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A. KACA
Kncn moruµnknn bnhnn ynng fIdnk µndnf,
knronn moIokuI-moIokuInyn forsusun ncnk
soµorfI hnInyn znf cnIr, nnmun kohosInyn
mombunf bonfuknyn monjndI sfnbII. Knronn
susunnnnyn ncnk soµorfI znf cnIr mnkn kncn
forIIhnf frnnsµnrnn.
Kncn ndnInh nmorf (non krIfnIIn) mnforInI µndnf
ynng bonIng dnn frnnsµnrnn (fombus µnndnng),
bInsnnyn rnµuh. JonIs ynng µnIIng bnnynk dI
gunnknn soInmn bornbnd nbnd ndnInh jondoIn
dnn goIns mInum.
T1OI1 P1MB1ATIKAA KACA
!rosos µombonfuknn kncn dnfnr. !ongorjnnnnyn
snmn soµorfI kncn Iongkung ynng snnf InI kIfn
mnnfnnfknn unfuk kncn mobII, ofnInso dnn kncn
Iongkung rumnh. Kncn dIbunf dongnn moncnmµur
µnsIr dongnn nbu sodn dnn knµur nfnu dongnn
oksIdn fImnh. Inngsn MosIr kuno dInnggnµ
sobngnI ornng-ornng µorfnmn ynng mombunf kncn.
ÐI nInm jugn ndn bnhnn µombunf kncn, gnmbnrnyn
soµorfI InI :
%Ign bnhnn dnsnr dIcnmµur dongnn cuIIof (µocnhnn
kncn), doIomIfo dnn snIfcnko, komudInn dIIoIohknn
dnInm fungku µombnknrnn. !nnns snngnf fInggI
mombunf bnhnn-bnhnn Ifu monynfu dnn moncnIr,
InIu koIunr fungku dnn mongnIIr ko sobunh runng
ynng fornµung. ÐIsInI, kncn mongnµung dI nfns
IoIohnn fImnh. SofoInh ngnk mondIngIn, kncn
dInIIrknn ko µIµn nIr ynng dIngIn. !ondIngInnn
IobIh Innjuf forjndI dongnn µonyomµrofnn nIr µndn
kncn ynng jugn borfungsI momµorkunfnyn. IIIn
kncn sudnh bonnr-bonnr dIngIn, bnru dIµofong
sosunI kobufuhnn.
nIn hnInyn dongnn µrosos µombonfuknn
fnbrIknsI dnn kncn fosµnf
A
8
C
D
L
1
m
1
g
1 1
V
llquld
Supercooled
llquld
glass
crysLal
I. KI!AMIK
Knmus dnn onsIkIoµodIn fnhun l950-nn
mondofInIsIknn kornmIk sobngnI sunfu hnsII sonI
dnn foknoIogI unfuk monghnsIIknn bnrnng dnrI
fnnnh IInf ynng dIbnknr, soµorfI gornbnh,
gonfong, µorsoIIn, dnn sobngnInyn.
%ofnµI snnf InI fIdnk somun kornmIk bornsnI
dnrI fnnnh IInf. ÐofInIsI µongorfInn kornmIk
forbnru moncnkuµ somun bnhnn buknn Iognm
dnn nnorgnnIk ynng borbonfuk µndnf. (Yusuf,
l998:2).
$1IAT-$1IAT K1IAM1K
JonIs Iknfnn ynng domInnn (IonIk nfnu kovnIon)
dnn sfrukfur InfornnI (krIsfnIIn nfnu nmorf)
momµongnruhI sIfnf-sIfnf bnhnn kornmIk.
SIfnf formnI µonfIng bnhnn kornmIk ndnInh
knµnsIfns µnnns, koofIsIon oksµnnsI formnI, dnn
kondukfIvIfns formnI.
SIfnf formnI µonfIng bnhnn kornmIk ndnInh
knµnsIfns µnnns, koofIsIon oksµnnsI formnI, dnn
kondukfIvIfns formnI.
SIfnf µIozooIokfrIk, nfnu koIIsfrIknn foknn. SIfnf
InI moruµnknn bngInn bnhnn "cnnggIh" ynng
sorIng dIgunnknn sobngnI sonsor.
BAHAA DA$AI K1IAM1K
Inhnn kornmIk fordIrI dnrI fnsn ynng moruµnknn
sonynwn unsur Iognm dnn buknn Iognm. Inhnn
kornmIk dnµnf dIbodnknn monjndI dun koIns
krIsfnIIn dnn nmorf (non krIsfnIIn). Iobornµn
kornmIk dnµnf borndn dnInm kodun bonfuk
forsobuf, mIsnInyn SIO
2
, , dnn goIns nnorgnnIk,
Proeee PenIen/u/on Keroni/
!rosos µombonfuknn kornmIk dnµnf dIInkuknn
dongnn borbngnI cnrn nnfnrn InIn:
Die preeeing:
!ndn µrosos InI bnhnn kornmIk dIhnIusknn
hInggn mobonfuk bubuk, InIu dIcnmµur dongnn
µongIknf (bIndor) orgnnIc, komudInn dImnsukknn
kodnInm cofnknn dnn dIfoknn hInggn moncnµnI
bonfuk µndnf ynng cukuµ kunf. Mofodo InI
umumnyn dIgunnknn dnInm µombunfnn ubIn,
kornmIk oIokfronIk, nfnu µroduksI dongnn cukuµ
sodorhnnn knronn mofodo InI cukuµ murnh.
1x/rueion MolJing.
!ombonfuknn kornmIk µndn mofodo InI moInIuI
Iobnng cofnknn. Mofodo InI bInsn dIgunnknn
unfuk mombunf µIµn snIurnn, µIµn ronkfor, nfnu
mnforInI InIn ynng momIIIkI suhu normnI unfuk
µonnmµnng IInfnng fofnµ.
IuIIer nolJ preeeing
Mofodo InI dIInkuknn unfuk monghnsIIknn bubuk
µndnf ynng fIdnk sorngnm dnn dIsobufrubbor moId
µrossIng, knronn dnInm µombunfnnnyn
monggunnknn snrung ynng forbunf dnrI knrof.
Iubuk dImnsukknn kodnInm snrung knrof,
komudInn dIbonfuk kodnInm cofnknn hIdrosfnfIs.
C. K!IS%A
KrIsfnI ndnInh sunfu µndnfnn ynng nfom,
moIokuI, nfnu Ion µonyusunnyn forkomns socnrn
fornfur dnn µoInnyn boruInng moIobnr socnrn fIgn
dImonsI.
Sunfu bnhnn non-krIsfnIIn bInsn dIsobuf bnhnn
nmorf nfnu soµorfI goIns. %orkndnng bnhnn
soµorfI InI jugn dIsobuf sobngnI µndnfnn nmorf,
moskIµun ndn µorbodnnn joIns nnfnrn µndnfnn
dnn goIns.
IorbngnI bonfuk krIsfnI dnµnf dIfomuknn dI
nInm. Ionfuk-bonfuk krIsfnI InI borgnnfung µndn
jonIs Iknfnn moIokuIor nnfnrn nfom-nfom unfuk
mononfuknn sfrukfurnyn, dnn jugn kondnnn
forcIµfnnyn krIsfnI forsobuf. Iungn snIju, Infnn,
dnn gnrnm dnµur ndnInh confoh-confoh krIsfnI.
!!OSIS !IMIIÞ%&KAÞ K!IS%A
Socnrn umum, kobnnynknn krIsfnI forbonfuk
socnrn sImuIfnn sohInggn monghnsIIknn µndnfnn
µoIIkrIsfnIIn. MIsnInyn, kobnnynknn Iognm ynng
kIfn fomuI sohnrI-hnrI moruµnknn µoIIkrIsfnI.
Sfrukfur krIsfnI mnnn ynng nknn forbonfuk dnrI
sunfu cnIrnn forgnnfung µndn kImIn cnIrnnnyn
sondIrI, kondIsI kofIkn forjndI µomndnfnn, dnn
foknnnn nmbIon. !rosos forbonfuknyn sfrukfur
krIsfnIIn dIkonnI sobngnI krIsfnIIsnsI.

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