Phonetics and Phonology IV What is intonation?

2011

IMEI

Intonation is the melody of speech. We study how the pitch of the voice rises and falls and how speakers use this pitch variation to convey linguistic meaning. (Wells 2006)  Intonation refers to the rise and fall of the pitch of the voice in spoken language. (Tench 1996) Intonation involves the occurrence of recurring pitch patterns, each of which is used with a set of relatively consistent meanings, either on single words or on groups of words of varying length. (Cruttenden, 1997) Intonation is tied to utterances. By utterance we mean a larger unit that can be defined as a continuous pice of speech beginning and ending with a clear pause. (Roach, 1997)

Characteristics of intonation       Inevitable Meaningful /Significant Systematic Characteristic Conventional Integral

A formula for the structure of the tone group (Pre-head) (Head) Nucleus (Tail)

I’m going to Spain next week. Hierarchy of phonological units and structures     Tone group (unit of intonation) Foot (unit of stress and rhythm) Syllable (unit of syllabicity) Phoneme

What is prominence? The speaker’s placement of stress in discourse.  How is it realized? - Length

Phonetics and Phonology IV - Loudness - Pitch - Pitch movement - Quality The intonation systems of English   

2011

IMEI

System: choices from among a limited number of possibilities. (Halliday) Systems: there is not just one set of such choices but a number of such sets. (Halliday) 3 systems: • Tonality The distribution into tone groups – the number and location of tone group boundaries. (Halliday) • Tonicity The placing of the tonic syllable. (Halliday) • Tone The contrasting pitch movement on the tonic syllable. (Tench)

Prosodic features  ‘The prosodic (or suprasegmental) characteristics of speech are those of pitch, loudness and speed. These combine together to make up the rhythm of speech, and are combined in turn with stretches of silence (pause) to break up the flow of speech’. ‘Stress is realized by a combination of loudness, pitch and duration’. ‘Tone is realized mainly by the differences in the pitch of the voice (e.g. high level, mid level, low level, rising or falling)’. Wells, 2006 Functions of intonation     Attitudinal: emotions and attitudes Accentual: prominence on syllables and placing of tonic stress Grammatical: grammar and syntactic Discourse: new and given Roach, 1997

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Phonetics and Phonology IV 

2011

IMEI

Phsycological: organization of speech into units that are easy to perceive, memorize and perform Indexical: marker of personal and social identity Wells, 2006

Tonal universals Falling tones         Neutral statements Final Finished idea Complete Wh- questions Commands Demanding agreement Reinforcing adverbials

Rising tones         Implicational statements Non-final Unfinished idea Incomplete Yes/No questions Requests Question tag open to disagreement Limiting adverbials: fortunately, really, usually

TONALITY Marked tonality Something less than a clause  Clause modifying adverbials (luckily, fortunately, generally, nevertheless, however, surprisingly)

Phonetics and Phonology IV  Noun-phrase subject

2011

IMEI

- long and post-modified (name and surname, two people, postmodified by a defining relative clause or a prepositional phrase) - topicalized       Agentive by-phrases Tags Vocatives Nouns in apposition Structural parallelism Time and place adverbials Cruttenden, 1997