You are on page 1of 8


Dr. David G. Bernard



Last Name

First Name:


There are 47 items in this booklet. Be careful not to overlook any pages in the examination booklet. You have 80 minutes to complete these questions. During the course of the examination students will remain in their assigned seats. If assistance is needed, the student should raise hislher hand and a proctor will then attend the individual need of that student. Upon completion of the exam, each student is to remain seated, raise her/his hand, and the exam materials will be collected by the proctors. At no time is the student to leave hislher seat and carry the exam materials to the proctors or other areas of the room. After collection of exam materials, the student is to immediately and promptly leave the Examination Room. NO EXTRA TIME WILL BE ALLOWED AT THE END OF THE EXAMINING PERIOD FOR ANSWERS TO BE TRANSFERRED TO THE ANSWER SHEET.



Each of the numbered items or incomplete statements in this section is followed by answers or completions of the statement. Select the ONE lettered answer or completion that is BEST in each case. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 , points.



Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? A. The contractions of skeletal muscles pull on tendons and move bones of the skeleton. Skeletal muscles are responsible for controlling the opening of the digestive and urinary tracts. ~ Skeletal muscles are responsible for the pumping action of the heart. D. Skeletal muscles support the weight of some internal organs. E. Skeletal muscle contractions help maintain body temperature.


Parathyroid hormone: A. is produced by the thyroid gland ,.8. decreases calcium levels in the blood ~ increases calcium levels in the urine increases calcium uptake from the intestine decreases calcium reabsorption by the kidneys

as> ;t.


Veins are defined as: A. blood vessels B. blood vessels (f:J blood vessels D. blood vessels E. blood vessels During A. B. C. D.

that that that that that

carry deoxygenated blood connect multiple capillary beds function in returning blood to the heart carry oxygenated blood function in carrying blood away from the heart



muscle contraction, all of the following occur, EXCEPT: ATP is hydrolyzed myosin heads bind to actin the H band becomes shorter calcium concentration in the sarcomere increases hemoglobin concentration in muscle fibers increases

All hormones are: A. transported dissolved in blood plasma :l;l hydrophilic or hydrophobic C. reversibly bound to plasma proteins D. derived from cholesterol E. synthesized by enzymes in the Golgi apparatus



Which of the following is NOT characteristic of smooth muscle? Smooth muscle connective tissue forms tendons. B. Neurons that innervate smooth muscles are under involuntary control. C. Smooth muscles are uninucleate. D. Smooth muscles do not contain sarcomeres. E. The thin filaments of smooth muscle fibers are attached to dense bodies. During contraction, cycles of cross-bridge binding and bending: make thin filaments shorter pull thick filaments closer together )11. Both Band C are correct B. pull thin filaments together C. pull Z discs closer together The pituitary hormone that controls the~ase A. TSH . D. LH . of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is: ACTH C. FSH GH




Dr. Bernard - Animal Physiology - Exam 3-1 - Spring 2011 - Page 1 of 7


In an isotonic contraction:


muscle tension exceeds the resistance and the muscle shortens tension rises and the skeletal muscle length changes the peak tension developed is less than the resistance the muscle as a whole does not change length all of the above





Each thin filament consists of: a pair of protein strands wound together chains of myosin molecules c.. 6 molecules coiled into a helical structure a rod shaped structure with "heads" projecting from each end E': a double strand of myosin molecules

The bacterium that causes tetanus produces a toxin that affects the central nervous system and skeletal muscles, producing powerful tetanic contractions of the skeletal muscles. The toxin probably acts by: }<. increasing the amount of acetylcholinesterase ~. making the cells less permeable to sodium ions ,R;. increasing the amount of potassium ion in the intercellular fluid \p. making the cell membranes more permeable to cal~ium ion . E. competing with acetylcholine for receptors a the motor end plate Spread of an action potential down aT-tubule: A. causes a contraction of thick filaments B. induces permeability changes in I band >;. triggers release of Ca" from actin molecules ~ triggers release of Ca" from the sarcoplasmic reticulum E. triggers release of Ca" from the H zone The acetylcholine receptors of the heart are different than the acetylcholine receptors of skeletal muscle in that the heart muscarine receptors: A. are responding to acetylcholine delivered by capillaries instead of nerves ~. make action potentials more difficult to occur C. react 20-30 times more quickly D. only work in the presence of acetylcholine PLUS epinephrine E. hind the drug nicotine Which of the following statements regarding closed circulatory systems is FALSE? A. They function in the transportation of nutrients, hormones, antibodies and salt throughout the various organ systems within the body. ~ In a closed circulatory system, blood pumped by the heart directly bathes individual cells C. They function in thermoregulation. D. They comprise a heart, arterial system, capillaries and a venous system. E. They are made necessary by the large size of organisms that have them and the large distances between nutrient sources and cells. A tropic hormone is: A. one secreted at latitudes close to the equator B. one whose function is to trigger cellular development
~ one whose function is to stimulate endocrine tissue to secrete hormones





D. E.

Two of the above are correct. None of the above are correct.

Dr. Bernard - Animal Physiology - Exam 3-1 - Spring 2011 - Page 2 of 7




Which of the following statements about myofibrils is NOT correct? A. Each skeletal muscle fiber contains hundreds to thousands ofmyofibrils. B. Myofibrils are 1-2 microns in diameter. C. Myofibrils extend the length of a skeletal muscle fiber. Myofilaments consist of bundles of myofibrils. E. Myofibrils are attached to the cell membrane at both ends of a muscle fiber.

Which of the following is true about hormones? A. are released from exocrine glands ~ interact with receptors at target-cell sites C. are synthesized in the lymph nodes D. interact with receptors in the blood E. are all similar chemically Which statement is TRUE? A. Each thin filament is surrounded by an array of six thick filaments: each thin filament is surrounded by three thick filaments. . Each thick filament is surrounded by an array of six thin filaments: each thin filament is surrounded by three thick filaments. C. Each thick filament is surrounded by an array of five thin filaments: each thin filament is surrounded D. by six thing filaments Each thick filament is surrounded by an array of five thin filaments: by a circular arrangement of four thick filaments. each thin filament is surrounded



E. 20.

Permissiveness of hormones refers to the fact that: A. hormones permit cellular processes to occur B. hormones permit their target organs to function at the in some instances an adequate amount of one hormone hormone's effect, even though the first hormone itself D. the nervous system through numerous neuroendocrine function the tropic hormones permit other endocrine

optimal rate must be present for the full exertion of another does not directly elicit the response relationships permits the endocrine system to

glands to secrete their hormones

The most important factor in decreasing the intracellular concentration of calcium ion after contraction is: A. active transport of calcium across the sarcolemma ~. active transport of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum C. active transport of calcium into the synaptic cleft D. diffuse of calcium out of the cell E. diffusion of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum Glucagon works A. maintain B. maintain C. decrease convert E. convert to: blood glucose levels glycogen levels in the liver glucose uptake by the cells which increases glycogen to glucose glucose to glycogen


blood glucose levels



In the context of the musculoskeletal system, an origin is: the site of insertion of a muscle into a bone that is relatively immobile B. a mononucleate myoblast C. the site of insertion ofa muscle into a bone that is relatively mobile D. a Z-line E. none of the above

Dr. Bernard - Animal Physiology - Exam 3-1 - Spring 2011 - Page 3 of 7



All of the following are true of the endocrine system, EXCEPT that it: releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body .B': releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously .R:. produces effects that can last for hours, days and even longer D. produces specific responses to internal stimuli E. functions to control ongoing metabolic processes


For muscles that produce precise movements, such as hand muscles in humans: A. a single motor unit would contain relatively large number of muscle fibers B. a single motor unit would have a relatively large number of apodemes (;) a single motor unit would contain a relatively small number of muscle fibers D. flexor muscles would have more motor units than extensor muscles E. None of these answers are correct. Which of the following statements about the endocrine system is true? A. Each endocrine gland secretes a single type of hormone. B. Each endocrine hormone is secreted by a single endocrine tissue. C. Each endocrine hormone acts on a single target tissue. D. Each endocrine hormone activates a single type of receptor. ~ Many endocrine tissues have other non-endocrine functions. Adrenocorticotropic hormone: A. is a tropic hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex B. stimulates the production of androgens by the testes C. is controlled in part by CRH from the hypothalamus D. Two of the above answers are correct. r{l All of these answers are correct. Hematocrit is: A. the oxygen-binding pigment found in red blood cells B. the circulatory fluid of arthropods C. the space inside arthropods filled with circulatory fluid the packed cell volume of blood E. another name for red blood cells Cortisol is secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to stress. In addition to its function in a stress response, it functions in negative feedback by: A. inhibiting the hypothalamus so that corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) secretion is reduced B. inhibiting the anterior posterior's ability to respond to CRH by reducing the pituitary's sensitivity to





D. 29.

Both A and B are correct. None of the above are correct.


Erythrocytes: A. do not contain a nucleus B. survive an average of about 120 days C. do not have the ability to use 0, D. do not contain a nucleus All of these answers are correct. In a grasshopper all the body tissues are bathed in blood that is in the: A. capillaries B. heart D. spiracles () hemocoel



Dr. Bernard _ Animal Physiology - Exam 3-1 - Spring 2011- Page 4 of 7



The posterior pituitary receives hormones from which of the following structures? A. supraoptic nuclei B. paraventricular nuclei C. Two of the ahove E. None of the above is correct. Which of the following A. oxytocin vasopressin hormones enhances retention of water by the kidneys? B. MSH E. luteinizing hormone






Which of the following is/are produced near the brain. A. Prothoracicotropic hormone B. Bursicon two of the above E. all of the above The delicate connective tissue that surrounds B. E. of __


Juvenile hormone

the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers epimysium superficial fascia C. periosteum

together is the: 18) endomysium D. penmysium


The heart wall is composed A. 2 D. 3 Receptors for acetylcholine A. synaptic knob motor end plate

layers of tissue. 4 E. 5





are located on the: B. E.

sarcomere synaptic cleft




The liquid portion of the blood is composed of: platelet A. white blood cells B. None of the above. D. All of the above.


red blood cells


The cell membrane of skeletal muscle is called the: ~ sarcolemma B. sarcosome D. sarcomere E. sarcoplasmic





This hormone is present throughout the developmental stages of the insect. A. Ecdysone ~ Juvenile hormone D. Bursicon E. Prothoracicotropic hormone Which of the following A. AV node A V valve is NOT part of the conduction system of the heart? B. bundle of His E. bundle branches






SA node

Which hormone, known to control development Juvenile bormone C. Eclosion hormone E. none of the above

in insects, is NOT produced by neurosecretory B. Prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) D. Bursicon



In mammals, blood entering the right atrium:




is partially oxygenated is fully oxygenated flows directly to the left ventricle

is pumped directly into the aorta is pumped directly into the left atrium

Dr. Bernard - Animal Physiology - Exam 3-1- Spring 2011 - Page 5 of 7

Short Answer Questions

Please answer these questions briefly. Label diagrams correctly, with lines pointing to the proper structures. Partial credit will be given where appropriate. Write legibly!!
You can use the back of the last page to continue any question.

Number them, please!!

How does the length of a muscle affect the tension developed when stimulated? (8 points).


List the means by which endocrine glands are stimulated. (3 points)

~\.IhOre-.\ ... \,,-(n~ or ~cr~<.II\.to",~r.tI()1

\ _ ~OJ\

Q\ 10M)

'1\ \Ao~~.

Nt, v f"1\;

i.... i? SI,;:..-.)\e&06 \\,.~ rc.\~~ e",'l.cet-=i"'\.

e\...,.,,\ .

\\"\O"'I\. \ - ... ..,,'" \

. ~~~ ~"I"\AAt~~t List five (5) hypothalamic hormones and the hormone
(5 points) othalamic Hormone H


t....1\,(, Gr..boc.r"'to.\v15k\,...,ol ..~') \'hI- \'t,\...",~~ o~ 0


s ttll:y cause to be secreted by the antenor pituitary,



Anterior Pituitar



c,(\ R~
CR\i '?~)-\





- Animal Physiology

\~l\- Exam 3-1 - Spring 2011 - Page 6 of 7

Dr. Bernard

46. Many visceral smooth muscle cells lack motor neuron innervation. How are their contractions coordinated and controlled? (5 points)

\\.t.- ~\~c.'{NJ.6MO~~ M\fW."-f-Wl?"tW lo..,\.. N:l~ r'-t\Jrc.n i' "I\eN~'\"J1{ 'hWc.... (tX\~"G.t\.~ \W-1Cl't. C.OOI:~i~ ~ t-c"'-trDl~~by lof'''o(\-t.~ M
~ b(.o(.V'\


't e.,I\. ~I"-("




Trace a drop of blood from the time it enters the pulmonary circulation until it leaves the systemic circulation. (10 points)

"? '''''''''rt


t'f,\j'\r....Orwl''1-ttul\( ,.~~:>\e.~ r\l\-';y At~t,"(

'r1'J"'~"~ C'\f \\c..ti~~""'Y /' 'te,~V )
V ,~,,'r~'It-e..~ ~\l\~l\WY -/ \


)J+ Mt\O~

Mr:.~ ./' ..... ...

, (.\)',)?


it. \J<ol ~y ---

.t..'J\/if' Ij:.o..\,t-

l-.~ 'M-\N"\-t

t:AOt-~\'C.. St.l'\1~

\l.... \lJt--

t>-oNO\. -If

Sys te",it. C\~\lt"" -V



~c... L'

t 'ij"t~\,.tll'".....



L ~~J(._

",~"eliot\,,(..lJ~.c;;. to

8',o.... ~tl" r



Dr. Bernard - Animal Physiology - Exam 3-1 - Spring 2011 - Page 7 of 7