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AN OVERVIEW OF NUTRITION AND NUTRITIONAL PROBLEM IN INDONESIA

BAMBANG SUPRPATO DEPARTMENT OF NUTRITION SEBELAS MARET UNIVERSITY

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

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Human Nutrition encompasses the study and application of many disciplines

Nutrition Food Science Anthropology: Biochemistry Food beliefs Molecular Biology Ethnic influences Microbiology Geographic influences Genetics Physiology Histology Psychology Pathology Religion Pharmacology Sociology Medicine Human Nutrition FOOD PRODUCTION COMMUNICATION AND ECONOMICS Education Language Governmental Agencies Private agencies Mass media Income Geopolitical Agriculture Food technology Fisheries Transportation Marketing

FOOD HABITS AND BEHAVIOR

SCIENCE OF NUTRITION

Overview of nutrition, September 2009

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September 2009 3 .Contributing Fields: Medicine Agriculture Home Economics Behavioral Sciences Economics Dietary Studies Adults Children Infants Adolescence Families Chemistry Biology Physiology Genetics Bacteriology Knowledge of Nutrition of Man Deficiency-Disease Studies Anemia Scurvy Rickets Pellagra Beriberi Xerophthalmia Kwashiorkor Chemical Analysis Food Bone Blood Tissue Body Fluids Food and Crop Production-Distribution Soil Foodstuffs Plants Animals Feeding Experiments Marketing Man Microorganism Guinea Pigs Rats Dogs Farm Animals Overview of nutrition.

1984)  Overview of nutrition. 1970) NUTRITION IS THE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF FOOD AND ITS CONSTITUENTS ON THE LIVING ORGANISM (Sir Harold Himsworth. September 2009 4 . 1968)  NUTRITION IS THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOOD TO THE WELL-BEING OF THE HUMAN BODY (Krause&Mahan.WHAT IS NUTRITION ?  NUTRITION IS THE COMBINATION OF PROCESSES BY WHICH THE LIVING ORGANISM RECEIVES AND UTILIZES THE MATERIALS (FOOD) NECESSARY FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF ITS FUNCTION AND FOR THE GROWTH AND RENEWAL OF ITS COMPONENTS ( Turner.

SMELL. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DESIRE FOR FOOD WHICH MAY ARISE IN RESPONSE TO THE SIGHT. OR THOUGHT OF FOOD EVEN WHEN YOU DON’T NEED TO EAT  Overview of nutrition. YOUR REPLY MAY BE THAT IT IS HUNGER  ANOTHER CUE IS APPETITE.WHY WE EAT ? WHAT PROMPTS YOU TO EAT. September 2009 5 .

WHY YOU CHOOSE A PARTICULAR FOOD ?         TEMPTATION (THEY ARE DELICIOUS) PERSONAL PREFERENCE (YOU LIKE THEM) HABIT OR TRADITION (THEY ARE FAMILIAR. AND YOU CAN’T REFUSE) AVAILABILITY (THERE ARE NO OTHERS TO CHOOSE FROM) CONVENIENCE (YOU ARE TOO RUSHED TO PREPARE ANYTHING ELSE) ECONOMY (YOU CAN AFFORD THEM) NUTRITIONAL VALUE (YOUT THINK THEY ARE GOOD FOR YOU) Overview of nutrition. YOU ALWAYS EAT THEM) SOCIAL PRESSURE (THEY ARE OFFERED. September 2009 6 .

PSYCHOLOGICAL.NUTRITION INCLUDES:      THE METABOLISM OF FOODS THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOD AT DIFFERENT AGES AND DEVELOPMENTAL LEVELS MEET PHYSIOLOGICAL CAHNGES AND ACTIVITY NEEDS THE CHANGES IN NUTRIENT AND FOOD REQUIREMENTS THAT ACCOMPANY AND PREVENT DISEASE STATES THE ECONOMIC. September 2009 7 . SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE SELECTION AND EATING FOODS Overview of nutrition.

WHAT ARE FOODS ?  FOODS COMPRISE ALL THE SOLIDS AND LIQUID MATERIAL TAKEN INTO THE DIGESTIVE TRAC THAT ARE UTILIZED TO MAINTAIN AND BUILD BODY TISSUES. THEREBY SUSTAINING LIFE Overview of nutrition. REGULATE BODY PROCESSES AND SUPPLY HEAT. September 2009 8 .

VITAMINS AND WATER  THE CONSTITUENTS IN FOODS ARE KNOWN AS NUTRIENT  Overview of nutrition. September 2009 9 .WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS ? FOODS ARE COMPOSED OF VARIOUS COMPOUNDS. BOTH ORGANIC AND INORGANIC. LIPIDS. CARBOHYDRATES. SO THAT ANY FOOD IS A CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR MIXTURE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS  THESE COMPOUNDS AND ELEMENTS WHICH FOOD ARE COMPOSED ARE PROTEINS. MINERALS.

WHAT ARE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS ? (1) AN ESSENTIAL NUTIRENT IS ONE THAT MUST BE PROVIDED TO THE BODY BY FOOD  THE NUTRIENT THAT MUST BE SUPPLIED IN FOOD ARE ESSENTIAL FOR GROWTH AND NORMAL FUNTIONING OF THE BODY ARE LISTED BELOW:  Overview of nutrition. September 2009 10 .

WHAT ARE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS ? (2) PROTEIN AS SOURCE OF ESENTIAL AMINO ACIDS  CARBOHYDRATE AS A SOURCE OF GLUCOSE  FAT AS A SOURCE OF ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS  MINERALS  FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS  WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS  Overview of nutrition. September 2009 11 .

WHAT IS NUTRITIONAL STATUS ?  “THE CONDITION OF THE BODY RESULTING FROM THE UTILIZATION OF THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS AVAILABLE TO THE BODY” IS TERMED THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS (Boerma. September 2009 12 . 1975) Overview of nutrition.

GROWTH AND MAINTENANCE OPTIMUM ACTIVITY AND WORKING EFFICIENCY RESISTANCE TO INFECTION THE ABILITY TO REPAIR BODILY DAMAGE OF INJURY Overview of nutrition.GOOD NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS ESSENTIAL FOR:      NORMAL ORGAN DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION NORMAL REPRODUCTION. September 2009 13 .

NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS IN INDONESIA PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM)  IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA (IDA)  IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (IDD)  VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (VADD)  Overview of nutrition. September 2009 14 .

4 MILLION OF CHILDREN UNDERFIVE YEARS OF AGE (37. 7.5%) WERE MALNOURISHED  1.PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (1) IN 1999. September 2009 15 .000 SHOWED CLINICAL SIGNS OF MARASMUS AND KWASHIORKOR  Overview of nutrition.3%)  170.7 MILLION WERE SEVERELY MALNOURISHED (6.

PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (2) THE NUMBER OF UNDERWEIGHT CHILDREN IS HIGHER IN RURAL THAN IN URBAN AREA  AND MORE PREVALENT AMONG MALE THAN FEMALE CHILDREN  THE PREVALENCE OF STUNTING IS 40 . September 2009 16 .50% AMONG CHILDREN UNDERFIVE YEARS OF AGE  Overview of nutrition.

AND 22 % AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN  Overview of nutrition.65%.PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (3) THE PREVALENCE OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABY (LBW) WAS 8-16%  THE PREVALENCE OF PEM AMONG WOMEN AT REPRODUCTIVE AGE WAS 36. September 2009 17 .

9 % LACTATING MOTHERS : 45.54 YEAR : 46.14 YEAR : 51.9 % PREGNANT WOMEN : 50.44 YEAR : 48.IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA (IDA)          CHILDREN < 5 Y : 40.1 % Overview of nutrition.64 YEAR : 51.5 % 15 .5 % > 65 YEAR : 52.2 % 10 .5 % SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN : 47. September 2009 18 .9 % 45 .5 % 55 .

IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (IDD) 87 MILLION PEOPLE ARE LIVING IN ENDEMIC AREA  20 MILLION ARE SUFFERING FROM GOITRE  290.000 NEW CRETINS WERE BORN  TOTAL GOITRE RATE WAS 9. September 2009 19 .000 ARE CRETINS  9.8 %  Overview of nutrition.

2%  Overview of nutrition.4%  ACTIVE CORNEAL LESION : 0.05%  SERUM VITAMIN A <10 ug/dL : 2.VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY DISORDERS (VADD) XEROPTHALMIA AMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN : 0. September 2009 20 .

RECENT TRENDS DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGES  DIETARY CHANGES  OBESITY  DEGENERATIVE DISEASE  GLOBALIZATION  Overview of nutrition. September 2009 21 .

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