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Homework Assignment ( points extra credit possible)


, Feb , 201

1) [1 point] Your textbook states (on p.129) that the typical ratio of vacancies to atomic sites in a metal at its melt temperature will be about 1:10,000. Using the following date for vacancy formation energies and data from the front cover of the text on T[melt], density, and atomic weight show how well this rule appears to work for the three common metals given. Metal Aluminum Gold Lead Vacancy Formation Energy, QV [J/mol] 73,300 94,500 53,050

2) [2 points] Conditions for formation of substitutional and interstitial alloys are given on p.134 of your text. Using this information, predict (a) which of the following eight combinations should form complete substitutional alloys; (b) which should form incomplete substitutional alloys; (c) which should form interstitial alloys; and (d) which should be completely insoluble in one another. Show your reasoning in each of these four cases (i.e., state the conditions that apply in each case). Most data you need is given on the inside front cover of your text, but you will also need the atomic radii for hydrogen (0.046 nm) and nitrogen (0.070 nm). I) Cu-Al V) Cu-Ni II) Mg-Pb VI) Fe-H III) Au-Ag VII) Ti-Ba IV) Al-N VIII) Fe-Cr

3) [1 pt] In your own words, briefly explain the differences between edge, screw, and mixed dislocations, making sure to mention (a) the relationship between the dislocation line and the Burgers vector and (b) how they move when subjected to an external stress parallel to the Burgers vector. [Hint: Animations available on WileyPlus may be helpful in answering this question. See also Figure 8.2 on p.245]. 4) [1/2 pt] What would be the atomic percentage of copper in a bronze alloy sample created by mixing 240 kilograms of copper with 75 kilograms of zinc? 5) [1 pt] Surfaces and interfaces are high energy sites in solids, relative to the bulk material. Explain why, and on the basis of this explanation, rank the following 2D defects in order of increasing energy (lowest to highest): (a) high-angle grain boundary; (b) external surface; (c) low-angle grain boundary; (d) stacking fault. 6) [1/2 pt] The sequence of close-packed planes in a perfectly ordered FCC metal can be represented by the series ABCABCABCABC (p.62 of your text). Using this same notation, show how you would distinguish between a stacking fault and a twin in an FCC metal.