You are on page 1of 29

Sepak takraw From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Sepak takraw

Highest governing body


First played

15th century


Team members


Mixed gender



Indoor, beach


rattan ball " or "

Sepak takraw (Malay: sepak takraw also known as sepak raga; Tamil: " "; Thai: ตะกร ้อ, RTGS: takro; Lao: "cầu mây"),

"ka-taw"; Filipino: "sipa"; Vietnamese:

or kick volleyball, is a sport native to the Malay-Thai Peninsula. Sepak takraw differs from

the similar sport of volleyball in its use of a rattan ball and only allowing players to use their feet, knee,

chest and head to touch the ball. It is a popular sport in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Philippines. In Malaysia, the game is called sepak raga or "takraw". It is also thuck thay (Lao: "twine" and "kick")

while in Thailand it is sometimes called takraw. In Myanmar it is known as chin lone. In

the Philippines it is known as sipa, meaning "kick". Similar games include footbag net, footvolley, football tennis, bossaball, jianzi and sipa. These similar games all involve keepie uppies. History Earliest historical evidence shows that the game was played in the 15th century's Malacca Sultanate, for [4] it is mentioned in the Malay historical text, "Sejarah Melayu" (Malay Annals). The Malay Annals described in details the incident of Raja Muhammad, a son of Sultan Mansur Shah who was accidentally hit with a rattan ball by Tun Besar , a son of Tun Perak, in a Sepak raga game. The ball hit Raja Muhammad's headgear and knocked it down to the ground. In anger, Raja Muhammad immediately stabbed and killed Tun Besar, whereupon some of Tun Besar's kinsmen retaliated and wanted to kill Raja Muhammad. However, Tun Perak managed to restrain them from such an act of treason by saying that he would no longer accept Raja Muhammad as the Sultan's heir. As a result of this incident, Sultan [5] Mansur Shah ordered his son out of Malacca and had him installed as the ruler of Pahang. In Indonesia, sepak takraw was spread from nearby Malacca across the strait to Riau islands and Riau area in Sumatra as early as 16th century, where it is also called as Sepak Raga in local [6] [7] Malay tongue, at that time some of Sumatran areas were part of Malacca sultanate. From there the Malay people spread across archipelago and introduced the game to Buginese people in Sulawesi. Then the game is developed as Buginese traditional game which is called "Raga" (the players are called [8] "Pa'Raga"). The "Raga" can trace its origin from Malacca Sultanate, and was popular in South Sulawesi since 19th century. Some men playing "Raga" encircling within a group, the ball is passed from one to another and the man who kicked the ball highest is the winner. "Raga" is also played for fun by demonstrating some tricks, such as kicking the ball and putting it on top of player's head holds by tengkolok bugis (Bugis cloth headgear similar to Malay tanjak). In Bangkok, murals at Wat Phra Kaeo which was built in 1785, depict the Hindu god Hanuman playing sepak takraw in a ring with a troop of monkeys. Other historical accounts mention the game earlier during the reign of King Naresuan (1590–1605) of Ayutthaya. The game remained in its circle form for hundreds of years, and the modern version of sepak takraw began taking shape in Thailand sometime during early [citation needed] 1740s. In 1866 the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for takraw competition. Four years later, the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Within just a few years, takraw was introduced to the curriculum in Siamese schools. The game became such a cherished local custom that another exhibition of volleyball-style takraw was staged to celebrate the kingdom’s first constitution in 1933, the year after Thailand abolished absolute monarchy. In the Philippines the sport was called "sipa" and along with traditional martial arts survived the three century Spanish colonization. It is a popular sport played by children in Philippines, this is their national sport. Sepak Takraw is included in Philippine's elementary and highschool curriculum.In Myanmar, or Burma, it was dubbed "Chinlone", in Laos "Kator", "cầu mây" in Vietnam and in Indonesia "Raga" or [1] "Sepak Takraw". It is believed that many variations of the game evolved from an ancient Chinese military exercise, where soldiers would try to keep a feathered shuttlecock airborne by kicking it back and forth between two people. As the sport developed, the animal hide and chicken feathers were eventually replaced by balls [citation needed] made of woven strips of rattan.

And. you should stand in a good athletic stance. In 1829. popping the ball up and then kicking with your weak foot before catching the ball. Arguably it is the most important skill. Do this over and over until it comes naturally. [citation needed] standing or working. Make sure the ball hits the fleshy part of the thigh to "bump" the ball up and out a bit. Once you have gained consistency in this drill you can begin to try to link some kicks together. All rights reserved. Simply raise the leg with your hip allowing your knee to bend. Try a few back up to your hands.Try to contact the ball on the thigh where possible instead of the knee as it provides better control. Once you get this combination and doing it naturally without thinking. the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. Remember to bend your support leg at the knee. you will be aware of your improvement in skill. then catch the ball. on alternating feet. Try dropping to your strong foot. Once you feel comfortable. the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for the game. The knee and thigh is used when the ball comes fast towards the area between your knees and your waist. Focus on the ball and pop it back up to your hands. All rights reserved. improve dexterity and loosen the limbs after long periods of sitting. BASIC SKILLS As I said. Do this until the ball is consistently coming back up with ease and pop it back up to your hands. Knee/Thigh kick. the net version of the game had spread throughout Southeast Asia. Feet shoulder width apart. By the 1940s. Catch the ball and then try again. It is also used when kicking consecutive kicks or in a circle and the ball gets to close to your body. Spiker Dek is owned by Sport Action International in the promotion of sepaktakraw in the Takraw Thailand League. and formal rules were introduced. Watch any top class players in action and you'll see that this is the control kick of choice. The modern version of sepak takraw is fiercely competitive and began taking shape in Thailand almost [citation needed] 200 years ago. try to link with one inside kick. And it combines the teamwork of volleyball. This skill is used to "bump" or deflect the ball up enough to use an inside kick to control the ball. . While doing an inside kick. This sport became officially known as 'sepak takraw'. Four years later.. Within just [citation needed] a few years.. So here is some advice and the description of basic skills for you: Inside Kick. it is important. This is the kick you will use the most. The ball is bouncy and you need to just hit it in the right spot on your foot as well as with the proper motion. always keep an eye on the ball! The kicking motion is easy and don't swing at the ball too hard. This move sets up all the killer spikes. Header. Sepak Takraw is a skill ball game originated from Asia. Try a few times of simply tossing the ball to yourself. I think you understand that it's rather difficult to play it. but rather cooperative displays of skill designed to exercise the body. You should be able to see your progression.The first versions of sepak takraw were not so much of a competition. the dexterity of soccer and the finesse of badminton. Try to link three kicks together. sepak takraw was introduced to the Physical Training curriculum in schools. The motion is like a high step marching motion.

remember to bend your knees and get low beneath the ball. however. The best way to learn the header is like the inside kick. When doing the header. especially in the net game. hit it with your head and then catch it. You don't need much power because the ball tends to fly off uncontrollably. Outdoors Articles Body Piercing Shop Belly Button Rings Whip Guide Lyrics archive Love Lyrics phone cards Law of the Game Sepaktakraw Double Regu 1.The header is probably the second most important skill to have. but you'll get use to it. THE COURT . you don't need to focus on power but on accuracy and placement. not too much on the forehead and not too much on the top of the head. right in between. The graduating step is to a header from a high inside kick or from a header to a controlling inside kick. Toss the ball to yourself. The contact point should be just above the forehead at he hairline. Do the same progression. Like the other kicks. The toe kick is achieved by placing the foot out for the ball and depending on the height of the.the inside for control. Do it slow and take it easy. Those who play soccer may disagree. a good control kick. It is not. The next step in this skill drill is to toss the ball higher and again control it with your head before catching the ball. The toe kick is a defensive kick. Try both combinations as you will be using both of them as you begin to play more Front kick/Toe kick. Learn the toe kick for saves. great for saving a ball that has gotten out in front of you. It hurts a bit at first. do the same toss and catch drill. Do this several times until you feel comfortable with this skill. The header is used to pop up a ball that comes higher than the waist. either lifting the foot with your hip or just letting the ball bounce off. but in sepaktakraw the inside is the right way. Then try with different combinations. Like the other kicks.

3.1. The width of the lines bounding the court should not be more than 0.4 m x 6. The Centreline . The court is a rectangular area measuring 13. 1. 1. All the boundary lines should be drawn at least 3. 1.2.0m away from all obstacles.1.1 m free from all obstacles up to the height of 8 m measured from the court surface.4.04m measured and drawn inwards from the edge of the court measurements.

52m for men and 1.3. The posts shall be 1.05m wide are fastened vertically to the net and placed above each sideline.2.1. . 2.08m mesh. The net is 0. The posts shall be erected or placed firmly 0.3 m away from the sideline and in line with the Centreline.7m in depth and not shorter than 6. 3.4. The height of the net at the centre of the court shall be 1.45 m for women) in height from the floor and shall be sufficiently firm to maintain high net tension.55m for men and 1. 3.05m and tape double at the top and bottom supported by a fine ordinary cord or nylon cord that runs through the tape.45m for women. 3. The net shall be made of fine ordinary cord or nylon with 0.1m in length placed vertically over the axis of the centreline. It should be made from very strong materials and shall not be more than 0.The centreline of 0. strain over and flushes with the top of the post.5.42m for women while at the posts shall be 1.2. 3. They are considered as part of the net. 3 THE NET 3.06m to 0.04 m in radius.1. Two side bands 0.02 m should be drawn equally dividing the right and left court.55 m (1. 2 THE POSTS 2. The net shall be edged with 0.

or for covering the ball with rubber or soft durable covering must be approved by ISTAF before it can be used for any competition. regional competitions sanctioned by ISTAF. The Sepaktakraw ball can also be constructed of synthetic rubber or soft durable material for covering the ball. made of synthetic fibre of one woven layer. Has a circumference measuring not less from 0. THE SEPAKTAKRAW BALL 4. 4. 4. World Games. but not in any colour that will impair the performance of the players. Has a weight that range from 170 gm to 180 gm for men and from 150 gm to 160 gm for women. Commonwealth Games. . 4. The Sepaktakraw ball shall be spherical in shape. Asian Game and SEA Games. and luminous colours.3 The Sepaktakraw ball can be in plain single colour.4. 4.2. 4. All world. for the purpose of softening the impact of the ball on the player‟s body.4. Have 12 holes. One of the two players of the serving regu shall be at the back. THE PLAYERS 5. and he is called a Tekong. the Olympic Games.43m for men and from 0. must be played with ISTAF approved Sepaktakraw balls. international.1.44m for women. including but not limited to.42m to 0. Sepaktakraw ball without synthetic rubber covering must consist of the following characteristics.4 4. each consisting of two players 5. 4. The type of material and method used for constructing the ball.2.2.5 5. Have 20 intersections.2. A match is played by two Regu's.1.2. positioned behind the baseline for the service kick for which he also acts as the thrower from any position along and behind the baseline. multi-colour.41m to 0.2.

2. . Each team shall consist of minimum of 6 players and a maximum of 9 players all of whom must be registered. (3 regus of 6 players and 3 substitutes) 5. Any “team” having less than 6 players will not be allowed to play the game and will be considered as having lost.4.4. Prior to the commencement of a game each regu must have at least 2 players present on the playing court. Prior to the commencement of a game each team must have at least 6 players present on the playing court.1.5 Double Regu Event 5. The other non-serving player also known as "Alternate Tekong" of the serving regu as well as the players of the receiving regu shall be positioned within their respective courts.5. Double Regu Team Event 5. Each Regu shall consist of 3 players (1 Regu of 2 players plus 1 substitute) all of whom must be registered.5. 5.1. Any “Regu” having less than 2 players will not be allowed to play the game and will be considered as having lost.5. 5.2. 5.

All equipment used by players must be appropriate for Sepaktakraw. the home team must change. the Regu will not be allowed to continue. All jerseys/ T-shirts shall be numbered on both sides. A player must be assigned with one permanent number throughout the tournament. If both teams arrive at a match dressed in Jerseys of the same colour. Any equipment that is designed to increase or reduce the speed of the ball. two opposing teams must wear different colour jerseys. All Jerseys/T-shirts should be tucked in.3. after substitutions had been made. Each participating team is allowed to use only number 1 to number 15. the team listed first on the match program shall change. 7. The entire apparel of a player is regarded as part of his/her body. The Captain of each Regu shall wear an armband of a different colour from the Jersey/Tshirt on the left arm.5. socks and sport shoes with rubber soles without heels. Teams must have a minimum of two sets of Jerseys/T-shirts. one light and the other dark in colour.6. 6. the players are permitted to use tracksuits. In case of injury. Any “Regu” having less than 2 players will not be allowed to continue the game and will be considered as having lost.1. shorts. The size of the number shall not be less than 19cm in height at the back and should be 10cm in height for the front (centre chest area).2. Any other apparel not specifically mentioned in these Rules must first receive the approval of ISTAF Technical Commission. 6. 7.7. A player‟s attire consists of Jersey/T-shirts. In case of cold weather. . PLAYER’S ATTIRE 6. 6. SUBSTITUTION 7. 6. 6.4. On a neutral site. 7.6. To avoid unnecessary conflicts or confusion. Each "Regu” in a Double Regu Event may either not nominate or nominate any one-reserve player and it can make up to two consecutive substitutions in a set. increase a player‟s height or movement or in any other way give an unfair advantage and that endangers himself/herself or other players shall not be permitted.3.2. 6.1.

1 At the start of play. can position himself at any location within his side of the court. THE COIN TOSS AND WARM UP 8. POSITION OF PLAYERS DURING SERVICE 9. The Tekong shall also be the thrower for the serve. THE START OF PLAY AND SERVICE 10. 9. it must be re-thrown and a warning given to the regu. throws the ball before the referee calls the score.3 The non-serving player for the serving regu. The side that wins the first set will start and serve in the second set. The side that loses the toss will abide with the decision.” 10. 8.2 The side winning the toss shall "warm-up" first for 2 minutes followed by the other "Regu". the players of both "Regu's" must be in their respective courts in a ready position. the Court Referee will toss a coin or disc and the side winning the toss will choose side or service. Only 3 persons are allowed to move freely in the court with the official ball. If the Tekong.4 The opponent or receiving Regu is free to be anywhere within its court.2 The Tekong shall be positioned at any point behind the baseline of his respective court for the execution of the serve. 10.1 Before commencing the game.2 The throw must be executed as soon as the Referee calls the score. 9. but must remain within one spot while the serve is being made. 9.1 The side that must serve first shall start the first set. 9. who is also the thrower.8. A repetition of this act will be considered as „Fault‟ .

7 In a league system. the Teams will have to play all 3 Regus. 10.1. whether it touches the net or not. 10. bumping. all the players are allowed to move about freely in their respective courts. and inside the boundary of the two net tapes and boundary lines of the opponent‟s court.1. plays about with the ball (throwing up the ball.10.1 The Serving Side During Service 11.3 During the service.5 Players of the serving regu will alternate as Tekong each time it has won a point from the previous serve until the receiving team manages to gain a point.4 The service is valid if the ball passes over the net. 11. etc. Double Regu Team Event 10. FAULTS 11. . as soon as the Tekong kicks the ball. Teams without the 3 rd Regu will be considered as giving a walk over and a maximum point of 21 points each set will be awarded to the opponent. 11.) after the call of score has been made by the referee. 10.1 The Tekong who is making the service throws.2 The non-serving players of the serving regu move away from his adopted position for the serve when the serve is being made.6 In a knock out system Team do not have to play the 3 rd Regu if a winner has been decided.

or any other parts of his arm or arms to facilitate the execution of a kick even if the hand or arm does not directly touches the ball. 11.3 For Both Sides During The Game .2.1.1 Creating distracting manner or noise or shouting at his opponent.8 A player uses his hand or hands.1.9 The Tekong of the serving regu throws the ball before the referee calls the score. including the act of touching the baseline with any part of his body when executing the serve.5 The ball touches his own player before crossing over the opponent court.7 The ball does not cross to the opponent side. 11. 11.1. 11.11.1. 11.1. 11.2 Serving And Receiving Side During Service 11.3 The Tekong jumps off the ground or when his feet goes across the baseline on his side of the court.6 The ball goes over the net but falls outside the court. for the second or subsequent time during the match. 11.4 The Tekong does not kick the ball on the service throw. 11.1. but it touches other objects or surfaces instead when doing so.1.

except during the followthrough. 12 SCORING SYSTEM 12. . shoes. 11.1 Stepping on the centre line (except during a follow through after an execution of a spike or a block) 11. 11. jersey.3. head band etc. 11.7 Any part of the body or player's outfits e.1 When either serving side or receiving side commits a fault.8 The ball touches the ceiling.. 11. 11. touches the net or the post or the referee's chairs or falls into the opponent's side. Any part of player's body crosses over into opponent's court whether above or under the net. If player one was the previous Tekong.3. between the legs or body.11.2 Any player who touches the ball on the opponent side.3.4 Playing the ball more than 3 times in succession.3.g.3.5 The ball touches the arm.3. including stepping on the centre line. 11.6 Stopping or holding the ball under the arm. a point is awarded to the opponent side including making next service.9 Any player who uses the aid of any external object as a form of support to facilitate the execution of a kick. then player two is to make the service. roof or the wall (any objects).

person of properly 14 TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF PLAY 14. the Referee announces “Setting up to 17 points”. for not more than 5 minutes for each regu. The change of sides takes place when one “Regu” reaches 8 points.1 The Referee can suspend play temporarily should a player gets injured and needs immediate treatment. 12. then the set shall be decided on a difference of two points. During the Tie Break set the time out will be given when one „Regu‟ reaches 8 points Only 4 persons are allowed at the base line.1 A One minute time-out will be automatically given each set once a „Regu‟ reaches 11 points. 12. up to a ceiling of 17 points. and “The side winning of the toss shall serve”. up to a ceiling of 25 points. the set shall be decided on a difference of two points. When the score is tied at 14-14.3 The game is played in 2 sets with 2-minute rest in between. unless the point is tied at 20-20. the referee shall toss a disc or coin. .2 The 4 persons should consist of the 2 players and two other attired different from the players. the game shall be decided in the third set called "Tiebreak" with 15 points unless the point is tied at 14-14.4 If each "Regu" wins one set. When the score is tied at 20-20. 12.12. 13. the Referee announces “Setting up to 25 points”. 13 TIME-OUT 13.5 Before the tiebreak set takes place.2 The winning point for a set is 21 points.

If after 5 minutes. for which the referee must accede to the request made by the Captain of the “Regu”.3 In the event of obstructions. or to ask for a reasonable explanation for the decision made by the referee concerning the match.4 In the course of such suspension. the player is unable to continue. 16. players and team officials are however not allowed to dispute the referee's decision during the match or to act in any way that will jeopardize the continuity of the match.14. the match will be declared a forfeit in favor of the opposing team.3 The team managers. 15. 15. DISCIPLINE 15. for which such act shall be regarded as a serious Disciplinary offence. coaches. If the injured player's team has already made a substitution. either for matters relating to the position as well as condition of the players in the “Regu”. disturbances or any other matters. a substitution must be made. all players are not allowed to leave the court to receive drinks or any form of assistance. PENALTY Fouls and misconduct are penalized as follows: Disciplinary Sanctions – . 14. only the Official Referee can suspend play upon concurrence with the Tournament Committee. 14.1 Every player must abide by the rules of the game.2 An injured player is allowed up to 5 minutes injury time-out.2 Only the Captain of the "Regu" is allowed to approach the referee during the game. 15.

Cautionable Offences A player is cautioned and shown the yellow card if he commits any of the following six offences: 16. which can be considered as having or will have a detrimental effect on the proper conduct of the match as a whole. 16. including an act executed with deliberate intent to cause injury to his opponent Spits at an opponent or any other person Using offensive or insulting or abusive language and/or gestures. 16.1.1 Is guilty of unsporting behaviour by the display of such action that can be reasonably regarded as either a mitigated or unmitigated violation of the norms of sporting ethics. 16.2.3 Persistently infringes the Laws of the Game.2.1 16.5 . 16.2 Is guilty of serious foul play Is guilty of violent conduct.2.2.2 Sending-off Offences A player is sent off and shown the red card if he commits any of the following five offences: 16.2.6 Deliberately leaves the court without the referee‟s permission.3 16. 16.2 16. 16. Shows dissent by word or action.1. Receives a second caution (Yellow Card) in the same match.1.4 Delays the restart of play.1.5 Enters or re-enters the court without the referee's permission. 16.

an assistant referee or any other person.3.3. Penalty:  One Match Suspension 16. 16. but in the same tournament.2 Offence : Second Yellow Card received by the same player in different matches.16.3 Offence: Third Yellow Card received after suspension for the first two Yellow Cards in the tournament by the same player.4 Offence: .1 Offence: First Yellow Card Penalty:  Normal Caution 16.3.3 A player who commits a cautionable offence either on or off the court. for which a yellow card is awarded for each the offence committed is disciplined as follows: 16. Penalty:  Two (2) Matches Suspension  A Fine of US$100 (One Hundred Dollars is to be paid by the club or any other body the player represent in the match.3. whether directed towards opponent. the referee. team-mate.

the referee. Penalty:  Two (2) Matches Suspension  A Fine of US$100 (One Hundred Dollars is to be paid by the club or any other body the player represent in the match.1 Offence: Red Card Penalty:  Send-Off from the game and immediate suspension from playing in any tournament sanctioned by the relevant controlling authority for Sepaktakraw until a Disciplinary Committee is convened and a decision has been reached on the matter. 17 MISCONDUCT OF TEAM OFFICIALS 17. an assistant referee or any other person. 16.  A Red Card will be given for a third disciplinary offence committed in any other matches in the tournament. Penalty:  Immediate suspension from playing in the next or subsequent matches in any tournament sanctioned by relevant Sepaktakraw controlling authority until a Disciplinary Committee is convened and a have been reached on the matter. whether directed towards opponent.1 Disciplinary action will be taken against Team Officials or his team for any misconduct or disturbances committed by the official or team during a tournament whether in or outside the court. team-mate.Fourth Yellow Card Yellow card received after two matches' suspension for the earlier Third Yellow Card in the same tournament by the same player.5 Offence : Two Yellow Cards received by the same player within the same match. for which a red card is awarded for each of the offence committed is disciplined according to the nature of the offence committed is disciplined as follows: 16.4. 16.3. .4 A player who commits a sending-off offence either on or off the court.

Team's Manager g.Firm. Reserve Referee e. Players i.answers. An unpleasant incident encountered must promptly be reported to Chairman Referee. Standby Referee f. Fair and Fit. Read more: http://wiki. Referee c. Sepak Takraw officials or players on matters pertaining to refereeing. Referee d. Referees must behave as professionals and conduct themselves in a manner that will bring honour to themselves and the country. Assist. Official Referee is responsible to record down the names of referees who leave the tournament venue before the tournament ended and submit the report to chairman Referees and Secretary Referees. Referees detailed to officiate in a sepak takraw tournament must report at the venue at least 30 minutes earlier for local games and 1 hour earlier for International Games. Referees must at times observe the 3Fs . Team's Coach h. The Rules and Regulations. Referees must at all times uphold the Laws of the Game. Spectators Referees shall avoid getting themselves involved in dispute members of the public. Member of Referees' Committee b.The officials are referring to: a. The level of physical fitness must always be maintained to ensure consistency with the requirements of good refereeing. the press. Official Referees must ensure that all referees stay behind until all games have ended before giving a short briefing and officially release the referees to go 1f3Vok49Y .

18 GENERAL 18. Assist. which is not expressly provided for in any of the rules of the game. Team's Coach h.1 In the event of any question or any matter arising out of any point. Referee d.17. Member of Referees' Committee b. the decision of the Official Referee shall be final. Team's Manager g. Standby Referee f. Players . Reserve Referee e. until a Disciplinary Committee is convened and a decision has been reached on the matter. Referee c. The officials are referring to: a. Thailand. ************** The amendments have been approved during the International Sepaktakraw Federation (ISTAF) Congress on 2 July 2007 in Bangkok.2 Any team official who commits a misconduct or disturbances will be immediately escorted out from the arena by the tournament officials and the official referee and will also be immediately suspended from being a team official.

William Morgan's basis for the new game of Volleyball was the then popular and similar German game of Faustball and a few other sports including: tennis (the net). Official Referee is responsible to record down the names of referees who leave the tournament venue before the tournament end ed and submit the report to chairman Referees and Secretary Referees. An unpleasant incident encountered must promptly be reported to Chairman Referee. Established by the William G. Referees detailed to officiate in a sepak takraw tournament must report at the venue at least 30 minutes earlier for local ga mes and 1 hour earlier for International Games. . The level of physical fitness must always be maintained to ensure consistency with the requirements of good refereeing. Scott Hammon is our About expert and guide to Volleyball. Morgan was motivated by Naismith's game of basketball designed for younger students to invent a game suitable for the older members of the YMCA. Fair and Fit. baseball and handball. Massachusetts. the trophy is named in honor of William Morgan. YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) where he served as Director of Physical Education. Massachusetts. Morgan originally called his new game of Volleyball. Official Referees must ensure that all referees stay behind until all games have ended before giving a short briefing and officially release the referees to go home. Mintonette.Firm. Morgan Foundation in 1995 during the centennial year of volleyball. Referees must behave as professionals and conduct themselves in a manner that will bring honour to themselves and the country. Ironically at Springfield. Sepak Takraw officials or players on matters pertaining to refereeing. basketball. Spectators Referees shall avoid getting themselves involved in dispute members of the William Morgan invented volleyball in 1895 at the Holyoke. Read more: http://wiki.answers. The name Volleyball came about after a demonstration game of the sport. The Rules and Regulations. Morgan met James Naismith who invented basketball in 1891. when a spectator commented that the game involved much "volleying" and game was renamed Volleyball. the press. Referees must at all times uphold the Laws of the Game. To learn more about the history of Volleyball as a sport read Scott Hammon's article entitledFor The Love of Volleyball. The Morgan Trophy Award is presented annually to the most outstanding male and female collegiate volleyball player in the United States. Referees must at times observe the 3Fs . William Morgan was born in the state of New York and studied at Springfield College.i.

43 meters (7 feet 11 5/8 inches) above the center of the court for men's competition.5 feet) wide. There is a line 3 meters from and parallel to the net in each team court which is considered the "attack line".24 meters (7 feet 4 1/8 inches) for women's competition (these heights are varied for veterans and junior competitions). starting from area "1". divided into two 9 m × 9 m halves by a one-meter (40inch) wide net placed so that the top of the net is 2.Rules of the game Volleyball court The court The game is played on a volleyball court 18 meters (59 feet) long and 9 meters (29. and 2. which is the position of the serving player: . This "3 meter" (or 10 foot) line divides the court into "back row" and "front row" areas (also back court and front court). These are in turn divided into 3 areas each: these are numbered as follows.

with the player from area "1" moving to area "6". and third by the attacker whospikes (jumping. its members must rotate in a clockwise direction. have a circumference of 65–67 cm. A player from the serving team throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net on a course such that it will land in the opposing team's court (the serve). a team is chosen to serve by coin toss. made of leather or synthetic leather. India. If a ball comes in contact with the line. These contacts usually consist first of the bump or pass so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards the player designated as the setter. a weight of 260–280 g and an inside pressure of 0. with the player previously in area "2" moving to area "1" and so on.30–0. The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the volleyball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net. To get play started. An antenna is placed on each side of the net perpendicular to the sideline and is a vertical extension of the side boundary of the court. The team courts are surrounded by an area called the free zone which is a minimum of 3 meters wide and which the players may enter and play within after the service of the ball. . Game play Buddhist monks play volleyball in the Himalayan state of Sikkim.[10] Other governing bodies have similar regulations. Each team consists of six players. The ball Main article: Volleyball (ball) FIVB regulations state that the ball must be spherical.After a team gains the serve (also known as siding out). The team with possession of the ball that is trying to attack the ball as described is said to be onoffense.[9] All lines denoting the boundaries of the team court and the attack zone are drawn or painted within the dimensions of the area and are therefore a part of the court or zone. A ball passing over the net must pass completely between the antennae (or their theoretical extensions to the ceiling) without contacting them. raising one arm above the head and hitting the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) to return the ball over the net.325 kg/cm2. second of the set (usually an overhand pass using wrists to push finger-tips at the ball) by the setter so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards a spot where one of the players designated as an attacker can hit it. the ball is considered to be "in".

If the team that won the point served in the previous point. If she/he makes an overhand set. in the NCAA games are played best-of-five to 25 as of the 2008 season. generally. the most skilled defensive player on the team. whether they served the ball or not. the team transitions to offense. or to cause the ball to land outside the court. a player touching the net while attempting to play the ball. the minimum required score remains at 15. the defensive players arranged in the rest of the court attempt to control the ball with a dig (usually a fore-arm pass of a hard-driven ball). not for all of the people for whom he or she goes in. The libero may function as a setter only under certain restrictions. The FIVB changed the rules in 1999 (with the changes being compulsory in 2000) to use the current scoring system (formerly known as rally point system). In addition. using another player as a source of support to reach the ball. the libero can replace any back-row player. a libero is not allowed to serve. although there may be a different libero in the beginning of any new set (game).and television-friendly. In 2008. high schools sometimes play best-of-three to 25. That rule change was also applied to high school and junior high play soon after. Libero In 1998 the libero player was introduced internationally. That is. attacking the serve in the front court and above the height of the net. the service area was expanded to allow players to serve from anywhere behind the end line but still within the theoretical extension of the sidelines. otherwise. but only in a specific rotation. according to international rules.[14] . and they have released the updated rules in 2009. taking more than 8 seconds to serve. the libero can only serve for one person.) If a fifth (deciding) set is reached. stepping over the back boundary line when serving. There may only be one libero per set (game). although most of them are infrequent occurrences. primarily to make the length of the match more predictable and to make the game more spectator. the word "game" is now referred to as "set". with the exception of the NCAA women's volleyball games. Also. This replacement does not count against the substitution limit each team is allowed per set. until the ball touches the court within the boundaries or until an error is made. These errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking (back-row players may spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line). Other common errors include a player touching the ball twice in succession. where a 2004 rule change allows the libero to serve. above. Furthermore. After a successful dig. tournaments. An underhand pass is allowed from any part of the court. the ball cannot be attacked above the net in front of the 3-meter line. the NCAA changed the minimum number of points needed to win any of the first four sets from 30 to 25 for women's volleyball (men's volleyball remained at 30. Players may travel well outside the court to play a ball that has gone over a sideline or end-line in the air. The libero is. The team that won the point serves for the next point. as long as it goes over the net into the opponents' court. although the libero may be replaced only by the player whom they replaced. A ball is "in" if any part of it touches a sideline or end-line. players not being in the correct position when the ball is served. If the ball is hit around. (Scoring differs between leagues. Scoring When the ball contacts the floor within the court boundaries or an error is made. or a player penetrating under the net into the opponent's court. Other changes were made to lighten up calls on faults for carries and double-touches. the ball is counted as in.[12] Changes in rules have been studied and announced by FIVB in recent years. the same player serves again. If the team that won the point did not serve the previous point. across the plane) of the net in order to block the attacked ball. a player "catching" the ball. and levels. with the first team to score 25 points (and be two points ahead) awarded the set. There are a large number of other errors specified in the rules. and a strong spike may compress the ball enough when it lands that a ball which at first appears to be going out may actually be in. If the ball hits the line. such as allowing multiple contacts by a single player ("double-hits") on a team's first contact provided that they are a part of a single play on the ball. The game continues in this manner. The most frequent errors that are made are either to fail to return the ball over the net within the allowed three touches. the team that did not make the error is awarded a point. [11] or playing the ball when it is above the opponent's court.The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their court: players at the net jump and reach above the top (and if possible. the players of the team rotate their position on the court in a clockwise manner. where the referees or officiating team must keep track of who the libero subs in and out for. she/he must be standing behind (and not stepping on) the 3-meter line. Matches are best-of-five sets and the fifth set (if necessary) is usually played to 15 points. points could be scored only when a team had the serve (side-out scoring) and all sets went up to only 15 points. There is also a libero tracking sheet.)[12] Before 1999. or through the block. without prior notice to the officials. rallying back and forth. The game continues. When the ball is not in play.[13] The libero is a player specialized in defensive skills: the libero must wear a contrasting jersey color from his or her teammates and cannot block or attack the ball when it is entirely above net height. Recent rule changes Other rule changes enacted in 2000 include allowing serves in which the ball touches the net.

Underhand serves are considered very easy to receive and are rarely employed in high-level competitions. A player stands behind the inline and serves the ball. His or her main objective is to make it land inside the court. attack. Sky ball serve: a specific type of underhand serve occasionally used in beach volleyball. . where the ball is hit so high it comes down almost in a straight line. set. this serve is called Jornada nas Estrelas (Star Trek). block and dig. pass. in an attempt to drive it into the opponent's court. This serve was invented and employed almost exclusively by the Brazilian team in the early 1980s and is now considered outdated. A player making a jump serve. speed and acceleration so that it becomes difficult for the receiver to handle it properly. Serve Setting up for an overhand serve.Skills Competitive teams master six basic skills: serve. In Brazil. Each of these skills comprises a number of specific techniques that have been introduced over the years and are now considered standard practice in high-level volleyball. many types of serves are employed:   Underhand: a serve in which the player strikes the ball below the waist instead of tossing it up and striking it with an overhand throwing motion. it is also desirable to set the ball's direction. In contemporary volleyball. A serve is called an "ace" when the ball lands directly onto the court or travels outside the court after being touched by an opponent.

hitting it with much pace and topspin. The main goal of setting is to put the ball in the air in such a way that it can be driven by an attack into the opponent's court. Topspin serves are generally hit hard and aimed at a specific returner or part of the court. As with passing. . or in beach volleyball where rules regulating overhand setting are more stringent. meaning whether the ball is passed in the direction the setter is facing or behind the setter. then the player makes a timed approach and jumps to make contact with the ball. More experienced setters toss the ball into the deep corners or spike the ball on the second hit. giving it topspin which causes it to drop faster than it would otherwise and helps maintain a straight flight path. Set Jump set The set is usually the second contact that a team makes with the ball. The setter usually stands about ⅔ of the way from the left to the right of the net and faces the left (the larger portion of net that he or she can see). Standing topspin serves are rarely used above the high school level of play. and is the player who ultimately decides which player will actually attack the ball. This movement is called a "dump".[15] The most common dumps are to 'throw' the ball behind the setter or in front of the setter to zones 2 and 4. The ball is tossed lower than a topspin jump serve. Sometimes a setter refrains from raising the ball for a teammate to perform an attack and tries to play it directly onto the opponent's court. In this case the setter usually jumps off his or her right foot straight up to avoid going into the net. In the case of a set. Float: an overhand serve where the ball is hit with no spin so that its path becomes unpredictable. Jump serve: an overhand serve where the ball is first tossed high in the air. There is also a jump set that is used when the ball is too close to the net. The setter coordinates the offensive movements of a team. This serve is becoming more popular amongst college and professional players because it has a certain unpredictability in its flight pattern. akin to a knuckleball in baseball. one may distinguish between an overhand and a bump set.    Topspin: an overhand serve where the player tosses the ball high and hits it with a wrist span. the bump is used only when the ball is so low it cannot be properly handled with fingertips. Since the former allows for more control over the speed and direction of the ball. Jump float: an overhand serve where the ball is tossed high enough that the player may jump before hitting it similarly to a standing float serve. This is the most popular serve amongst college and professional teams. but contact is still made while in the air. one also speaks of a front or back set.

maybe without block at all. or any form of attack. Also called reception. making the highest possible contact while maintaining the ability to deliver a powerful hit. . Off-speed hit: the player does not hit the ball hard. the pass is the attempt by a team to properly handle the opponent's serve. A "kill" is the slang term for an attack that is not returned by the other team thus resulting in a point. A cross-court shot with a very pronounced angle. one in front and one behind the setter or both in front of the setter. wrist snap. A player makes a series of steps (the "approach"). Line and Cross-court Shot: refers to whether the ball flies in a straight trajectory parallel to the side lines. where the ball touches the inside part of the joined forearms or platform. The middle hitter steps around the setter and hits from behind him or her. but touches the ball lightly. at waist line. resulting in the ball landing near the 3-meter line. The set (called a "quick set") is placed only slightly above the net and the ball is struck by the hitter almost immediately after leaving the setter's hands. like a set. and swings at the ball. Quick hit/"One": an attack (usually by the middle blocker) where the approach and jump begin before the setter contacts the ball. Tool/Wipe/Block-abuse: the player does not try to make a hard spike. but hits the ball so that it touches the opponent's block and then bounces off-court. reducing its speed and thus confusing the opponent's defense. Slide: a variation of the quick hit that uses a low back set. The object of attacking is to handle the ball so that it lands on the opponent's court and cannot be defended. above the head. Proper handling includes not only preventing the ball from touching the court. but also making it reach the position where the setter is standing quickly and precisely. Quick attacks are often effective because they isolate the middle blocker to be the only blocker on the hit. Attack The attack. and overhand pass.Pass A woman making a forearm pass or bump. The player must jump from behind the 3-meter line before making contact with the ball. Dip/Dink/Tip/Cheat/Dump: the player does not try to make a hit. and a rapid forward contraction of the entire body to drive the ball. is called a cut shot. but may land in front of the 3-meter line. A 'bounce' is a slang term for a very hard/loud spike that follows an almost straight trajectory steeply downward into the opponent's court and bounces very high into the air. Double quick hit/"Stack"/"Tandem": a variation of quick hit where two hitters. where it is handled with the fingertips. At the moment of contact. jump to perform a quick hit at the same time. The skill of passing involves fundamentally two specific techniques: underarm pass. is usually the third contact a team makes with the ball. The hitter uses arm swing. Contemporary volleyball comprises a number of attacking techniques:         Backcourt (or backrow)/pipe attack: an attack performed by a back row player. or crosses through the court in an angle. Ideally the contact with the ball is made at the apex of the hitter's jump. jumps. however there are much tighter regulations on the overhand pass in beach volleyball. It can be used to deceive opposite blockers and free a fourth hitter attacking from backcourt. also known as the spike. Either are acceptable in professional and beach volleyball. the hitter's arm is fully extended above his or her head and slightly forward. or bump. so that it lands on an area of the opponent's court that is not being covered by the defense.

is called offensive. A "roof" is a spectacular offensive block that redirects the power and speed of the attack straight down to the attacker's floor. a block that consistently forces the attacker away from his or her 'power' or preferred attack into a more easily controlled shot by the defense is also a highly successful block. The jump should be timed so as to intercept the ball's trajectory prior to it crossing over the net. Successful blocking does not always result in a "roof" and many times does not even touch the ball. It requires anticipating the direction the ball will go once the attack takes place. Dig Woman going for a dig. Thus. this skill is similar to passing. as if the attacker hit the ball into the underside of a peaked house roof. A well-executed offensive block is performed by jumping and reaching to penetrate with one's arms and hands over the net and into the opponent's area. double. While it’s obvious that a block was a success when the attacker is roofed. It may also require calculating the best foot work to executing the "perfect" block. it is called a defensive. Palms are held deflected downward about 45–60 degrees toward the interior of the opponents court. A block that is aimed at completely stopping an attack. one may speak of single (or solo). By contrast.Block 3 players performing a block Blocking refers to the actions taken by players standing at the net to stop or alter an opponent's attack. Blocking is also classified according to the number of players involved. particularly a ball that is nearly touching the ground. the block position influences the positions where other defenders place themselves while opponent hitters are spiking. At the same time. A well-executed soft-block is performed by jumping and placing one's hands above the net with no penetration into the opponent's court and with the palms up and fingers pointing backward. . or bumping: overhand dig and bump are also used to distinguish between defensive actions taken with fingertips or with joined arms. or "soft" block if the goal is to control and deflect the hard-driven ball up so that it slows down and becomes more easy to be defended. or triple block. In many aspects. Digging is the ability to prevent the ball from touching one's court after a spike or attack. thus making the ball remain in the opponent's court.

. When the player also slides his or her hand under a ball that is almost touching the court. i. the player makes use of a specific rolling technique to minimize the chances of injuries. and land on his or her chest. In this situation. The pancake is frequently used in indoor volleyball.. Sometimes a player may also be forced to drop his or her body quickly to the floor in order to save the ball.Some specific techniques are more common in digging than in passing. A player may sometimes perform a "dive". throw his or her body in the air with a forward movement in an attempt to save the ball.e. this is called a "pancake".