to do the job well. He said. “I´m busy today.” He said that he had to do that again.” He said that he always worked hard. He said.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. “I´m busy at this moment. “I was busy yesterday. pidió o advirtió hacer. (Indirect Speech) I. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativos. “I´m working very hard. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us).” He said that he had worked very hard.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. He said. “I can use a computer. He said. “I worked very hard. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. He said.” He said that it might rain again. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. nos preguntó o nos ordenó. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 .

Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night

The following day

There Last night The night before / The previous night

He said, “I´ll be busy tomorrow.” He said that he would be busy the following day. He said, “I´m very happy here.” He said that he was very happy there. He said, “I´m very busy tonight.” He said that she was very busy that night. He said, “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night.

Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación, según vimos en la Unidad 8, se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. Bob said, “I like New York.” Bob told us that he liked New York. II. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS (QUESTIONS) Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto, no se debe mantener la estructura interrogativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura AFIRMATIVA (S+VM+VP) John asked me, “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. The teacher asked the students, “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. Bob asked me, “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. Bob asked his friends, “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. III. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES, REQUERIMIENTOS, ADVERTENCIAS, ETC, (ORDERS, COMMANDS, REQUESTS, ADVICE, etc.) Cuando se desea expresar una orden, un requerimiento, advertencia, etc, en el discurso indirecto, se debe usar la siguiente estructura:
Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb begged asked told warned requested ordered advised Object Pro (Noun). me you him / her us them the boy the boys TO/NOT TO + Infinitive. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class

EXERCISES Ex. 1. Change the following statements from direct to indirect form: John said that he had to work tonight. 1. John said, “I have to work tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary said to me, ‘’I will be back later.” ___________________________________________________ 3. Mr. Smith said, “We may have an exam.” ___________________________________________________ 4. He said, “I have no money.” ___________________________________________________ 5. The doctor said, “John is a very sick man.” ___________________________________________________ 6. Mary said to me, “I cannot go with you tonight.” ___________________________________________________ 7. He said, “I hope she comes soon.” ___________________________________________________ 8. He said, “l have known him a long time.” ___________________________________________________ 9. Mr. Smith said, “We will finish this tomorrow.” ___________________________________________________
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10. He said, “I don’t know her well.” 11. She said, “I am going away tomorrow.” 12. He said to me, “He is supposed to be here now.”

___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 2. Change the following questions from direct to indirect form: Mary asked where John lived. 1. Mary asked, “Where does John live?” ___________________________________________________ 2. Helen said to me, “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3..Mr Smith asked us, “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4. I asked John, “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. He asked me, “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. John said, “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. He said to me, “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8. The teacher asked, “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. He asked me, “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10. He asked me, “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. I asked him, “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. He said to me, “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. I asked her, “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. She said to him, “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. I asked her, “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. Change the following orders, requests, commands, etc. to the indirect form: John told me to wait five minutes for him. 1. John said to me, “Wait five minutes for me.” ___________________________________________________ 2. The teacher said to us, “Don’t write in pencil.” ___________________________________________________ 3. I asked him, “Be more careful.” ___________________________________________________ 4. He asked me, ‘’Please don’t be late.” ___________________________________________________ 5. He asked me, “Try to come on time.” ___________________________________________________ 6. He said to me, “Don’t make the same mistake again.” ___________________________________________________ 7. He warned the child, “Don’t cross the road.” ___________________________________________________ S. He said to me, “Don’t forget what I told you.” ___________________________________________________ 9. He begged me, ‘’Please send me the money at once.” __________________________________________________ 10.He asked me, “Sit down for a few minutes.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: The teacher told me to sit in the first row. 1. Sit in the first row. ___________________________________________________ 2. Wait outside in the hall. ___________________________________________________ 3. Come back later. ___________________________________________________ 4. Do your exercíses in ink. ___________________________________________________ 5. Give this message to Mrs. Smith. ___________________________________________________ 6. Don’t waste so much time. ___________________________________________________ 7. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. ___________________________________________________ 8. Sit up straight. ___________________________________________________ 9. Go to the whiteboard. ___________________________________________________ 10. Take your feet off the desk. ___________________________________________________ 11. Prepare your lessons more carefully. ___________________________________________________ 12. Sit down and read the story. ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in the indirect form. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: I don’t know where John is. 1. Where´s John? (I don’t know... ) ___________________________________________________ 2. Is he in the building? (She wants to know...) ___________________________________________________ 3. Where does she live? (Can you tell me...?) ___________________________________________________ 4. Is he a good student? (I´m not sure...) ___________________________________________________ 5. How much does it cost? (He wants to know...) ___________________________________________________
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6. Where is she going? (She didn’t say... ) ___________________________________________________ 7. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . .) 8. How is he getting along? (Mrs. Jones wanted to know,.) _________________________________________________ 9. Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me...) ___________________________________________________ 10. Where is he now? (Can you tell me... ) ___________________________________________________ 11. Is Mr. Smith here? (I’d like to know...) ___________________________________________________ 12. When will he get back? (I´d like to find out...) ___________________________________________________ 13. How tall is he? (I don’t know... ) ___________________________________________________ 14. Is he very tall? (I really don’t know...) ___________________________________________________ 15. Where does he live? (Ask him...) ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. . Change from indirect to direct form: 1. He said he was busy. 2. He asked me where I lived. 3. He asked her whether she liked New York. 4. She said she was going out of town. 5. She said her last name was Smith. 6. She said her maiden name had been Jones. 7. He told me not to wait for him. 8. He said that he could not meet us. 9. He asked how much it cost. 10. He told her to leave the room. 11. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. 12. He said he would be back soon. Ex. 7. Choose the correct form: 1. He asked me where I (live, lived). 2. I don’t know whether (I can, can I) do it. 3. Can you tell me what time (it is, is it)? 4. He said he (will, would) come here soon. 5. He (told me, said to me) that he was busy. 6. He asked me what time it (is, was). 7. I asked him what the word (means, meant). 8. I asked her whether she (is, was) married. 9. I’d like to know where (is it, it is). 10. He said he (can, could) meet us easily. 11. I´m not sure whether (he is, is he) here now. 12. He didn’t say where he (is, was) going. Ex. 8. Answer these questions: 1. Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________
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(He said, “I am busy.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

(He asked me where I lived.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

BASIC VOCABULARY VERBOS PRINCIPALES: VERBOS REGULARES E IRREGULARES Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: INFINITIVO, PASADO, PASADO PARTICIPIO y GERUNDIO. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. Escuche, lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. /wí: hav wé:rkt há:rd !is íar/ We are working hard now. /wí: a:r wé:rki# ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /!éi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. /!éi spóuk í#glish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. /!éi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. /!éi a:r spí:ki# í#glish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora)

A. VERBOS REGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchi#/ working /wé:rki#/ loving /lávi#/ playing /pléii#/ studying /stádii#/ fitting /fiti#/ stopping /stópi#/ guiding /gáidi#/ repeating /ripí:ti#/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir

NOTAS: 1. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed; mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. 2. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante, o cons+cons+vocal+cons, deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. 3. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t, -te, -d, -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/, y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/; decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/; request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/.

Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/

Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/

Spanish contestar, responder llegar preguntar, pedir transportar, llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar, gustar terminar odiar, no gustar ayudar esperar, desear invitar escuchar ubicar, localizar

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To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/

looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/

mirar amar, gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar, arreglar repetir solicitar, pedir fumar comenzar, partir quedarse, permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar, esforzarse usar, utilizar visitar esperar, atender caminar querer lavar observar, mirar desear trabajar, funcionar

B. VERBOS IRREGULARES DE USO FRECUENTE Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /bri#/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /dri#k/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/
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Past Tense began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræ#k/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/

Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /dra#k/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/

Spanish empezar, comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar, conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar, encontrar olvidar conseguir, obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener, servirse, haber oir guardar, mantener saber, conocer aprender, enterarse partir, salir, dejar prestar perder, extraviar hacer, fabricar

A short course in english for adult students

To meet /mi:t/ met /met/ To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ put /put/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ sang /sæ#/ To sing /si#/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ stood up /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /"i#k/ thought /"o:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ ´ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/

met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /sa#/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /"o:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn

reunirse, conocer pagar poner, colocar leer correr, administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar, pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar, llevar enseñar decir, narrar pensar, creer entender, comprender vestir, desgastar escribir

A short course in english for adult students

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Bl 260 .

3. 8. John asked whether / if it was raining. He said to her.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper. He asked her. He asked me to meet him outside the station. 5. He said (that) he had known him a long time. 2. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. “Don´t wait for me. 7. 15. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. 7. Mr. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. Because there was too much traffic at that time. was 9. She didn´t say where she was going . He told me to write a short story in English. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. I don´t know how tall he is. 3. 3.” 8. would 5. 2. He begged me to send him the money at once. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. 7. Can you tell me where he is now? 11. 2. 8. 2. 2. I told him to be more careful. “Where do you live?” 3. 9. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. Ex. He asked me what the word meant. “Leave the room. He said. 7. 2. 10. He told me not to make the same mistake again. I can 3. 6. 11. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. 6. 6. it is 10. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. He wants to know how much it costs. I asked her whether / if John was here. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 10. I asked him when he had read that book. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. 12. 14. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. 5. Mr. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink. 5. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 13. 3. 11. “ 11. 5. She said. 2. 7. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. “How much does it cost?” 10.She said. was Ex. “I can´t meet you . The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. told me 6. He said he´d seen it. A short course in english for adult students 261 . 2. He said to me. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. 13. 4. “I´m going out of town. He asked me how I was today. He asked. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 5. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. 1. Ex. “My last name´s Smith 6. “I´ll be back soon. She said. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. was 7. The teacher told me to come back later. “My maiden name was Jones. 15. 9. 4. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. Mrs. 4. He asked me. 9. could 11. She wants to know how he is getting along. 7. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. 3. 3. 9. Mr. 4. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. 8. 8. Ex. 3. 4. (Possible Answers) . He warned the child not to cross the road. I asked her where it was. 6. 14.” 9. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 8. 5. . He said. it is 4. Ex. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. He said (that) he had no money. He politely asked me not to be late. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. meant 8. I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. 12. 7.” 5. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . He told me not to forget what he had told me. Smith. “Do you like New York?” 4. he is 12. 12. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 8. 10. 1. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. He asked me.” Ex. He asked me to try to come on time. 10. 6. I asked John what time it was. 2. 8. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. 4. “Did you mail the letter?” 12. Smith is here. 12. 6. Ex. 9. 7. 6. 5. Ask him where he lives.

Bl 262 .

Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército..? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud..? Vengo de Stgo.. No entiendo francés Es Ud... Me gustaría presentarle al Sr./ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræ#k /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt./ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud... hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud. Mi nombre es./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.. My name is. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do.. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento. mi nombre es.. Este es el o la Sr./ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz...../ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéii# æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está Ud...Chile ¿Vive ud. At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well..USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A.? ¿Tiene Ud. thank you I´m fine..? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado.. aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórni#/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vni#/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: !is i:vni#/ /"æ#kiu:/ /"ænkiu: véri mátch/ ´ ´ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel "æ#kiu/ /aim fáin "æ#ks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian? No.. un/a. Permítame presentarme.? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students UNIT 20 263 ... .. casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud. I don´t. Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente. francés/alemán/italiano? No..? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor.. This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. My name is.... bat ai spí:k spænish and í#glish/ ´ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ ´ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a.../Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr...? ¿De dónde es Ud. Please let me introduce myself./ /!is iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor.. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud...

I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. Concuerdo con Ud.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. Ud.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wi! pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:ti# iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn !e wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts !e déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu há#gri/ /a:r iu "é:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r ró#/ /ai agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wi! iú:/ /ai dóunt "i#k sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai "i#k sóu/ /ies !æts ráit/ /!æts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai !æt/ /wót daz !is wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts !e mí:ni# ov !is wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí. No lo creo así. por favor. está equivocado. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. Sí. razón. I don´t mind. creo que sí Sí.. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . of course/certainly/sure No.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. please Don´t open the window. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. No concuerdo con Ud. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. Así lo espero. I think so Yes. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. come in and sit down Wait a moment. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. por supuesto No. entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si.. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. por favor No abra la ventana. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor.

etc.etc. etc. ¿Qué (hace. por favor.( haciendo.... etc.. etc.(do. ) 7....) please.....)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6. ¿Puedo yo... Do you mind if I. etc.. Let´s sit here. Can May I. etc..Remember: 1.)? 7..... etc) 3. help you..etc... Don´t.).(smoke....(name..... 8. ¿Cuál es su.. etc.etc.(ayudarme.... etc. (... etc..)? estaba 2.)UD? did 3.. ¿Qué está estará (hizo. etc. Sentémonos aquí (vamos. spell it? (.)? were you 2.(doing.(fumo. What´s your. Sit here.(sentarme aquí. Siéntese aquí (venga.)? UD? 4. Could you. ¿Podría Ud..)? ¿Querría Ud.etc)? 9... 5... etc) .).. please. (sit here.. ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo.. go.)? Recuerde: 1. etc .etc) (hará. por favor.)? will 4.(nombre dirección.(help me. etc..(come here. No vaya allá (hable.... What do you.. Shall I..) A short course in english for adult students 265 .. go there ( speak.)? Would 5..)? Can Will 6. What are you will you be .... 8. etc)? 9..). ¿Le molesta a UD si yo. address..

At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo. Is there a barber´s shop here? Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz !e réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz !e bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz !er e télifoun in !e lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /!érz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai "i#k/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/dri#k/órder !is/ /iz !er a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust !í:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r !e lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik !e líft/elevéitor tu !e tén" fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at.. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night..B. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi. despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis. a mi habitación..m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación? ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español... me parece. please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a. 266 A short course in english for adult students . please I need to make an international call to Chile. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta.. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from !e houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spænish plí:z/ ´ /iz !er e suími# pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in !e houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz !er e máni ekstchéindll in !e houtél/ /kud iu brí# e. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key.. por favor. I want to check out at.oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik !e sé:rvis/!e fu:d/!e rú. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2.. por favor.. Yo no cené aquí anoche.. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. por favor? ¿Dónde está el restaurant? ¿Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza.. por favor. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik !is sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz !ér e kólor tí: ví: in !e rú:m/ /!e séntral hí:ti#/éar kondíshoner íznt wé:rki# wél/ /mai béd hæznt bí:n méid iet/ ´ ´ /ai ní:d aná!er blæ#kit/ /kud iu tchéindll !e táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts !e vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz !ear a kóin operéitid wóshi# mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv !i:z klóu!z wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and !e kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check.. please? There´s an error in my bill/check.

(lift.etc...) please? Recuerde: 1...) I would like to. etc. toilets.(ascensor. etc) Desearía...) in the hotel? 4.Remember: 1..) en el hotel? 4. etc.(make a phone call.) 2.etc. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .etc. Quiero.. (telephones... etc.)? ¿Dónde están los . bar.etc.(wake me up at 7:30..(bar. baños.... Could you.... etc..? 3....)? Where are the...etc. bar..(despertarme a las 7. Is there a.(hacer una llamada..( have another coffee. etc)? 3.etc. ¿Hay un..... ) 2. I want to.(servirme otro café. / teléfonos. Where is the... ¿Podría Ud..(bar. ¿Dónde está el.

bíar or e sóft drí#k/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar.)? 2.. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? ¿Whisky. almendras saladas o maní...)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. ¿Desearía algo para beber? ¿Vino.) Can I have. Recuerde: 1. (beber. (otro whisky. Puede conservar el vuelto... etc.)? Could you get me. etc. (some more tea. medium or well-done? I want it well done please.) ¿Puedo servirme. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area... please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine... mí:dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó. etc. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té.. (chicken and rice. (the bill. Remember: 1.. (comer. cognac o amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta. Could you pass me the salt. (más té. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty.) /ai ní:d e téibl for "rí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz !er e téibl in !e non smóuki# éaria níar !e wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rvi# lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll !is íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at !e méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:z ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wi!/ ´ /ai "i#k ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi aná!er náif !is wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check. etc. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta. a sandwich... etc.)? How would you like your.etc... por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne? ¿La quiere a punto.)? 3. cherry. etc. etc. What do you want to (eat.. etc. Quiero servirme. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso. etc. etc.)? ¿Me podría traer. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida.... etc. etc)? Desearía pedir.)? What would you like to (drink. It was very good indeed. etc. beer or a soft drink? Can I have a draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu brí# mi !e bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid !e mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /"æ#kiu véri match/iu kan kí:p !e tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. (la cuenta. por favor.)? 3.) I´d like to have. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda. Thank you very much. Good bye.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. .) Desearía servirme. por favor? Realmente disfruté la comida. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo. etc.etc. (tea.... Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch. (steak. etc.) 268 A short course in english for adult students .)? 2. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. salted almonds or peanuts. ¿Podría pasarme la sal...C. (a beer.. etc. Hasta luego.. Fue muy buena en verdad.s mi !e só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sám"i# tu drí#k wáin. You can keep the change. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio.)? I´d like to order. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. (another whisky. (una cerveza. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. I want to have. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo. ¿Qué quiere Ud. Muchísimas gracias. please? I really enjoyed the meal. cerveza o una gaseosa? ¿Podría servirme una cerveza de barril. (pollo con arroz. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores. un sandwich. How do you want your.

TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students . menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto.cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Pan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /héri#/ King-crab /ki# kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ Sole. plaice /sóul. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kæbidll/ Carrot /kærrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drési#/ Fruit /frú:t/ Hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ Main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. bill /tchek. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ Tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES.

rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo Uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students . casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /æprikot / éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blækberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tchóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /ræzberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular.

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblklo"/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. Excuse me. Excuse me. Kan iu shóu mi !e wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz !e póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél mi wéar !e bæ#k iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar !e stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi !e wéi tu !e pá:rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu !e miu:zíam/ /luk at !e mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid !e stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu !e brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at !e réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k aló# !is strí:t as fá:r as !e træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at !e nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun !e strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik !e "é:rd té:rni# on !e ráit and !én wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv alo# !is róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/!en té:rn ráit and iul sí: !e táuer at !i énd ov !e róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréindller híar maisélf/á:sk e polísman/ /ikskiu:z mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu !e næshional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz !i éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik !e tréin/ /ikskiú:z mi dáz !is bás go tu !e stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu !i óksford houtél in pá:rk strí:t/ /ikskiu:z mi wéarz !e níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz !er e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/!éarz wan in bridll strí:t. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. por favor? Perdón.D. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. en la Calle Park Perdón. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. please? Excuse me. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ ´ ´ /ai wónt tu góu tu !e ka"ídrl. Where´s the post office. por favor? Perdón. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me.por favor? Perdón. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. hasta el semáforo. Camine por esta calle. I´m a stranger here myself. Necesita tomar el tren. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. opposite the cinema. No sé. outside the station. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. please? Could you tell me where the bank is. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. ¿Podría indicarme el camino. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. Sorry I don´t know. take me to the Oxford Hotel. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. It´s not very far. óposit !e sínema/ /wót táim du !e bæ#ks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt ráni#/ /wót taim du !e shóps klóuz/ /dáz !e supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. por favor? Perdón. dónde está la estación. Perdón. please? Excuse me. in Park Street. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . can you tell me the way to the park. ¿Sabe Ud. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. Ask a policeman. You need to take the train. Yo también soy forastero aquí. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. Do you know where the station is. frente al cine. please? Excuse me.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. there´s one in Bridge Street. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. We are here.

? Is there a. /péivment/ vereda(UK) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (UK) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1..? 5.. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las...open / close? 6.....Useful vocabulary (vocabulario útil) City. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la..más cercana.por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la....de aquí? 7.cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 .. Could you tell me the way to... How do I get to. Where is the nearest... ¿A qué distancia está el / la....por favor? ¿Dónde esta la.....? 5. Could you show me the way to. ¿Cómo llego a.. from here? 7.....? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la... Which bus do I need to take to go to the. please? Can you tell me where the. Where is the...s... please? 3... How far is the.? 2..por favor? 3. is.. Do you know where the. please?.. por favor? 4. I need to buy a / some.is.. near here? Building /bíldi#/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (UK) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre /shópi# sénter/ Centro comercial Shopping mall /shópi# mo:l/ Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamentos Book store /buk stó:r/ librería Book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /"íater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1.? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a.. What time do the. open / close? What time does the.. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a. ¿Dónde está la.. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement.? 2.. please? 4. Hay un / una. Necesito comprar un / algunos..? 6.....

Can you spell it please? /kan ai hæv io:r pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a rité:rn tíkit tu lión/ 274 A short course in english for adult students . Please put your cigarette out now. bæk ov io:r sí:t in !i apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo Can I have your passport. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped. Fasten your seat belt. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. At the station / airport (en la estación / aeropuerto) ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? /háu mátch is !e bás tíkit tu !e zú:/ Is it a direct journey / flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey / flight take? ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? /háu ló# daz !e dllé:rni /fláit téik/ What time does the train /plane leave? ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin lí:v/ What time does the train /plane / get there? ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? /wot táim daz !e tréin /pléin get !éar/ Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu lo# daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? /du !ei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ Can I have a seat by the window? ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai !e wíndou/ ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in !e non smóuki# éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases Estas son mis malaetas /!í:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Please carry my suitcases with care Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wi! kéar/ I will carry this handbag myself. Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos /wi a:r lændi# /arráivi# in e fiu: minits/ pocos minutos. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil !e pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. ´ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano /ai wil kæri !is hændbæg maisélf/ Where is the luggage /baggage claim? ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? /wéar iz !e lágidll /bægidll kléim/ I have nothing to declare No tengo nada para declarar /ai hæv ná"i# tu dikléar/ How many bottles can I take with me? ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wi! mí:/ Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? /iz !er e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ Where is the bar? /restaurant? ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? /wéarz !e bá:r /restorant/ Are we landing /arriving soon? ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? /á:r wi lændi# /arráivi# sú:n/ We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld !e téibl and put !e Ajuste su cinturón.E. please? What´s your last name.

Shopping (de compras) /ai láik !is /!æt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik !í:z /!óuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: !em/ /kan ai trái !em ón // /háu mátch á:r !ei /háu mátch du !ei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ /kan ai péi wi! amérikan máni /iú: és Can I pay with American money /US dollars dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes. ¿Tiene Ud. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik !e kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. guarde este recibo. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano / dólares? No me gusta el color. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sám"i#/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of lé!er /plástik /wu:l /kóton / góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt.? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. We´ll send the items to the plane. /plí:z kí:p !is risí:t /wí wil sénd !i áitmz tu !e pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz !is wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r !ouz glávz/ I like this /that watch /jacket. ¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor.F. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 .

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antes de comenzar la prueba. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 .. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas.. 5. 4..Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. 3.50. El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas. Preguntas 1 .READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2..Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas... usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma).Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio.Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A..Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita).UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1.LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B. que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador).

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can see a doctor today. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . 11. C. 14. opens the door now. 3. will give to him your message C. B. a little bored. have just opened the door. had better go by taxi. D. were there earlier. A. B. 7. A. wants open the door now. had dinner that evening. C. he seldom works hard. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. who Peter sent Mary last week. are having dinner that evening. give him your message. A. would know her new address. so much difficult for him. 13. A. D. B. D. 12. had stolen. D. B. very ill now. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. D. A. C. D. too much difficult for him. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. 10. A. C. everywhere that day. whose Peter sent Mary last week. had to be there very quickly. C. have been having dinner that evening. A. he often works hard. nowhere that day. D. am going to give him your message D. “What expensive it is!” C. deberá elegir la alternativa A. 9. o D. know her new address. C. D. B. C. can be there now. B. he works hard as a rule. might see a doctor today. D. D. somewhere that day. 4. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. won’t can see it well. 15. B. C. A. C. won’t be able to see it well. should to go by taxi. B. B. A. C. “How expensive it is!” B. A. was been stolen. A. were having dinner that evening. B. En cada caso Ud. B. too difficult for him. anywhere that day. may see a doctor today. A. “How expensive watch is it!” D. too late right now. a few difficult for him. Ud. would rather go by taxi. deberá consignarla. is trying to open the door now. A. B. won’t be possible to see it well A. B whom Peter sent Mary last week.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. C. D. will be there on time. D. ought to see a doctor today. 6. C. give your message to him 2. oirá oraciones incompletas. D. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. knew her new address. had been stolen. won’t be allowed to see it well. which Peter sent Mary last week. was stealing. A short course in english for adult students 279 . Ud. C. quite busy at the moment. A. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. are better to go by taxi. should know her new address. B. he always works hard. 5. C. B.15.

Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. B. They go there from time to time. D. 16. 23. He has to decide what to do soon. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. Didn’t forget.30. C. 18. D. There were too many people there. He would miss his family. He stayed in the garden all morning. They are 12 years old. D. A. D. D. He remembered he had a friend. He hasn’t studied her well. 26. They decided to go home early. que la conteste en mejor forma. C. 29. deberá elegir la alternativa A. 19. Didn’t make a decision. B. o D. He doesn’t see her so often. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. C. B. He wanted to save money. D. They went somewhere else together. A polite person. The weather was awful. C. A. A. No escriba en este cuadernillo. D.He had no time to travel. No escriba en este cuadernillo. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. She’ll call the roll. B. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. 280 . A. Because they like shopping. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. oirá oraciones completas y. At once. He didn’t like hotels very much. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. 20. Later in the day. D. B. B. D. 24. C. A. B. He’ s only seen her once or twice. They go there when they have time. Away from the office. D. B. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. 27. A. It was a very crowded place. 25. D. D. He has to work in the evenings too D. Después de cada oración U¡. en cada caso. Didn’t care much. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. 21. He must order someone to do the job. On his way to the office. He must finish the job sometime. 31 A. B. B. B. B. C. 17. D. B. A. Because they like the rain. B. C. A short course in english for adult students 32. C. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. He preferred to go home by taxi. They go there only when the weather’s fine. They are 10 years altogether. 22. He came to live in this house very recently. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. A. C. The buses were crowded at that time C. He hasn’t told us much about her. Ud. He was resting all day. He was away all day long. B. A. A. He lived in this house until recently. Didn’t remember. C. A. Because it’s a busy little town. 28. They are a little younger. They go there when they want to have fun. C. D. He was away almost all day. C. C. B. C. She’ll ring them up. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. He doesn’t feel like going out today. 0 D. She’ll show them a map. C. He wanted to take a walk. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. A. 30. C. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. Ud. He hates to be at home during the day. A. He wanted to get home more safely. He’d better stay at home all day today. C. He was working at home all day. A. A. A kind person. D. She’ll go and see them. B. They are a different age. B. A. They had dinner at the restaurant. D. C. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. A dull person. They attended a meeting at the club.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . A sociable person. B.

Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. D. B. B. A. B. En cada caso. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. He could not help at the reception. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. 39. A. Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. C. deberá elegir la alternativa A. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. 41.33. She did everything following the instructions. A short course in english for adult students 42. That area never appears on the maps. At a summer house they had in the south of France. A. D. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country.. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 43. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. Because they´d been friends for many years. C. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. No escriba en este cuadernillo. so they ate quickly and left the place. C. C. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. D. C. D. 38. Because he was glad to see her again B. A. She did everything correctly. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. El examinador leerá una historia. They worked in a garage in those days. 36. A. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. A. A. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. B. 34. 35. Escuche atentamente. B. D. B. Robert telephoned them in a given order. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. o D. She did everything immediately. B. Because she told him about her husband´s death. It wasn’t warm enough inside. 40. They have used that car for a long time. D. C. C. She wanted to buy an air ticket. D. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. She did everything as carefully as possible. B. C. D. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. D. B. A. D. C. A. 37. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. C.. They used to have two cars in those days. He should have gone to the reception. At an expensive hotel near Paris. A. C. B. 281 . C. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. Mary telephoned him after she got there. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. Robert called to give them a new order. D. A.

Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. B. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. To spend her summer holidays abroad. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. B. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. 48. 47. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. Because India was an amazing country. D. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. 46. C. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. A. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. C. A. B. D. C. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. Because she didn´t like package tours very much. D. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. B. C. A. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. C. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. D. A. C. B. A. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. C. D. 49. 50. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. To visit some friends in Portugal. D. D. A. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. To a particular holiday place in India. 45. A. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. as usual. B.44. B. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students .

drunk A. But I know it’s a very strong liquor. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. How many times – theirs C. Have . before leaving B. A. Have . C. Do – drank B.the most highest D.drink D. hardest D.been drunk 52. before to leave 58. Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. How long . Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie.your friends A short course in english for adult students 283 . should to C. they were having D. 51. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months. for . ought to 59. better C. C. during . How much time . along . there were C. What a lot of D. it was 55. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. most good 54. Mary seems to be a very responsible person.B. must to B. I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. A.the high B. How much 56. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Jim. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. valuable B. would rather D. there had been B. What a few B How interesting C. elija la alternativa A. B. Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A.the higher 57. How often . READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. in order to leaving C. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco.your family B. satisfactory 53. Will . before you’re leaving D.them D. since .. too many C. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A.the highest C. John. José? No. A. A. never. o D. too good B. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. A. hard enough D. enseguida. You are getting too fat. No escriba en este cuadernillo.

. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a friend who was in hospital.60.am going to see her 65. give her the letter . so that D. neither D. A. have been decreasing .are talking B. are decreasing B. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. talk 69.had to C. A. in a year B. A. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon.will see her B. A. too much heavy C. Consequently. had taken – must B. A. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A.doesn’t have to be C. was sleeping – still C. are decreased . whom D. would take . has slept – already D. slept – also B. for the year 66. so to C. in order to 284 A short course in english for adult students . for to B.will produce C.will be producing 63. had been taking – should D. whose . a year D. An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write.see her C.have talked C. by the year C. give the letter to her .was allowed 61. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A.can see her . He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. was going to take . A. as B. not heavy enough 68. has decreased D. both nor and 67. very heavy B. who never was able to be will never be 64. give the letter her D. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. don´t talk D.are producing . The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. had been sleeping – yet 62. either as or C. which . John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them. I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. too heavy D.mustn´t be B. give to her the letter . A. The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday.produce . Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning.

If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. the accident _____________. don’t you contradict D. I think. are going to fly B. enough B. 80. are using C. ___________ him. A.70.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. are flying C. A. so I sent him an email __________ A. don’t contradict C. I ____________ football almost every afternoon. must have prevented B. you don’t contradict B. used to play D. seldom use 77. A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. so I could go ___________ else. were allowed to use D. can B. all the same D. A. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. At this time tomorrow. A. Had I had some extra money. do contradict 75. will be flying D. went 74. would better B. what time was it exactly 72. some nowhere anywhere 78. yet . Sir.Tom. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . When I was your age.should be . still B. too much everywhere somewhere C. have been flying 73. had played C. For the time being. Miss Jones? A. did D. He needed the answer urgently. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. had better D. It __________ here in a few minutes A. A. any D. at all B. suddenly 76. could have been prevented C. had to C. right now D. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . have been prevented 71. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. have used B. He may get angry and reprimand you. A. what the young man was doing C. would have had C. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. they _________ the old computer. why was sleeping the old man D. You _________ do it right now. A. I didn’t have___________ extra money. where did the people go B. I would have visited some other places too. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. at once C. could be prevented D. would rather 79.will be C. was playing B.

How long B. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. ought to stay D. and neither did Bill. refused to 88. and Bill didn’t. How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. D. A. became sick of C. No escriba en este cuadernillo. wasn’t allowed to B. in the right way B. It’s too cold.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 .95. very often B. I think the children would rather stay at home today. A. quietly and secretly. somewhere else C. A. and so did Bill. became accustomed to 82. How frequent 86. C. dislikes to read 83. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. punctually 90. A. have to be B. didn’t want to C. A. without anything to eat. need to remain 85. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. got tired of B. simply couldn’t D. A. 81. My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. begins D. doesn’t enjoy reading D. B. A. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. but Bill didn’t also. becomes B. Elija la alternativa A. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. fills C. 91. was too young C. D. How often D. What time C. was too very young 87. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. got afraid of D. and Bill didn’t either. almost D. would like to stay 84. completely alone D. o D. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. prefers to read B. so he walked home. B. at once C. was much too old B. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. obtains C. 89. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. John didn’t come to class today. hates reading C. from a distant place. simply . A. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. wasn’t very old D. A. too. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. B. C. A.

B. No escriba en este cuadernillo. consider C. She’s fast asleep!” 96. 98. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. and the television could just be heard. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. They had some trouble with their baby. “Make yourself comfortable. It’s on the table. He’s told me the same thing over and over. be in that town B. A. The girl had never done baby sitting before. of course. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. A. Anyway. Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. B. report 94. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. B. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. get a place D. They went to visit some friends. from time to time B. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. only a few times 95. A short course in english for adult students 287 . leave the city C. underline B. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. “She’s still in the living-room. a young girl of seventeen. obtain a room C. Before she left. C. C. es la más adecuada en cada caso. Because the boy was going with them as well. C. 93. que estime Ud. If the boy wakes up. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. D. What did the Soames do that evening? A. because it’s a nice city. because the weather’s good there. leave out D. Please cross out my name.What time do you think they will get there? A.” “He was looking at the television. Carol. They saw a program on television. A. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked.92. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura.” Mrs Soames said. 97.” Mrs Soames said. D. He´ll go back to sleep at once. with some exaggeration D. D. Because the boy was a newly born baby. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. Because the boy was not in good health. D. B. C. A light was still on in the living-room. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. They invited a baby-sitter to their house. listen to the radio or watch television. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. I won’t be able to attend the reception. many times. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected. You can. at present. He is too old and is losing his memory. actually C. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. so you should not have any trouble. o D. B. he’s four years old. “He’s wide awake. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you.

What is the meaning of “holding” A. their E. juice D. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. It wasn´t very late. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. Don´t worry about anything. C. waking up (line 7) C. month C. No escriba en este Cuadernillo. He will go to his bedroom again. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. of course. He will fall asleep again.? A. fast D. narrow A. 113. age C. B. tie D.would B. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 3) A.neck B. sock C. 106. mine A. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. high E. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A.butter B. sight C. could A. 107 108. D. his C. should E. worse A. planned. across D. It was just before eleven. cheaper B.deep B. 109. Be careful with the neighbours. It was almost midnight. B. clever C. He will go to his bed. D. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? A. C.our B. They were both in the living-room. faster D. however (line 5) (line 3) 103. 114. glove E. promised D. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. obviously D. nephew D.99. weak B. decided B. her D. throw C. by no means B. He will feel sleepy. shirt A. among B. B. left (line 8) C. D. 105. 102. B. (término excluido). C. 100. 104. C. sun E. cotton E. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. looking for D. 101. hour A short course in english for adult students . D. looking at B. It was only a few minutes past eleven. D. perhaps C. aunt C. cousin A. well E. 288 A. 112. happier E. day D. 115. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. wide D. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. rice A. 110. o E. century E. along E.niece B. ought D. quickly A. meat C. behind A. careful C. B. C. slowly B. 111.

often B. put E. tired D. barber D. 118. made A. shut E. bought B. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . shoulder A. always E. 119. arm D. seen B. broke C. belt E. forgot D. grocer A. tailor C. A. 117. brought C.116. real C. elbow C. seldom A. sometimes D. 120.customer B. butcher E. nose B.

Bl 290 .

38. 2. 52. 14. 21. 20. 49. 33. 63 64. 17. 3. 18. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 60. 59. 48. 57. 43. 15. 42. 70. 10. 4. 62. 6. 47. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 11. 30. 5. 54. 65. 40. 37. 45. 13. 34. 28. 19. 36. 24. 35. 68. 66. 8. 32. 27. 46. 12. 44. 39.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 31. 22. 7. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 23. LISTENING PART 1. 25. 9. 69. 16. 29. 56. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 58. 41. 55. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 67. 53. 50.

93. 107. 104. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 94. 108. 84. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 109. 85. 78. 118. 101. 74. 113. 76. 114. 98. 82. 105. 80. 90. 73. 120. 115. 117. 95. 112. 110. 91. 92. 97. 103. 111.71. 100. 89. 81. 75. 83. 77. 119. 116. 79. 72. 87. 102. 106. 88. 86. 99.

Después de cada oración Ud. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. but Bill is two years younger. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. Ud.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. 15. deberá consignarla. 7. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. 5. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. John. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. 12.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. Ud. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22. He is only ten at present. 3. 2. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning.15. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. so he left the job for the following weekend. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.Jack and Tom are the same age. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning.John was going to work in the garden that morning. B. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. oirá oraciones incompletas.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. 16.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. C. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. 4. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport. 8. If you take a taxi. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 .Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. you really don’t look well this morning. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. No escriba en este cuadernillo. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. Question: What did A short course in english for adult students 293 . but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. 9. Jack. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her. o D. Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. 13. C. que la conteste en mejor forma. 6. 11. They went to the club instead. Ud. En cada caso Ud. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. deberá elegir la alternativa A.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla.30. B. 10. 14. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. 0 D.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment.

At one time. when their children grew up. they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. What happened a few months ago? 46.. o D. Mr Green died.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. of course. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do next summer? 47. Mrs Green. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. for example? Complete with air ticket. She did everything right away. He got used to living in this house after a few months. I’m sure we can arrange something for you. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here. deberá elegir la alternativa A. “Look. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48.” he thought. en cada caso. 35. “Well. “ Mrs Green shook her head. Then they started to take their holidays in France . 36. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. o D.and food is cheap too. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. But then. 32. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was. “How about a two-week tour. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. El examinador leerá una historia. 37. It hardly ever snows in that region. “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment. deberá elegir la alternativa A. I’m sure we can fix up something for you. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Later. for instance? A nice.” The travel agent looked puzzled. There are plenty of cheap hotels . 40. with good weather. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. Ud. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days. meals and guides. “A holiday abroad? Yes. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. B. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. back in his office asking about holidays abroad. 34. friendly place. oirá oraciones completas y.and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 294 A short course in english for adult students . Escuche atentamente. You’ll see the really important places .” said Mrs Green. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. 39..” She waved it at him. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green. but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30. “That’s exactly what I don’t want. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29. No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31.They had a good time there because. En cada caso. “How about Portugal. “Well. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. hotels.” Mrs Green went on.. only a few months after her husband’s death. C. He knew her well. B.they do after all of them had arrived? 28. at her age. although the weather was not fine. C. They used to repair cars in those days. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído.” she said. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. 38.” “India …” he said.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. No escriba en este cuadernillo. years before.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. he booked a family hotel for them. However. the travel agent was surprised.and he got them their boat tickets. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. “As a matter of fact. yes. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Why didn’t Mrs. 33. the previous autumn.. He’d rather stay at home all day today.

27. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 34. 3. 19. 4. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 295 A short course in english for adult students . 41. 62. 43. 45. 47. 7. 53. 24. 52. 56. 13. 32. 55. 31. 23. 57. 36. 8. 16. 58. 49. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 11. 20. 33. 54. 2. 9. 30. 60. 35. 69. 29. 6. 66. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 10. 42. 18. 28. 5. 21. 46. 39. 22. 48. 63. 14. 40. 25. 70.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. 15. 12. 68. 59. 64. 17. 38. 37. 44. 67. 65. LISTENING PART 1.

109. 105.71. 115. 84. 98. 111. 99. 73. 82. 100. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 97. 93. 92. 116. 80. 118. 112. 103. 120. 76. 86. 85. 72. 108. 114. 106. 90. 75. 119. 88. 83. 89. 101. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 296 A short course in english for adult students . 87. 81. 77. 94. 107. 91. 110. 74. 102. 79. 104. 113. 95. 78. 117.

(Yo escribí una carta ayer) CONTINUOUS (S + WAS / WERE + ING) I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening . (Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.) A short course in english for adult students 297 . (Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT (S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE) I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.APENDICE 1 CHART 1. (Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING) I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning (Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana) PAST SIMPLE (S + DID + INFINITIVE ) I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday. (Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING ) I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday. (Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora) PERFECT (S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE) I have written several letters today. (Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana ) c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes (Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos) CONTINUOUS (S + WILL BE + ING ) I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening. BASIC VERB TENSES PRESENT SIMPLE (S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE) I write (= I do write) a letter every day (Yo escribo una carta todos los días. (Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde) PERFECT CONTINUOUS (S + HAD BEEN + ING) I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening (Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde) FUTURE SIMPLE A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow (Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana) b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow. (Mary escribe una carta todos los días) CONTINUOUS (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING) I am writing a letter now.) Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day. (Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde) PERFECT (S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART) I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.

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momento determinado en el pasado momento determinado en el futuro ESTRUCTURA: S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WAS / WERE +ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Now. I have my term test tomorrow.. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. I think. etc. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes.. EJEMPLOS: John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now? EJEMPLOS: John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. at present EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday. It´s all right Detective: SAMPLE DIALOG: Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house. she wasn´t. Is she at home? Bob: Yes. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Bob: Don´t worry. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. she is.o´clock tomorrow / next Monday. Mr Smith? Yes. Sam: Thanks. etc. Sir. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un realizando o estará ocurriendo en un aún no han concluido. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. at the moment. haciendo a esa hora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i# at eit "é:rti !is ívni# / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. I´m studying history. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday? EJEMPLOS: John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. I was washing the car. For the time being. Bob. Peter: Detective: Peter: Detective: Peter: A short course in english for adult students 299 . SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. I´m not.o´clock yesterday / last Monday. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. ahora? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi# at !æt táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud.APENDICE 2 CHART 2. I did. Was your wife with you? No. But I was in the garage. She´s reading the paper in the garden.. At. a las 8:30 esta tarde? SAMPLE DIALOG: Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No.etc . at this time. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE A. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week. etc.. I´m sorry I interrupted you. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30.At.

? 300 A short course in english for adult students ...? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow. ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive. determinada en el pasado..... Jane does not speak with the ...? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day. I do not speak with the manager. several times a year.prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day. (con He. todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud...? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud.. Will I speak with the manager... often. next month. I ´m not speaking with . Did I speak with the manager.... every month. etc Always....etc... mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói# tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer .... etc. 1997. ten months ago.. Am I going to speak with.. last night. every week.. That day. ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud.? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday.? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day. last week.B..? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow. I´m not going to speak with . EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday. twice a week.. como mañana.. she. I did not speak with the manager.. siempre. I will not speak with the manager. Does Jane speak with the manager. sometimes... Two days ago. Once a day.... Am I speaking with . Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó sucede en forma habitual. SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro.. in 1986....... etc.. el sábado pasado. last Sunday.. plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad . el próximo sábado. etc. Do I speak with the manager .. it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). on May 4. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención.. usually..? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi# tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer. next Sunday.... como todos o sucedió en una fecha u hora los días. como ayer. seldom.. etc. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow.. etc... next week. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past.etc..

Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. We really had a great time there. I didn´t. He usually walks. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco. My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. We will go to Cancun again. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . When are you going to leave? Well. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. I went with some friends. Did you go alone? No.

EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No.. But I had never visited it in the spring.. Jackson has never travelled abroad. not... ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. He says it´s spectacular.. y que ha continuado hasta este momento.. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai ! i énd ov ! is mán" / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud. never. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. I´ve come here three or four times. since. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students . Mrs. But one of my brothers has visited it several times. Just. etc. three times.. many times before. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know.. Your train has just left. Sir. lately. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud. He had not saved enough money for the tickets. already .yet. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. She had never been in Paris before. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro.. never. b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir. Once.. twice...etc..Several times.C.. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a Describe una acción que se realizó u realizarse en una fecha u hora en el pasado ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t. I have never been there.etc By this time tomorrow / next month... we will have had lunch already.. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No.. They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd ! is mó:rni# / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before. By the end of this month / year. before. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before.

And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire... we simply have to be patient and wait. They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built. It will all be over before the end of this month. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far.. Peter: Yes... / for.. ... EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since. I´ve been working on my thesis... / for. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándo en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:i# bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:i# bai !i énd ov !is mán" / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud.. In the meantime. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning. I hope they take a stand and vote for it. Mary: Yes. Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it. Peter: You really look tired. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday. antes que Peter llegara ayer? hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things. since. It´s a shame! Well. John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. Anyway. ha continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento... by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.... PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:i# sins iu: arráivd híar !is mó:rni# / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud.. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que que otra ocurriera.. when S + Past Since.. but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A...... It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning... Yes.. I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends.. A short course in english for adult students 303 . ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. and I have been studying for the final exams. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month.. A... They´d been dancing and singing.D.. desde que llegó esta mañana? Ud. antes de una fecha futura...

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DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO .

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