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Physics of Semiconductor Devices
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Physics of Semiconductor Devices
SECON DEDITION
S. M. Sze
Bell Laboratories, Incorporated Murray Hill, New Jersey
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A WILEYINTERSCIENCE PUBLICATION
JOHN WILEY & SONS
To My Wife
Copyright
©
1981 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
All rights reserved. Publishea simultaneously in Canada. Reproduction or translation of any part of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission ~ of the copyright owner is unlawful. Requests for permission or further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Library of Congress
Cataloging in PubUcation Data:
Sze, S. M., 1936Physics M semiconductor devices .
..A WileyInterscience publication." Includes index. I. Semiconductors. I. Title.
TK7871.85.S988 1981
537.6'22
81213 AACR2
Printed in the Republic of Singapore 2019 18 17 16 15 14
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Preface
Since the invention of the bipolar transistor in 1947, the semiconductor device field has grown rapidly. Coincident with this growth, semiconductordevice literature has also burgeoned an~ diversified. For access to. this massive amount of iI!fo.rmatio.n, there is It need for a book giving a comprehensive introductory account of device physics and operational principles, with references. In 1%9, the first edition of Physics o.f Semiconductor Devices was published with the intention of meeting such a need. It is perhapssomewhat surprising that the book has so. long held its place as one of the main textbooks for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses, and as a major reference for scientists in semiconductordevice research and development. In the last decade, more than 40,000 papers on semiconductor devices have been published, with numerous breakthroughs in device concepts and performance. The book clearly needed substantial revision if it were to. continue to. serve its purpose. In the second edition of Physics o.f Semiconductor Devices, 80 percent of the material has been revised or updated, and the material has been totally reorganized, About 1,000 references have been cited, of which 70 percent were published in the last decade, and over 600 technical illustrations are included, of which 65 percent are new. Most of the important semiconductor devices are included, and they are divided into. four groups: bipolar, unipolar, microwave, and photonic devices. A brief historical review is given in the introduction to. each chapter, Subsequent sections present the physics and mathematical formulations of _the devices. The sections are arranged in a logical sequence without heavy reliance on the original papers. Each chapter is more or less independent of the other chapters, so. readers can use the book as a reference and instructors can rearrange the device chapters or select ones appropriate for their classes. In the course of the writing many people have assisted me and offered their support, I would like, first, to. express my appreciation to. the management of Bell Laboratories for providing the environment in which I worked on the book; without their support this book could not have been
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Preface
written. I have benefited significantly from the suggestions of the reviewers: Drs. J. M. Andrews, D. E. Aspnes, W. E. Beadle, J. R. Brews, H. J. Boll, C. C. Chen, W. Fichtner, H. Fukui, H. K. Gummel, D. Kahng, T. P. Lee, M. P. Lepselter, E. H. Nicollian, W. C. Niehaus, P. T. Panousis, T. Paoli, R. M. Ryder, M. Shoji, G. E. Smith, K. K. Thornber, and S. H. Wemple of Bell Laboratories; Professors H. C. Casey, Duke University, C. R. Crowell, University of Southern California, W. S. Feng, National Taiwan University, S. K. Ghandhi, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, H. Kroemer, University of California, M. Lampert, Princeton University, H. Melchior, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, R. H. Rediker, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and H. W. Thim, Technical University of Vienna; and Drs. L. L. Chang, IBM Corporation, G. Gibbons, Plessey Research Limited, and R. N. Hall, General Electric Company. I am further indebted to Ms. D. McGrew, Ms. J.Chee, Ms. K. R. Funk, and Mr. M. Lynch for technical editing of the entire manuscript, to Messrs. E. Labate, B. A. Stevens, and H.B. Teitelbaum for their literature searches, and to Ms. A, W. Talcott for providing more. than five thousand technical papers on semiconductor devices cataloged at the Murray Hill Library of Bell Laboratories. Thanks are also due Mr. W. H. Shafer of the Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis (CINDAS), Purdue University, for providing uptodate references on semiconductor properties. I wish to thank. Ms. J. T. McCarthy and Ms. V. J. Maye, who typed various sections of the book in its revision stage, and Mr. G. Holmfelt and members of the Drafting Department of Bell Laboratories, who furnished hundreds of technical illustrations used in this book. In each case where an illustration was used from another published source, I have applied for and received permission from the copyright holder even though all illustrations were then adapted and redrawn. I appreciate being granted these permissions. At my publishers, John Wiley and Sons, I want to acknowledge Mr. G. Novotny who encouraged me to undertake this new edition, and Ms. V. Aldzeris, Ms. R. Farkas and Mr. R. Fletcher who handled the production of this book. Finally, I wish especially to thank my wife Therese Lingyi, my son Raymond, and my daughter Julia (or their assistance in many ways, including typing the first draft and preparing the final manuscript. S. M.
Murray Hill. New Jersey May 1981
SZE
Contents
INTRODUCTION PART I SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS Physics and Properties of SemiconductorsA Resume 1 5
Chapter 1
7
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
Introduction, 7 Crystal Structure, 8 Energy Bands, 12 Carrier Concentration at Thermal Equlllbrium, 1.5 Carrier Transport Phenomena, 27 1.6 Phonon Spectra and Optical, Thermal, and HighField Properties of Semiconductors, 38 1.7 Basic Equations for Semiconductor Device Operation, 50 BIPOLAR DEVICES pn Junction Diode
16
PART II Chapter 2 2.1 2.2
61
63
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2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8
Introduction, 63 Basic Device Technology, 64 Depletion Region and Depletion .Capacitance, 74 CurrentVoltage Characteristics, 84 Junction Breakdown, 96 Transient Behavior and Noise, 108 Terminal Functions, 112 Heterojunction, 122
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Contents Contents xi
Chapter 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6
Bipolar Transistor
133
Chapter 8
MOSFET
431
Introduction, 133 Static Characteristics, 134 Microwave Transistor, 156 Power Transistor, 169 Switching Transistor, 175 Related Device Structures, 181 Thyristors 190
Chapter 4
8.1 Introduction, 431 8.2 Basic Device Characteristics, 433 8.3 Nonuniform Doping and BuriedChannel Devices, 456 8.4 ShortChannel Effects, 469 8.5 MOSFET Structures, 486 8.6 Nonvolatile Memory Devices, 496 PART IV Chapter 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 SPECIAL MICROWAVE DEVICES Tunnel Devices 511 513
4.1 Introduction, 190 4.2 Basic CharacteristiCS, 191 4.3 Shockley Diode and ThreeTerminal Thyristor, 209 4.4 Related Power Thyristors, 222 4.5 Diac and Triac, 229 4.6 Unijunction Transistor and Trigger Thyristors, 234 4.7 FieldControlled Thyristor, 238 PART III .Chapter 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 UNIPOLAR DEVICES MetalSemiconductor Contacts 243 245
Introduction, 513 Tunnel Diode, 516 Backward Diode, 537 MIS Tunnel Diode, 540 MIS Switch Diode, 549 MIM Tunnel Diode, 553 Tunnel Transistor, 558 IMPATT and Related TransitTime Diodes 566
Chapter 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8
Introduction, 245 EnergyBand Relation, 246 Schottky Effect, 250 Current Transport Processes, 254 Characterization of Barrier Height,270 Device Structures, 297 Ohmic Contact, 304 JFET and MESFET 312
Chapter 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5
Introduction, 566 Static Characteristics, 568 Dynamic Characteristics, 577 Power and Efficiency, 585 Noise Behavior, 599 Device Design and Performance, 604 BARITIand DOVETIOiodes, 613 TRAPATI Diode, 627 Devices 637
Introduction, 312 Basic Device Characteristics, 314 General Characteristics, 324 Microwave Performance, 341 Related FieldEffect Devices, 351 MIS Diode and CCD 362
Chapter 11 TransferredElectron
11.1 Introduction, 637 11.2 TransferredElectron Effect, 638 11.3 Modes of Operation, 651 11.4 Device Performances, 667 PART V PHOTONIC DEVICES LED and Semiconductor Lasers 679 681
Chapter 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4
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Introduction, 362 Ideal MIS Diode, 363 SiSi02 MOS Diode, 379 ChargeCoupled Device, 407
Chapter 12 12.1 12.2
Introduction, 681 Radiative Transitions, 682
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Contents
12.3 12.4 12.5
LightEmitting Diodes, 689 Semiconductor Laser Physics, 704 Laser Operating Characteristics, 724 743
Chapter 13Photo.detectors 13.1 Introduction, 743 13.2 Photoconductor, 744 13.3 Photodiode, 749 13.4 Avalanche Photodiode, 766 13.5 Phototransistor, 782 Chapter 14 Solar Cells
Introduction
790 The book is divided into five parts: Part Part Part Part Part 839 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: resume of physics and properties of semiconductors bipolar devices unipolar devices microwave devices photonic devices
14.1 Introduction, 790 14.2 Solar Radiation and Ideal Conversion Efficien.cy, 791 14.3 pn Junction Solar Cells, 799 14.4 Heterojunction, Interface, and ThinFilm Solar Cells, 816 14.5 Optical Concentration, 830 APPENDIXES
A. B.
C. D.
E.
F. G. H. I. INDEX
List of Symbols, 841 International System of Units, 844 Unit Prefixes, 845 Greek Alphabet, 846 Physical Constants, 847 Lattice Constants, 848 Properties of Important Semiconductors, 849 Properties of Ge, Si, and GaAs at 300 K, 850 Properties of Si02 and SbN4 at 300 K, 851 853
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Part 1, Chapter), is intended asa summary of materials properties, to be used throughout the._ book as a basis for understanding and calculating device characteristics. Energy~and, carrier distribution, and _. transport properties are briefly surveyed; with emphasis on the three most important semiconductors: germanium (Ge), silicon (Si), and gallium arsenide (GaAs). A compilation of the recommended or the most accurate values for these semiconductors is given in th~ .illustrations of Chapter 1 and inthe appendixes for convenient reference. Part 2, Chapters 2 through __ treats bipolar devices in which both }, electrons and holes are involved in the transport processes. The basic device technology and pn junction characteristics are considered in Chapter 2. Because the pn junction is the building block of most semiconductor devices, the pn junction theory serves as the foundation of the physics of semiconductor devices. Chapter 3 treats _ bipolar transistor, the that is; the _interaction between two closely. coupl~dp:'njunctions. _The bipolar .tr~sistor is one ofthe_ most important se.miconductor devices. The invention of the bipolar transistor in 1947was tile beginning of the modern electronics era. The thyristor, which is basically three closely ~oupled pn junc~ons in' the form ofa pnpn structure,is discussed in Chapter 4. Thyristors hav~ a ,:"ide_rangeofp?werhandlirig capability; they can handle currents from aJew milliamperes to thousands of "amperesand voltages extending above5000V. .• ._ . .> _ ....•_ Part 3, Chapters 5 through 8, deals with unipolar devices in which only
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Introduction
Introduction
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one type of carrier predominantly participates in the conduction mechanism. The metalsemiconductor contact, in Chapter 5, is electrically similar to a onesided abrupt pn junction, yet it can be operated as a majoritycarrier device with inherent fast response. The metalsemiconductor contact on heavily doped semiconductors constitutes the most important form of ohmic contacts. The junction fieldeffect transistor (JFET) and metalsemiconductor fieldeffect transistor (MESFET), described in Chapter 6, are generically similar devices. Both utilize the electric field to control a current flow that is parallel to the junction rather than perpendicular to it. The surface physics and metaloxidesemiconductor (MOS) devices, are considered in Chapters 7 and 8. A knowledge of the 'interface traps" associated with these devices is important not only because of the devices themselves but also because of their relevance to the stability and reliability of all other semiconductor devices. The chargecoupled device (CCD), which is especially useful for signal processing and image sensing, is formed using closely coupledMOS capacitors. The metaloxidesemiconductor fieldeffect transistor (~PSFET), discussed in Chapter 8, is the most important device for verylargescale integrated (VLSI) circuits. MOSFETs are used extensively in semiconductor memories and microprocessors having thousands of individual components per chip. Part '4, Chapters 9 through ll,considers some special microwave devices. When a pn junction is doped so heavily on both sides that the field becomes sufficiently high for quantummechanlcet tunneling, the interesting features of tunnel diode behavior are seen (Chapter 9). When a pn junction or a metalsemiconductor contact is operated in ~valanche breakdown, under proper conditions we have an IMPAIT diode that can generate microwave radiation. The operational characteristics of IMP AIT diodes and some related devices are presented in Chapter 10. Microwave oscillation can be generated by the mechanism of electron transfer from a highmobility lowerenergy valley in the conduction band to a lowmobility higherenergy valley. The transferredelectron device is considered in Chapter 11. Part 5, Chapters 12 through" 14, deals with photonic devices that can detect" generate,. and, convert optical energy to electric energy, or vice versa. The lightemitting diode (LED) and semiconductor laser are discussed in Chapter 12. Both devices are important sources for opticalfiber communication' systems. Various photodetectors with high quantum efficiency and high response speed are discussed in Chapter 13.' As the worldwide energy demand ~creases, there is a need to develop alternative energy sources. The solar cell is considered a major candidate because it can convert sunlight directly to electricity with high"efficiency. Various configurations of solar cells and their operational characteristics are considered in Chapter 14. ' A remark on notation: To keep the notation simple, it is necessary to use
c
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the simple symbols more than once, with different meanings for different devices. For example, the symbol a is used as the commonbase current gain for a bipolar transistor, as the optical absorption coefficient for a photodetector, and as the impact ionization coefficient for an IMPAIT diode. This usage is considered preferable to the alternative, which would be to use alpha only once and then be forced to find more complicated symbols for the other uses. Within each chapter, however, each symbol is used with only one meaning and is defined the first time it appears. Many symbols do have the same or similar meanings consistently throughout this book; they are summarized in Appendix A for convenient reference. At present, the electronics field in general and the semiconductordevice field in particular are so dynamic and so fastchanging that today's concepts may be obsolete tomorrow. It is therefore important for us to understand the fundamental physical processes and to equip ourselves with sufficient background in physics and mathematics to digest, appreciate, and meet the challenge of these dynamic fields. It is important to point out that many of the devices, especially the unipolar devices and photonic devices, are stilI under intensive investigation. I Their ultimate performance is by no means fully understood at the present time. The material presented in this book is intended to serve as a foundation. The references listed at the end of each chapter can supply more information.
REFERENCE
I S. M. S~e. "Semiconductor Device Development in the 1970s and 1980sA Proc. IEEE, 69, 1121 (1981). Perspective,"
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PART SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS
• Physics and Properties of SemiconductorsA Resume
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el1Ys~csal'l~ Properties of
SemiconductorsAReslJme
• • • • • . • INTR~,?UCTION CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ENERGY BAtmS CARRIER CONCENTRATION
.;._
AT THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
'.
CARRIER TRANSPORT _'PHENOMENA _ ,
PHOijONSPECTRA ANDOI'TICAL. THERMAL. AND HIGH'FIELD PROPERTIES OF SEMICONDUCTORS BASIC EQUATIONS OPERATION FOR SEMICONDUCTORDEVICE '
1.1 INTRODUCTION The physicszof semic()nductor devices is naftrrally dependent on the physics of semicond~ct()rsthemselves; This chapter presents a summary of the physics and proPt::rties'Of semiconductors. It represents only a smaIl cross section of the vast'literatuie on semiconductors; only those subjects pertinent to 'device opeI'aflons are included here. For de'iaiIedconsi,(ieratlonof semiconductor physics, the reader should consult the standard textbooks or reference works by Dunlap;' Madehmg.! Moll/ MOSS,4 Smith.' arid To condense a large amount of information into a single chapter, three ~~e;r::n~;:r ~~r~u?:ti~::::rw:~;~~s~?se~~e=:~=():e i~':::~ semiconductors: germariium (Ge), silieon (Si), andgaIliumarsenide (GaAs).
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Physics and Properties of SemiconductorsA
Resume
9
Germanium and silicon have been studied extensively. Gallium arsenide has been intensively investigated in recent years. It has different properties than germanium and silicon; particular properties studied are its direct bandgap for photonic application and its intervalleycarrier transport and high mobility for generation of microwaves.
1.2 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Three primitive basis vectors, .a,.b,andic,descQllea crystalline solic.:l such that the crystal structure remains invariant under translation through any vector that is th~ sum.?f integral m~tiples of'.these basis vectors. In other words, the direct lattice sites .can be defined by the set R=ma+nb+pc (1)
.•.• 'l';1tle,bo!ndbetween two nearest neighbors is formed by two electrons with ··.Op,po!~ite spins. The diamond. and the zincblende lattices can be considered ·",,·:·.hlllo interpenetrating facecentered cubic lattices. For the diamond ""... ,,',. such as silicon, all the atoms are silicon; in a zincblende lattice, as gallium ..arsenide, one sublattice is galliumandthe otherisarsenic. arsenide is a 111V compound, since it is formed from elements of >grOU1)S III and V of the periodic table. Most JII V compounds crystallize in zincblende structurer'" however, many semiconductors (including some.lIIV compounds) crystallize in the wurtzite or rocksalt structures. Figure 2a shows the wurtzite lattice, which can be considered as two
"' ...... UIL ..
where m, n, and p are integers. Figure 1 shows some important unit cells (directlattices), A great many important semiconductors have diamond orvzincblende' lattice structures which belong to the tetrahedral phases; that is, each atom is surrounded by four equidistant nearest neighbors which lie at.the corners of a tetrahedron.
(a) SIMPLE CUBIC (P, etc) BOOYCENTERED CUBIC (NO, W, etc) FACECENTERED CUBIC
(Al, Au, etc)
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2JNCBLENDE (GOAS, GOP, etc) representative elements or
(b)
Fig.1 SomeilTlPortantunit cells (direct.latti.cesjandtheir compounds; a is the lattice constant. ..
Fig.2 Two unit cells of compound semiconductors. (b) Rocksalt lattice (PbS,PbTe, ete.).
(a) Wurtzite lattice (CdS, ZnS, etc.).
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Physics and Properties of SemlconductorsA
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Crystal Structure
11
interpenetrating nexagonalclosepacked lattices (e.g., the sublattices of cadmium and sulfur) •.The wnrtzitestructure.has a tetrahedral arrangement of four.equidistant nearest neighbors, similar to azincblende .structure, Figure 2b shows the rocksalt lattice. which can be considered as two interpenetrating facecenteredcubic lattices. In the rocksalt structure eachatom has six nearest neighbors. ' Appendix F gives a summary of the lattice constants of important semiconductors, together with their crystal structures.Y Note that some compounds, such as zinc sulfide and cadmium sulfide,can crystallize in both zincblende and wurtzitestructures. For a given set of the direct basis vectors, a set of reciprocal lattice basis vectors a*, b*, c* can be defined such that a* ==211"bxc a'bxc' so that a' a* = 211";a' b* vector is given by b*==2~ · . xa •c a'bxc' c* ==211" a x b
a+b x e
Some other conventions (hkl):for {hkl}: [hkl]: (hkl):
[a,a2a3c]:
are given as follows:
a plane that intercepts the x axis on the negative side of the origin. for planes of_ equiv~ent symm~try such as {100} for (100), (010), (001), (100), (010), and (001) in cubic symmetry. for the direction of a crystal such as [l()()j'f.or x axis. for a full set of equivalent directions. for ahexagonal lattice, Here it is customary to use four axes (Fig; 2a) with the c axis as the [0001] direction.
the
(2) lattice (3)
= 0,
and S.o on; and the general reciprocal
G =ha*
+ kb* +lc*
where h, k, and I are integers. It follows that the product G· R =21T x integer, and therefore that eachvector of the reciprocalIatticeIs normal to.a .. et of planes in the direct s lattice, and that the volume of· a unit fell of the reciprocal lattice is inversely proportional to the volume Ve of a unit cell of the direct lattice' that is, V~ = (211")3/Ve, where Ve ==a' b x c. ' A convenient method of defining the various planes in a crystal is to use Miller indices, which are determined by first finding the intercepts of the plane with the three basis axes in terms of the lattice constants, and then taking the reciprocals of these numbers and reducing them to the smallest three integers having the same ratio. The result is enclosed in parentheses (hkl) as the Miller indices for a single plane or a set of parallel planes. Figure 3 shows the M~er indices of important planes in a cubic crystal.
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For the two semiconductor elemei\ts,germanium and silicoIl, the easiest breakage, or cleavage, planes are the {l l l] planes .. III contrast, gallium arsenide, which has a similar lattice 'Structure but also has a slight ionic component in the bonds, cleaves .o~ {11O}planes. The unit cell of a reciprocallatticecan be represented by a WignerSeitz cell. The WignerSeitz cell is constructedby drawing perpep~lifular bisect.or planes in the reciprocal lattice from the. chosen center to nearest equivalent reciprocal lattice sites; Figure 4a shows a typical example for a facecentered cubic. structure." If one first drawslin~s fr.om. the center P.o~t (F) to the ei~!c.omers .ortfl~cube, then f.orm&tbe.bisect.or pianes, the result is the truncated octahedron withinthe cubeaWignerSeitz cell, It can be. shown that" a facecentered cubic (fcc) direct lattice with lattice constant .~: as abodycentered b cubic (bee) re~ipr.ocal lattice with spacing ~1T1 . Thus the WignerSeitz cell shown in Fig. 4a is the unit cell of the a reciprocal lattice of an fcc. direct lattice, The WignerSeitzcell for a
the
M
y
( b)
Fig. 4 (a) Brillouin zone fordiamond.~nd zincblende lattices. (b) Brillouin zone for .~urtzite lattice. The most important symmetry points and symmetry lines. are also lndicatee: 21Tl~(0.O. 0). zone center; L: 21T/a(1/2. 1/2. 1/2). zone edge along (111) axes CAl; X: 21T/a(0~0.1). zone edge along (100) axes .<1;K: 211'/a(3/4. 314. 0). zone edge along (110) axes (I). (After'Briliouin. Ret 10; Cohen. Ref. 12.)
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Physics and Properties
of SemiconductorsA
Resume
Energy Bands
13
hexagonal structure can be ,similarly, constructed; 12 Fig. 4b .shows the result.i'Ihe.symbols used in Fig, 4 are adopted from group theory and some will be used in Section 1.3. 
1.3 ENERGY BANDS
The band structure of a crystalline solid,that is, the energymomentum (Ek) relationship, is usually obtained by solving theSchrodinger. equation of an approximate oneelectron problem. The Blochtheorem, one of the most important theorems basic to band structure, states that if a potential energy V(r) is periodic with the periodicity of the lattice, then the solutions q,,,(r) of the Schrodinger equation 11,13' , [ 21i~ V2+ VCr)jcl>k(r)= E"q,,,(r) areof the form q,k(r) = eik'rU ..(k;,r) = Bloch function (5) (4)
where U.(k, r) is periodic in r with the periodicity of thedirect lattic,eand n is the band index. From the Bloch theorem, one can show that the energy E" is periodic' in the reciprocal lattice,that is, E,,= E"+G, where G is given by Eq. 3. For a given band index, to, label the energy uniquely, it is sufficient to use only k's ina primitive cell of the reciprocal lattice, The standardconvention is to use the WignerSeitz cell in the reciprocal lattice (Fig. 4). This cell is called the Brillouin zone or the first Brillouin zone." It is thus evident that we can reduce any momentum k in the reciprocal space to a point in the Brillouin zone, where any energy state can be given a label in the reduced zone schemes. The Brillouin zone for the diamond and the zincblende lattices is the same as that of the fcc and is shown in Fig. 4a. Figure 4b shows the Brillouin zone for, the wurtzite lattice, and indicates the most important symmetry points and symmetry lines, such as thecenter of the zone [I' = 2'7T/a(O, 0, 0)], the (Ill) axes (A) and their intersections with the zone edge [L = 2'7T/a(~, kbl, the (100) axes (a) and, their intersections, [X = 2'7T/a(O, 0, 1)], and the (I10) axes (~) and their intersections', [K = The energy bands of solids have been studied theoretically using a variety of numerical methods. For semiconductors the three methods most frequently used are the orthogonalized planewave method.l" IS the pseudopotential method", and the k· P method.' Figure 5 shows recent results of studies of the energyband structures of Ge, Si,and GaAs.17 Notice that for any semiconductor there is a forbi~den energy region .in which allowed states cannot exist. Energy regions or .energy .bands are permitted above and below this energy gap. The upper bands are" called the conduction
X
L
[111]
WAVE
r
[100]
x
L
[III]
r
[100]
x
VECTOR
Fig. 5 Energyband structures of Ge, Si, and GaAs, where Eg is the energy bandgap. Plus (+) signs indicate holes in the valence bands and minus () signs indicate electrons in the conduction bands. (After Chelikowsky and Cohen, Ref. 17.)
2'7T/ad,
to)].
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bands; the lower bands, the valence bands .. The separation between the energy of the lowest conduction band and that of the highest valence band is called the bandgap Eg, which is the most important parameter in semiconductor physics. Before we discuss the details of the band structure, we consider the simplified band picture shown in Fig. 6. In this figure the bottom of the conduction band is designated Ee, and the top of the valence band Bv. The electron energy is conventionally defined to be positive when measured upward, and the hole energy ispositivewhen measured downward. The bandgaps of some important semiconductors are listed" 18 in Appendix G. ' , The valence band in the zincblende structure consists of four subbands when spin is neglected in the Schrodinger equation, and each band is doubled when spinis taken into account. Three of the four bands are degenerate at k = 0 (f point) andform the upper edge of the band, and the fourth band forms the bottom. Furthermore, the spinorbit interaction causes a splitting of the, band at k = O.'As shown in Fig. 5 along a given direction the two top valence bands can be approximately fitted by 'two parabolic bands with different curvatures: the heavyhole band (the wider
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14
Physics and Properties of Semlconducto"_AResume
15
ELECTRON. ENERGY
I
DIS.TANCE
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m: =,,2
HOLE ENERGY
Fig. 6 Slmpllfied band diagram ofa semiconductor.
surfaces}~ .For Ge there are eight half ellipsoids , f o re~~ohltio,nalong the (111) axes. The Brillouin zone boundaries_are at the •.. .... ..'"'oftheellipsoids, ~" and the constantenergy surfaces are centered the Lpoints,making four full ellipsoids. FOr Si there are six .ellllpS:Ol(IS along the (100).axes, with the centers of the ellipsoids located at .~,..",.,. threefourths of the distance from the Brillouin zone centersFor the constant energy surface is a sphere at the zone center. By fitting experimental results to parabolic bands, we obtain the electron effective . ~LC''''>,",''; one for GaAs, two forGe,and two for Si: m~ along the symmetry and m~ transverse to the symmetry axes. AppendixGalso gives these values. ..~ At room temperature and under normal atmosphere, the' values of the bandgap are O.66eV for Ge, 1.12eV for Si, and 1.42eV for GaAs. These are 'for highpurity materials. For highly doped materials the •••·t)aIl<1gaps become smaller •.Experimental results show that thebandgapsof most semiconductors decrease with increas,ing temperature. Figure 8 shows
1.6 GOAS EgIT):EgIO)aT2
band with smallera2Elak~ and the lighthole band (the narrower band with larger a2Elak~. The effective mass in generalis tensorial with components defined as 1 _ 1 a2E(k) ale; ale; • (6)
m:
IT +.s)
1.4
The effective mass is listed in Appendix G for important semiconductors. The conduction band consists of a. number of subbands (Fig.S). The bottom of the conduction band can appear along the (111) axes (A or L), along the (100) axes (11 or X), or at k = (I). Symmetry considerations alone do not determine the location of. the bottom of the conduction band. Experimental results show, however, that in Ge It is along the (lII) axes, in Si along the.(100) axes, and in.Gaas at k""O. Figure7shows the shapes of
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1.3
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...
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1.1
1.0
0.9
0.8
GOAS
si
Fig.7 Shapes of constant energysurfacesinGe,Si, and GaAs.For Ge there are eight half"eUipsoidsofrevolution along the (111) axes, and the.Brillouin zone boundaries are at the middle of the ellipsoids. For Si there are Si~ ellipsoids along the (100) axes with the centers of the ellipsoids located at about threefourths of the distance from the Brillouin zone center. For GaAs the constant energy surface isl!:'sphere atzone center. (After Ziman, Ref. 19.)
0.6
0 TIK)
l
1
I
800 of temperature. (After
Fig. 8 Energy band gaps of Ge, Si, and GaAs as a function Thurmond, Ref. 20.)
_
..__._._
16
Physics and Properties. of Semlconductor.s....;.A Resume
17
variations of bandgaps asa function of temperature for Ge, Si,and GaAS.20 The bandgap approaches 0.143, 1.17, arid 1519 eV, respectively, for the three, semiconductors atO K. The variation of band gaps with temperature can vbe expressed approximately bya universal function Eg(T) = where, Eg(O), a,and< (3 are. given in Fig. 8. The temg(0),.,ay2/(T+{3), perature .coefficientdEg/dT is negative for the aforementioned three semiconductors; Some semiconductors' have positive dEJdnfor example, the bandgap of PbS (Appendix G) increases from 0.286 eV atO K to 0.41 eV at 300 K. Near room temperature, the bandgaps of Ge and GaAs increase with pressure,2JdEg/dP = 5 x 106eV/(kg/cm~) for Ge, and about 12.6x 106eV/(kg/cm~ for GaAs, and the Si bandgap decreases with pressure, dEg/dP = 2.4x 1O6eV/(kg/cm2).
E
n '9 I
E,,*
Ee
N (E)F{E) dE
(1)
Ee is the energy at thebottom of the conduction band and Etop is the energy at the top. The density of states N(E) canoe approximated by the density near the bottom of the conduction band for lowenough carrier densities and temperatures:
N(E)  M
c
:;?"
V2 (E Ed 1/2( mde )3/2 113.'
(8)
where Me is the number 'Ofequivalent minima in the conduction band and mdeis the densityofstate effective mass for electrons:" mcie= (mtlil~m~)'/3
(9)
1.4
CARRIER
CONCENTRATION
AT THERMAL EQ..,IUBRIUM
Figure 9 shows three basic bond pictures of a semiconductor. Figure 9a shows intrinsic silicon, which is very pure. and contains a negligibly small' amount of impurities; each silicon atom shares its four valence electrons _ with the four neighboring atoms, forming four covalent bonds (also see Fig. 1). Figure 9b showsscheIIlatically an ntype silicon, where a substitutional phosphorus atom with five valence electrons has replaced a silicon atom, and a negativecharged electron is "donated" to the conduction band. The silicon is n type because of the addition of the negative charge carrier, and the phosphorus atom is called a "donor." Figure ge similarly shows that when a boron atom with three valence electrons substitutes for a silicon atom, an additional electron is "accepted" to form four covalent bonds around the boron, and a positivecharged "hole" is created in the valence band. This is p type, and the boron is an "acceptor."
1.4.1 Intrinsic Semiconductor
where mT, mt m~ are the effective masses along the principal axes of the ellipsoidal energy surface, for example, in silicon mde = (mTmt2)1/3. The FermiDirac distribution function F(E) is given by

F(E)
=
1+ exp
(E  EF)
;cr
(10)
where kis Boltzmann's constant, Tthe absolute temperature, and EF the Fermi energy, which can be determined from the charge neutrality conedition(see Section 1.4.3). " the integral, Eq, 7, can be evaluated to be
n
=
Ne ...};F'/2
(EFk;Fe)
(11)
where Ne is #Ie effective density of states in the conduction band and is given by = N e 2
We now consider the intrinsic case. The number of occupied conduction
(27Tmh2 M dekT)3/2
e
(12)
and F1/2(Tlt) ,is the FermiDirac integral (Fig. 10).22For the Boltzmann statistics case, that' is,for the Fermi level severalkT below Ec in nondegenerate semiconductors, the integral approaches V; e""/2 and Eq. 11 becbmes " .' ..
_( n Ne exp Ee'~EF) kT' . (13)
I
(a)
fb)
(c)
Similarly, we can obtain the hole density near the top of the valence band:
P
Fig. 9 Three basic bond pictures of a semiconductor. (a) tntrinsicBi with negligible impurities. (b) ntype Si with donor (phosphorus). (c) ptype Si with acceptor (boron).
= Nv
...;;1/2
2F
(EvEF) kT
(14)
I
I
~
18
10
Physics andPf'Op'rtie~.!)f
Semiconduct.ors,,A R,sum~
19
..... .._
N
I·
/
the Fermi level Ei of an intrinsic semiconductor generally lies very to the middle of the bandgap. intrinsic carrier density is obtained from Eqs. 13,17, and 18:
V
np
= nf=
NcNv exp(EJkT)
(19)
«
a:
L&J
..J
III
~
Z
~
lO
I
V
/
FIIZ ("'i):

= 4.9x
f ,_ f If I
1015 (m~7dh Y/4M/f2T3I2eEJ2kT
(19a)
a: o a: ~
:E
~
102 r
OH.e("'"'fl
I"'Z
d)
I
Ell == (Ee  Ev), and mo is the freeelectron
.mass. Figure II shows
d."
~
==
6 1500 10'9 1000 500
103
IJ
.C'
6
4
F1I2
2 (EFEcll
0 1tT

rrci
200· 100 27 0 20
=""
2
4
Fig. 10 22.)
FermiDirac integral
as a function oLFermi energy. (After Blackmore. Ref.
where N» is the effectiy,e density of states in the valence band and is. given by
Nv == 2 e7T":,~hkTr2
where mdh is the densityofstate effective mass of the valence band:"
(15)
mdh = (m~312+
m:'n312)2/3
(16)
where the subscripts refer to "light" and "heavy". hole masses previously discussed, Eq, 6. Again under nondegenerate conditions
p = Nv exp ( 
EFkT Ev).. 
(17)
For intrinsic semiconductors. at finite temperatures continuous thermal agitation existsvwhich resultsm ~J(c;itation of electrons from t1le."alence band to the conduction band and ieaves an equal number of hOles)1,l the valence band, that is, n = p = nit where ni is the intrinsic carrier density. This process is balanced by recombination of the electrons in the conduction band with holes in the valence band. The Fermi .level for an intrinsic semiconductor (which by definition is nondegenerate) is obtained by equating Eqs. 13 and 17:
8 107 10 ••
l
I
{Nv)=Ec+Ev+3kTI E F =E.=Ec+Ev+kT·I. 2 n\Ne 2 . 2 4
I
(~) (18) n m,.M/J3 .
loS
0.5
1.0 1.52.02.5
1OOO/T(Kt )
3.0
3.5..4.0
Fig. 11 Intrinsic carrier densities of Ge. $i. and GaAs as a function of reciprocal temperature. {After. Thurmond. Ref. 20.)
20 600
r _
Physics and,PropertiesofSemlconductorsA
Resume
_,...__,.r'r""'.
~~
400
~I
_'
~I: ~Io ~I II ~I ~I« inl ~I . ~I ~ 1<iJ ~ ~111 I ~o I 0~1 ~{ .l(\1 i:S\l~
I
,
~I«
0 <tl
I
I
'" "'8
~I~
c:
",m
~
u •
t=
300
rei'" ·cr~
200
inJo I ~Io ;<;f 1« I "'~o I ~"" I ;110 i:ll :s\1« 1 °t::ll ~II ~I '
:ill ,,:f ~I I '
100
~'h~ ~I«~ rulo,
Ii)
>
IMPURITY
CONCENTRATION
(cm3)
concentration.
Fig. 12
Intrinsic temperature as a fiJl1ction ofbackgrouna
the temperature dependence of nj for Ge, Si,and GaAS.20.23 expected, As the larger the bandgap is, the smaller the intrinsic carrjer density will be. At room temperature, the intrinsic carrier density is small compared to device doping levels. However, nj mcreasesrapidly with temperature, doubling every 11°C for silicon. At high temperatures, .therefore. thermal generation can be the dominant processofcarriergerieratioit. Because of this thermal effect the carrier concentration becomes equal to the background concentration at the intrinsic temperature Ti.Figure ·.12 gives a plot of intrinsic temperature as a function of background concentration ..Below T, the carrier concentration is relatively temperature independent: Above T« however, it rises exponentially with temperature. The intrinsic temperature is an important parameter; its relationtoibeformation of current filament and second breakdown is considered in lifer ¢hapJ~rs. 1.4.2 Donors and Acceptors
c: ~I« ~I ;1« ~Io ",S!!lo I ~llo .'0: ~« "!I« ~J«~:g ~ <.> ~I« 1",10 « '" ov: c: :::. ~I ~l~ ~I '" ~I ID ~I fJ "'I'" '" 8 <.> "'I '" "'I g ~I ~I I ~ ;;:J I u I '" «tqJ ~I '" ;:J ~« I NI ~ ID ~ I~ '" <.> I ~Io z lGl I 1\!1 I a, ~I I ;1 I "'I ~ I~ <t' a:1 ~I c: 18 ~I ~ '" I~ tjl ... ~1 « I~ ~I ~IID Iffi· "'I C>
N
~ «
8 '" 8
'"
'Ii;
"0
0
0
"0
H
0
.
'
\
I~iii
~ ~
I' « '" '"
0
N
<t
..:
j
When a semiconductor is doped with donor or acCeptor impurities, impurity energy levels are introduced. A donor level is defined as being neutral if filled by an electron, al!:dpositive if empty. Anacceptor level is neutral if empty, and negative if filled by an electron.
21
!
22
Physics and Properties
of SemiconductorsA
Resume
£!lmer. ConcentratlQn,at
Thermal Equilibrium
23
The simplest calculation of impurity energy levels is based on the hydrogenatom model. The ionization energy for the hydrogen atom is (20) 'where Eo is the freespace permittivity. The ionization energy for the donor Ed, can be obtained by replacing mo by the conductivityeffective mass' of electrons
(21)
n:Ne •• P[<EcEFI!kT]
(: nj)
P:Ny "P[IEF
JvllkT]
(:nl)
and by replacing
Eo
by the permittivity of the semiconductor
Es
in Eq. 20: (22)
The ionization energy for donors as calculated from Eq. 22 is 0.006 eV for Ge, 0.025 eV for Si, and 0.007 eV for GaAs. The hydrogenatom calculation for the ionization level for the acceptors is similar to that for the donors. We·consider the unfilled valence band as a filled band plus an imaginary hole in the central force field of a negatively charged acceptor. The calculated acceptor ionization energy (measured from the valenceband edge) is 0.015 eV for Ge, 0.05 eV for Si, and about 0.05 eV for GaAs. The simple hydrogenatom model given above certainly cannot account for the details of ionization energy, particularly the deep levels in semiconductors.":" However, the calculated values do predict the correct order of magnitude of the true ionization energies for shallow impurities. Figure 13 shows the measured ionization energies for various impurities in Ge, Si, and •GaAs.2428 Not~J;!hatit is possible for a single atom to have many levels; . for example, gold ilrGe has three acceptor levels and one donor level in the forbidden energy gap.29 .
1.4~3 Calculation of Fermi Level
(b)
LI
Ee
o
N
lEI
"'.5 FIEI
1.0 nAND P
(c) Fig. 14 Schematic band diagram, density of states, FermiDirac distribution, and the carrier concentrations for (a) intrinsic, (b) ntype, and (c) ptype semiconductors at thermal equilibrium. Note that pn = n~ for all three cases.
l
I
The Fermi level for the intrinsic semiconductor (Eq. 18) lies very close to the middle of the bandgap. Figure! 4a depicts this situation, showing schematically from left to right the sinlplified band diagram, the density of states N(E), the FermiDirac distribution function F(E), and the carrier concentrations. The shaded areas in the conduction band and the valence band are the same; indicating that n = p = nj for the intrinsic case. Whim impurity atoms are introduced, the Fermi level must adjust itself to preserve charge neutrality (Fig. 14band c). Consider the case shown in Fig. 14b, where donor impurities with the concentration ND(cm3) are added to the crystal. To preserve electrical neutrality the total negative charges (electrons and ionized acceptors) must equal the total positive
charges (holes and ionized donors), or for the present case n=Nt,+p (23) where n is the electron density in the conduction band, pthe hole density in the valence band, and Nt, the number of ionized donors, given by" Nt,=ND
[1 1] EF)
. 1+i"exp(EDk;
(24)
Physics and 'Properties of SemleonductorsAResume
Carrier Concentration
at Thermal Equilibrium
25
I.
where g is the groundstate degeneracy of the donor impurity level and equals 2 because of the fact that a donor level can accept one electron with either spin or canhave no electron. When acceptor impurities ofconcentration NA are added to a semiconductor crystal, asitnilar expression can be written for the charge neutrality condition, and the expression for ionized acceptors is
N;'=
Rewriting the neutrality condition Eq, 23".we obtain
N (EeEF) e exp kT .= N
D
1+ 2 exp(~F k;'ED) + Nv exp
"1
,
(EvEF) kT
.
(26)
I+gexp
(E
\~
E)
F
(25)
where the groundstate degeneracy factor g is 4 for acceptor levels. The value is 4 becausefin Ge, Si, and GaAs each accepterimpurity level can accept one hole of\either spin and the impurity leve], is doubly. d~gen~rate as a result of the two degenerate valence bands at k~O; . .
1020
..____...'1
Si(300K)
For a set of given Ne, No, N», Ee, Eo, Ev, and T, the Fermi level EF can be uniquely determined from Eq, 26. Figure 15 illustrates an elegant graphical method" to determine EF• For this particular solution (with N D = 1016 em 3, T = 300 K) the Fermi level is close to the conductionband edge and itself so thatalmost all the donors are ionized. For another temperature, one can first evaluate the values of Ne and N» which are to T3/2 and then obtain from Fig. 11 the value of ni(T) that determines the intercept of the lines n(EF) and p(EF); a n~w Fermi level is thus obtained. As the temperature is lowered sufficiently,the Fermi level toward the donor level (for ntype semiconductors) and the donor is partially filled with electrons. The approximate expression for the '"I,."h'~~ density is then" n = (N~~:rA)
Ne exp( EtJlkT)
(27)
a partially compensated semiconductor
and for
NA ~ !Ne exp( EtJlkT)
(28)
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1
I I I I I I I
I
I
I
I ~I_
I
1010 Ev
I 1 (EF) I
I
I 109!~.~I~~LI ~I~_=~~~~~ 0.8 o 0.2 0.4 0.6 EF(eV) Fig. 15 Ref. 31.)
+
11 1.0
Eo
1
for ND ~ fNe exp( EtJlkT) ~ NA• Figure 16 shows a typical example, where n is plotted asa fun(;tionofthereciproca!~emperature. At high temperatures we have the intrinsic range since >Ji = p ~ NI). At very low temperatures most impurities are frozen out and the slope is given by Eq. 27 or Eq, 28,dependillgonthe compensation conditions. The electron density, however, remairisessentially constant over a wide range of temperatures (100 to 500K:inFig,1(;). . Figure 17 shows the Fermilevelforsilicollasafunction of temperature and impurity concentrationf and thedependence Of the bandgap on temperature (see Fig. 8). When impurity atoms are added, the np product is still given by Eq. 19, which is called the massaction law, and the product is independent of the added impurities. At relatively elevated temperatures, most donors and acceptors are ionized, so the neutrality condition can be approximated by (29) Equations 19 and 29 can be combined to give the concentration of elec
Graphical method to determine the Fermi energy level EF. (After Shockley,
27
T(K)
200
100
holesm an atype semiconductor:
linD
INTRINSIC RANGE SLOPE Eg
= !{(ND
""'ND
llO
 Nx)
if
+ V(ND

NA)2 +4nr] and ND~NA
(30) (31)
INDNAI~nj
PlIO= n7ln
SATURATIOIII RANGE
= nr/ND
Ee  EF = kT
In ND '
(Ne)
(32)
(33)
I "I I
l000/T (K1) Fig. 16 Electron density as a function of temperature impurity concentration of 10'5 cm'", (After Smith. Ret 5.) for a Si sample with donor
concentration of holes and electrons in a ptype semiconductor is by Ppo = ![(NA ND)+V(NA ""'NA npo
=
 ND)2+4nr]
if
INA ' NDI ~ nj
and
NA s ND
(34)
n7/ppo
= n7/NA
EF  Ev
(35)
= kT In (~:)
(36)
(37)
W I

~Q:2r+~~~~01~~~~~~~
• m"'1i\Mtv carrier and 'the hole as the minority carrier, since... the electron '>(:oncerltr~ltiolnis the larger of the two. The roles are reversed for ptype semiconductors.
semiconductors and the SUbscripts 0 refer to the thermal. equilibrium condmon .. For atypesemiconductors the electron is referred ..to. as the
formulas above the subscripts nand
p
refer to the type of
~ARRIER
TRANSPORT PHENOMENA
Mobility
T (K)
I
,
Fig. 17 Fermi level for Si as a function of temperature and impurity concentration. The dependence of the bandgap on temperature is also incorporated in the figure. (After Grove. Ref. 32.)
At low electric field the drift velocity Vd is proportional to the electric field strength j', and the proportionality constant is definedas the mobility JL in cm2JVS, or . ,,
(38)
26
~~~~~~~
28
Physics and Properties of SemlconductorsA
Rel!ume
Transport 104
Phenomena
29
For nonpolar semiconductors, such, as,10,eal}p Si, the presence of acoustic phonons and ionized impurities results in carrier scattering which significantly affects the mobility. The, mobility from acoustic phonon interaction. ILl. is given by"
ILl 
lE.n
rt
iT=3()01<
103
IGe:
,.
_ vs:;;: qli C
4
3Edsm *Sl2(kT)3]2 ',m
lI
_
(
*)S12T312
(39)
;;; > <,
N
I
where CII is the average longitudinal elastic constant of the semiconductor. Eds the displacement of the edge of the band per unit dilation of the lattice. and m * the conductivity effect mass. From Eq., 39 mobility decreases with the temperature and with the effective mass. The mobility from ionized impurities JLi can be described by34
ILl
.=
2 10 104
.s
>~
..J
E
10
3
rSi
64V;E;(2kT)312 NtCl3m*'l2  (m*rl12Ni'T312
{In [1+ (127TEskT)2]}1 q2N}'3
(40)
'1
0 :::E
m
104
III1
10
2
r....
......
where Nr is theionized impurity density and Es the permittivity. The mobility is expected to decrease with the effective mass but to increase with the temperature. The combined mobility. which includes the two ,mechanisms above. is
IL
10
3
GoAs1
= (1 1 )' . +ILl lLi
(41) scattering is
Fig.18
10
2 1016 IMPURITY
~
I
(cm~3)

10'9
For polar semiconductors such as GaAs opticalphonon significant. The combined mobility can be approximated by"
CONcENTRAtION
(42) In addition to the scattering mechanisms discussed above. other mechanisms also affect the actual mobility. For example, (1) the intravalley scattering in which an election is scattered within an' energy ellipsoid (Fig. 7) and only longwavelength phonons are involved ; and (2) the intervalley scattering in which an electron is scattered from the vicinity. of one minimum to another minimum' and an energetic phonon is involved. Figure 18 shows the measured mobilities of Ge, Si, and GaAs versus impurity concentrations at room temperature.9,3638 As the impurity concentration increases (at room temperature most impurities are ionized) the mobility decreases, as predicted by Eq, 40. Also as m * increases, IL decreases; thus for a given impurity concentration the electron mobilities for these semiconductors are larger than the hole mobilities (Appendix G lists the effect masses). Figure 19 shows the temperature effect on mobility for atype and ptype silicon samples." For lower impurity concentrations the mobility decreases with temperature' as predicted 'by' Eq. 39; The measured slopes, however, are different from (~) because of other scattering mechanisms. For pure materials near room temperature the mobility varies as T'~ and T'" for
Drift mobility of Ge, Si, and GaAs at 300 K versus impurity concentration. and Panish, Ref. 9; Prince, Ref. 36; Beadle, Plummer, and Tsai, Ref. 38.)
(After
n and ptype Ge, respectively; as T242 and T2.20 for n and ptype Si, respectively; and as T 1.0 and T2.1 for n and ptype GaAs, respectively. The carrier diffusion coefficient (D, for electrons and D; for holes, is another important parameter associated with mobility. In thermal equilibrium the relationship between D« and IL. (or Dp,aDd ILp) is given by~
o, '= 2 (kT qlLn
where FI/2 and sed as"
F1/2
)
FI/2
'(EFrtBe)/ X
F1I2
(Ei:kT Ee)
X
(43)
are FermiDirac
integrals. Equation 4J·can be expres103
o, = IL~T
[ 1 + 0.35355
(~c)  9.9
{~c y + 4.45
10
4
(~J+ ... ]
3
I l
I __
(43a) where n is the electron concentration andNe is the effective density of states in the conduction band. For most cases, the first and second terms including n/ Nc give sufficient accuracy. The extension to holes is obvious.
~~
30
PhY$iC$ and Properties
of Semlconc:luclorsARel!urne
Transport
Phenomena
31
reciprocal value is the conductivity, that is, u=d/p, and
J= u'€.·
; .: ':~' ~ _:_,__':.. : .: .~:: ,,0 _
(46)
"
C\I
'" >, ,
I
semiconductors \Vithboth electrons andiliolesas carriers', we obtain
F' I
...
E
P:"ii=q(;"'nn
n ~ p,~sin
+ ILPP)"
(47)
I
>
n":typesemiconductors,
"'·0:'/1 p"",'~
iii
::i
o
:::Ii
...··.··qp,nn ·
(48) (48a)
(T
= qp."n ...
TEMPERATURE(K) Rg.19 Mobility of electrons and holes in Sias a function et aI., Ref. 37.)
oUemperature. (After Jacoboni
The most cOIllIri~riinetliod fofmeasuringresistivit}rlsthe fourpoint method(illsert!F'ig. 20).38 ••39 small"un;eIltfr~ma"f:)nstant~current Source ispassedilirou~ the.outertwo probes"andthevoltageis measured between the inner two probes .. For a thin wafer with thickness W much smaller than either a or d, the sheet resistance R. is given by
A'
R. =y·CF
v
O/square
(49)
For nondegenerate semiconductors, that is, where n is much smaller than Nc, Eq. 43a reduces to . .. (44a) and similarly (44b)
II>
Rs=fCF p=RsW
(Sl/SQUARE) (Slcm)
Equations 44a and 44b are known as the Einstein relationship. At 300 K kT/ q = 0.0259 V, and. values of D are. readily obtainable from the' mobility results shown in Fig. 18. The mobilities discussed above are the conductivity mobilities, which have been shown to be equal to the drift mobilities." They are, however, different from the Hall mobilities considered in the next section.
1.5.2 Resistivity and Hall Effect
~ 10~~4+~4~~~
l
I
The resistivity p is defined as the proportionality constant between the electric field and the current density I: '€
= pl.
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
CORRECTION FACTOR CF
Fig. 20 Correction factor for measurement Beadle, Plummer, and Tsai, Ref. 38.) of resistivity using a fourpoint probe. (After
(45)
32
Physics and Properties of Semiconductors __A Resum~
. ,''n TYPE p~T·YPf:: :
E u
I
C;
en UJ a:
1014,0'5
1018
IMPURITY CONCENTRATION (cm3) Fig. 21 Resistivity versus lmpurity Plummer, and Tsai, Ref. 38.) concentration for silicon at 300 K. (After Beadle, IMPURITY CONCENTRATION (cm3)
where CF is the correction factor shown'in Fig. 20. The resistivity is then
p=RsW
Resistivity versus impurity concentration for Ge, GaAs, and GaP at 300 K. (After Irvin, Ref. 28; Beadle, Plummer, and Tsai, Ref. 38.)
Ocm.
(49a)
l
In the limit when d ~ S, where S is the probe spacing, the correction factor becomes (11"lln2) = 4.54. Figure 21 shpws the measured resistivity (at 300 K) as a function of the impurity concentration (ntype phosphorus and ptype boron) for silicon." Figure 22 shows the measured resistivities for Ge, GaAs, and Gap.28.38.40 ' Thus we can obtain the impurity concentration of a semiconductor if its resistivity is known. The impurity concentration may be different from the carrier concentration. For example, in a ptype silicon. with 1017 cm" gallium acceptor impurities, unionized acceptors at room temperature make upabout 23% (from Eq.15, Figs. q and 17); in other words, the carrier concentration is only 7.7 x 1016 em.". ' " To measure the carrier concentration directly, the most common method uses the Hall effect.41, igure 23 shows the basic, setup" where an electric F field is applied along the x axis and a magnetic field is applied along the z axis. Consider aptype sample. The Lorentz force qvx x ooz exerts an average downward force on the holes, and the downwarddirected current. causes a piling up of holes at, the bottom side of the sample, which in turn gives rise to an electrtc'fieldx, Since there is no net current along the y
y.~./.' :&z
x
+
_1
IFig.23
_
Basic setup to measure carrier concentration
using the Hall effect. 33
.
.
__
.._._
.. 
34
Physics and Properties of SemlconductorsA
Resume
Transport
Phenomena
3,5
directionfn the steady state, the.flectI'icfield .along the Yaxis:(Hall field) exactly balances the Lorentz force; . .:: . This Hall field can be measuredextemally and is given by
~y
== (V,/W)
1 p.., b2n
q(p+bn)2,
=RHM!Jz
(50)
whereRH is the Hall coefficient and is given bys (51) (52) The parameter 'Tis the mean free time between carrier collisions, which depends on the carrier energy, for example, for. semiconductors with spherical constantenergy surfaces, 'T  E~112 for phonon scattering, 'T  E312 for ionized impurity scattering,and ingeneral,'T =aE', where a and s are constants. From Bp!tzmann's distribution for nondegenerate semiconductors, the average value of .the mth power of' 'T is
('Tm)
directly from the Hall measurement provided that one type of dominates. preceding discussion the applied magnetic field was assumed to be enough that there is no change in the resistivity of the sample. lowever, under strong magnetic fields, a significant increase in. the resisis observed: the socalled magnetoresistance effect. For sphericalsurfaces the ratio of the incrementalresistivityto the bulk resisat zero magnetic field is given br
t1p Po
= {[f2d~\(~3S)J(IL~nIL~P) +
I' b s)
ILnn
+ ILpP
 [f(¥~G_s~S)r(:::~
::;)l~~.
(57)
=
r
'TmE312 exp( E/kT)
dE
If
ratio is proportional to the square of the magnetic field component to the direction of the current flow. For n ~ p, (t1p/po);. A similar result can be obtained for the case P ~ n.
E312 exp( ElkT)
dE
_ (53)
so that using the general form of 'T, we obtain
('T2) = a2(kTr2'f(~
2s)/f(i)
(54a) (54b)
and
('T)2 = [a(kTr'fd
s)/fd)]2
dx,
where
f(n) is the gamma function
defined as
f(n) == L'" xn1ex
f(!) = vr;.
From the expression above we obtain r = 37rl8 = 1.18 for phonon scattering and r = 3151T/512 = 1.93for ionized impurity scattering. . The Hall mobility ILH is defined as the product of the Hall coefficient and conductivity: (55) The Hall mobility should be distinguished from the drift mobility ILn (or ILp), as given in Eq. 48a, which does not contain the factor r. From Eq. 51, if n ~ p, (56a) and if p ~n,
the thermalequilibrium condition of a physical system is (i.e., pn ~ n 1), processes exist to restore the system to equilib(i.e., pn = n1). Figure 24 shows the basic recombination processes. '!"';~"'"A 24a illustrates the bandtoband recombination where an electronpair recombines. This transition of an electron from the conduction to the valence band is made possible by emission of a photon . process) or by transfer .of the energy to another free electron or (Auger process). The latter process is the inverse of impact ionization, the former process is the inverse of direct optical transitions, which important for most IIIV compounds with direct energy gaps. Figure 24b shows singlelevel recombination in which only one trapping energy level is present in the bandgap, and Fig. 24c shows multiplelevel recombination in which more than one trapping level is present in the bandgap. The singlelevel recombination can be described by four processes: electron capture, electron emission, hole capture, and hole emission. The recombination rate U. (in units of cm31s) is given by431S
.iI;,o~r;;J.."~Arl
U=
CTn [ n
CTpCTnVth(pn n1>Nt
j +nj exp(Etk;'E )
]+u
j
p
[p
+ nj exp( _ Etk;. Ej) ]
(58)
l
I
(56b} Thus the carrier concentration and carrier type (electron or hole) can be
where CTp and CTn are the hole and electron capture cross sections, respectively,'_vth the carrier thermal velocity equal .to .V3kTlm*,. Nt the trap density, E, the trap energy level, E the intrinsic Ferlllilevel, and nj the intrinsic carrier density. Obviously in thermal eqUilibrium, pn =n 1 and

37
ENERGY TRANSFERRED TO FREE. ElECTRON..,.__.... .. ~ OR HOl E (AUGE'R'PROCESS)
Furthermore, under the simplified condition o« = to
~ • EMISSION OF ·PHOTON (RADIATIVE)
Up
=
a,
Eq. 58
(59)
U
,
~'..
= uvthN,t
~
.~..
pn  n~
•
<n+p+2njcosh
'(E tkT E)' ' ~
(a)
'fl~ere(;ornbiination rate approaches amaximurn as the energy level of the rec()lll1binaltioncenter approachesmidgap (i.e., Et:';' Ej). Thus the most fotff.i"rfhip recombination centers are those located near the middle of the
EC
injection conditions, that is.iwhen the injected carriers are much fewer in number than the majority carriers; the recombination process may be characterized by the expression
U ..,
=
Et
ep
Ev Ec
Tp
Pn"'7 Pno
'Tp
(60)
Pno is the equilibrium. minoritycarrier concentration, Pn = ap + Pno is the minoritycarrier lifetime. In an ntype..semiconductor, \\,here n.no =theequilibriul'l1majori!y.,carrier concentration, and .~.~ nj an<lPn, (61)
Et
EV HOLE EMISSION (b.)
Eqs. 60 and 61 yields the minoritycarrier lifetime (hole lifl~tirne)in an ntype semiconductor, and
'T
P
=
1
ELECTRON CAPTURE
UpVthNt'
(62)
for a ptype semiconductor, the electron lifetime
'Tn=· unvthNt
1
(63)
777777<r777Jr/'
(c) Fig.24 Recornbinationprocesses. (a) Bandtoband recombination (radiative or Auger process), (b) Singlelevelrecombinatioll.(c} Multiplelevel recombimltion.(After Slih, Noyce, and Shockley, Ref. 43.) ~
multiplelevel traps the recombination processes have. gross .qualitafeatures that are similar to those of the singlelevel case. The details are, however,different, particularly in the highinjectioncondition (i.e., where an = ap = majoritycarrier concentration), the asymptotic lifetime is an average of the lifetimes associated with positively charged, negatively charged, and neutral trapping levels. ;;~.~qualJOIlS62 and 63 have bee~.verified ~,,perimentally by usingsoliddiffusion ~ andhi~~energy'radi~ti,~n •.·' 3tly inipuriti~shave ,ell~rgy M close to the middle of the !>andgap (Fi~; 13). These impurities are emcient recombination centers. J:.. typical example is gold in silicon;" the miiIiorit)fC;arrierifetime decreases liriearly, with •• l 'the gold concentration range 1014 to 10I7cm~3,where 'T decreases from about i x iO~7S to s.This effect is important insome'8witthingdevice applications a short lifetime is a desirable feature. Another method of changing
36
38
Physics and Properties of SemiconductorsA
Resume
39
the minoritycarrier lifetim~ ...is .hig\l~ne~gyparticle irradiation, which causes displacement of host atoms and damage to lattices. These, in turn, introduce energy levels in the bandgap. For example," electron irradiation in Si gives rise to anacceptor.levelat 0.4 eYabove the valence band and a donor level at 0.36 eV below the conduction band; neutron irradiation creates an acceptor level at 0.56 eV; deuteron irradiation gives rise to an interstitial state with an •energy level 0.25 eV above the valence band. Similar resul~s. are obtained for Ge"GaAs, and other semiconductors. Unlike thesolidstate diffusion, the radiationinduced trapping centers may be annealed out at relatively low temperatures. .. The minoritycarrier .lifetime has generally been measured using the photoconduction effect" (PC) or the photoelectromagnetic effect" (PEM). The basic equation for the PC effect is given by (64) where Isc is the incremental current density as a result of illumination ~ is the applied electric' field along the sample. The quantity ~n is incremental carrier' density or the number of electronhole' pairs volume created by the illumination, which equals' the "product of generation rate of electronhole pairs resulting from photon G and lifetime T, or ~n = TO. The lifetime is thus given by ~n
T
Phonon Spectra is well known that for a onedimensional lattice with only nearestleiJght)or coupling and two different masses, ml and m2, placed alternately, frequencies of oscillation are given by3
v±= [at
.
(_!_+_!_)±at
ml m2
"
'(_!_+_!_) ml m2
4Sin2(qa)/mlm2]112
(68)
at is the force constant, q the wave number, and a the lattice •. .spacmg. The frequency v tends to beproportional to q near q = O. This
is the acoustic branch, because it is the analog of a longwavelength vmrauon of the lattice, and the frequency corresponds to frequency of in such a medium. The frequency v+ tends to
and the per the the
lpc
G~q(,...,. +,..",) "':
=0=
(65)
A setup to measure T will be discussed in Section 1.7. For the PEM effect we measure the shortcircuit current, which appears when a constant magnetic field 00, is applied. perpendicular to the direction of incoming radiation. The current density is given by
hEM
= q(,...,. + ,..",)00, D (TO) L
(66)
where L= ~
is the diffusion length. The lifetime is given by
T=
[00,
Vi5:::~,..",)r +
(lPEM/00,)2.
(67)
1.6".PHONONSPECTRA.~ND. HIGHFIELD PROPERTIE$OF.
OrirICAL, THER~AL, SEMICONDUCTORS
AND
approaches zero. This branch, separated considerably from the •• ··lllyOIUStIC ode, is the optical branch, because the frequency..v, is generally m optical range. For the acoustic mode the two sublattices of the atoms different masses move in the same direction, whereas for the optical ···.'UIIU\lIC; they move in opposite directions. a threedimensional lattice with one atom per unit cell, such as a ,'$lIIJ.l,le cubic, bodycentered, orfacecentered cubic lattice,only three "aCOlISllIC modes exist. For a threedimensional lattice with two atoms per cell, such as Ge, Si,and GaAs, three 'acoustic modes and three optical ....In"" .. " exist. Longitudinally polarized modes are modes with the dis.·p'lac:enlerlt vectors of each atom along the direction of the wave vector; we have one longitudinal acoustic mode (LA) and one longitudinal ·OIDU.Cal mode (LO). Modes with atoms moving in the planes normal to the vector are called transversely polarized modes. We have two trans'_o __ ,_  acoustic modes (T a) and two !ransverse. optical modes (TO). Figure 25 shows the measured results for Ge, Si, and GaAs.48SOote that N small q's, with LA.andTA modes, the energies are proportional toq. ..l.ne"ru:stOrCler Raman phonon energy. is the longitudinal optical phonon . "","r,,'" at q = O. Their values are 0.037eV for Ge, 0.063 eV' for 'Si, and 0.035 eV for GaAs. Appendix H lists these results, together with other important properties of Ge, Si, and GaAs. ,1.&.2 Optical Property
l
I
. In thc? preceding section we considered .the effect. of low to moderately high electric fields on the ..transport of carriers' in semiconductors. In this section we briC?fty consider other effects and properties of semiconductors that important to the operation of semiconductor devices.
are
Optical measurement constitutes the Dl()St important means of determining the band structures of. semiconductors. Photoninduced electronic transitions can occur between different bands, which lead to the determination of the energy bandgap, or within a single band such as the
40
6 S.
4 <
Physics and~r~Plrrlies
of semiconduct0rsA.
Resume
rf=:::::
~
LO
Si
GoAl
0.06
<,
2
~ Ii!
10
2 .. 8 > o
~ o
z
TO
LO
<,
t
... ... '"
6
4
,
,'~ ~
V
t>
1/
1.0 0
Lj
V
~A
V
/
r, /
,
.""
.04 LO TO
I"~
Ii,
2
o~ o
1/ V
TA
If
V
.,
:
REDUCED
WAVE NUMBER

1.0
qlq_
o
~
/ V
"fA
TA
/
V
V
~o~
... '" z Pm ...
0.01
.,
>
to
o
Optical transitions: (a) and (b) direct transitions;
k
(c) indirect transition involving
0 1.0
Fig.25 Measured phonon spectrain'Ge. Bl, and GaAs. where TO stands for transverse optical modes, LOforlongitudinaloptical modes. TAfor. transverse acoustic modes. and LA for longitudinal acou~tic modes ..(Atter Brockhouse and Iyengar. !'tet 48; Brockhouse. Ref. 49; Waugh and Dolling. Ref. 50.) ,
freecarrier absorption. Optical measurements can also be used to study lattice vibrations. The transmission coefficient. T and the reflection coefficient R are the two important quantities ~gene~ally measured. FjQr nerrna! incidence they are given by (1 R) exp(41TX/..\) T ~~1 R2 exp(81TX/X) R
= (1 + n)2
(69)
(70)
(1, n)21; k2 + k2
where..\ is the wavelength, n' the refractive index, k the absorption constant, and x the thickness of the sample. The absorption coefficient per unit length a ~ given byis '
a=T'
41Tk
hv is the photon energy, Eg is the bandgap, and 'Y is a constant. In oneelectron approximation 'Y equals !and ~ for allowed direct tranand forbidden direct transitions, respectively [with kmio = kmax as .trlfnsitiolns (a) and (b) shown in Fig.,.26]; the constant 'Y equals 2 for in,rijr,f>rt transitions [transition (c) shown in Fig. 26], wherephonons are In addition, 'Y equals! for allowed indirect transitions to exciton where an exciton isa bound electronhole pair with energy levelsin )..bandgapand moves through the crystal.lattice as a unit. the ab~orptionedge, where' the values of .(hv Eg) 'become. comwith the biriding energy of an exciton, the Coulomb. interaction between the free hole and electron must be taken into account. For hv <' Eg ~absorption merges continuouslyirito the absorption caused by the excited states of the exciton. When hv ~ Eg, higher energy bands the transition processes, .and complicated band structures are the absorption coefficient, .. , . .6'....,~ .:~,,'>}'~~ the experimenta.Labsorptioll •., coeffifients near andabove .~.,.,YJI,Cttunlctarnelltal absorption edge (bandtoband transition) for Ge,Si, and The. ~ shif~ .of the curves, towardhigher photon energies at lower tp.lmn'p.r~.tl11rp. is.obviously associated With the. temperature dependence of ~1l.~pi~9.gap (Fig. 8).
<'
(71) Thermal Property
;,
I
~
By analyzing the T ~..\ or R ..\ data at normal incidence, or by making observations of R or T for different anglesof iricidence, both n 'and k can beobtained andrelated to transition energy between bands. Near the absorption edge ~ absorption ~ the' coefficient can ~ ~ be expressed as' a  (hv  Eg}Y ... (72)
. . a temperature gradientis applied to a semiconductor in addition to an applied electric field, the. totalcurrent density (in one dimension) isS
J
=a
(~a;;
'..[J>
~r)
(73)
42
Physics
and Properties
Of Semlconductor
..... AResume
Spectra and Optical, Thermal, and HigMield
Properties
of Semiconductors
43
~'
~"\ I
V GaAs....,
1 1 1
II
10
1
I
I r
/,i;
1
t6
1/
:I ,
,
rr V}
/)
f1\_Si' V
.~
>....
I,
2
/
t:: feu
,.
L.
',
I I
"\.
1\
I
1 ,F \ '\.
V
I
300K
_<,", ___
0
77K
f,
",f... V' \ tt ,.1i~1<\ \. ,
I'
,
La
,
\
I
l\,lDlAMOND (TYPE I
\
!\ 1
I
/ /
I
fI
I
1
" GOAs/i.
I
V,/
If
,
I
II
/'
'~
1°0608
o
I:
:_
1
I
I 3
hl/(eV)
I
~
4
5 6 78910
1.r
t. 'r/Gel I
I
r
II
I
I DIAMOND
(TYPEm
1\,""
\ l"iCU~,
, ,
\
I
1
~'
,
1\,
,,
fig. 27 Measured absorption coefficients near and above the fundamental absorption edge for pure Ge, Si,and GaAs. (After Dash and Newman, Ret 51; Philipp and Taft, Ref. 52; Hill, Ret 53;"Casey, Sell, and Wecht, Ref. 54.)
,1 /
Measured
ili'"mn"ti type II, and Arlm<>trnr.n Ref. 57.)
lsi
.
~~'f\ , ,GoAS , , 1 ,
I
I '
'.i
I" 1\
I
10
T(K) 100
'''~t02
. I' ,
"
1000
300
where o is the conductivity, EF the Fermi energy, and (/' the differential thermoelectric power. For a nondegenerate semiconductor with a mean free time between collisions 'T Es as discussed previously, the' thermoelectric power is given by
(/' = _~
thermal conductivity versus temperature SiD,. (After Ho, Powell, and Liley,
for pure Ge, Si, GaAs, Cu, Ref. 55; Holland, Ref. 56;
{tl s + In(Ncln»):::
~~~
s In(Nv/p)]PILP}
(74) first, second, and third terms OIl the righthand side,of Eq, 75 represent lattice contribution, electronic contribution, and contributions due to conduction, respectively; The contributions of conduction carriers the thermal conductivity are in general quite small. The third term, may be quite large when Eg ~ kT. The thermal conductivity first mcreases with T at low temperatures and then decreases with temperature temperatures. Figure 28 shows the measured thermal conductivity as a function of temperature forGe, Si, and GaAs.SS•56 Appendix H lists their , values.' Figure 28 also shows the thermal conductivities" for Cu, diamond (type II) and Si02•s7 Copper is the most commonly used metal for thermal conduction in pn junction devices; diamond (type II) has the highest roomtemperature thermal conductivity known to date and is useful as the thermal sink for junction lasers and IMP ATT oscillators (to be discussed later).
where k is the Boltzmann constant andNc and Nv are the effective density of states in the conduction and valence bands, respectively. Equation 74 indicates that the thermoelectric power is negative for atype semlconductorsandpositive for ptype semiconductors, a fact often used to determine the conduction type of a semiconductor. Thethermoelectric power can also be used to determine the position of the Fermi level relative to the band edges. At room temperature the thermoelectric power (/' of ptype silicon increases with resistivity: 1mV/K fora 0.1 llcm sample and 1.7mV/K for a 10011cm sample. Similar results (except a change of the sign for (/') can be obtained for ntype silicon samples. Another important quantity in thermal effect is the thermal conductivity K, which, if 'T  e= for both electrons 'and>holes, is given by
K
=
KL
+
(~ s)k2uT q
+7
k2uT (5  2s + Eg/kT)2nplLnlLp ' (nlLn +PlLp) .
(75)
1
44
,.. '·0,PhysicsandPropert!es.of L
Semlconductots ..... Resume A
1.6.4
HighField Property
As discussed in Section J.5.1 at low electric fields. the drift velocity in a semiconductor is proportional to the electric field, and the proportionality constant is called the mobility that is independent of. the electric field. When the fields are sufficiently large, however, nonlinearities in mobility and in some cases saturation of.drifLvelocity are observed. At still larger fields, impact ionization occurs. First we consider the nonlinear mobility. At thermal equilibrium the carriers both emit and absorb phonons.: and the net rate of exchange of energy is zero. The energy distribution at thermal equilibrium' is Maxwellian. In the presence of an electric field the carriers acquire energy from the field and lose it to phonons by emitting more phonons than are absorbed. At reasonably high fields the most frequent scattering event is the emission of optical phonons. The carriers thus, on the' average, acquire more energy than they have at thermal equilibrium. As the field increases, the average energy of the carriersalso increases, and they acquire an effective temperature T. which is higher than the lattice temperature' T. Balancing the rate.at which energy transferred from the field to the carriers by an equal rate of Joss of energy to the lattice, we obtain fTOin the rate equation, for Ge and Si:" (76) and (77) where lLo is the lowfield mobility, ~ the electric field, and Cs the velocity of sound. When ILO~ is comparable to C, the mobility deviates from constant value at low fields, and Eqs.' 76 and 77 reduce to T. =T.~l
lle·veloc;lt~'neIQ relationshipis more complicated for GliAs. We must the band structure· of Ga.M '(fig. 5). A highmobility valley (""4O(101to8000cm2/Vs) 'is located at''the Brillouin zone center,and a ,OW,mC)OlJ1UY sateIJjtevalley(p. =lOOcm2/Vs)along the (Ill) axes," about evmcner in energy:Tlie effective mass of the~le(;tions is 0.068mo in . valley and about 1~2mo the upper valley; thus the density of iD the upper valley is about]iftiiries that'ofthe.Iower valley,from As the field increases, the electrons in the .lower valley can be to the normally unoccupied upper valley, resulting in a negative resistanceujn GaAs. The "jntervalleytransfer >mlechlanism and the velocityfield relationship are consideredin more detail 11. Figure 29ashows the measured roomtemperature drift velocities versus .electnc field for high ..purity Ge, Si, and GaAs. 37.59. For highimpurity 60 .... '''}"ll5i., the drift velocity at low fields decreases.' Ho\Vever,. the velocity at U is essentially independent ofimpurity dopings, and approaches a value." For Ge, the saturation velocities Vs for electrons and are about 6 x 106cm/s; in Si, v. is 1 X 107cm/s. For GaAs a wide range differential negative mobility for fields above 3 x lW V /cm exists, and highfield velocity approaches 6 x 106cm/s. Figure 29b shows the temnerature dependence of electron saturation velocity. 37. 1.2 As the tem66 ". ",p.r~nnrf' increases, the saturation velocity for Si and GaAs decreases. next consider impact ionization, When the electric field in a semi.•conouctor is increased above a certam value, the carriers' gain enough ·. ..,III..,,~·V so that they can excite electronhole pairs by impact ionization. electronhole pair generation rate G from impact ionization is given by (81) Where aft is the electronioiiization rate defined as the number of electronhole pairs generated by an electron per unit distance traveled. Similarly, ap is the analogously defined ionization rate for holes. Both aft andn, are strongly dependent on the electric field. A physical expression for the ionization rate is given by76
J
+ 3.1T.'(1L. o~\.2].
32 C. l
(78)
and (79) When the field increases until /LO~. = 8C.f3.thecarrier temperature doubles over the .crystal temperature. and the mobility. drops by 30%. Finally at sufficiently high fields. the drift velocities for Ge.iand Si approach a saturation, velocity: cm/s where Ep is the opticalphonon energy (listed in Appendix H). (80) where EI is the highfield, effective ionization threshold energy, and 'l:m 'l:p, and 'l:I are threshold fields forcarriersto overcome the decelerating effects of thermal, opticalphonon, and ionization scattering, respectively. For Si, the value of EI is found to be 3':6 eV for electrons and 5.0 eV for holes. Over a limited field range, Equation 82 can be reduced to if or a('l:)
s,» 'l: > 'l:kT
'l: >
(83a)
= (q'l:/E1) exp('~I'l:pl'l:~,
if and
e,
(83b)
'l: > v'~p'l:kT'
and Optical, Thennal, and HIg~field
Properties
of Semiconductors
47
300K
~
. Gals (ELECTRONS) 107
ELECTRONS
HOLES
S
E
~
!::
0
_.J
0
t&.I
Ii: a 106
II:: t&.I
:> ~ "",,
~Geb
1/
I·
,ap , Ge ", ',(EII=O.66eV) , ,
an
L
7
j
"I' 1/
Si
I
II::
«
0
Ii:
105 102
/
,~ ~
T=300i< ~..•• ;: ELECTRONS :::   HOLES '.'"",
~,
10 ELECTRIC FIELD (Vlcm)
(0)
GaP
4
(an=ap)
(Z.Z6eV)
GOO.47Ino.53As
(O.75eV) 8
(b~
t
<100>
10
5 lot
o
L_..I.._L.._.LL_.L.._J.
Z
4
6
........ l~
80
Z
1.4
liE (106cmlV)
(0)
en "E
o
1.2
.... 9 > ~ ~
_J UI
Vs=.''1+0~8exp (T 1600K) 1.0
2.4x107
30 Ionization rates at 300 K versus reciprocal el.ectricfield for Ge, Si, GaAs, and IVIV and IIIV compound semiconductors. (After Logan and Sze, Ref. 63; Grant. ,Glover, Ref. 65; Pearsall et al., Ref. 66; Umebu, Choudhury. and Robson, Ref. 67; and White, Ref. 68; Pearsall, Ref;~9; Pearsall, Nahory, and Pollack, Ref. 70.)
(3 t&.I
0
>
Z
0
~
II:: :::l
C/)
!;t
0,2
10
TCi<)
(b)
100
1000
30a shows the experimental results of the ionization rates6~ for and SiC. Figure 30b shows the measured ionization rates of GaAs a few other IIIV binary and ternary compounds.f"?" These results are by using photomultiplication measurements on pn junctions. that for certain semiconductors, such as GaAs, the ionization rate is a of crystal orientation. At a given ionization rate (e.g., t(t cm") the 1>l'1·nrn,,..,,,' electric field generally increases With decreasing bandgap. Note Eq. 83a is applicable to most semiconductors shown in Fig. 30, except and GaP. for which .Eq. 83b is' applicable: temperature dependence of the ionization rate can be expressed by ....nn" .."" .... Bara1f's threeparametertheory.I':" The parameters are: Er, the threshold energy; A, the opticalphonon mean free path; and the average energy loss per phonon scattering. The values A and (Ep) "'rf"~",v, by69, ..n
A
Ag. 29 (a) Measured carrier velocity versus electric field for high purity Ge, Si, and
GaAs. For highly doped samples, the.initial lines are lower than indicated' here. In a highfield region, however, the velocity is essentially independent of dopings. (After Jacoboni et aI., Ref. 37; Smith, Inoue, and Frey, Ref. 59; Ruch and Kino, Ref. 60.) (b) Saturated electron velocity versus temperature in Si and GaAs. (~fter Jacoboni et aI., Ref. 37; Okamoto and Ikeda, Ref. 61; Kramer and Mircea, Ref. 62.)
= Ao tanh (2!;' ) = Ep tanh(2!;')
(84) (85)
(Ep)
46
48
Physics
and Properties
of Semlconductor""":AResume
and
~~
Ao E"
(86)
where E, is theopticaJ.:{)~onon energy (listed in.Appendix H), and Aois the highenergy Iowtemperafureasymptotlc value of the phonon mean.free path. Figure 31:shows aarafi"'s result, where aA is plotted versus E1/q'lA,.with (E,,)/E/, the ratio of avera.ge opticalphonon energy to ionization threshold energy, as a parameter. Since for a given set ~f ionization measurements, the values of El(=1.0eVtor Ge), a, and its field dependence are fixedrone
~""_
~~
rI
~
'"
~. s,
,

~ , I\..: ...
..
,
~~
'
~!"OOK
llI
'.:
\.
,, ,
\\0
,,',
,
.
\\.
,'\
,
\, ~'7
3[~
\
, v,
~'3
Ge (300K)
r
'
Si f' EXPER ....ENTAL ~ 0lOOK ~ 0  213K le.  300K THEORETICAL lOOK 213K ~400K
, 1\
\''\
,
\\\
40d\ 4 5X16~ (V/cm)l electric field in Si for tour tem
\
1()2
I
2
I
3 ve
Electron ionization rate versus reciprocal .  neraturss. (After Crowell and Sze, Ref. 72.)
Fig. 31 Baraff's plotproduct of ionization rate and optical phonon meanfree path (a.\) versus E,/.q'lA. where E, = 1.0 eV and 'I is the electric field. The running parameter is th~/ratio (Ep)/E" where (Ep) is the average .()pticalp~onon energy. The solid curves are theoretical results. (After Baraff, Ref. 71.) The experimental data are obtained from Ge pn junctions with A = 64 A for electrons and .\ = 69 A tor holes. (After Logan and Sze Ref. 63.)
thus obtain the optical ..phonon .mean free path A by fitting the iondata to the Baraff plot. A typical result is shown in Fig. 31 forGe at K. The value of (E,,)/E1 is 0.022. We obtain'64A foX.the,WQ.Jl1~te,mnerature electronphonon mean free path, and 69 AIor the bolephonon free path. Similar results have been obtained for Si, GaAs, and GaP. the roomtemperature .data one. call' obtain the value of Aofrom Eq. Appenmx H lists the average values of Ao.Once the value Aois known, values of A at various temperatures can .. e predicted, and from the b dependence of (E,,), Eq. 84, the correct Baraff plot can be chosen. Figure 32 shows the "theoretical predicted electron ionization rates in:·silicon as obtained from the foregoing approach, .together with the experimental results at three different temperatures. The agreement is satisfactory. Note that at a given electric field, the ionizationrate decreases with increasing temperature.
50
P"yslcsa,,~,~rope~~sof Sei1liconductors~ Resui1le
51
1.7 BASIC EQUATIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTORDEVICE
OPERATION
1.7.1 Basic Equations31 The basic equations for semiconductordevice operation describe the static and dynamic behavior of carriers in semiconductors under the influence of external fields that cause deviation from the thermalequilibrium conditions. The basic equations can be classified in three groups: Maxwell equations, currentdensity equations, and continuity equations.
Maxwell Equations for Homogeneous Vx W=  aa~ V x 1( = iit+JCOnd V· !!b and Isotropic Materials (93a)
J, = qlJ,P'l  qD, :~
= qp.,
(P'l  ~
:~)
(94a)
(87)
= JIOI
a!!b
(88)
(89) (90) (91) (92)
= p(x,
y, z)
are valid for low electric fields. At sufficiently high fields the term IJ,'t; should be replaced by the saturation velocity v s These do not include the effect from an externally applied magnetic an applied magnetic field, another current of In.L tan On and should be added to Eqs. 93 and 94, respectively, where In.L is the component of In perpendicular to the magnetic field and tan On == 1;J{1 (which has negative value because the Hall coefficient RH is for electrons); similar results are obtained for the holecurrent,
V·!I=O
!!b(r, t) =
I~
!I=p.o1(
E.(t  t')W(r, t') dt'
an 1  = G;  Un + V In
at
q
0
(96)
where Eq. 92 reduces to !!b = E.I under static or very low frequency conditions; W and !!b are the electric field and displacement vector, respectively; 1( and !I are the magnetic field and induction vector, respectivel~; E. and IJo are the permittivity and permeability, respectively; p(x, y, z) IS the total electric charge density; Jcond the conduction current density; and JIOI the total current density (including both conduction and convection current components and V· JIOI= 0). Among the six equations above the most important is the Poisson equation, Eq, 89, which determines the properties of the pn junction depletion layer (discussed in Chapter 2).
Curren.Density Equations
ap 1 =G U VoJ
at
'
,
q
,
(97)
J,,:::: q#Lan'l + qD ..Vn J, =qp.,p'l qV';Vp
Jcond.::::
(~3) (94)
s, +.J,.
(95)
caused by external influence such as the optical excitation with mznenerzv photons or impact ionization under large electric fields. The 'electron recombination rate in ptype semiconductors is U•. Under low conditions (i.e., when the injected carrier density is much less the equilibrium majority carrier density), Un can be approximated by the expressions (np  npo)/Tn, where np is the minoritycarrier density, npo the thermalequilibrium minoritycarrier density, and Tn the electron ....."'..,'nn lifetime. There is a similar expression for the hole recombination with lifetime Tp. If the electrons and holes are generated and recornin pairs with no trapping or other effects, Tn = Tp. For the onedimensional case under a lowinjection condition, Eqs. 96 and 97 reduce to (96a) (97a)
G; and Gp are the electron and hole generation rate, respectively
I
1
Here J .. and J,are the electron current density and the.hole current density, respectively. Theyconsist of the drittcomponent caused by the field .and th~ diffusion component caused by the Carri~r concentration gradient. The values of the electron and hole mobi?ties (#La and IJ,)ha~e been given in Section 1.5.1.For nondegenerate semiconductors the earner
I
52
Physi~s .and Prop4trti!ils .ofSe",i.~9nductors:AResu.",e
53
1.7.2
SimpleExamples
Decay of Photoexcite~.CClrri~rs Consider an ntype sample, as shown in Fig. 33a, that is illuminated with light and where the electronhole pairs are generated uniformly throughout the sample with a generation rate G. The boundary conditions are 'lJ = O'iind ap,Jax = O. We have from Eq.97a:
iJp" iJt
arbitrary time, say t = 0, the light is suddenly turned off, the boundary conditions are p,,(O) = Pno + TpG, as given in Eq. 99, and p,,(t+ = PM' The differential equation is now
ap"
at
= _ p" 
Pno
Tp
(100)
=G _ p"  Prw
Tp'
(98) 33b shows the variation of P» with time.
(101)
At steady state,
iJp,JiJt
= 0 and p" = Prw
llil
+TpG
= constant.
{99)
)
>
)
x
(0)
example above presents the main idea of the StevensonKeyes for measuring minoritycarrier lifetime." Figure 33c shows a cnemauc setup. The excess carriers generated uniformly throughout the by the light pulses cause a momentary increase in the conductivity. manifests itself by a drop in voltage across the sample when a current is passed through it. The decay of this photoconductivity observed on an oscilloscope and is a measure of the lifetime. (The width must be much less than the lifetime.)
fllL:t Ci..,.C
p (t) n
    _L     (b) LIGHT PULSE
'pG
Pno

"~'r ::::="'='
Figure 34a shows another example where excess carriers are injected from one side (e.g., by photons that create electronhole pairs at the surface only). to Fig. 27, note that for hv = 3.5 eV, the absorption coefficient is 106cml, in other words, the light intensity decreases by l/e in a of look state there is a concentration gradient near the surface. The terential equation is, from Eq. 97a,
dyState Injection from One Side
iJp" iJt·
o
= 0 = _ p"
 PM
Tp
+D
iJ Pn
2
p?
(102)
boundary conditions are p,,(x The solution of p,,(x) is
= 0) = p,,(O)= constant value and p,,(x+
(103)
diffusion length is L; (Fig. 34a). The maximum values v'D,;:r;;) are of the order of 1cm in germanium and silicon, 2 em in gallium arsenide. ..of ~e order of second boundary condition is changed so that all excess carriers at extracted or p,,(W) = Pno, then we obtain from Eq. 102 a new
L.(15
,0
=~
(e)
Flg.33 Decay of pho.to.excited carriers; (a) ntype sample under constant illuminatio.n. (b) Decay ot mino.rity carriers (hales) with time. (c) Schematic experimental setup to, measure mino.rity carrier lifetime. (After Stevenso.n and Keyes, Ref. 46.)
p,,(x)pno
=
+ [P,,(O) Pno]
_
[
sinh Sinh(W/L,,)··
(WX)] =t;:
(104)
54 INJEC.TING~ SURFACE
hI!
Physics and Properties
of SemlconductorsA
Resume
55
{> ...
o
•x
hI!
o
(a)
_X
o
(a)
Lp= v'DpTp
•x
t= 0
INJECTING SURFACE
hI!
ALL EXCESS CARRIERS EXTRACTED
X X
t:o
X X (b)
Fig.34 Steadystate carrier injection from one side. (a) Semiinfinite with length W.
sample. (b) Sample
(e)
Transient and steadystatecarrier diffusion. (a) Experimental setup. (b) Without field. (c) With applied field. (After Haynes and Shockley, Ref. 73.)
This result is shown in Fig. 34b. The current density at x Eq.94a:
=
W is given by field is applied along the sample ~
= 0, the solution is given by
(107)
It will be shown later that Eq. 105 is related to the current gain in junction
p,,(x,t)=N
transistors (Chapter 3). When localized light pulses generate excess carriers in a semiconductor (Fig, 35a), the transport equation after the pulse is given by Eq. 97a by setting G = 0 and d'lldx = 0:
Diffusion (106) ~ Transient and SteadyState
exp(_L_i_)+pno V41TD"t 4D"t 1"p
ll]e:ctlon,and also they recombine. an electric field is applied along the sample, the solution is in the form Eq.l07, but with x replaced by (x p.,'lt) (Fig. 35c);thus the whole of excess carrier moves toward the negative. end of the sample
]V is the number of electrons or holes generated per unit area. 35b shows this solution as the carriers diffuse away from the point of
I

____
._____
..
d __
56
PhysicS· and"PropertiesOfSerillconductorsA
Resume
c·
57
nTYPE
x
~'P.no+ 'T,G[1 exp(c,x/Lp)];.and the minority carrier .density at the approaches its thermal equilibrium value Pno' Analogous to the lowiljectii)tt· bulkrecombination process, in which the reciprocal of the carrier lifetime (llr).is equal to u,vlhN" the surface recombination is given by . '>
(111)
~~
o
Ag. 36 Surface recombination surface is affected by the surface recombination
~rat x = O. The minoritycarrier velocity.
•x
near the
distribution
. C. Dunlap, An Introduction to Semiconductors, Wiley, New York, 1957. Madelung, Physics of IIIV Compounds, Wiley, New York, 1964. .Lt.. Moll, Physics of Semiconductors, McO'rawHill, New York, 1964. T.,S. Moss, Ed., Handbook on Semiconductors, Vols. 11, NorthHolland, Amsterdam, 1980. . .... ~. Smith, Semiconductors, 2nd ed., CambridgeUniversity.Press, London, 1979. for example, C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, Wiley, New York, 1976. Willardson and A.C. Beer, Eds., Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 2, Physics V Compounds, Academic, New York, 1966. . B. Pearson, Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structure of Metals and Alloys, Pergamon, New York, 1967. H. C. Casey, Jr., and M. B. Panish, Heterostructure Lasers, Academic, New York, 1978. L.IJrillouin, Wave Propagation in Peri.odic Structures, 2nd ed., Dover, New York, 1963. Ziman,Principles of the Theory of Solids, Cambridge University Press, London, Cohen, "Pseudopotential Calculations for IIVI Compounds.vD, G. Thomas, Ed., Semiconducting Compounds, W. A. Benjamin, New York, 1967,p. 462. q.;;Kittel, Quantum Theory of ~lids, Wiley, New York, 1963. L.. C. Allen, "Interpolation Scheme for Energy Bands in Solids," Phys. Rev. 98, 993 .(1955). F. Herman, "The Electronic Energy Band Structure of Silicon and Germanium," Proc. "l'Ji"uIJ!(D,43, 1703 (1955). C. Phillips, "EnergyBand Interpolation Scheme Based on a Pseudopotential," Phys. .'i .. J","""V" 112,.~5(l958). J. R. Chelikowsky and M. L. Cohen, "Nonlocal Pseudopotential Calculations for the .... Elei:tronic Structure of Eleven Dianl.ond and ZinccBlendesemiconductors," Phys. Rev., 814, 556 (1976). ¥.Neuberger, Germanium Data Sheets, DS143 (Feb. 1965, Oct. 1960); Silicon Data Sheets, DS137 (May 1964,July 1968); Gallium Arsenide Data Sheets, DSI44 (Apr. 1965, Sept. 1967). Comp~~d from Data. Sheets, of Electronic Properties Information Center (EPIC), Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City, Calif. (a.) R. Dalven, "A Review of the Semiconductor Properties of PbTe, PbSe, PbS and PbO," Infrared Phys., 9, 141 (1969). (b) I. Strzalkowski, S. Joshi, and c. R:Crowell, "Dielectric Constant and Its Temperature Dependence forGaas, CdTe and znSe," Appl. Phys. Lett., 28; 350 (1976).
•• ,.,. •• ,.. •• ~c
with the drift velocity ""p'l:. At the same time, the carriers diffuse outward and recombine as in the fieldfree case. The example above is essentially the celebrated HaynesShockley experiment for the measurement of carrier drift mobility in semiconductors." With known sample length, applied field, and the time delay between the applied electric pulse and the detected pulse (both displayed on the oscilloscope), the drift mobility a = x/'l:t can be calculated. Surface Recombination32 When surface recombination is introduced at one end of a semiconductor sample (Fig. 36), the boundary condition at x = 0 is given by
(l08)
which states that the minority carriers that reach the surface recombine there; the constant S, with units cm/s is defined as the surface recombination velocity. The boundary condition at x = 00 is given by Eq. 99. The differential equation is
apn
at
= G _ Pn 
PlIO + D
p
Tp
axr
a pn.
2
(109)
I
I
The.solution of the equation subject to the boundary conditions above is Pn(x) = Pno+ 'TpG [1 'TpSp exp( x/Lp).] (110) L, + 'TpS, . which is plotted in Fig. 36 for a finite S,. When S,~O,then Pn(x)~ PM+ 'T,G, which was obtained previously (Eq. 99); when S, ~OO, then
!~~~~ ~~
 ~ ~~...".~...~...
58
Physics and Properties of SemlconductorsA
Resume "ElectronHole Recombination in Germanium,"
59
n;i.n.,nillll,
19 20 21 22 23 24 2S 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41
(c) G. H. Jensen, "Temperature Dependence of Bandgap in ZnOfrom Reflection Data," Phys. Status Solidi, 64, K51 (1974). (d) F. P. Kesamanly, "GaN: Band Structure, Propertiesand Potential Applications," So». Phys. Semicond. 8, 147 (1974). J. M. Zimari, Electrons and Phonons, Clarendon, Oxford, 1960. j C. D. Thurmond, "The Standard Thermodynamic Function of the Formation of Electrons and Holes in Ge, Si, GaAs and GaP," J. Electrochem. Soc., 122, 1133 (1975). W. Paul and D. M. Warschauer, 1963. J. S. Blackmore, "Carrier Eds., Solids under Pressure, McGrawHili, and Fermi Levels New York,
Phys. Rev., 87, 387 (1952).
of Holes and Electrons," Lifetime Electric in Germanium Effect,"Phys. and
Shockley
and W. T. Read, "Statistics Rev., 87, 835 (1952).
of the Recombination of Carrier
Stevenson
and R. J. Keyes, "Measurement Distribution
"J. Appl. Phys., 26, 190 (1955).
W. Gartner, "Spectral 823 (1957). N. Brockhouse
.:SroeetTnn''''hv· ...
of the Photomagnetic "Normal Modes
Rev.,
and P. K. Iyengar, "Lattice Vibrations
of Germanium
by Neutron
Concentrations
in Semiconductors,"
Elec
Phys. Rev., 111,747 (1958).
in Silicon and Germanium," Dynamics
tron. Commun., 29, 131 (1952).
R. N. Hall and J. H. Racette, "Diffusion and Solubility of Copper in Extrinsic and Intrinsic Germanium, Silicon. and Gallium Arsenide," J. Appl. Phys., 35, 379 (1964). A. G. Milnes, Deep Impurities in Semiconductors, Wiley, New York, 1973. J. Hermanson and J. C. Phillips, "Pseudopotential Theory of Exciton and Impurity States," Phys. Rev., IsO, 652(1966). J. Callaway 860 (1967). and A. J. Hughes, "Properties "Localized of Silicon Defects in Semiconductors,"
N. Brockhouse,
Phys. Rev. Lett., 2, Rev., 132,
Germanium
. Waugh and G. Dolling, "Crystal (1963).
of Gallium Arsenide,"Phys.
. C. Dash and R. Newman, "Intrinsic Optical Absorption in SingleCrystal Silicon at 77°K and 3OOoK," Phys. Rev., 99, lISI (1955).
Phys. Rev., 156,
E. M. Conwell. (1958).
and Germanium,
Part II," Proc. IRE, 46,. 1281
H. R. Philipp and E. A. Taft, "Optical Constants of Germanium in the Region I to 10 e V ," Rev., 113, 1002 (1959); "Optical Constants of Silicon in the Region 1 to 10eV," Phys. Rev. Leu., 8, 13 (1962).
S. M. Sze and J. C. Irvin, "Resistivity, Mobility, and Impurity Levels in GaAs, Ge, and Si at 300 K," Solid State Electron.,n. 599 (1968). W. M. Bullis, "Properties K. B. Wolfstim, and Conductivity W. Shockley, 1950. of Gold in Silicon,"
Rev., 133, A866 (1964).
EsHill, "Irifraredtranstnission
and Fluorescence
of Doped Gallium Arsenide,"
Phys.
Solid State Electron., 9,143 (1966).
H. C. Casey, Jr., D. D. Sell, and K. W. Wecht, "Concentration Dependence of the Absorption Coefficient for a and ptype GaAs between 1.3 and 1.6eV," J. Appl. Phys., 46, 250 (1975). C. Y. Ho, R. W. Powell, and P. E. Liley, Thermal Conductivity of the ElementsA Comprehensive Review, American Chemical Society and American Institute of Physics, New York, 1975. M. G. Holland, "Phonon Scattering in Semiconductors Studies," Phys. Rev., 134, A471 (1964). from Thermal Conductivity
"Holes and Electron Mobilities in Doped Silicon from Radio Chemical Measurements," J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 16,279 (1960). Princeton, N.J.,
Electrons and Holes in Semiconductors, D. Van Nostrand,
A. S. Grove, Physics and Technology
of Semiconductor Devices, Wiley,
Potentials of Impurity Transport
New York, 1967. in Nonpolar
J. Bardeen and W~ Shockley, "Deformation Crystals," Phys. Rev., 80, 72 (1950). E. Conwell and V.F. Weisskopf, "Theory and Electron
and Mobilities Scattering in GaAs,"
B. H. Armstrong, "Thermal Conductivity in Si<h", in S. T. Pantelides, Si02 and Its Interfaces, Pergamon, New York, 1978.
Ed., The Physic of
in Semiconductors,"
Phys. Rev., 77, 388 (1950).
H. Ehrenreich, (1960). M. B. Prince, (1953). "Band Structure "Drift Mobility
Rev., B14, 5331 (1976). Phys. Rev., 120, 1951 Phys. Rev., 92, 681
P. Smith, M. Inoue, and J. Frey, "Electron Fields," Appl. Phys. Lett., 37, 797 (1980).
D. E. Aspnes,
"GaAs Lower ConductionBand
Minima: Ordering
and Properties,"
Phys.
Velocity in Si and GaAs at Very High Electric Characteristics of
in Semiconductors
I, Germanium,"
J. G. Ruch and G. S. Kino, "Measurement of the VelocityField Gallium Arsenide," AppL Phys. Lett., 10, 40 (1967).
C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Ottaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, "A Review of Some Charge Transport Properties of Silicon," Solid Suue Electron., 20, 77 (1977). , W. F. Beadle, R. D. Plummer, and J. C. C. Tsai, Quick Reference Manual for Semiconductor Engineers, to be published. F. M. Smits, "Measurement~f Tech. J., 37, 711 (1958). J. C. Irvin, "Resistivity Tech. J., 41, 387 (1962). Sheet Resistivities with the FourPoint Probe,"
H. Okamoto and M. Ikeda, "Measurement of the Electron Drift Velocity in Avalanching GaAs Diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, ED23, 372 (1976).
Appl. Phys. Lett., 26, 623 (1975).
R. A. Logan and S. M. Sze, "Avalanche Multiplication in Ge and GaAs pn Junctions," Proc, Int. Conf. Phys. Semicond., Kyoto, and J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. Suppl., 21,434 (1966). W. N. Grant, "Electron and Hole Ionization Rates in Epitaxial Fields," Solid State Electron., 16, 1189 (1973). G. H. Glover, "Charge 46, 4842 (1975). Multiplication in AuSiC (6H) Schottky Silicon at High Electric Junction,"
B. Kramer
and A. Mircea,
"Determination
of Saturated
Electron
Velocity
in GaAs,"
Bell Syst. Bell Syst.
of Bulk Silicon and of Diffused Layers
in Silicon,"
E. H. Hall, "On a New Action of the 'Magnet on Electric Currents," (1879). L. J. Van der Pauw, "A Method of Measuring Specific Resistivity or Arbitrary Shape," Philips Res, Rep., 13, I (Feb. 1958).
Am. J. Math., 2, 287
J. AppL Phys.,
I
~
42 43
and Hall Effect of Disc in pn
C. T. Sah, R. N.Noyce, and W. Shockley, "Carrier Generation and Recombination Junction and pn Junction Characteristics," Proc. IRE, 45, 1228 (1957).
T. P. Pearsall, F. Capasso, R. E. Nabory, M. A. Pollack, and J. R. CheJikowsky, "The Band Structure Dependence of Impact Ionization by Hot Carriers in Semiconductors GaAs," Solid State Electron., 21, 297 (1978).
I
60 67 tiS 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76
Physics and Properties of Semiconductors'AResume I. Umebu, A. N. M. M. ChoudhurycandPcNiRobson, "Ionization in AbruptinP.junctjon,"Appl. Phys.Lett., 3ti,.J02 (1980). R. A. Logan and H. G. White, Phys., 3ti,3945 (1965). "Charge Multiplication Coefficients Measured J. Appl.
in GaP paJunctions,"
T. P. Pearsall, "Impact Ionization Phys.Lett., 3ti, 218 (1980).
Rates for Electrons
and Holes in Gao.I7In '3As:~ Appl. e. Rates for Electrons in Semiconin
T. P. Pearsall, R. E. Nahory, and M. A. Pollack, "Impact Ionization and Holes in GaAsl.Sb. Alloys," Appl. Phys. Lett., 28, 403 (1976). G. A. Baraff, "Distribution Junctions and Ionization ductors," Phys. Rev., 128, 2507 (1962).
Rates for Hot Electrons of Avalanche
PART IPOLAR DEVICES
• • • Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 pn Junction Diode Bipolar Transistor Thyristors
II
C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, "Temperature Dependence Semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett., 9, 242(1966).
Multiplication
J. R. Haynes and W. Shockley, "The Mobility and Life of Injected in Germanium," Phys. Rev., 81, 835 (1951). H. Kroemer, "The Einstein Relation for Degenerate Elee. Dev. ED25, 850 (1978).
Holes and Electrons
CarrierConcentration/'lEEE Mobility
Trans.
K, K. Thornber, "Relation of Drift Velocity to LowField Saturation Velocity," J. Appl. Phys., 51,2127 (1980). K. K. Thornber, "Applications of Scaling to Problems port," J. Appl. Phys. 52, 279 (1981).
and High Field Electronic Trans
in HighField
~
I
2
Junction Diode
• • • • • • • • INTRODUCTION BASIC DEVICE TECHNOLOGY
r'
DEPLETION REGION AND DEPLETION CAPAClrANCE CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS
JUNCTION BREAKDOWN TRANSIENT TERMINAL BEHAVIOR AND NOISE FUNCTIONS
HETEROJUNCTION
INTRODUCTION
pn junctions are of great importance both in modern electronic ia»plllcaltlollS and .in understandingother semiconductor devices. The pn JUIlctllon theory serves as the foundation of the physics of semiconductor The basic theory of currentvoltage characteristics of pn junewas established by Shockley.' This theory was then extended by Sah, nL' .."C. and Shockleyl,andby Moll.3 this chapter w.efirst ~riefty discuss the basic device technology which n ..."f.n",nt not orily to junctions but also to most semiconductor Then the :I:I~sic equati()ns presented in Chapter I are used to develon the ideal static and dynamic characteristics of p n junctions. Jel1lar1'urf~S frop!)hc:: ·.i~eal characteristics due to generation .and recom.·.·1)llDatlo:n· the depletiori: layer, to high injection, and to series resistance in are then discussed. Junction breakdown (especially that due to multiplication) is consideredjn detail, after which transient n..",,,,,,,n'r,,, and noise performance in P1! junction are presented.
pn
.,..~ .. ¥ •.•¥
63
64
pn Junction Diode
65
A pn junction is a twoterminal device. Depending on doping profile, device geometry, and biasing condition, a pn junction can perform various terminal functions, which are considered briefly in Section 2.7. The chapter closes with attention to an important group of devices, the heterojunctions, which are junctions formed between dissimilar semiconductors (e.g., ntypeGe on ptype GaAs).
2.2
BASIC DEVICE TECHNOLOGY
In this chapter we are concerned priIDarilywith •.•. silicon teehnology.i because its development is more advanced than that of any other semiconductor ...Someimportant device fabrication methods are shown in Fig. 1.
I
;£r  '~~:L~pl'
(a)
DIFFUSION
Il~!~!! '~ 'I
(b)
DIFFUSION
method.], Fig .. la, a small pellet of aluminum is placed on an l>:oriented silicon wafer. The system is then heated to a ternslightly higher than the eutectic temperature (580°C for the so that a small puddle of molten AISi mixture is formed. is then lowered and the puddle . begins to solidify. A '~mtllil~ed portion, which is saturated with the acceptor impurities and .same crystal orientation, forms the heavily doped ptyperegion the atype substrate. The aluminum button on top can be used as an contact for the ptyperegion. For the ohmic contact on the ntype a AuSb alloy (with 0.1% Sb) can be evaporated onto the wafer at about 400°C to form a. heavily doped ntype region (n "), On wafer, the roles of .the aluminum and the AuSb alloy can be mterchanged to form an n + junction on top aria p + ohmic contact on the Qottj.)lm the wafer. The junction location obtained by the alloy method .of "'«ll~l1Ui)Critically on the temperaturetime alloying cycle and is difficult to precisely. solidstate diffusion method was developed in 1956 to give more control of the impurity profile.6 A diffused mesa junction method, nereetvne impurities (e.g., boron in the form of SHr3) are diffused into substrate, is shown in Fig. Ib •..After diffusion, portions of the are ..protected (e.g., by wax or metal contactsj.aedrherest .are out to form the mesa .structures. degree of control over: the Iateral geometryofthe diffused is achieved by using an in§l.I1ating layer that can prevent .most andacceptor impurities from diffusing through it.7 A typical example in Fig. Ic, A thin layerofsilicon dioxide ( :llLm) is thermally on silicon. With the help of lithographic techniques (e.g., photolithxray, or electrenbeam.Iithography), portions of the oxide can be and. windows (or patterns) cutin the oxide. The impurities will only through the exposed silicon surface,and.p ..n •junctionswilJ in the oxide windows. Thisprocessvthe planar process." has become principal method of fabricating semiconductor devices and integrated shown in Fig. Ic is the epitaxial substrate, for example, an n layer n + substrate," Such a substrate is generally used in the planar process to ir~c~uce series resistance, Epitaxy, derived from. the Greek words epi, .·JperulliIllgon", and taxis, meaning "arrangement", describes a technique of "
.rr""t'!>1
(e)
IONIMPLANTATION
growth by chemical reaction used to form, on the surface of crystal, layers of semiconductor materials with lattice structures identical to
(d) fig. 1 Some device fabrication methods .. (a) Alloyed junction. (b) Diffused junction. (c) Diffused planar junction on epitaxial substrate. (d) Ion implantation. mesa
planar process uses techniques which were previously known, such as oxide masking u... ,u~.v... The distinguis.hing feature is their use in combc~tion, permitting an npr1ecedenlted fineness in caotrollil'lg the sizes and shapes of electrodes and diffuSed regions. ·TlIi""'''n.1> "planar" comes from the requirement that the wafer surface must be approximately the surface is tough, the liquid photoresist does not coat it evenly, and imperfections
I
66
p~n Junction
Diode
Device Technology
67
those of the crystal. In this method, lightly doped. highresistivity epitaxial layers are grown on and supported by; a heavily doped lowresistivity substrate thus ensuring both the desired electrical properties and mechanical strength. Figure Id shows a pn junction formed by ion implantation." To date, this method gives the most precise control of an impurity profile, Ion implantation can be done at room temperature, and the implantationinduced lattice damages can be removed by annealing at about 700°C or less. Therefore, ion implantation is a relatively lowtemperature process compared to diffusion, which is generally done at lOOO°Cor higher. We shall now briefly discuss the four main processes of planar technology: epitaxial growth, oxidation, diffusion of impurities, and ion implantation. Epitaxial layers can be formed by the vaporphase growth technique.' The basic reaction that results in the growth of silicon layers is SiC~ + 2H2""~Si(solid) + 4HCI(gas). Typically, the silicon layer is grown at a rate of about 1 p,m/min at 1200°C or higher temperature with a mole fraction of SiC~ at 0.01% (ratio of SiC~ molecules to the total number of molecules in the gas). Epitaxial layers can also be formed by liquidphase growth, II which has been extensively used for compound semiconductors, or by molecularbeam epitaxy,I2,13 which can give precise control of semiconductor compositions down to atomic dimensions. The most frequently used method to form silicon dioxide films is by thermal oxidation" of silicon through the chemical reaction: Si(solid) + 02(dry oxygen) + Si02(solid) or Si(solid) + 2H20(steam) + SiOisolid) + 2H2. It can be shown that for short reaction times the oxide thickness increases linearly with time, and for prolonged oxidation the thickness variesas the square root of timethe socalled parabolic relationship. ISWhen a silicon dioxide film of thickness d is formed, a layer of silicon of thickness 0.45 d is consumed .. Figure 2 shows the experimental results of the oxide thickness as a function of reaction time and temperature for both dry oxygen growth and steam growth. At a given temperature, the oxidation rate in steam is about 5 to 10 times higher than for dry oxygen. Also, at lower temperatures, the oxidation rates show pronounced dependence on crystal orientation. 16 The simple onedimensional: diffusion process can be given by the Fick equation, 17 (1) where C is expression generation, dition, with the impurity concentration and D'the diffusion coefficient. This is similar to that. givenjri Eq.. 96aof Chapter 1, without recombination, orelectric.field. For a "limited source" conthe total amount of impurities S, the solution of Eq. I is given
en en
ILl
z
~ X
a
ILl
~ O.1 :r
0
...... ~
0.01 L__l_JLl...l..J.J.li,.LOL...J........L..J....L..LJJ,!;O:'_._ ................... ~,00 0.1 . OXIDATION TIME (HR)
(0)
iWr 8rr)'
(100) (111)
/'
~
I
10
t: WET OXIDATION
I
E
en
'=
1.0
1250°C
5
".
, ~
',050JC II
9OO.oC
a z
G
x ~
a X
ILl
,.../
".
~
.;!'~
k:""/
/::
o
O. 1
k,
0.1
~
A
I~
1.0 10 OXIDATION TlME(HR)
(b)
100
fig. 2 Experimental results of silicon dioxide thickness as a function of the reaction time and temperature for two substrate orientations. (a) Dry oxygen growth. (b) Steam growth. (After Meindlet aI., Ref. 16.)
by the Gaussian function C(x,t)=exp S
v;i5i
(X2 
4Dt
).
(2a)
For the "constant surface concentration" condition with a surface concentration C., the solution of Eq, 1 is given by the error function complement
C(X, t) =
C. erfc(2Vm).
(2b)
~
I
68
p.n Junction
Diode
69
en
<.J <.J
.....
diffusion.coefficient D depends on temperature and impurity conlowconcentration conditions, D becomes independent concentration. (In lowconcentration conditions, the impurity centration is less tharl the intrinsic carrier concentration at the diffusion forexample;atllOO"C, nj"" 1019cm", as shown in Fig. 11 of 1.) In a limited temperature range and under lowconcentration mditions, the diffusion coefficient can be described by
(3) D(T) = Doexp( aElkT) Do is the diffusion coefficient extrapolated to infinite temperature, aE is the activation energy of diffusion. Values of D(T) for Ge, Si, GaAs are plotted in Fig. 4 for various impllr~ties.19.20 These values are cases; as .impurityconcentration increases, becomes. increasingly .: oncentrationdependent. c impurity diffusion coeffiCitmtis related to the solid solubility of the
2
X/2./Dt
rig. 3 Normalized concentration versus normalized distance for Gaussian and error function complement (erlc) distributions plotted in both semilog and linear scales. (After Carslaw and Jaeger, Ref. H.)
The normalized concentration versus normalized distance to the foregoing two solutions is shown iI.l Fig. .3. The diffusion profiles of many impurities can indeed be approximated by the preceding expressions. Many. however, have more complicated profiles, for example, As in Si with a diffusion process depending strongly on the impurity. concentration. 18
T("C1
B
~E 10G~~+ __ + __ + __ +__+__+__~
__~~~~
~ o ~ ~ ....
(f)
o .....
10191:__ +~'*""''''''''=t
__
1''::::::'1__ 1i""''''''''';~~lI
:i
m ::>
(f)
5
c :i o
(f)
10 rttI:1I:1I:1f::7"'I~.....:I~ :.......j 18 ...
10'5~~~~~~~~L_~L_L_L_~~~~~~ 500 600. 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 140P
I
~
T(OC)
Fig. 4 Impurity diffusions coefficients as a function of temperature for Ge, Si, and GaAs. (After Burger and Donovan, Ref. 19; Kendall and DeVries, Ref. 20.)
Solid solubility 21.)
of various
elements
in Si as a function
of temperature.
(After
I
70
2
'RpIN RpIN 1
Si SiOz
~:::~
3
.
II~/
, :// pv
B~ §
v· ./ ,/
,,/ ~ ~ ~ /

71
...~
.... 1'"
/
/
./
1
//
',I ~,;
.1
~
ff
//
'"
/y
/
~/
~~
~y
/
1
o
,/
I·,
/
_,/ / /~:
~
>CAS
LOG IClNcqNCENTRATION
z <[
>
.0 1
//
/' V
""
l,.;~/'
/
/" .
\/
.'
'"
1
/l,.Il'
Lp /
...
o
§
.
o
0.
" /;,I?
,,7
Xs
toRp
toRT
V
I"~
Si PROJECTED STRAGGLE TRANSVERSE STRAGGLE
a:
Q01
,,~/ ~
ION BEAM
Y
I
ARp
0
."
_,
100
~
Rp
ARr
X
.003
10
I
1000
ENERGY (KeV)
O.O~O
ENERGY (KeV) Fig. 6 Projected range of bor()n,".p~osphorus, and arsenic ions in Si and Si02 as a " function of implantation energy. The insert shows the distribution of the implanted ions. (After Pickar, Ref. 10.) "".
100
1000
Projected straggle and transverse straggle of boron, phosphorus, and arsenic in' as a function of implantation energy. (After Pickar, Ref. 10.)
impurity, which is the maximum concentration of an impurity that ,can be accommodated in a solid at any given temperature. The solid solubilities of some important impurities in Si are plotted in Fig. 5 as a function of temperature." Thisfigureshows that arsenic or phosphorus should be used as the impurity in making heavily doped ntype silicon, and boron should be used for heavily doped ptype silicon. Ion implantation is the introduction of energetic charged atomic particles into a substrate for the purpose of changing the electrical, metallurgical, or chemical properties .of ,the substrate. The typical ion energies considered are between 10 and 4OOkeV, and typical ion doses vary from 1011 to 1016 ions/em', The main advantages of ion implantation include (1) precise control over total dose, depth profile, and area uniformity; (2) lowtemperature processing; and (3) implanted junctions that can be selfaligned to the edge of the mask. For an ion' beam with an infinitesimally small beam diameter, the ion distribution in the substrate (Fig. 6, insert) is given by"
n(x, y)
s. is the incident rate of ions per second, Rp the projected range, aRp projected straggle, and aRT the transverse straggle. Figure 6 shows of Rp in Si andSi02 for boron, phosphorus, and arsenic ions as a tunction of implantation energy. The projected range increases approximately linearly with the energy. For boron, the projected ranges in Si Si02 are quite close; however, for phosphorus and arsenic, the prorange in Si02 is about 20% lower than that in Si. The projected stJraggJe and transverse straggle in Si for these ions are shown in Fig. 7. The also inc~ease with increasing energy. The ratio of aRp to Rp over energy range IS about 0.2 to 0.5. . For an implantation from an infinitesimal beam that is scanned uniformly . the. substrate surface, the y dependence of the doping density drops m regions several aRT from the edge of the scanned area. The doping ,diistribultiCllnhen becomes' t
)
n(x)
=
"\12;aRp
q,
exp[_(XRp )2] V2aR
p
(4a)
= (21T)3/2 ~Rp aRt
exp[ 
(~;;)2]exp[ (V2~J2]
(4)
descnbes the Gaussian distribution in doping density of the im·..pllan·reaions, where' q, is the total number of ions per unit area, and the ...J q,/("\I2;aRp) is the peak doping concentration at x = Rp. Since 1974,}aser processing of semiconductors has been extensively studied.22.23 Highintensity laser radiations [such as the pulsed ruby laser
!
72
PIl Junction
Diode
73
and continuouswave (cw) argon laser] offer possibilities to remove damages associated with ion implantation and to recrystallize amorphous semiconductor layers. The potential advantages of laser processing include (I) control of theiulD~aling depth and the impurity profile through the absorption propertles·ofth.e laser light and the dwell time of the pulsed or swept beam; specifically, the laser annealing can activate the implanted impurities without impurity redistribution: (2) highly localized lateral processing on a micron scale since the laser beam can be focused down to such dimensions; and (3) regrowth of crystalline material from an amorphous layer on the crystalline substrate.or formationof largegrainsize polycrystalline films deposited on insulators. In practice, most impurity profiles can be approximated by the following two limiting cases: the abrupt junction and the linearly graded junction, as shown in Fig. 8a and 8b respectively. The abrupt approximation provides
ctx)
INSULATING· LAYER·
(a)
S
S
(b)
(a)
(a) Planar ~iffusion ~rocess which forms junction curvature near the edges of the mas~. 'j IS t~e radius ot curvature. (b) The formation of approximately cylindrispherical regions by diffusion through a rectangular mask. (After Lee and Sze .24.) ..•. •
(b)
Fig. 8 . Approximate
doping profiles.
(a) Abrupt junction;. (b) Linearly graded junction.
an adequate description for alloyed junctions, shallowly diffused junctions and ionimplanted junctions. The linearly graded approximation is reasonable for deeply diffused junctions. Another important effect results from the planar processes. When a pn ju~ction .is fo~med ~ydiffusion into a biiIk semiconductor through a wmdow In an msulating layer, the impurities will diffuse downward and also sideways. Hence.the junction consists of a plane (or flat) region with approximately cylindrical edges; as shown" in Fig. 9a. In addition if the diffusio~ mask conUiins sharp comers, the junftion near the comer ~ill be roughlys~herical in shape (Fig.~ 9,~), The~e spherical and cylindrical regions have profound effects on the junction, especially for the avalanche multiplication process," discussed in Section 2.5. ..
I

~
.... _.
_  __ ~
_
74 2.3
pnJunction Diode
75
DEPLETION REGION AND DEPLETION CAPACITANCE AbruptJunction Potential and DepletionLayer Width
2.3.1
first consider the thermal equilibrium condition, that is, one with no voltage and no current flow. From Eqs, 33 and 93a in Chapter 1,
In = 0 = qfJ.n( n~ kT an) +q ax = f.tnn aEF ax (5)
When the impurity concentration in a semiconductor changes abruptly from acceptor impurities NA to donor impurities NI), as shown in Fig. lOa, one obtains an abrupt junction. In particular, if NA;p Nl), one obtains a onesided abrupt junction or p +n junction.
Diffusion
aEF =0
ax
.
(5a)
(6)
NET DONOR
DENSITY
~~4~~~x
(a)
the condition of zero net electron and hole currents requires that the level must be constant throughout the sample. The diffusion potenor builtin potential Vb;, asshown in Fig. lOb; c, and d, is equal to
qVb;
= E8 (qV = kT
.. +qVp)
Xn
x
(b)
In(N~fv) [kT In(~~)+kT In(~;)] = kT In(n~)po)= kT In(N~fD).
r,
llO ).
(7)
.k==
p
t;..
Since at equilibrium rtnoPno = npo/Jpo = n
Vbi = kT
q
In(l!1!!!.)kT In(n = PlIOq npo·
= ppoexp (
(7a)
V;I . x
(C)
Equation 7a gives the relationship between the hole and electron densities 00 either side of the junction:
Pno
~) kT
(8a)
(d)
npo
= nlIO exp 
kT ( ~) .•
(8b)
EV n
I
Fig,10. Abrupt pn junction in thermal equilibrium. (a)Spacecharge distribution. The dashed lines indicate the majoritycarrier distribOtiontaiis. (b) Electric field distribution. (e) Potential variation with distance where V.. is the builtin potential. (e) Energyband diagram.
The approximate values of Vb; for onesided abrupt pn junctions in Ge, Si, and GaAs are shown in Fig. 11. Since in thermal equilibrium the electric field in the neutral regions (far from the junction at either side) of the semiconductor must be zero, the total negative charge per unit area in the P side must be precisely equal to the total positive charge per unit area in the n side:
(9)
I
~.


76
1.4 GOAs(p+n
pen 'Junction Diode
77
1.2
~ ~
lI
t
,GOAS(fi+p
dd:
f ~ f
~
is.the maximum field that.exists at x
Es Es
= 0 and is given by
(12)
V(x)
l~ml= qNvXn = qNAxP•
It",o"",,tina
1.0
Si(n+p) SI(p+n)
E4.1O once again, Fig, JOe, gives the potential distribution builtin potential Vbi:
V(x)
s
>
~ 0.8 ~
:ii 0.6
(I)
=
~m(X2~)
(13) (14)
Ge(n!,p) 0.4
W is the total depletion width. Eliminating jgmfrom Eqs. 12 and 14
_j
r==
Ge(p+nl
0.2
~~ , ~ p+ n
t
. u:~
EF
EV
(15)
a twosided abrupt junction. For a onesided abrupt junction, Eq, 15 to
W
= .J2EsVbi
Flg.11 Builtin potential for onesided abrupt junctions in Ge, 5i, and GaAs, where p+ is for the heavily doped pside andn" is for the heavily doped n side. The background doping Ns is for the impurity concentration of the lightly doped side.
qNB
(15a)
From Poisson's equation we obtain (for abrupt approximation)
~2
a2v =. = p(x)q a~ . .=[p(x)n(x)+Nb(x)NA(x)] ax ax Es Es
_
(10)
or (lOa) for xp:Sx <0. (lOb) lOa and lOb as shown
(Ita)
NA ~Nvorvice versa. acc?r~t~. resilltc ~orthe. depletionlayer .width can .be ..obtained ,;..;.;..;1:'..... 10 by c6nsidefitigthe majoRtycarrier contribution m addition to impurity concentration, that is, p = q[NA  p(x)] on the p side and q[Nv __n(x)] on the n side. The depletion width is essentially the same given by Eq.15,except.~at· .. bi isrepl~~edbY(Vbi2kTlq). V The .Cl"lrTf'ctiinn factor 2kT/ qcomes about because of the two majoritycarrier taJ.ls26 (el~ftr0D.sin ri side and.~oles ill pside;as shown by the .......... .u lines in Fig' lOa).E8:ch cOlltribute{a correction factor kTI q. The ~ correction is simply the dipole moment(jf the "errpr"distribution,.the true carrier 'distribution,minustlie abrupt distributioat.The .depletionlayer \Vidthat thermal equilibrium for a onesided. abrupt junction becomes
= N» or N~dependingon whether
The electric field is then obtained by integratingEqs, in Fig. lOb: for and
~(x)
W
=
J:;;B(Vbi 2kT/q)
 2)
= LvV2({3Vbl
(16)
X,,:5;X<O
where {3 = q/k,[and lb is the. Debye length, which is a characteristic length for semiconductors. The Debye length is defined as = Lv ~ EskT  ,f;Ji; Es' 2 q NB qNB{3'
(17)
=  't + qNvX
m
Es .
II
(lIb)
At thermal equilibrium the depletionlayer widths of abrupt junctions are about 6Lv for Ge, 8Lv for Si, and '10Lp for GaAs. The Debye length as a function of doping density is shown in Fig. 12 for silicon at room tem
78
pn Junction
Diode
,Region and Depletion
Capacitance
79
Si
T=3OJ K 104
......r...
3
~
La
.~
q2Na
......t.,
2
rananon across the junction isgiven by (Vb; + V) for reverse bias (positive on n region with respect to p region) and by (Vb;  V) for forward Substituting these voltage values in Eq, 16 yields the depletionlayer as a function of the applied voltage. The results for onesided abrupt 'j1).I~ctioilIS silicon are shown in Fig. 13. The values.below the zerobias in (dashed line) are for the forwardbiased condition; and above, for the reversebiased condition. These results can also be used for GaAs since both Si and GaAs have approximately the same static dielectric constants. To obtain the depletionwidth for Ge, one must multiply the results ofSi by the factor y' Es(Ge)/Es(Si) = 1.16. simple model above can give adequate predictions for most abrupt pn However, for strongly asymmetrical junctions or for devices ultrashallow junction depths, numerical analysis may be. needed for accurate results." The electric field regionneatfhe junction cannot be confined to the shaded region as shown in the left diagram of Fig. 8a, because any doping gradient creates.a field (refer to Eq. 5). The strong doping gradient clearly extends well outside the .:shaded region. Figure 14 shows an example of a diffused junction 0.25 #Lm deep with C, = 2 x 1(YO ", an erfc profile, and NA = 5 X lOIS cm'", The equilibrium cm energyband diagram is shown in Fig. 14a. Note that the conduction band goes below the Fermi level near the surface due to high surface concen. tration. The electric field profile is shoW'!,. in Fig. 14b.Jhere are several important differences in the field profiles between the simple model and the numerical results. First, the actual field region on the diffused side is five times wider than it is in the simple model. Second, the electric field Is always larger than 1<t V/cm throughout the surface region.so that transport processes can be strongly affected. The spacecharge distribution (assuming negligible surfacecharge effects) is shown in Fig. 14c. Ap. parently, the space charge on the diffused side is considerably widened beyond the depletionlayer width Xp in the simple model. DepletionLayer Capacitance The depletionlayer capacitance per unit area is defined as C == dQc/dV, where dQc is the incremental increase in charge per unit area upon an incremental change of the applied voltage dV. For onesided abrupt junctions, the capacitance per unit area is given by C
"
10 1 10 13 1015 10'6 10'7 DOPING IENSITY Na(arf3)
r,
1018
Fig. 12
Debye length in Sias a function
of doping density.
perature. For a doping density of 10J6cm3, the Debye length is 400 A; for other dopings, LD will yary as 1/v'N;, that is, a reduction bya factor of 3.16 per decade. The values of W as a (unction of the doping concentration for onesided abrupt junctions in silicon are shown in Fig. 13 (dashed line for zero bias). When a voltage V is applied to the junction, the Jota} electrostatic potential
~
1000\{
r....
'~Ii;:
ONESIDED pt nABRUPT .",
si
JlJ«:TION
,~
II
DeN
<><>ZERO BIAS
I,
"
)~MrrkoBY AVALANCHE
BREAKDOWN
N
104 u
E
IUVbi+V2kT/q)c1.0V
._,
II
I IllUHt
s()
~
II HI
,.",
·2
I
lilt.
(Vbi V2kT/q)=O.IV
1 ........
1014
1111111 10IS
IJ ..... 1 11111
106
== dQc =
dV,
Ne(Cm3) Fig. 13 Depletionlayer w,idth and depletionlayer capacitance per unit area as a function of doping for onesided abrupt junction in Si. The dashed line is for the case of zerobias Voltage.
d(qNB W) d[(qNB/2E.)W2]
_§_
W
=
~qEsNB (V. + V  2kT/ 2 ,,,q
rJ12
(I8)
II
80
;}E(eVl
pn JunCtion:Diode
81
Equation
...• ·.~LUIILlIJI
p+n junction.
ISb holds for more general distributions than just for the For a general distribution we have
«nc>.
dV
(0)
 qEsN(W)
Es
2
(lSc)
W
= C(V)
(lSd)
t(t04v/cml
(b)
where N (W) is the doping density at x = W. Note also that the capacitancevoltage data are insensitive to changes in the doping profiles that occur in adistance. less than a Debye length of the highly doped side, and so the doping profiles determined by the C V method should be expected to provide a spatiaJresblution of only the order of a Debye length." ." "
2.3.2
02 0.4 0.6
JUNCTION (fLm) DlSTANCEBELON
Linear'y Graded Junction for for
Consider the thermal equilibrium case first. Tile impurity distribution linearly graded junctions is shown in Fig; 15a. The Poisson equation this case is
where a is the impurity gradientin cm 4. By integrating Eq. 19 once, we obtain the field distribution shown in Fig. 15b:
Fig. 14 Strongly asymmetrical junction. distribution. (c) Spacecharge distribution. (a) Energyband diagram. (After. Redfield, Ref. 27.) (b) Electric field
?;(x) = _ qa (W/2)2_X2
e, with the maximum field ?;m at x (18a)
=
2
(20)
or
0,
I?;ml
= qa w2.
8 e,
(20a)
d(1/C2).:52Lb~ _
dV ....=.
E;
:c,""",",
qEsNB
2
Integrating Eq. 19 once again gives the builtin potential shown in Fig. l5c: (ISb) (21) or (21a) Since the values of the impurity concentrations at the edges of the depletion region ( W/2 and W/2) are equal to a W/2, the builtin potential for linearly graded junctions can be' approximated by an expression similar
where the ± signs are for the reverse and forwardbias conditions, respectively. It is clear from Eq, ISa that by, plotting t/C2 versus V, a straight line should result for a onesided abrupt junction. The slope gives the impurity concentration of the substrate (NB), and the intercept (at l/C2 = 0) gives (Vbi  2kT/q). The results of the capacitance are also shown in Fig. 13. Note that, for the forward bias, a diffusion capacitance exists in addition to the depletion capacitance mentioned previously. The diffusion capacitance is discussed in Section 3.4.
82
pn.,unctionDio~el
1.2
'1'
1.0
L~I .......
i"'~
Si :,.....
I
.
s
~0.8
V
:
<
e
(b) AREA = DIFFUSION POTENTIAL
~ ~
z w
<l
I 0,6
v....
...... k
I"
15
~ 0.4
i""
~
Ge
V
0.2
~
o :,.....1"
10 (c) WI2
I •X
18
Ie
1019 1020 10 IMPURITY' GRADIENT Q (cm4)
21
1022
Fig. 16
Gra,dientvoltage for linearly graded junctions in Ge. Si, and GaAs.
_..1._==__ _   :,   EV
:c:;.._....;1 .......... EC Er
(d)
.~2
IV
1102
LINEARLY ~DED JOOIUN
Rille:
10'
b.{
IV
III
1111111
IJ
"0
3
N
Fig. 15 linearly graded junction in thermal equilibrium. (a) Sparecharge distribution. (b) Electric field distribution. (c) Potential variation with distance. (d) Energyband diagram.
.....
.~(1
IV
II
f1t, ..~
c""' IV
~l;r ~,!I.1
r,
.....
!,04
E
~
Q.
U
to Eq. 7:
101
...... r.
"'9
'V.I
~~
I,'
105
v, = kT
q
In [(aW/2)(aW/2)]
ni
=
kT In(aW)2. q 2ni
(22)
102 10'S
,:
The depletionlayer capacitance for a linearly graded junction is given by
I."
1019
"
1111 1111
J7
1022
106
= dQc C  dV
= d(qaW W2/8) = W =[ 12(Vbi V) ]. d(qa qaE~ /12E.)
3
1020
1021
.§_
±
1/3
F/cm
2
(23)
where the signs + and  are for the reverse and forward bias, respectively. Based on an accurate numerical technique," the depletionlayer capaci .
Fig. 17 Depletionlayer width and depletionlayer capacitance per unit area as a function of impurity gradient for linearly graded junctions in Si. The dashed line is for the case of zerobias Voltage. '
I
83

~
....~
84
pn Junction Diode
85
tance is given by an expression identical to Eq. 23 except that the Vbi is replaced by a "gradient voltage" V,:
~. and ~p are the imrefs or quasiFermi levels for electrons holes, respectively. From Eqs. 26a and 26b we obtain
and
Vg =~.kT I [a~E.kTlq] 3 n 3·'
qeqni
0
(24)
kT(n) ~n==I/Ilnq
ni
(27a) (27b)
The gradient voltages for Ge, Si, and GaAs as a function of impurity gradient are shown in Fig. 16.. These voltages are smaller than the Vbi calculated from Eq. 22 by more than 100 mY. The depletionlayer width and the corresponding capacitance for silicon are plotted in Fig. 17 as a function of impurity gradient.
The pn product becomes
pn
= n7 exp [q(~k;
~n)J.
(28)
2.4
CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS Equation'
2.4.1 Ideal CaseShockley
For a forward bias, (ep". ~.) > and pn > nT; on the other hand, for a reversed bias, (~p  ~.) < 0 and pn < nT. From Eq. 93 of Chapter 1, Eq, 26a, and from the fact that ~ == VI/I,we obtain
o
The ideal currentvoltage characteristics are based on the following four assumptions: (1) the abrupt depletionlayer approximation; that is, the builtin potential and applied voltages, are supported by a dipole layer with abrupt boundaries, and outside the boundaries the semiconductor is assumed to be neutral; (2) the Boltzmann approximation; that is, throughout the depletion layer, the Boltzmann relations similar to Eqs. 33 and 37 of Chapter 1 are valid; (3) the low injection assumption; that is, the injected minority carrier densities are small compared with the majoritycarrier densities; and (4) no generation current exists in the depletion layer, and the electron and hole currents are constant through the depletion layer. We first consider the Boltzmann relation. At thermal equilibrium this relation is given by
J. = qJL.( n~ +k:
vn)
=
qiJnn( VI/I)+ qu; k:
f:;
(VI/I V~.)] (29)
=  qJLnnV~ •.
Similarly, we obtain
(30) Thus the electron and hole current densities are proportional to the gradients of the electron and hole imref, respectively. If ~. = ~p = ~ = constant (at thermal equilibrium), then J. = Jp = O. The idealized potential distributions and the carrier concentrations in a pn junction under forwardbias and reversebias conditions are shown in Fig. 18. The variations of ~. and ~,; with distance are related to the carrier concentrations as given in Eq. 27. Since the electron density n varies in the junction from the n side to the psideby manyorders of magnitude, while the electron current In is almost constant, it follows that ~.must also be almost constant over the depletion layer. The electrostatic potential difference across the junction is given by (31) Equations 28 and 31 can be combined to give the electron density at the boundary of the depletionlayer region on the p side (x =  xp):
n
=
ni exp(EFkTEi) ni exp(Ei
==niexp[ q(
P=
;TEF) ==n/ixp[
t~~)] q(t; I/I)J
(25a) (25b)
where 1/1 and ~ are the potentials .corresponding to the intrinsic level and the Fermi level, respectively (or t/I == EJq, ~ == E,,/q). Obviously, at thermal equilibrium, thepn product fromEqs. 25aand 25b is equal to nT. When voltage is applied, the minoritycarrier densities on both sides of a junction are changed, and the pn product is no longer given by nT. We shall now define the imrefs as follows:
I
np 
_ PI' exp (qV) _ npoexp (qV) nr kT kT
v« 
(32)
n==niexp[q(l/IkT~n)]
(26a) (26b)
where npo is the equilibrium electron density on the p side. Similarly,
_(qV)exp Pno
kT'
(33)
\
86
pn J.unctionDiode
Curren~V.oltage
CharacterisUcs
87
where
E (eV)
~~I

II
Da
~+:i+""_==_::::== EF
Ec
n.JDp
n. + P.
. . + p.JD. = am biIpOIar diff usron coefficient ambipolar lifetime.
(36) (37)
~
II u~_.x
I
q<pp
Ev
\ l...:....__ =Ec
EF
T a
= p. 
Pno _ n. n.o U U
L_ _l~t::=~E:
I
From the lowinjection assumption semiconductor), Eq. 35 reduces to  P.  pno Tp
(e.g., P. ~ n. = nno in the ntype
'" r"'"'1 I,. __ _j I _}' <pp
L_
!
'JV
1jf
_
IJ.p
'l op. + D 02p.
ex
p
axz
=
0
(38)
I I LLL __ ~ __ X
whi~h .is Eq, 34b except that the term I.I.pP.0'l/oX is missing; under the lOWInJectIon assumption, this term is of the same order as the neglected terms. In the neutral further to region where there is no electric 02p. oX P.  Pno DpTp 0 field, Eq. 38 reduces
:;::z
.
=
(39) 00) = (40)
The ~olution of Eq. 39 with the boundary Pno gives
condition Eq, 33 and P.(x
where
(a)
(b)
(41) And at
X
Fig. 18 Energyband diagram; intrinsic Fermi level (0/1); quasiFermi level, also referred to as imref (4). for electrons, 4>pfor holes); and carrier distributions under (a) forwardbiased conditions and (b) reversebiased conditions. (After Shockley,Ref. 1)
= X.,
(42)
at x = x. for the ntype boundary. The preceding equations are the most important boundary conditions for the ideal currentvoltage equation. From the continuity equations we obtainior the steady state:
Similarly, we obtain for the P side I.
= qD.
 U + I.I..'l _ U.,
II.
ax
on. oX
o'l + I.I..n. oX
II.
+ D.
P
axz
02n. oX
~Lxp =
qr;,:PO(eqVlkT
1).
(43)
=
0
(34a) (34b)
rP
'l op. 
rp
P o'l •. ox
+ D 02pr= O.
The minoritycarrier· densities and the current densities for the forwardbias and reversebias condition are shown in Fig. 19. The total current is given by the sum of Eqs. 42 and 43: I I
s
I
In these equations, U is the net recombination rate. The charge neutrality holds approximately, so that (n.  n.o) = (P.  Pno). Multiplying Eq, 34a by I.I.pP. and Eq, 34b by '_"'n., and combining with the Einstein relation, D = (kTlq)I.I., we have P.  P.o
Ta
4
= Ip + I. = I.(eqVlkT  1), == qDppno + qD.npo
(4t1) (45)
L,
L.·
Tx2"
+ D .02p.
n.  P. 'loP. = 0 n.lI.I.p + p.II.I.. oX
(35)
Equation 45 is. the celebrated Shockley equation,' which is the ideal diode law. The ideal currentvoltage relation is shown in Fig. 20a and b in the linear andsemilog plots, respectively. In the forward direction (positive
88
,nJunction
Diode
89
FORWARD
5 J
qV/kT
J
(a)
(a)
(b)
Fig. 19 Carrier distributions and current densities (both linear plots) for (a) forwardbiased conditions and (b) reversebiased conditions. (After Shockley, Ref. 1.)
bias on p) for V> 3kTlq, the rate of rise is constant, Fig. 20b; at 300 K for every decade change of current, the voltage changes by 59.5 mV (= 2.3kTlq). In the reverse direction. the current densitv saturates at J.. We shall now briefly consider the temperature effect on the saturation current density Js• We shall consider only the first term in Eq. 45, since the second term will behave similarly to the first one. For the onesided P "n abrupt junction (with donor concentration ND), Poo ~npo, the second term also can be neglected. The quantities Dp, PRO' and Lp (== v'D,;:;:;;) are all temperaturedependent. If DplTp is proportional to TY, where 'Y isa constant, then
5
10
ql vl zkr
(b)
Fig.20
Ideal currentvoltage
characteristics.
(a) Linear plot. (b) Semilog plot.
(46)
jJRI L, the current will increase approximately as eE/kT withtemperature; and in the forward direction.where JF  J,eqV/kT, the current will increase approximately as exp[ (Eg ~ q V)/kT).
2.4.2 GenerationRecombination Process2
I
The temperature dependence of the term T(3+yI2)is not important compared with the exponential term ..The slope of a plot. I, . versus lIT is determined by the energy gap Eg. It is expected that in the reverse direction, where .
The Shockley equation adequately predicts the currentvoltage characteristics of germanium pn junctions at low current densities. ForSi and
~...
.
... ...~.~..~.
90
pnJunction
Diode
CurrentVoHage
Characteristics
91
GaAs p n junctions, however, the ideal equation can give only qualitative agreement. The departures from the ideal are mainly due to: (1) the surface effect, (2) the generation and recombination of carriers in the depletion layer, (3) the tunneling of carriers between states in the bandgap, (4) the highinjection condition that may occur even at relatively small forward bias, and (5) the series resistance effect. In addition, under sufficiently larger field in the reverse direction, the junction will break down (as a result, for example, of avalanche multiplication). The junction breakdown will be discussed in Section 2.5. The surface effects on pn junctions are due primarily to ionic charges on or outside the semiconductor surface that induce image charges in the semiconductor and thereby cause the formation of the socalled surface channels or surface depletionlayer regions. Once a channel is formed, it modifies the junction depletion region and gives rise to surface leakage current. The details of the surface effect are discussed in Chapters 7 and 8. For Si planar pn junctions, the surface leakage current is generally much smaller than the generation current in the depletion region. Consider first the generation current under the reversebias condition. Because of the reduction in carrier concentration under reverse bias (pn 41 n r), the dominant recombinationgeneration processes as discussed in Chapter 1 are those of emission. The rate of generation of electronhole pairs can be obtained from Eq, 58 of Chapter 1 with the condition p < nj and n<nj:
10
7
106
)/
(~)
J
/ 17
/ .... (d) /
/"
.'
JUNCTlON
,/ (cl .
BRE~
10
3
10
2
10
,?I!
,~..:
r~DEAL
//
(bl)
~FrWARD
"'"
f
~L(ej
..
r
LRSE
~~
lll""' .
II V
FORWARD RJERSE
.:
rID1AL
t
5
10
15
20
25
qlvl/kT
where 'T. is the effective lifetime and is defined as the reciprocal of the expression in brackets. The current due to the generation in the depletion region is thus given by
Jgen
Fig. 21 Currentvoltage characteristics of a practical Si diode. (a) Generationrecombination current region. (b) Diffusion current region. (c) High"injection region. (d) Series resistance effect. (e) Reverse .leakage current due to generationrecombination and surface effects. (After Moll, Ref. 3~)
=
l
w
o
qlUldx
= qlUIW = ' ~ 
qn·W
(48)
The total reverse current (for Pno ~ npo and IVI > 3kT/q) can be approximately given by the sum of the diffusion components in the neutral region and the generation current in the depletion region:
JR
where W is. the depletionlayer width. If. the effective lifetime is a slowly varying function of temperature, the generation current will then have the same temperature dependence as nj. At a given temperature, Jgen is proportional to the depletion~layer width, which, in turn, is dependent on the applied reverse bias. It is thus expected that
(49a)
=q~
~~+
q~:V.
(50)
for abrupt junctions, and
II
Jgen 
(Vbj
+ V)I/3
(49b)
for linearly graded junctions.
For semiconductors witblarge values of nj (such as Ge), the diffusion component will dominate at room temperature and the reverse current will follow the Shockley equation; but if nj is small (such as for Si), the generation current may dominate. A typicalresulti.forSiis shown in Fig. 21, curve (e). At sufficiently high temperatures, however, the diffusion current will dominate. At forward bias, where the major recombinationgeneration processes in the depletion region are the capture processes, we have a recombination current Jrec in addition.to.the diffusion current. Substituting Eq, 28 in Eq. 58
92
pn Junction
Diode
CurrentVoHage
Characteristics
93
of Chapter 1 yields U= UpUnV,hNtn!(eqVlkT 1) Un [n + ni exp (Etk;' Ei)] + Up [p +ni exp(Eik;.Et))" Under the assumptions that Ei (51)
and 30 and are repeated
here:
lp
=  q#LppVcPp
decreases. monotonically electron imref increases separation of the imrefs and therefore" (57)
In :::: q#LnnVcPn.
Since lp, q, #Lp, and P are positive, the hole imref to the right as shown in Fig .. 18a.· Similarly,' the monotonically to the .left., Thus everywhere the must be less than or.equalto the applied voltage,
<: pn  ni2 exp (qy) kT
= Etand
a;
= Up == a, Eq.
51 reduces to (52)
U= uvihNrnf(eqVlkTl)
n +p +2ni . uvthNtn;(eqVlkT 1)
 ni{exp[ q(tf1 ; cPn)] +exp[q(~i
k
tf1)] +2}"
(52a)
The maximum vahle of Uexists in the depletion region where tf1 is halfway between cPP and cPn, or tf1 = (cPn + cPp)/2, and so the.denominator of Eq. 52a becomes 2ni[exp(qY/2kT) + 1]. We obtain for Y> kT/q, 1 U = '2 UVthNtni exp (qy) 2kT and (54) Similar to the generation current in reverse bias, the recombination current in forward bias is also proportional to ni. The total forward current can be approximated by the sum of Eqs.44 and 54 for 1)no ~ npo and Y> kT/q: IF (53)
~ven under the highinjection condition. Note also that the foregoing argument does notdep~n<l on recombination in the depletion region. As long as recombination takes place somewhere, currents wiUftow. To illustrate the highinjection case, we present in Fig. 22 plots of numerical results for intrinsic Fermi levelJtf1),jmrefs (<t>n and cPp), and carrier concentrations for a silicon pn step junction with the following par.~eters: NA = 1018 cm", .J'tlD = .1016 cm", Tn = 3 X 1010 s, and Tp = 8.4 X 1010 s. The current densities in Fig. 22a, b; andc are 10, 1~,and J<tA/cm2. AtlOA/cm2 thedi~de is in the IQ\Vinjecti6ri regime. Almost all of the potential drop occurs across the junction. The hole concentration on the .n side is small comPlifed to the electr~n co~centratiort. At 1~ A/cm2 the electron concentration near the junction exceeds the donor concentration appreciably. An ohmic potential drop appears on the n side. At
== • IQ;_nf (qy) qW . ., .( qV) qv; ND exp kT + 2 UVthNtn• eXP.2lcT .
results in general can be represented
(55)
The experimental form,
by the empirical
IF..  exp( nkT ..) qy
(56)
where the factor n equals 2 when thevrecombination current dominates [Fig. 21, curve (a») and n equals 1 when the'diffusion current dominates [Fig. 21,. curve, (bj]. When both currents are comparable, n has a value between 1 and 2. ' 2.4.3 HighInjection Condition
o
10
200
I
At high current densities (under the forwardbias condition) such that the injected minoritycarrier density is comparablewiththe majority concentration, both drift and diffusion current components must be considered. The individual conduction current densities Can always be given by Eqs. 29
XIJLml 101
to
XIJLml Ibl
20 0
10
XIJLml leI
20
Fig. 22 Carrier concentrations, intrinsic Fermi level (1/1) and imrefs for a Si pn junction operated at different current densities. (a) 10 A/cm2• (b) 103 A/cm2• (c) 4 10 A/cm2• (After Gummel, Ref. 30.)
94
pn,JunctiOn
2
Diode
CurrentVoltage
Characteristics
95
we have very high injection; the potential drop across the junction is insignificant compared to ohmic drops on both sides> Even though only the center region of diode is shown in Fig. 22, it is apparent that the separation of the imrefs at the junction is less than or equal to the difference in the hole imref to the left of the junction and the electron imref to the right of the junction for all forwardbias levels. From Fig. 22b and c, the carrier densities at the n side of the junction are comparable (n "'"p). Substituting this condition in Eq. 57, we obtain Pn(X = Xn)"'"nj exp(qV/2kT). The current then becomes roughly proportional to exp(qV/2kT), as shown in Fig. 21, curve (c). At highinjection levels we should consider another effect associated with the finite resistivity in the quasineutral regions of the junction. This resistance absorbs an appreciable amount of the voltage drop between the diode terminals. This effect is shown in Fig. 21, curve (d). The series resistance effect can be substantially reducedby the use of epitaxial materials.
2.4.4 Diffusion Capacitance
loe A/cm
,
!
component at the depletionlayer boundary [Pnl(xn)ejoot]. Substituting P.into the continuity equation (Eq. 97 of Chapter 1 with G, = 0) yields
lWPn
.  =  P~+D P """ii?" a2Pn :rP
(61)
or
Equation 61 is identical to Eq. 39 if the carrier lif,time is expressed as (62) We can then obtain the alternating current density from Eq. 44 by making the appropriate substitutions: JI = qVI [ qDpPno + qDnnpo ] exp(qvo). kT Lv/V] + jWTp Ln/Vl + jWTn . kT. Equation 63 leads directly to the ac admittance:
(64)
(63)
The depletionlayer capacitance considered previously accounts for most of the junction capacitance ..wh~n the junction is reversebiased. When forwardbiased, there is in addition a significant. contribution to junction capacitance from the rearrangement of minority carrier density, the socalled diffusion capacitance. When a small ac signal.is applied to a junction that is forwardbiased to a voltage Vo and current density Jo, the total voltage and current are defined by
V(t)
For relatively low frequencies is given by
G
dO
(WTp,
WTn ~
I), the diffusion conductance GdO
mho/em"
=
Vo+
Vleiott (58)
=.!L (qDpPno + qDnnpo)eqVoIkT kT t; L.
(65)
which has exactly the same value obtained by differentiating Eq. 44. The
where VI and JI are the smallsignal amplitude of the voltage and current density, respectively. The electron and hole densities at the depletion region boundaries can be obtained from Eqs. 32 and 33 by using (Vo + Vleiott)instead of V. The smallsignal ac component of the hole density is given by (59) Pn(x, t) = Pnl(x)eiott We obtain for VI~ Vo,
Pn q(Vo+
= PfID exp [
Vleiott)] kT
qVo) = PfID exp ( kT
+ PnoqVI exp (qVo) e iott kT kT •
(60)
0.1L..;..J....;..J..L..I....u..UL._.J.......L...J......L..L:c'.J..I.L..;..J..,.L....L..J...J..L.I 0.1 1.0 10
lilT
.....
100
I
A similar expression is.obtained for the electron density. The first term in Eq. 60 is the dc component, and the second ••erm is the smallsignal ac t
Fig. 23 Normalized diffusion conductance and diffusion capacitance shows the equivalent circuit of a pn junction under forward bias.
versus
WT.
Insert
..

._..

.
96
pn Junction
Diode
Junction Breakdown
lowfrequency diffusioncapacitance.Cs, is given by
CdO = k~ (Q4
i
ftO
+ (iL~tpo }eqVoIkT
F/cm2•
(66)
040° 10 450 50°
Js AT CONSlANT
The frequency dependence of the conductance and capacitance is shown in Fig. 23 as a function of the normalized frequency W7' where only one term in Eq, 63 is considered (e.g., the term contains PlIO if PlIO ~ npo). The insert shows the equivalent circuit of the ac admittance. It is clear from Fig. 23 that the diffusion capacitance decreases with increasing frequency. For large frequencies, Cd is approximately (wrl/2. The diffusion capacitance, however, increases with the direct current level (_eqVoIkT). For this reason, C« is especially important at low frequencies and under forwardbias conditions.
2.5 JUNCTION BREAKDOWN31
..
~ C
t
c ...
TEMPERATlJ'IE
When a sufficiently high field is applied to a pn junction, the junction "breaks down" and conductsa very large current. Thereare basically three breakdown mechanisms: thermal instability, tunneling effect, and avalanche multiplication. We consider the first two mechanisms briefly, and discuss avalanche multiplication in detail.
2.5.1 Thermal Instability
Fig.24 Reverse currentvoltage characteristics of thermal breakdown, where Vu is the turnover voltage. (Note: Direction of coordinate increases are opposite to usual conventions.) (After Strutt, Ref. 32.)
with relatively large saturation currents (e.g., Ge), the thermal instability is important at room temperature. At very low temperatures, however, thermal instability becomes less important compared with other mechanisms.
2.5.2 Tunnel!ng Effect
Breakdown due to thermal instability is responsible for the maximum dielectric strength in most insulators at room temperature, _and is also a majoreffect in semiconductors with relatively small bandgaps (e.g., Ge). Because of the heat dissipation caused by the reverse current at high reverse voltage, the junction temperature increases. This temperature increase, in turn, increases the reverse current in comparison with its value at lower voltages. The temperature effecr" on reverse currentvoltage characteristics is shown in Fig. 24. In this figure the reversecurrents Is are represented by a family of horizontal lines. Each line represents the current at a constant junction temperature, and the current varies as T3+y/2 exp( Eg/kT), as discussed previously. TIle heat dissipation hyperbolas which are proportional to the IV product are shown as straight lines in the loglog plot. These lines also correspond o curves of constant t junction temperature. The reverse currentvoltage characteristic of the junction is obtained by joining the intersection points of the curves of constant junction temperature. Because of the heat dissipation at high reverse voltage, the characteristic shows a negative differential resistance. In this case the diode will be destroyed unless some special measure such as a large serieslimiting resistor is used. _This effect is called thermal instability. The voltage Vu is called the turnover voltage. For pn junctions
We next consider the tunneling effect. It' is well known that for a onedimensional square energy barrier with barrier height Eo and thickness W, the quantummechanical transmission probability T, is given by"
T, = [ 1+ 4E(Eo E)
E1\sinh2
KW]I
E)
(67)
with
K
= ~2m(~~
where E is the energy of the carrier. The probability decreases monotonically with decreasing E. When K W ~ 1, the probability becomes
Tt = 16E(Eo E) exp (2 _ E~ K
W)
•
(67a)
A similar expression has been obtained for pn junctions. The detailed mathematical treatment is given in Chapter 9. The tunneling current density
I

...
_.__
....
~."'~'""~''
'.~.
....
~
_.__
,
98 pen Junction
Diode Junction Breakdown
99
.,'
is given by31 (68) where 'l is the electric field at thejunctiori, Eg the bandgap, V the applied voltage, and m*theeffective mass. . When the field approaches Vlcm in Ge and Si, significant current begins to flow by means of the bandtoband tunneling process. To obtain such a high field, the junction must have relatively high impurity concentrations on both the p and n sides. The mechanism of breakdown for Si and Ge junctions with breakdown voltages less than about 4EJq is found to be due to the tunneling effect. For junctions with breakdown voltages in excess of 6EJq, the mechanism is caused by the avalanche multiplication. At voltages between 4 and 6 EJ q, the breakdown is due to a mixture of both avalanche and tunneling. Since the energy bandgaps Eg in Ge, Si, and GaAs decrease with increasing temperature (refer to Chapter 1), the breakdown voltage in these semiconductors due to the tunneling effect has a negative temperature coefficient; that is, the voltage decreases with increasing temperature. This is because a given breakdown current can be reached at smaller reverse voltages (or fields) at higher temperatures, Eq. 68. A typical example is shown in Fig. 25. This temperature effect is generally used to distinguish the tunneling mechanism from the avalanche mechanism, Which has a positive temperature coefficient; that is, the breakdown voltage increases with increasing temperature;
2.5.3
Avalanche Multiplication
1<r
s:
Avalanche multiplication (or impact ionization) is the most important mechanism in junction breakdown, since the. avalanche breakdown voltage imposes an upper limit on the reverse bias for most diodes, on the collector voltage of bipolar transistors (Chapter 3) and on the drain voltages of MESFETs (Chapter 6)·. and MOSFETs. (Chapter 8). In addition, the impact ionization mechanism can be used to ~enerate microwave power, as in IMP A IT devices (Chapter 10), and to detect optical signals, as in .avalanche photodetectors (Chapter 13), . We first derive the basic ionization integral which determines the breakdowncondition. Assume that a current Ipo is incident at the lefthand side of the depletion region with width W. If the electric field in the depletion region is high enough that electronhole pairs. are generated by the impact ionizationprocess,the hole current I, will increase with distance through the depletion region and reaches a value MpIpo at W. Similarly, the electron current I.. will increase from x = W to x = O. The total current 1(= I, + I..) is constant at steady state. The incremental hole current at x equals the number of electronhole pairs generated per second in the distance dx, d(I,/q) or (70) .The electron and hole ionization rates (a.. and a,) have been considered in Chapter I, Thesolution* of Eq. 70 with. boundary condition that I = I,(W) = MpIpo is given by I,(x) =I{~,
= (lp/q)(a,
dx)
+ (I,./q)(a .. dx)
(69)
2
100· 20"
1
75"C
+
L" a .. exp[  f (a, ., ..)dx'] dx }!exp[
= Ip(W) M,  1,(0)'

f
(a,a,,)
dx']
(71) (72)
FORWARD
where M, is the multiplication
factor of holes and is defined as
~O
H
jj)
1/
1
0
Equation 71 can be written as
REVERSE
~I/ VV
IV 
~
V2O•
'.'
.
1 M,=Jo
1
(W
a, exp  Jo (a,  a..) dx' dx.
...•... .'J" . [
]
(73)
'OO•C
*Equation 70 bas the formy' + Py=Q.
where y =r';'Thestandard dx + c ]/ ereP.'
solution is
2 2
o
V{VOLTS)
2
'y =
[1' QerePb'
I
FIg. 25
Currentvoltage
characteristics
of tunneling
breakdown.
(After Strutt, Ref. 32.)
_.
where C is the constant of integration.
.
~..
__ __
.
..~.~.~.~
..

100
pnJunctlon,Olode
1000
The avalanche breakdown voltage is defined as the voltagewhereMp approaches infinity. Hence the breakdown condition is given by the ionization integral (74)
If the avalanche process is initiated by electrons instead of holes, the
I,
GaAs (100)
ABRUPT· JUNCTIONS
Qt£SIDED·
I'V
t'...SI
t"
~
ionization integral is given by
L
W
all exp[
L
W
(all ap)
I =
'.
1.
(75)
Ge' "
r, ~
'r.
l"
Equations 74 and 75 are equivalentr'' that is, the breakdown condition depends only on what is .. appening within the depletion region and not on h the carriers (or primary current) that initiate the avalanche process. The situation does not change when a mixed .primary current initiates the breakdown, so either Eq. 74 or Eq. 75 gives the breakdown condition. For semiconductors with equal ionization rates (all = ap =a) such as GaP, Eqs. 74 or 75 reduce to the simple expression
I rol5
ro16
1017
toI8
.IMPURITY CONCENTRATION Ns<cm3) Fig. 26 Avalanche breakdown voltage versus impurity concentration for onesided abrupt junctions in Ge. Si, (100)oriented GaAs. and GaP. The dashed line indicates the maximum doping beyond which the tunneling mechanism will dominate the voltage breakdown characteristics. (After Sze and Gibbons. Ref. 35.)
L
W
a
dx = 1.
(76) I
From the breakdown conditions described above and the field dependence of the ionization rates, the breakdown voltages, maximum electric field, and depletionlayer wldth can be calculated. As discussed previously, the electric field and potential in the depletion layer are determined from the solutions of Poisson's equation. Depletionlayer boundaries that satisfy Eq. 74 can be obtained numerically using an iteration method. With known boundaries we obtain . VB(breakd,?wnvoltage) = 't;"2 for onesided abrupt junctions, and
W
,~ 80 60
~\
\
GaAs ABRUPT JUNCTIONS
\
\(1fI)
\
= E2~;"(NBr
l
(77a)
40
20
\
\
VB =2'tmW .., 4't ~./2(2.E.)I/2(arl/2 = .3 . q .. 3
(7Th)
0
!
" t.. __ _ ~~:'
,
<,
\
.'
.:.:
f~ .' (IOO)
'.._......
l
for linearly graded junctions, where NB is the ionized background impurity concentration of the lightly doped side, E. the semiconductor permittivity, the impurity gradient, and 'tm the maximum field. Figure 26 shows the calculated breakdown voltage" as a function of NB for abrupt junctions in Ge, Si, (lOO~riented GaAs, and GaP. The experimental results are generally in good agreement with the calculated values." The dashed lines in the figure .indicate.the upper limit of NB for which the avalanche breakdown calculation is valid. This limitation is based on the criterion 6E,Iq. Above these values thetunneling mechanism will also contnbute to the breakdown process and eventually dominates.
a
20
. " ~~
(HO)/\,
",
40
.C'
.,
\
rol6 NB(cm3) Fig. 27 Orientation dependence of avalanche breakdown voltage in onesided abrupt GaAs junctions. (After Lee and Sze. Ref. 37.)
101
,..~... ,,~.

~..~.. ,_.
 .."~
102
.. "
pn Junction Diode
.
"
1000
I I IJJTIli
II IIUII
I
~
s
>
C) ID
;;;;;;;;
~
"'JIg,
Y"3R
:DllJ":TKlti
E
';....
I"" "
"
Ifilii
1111
..
ONE '"SIDED I~IBRUPT JUNCTION
11111 (IW7
ILl
~ ...J
IIG iA;
s
Z
f:::
..
f::::::::::
~ :.:
..,...
.,
1 z
~
:0<:
E :t
100~
,III
GOAS
GoF
106
9
s
w
ii: ::IE ::IE
~
r,
10
I
Ge
« w
It: 10
~
51
x
i~
Em
I05 ~
x
=>
ILl
«
iii'
I
n
19
1020
1021 IMPURITY
10
22
1023
1024
GRADIENT
a (em4)
~ :I: ~ 0
i
It: W
V
~ ~~
GoAS
Fig. 28 Avalanche breakdown voltage versus impurity gradient for linearly graded junctions in Ge, Si, (100}oriented GaAs, and GaP. The dashed line. indicates the maximum gradient beyond'which the tunneling mechanism will set in. (After Sze and Gibbons, Ref. 35.)
>« ...J
Z j:::
I
r..
0.1
0
...J Q.
w
Ie ,~
W 0
In GaAs, the ionization rates depend on crystal orientations (refer to Chapter 1). Figure 27 shows a comparison" of VB in (llI) and (1l0) I6 3 orientations with respectto that in (100). Note that at around IO cm , the breakdown voltages are essentially independent of orientations. At lower dopings, VB in (111) becomes the largest; whereas at higher dopings, VB in (100) is the largest. Figure 28 shows the calculated breakdown voltage versus the impurity gradient for linearly graded junctions in these semiconductors. The dashed line indicates the upper limit of a for which the avalanche breakdown calculation is valid. The calculated values of the maximum field ~ and the depletionlayer width at breakdown for the four semiconductors above are shown" in Fig. 29 for the abrupt junctions and in Fig. 30 for the linearly graded junctions. For the Si junctions, the maximum field can be expressed as"
jgm
0.01 1014
10'5
1016
1017
lOIS
BACKGROUND DOPING Ns(Cm3)
~ig. ~9 ~epletio~Iayer width and maximum field at breakdown for onesided abrupt Junctions In Ge, SI, {100}oriented GaAs, and GaP. (After Sze and Gibbons, Ref. 35.)
z
~
:0<:
~
0 W
...J
u "E
E
It: 10
w
«
...
=>
::IE
=
ljloglo(NBIIO)
I
4 x lOS
16
Vlcm
(78)
where NB is in cm". Because of the strong dependence of the ionization rates on the field, the maximum field varies very slowly with either NB or a. Thus as a first approximation we can assume that, for a given semiconductor, jgm h~s a fixed value. Then from Eq, 77 we obtain VB  Nir for abrupt junctions and VB  a'O.5 for linearly graded junctions. Figures 26 and 28 show that the foregoing patterns are generally followed. Also as expected, for a given NB ora, the breakdownvoltage increases with the energy bandgap, since the avalanche process requires bandtohand excitations.
~ :I: ~ 0 ~
z 0 i= w
...J W 0
Q.
ii: ::IE
::IE
x «
1020
102'
a(crri'4)
1022
1024
~g. ~ ~epletio~Iayer width and maximum field at breakdown for linearly' graded junctions In Ge, SI,(100}oriented GaAs, and GaP. (After Sze and Gibbons, Ref. 35.}
10..'4
I
104
pnJunction
Diode
Junction. Breakdown
105
.....
10 L'.J..JUL.I.I..l.L_T.L..J....LU..LU... 10'3 10'4
BACKGROUND
__
L....I1....Ju..1JW
IOt5
10LJ_~LUllL~_L···~UU~J_LLLU~~~~~ 1013 1014 10,5, ... .. .1016 IMPURITY CONCENTRATioN NB(Cm~)
10'7
CONCENTRATION
NBlcm3)
Fig. 31 Breakdownvoftaqe for diffused junctions. distribution. (After Ghandhi, Ref. 39.)
The insert shows the spacecharge
Fig. 32 Breakdown voltage for p'<1Tn + and p +vn + junctions, where 1T is for lightly doped ptype and v for lightly doped ntype. W is the thickness of the1T or v region.
given by An approximate universal expression can be given as follows for the results above comprising all semiconductors studied: VB::; 6O(E,!1.1)3/2(NB/IOI6r3/4 for abrupt junctions where Eg is the roomtemperature NB is the background doping in cm3;and V V (79a) bandgap in eV, and (79b) VPT _ shaded area in Fig. 32 insert VB (~mWm)/2
= (::)(2
"i..
:'J.
(80)
for linearly gtadedjuncti~s\Vheref"isthe itnpuritygradient in cm ", For diffused junctions With (lineatgradienton.one .sicie of the junction and a constant doping on the other side (shown in Fig. 31,insert), the breakdown voltage ··lies between the . two limitin~,cases considered previously" (Figs. 26 and 28). For large a and low Ns?the breakdown voltage of diffused junctions (Fig. 31) is given by the abrupt junction results (bottom line); on the other hand, f().r~mall a and high NB, VB will be given by the linearly graded junction results (parallel lines). In Figs. 26 through 30, it is assumed that the semiconductor layer is thick enough to support the depletionlayer width Wm at breakdown (Fig. 29). If, however, the semiconductorlayer W is smaller than W",(shown in Fig. 32, insert), the device will be punched through (i.e., thedepletion layer reaches the n  n + interface) prior to breakdown, As the reverse bias increases further, the device will eventually break down. The maximum electric field ~m is,essentially the same as for the nonpunchedthroughdiode. Therefore, the breakdown voltage VPT for the punchedthrough diode can be
The punchthrough usually occurs when the doping concentration NB becomes sufficiently low as in a p+71'n+ or an p+vn+ diode, whereor stands for a lightly doped ptype and v for a lightly doped atype semiconductor. The breakdown voltages for such diodes as calculated from Eq. 80 areshown in Fig. 32 as a. function of the background doping for Si onesided abrupt junction formed on epitaxial substrates (e.g., v on n + with the epitaxiallayer thickness W as a parameter). For a given thickness, the breakdown voltage approaches a constant value as the doping decreases, corresponding to the punchthroughof the epitaxial layer. The results in Figs ..26 through 32 are for avalanche breakdowns at room temperature .. At higher temperatures the breakdown voltage increases. A simple explanation of this increase is that hot carriers passing through the depletion layer under a high field lose part of their energy to optical phonons after traveling each electronphonon mean free path A. The value of A decreases with increasing temperature, (Eq. 84 of Chapter 1). Therefore, the carriers lose more energy to the crystal lattice along a given distance at constant field. Hence the carriers must pass through a greater potential difference (or higher voltage) before they can acquire sufficient energy to generate an electronhole pair. The detailed calculations have
106
pn Junction
Diode
Junction
Breakdown
10 4
107
105
2
~
~ ......
0 0
~ ~
1.5
~ ~ z
ILl
10~
..
100·C
T
u
7~
0:: 0:: ::l
~
;>
8
.~
45·C
~__oO.J...
o~ __ ~~~~
o
100
200
__ ~~~~
300
400
__ ~~~
500
IY
600 s The
~
TlI<l
Fig. 33 Normalized avalanche breakdown voltage versus lattice temperature. breakdown voltage increases with temperature, (After Crowell and Sze, Ref. 40.)
20·C
v
~ r.
r!.
fO"'""
0
~ 2.C
~
25°C
"
been done by the use of a modification of. Baraff's.theory'" as discussed in Chapter 1. The predicted values of VB normalized to the roomtemperature value are shown in Fig. 33 for Geand· SLFor the same doping profile, the predicted percentage change on VB with temperature is about the same for GaAs as it is for Ge and for GaP as it is for Si junctions. Note that there are substantial increases of the breakdown voltage, especially for lower dopings (or small gradient) at higher temperatures." Figure 34 shows the measured results," which agree quite well with this theory. For planar junctions, .the.very·important junction curvature effect should be considered. A schematic diagram of a planar junction has been shown in Fig. 9b. Since the cylindrical and/or spherical regions of the junction have a higher field intensity, the avalanche breakdown voltage is determined by these regions. The potential V(r) and the electric field ~(r) in a cylindrical or spherical pn junction can be calculated fromPoissons's equation:
10
20
30
40 of a microplasmafree ring. The temperature
REVERSE VOLTAGE(V)
Fig. 34 Temperature dependence of reverse IV characteristics n+p Si diode with Ns = 2.5 X 10'6 crn ? and an ntype guard coefficient is 0.024 V (After Goetzberger et al., Ref. 42.)
rc.
junction. The solution for
~(r)
can be obtained froOl Eq. 81 and is given by
(82)
where rj is the radius of curvature of the metallurgical junction, and the constantmusfbe adjusted so that the breakdown condition Eq.74 or 75 is
satisfied,
.l!L [r"~(r)] = p(r).
r" dr .
E.
(81) 2 for the spherical __
The calculated results for Si onesided abrupt junctions a! 300 K can be expressed by simple analytical equations:"
(83)
where n equals 1 for the cylindrical junction,and
~.

.

.~.
..
...._
108
0.7
..
pn Junction Diode
Transient Behavior and Noise
I
109
,
0.6
W z <[
0.5
./ CYLINDRICA~ JUNCTION
/f'
/'
V
~
I"'" f
V
~ 0.4
!
.
~O.3 > :?0.2
O.1 ..........
V .V V
~
,
~
V
L
",,",,SPHERICAL JUNCTION
/
/'
V
I....
(a)
(b)
I'
o
~
.01
.02
...:.::. .04 .06.OS 0.1 "I)iEtjlWm"
0.2
. 0.4 0.608 1.0
Fig. 35 Normalized breakdown voltage of cylindrical and spherical junction function of the normalized radius of curvature. (After Ghandhi, Ref. 39.)
as a
(e)
(d)
for cylindrical junctions,
VSP
and
VB
= [1J2t.2.141J6/7.....
(1J3+ 31JIm)2/3]
Fig.36 Transient behavior of a Pen junction. (a) Basic,.switching circuit. (b) Transient response. (c) Junction voltage as a function of time. (d) Minoritycarrier distribution for various time intervals. (After Kingston, Ref. 43.)
(84) the constantcurrent phase (also called storage phase) first. The continuity equation as given in Chapter 1 can be written for thentype side.fassume that Ppo <IE nno) as (85) where 'Tp is the minoritycarrier lifetime. The boundary conditions are that at t = the initial distribution of holes is a steadystate solution to the diffusion equation, and that the voltage across the junction is given' from Eq, 33 as ..
for spherical junctions, whereVcy and Vsp are the breakdown voltages of cylindrical and spherical junctions, respectively, VB is the breakdown voltage of a plane junction having the same background doping, and 1J == rJWm• Figure 35 illustrates the breakdown voltages for cylindrical and spherical abrupt junctions as a function of.1J. Clearly, as the radius of curvature becomes smaller,so does the breakdown voltage. For linearly graded cylindrical or spherical junctions, the calculated results show that the breakdown voltage is relatively independent of its radius ofcurvature. 25
°
2.6
TRANSIENT
BEHAVIOR AND NOISE
2.6.1
Transient Behavior
v. = kTln[Pn(O,
J
q
Pno
t)].
(86)
For switching applications the transition from, forward b,ia"~to reverse bias must ~. nearly abrupt and the transient time short ..In Fig. 3(ja .a simple circuit is shOwn where a forward current IF is flowing in the pn jUJlcti()n; at time t:::: 0, .the switch S is suddenly thrown to the right, and' initial reverse current IR = VIR flows. The transient time is defined as the, time in which the current reaches 10% of the initial current IR, and is equal to the sum of tl and 12as shown in Fig. 36b" where t, and tz are the time intervals for the constantcurrent phase and the decay phase, respectively. Consider
The distribution of the minoritycarrier density p« with time is shown" in Fig. 36d. From Eq. 86 it can be calculated that, as long as P..(O, t) is greater than PRO (in the interval 0 < t < tl), the junction voltage VI remains of the order of kTI q, as shown in Fig. 36c, and the current IR is approximately given by VIR = constant. Hence in this time interval the reverse current is constant and we have the constantcurrent phase. However, at or near t" the hole density approaches zero, the junction voltage tends to minus infinity, and a new boundary condition now holds. This phase is the decay phase with the boundary condition p(O, t) = PRO = constant. The solutions
.
110
pn Junction Diode TranslentB.ehavlor and Noise
111
.,
0.91'p.For a fast switch, one thus requires thatr, be small. The lifetime 'l"p can be substantially reduced by introducing impurities with deep levels in the forbidden gap (such as gold in silicon).
2.6.2 Noise
"
,
The term "noise" refers to spontaneous fluctuations in the current passingthrough, or the voltage developed across, semiconductor bulk materials ordeviceseSincethedeviees ·are.mainly used to.measure small physical quantities or to amplify small signals, spontaneous fluctuations in current or voltage set a lower limit to the quantities to be measured or the signals to be amplified. It is important to kno\\,...he factors c0ll.tributing to t these limits, to use this knowledge to optimize operating conditions, and to find new methods and new technologies to reduce noise. 'Observed .noise is generally' classffied'into thermal noise, flicker noise, and shot noise. Thermal noise' occurs in any conductor' or semiconductor and is caused by the random motion of the current carriers. The opencircuit meansquare voltage (V;) of thermal noise is givenby44,4s
"REVERSE CURRENT lFORWARD CURRENT
(V;)
= 4kTBR
(90)
Fig. 37 Normalized time versus the ratio of reverse current to forward current. (After Kingston, Ref. 43.)
have been given by Kingston,43and the times transcendental equations
t1 and t2 are
given by the
(87) (88)
rflt. 1 e 'I'i; = 1+ J,JIF erf. (t; + exp(tJ1'p) tz
'1;'
V 1I"(ti/1'p)
= 1 +O.I(IR).
.
IF
The results are shown in Fig. 37 where the solid lines. are for the plane junction with the length of the ntype material W much greater than the diffusion length (W ~ 4), and the dashed lines are for the narrowbase junction with W ~ Lp. For a large ratio IRIIF, the transient time can be approximated by (89a) for W
where k is the Boltzmann constant, T the absolute temperature in K, B the bandwidth in Hz, and R the real part of the impedance between terminals. At room temperature, for a semiconductor material with 1kO resistance, the rootmeansquare voltage v'(V;) measured with a IHz bandwidth is only about 4QY (1 ny = 1O9y). Flicker noise is distinguished by its peculiar spectral distribution wb,icb,s i proportional to1fr with a generally closeto uni,ty(the SOcalledJII noise). Flicker noise is important at lower frequencies..For most selD.ic~)Dductor devices, the origin of flicker.lloise is due to the surface effect. The 1// noisepower spectrum has been correlated both qualitatively and quantitatively with the lossy part of the metalinsulatorsemiconductor (MIS) gate impedance due to carrier recombination at the mterface traps. Shot noise constitutes the major noise in most semiconductor devices. It is independent of frequency (white spectrum) at low and intermediate frequencies. At higher frequencies the shotnoise spectrum also becomes frequencydependent. The meansquare noise current of shot noise for a pn junction is given by (91)
~4, or
t1+t2=
2Dp II'
W2 (L )1 ..li.
(89b)
for W ~ 4. If one switches a junction (W ~ 4) from forward 10mA to reverse 10 mA (J,JIF = 1), the time for the constantcurrent phase is 0.31'" and' that for the decay phase is about 0.61'p.Total transient time is then
where I is the current, which is positive in the forward and negative in the reverse direction. For low injection the total meansquare noise current (neglecting 1// noise) is given by
(i;)
= 4kTBG
 2qBI.
(92)
112
pen Junction Diode
ferminalFunctions
113
Fromthe Shockley equation. we obtain G = 01 oV
=.1... [1(eqYlkT1)]= oV • ... .
qteqY1kT
kT ..
(93)
Comparing Eqs. 96 and 97 shows that the de rectification ratio RRiRp vanes with exp(qVpfnkT), while the ac rectification ratio rdr« varies with
Ipl[Isexp(qIVRl/kT)]. .
Substituting Eq. 93 into Eq. 92 yields for the forwardbias' condition,
(i;)
= 2q!.BeqVlkT +2qBI •.
(94)
Experimental measurements indeed confirm that the meansquare noise current is proportional to the saturation current I., which can be varied by irradiation.
2.7JERMINAL FUNCTIONS
A .. en junction is a twoterminal .device that •. an perform various p c terminal functions, depending upon its biasing conditions as well as its doping profile and device geometry. Inthis section we discuss briefly some interesting device performances .based on currentvoltage, capacitancevoltage, and breakdown characteristics discussed in previous sections. Many other related twoterminal devices will be considered in subsequent chapters (e.g., tunnel diode in Chapter 9 and IMPATT diode in Chapter 10). 2.7.1 Rectifier
Rectifiers generally have slow switching speeds; that is, a significant time delay ..is· necessary to obtain high impedance after switching from. the forwardconduction state to the reverseblocking state. This. time .delay (proportional to the minoritycarrier lifetime as shown in Fig. 37) is of little consequence in rectifying 6OHzcurrents. For highfrequency applications, the lifetime should be sufficiently reduced 40 maintain rectification efficiency. The majority of rectifiers has powerdissipation capabilities from 0.1 to 10 W, reverse breakdown voltages from 50 to 2500 V (for a highvoltage rectifier two or more pen junctions are connected in series), and switching times from 50 ns for lowpower diodes to about 500 ns for highpower diodes.
2.7.2 Voltage Regulator
A rectifier is a pen junction diode that is specifically designed to rectify alternating current, that is, to give a very low resistance to current flow in one direction and a very high resistance in the other direction. The forward and reverse resistances of a rectifier can be easily derived from the currentvoltage relationship of a practical diode, (95) where Is is. the saturation current and the. factor n generally has a value between 1 (for diffusion current) and 2 (for recombination current). The forward dc (or static) resistance RF and smallsignal (or dynamic) resistance rr are obtainable from Eq.95: for
V ~ 3kT/q) (900)
A voltage regulator is a pen junction diode operated in the reverse direction up to its breakdown voltage. Prior to breakdown, the diode has a very high resistance; after breakdown the diode has a very small dynamic resistance. The voltage is thus limited (or regulated) by the breakdown voltage. Most voltage regulators are made of Si, because of the low saturation current in Si diodes and the advanced Si technology. As discussed in Section 3.5, for breakdown voltage VB larger than 6EJq (8 V for Si), the breakdown mechanism is mainly avalanche multiplication, and the temperature coefficient of VB is positive. For VB < 4Eg/q (5 V for Si), the breakdown mechanism is bandtoband tunneling, and the temperature coefficient of VB is negative. For 4EJq < VB < 6EJq, the breakdown is due to a combination of these two mechanisms. One can connect, for example, a negativetemperaturecoefficient diode in series with a positivetemperaturecoefficientdiode to produce a lowtemperaturecoefficient regulator (with a temperature coefficient of the order of 0.002% per "C), which is suitable as a voltage reference.
2.7.3 Varistor
(96b) The reverse de resistance RR and smallsignal resistance rR are given by
RR=i':=·(i:
for
rvRI~3kTlq)
(97a) (97b)
. A varistor (variable resistor) is a twoterminal device that shows nonohmic behavior." Equations 96 and 97 have shown the nonohmic characteristics of a pen junction diode. Similar nonohmic characteristics are obtainable from metalsemiconductor diodes, considered in Chapter 5. An interesting application of varistors is their use as symmetrical fractionalvoltage (0.5 V) limiter by connecting two diodes in parallel, oppositely poled. The twodiodeunit will exhibit the forward IV characteristics in either direction .
.
~~~.

~
~.. ~.. 
..~.~
114
p,n Junction
Diocie
Terminal Functions'
115
2.7.4 Varactor The term "varactor" comes from the words variable reactor and means a device whose reactance can be varied in a controlled manner with a bias voltage. Varactor diodes are widely used inparametric amplification, harmonic generation, mixing, detection, and.voltagevariable tuning. The basic capacitancevoltage relationships have already been derived in Section 23. We shall now extend theprevious derivations of abrupt and linearly graded doping distributions to a more general case. The onedimensional Poisson equation is given as (98) where N is the generalized doping distribution (assuming one side is very heavily doped): for x as shown in Fig. 38a (99)
for the depletionlayer
width and the differential capacitance
per unit area4~ (100)
.W = [ES(rrl+~~V+V;'i)r(m+2)
C
== ~~
1
= [(m
!~~~~:IVbiJ/(m+2)
(V
+ Vbi)S
(101)
s == m +2t
where Qc, the charge per unit area, is equal to the product of Es and the maximum electric field (at x = 0). _One important parameter in characterizing the varactor is the sensitivity s(V) defined by" s _
=
C dV
dC V _  d(log C)  d(log V)
m
+2 .
(102)
~o.
For m =0 we have B =NB corresponding to theuniformly doped (or onesided abrupt junction) case. For m = 1, the doping profile corresponds to a onesided linearly graded case. For m <0, the device is called a "hyperabrupt" junction. The hyperabrupt doping profile can be achieved by an" epitaxial process or by ion implantation. The boundary conditions are V(x = 0) = 0 and V(x = W) = V + Vbi, where V is the applied voltage and Vbi is the builtin voltage. Integrating Poisson's equation with the boundary conditions, we obtain
The larger the s, the larger will be the capacitance variation with biasing voltage. For linearly graded junctions, m = 1 and s = t; for abrupt junctions, m = 0 and ; = ~;for hyperabrupt junctions with m = I, t or i, the value of s is 1,2, or 3, respectively. The capacitancevoltage relationships for these junction diodes are shown in Fig. 38b. The hyperabrupt junction, as expected, has the highest sensitivity and gives rise to the largest capacitance variation. The simplified equivalent circuit of a varactor is shown" in the Fig. 39 insert, where C] is the junction capacitance, Rs is the series resistance, and
Inc
o
§
o
Xo
tov
(b)
(a)
Rp
.LOG FREOUENCY(","21Tfl
Fig. 38 (a) Various impurity distributions for lIaractors. (b) Loglog plot of depletionlayer capacitance versus reverse·biased voltage. (After Norwood and Shatz. Ref. 47; Moline and Foxhall. Ref. 48.)
Fig. 39 Quality factor Q of a varactor versus frequency for various bias voltages. The insert shows the equivalent circuit. (After Norwood and Shatz. Ref. 47.)


__



_
116
pn Junction Diode
Terminal Functions
117
Rp .is the parallel equivalent resistance of generationrecombination current, diffusion current, and surface lea~ag~. current. Both C1 and Rs decrease with the reversebias voltage, while Rpgenerally increases with voltage. The efficiency of a varactor is expressed as a quality factor Q, which is the ratio of energy stored to energydissipated:
Q = 1+ w2CjRpRs .
(103)
2.7.6
ChargeStorage Diode
This expression can be differentiated to obtain the angular frequency Wo for maximum Q, and the value of this "maximum, Qmax. hese expressions are T . shown as
1 Rp (104) (105)
In contrast to fastrecovery' diodes, a chargestorage diode is designed to store charge while conducting in the forward direction and upon switching to conduct for a short period in the reverse direction. A particularly interesting chargestorage diode is the steprecovery diode (also called the snapback diode) which conducts in the reverse direction for a short period then abruptly cuts off the current as the stored charges have been dispelled. This cutoff occurs in the range of picoseconds and results in a fastrising wavefront rich in harmonics. Because of these characteristics, steprecovery diodes are used as harmonic generators and pulse formers . Most chargestorage diodes are made from Si with relatively long minoritycarrier lifetimes ranging from·O.5 to 51Ls. Note that the lifetimes are about 1000 times longer than for fastrecovery diodes.
2.7.7 pIn Diode
Qmax=( 4Rs i :
)112
Figure 39 shows a qualitative graph of the .relationship between Q. frequency, and bias voltage. For a given bias,.Q varies. as wC~Rp at low frequencies and as l/wC1Rs at high frequencies. The maximum bias voltage is limited by the breakdown voltage VB.
2.7.5 FastRecovery Diode
Fastrecovery diodes are designed to give ultrahigh switching speed. The devices can be classified into two types: diffused pn junction diodes and metalsemiconductor diodes. The equivalent circuit of both types can be represented by the varactor diode (Fig. 39, insert). The general switching behavior of both types can be described.by.Fig. 36b. The total recovery time (tl + ti)for a "pn junction diode can be substantially reduced by introducing recombination centers, such as Au in Si. Although the recovery time is directly proportional to the lifetime :' as shown in Fig. 37, it is not possible, unfortunately, to reduce recovery times to zero by introducing an extremely large number o~rec~mb~nation ce?ters Nt. because the reverse generation current of a pn junction ISproportional to Nt (Eqs. 47 and 48). For direct bandgap semiconductors, such as GaA~, the minoritycarrier lifetimes .are generally much smaller than that of SI. This results in ultrahighspeed GaAs pn junction diodes with recovery times of the order of 0.1 ns or less. For Si the practical recovery time is in the range of 1 to 5 ns. The metalsemiconductor diode (Schottky diode) also exhibits ultrahighspeed characteristics, because most Schottky diodes are majoritycarrier devices and the minoritycarrier storage effect is negligible. We discuss metalsemiconductor contacts in detail in Chapter 5.
A pin diode is a pn junction with a doping profile tailored so that an intrinsic layer, the "i region," is sandwiched between a p layer and an n layer, Fig. 4Oa. In practice, however, the idealized i region is approximated by either a highresistivity p layer (referred to as 7T layer) or a highresistivity n layer (v layer). The impurity distribution, spacecharge density, and field distribution in pin and p7Tn diodes are shown" in Fig. 4Ob, c, and d, respectively. Because of low doping in the i region, most of the potential will drop across this region. For a practical pin diode the impurity distribution in the p and n layers varies more gradually than that shown in Fig. 40. It can be fabricated, for example, using (1) the epitaxial process, (2) the diffusion of p and n regions into a highresistivity semiconductor substrate, and (3) the iondrift (e.g., lithium) method to introduce the highly compensated intrinsic region. so The pin diode has found wide applications in microwave circuits. It can be used as a microwave switch with essentially constant depletionlayer capacitance and high powerhandling capability. The switching speed' 1 is approximately given by W/2v., where v, is the saturation velocity across the i region. In addition, a pin diode can be used as a variolosser (variable attenuator)by controlling the device resistance which varies approximately linearly with the forward currentrItvcan also modulate signals up to the GHz range. Furthermore, the forward characteristics of a thyristor (refer to Chapter 4) in its ON state closely resemble those of a pin diode. Figure 32 gives the breakdown voltage of apin diode under reverse biases; Because the maximum field ~m in Si at lower dopings is about 2.5 x lOS V/cm, the breakdown voltage is then
VB
=
~m
W
= 25W
(in
ILm)
v.
(106)
118
poOR Junction
Diode
TerRllnal
Functions
..___w~ I
I
I I
1
Q'
p
1
I
n
 (a)
AREA ~
'." ,W
= 3jJfT1 ;,
4X
104'C1:n2
L
0::
'J,c
'"
r~~,,~~~~~~c
..............
: , '" ~ 01
pin .,. x
(b)
,
.eo
I&.
.c=·:.;::::.:=.=..:=:..; ...... 1 :::l:J.
I
p'lrn
...!s__
V~(vl
~
°0~~25~5LO~
~ ~ ol"I.___,
~
<h
talE ~~
_____fJL.x
(e)
(i) • CALCULATED EXPERIMENT
(a)
L
\V
Q
:x: g 0.15
0::
~
'"
iii
o
ii: iE
olJL''.,l_
x
(d)
°0~~~5~0~L__j100
1IIFCA') in pi·n and (b) Fig •.41, (a) Depletionlayer capacitance and series resistance versus reverse voltage. (b) :;~Ies resistance versus reciprocal of forward current. (After Chiang and Denlinger. Ref.
~
Fig. 40 Impurity distribution. spacecharge density. and field distribution p1Tn junctions. (After Veloric and Prince. Ref. 49.)
The measured reversebiased capacitance and series resistance of a pin diode designed for lowpower switching applications are shown" in Fig. 41a. Note that the capacitance becomes EsA/W (A is the area) at about 5 V, which is far from the breakdown voltage of approximately 75V. Beyond 10V, the capacitance decreases only 3% further. The series resistance R, consists of two components:
(107)
el~ctrons are injected fromthe i;..ri+ contact. We first consider the current flow .du~ t~ electronhole recombinations in the i region. The current density IS given byll'·53
(lOS)
where Ri is,the resistance of the i region andR, th~ contact resistance. As the reverse bias increases, Ri approaches zero .and the series resistance decreases rapidly toward an asymmetric value corresponding to the contact resistance. ' Under forward conditions, holes are injected from the p+i contact and
~~ere U, the recombination rate, is equalto n(x)/T", If Injected electron concentration in the i region, then J=qn'W
1'"
n'
is the average
(109)
120
pn·JunctionDlode
Terminal Functions
121
where 'Ta is the ambipolar lifetime. If we assume that the carrier concentration throughout the i region is approximately constant, the di1fusion current can be neglected. A~ the inj~cted carrier. density is much higher than the iregion doping concentration, the pin diode is generally operated in the highinjection condition, that is, n' ....p' ~ ni, where p' is the average injected hole density in. the i region. The total drift current is then
l00cr~~~
si pin
_exp
(L) 2Lg
] = q,...,.n''l:, + qJLpp''l:' = q("..+
""p)n''l:' (110)
where b == p",/ JLp and 'l:' is the average electric field in the i region. The ambipolar di1fusion coefficient given in Eq. 36 becomes
D;
Substituting
= I+b. + 1)2 qDan 'ai' 0.
Vi, is given by
2D..
(111)
Eq. 111 into Eq. 110 gives
] =~ kT
(b
2b
(112)
The voltage drop across the iregion,
Vi = 'l:'W. From Eqs. 109 through 113 and noting that La (s diffusion length:
Vi=q(l+b)2
(113)
V;o,;:;::;)
is the ambipolar
0.1 L:__ ...L...,,L.L...u...L.J._
0.1
__ ....J...l'''.L..J...W 10
kT
2b
(W)2 . La
W/Lg
(114)
39.)
Flg.42 Voltage drop in the intrinsic region of a pin junction versus WILa. where W is the width of the iregion and La is the ambipolar diffusion length. (After Ghandhi Ref
•
.
For silicon, where b "'"3, Vi "",3:: The resistance
(~r
2
(115)
R is given by
R == Vi IF
I
= .(3kTW ) .L
8qPa'Ta
IF·
(116)
An example of the series resistance in forward bias is shown in Fig. 41b. Note that the resistance varies as I/IF and the extrapolated value at llIF ~O gives the contact resistance R; A more accurate result for Vi can be obtained by solving Eq. 35 with appropriate boundary conditions (Fig. 42). Note that for WILa:s 2, Yi is very close to the value given by Eq, 115. For WILa > 2, however, Vi increases rapidly and can be approximated byl9 Vi ""'sqexp
3'1TkT
( W)
2La .
(117)
The condition W = 2La thus marks the transition between a "short" and a "lo?( p.in di~de. For the ~hort structure, where W:s 2La, the spatial vanation m earner concentration over the i region has little effect on the voltage drop (less than 0.05 V at room temperature) and can be ignored. For the long structure, however, the voltage drop across the i region can be quite high. In a typical device design, the i region thickness is determined by the required breakdown voltage. To maintain a shortstructure charact~risti~, La mus~ be large. Under highinjection conditions, the ambipolar diffusion coefficient D; decreases with increasing injected carrier concentration because of carriercarrier scattering effects. The minoritycarrier lifetime will also be reduced because of Auger recombination processes at high carrier concentration. Therefore, La will decrease as current density increases, causing the ratio WILa to increase. Figure 43 shows the results of calculations" on highvoltage devices with W = 600 ,.,.mand 'Ta = 30,.,.s. Curve (a) considers only recombination in the
.122
pn.Junction
.Dlode
Heterojunction
123
of 100 A, we have the socalled superlattice structures. Theheterojunctions have been reviewed by Milnesand Feucht,ss Sharma and Purohit," and Casey and Panish."
103
,
2.8.1
Basic Device Model
N E
5
<.> .....
"..,
102
.Is =1014A/cm2
W=600fLm To =30fLS
The energyband model of an ideal abrupt heterojunction without interface traps was proposed by Anderson(;!)based on the. previous work. of Shockley . We consider this model next, since it can adequately explain most transport processes,andonly slight modification of the model is needed to account for nonideal cases such as interface traps. Figure 44a· shows .the
10
10 VF(V)
100
I
XI
tPm!
ELECTRON ENERGY
Flg.43 Forward currentvoltage characteristics. (a) Recombination only. (b) Including carriercarrier scattering. (e) Including Auger recombination as well. (After Burtscher, Oannhauser, and Krausse, Ref. 54.)
Egz
i region, curve (b) includes the effect of carriercarrier scattering, and curve (c) includes Auger recombination as well. The steady worsening of device characteristics is revealed in this progression .. Clearly, the Auger recombination and carriercarrier scattering set a limit on device performance.
(0)
2.8.. HETEF.l0JUNCTION
.. __
A heterojunction isa junction formed between two dissimilar semiconductors. When the two semiconductors have the same type of conductivity, the junction is called an isotype heterojunction. When the conductivity types ,!iiffer, the junction is called an anisotype heterojunction. In 1951, Shockley proposed. the abrupt heterojunction to be used .~.~an efficient emitterbase junction in a bipolar transistor." In the same year, Gubanov published theoretical papers onheterojunctions. 56 Kroemer later analyzed a similar, although graded, heterojunction as a widegapemitter." Since then, heterojunctions have been extensively studied, and many important applications have been made, among them the roomtemperature injection laser, lightemitter diode, photodetector, and solar cell. In addition, by f_o~mg periodic layeredheterojunctions with JaYerthic_k_n_e_ss. o_r_d_e_r of fue
(b) in which spacecharge neutrality is assumed to exist in each region. (b) Energyband diagram of an ideal
Fig. 44 fa) Energyband diagram for two isolated semiconductors
"~":
hMMOJ"oa;OO
at Ih.~~<q"U;bri"m{_A_ft_"_~~"'_R_ef_:"
.
.
_
124
pn Junction,Dlode
Heterojunction
125
,
energyband diagram of two isolated pieces of semiconductors. The two semiconductors were assumed to have different bandgaps Eg, different permittivities E,different work functions <Pm, and different electron affinities X. Work function and electron affinity are defined as that energy required to remove an electron from the Fermi level EFand from the bottom of the conduction band Be, respectively, to a position just outside the material (vacuum level). The difference in energy of the conductionband edges in the two semiconductors is represented by flEe and that in the valenceband edges by flEv. Figure 44a shows that AEe= (XI X2).Thiselectron affinity rule AEe = Ax may not be a valid assumption. However, by choosing llEe as an empirical quantity, the Anderson model remains unaltered.S' When a junction is formed between these semiconductors, the energyband profile at equilibrium is as shown in Fig. 44b for an np anisotype heterojunction. Since the Fermi level must coincide on both sides in equilibrium and the vacuum level is everywhere parallel to the band edges and is continuous, the discontinuity in conductionband edges (AEc) and valenceband edges (AEv) is invariant with doping in those cases where Eg and X are not functions of doping (i.e., nondegenerate semiconductors). The total builtin potential V"i is equal to the sum of the partial builtin voltage (Vbl + V"2), where Yb' and V"2 are the electrostatic potential supported at equilibrium by semiconductors 1and 2, respectively. The depletion widths and capacitance can be obtained by solving Poisson's equation for the step junction on either side of the interface. One boundary condition is the .continuity of electric displacement, that is, EIEI= E2E2at the interface. We obtain 2NA2EIE2(V"iV) ]112 XI= [ qNDI(EINDI E2NA2) +
(118) (119)
case* (see Fig. 45a);6liThe relation between Vbl...,. VI and Vb2 c V2 can be found from the boundary condition of continuity of electric displacement at the interface. For an accumulation in region 1 governed by Boltzmann statistics (for detailed derivation, see Section 7.2), the electric displacement ~I at Xo is given by kT( q(V,,1  VI) ~I = EI~I(XO) { 2ElqNDlq = exp kT [
1) (Vbl 
VI>]) 112. (122)
n
(0)
:IEyz
Ec
P
~n AEc
Ev
+E
Ge

,~_fE
~
F
(b)
tb~~
~_..EF
GoM
and
c=[
qNDlNA2EIE2 ]1/2 2(EINDI E2NA2)(V"i  V) + . Vbl""VI
NA2E2 V"2  V2 = NDiEI
(120)
The relative voltage supported in each semiconductor is
(12l)
Ec
~l~E;Z ~ ..
..
(c)
'Ge
where V = VI + V2• It is apparent that the foregoing expressions will reduce to the expression for the pn junction (homojunction) discussed in Section 2.3, where both sides of the heterojunction have the same materials. The case of an non isotype heterojunction of the two semiconductors is somewhat different. Since. the work function of the widegap semiconductor is smaller, the energy bands will be bent oppositely to those for the np
Ev~
AEv
fig. 45. (a) Energyband diagnunfor~n ideal non isotype heterojunction. (After Chang; Ref. 61.) (b) and (0) Energybahd diagrams fOT ideal pn and pop heterojunctions. respectively. (After Anderson. ReV60.)
*The convention is to listthe material·with the smaller bandgap as the first symbol.
126
pn Junction
Diode
Heterojunctlon
127
The electric displacement given by
at the.Jnterface
fora tdepletionIn
region 2 is (123)
(01
Equating Eqs. 122 and 123 gives a relation between (Vb·1  VI) and (Vb2V2) that is quite complicated. However, if the ratio EINDdE2ND2 is of the order of unity and Vbi(= Vbl+ Vd'PkT/q, we obtain" exp[ q(V~; VI)] = k~ (Vbi  V)
(124)
where V is the total applied voltage and is equal to (VI + V2). Also shown in Fig. 45 are the idealized equilibrium energyband diagrams for pn (narrowgap ptype and widegap ntype) and POp heterojunctions. For the currentvoltage characteristics we shall consider an interesting case shown in Fig. 45a. The conduction mechanism is governed by thermionic emission (refer to Chapter 5 for details) and the current density is given by61 J
Ey P/////////////////////////$Y////////d
Ev
= A *T2 exp(
 qtt)
[ exp(
fi?) 
exp(
1';.1)]
(125) Eq. 124 into
where A* is the effective Richardson constant. Eq. 125 yields the currentvoltage relationship:
Substituting
i ...
z
DISTANCE
l .....;~
lcl
(126) where J
0
= qA*TVbi
k
(_ q .. exp kT'
Vbi)
Fig. 46 (a) Composition variation. (b) Equilibrium energyband diagram. (c) Energyband diagram under forward bias for a sawtoothshaped composition grading structure. (After Allyn, Gossard, and Weigmann, Ref. 63.)
This expression is somewhat different from that for metalsemiconductor contact. The value of Jois different and so is its temperature dependence. The reverse current never saturates but increases linearly with voltage at large V. In the forward, the dependence of~J on qV/kT can be approximated by an exponential function or J....,exp(qV/nkT). 2.8.2 Heterojunction Devices The successful application of heterojunctions to various devices is due mainly to the epitaxial technology to grow laitice~matched isotype or anisotype heterojunctions with virtually no interface traps.f Heterojunctions have been used. in bipolar devices as wide ... g~p emitters and in unipolar devices for MESFET applicatiolls.We.sonsideithem in Chapters 3 and 6, respectively. The most important applications ofheterojunctions are in photonic devices, including semiconductor lasers, photodetectors, and solar cells. We shall consider, their characteristics indetail in Chapters 12 through 14.
In this section we consider briefly a few novel heterojunction configurations that may have potential applications. Figure 46a shows" a unipolar rectifying structure having a sawtoothshaped composition grading of ternary compound AliGalxAs sandwiched between layers of ntype GaAs. As the composition x increases from 0 to 0.4, the bandgap of AlxGalxAs increases linearly from 1.42eV to 1.92 eV. which gives rise to the equilibrium energyband diagram shown in Fig:46b. Under forward bias, the voltage drop occurs across the graded layer, reducing the slope of the potential barrier and allowing increased thermionic emission over the barrier (Fig. 46c). In the reverse bias, the electrons will be inhibited from passing through the abrupt potential discontinuity at the sharp edge of the sawtooth. Rectification characteristics have been observed for this device operated at 77 and 300 K. The super,}attice structures include (1) a multilayered heterojunction arrangement with typical layer thickness of the order of 80 to lOOA, and (2) a periodic alternation of the doping of only one semiconductor to form a
128
pn Junction .Dlode
References
129
_~~EC
~ ..Et ..
~Ev
(b)
~'::J.""'. ~E
CONFINED
F
ELECTRONS
(a)
fig. 47 (a) Energyband diagram for undopedsuperlattice structure of GaAs (1.42eV) and AI0.3Gao.7As.(b) Energyband diagram for modulationdoped superlattica structure. (After Dingle et at. Ref. 64.)
series of homojunctions. Molecularbeam epitaxy is known to produce atomically smooth layers and to allow very precise control over grown layer thicknesses. The schematic energyband diagram of GaAsAl.Gat.As superlatticestructure is shown" iriFig. 47a.The .structure is undoped, Therefore, the Fermi level lies near the middle of the bandgap.
For composition x =0.3, the bandgap difference is aboutJOOmeV. We can modulateth~doping bysyncbr9nizi1lgthe deposition of AI and Si (a donor to AI.Gat.As) so that orily the Al.Gat.As layers are doped with Si impurities. The energyband diagram for the modulationdoped superlattice is shown in Fig. 47b.The Fermi level now moves closer to the conductionband edge. Since the GaAs conduction band edge lies lower in energy than the AlxGal.As donor states, electrons from the donors will move into'ihe GaAs .regi()n~.Now.all mobilec~ers. are confined to the GaA.slayefcs''and their parent donor inipuriti~s (in the Al.GalxAs layers) .:are sp,atially separated from each other. Thus the electron density in tile GaAs chaitnel may greatly exceed tll.~density of the neutral and .Ionized impurity scattering .centersjn the channel, leading:to considerable change in mobility behavior in the temperature and carrier density regime, where .. mpurity i scatterings are important. Figure 48 shows the measured mobility parallel to the multilayer as a function of temperature. Note that the modulationdoped superlattice structure has a substantially higher mobility than that of the bulk material. If a voltage is applied perpendicular to the multilayers, resonant tunneling may occur, giving enhanced tunneling current at voltages near the quasistationary states of the superlattice potential well. These prop~rties mar)ead to many useful device possibilities. 6466
REFERENCES
1 W. Shockley, "The Theory of pn Junctions in Semiconductorsiand pn Junction Transistors,",BeU Syst, Tech; 1'., 28,435 (1949); Electrons ancl Holes in Semiconductors, D. Van Nostrand, Princeton, N. J:,195O. 1 C. T~ Sah,R. N.Noyce,.and W. Shockley, "Carrier Generation and Recombination in pn Junction and pn Junction Characteristics," Proc. IRE, 45. 1228(1957). 3 J. L. Mon, "The Evolution of the Theory of the CurrentVoltage Characteristics of pn Junctions," Proc. IRE, 46, 1076(1958). 4 For example, see A. G. Grove, Physics and Technology 0/ Semiconductor Devices, Wiley. New York, 1967. 5 R. N. Hall and W. C. Dunlap, "pn Junctions Prepared by Impurity Diffusion." Phys. Rev., SO, 467 (1950). (; M. Taneebaum and D. E. Thomas, "Diffused Emitter and Base Silicon Transistors," BeU Syst. Tech. 1.; 35,1 (1956). 7 C J. Frosch and L. Derrick, "Surface Protection and Selective Masking during Diffusion in Silicon," 1. Electrochem. Soc., 1041547 (1957). 8 J. A. Hoerni, "Planar Silicon Transistor and Diodes," IRE Electron Devices Meet .• Washington, D.C., 1960. 9 H. C. Theuerer, J. J. Kleimack, H. H. Loar, and H. Christenson, "Epitaxial Diffused Transistors,"Proc. IRE, 48, 1642(1960). 10 For a review, see, for example, K. A. Pickar, "Ion Implantation in SiliconPhysics, Processing and Microelectr{)nic Devices," in R. Wolfe, Ed., Applied Solid State Science, VoL 5, Academic,New York, 1975.
MODULATION  DOPED
(5 x I0l6cm3,)
TlK)
Fig. 48 "Mobility versus temperature for bulkGaAs structure. (After Dingle et at. Ref. 64.)'
and modulationdopedsuperlattice .

'',
130
pn Junction
Diode
References
131
H: C. Casey, Jr:;andM.B. Panish,lid~rostructureUtsers, Academic, New York, 1978. A,Y. Cho, "Recent Developments in Molecular Beam Epitaxy," J. Vac. SCi!Technol., 1(i, 275 (1979). I. C,Bean, "Growth of Doped Silicon Layers. by Molecular Beam Epitaxy,"in F.KY. Wang, Ed., Impurity Doping Processes i,. Silicon, N0rthHolland,Amsterdam,l98L M.M. Atalla, "Semiconductor Surfaces and Films; the SiliconSiliconDioxide System," in H. Gatos, Ed.' Properties of Elemental.and Compound Se"!iconductors, Vol. 5, "Intersclence, New York, 1960,_1'1'. 63181. 1 B. E. Deal and A. S. Grove, "General Relationship for the Thermal Oxidation of Silicon," J. Appl. Phys., 36, 3770 (1965). ''j; P. Meindl, R. W. Duttbri,'K. C. Saraswat, J. D. Plummer, T. I. Kamins, and B. E. Deal, "Silicon Epitaxy andOxidation,"in F. Van de Wiele, W. L. Engl, and P. O. Jespers, Eds., Process and Device Modeling for Integrated Circuit Design, NoordhoffvLeyden, 1977. For a general reference, see H. S.Carslaw and J .C. Jaeger, Conduction Heat in Solids, 2ml ed., Oxford University Press, London, 1959. R. B. Fair, "Concentration Profiles "of DitfusedDopants in Silicon," in F.F. Y. Wang. Ed., ImpurityDoping Processes in.Silicon, NorthHolland, Amsterdam, 1981. R. M. Burger .and R. P. DOnovan, Eds., Fundamentals of Silicon Integrated Device Technology, Vol. I, PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs,NJ., 1967. D.L. Kendall and D. B. DeVries, "Diffusion in Silicon," in R. R. Haberecht and E_L. Kern, Eds., Semiconductor Silicon, Electrochemical Society, New York, 1969, 1'.358. F. A. Trumbore, "Solid Solubilities of Impurity Elements in Germanium and Silicon," Bell Syst. Tech. J., 39, 205 (1960). I. B. Khaibullin et al., V'INITI dep. N2661 (1974). S. D. Ferris,H. J. Leamy, and J. M. Poate, Eds., LaserSolid Interactions and Laser Processing, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1979. T. P. Lee and S. M. Sze, "Depletion Layer Capacitance of Cylindrical and Spherical pn Junctions," Solid. State Electron., to, 1105 (1967). S. M. Sze and G. Gibbons,~'Effc:~t of Junction Curvature on Breakdown Voltages in Semiconductors," Solid State Electron., 9, 831 (1966). C. G. B, Garrett and W. HiBrattain, "Physical Theory of Semiconductor Surfaces," Phys. Rev., 99,376 (1955);C. KittelandH, Kraemer, Thermal Physics,·2nd ed., W.H. Freeman and Co., San. Francisco, 1980. D. Redfield, "Revised Model of Asymmetric pn Junctions," Appl. Phys. Lett , 35, 182 , (1979). W. C. Johnson and P. T. Panousis, "The Influence of Debye Length On the CV Measurement of Doping Profiles," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices, EJ).18, 965 (1971). B. R. Chawla and H. K. Gummel, "Transition Region Capacitance of Diffused pn Junctions," IEEE Trans. Ele~t~"f)evice~,ED18, 178(1971). H. K. Gummel, "HoleElectron Product of pn Junctions," SolidState Electron., 10, 209 (1967). For a general discussion, see J. L. Moll, Physics of Semicmuiuctors, McGrawHill, .New York,I964. M. J. O. Strutt, Semiconductor Devices, Vol. I, Semiconductor and..Semiconductor Diodes, Academic, New.York, 1966,Chap ..2. L. J. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics, 2nd ed., McGrawHill, NewYork, 1955. P. J. Lundberg, private communication. S. M. Szeand G,Gibbons, "Avalanche Breakdown Voltages of Abrupt and Linearly Graded pn Junctions in Ge, Si, GaAs, and GaP ," Appl. Phys. Lett., 8, III (1966).
36 R. M. Warner, Jr., "Avalanche Breakdown in Silicon Diffused Junctions,"Solid State Electron., 15, 1303 (1972). 37 M. H_ Lee and S. M. Sze, "Orientation Dependence of Breakdown Voltage in GaAs," Solid State Electron., 23, 1007 (1980)_ 38 F. Waldhauser, private communication. 39 S. K. Ghandhi, Semiconductor Power Devices, Wiley, New York, 1977. 40 C. R. Crowell and S. M. Sze, "Temperature Dependence of Avalanche Multiplication in Semiconductors," Appl. Phys. Lett., 9, 242 (1966). 41 C. Y. Chang, S. S. CHiu, and L. P. Hsu, "Temperature Dependence of Breakdown Voltage in Silicon Abrupt pn Junctions," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED18, 391 (1971). 42 A_ Goetzberger, B. M~Donald, R. H. Haitz, and R. M. Scarlet, "Avalanche Effects in Silicon pn Junction, II. Structurally Perfect Junctions," J. Appl. Phys., 34, 1591(1963). 43 R. H. Kingston, "Switching Time in Junction Diodes and Junction Transistors," Proc. IRE,42, 829 (1954). 44 A. Van der Ziel, Noise in Measurements, Wiley, New York, 1976. 45 A. Van der Ziel and C. H. Chenette, "Noise in Solid State Devices," in Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 46, Academic, New York, 1978~ . 46 J. P. Levin, "Theory of Varistor Electronic Properties", Clit. Rev. Solid State Sci., 5, 597 (1975). 47 For a review, see M. H. Norwood and E. Shatz, "Voltage Variable Capacitor TuningA Review," Proc. IEEE, 5(;, 788 (1968). 48 R. A. Moline and G. F. Foxhall, "IonImplanted Hyperabrupt Junction Voltage Variable Capacitors," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, ED19, 267 (1972). 49 H. S. Veloric and M. B. Prince, "High Voltage ConductivityModulated Silicon Rectifier," Bell Syst. Tech. J~ 36, 975 (1957). 50 E. M. Pell, "Ion Drift in an np Junction," J. Appl. Phys., 31, 291 (1960); also J. W. Mager, "Characteristics of pin Junction Produced by IonDrift Techniques in Silicon," J. Appl. Phys., 33, 2894 (1962). 51 G. Lucovsky, R. F. Schwarz, and R. B. Emmons, "TransitTime Considerations in pin Diodes," J. Appl. Phys., 35, 622 (1964). 52 Y. S. Chiang and E. J. Denlinger, "LowResistance AllEpitaxial pin Diode for UltraHighFrequency Applications," RCA Rev., 38, 390 (1977). 53 R. N. Hall, "Power Rectifiers and Transistors," Proc. IRE, 40, 1512(1952). 54 J. Burtscher, F. Dannhauser, and J. Krausse, "Recombination in Thyristor and Rectifier in Silicon," Solid State Electron., 18, 35 (1975). 55 W. Shockley, U.S. Patent 2,569,347 (1951). 5(; A. I. Gubanov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 21, 304 (1951); Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 21, 721 (1951). 57 H. Kraemer, "Theory of a WideGap Emitter for Transistors," Proc. IRE,45, 1535(1957). 58 A. G. Milnes and D. L. Feucht, Heterojunctions and MetalSemiconductor Junctions, Academic, New York, 1972. 59 B. L. Sharma and R. K. Purohit, Semiconductor Heterojunctions, Pergamon, London, 1974. IiO R. L. Anderson, "Experiments on GeGaAs Heterojunctions," Solid State Electron., 5, 341 (1962). IiOa W. R. Frensleyand H. Kroemer, "Theory of the EnergyBand Lineup at an Abrupt Semiconductor Heterojunction," Phys. Rev. B., 16, 2642.(1977). 61 L. L. Chang, "The Conduction Properties of GeGaAs1.P. non Heterojunctions," Solid State Electron., 8, 721 (1965).



 
132
pn Junction Diode
62 D. V."Lang and R. A. Logan, "A Search for Interface States in an LPE GaAs/ AI.Gat.As Heterojunction," Appl. Phys. Lett., 31, 683 (1977). 63 C. L. Allyn; A. C;Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "New RectifyingSemiconductorStructure by Molecular Beam Epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett.; 36, 373 (1980). 64 R. Dingle, H. L. Stormer, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, "Electron Mobilities in ModulationDoped Semiconductor Heterojunction Superlattices," Appl. _ Phys. Lett., 33, 665(197~). 65 L. L. Chang, L; Esaki, and R. Tsu,"Resonant Tunneling in Semiconductor Double Barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett., 24, 5.93(1974). 66 K•.Hess, H. Morkoc, H. Shichijo, and B. G. Streetman, "Negative Difterential Resistance through RealSpace Electron Transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett., 35,469 (1979).
3
Bipolar Transistor
• • • ill • INTRODUCTION • STATIC CHARACTERISTICS MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR POWER TRANSISTOR SWITCHING TRANSiSTOR
• _ RELATED DEVICE_STRUCTURES
3.1
INTRODUCTION
The bipolar transistor (transfer resistor), one of the most important semiconductor devices, was invented by a research team at Bell Laboratories in 1947. It has had an unprecedented impact on the electronic industry in general and on solidstate research. in particular. Prior to 1947 semiconductors were only used as thermistors; photodiodes, and rectifiers. In 1948 John Bardeen and Walter.,Brattain announced the development of the pointcontact transistor! In the following year William Shockley's classic paper on junction diodes and transistors was published.' Since then the transistor theory has been extended to include highfrequency, highpower, and switching behaviors. Many breakthroughs have been made in transistor technology,particularly in the alloyjunction) and grownjunction techniques: and in zonerefining,' diffusion," epitaxial,' planar,' beamlead," ion implantation," lithography,and dry etchinglltechnologies. These breakthroughs have helped increase the power and frequency capabilities as well as the reliability of transistors. In addition, application of semiconductor physics, transistor theory, and transistor technology has broadened our knowledge and improved other semiconductor devices as well. 133
.___
J:
l
0
.::c135
134
Bipolar Transistor
Static Characteristics
Bipolar transistors are now key elements, for example, in highspeed computers, in vehicles and satellites, and in all modern communication and power systems. Many books have been written on bipolar transistor physics, design, and application. Among them are standard texts by Phillips," and Gartner," and a series of books by the Semiconductor Electronics Education Committee," Pritchard," Ghandhi," and Muller and Kamins. 17
3.2 STATIC CHARACTERISTICS Basic CurrentVoltage Relationship
(01
( b)
transistors:
tc I (a) commonbase,
(b)
3.2.1
Fig. 2 Three configurations of pnp emitter, and (c) commoncollector.
common
1
~
In this section we consider the basic de characteristics of pnp and npn bipolar transistors. Figure 1 shows the symbols and nomenclatures for pnp and npn transistors. The arrow indicates the direction of current flow under normal operating ,cpnl.iitions,. that .is, forwardbiased emitter junction and reversebiased colleGtor junction. A bipolar transistor can be connected in three circuit cO~gUl:~~ons, depending on which lead is common to the input and output circuits. Figure 2 shows the commonbase, commonemitter, and commoncollector configurations for a pnp transistor. The current and voltage conventions are given for normal operations. All signs and polarities should be inverted for an npn transistor. In the following discussion we consider pnp transistors; the results are applicable to the npn transistor with an appropriate change of polarities.
Figure 3a is a schematic of a pnp transistor connected as an amplifier with commonbase configuration. Figure 3b __ shows a schematic doping profile for the transistor with regions of uniform impurity density, and Fig. 3c shows the corresponding band diagram under normal operating conditions. The static characteristics can be readily derived from the pn junction theory discussed in Chapter 2. To illustrate the major properties of a transistor, we assume that the currentvoltage relationship of the emitter and collector junctions is given by the ideal diode equation, 2 that is, the effects due to surface recombinationgeneration, series resistance, and highlevel injection are neglected. These effects willbe considered later. As in Fig. 3b, where all the potential drops occur across the junction depletion region, the continuity and current density equations govern the steadystate characteristics. For the neutral base region, these equations are given by
O=PPB+DB~
'I'B
ax
(1)
s.
P
=:__ qDB ap ax
I"
= Itot + qDBax
ap
(2b)
where PB is' theequilibriUril minoritycarrier density in the base, Itotis the total conduction current density, and _ __ 'I'B and DB are the minoritycarrier lifetime and diffusion coefficients, respectively. The conditions at the ejnitter depletionlayer edges for the excess carrier concentrations are
p'(O) == p(O)  PB = PBle~p{ q~;B)
(a)
11
(bl_
(3)
Fig.1
Symbols and nomenclatures of (a) pnp transistors and (b) npn transistors.

._
_
.__
_
136
EMITTER BASE
Blpol,r Transistor COLLECTOR
Static CharacteriStics
137
and collector, are given by
p(x) 
_
PB+
[P'(W)p.'(o)eW1Ls]
2 sinh(W/LB)
e
x/Ls

[p'(W)p'(o)e
W1LS
2 sinh(WILB) X<Xll x >Xe
]
e
x/Ls
(
f
INPUT
OUTPUT
(5)
(6)
n(x)
Yca
= nil + n'(Xll)exp[(X
+ n'(xc) exp[ (x
~:ll)],
n(xt= ne
~:d],
(7)
where LB = ~ is the diffusion length of holes in the base, and Lll and Lc are the diffusion lengths in the emitter and collector , respectively. Equation 5 is important because it correlates the base width W to the minoritycarrier distribution. If W ~oo or W/LB~ I, Eq. 5 reduces to
p(x) = PB+ p(O)eX/Ls
(8)
1
(b)
,_..;___,_.."........£c

..... '''
Ev
which is identical to the case of a pn junction. In this case, there is no communication between the emitter and collector currents, which are determined by the density gradient at x = 0 and x =" W, respectively. The "transistor" action is thus lost. From Eqs. 2 and 3 we can obtain the total de emitter current as a function of the applied voltages:
III = AJp(x
= 0)+
:~
AJn(x = XE)
=A
= Aq
(qDB
LJ
+ A (qDE :~
Lx)
cosh(W/LB)
1 (eqVCslkT
DB~.B coth(.W ) [(e4VEBlkT .. LB LB ...
 1) _
1)]
(9)
(c)
+ Aq DEnE (eqVEsltT_l) LE
and for the total de collector current
Ie = AJp(x = W) +AJn(x = xc)
fig. 3 (a) A pnp transistor connected in commonbase configuration for amplifier application. (b) Doping profiles of a transistor with abrupt impurity distributions. (c) Energyband diagram under normal operating conditions.
= A'(qDBoP! ax
where nil is the equilibrium minoritycarrier density (electrons) in the emitter. A siIniiar set of equations· can. be written for the collector junction:
p'(W)= p(W} PB = PB[exp(Q[;B n'(xc} :::n(xc}1Ie
x=W
)
+ A (qDC ani'
ax
X=Xc
)
= Aq
DBPB. 1 LB smh(W/LB)
[(eqVESlkT  1) 
COSh(W) (eqVcs/kT LB

1)]
(10)
= lie
)IJ [exp(4:T I].
B }
(4)
where A is the crosssectional area of the transistor. The difference between these two currents is small and appears as.the base current:
(11)
The solutions for the minoritycarrier distributions, that is, the hole distribution in the base/from Eq. 1 and electron distributions in the emitter
We shall now modify the doping distribution in the base layer of Fig. 3b
Bipolar 1;ranslstor
Stallc ·Characterlstics
139
N~NA
x= W is
P
=
J. 1 $; N(x) fW N(x)
JC
dx.
(16)
The hole concentration at x = 0 is given by
p(x
=
0) = q~S n!o
jow N.(x)
#.=:'Pso exp(q:;s)
(17)
whe.r~~so is defined as th~; <!g.Ilorc9nce.nt!ation at x = 0 andpso is the equilibrium hole .c~ncentrati()p.at i= 0 (so that ns9Pso= nb. Thecurrent Ip = AI" where A IS the area, is given by
Lp 
iW .. ..
o·
qADsnr (qVES) ... (qV ) · exp ;cr =Ilexp k ES • N(x) dx T
(18)
1
EMITTER Fig. 4 Transistor
BASE
COLLECT,OR
1~2r~,r,"~~~~
1~3
doping profile with an impurity gradient in the base region. (After Moll
and Ross, Ref. 19.)
and consider a more general base impurity distribution," as shown in Fig. 4. A transistor with such doping distribution is called a dritt transistor, since a builtin electric field enhances the hole drift in the base. The donor density N and the electron density in the base for N ~ njaregiven by
(12)
where nj is the intrinsic carrier concentration, 4> the Fermi potential, and '" the intrinsic Fermi potential. From Eq. 12 we obtain for the built:in field
~ = _ d", = _

dx
kT ..1dN q Ndx.:.
(13)
The hole current density is given by J, = q,..,sP~  qDs dx' Substituting Eq, 13 into 14 yields J, = qDs (~:
dp (14)
1.2
+ :).
(15)
FRig 5 Collector • f e.20.)
VEB(V)
and base current as functions
of emitterbase
voltage. (After Jespers,
The steadystate solution to Eq. 15 with the boundary condition p = 0 at
~~

..,
..
~~
.. 
__.
~~
 


140 The total collector current is given by Ie = II exp(
Blpolat;Translstor
Static··Characteristics
141
,
q:;)+ 12
(19)
since the transistor is normally operated at a collectorbase bias well below the avalanche breakdown voltage. The static commonemitter current gain ~o, also referred to as hFE' is defined as
~o
where 12 is the saturation current. Figure 5 shows a typical experimental result." Note that the exponential law of Eq. i9 is very Closely obeyed over most of the current range, except at very high current densities where the injectedcarrier density becomes comparable or larger than the collector doping concentration. The constant I) can b~ obtained by extrapolating the current to V EB= O. The number of impurities per unit area in the base (also called the Gummelnumber)" can be obtained from Eq. 18:'
== hFE
= ::~.
(23)
From Eq. 11 note that ao and ~o are related to each other by ao ~o=. . lao (24)
Q" ==
For silicon bipolar
L
W
N(~)dx=1;ADBnr. the Gummel number is about
(20) 1012 to
transistors
1013 cm",
l
Figure 5 also shows a typical base current characteristic. Four regions are observed: (1) the lowcurrent nonideal region, in which the base current varies as exp(qVEBlmkT) with m  2; (2) the ideal region; (3) the moderateinjection region, characterized by significant voltage drop through the base resistance; and (4fJhe highinjection region. To improve the current characteristic in the lowcurrent region, the trap densities in the depletion region and at the semiconductor surface must be reduced. Base doping profile and device configuration can be modified to minimize base resistance and highinjection effects. 3.2.2 Current Gain When a pnp transistor is biased into its active region, as shown in Fig. 3a, the emitter current consists of two componentsthe hole component IpE = AJp(x = 0), injected into the base, and the electron component IRE = AJn(x = XE), injected from the base into the emitter region. The collector current also consists of two componentsthe hole component Ipe = AJp(x = W), and the electron component Ine = AJn(X = xd. These current components are given in Eqs. 9 and 10. The commonbase current gain_ao, also referred to as hFB from the fourterminal hybrid parameters (where the subscripts F and B refer to forward and common base, respectively), isdefinbd as tXil=hFB ::: ale = alpEalpc ale .alE alE alpE alpe' (21)
Because the value of ao in welldesigned bipolar transistors is close to unity, ~o is generally much larger than 1. For example, if ao is 0.99, ~o is 99; and if ao is 0.998, ~o is 499. Under normal operation of a pnp transistor, VEB > 0 and VCB ~O, so that the terms in Eqs. 9 and 10 associated with VCB can be neglected. The current gain can be obtained from Eqs. 9 and 10 as 'Y(ernitter efficienc ) = incre.mental hole current ~rom the emitter y incremental total emrtter current
=
aAJp(x = 0)= alE
[1 + PB DE LE tanh(W)]1 nE LB DB LB
(25)
and aT (base transport factor)
_ incremental hole current reaching collector  incremental hole current from the emitter
=
Jp(x = W) Jp(x = 0)
1 . W2 cosh(W/LB) "'"1 2Lt·
(26)
Note that both '1 and aT are less than unity; the extent to which they depart from unity represents an electron current that must be supplied from the base contact. For bipolar transistors with base width less than onetenth of the diffusion length, ar > 0.995; and the current gain is given almost entirely by the emitter efficiency. Under the condition aT  I,
hFE
= _'1_ = PBDBLE coth( W) 1 '1 nEDELB LB _PB (_!_)_~_NE nE W NBW Qb
(27)
The first of these terms, alpJ alE, is defined as the emitter efficiency y; alpc! alpE is called the base transport factor aT ; and aIr:! alee is the collector multiplication factor M. The static commonbase current gain is thus given by ao = 'YaTM ::= 'Yar (22)
where NE and NB are the emitter and base doping, respectively, and Qb is the Gummel number defined in Eq. 20. Therefore, fora given NE, the static commonemitter current gain is inversely proportional to Qb. Figure 6 shows this relationship for ionimplanted transistors having the same
~~~~~~'.~~~~
..~
142
DOSE
Bipolar Transistor
$tatieCharacteriStics
143
depletion regioneand. the surface leakage current may be large compared with the useful diffusion current of minority carriers across m,e base, so that the efficiency is low. The current gain hFBc .increases with the collector current as follows:
hFB=::i100
:q:,vz'':=exp[q:;
(1
!)](Ic)H/m. hFB
(28)
s:
...
II.
50
1
oL~~~~~
1XIO13
(BASE
(Ic)I:
By minimizing the bulk arid surface traps, can be improved at lowcurrent levels." As the base current reaches the ideal region, increases to a high plateau. For still higher collector current, the injecte~ minoritycarrier density in the base approaches the majoritycarrier density there (the highlevel injection condition), and the injected carriers effectively increase the base doping, winch, turn; causes the emitter efficiency to decrease. The detailed analysis can be obtained by solving the continuity equation and current equations with both diffusion and drift components. The decrease of current gain with increasing Ie is referred to as the Webster effect." As shown in Fig. 7, at highlevel injection hFB varies as
hFB
m
2Xl013
'
3Xl0..,3
h
dose
DOSEr
(Cm2)
FB 
"L _~_e iJIB
qVmrf2JtT
eqVEBlIiT 
_
e
qVmrf2JtT_(L)1
~
.
(29)
Fig. 6 Commonemitter current gain versus the inverse of the base implantation for SGHz allimplanted transistors. (After Payne et aI., Ref. 22.)
emitter doping," The base ion dose is directly proportional to Q,,; and we see that as the dose. decreases, hFB increases. The current gain generally varies with collector current. A representative plot is shown in Fig. 7, which is obtained from Fig. 5 using Eq, 23. At very low collector current, the contnbution of the recombinationgeneration current (also called the SahNoyceShockley current)" in the emitter
In Eq. 27, there is another dominant factor besides the Gummel numberthe emitter doping concentration NB• To improve the emitter should be much more heavily doped than the base, that is, NJNB ~ I, However, as the emitter doping becomes very high, we have to consider the bandgap narrowing effect and the Auger' etIect; both cause reductions of h The bandgap narrowing in heavily doped silicon has been studied based on the stored electrostatic energy of majorityminority carrier pairs, and the bandgap reduction J1Egis given by26
hFB'
FB.
(30) At room temperature, the bandgap narrowing follows the relationship J1~= 22.5(NJI018)i/2 ~
~ l00~~~~4+~~~~~
meV(31)
where the emitter doping is in cm'", Figure 8 shows the experimental data, which are.in good agreement with Eq. 31. The intrinsic carrier density. in the emitter is now
n~B =
NaNv exp[(Eg  J1Eg)/kT] =nlexp(J1EglkT)
(32)
10 ~o 10
107
106
Ic(A)
105
104
103
102
Fig. 7
Current gain versus collector
current for the transistor
in Fig.S.
where Ne and Nv are the densities of states in the conduction andvalence band, respectively, and nj is the intrinsic carrier density without the bandgap narrowing effect, The minority carrier concentrations in Eq. 27
~



..~~
Bipolar Transistor
Static Characteristics
145
EXPERIMENT
z
~ 80
~ ILl
u
s
a: 60
ND (Cm3)
20
Fig. 8 Compa,fisgnbetween
experimental data and theory for bandgap narrowing. in
StIR. AUGER AND BANDGAP NARROWING
silicon. (After Lanyon andTuft, Ref{26.) COLLECTOR CURRENT. IcIA)
can be written as (33a) and
Fig. 9 Comparison of calculated current gain with measured current gain versus collector current. (After McGrath and Navon, Ref. 27.)
(33b)
Therefore, (34) As E increases, the current gain decreases. .. )Th~ Auger recombination is. the direct recombination between an electron and a hole, accompanied by the transfer of energy to another free hole." .Such a process, involving two holes a~d o?e elec?"on,. occ~s when electrons are injected into a heavily doped p region, as 10 the emitter of a p+np transistor. Auger recombination is the inverse pro~ess of aval~che multiplication. The Augerlifetime'TA is given by l/G!p '. wherep IS .the majority carrier concentration, and Gp is the recombmation r~te ~1.2 x 1031 cm6/s for Si at room temperature). In like manner, recombination 10 a heavily doped region can occur by invol~~ two e~ctrons and o~e ho~e with 'TA = 1IGnn2• The electron (minority) lifetime 'T 1D a ptype emitter IS
,,+
given by (35)
where 'Tp is the lifetime of the SahNoyceShockley type of recombination. As the carrier concentration increases, the Auger recombination becomes dominant, causing a reduction of the "emitter minoritylifetime,which,.m turn, reduces the emitter diffusion length LE, causing degradation of the emitter efficiency, Eq. 25. Figure 9 shows a ~o@nensionalanalysis of the current gain versus the collector curr~nt The measured results are also shown." Device characteristics are gen~rated for (1) the ShockleyHallRead (SHR) process only, (2) SHRan~ baD~~ap narrowing,.and (3). SHR aJ).d Auger\eRlJmbina~on andbandgap narrowing. Figure_~ clearly shows that both b~dgap n~owing and Auger. recombination must be considered for accurate current gain prediction. The relative importance of the foregoing three effects is a function of emitter depth and injection level. In modem bipolar transistors with a .lightly doped .epitaxial collection region, the current gain is affected by the relocation of the highfield region from point A to point B under highcurrent condition (Fig. 10).28 The effective base width increases from WB to (WB + Wc). This highfieldrelocation phenomenon is referred to as the Kirk effect," which increases the effective base Gummel number Qb, causing a reduction of hFE• It is important to point out that under a highinjection condition where the currents are large enough to produce substantial fields in the collector region, the classic concept of welldefined transition regions at emitterbase and
146
Bipolar Transistor
Static Characteristics 2.8x104
147
n DoPED
EPITAXIAL LAYER
n+
SUBSTRATE
z o
t&.
~ _2.4X104 ...... 2.0x104
ii!.1.6x1C)'l u 1.2xlO
~ 4.0XU 4
~ e.oxV
o~~~;J
;;
.
1020
;; 1019 Q
u
E
~
~
18 10 10 17 15 1016 1015 DISTANCE
1&1
o
1
Z 0 Z
u
C)
0:
(j'ml
8
n
1014 : 0
Fig. 11 Electric field distributions as a function of distance for various collector current densities. The doping profile is shown in Fig. 10. (After Po()n, Gummel., and Scharfetter, Ret 28.)
5 an npn. transistor Re.f. 28.) with collector epitaxial
15
layer. (After Poon,
Fig. 10 ,Doping profijeof Gummel, and~ch~rfetter,
where v. is the saturation velocity (107 cm/s in silicon at 300 K), Nc the epitaxiallayer doping, and VCB the applied collectorbase voltage. As Jc becomes larger than II. WCIB increases; and when lc becomes much larger than J I. WC1B approaches Wc. 3.2.3
Output Characteristics
basecollector', junctions is' no longer ..••. valid; One must solve the basic differential equations (current density, continuity, and Poisson's equations) numericallywithboundary conditions applied onlyat the electric terminals. Figure Ii sh()ws the computed results of the electric field distIibutions for IV cBI= 2 V'and various collector current densities for the doping profile of Fig. 10. Note that as the current increases, thel'eak electric field moves from point A to point B. . .' . As indicated in Fig. 11, the currentinduced base wid.th Wcm depends on the collector .dopiIlg concentration and. the collector current density. The currentinduced base width is given by16 JIqV~NC)I/2] WCIlI= We [ 1 ( J qv,Nc
In Section 3.2.2 we saw that the currents in the .three terminals of a transistor are related by the minoritycarrier distribution in the base region. For a jransistor with highemitter efficiency, the expressions for the de emitter and collector currents, Eqs. 9 and 10, reduce to terms proportional to the minoritycarrier gradient (ap/ax) at x = 0 and x = W, respectively: We can thus summarize the .. undamental relationships of a transistor as f follows: "
1 The applied. voltages control the boundary densities through the terms exp(qV/kT).
and
e ....
(36)
2 The emitter and collector currents are given by the minority (hole) density gradients at .the junction boundaries, that is, x = Oandx= W. 3 The base current is the difference between the emitter and collector currents.
'
  _._
~~.__
__.
148
Bipolar Transistor
StlitiC Characteristics 8
;
149
f
f
6
I
IEJ6mA
I
.
5
§
H
(a)
c(
4
2
._4 3 2
o
(bl
(e)
yo
I
.ILco
0 10
f
20
VCB (V) (a)
30
40
8VCBO
.!50
Ie>O PnoH+I
o
(d)
w
c(
(f)
§
H
o
4r~~~¥r.~~~~~~~~
Fig. 12 . Hole density in the base region of a pnp transistor for various applied voltages. (a) Normal polarities: VCB = const., VEB varying. (b) Normal polarities: VEB = const., VCB varying. (e) VEB positive. VCB = O. (d) Both junctions are forwardbiased. (e) Conditions with currents leo and leo. (f) Both junctions are reversebiased. (After Morant. Ref. 30Q
~~8~~~~~~O~~==**~==~~~LJ
VCE(V) (b)
Figure 12 shows the hole distribution in the base region of a pnp transistor for various applied voltages." The dccharacteristics can be interpreted by means of these diagrams. For a given transistor, the emitter current IE and the collector current Ic are functions of the applied voltages VEB and VCB, that is, from Eqs. 9 and 10, IE = UVEB, VeB) and Ic = !2(VEB. VCB). Figure 13 shows a representative set of output characteristics for commonbase and commonemitter configuration. For the commonbase configuration (Fig. 13a), the collector current is practically equal to the emitter current (ao "" 1) and virtually independent of VCB. The collector current remains practically constant, even down to zero voltage where the excess holes are still extracted by the collector, as indicated by the hole profile shown in Fig. 12c. To reduce the collector current to zero, a small forward voltage (:1 V for Si) must be applied to thecollector, which sufficiently increases the hole density at W to make it equal to that of the emitter at x = 0 (Fig. 12d). The collector saturation current Ico (also denoted by lceo) is measured with the emitter open circuit. This current is considerably smaller than the ordinary reverse current of a pn junction, because the presence of the
Flg.13 Output characteristics for a pnp transistor in (a)eommonbaseeonfiguration. (b) commonemitter configuration. (After Morant,. Ref. 30; Gummel andPoon. Ref. 35;)
(VEB =0).
emitter junction with a zero hole gradient at x = 0 (corresponding to zero emitter current) reduces the hol~.gradient at x = W (Fig. 12e). The current Ico is therefore smaller than when the emitter junction is shortcircuited
.
As V CB increases to the value .B V CBo, the collector current starts to increase rapidly. Generally, this increase is due to the avalanche breakdown of the collectorbase junction, and the breakdown voltage is similar to that considered in Chapter 2 for pn junctions. For a very narrow base width or a base with relatively low doping, the breakdown may also be caused by the punchthrough effect, that is, the neutral base width is reduced to zero at a sufficient VCB and the collector depletion region is in direct contact with the emitter depletion region. At this point, the collector is effectively shortcircuited to the emitter, and a large currentcan flow. We now consider the output characteristics of the commonemitter configuration. Figure 13b shows the output (Ic versus V CE) characteristics
Bipolar Transistor
Static.Charact',rlstiCS
151
a typical papfransistor. Note that the current gain (hFE = iJldiJIB) is considerable and the current increases with increasing VCEo The saturation current I which is the collector current with zero base current (base opencircuited), is much larger than leo, because from Eq, II
co,
IB Therefore,
= IE 
lc
= IE 
I
(leo
+ aoIE).
(37)
I
IE(IB =;=..0)
= 1Ieo • aD
(38)
Since the emitter and collector currents are equal in this/condition (Fig. 12e), leo = IS and
IcEo = I
co =
Ico = /3oIco= lao
/3oIcBO
(39)
As VCE increases, the base width W decreases, causing an increase in /30 (Fig. 12b). The lack of saturation in the commonemitter output characteristic is due to the large increase of /30 with VCE and is referred to as the Early effect.3lThe voltage VA at which the extrapolated output curves meet is called the Early voltage. For a transistor with base width WB much larger ~ than the depletion region in the base, the Early voltage is given by
(40)
l~O
ICO
OC:====~=:~B~~~CE~O====~i=====~B~V VCBO
Fig', 14 ~reakdown voltage BVCBO and saturation conf~gurat~on, and corresponding qualities BVCEO current Ico for commonbase configuration. (After Gartner, Ref. 13.) and Ito for commonemitter
For small collectoremittervoltages, the collector current falls rapidly to zero. The voltage VCE is divided between the two junctions to give the emitter a smaller forward bias, and the collector a larger reverse bias. To maintain a constant base current, the potential across the emitter junction must remain essentially constant. Thus when V CE is reduced below a certain value (1V for the silicon transistor), the collector junction will reach zero. bias (Fig. 12c). With further reduction in V CE the collector is actually forwardbiased (Fig. 12d), and the collector current falls. rapidly because of the rapid decrease of the hole gradient at x = W. The breakdown voltage under the openbase. condition can be obtained as follows. Let M be the multiplication factor at the collector junction and be approximated by
M1  1 (V/BVcBo)n
or
1= Mlco laoM· (43)
~rrentd~ ~ill be limited only by external resistances when aoM = 1 From e con ltion aoM =1 and Eq, 41 th b kd .. . commonemitter configuration is gi~e~rea own voltage BV CEO for the
BVCEO = BVcBo(1 ao)lIn. (44)
CBO·
For ao = 1, the value of BV 3.2.4
Device Modeling
CEO
is much smaller than BV
(41)
~berSMoll Mo~el32 Device modeling aims at relating physical devi raF~meters to devl~e terminal characteristics. Device modeling is especi~~ y Important formtegrated circ uit ... models are needed to di th I s, SInce Simple and accurate device . ... pre ICt e performance of a circuit Generall b ~:d::;:t::;: :curate wedmake it m?re complex. Therefore, ~er~ . curacy an complexlty.33,34 The baSIC model for the bipolar transistor I·Sthe EbersMoll model,
where BVcBo is the commonbase breakdown voltage, and n isa constant. When the base is opencircuited, .we have IE = Ic ~ I. The currents leo and aoIE are multiplied by M when they flow across the collector junction (Fig. 14). We have M(Ico
+ aoI) = I
(42)
II
I
Bipolar Transistor
Static Characteristics
1"53
where aN and a, are the forward and reverse commonbase current gains, respectively. The equations above give relations between the terminal currents IE and Ic, and the terminal voltages V EB and V CB. The basic model has four parameters: IRo, lFO, aN, andej, Referring to Eqs. 9 and 10derived previously, we can write the following general expressions for the emitter and collector currents:
= all(e4V".IkT Ic = a21(e4V".IltT
IE Comparing Eq. 47 to 46 gives
1)+ al2(e4Vca/kT  1) 1) + an(e4Vca/kT  I).
(47a)
(47b)
all = IFO al2 = a,IRO
a21
I
~r'
I
En..AAA._l
= :aNIFO
(48)
an =IR()o
I
LfIcBASIC MODEL
I
c'
rc
C
tc)
J
I
Flg.15 Circuit diagram of EbersMollrn6del. (a) Basic mo~el. (b) ~odel with additional series resistances and~epletion capacitances. (cl Mod~1 with additional current source for Early eftecL(After Ebers and Moll, Ref. 32.)
From the reciprocity characteristic of the twoport device, al2 = a2I, so that a,IRo'f=' aNIF()o Therefore,only three parameters are required for the basic model. To improve the accuracy of the model, series resistances and depletion capacitances are added to the basic.model" (Fig. ISb). Note that the diodes are controlled by the internal junction voltages VE'B' and VC'B', and no longer by the externally applied voltages. To include the Early effect in the model, an extra current source between the internal emitter and collector terminals can be added (see Fig. lSc;.;where VA is the Early voltage). By now the modelparafileters. have. incr~as.ed frOID 3t09 .. Additional parameters can be added ~ the basic model to account for variations of aN to and a, with current density and operating frequency, and a diode can be added to the base lead to aCCOUJlt the twodimensional current crowdfor ing effect along the baseemitter junction (this effect will be considered in Section 3.4). As can be seen, to make a device model more accurate, we have to use more parameters and the devicemodel becomes more complex. The GummelPoon model is based on an integral charge relation that relates electrical terminal characteristics to the base charge. This model is very accurate, taking many physical effects into account, but many parameters are required for its characterization; up to 2S parameters are needed to cover a wide range of operations. Simplified versions of the GummelPoon model have been derived, which finally lead back to the basic EbersMoll model. To obtain the integral charge relation, first consider the current equations derived in Chapter 2:
GummelPoon Model35
which has two diodes connected. back to back and two current sources (Fig. 15a). The current sources are driven by the diode currents, which are assumed to have ideal characteristics, (4Sa) IF = Ipo(e4v".IltT 1)
(45b)
where IFO and IRo are the saturation currentsof the normally forward and reversebiased diodes, respectively. The terminal currents are IE = IF  a,IR Ic =IR aNIF IB
(400) (46b)

Jn
=.qp."n
..
iJiJpn
x
(49a) (49b)
= (1 aN )IF
(1  a,)IR
(46<:)
Jp 
qILPP>·iJx
M!i
154
.•Sipolar·.Transls'Qr
Static Characteristics
155
where
We can rewrite Eq, 55 in the form
= ni exp[q(1/I q,n)/kT] p = ni exp[q(q,p  1/I)/kT].
n

'(50a)
Jc~= IF IR
where
IF
(57)
(50b)
The space derivative of the
dx
pn
product
can be
(~
written as
_E_(pn)
= q(pn)
kT
= IsQBo = IsQBo
eqVulkT 1 QB eqVc,.lkT 1 QB
(58a) (58b)
ax
__~)
ax'
(51)
IR
u~iDg Eq. 49 and integrating from x= 0 to x = W (shown in Fig. 3), and assuming negligible recombination, we obtain from Eq, 51; (pn)x=o(pn)x=w
= Icc kT
L
W
0
;;:;:
n(x) dx
(52)
I
where Icc is the current that would ftowfrom emitter to collector if the transistor had unity gain. Substituting Eq. 50 into Eq. 52 yields exp[q(q,p q,n)/kT]lx=o exp[q(<f>p q,n)/kT1x=w= I
ntkT
Icc
L· W
0
n(x) jipdx.
Note that Eqs. 58a and 58b resemble Eqs. 45a and 45b in the EbersMoll model. The changes QdE in Eq. 56 can be expressed as BTFIF, where TF is the lifetime associated with minority carriersin forward current and B is a factor that is usually equal to unity, but may become larger than unity from the Kirk effect. The charge QdC can be expressed as TRIR, where 'TR is the lifetime of minority carriers in reverse current. Substituting Eqs. 58a and 58b into Eq. 56a, we obtain a quadratic equation for Qa, with the solution
QB
(53) We shall assume that the electron imrefq, .• is constantin Therefore, the base.
=
QBO
+ ~jE + QjC + {(QBO + ~jE + QjC)2
(59)
(54)
These voltages differ from terIDitialvoltages by .ohmic drops. Equation
The base current is given by
IB
=
53
dQBldt
+Irec
(60)
becomes
Icc
where the base recombination current can be separated into two parts,
(61)
= Alcc = (qniA)DB
..
. ..•• 2
eqVulkT :eqVc:,.IkT
.... qA o .. n(x) dx
L
. (55)
and
IEB
where A is the active area. The GummelPoon model is based on Eq. 53, which links junction voltages, collector current.eand base charge; The modeling problem reduces to modeling the base charge
QB.=.qA
= I,(eqVulkT  1) + 12(eqVulmJ<T;_ 1) ICB = 13(eQVEB/mckT 1). 
(61a) (61b)
L
W
n(x) dx
(56)
which consists of five components:
QB
In these equations, m. and me are the emitter and collector ideality factors. For ideal currents, me and me are both equal to 1; for depletion recombinationgeneration currents, m. and me are both equal to 2. The total emitter and collector currents are now given by
IE Ic
=
= QBO +Qp, + Qc + QdE + QdC
(500)
Icc
+ IBB+ 'Tp(dlFidt) + CjE(dVEsldt)
ICB  'TR(dIRidt)
(62a) (62b)
where QBO is the zerobias charge, QE and QjC are charges associated with emitter and collector depletion capacitance, and QdE and QdC are minoritycarrier charges associated with emitter and collector diffusion capacitances. As the injection level increases, the diffusion capacitances increase, thereby giving rise to the highinjection gain degradation.
= Icc
+ CjC(dVECldt).
Figure 16 shows the circuit diagram of the GummelPoon model, complete with series resistances. Since QB is voltagedependent, the effect of high injection in the base ('TFIF becoming larger thanQBO) is included. The currentinduced base pushout (Kirk effect) is represented by the factor B,
I
166
COLLECTOR,c BEAM LEAD
Bipolar ;rra,,~lst()r
Microwave Transistor
167
EMITTER BEAM LEAD
EMITTER,,· COLLECTOR BULK (EPITAXIAL SILICON SILICON) (a)
SILICON ..
CHIP ... (0)
I
i
EMITTER
rEFFECTIVE ACTIVE
EMITTER
WIDTH
BASE
EMITTER
(b) (b)
Rg. 23 Beamlead transistor
transistor.
structure
<a) schematic
and (b) top view of an actual
Rg. 24 <a) Steppedelectrode transistor structure. ture. (After Sakai et aI., Ref. 48; Archer, Ref.·49.)
(b) Implantedbase
transistor
struc
<After Lepselter, Ref. 9.)
, ... "
An important metallization process is the use ofj,ea.m~l~a.dtechnology.Y" Figure 23 shows a silicon highfrequency beamIea<nransistor .with stripebase geometry as shown in Fig. 17. Metal leads about 10 #Lm ~ck are used for structural support of the silicon chip as well as for electncal contacts. With beamlead technology, the devices made have.~}(cellent reliability and electrical performance. . To reduce the spacing between emitterbase electrodes, a steppedelectrode transistor has been developed (Fig. 24a).48 Theinverse trapezoid shapes are formed by selective etches in polycrystalliqe silicon. The edges of the inverse trapezoids form shadows to separate the evaporated base and emitter electrodes. The.spacing between the emitter diffused layer and the base contact can be mad€: asslDall as 0.4 I'm orIess, and cutoff frequency of 8.4 GHz has been obtauled ..
Figure 24b shows another improved microwave transistor structure where the active and inactive base regions are formed by separate, independently optimized processes." Because the effective emitter stripe width and the base resistance are reduced, high cutoff frequency and low noise figure are obtam.~.Figure 25 shows the power gain and noise performance of such a transistor. These results are obtained from the sparameter measurements. The unilateral gain U varies as in agreement with Eq. 84. The extrapolated value at U = 1 (0 dB) gives the /max, which is about 25 GHz for this microwave transistor. The maximum available gain G andthe.commonemitter current gain hie also vary as The cutoff frequency IT is obtainable at hie = 1 (0 dB) to be above 5 GHz. The minimum noise figure increases from about 1dB at 1GHz to 4dB at 8GHz.
r:
r2.
4max
Bipolar Transistor
Microwave Tranjistor
1st
charging time, given by (66)
The second delay in Eq, 64 is the baselayer
(a)
(b)
Fig. 18 (a) Diffusion pipes and (b) diffusion splkes through the base along the dislocations. (After Wang and Kakihana. Ref. 38.)
where 'T/ = 2 for the uniformly doped base layer. Equation 66 can be obtained by substituting LB = v'DB'TB/(1+ jW'TB) in Eqs. 25 and 26 to give the smallsignal commonbase current gain:" 1 a "'"cosh(Wv'(1 + jW'TB)/DB'TB) 1 + jW2w/2DB • (67) The charging time 'TB is defined as 1/21Tfa where fa is generally called the alpha cutoff frequency at which the gain has fallen to 1/V2 of its lowfrequency value. In Eq. 67 the contribution of the emitter efficiency 'Y to the charging time is small and is neglected. For anonuniformly doped base, for example, the drift transistor shown in Fig. 4, the factor 'T/ in Eq. 66·should be replaced by a larger number. If the builtin field 'lbi is a constant the factor 'T/ is given by42 (68) where 'lo = 2DB//LB W. For 'lbJ'lo = 10, 'T/ is about 60; thus considerable reduction in 'TB can be achieved by a large builtin field. This builtin field can .. e obtain.ed automatically in a practical transistor using the baseb diffusion process. A typical example is shown. in Fig. 10 for a highfrequency doublediffused epitaxial npn transistor. The third delay is the collector depletionlayer transit time (Fig. 3): rc
=
I
geometry, while advancement in lithographic techn~logy helps t~ re~u~e the horizontal dimension. At the present time the emitter stnpe width IS m the submicron region, and the base thickness can be as small as a few hundred angstroms. As the base width decreases; it is of par~mo?nt importance to eliminate the emittercollector s~orts ~aused by diff:slon pipes or diffusion spikes through the base along dislocations (Fig '. 18). One must employ processes that eliminate oxidationinduced stacking faults, epitaxialgrowthinduced slip dislocations, and other processinduced defects." 3.3.1 Cutoff Frequency The cutoff frequency [r is an important figure of merit for microwave transistors and is defined" as the frequency at which the common emitter, shortcircuit current gain hIe (= aldaIB) is unity. The cutoff frequency is related to the physical structure of the transistor through the emittertocollector delay time 'Tee by 1 (63)
xcW 2v.
(69)
h=· 21T'Tee
where v. is the saturation velocity in the collector. The fourth delay is the collector charging time:
'TC = r.C;
(70)
Delay time 'Tee represents the sum of four delays encountered by the carriers as they flow from the emitter to the collector:
sequentially (64)
wberez.Is the collector series resistance and C; the collector capacitance. For epitaxial transistors, .r; can be substantially reduced and the charging time 'TC can be neglected as compared to other delay times. The cutoff frequency [t is given by
where 'TE is the emitter depletionlayer
charging time: (65) the the the Eq,
'TE =r.«(:'.
kT + Cc+ Cp) "'" I (C. + C; + Cp) qE
h=_I_. = {21T.·r·kT(C.+Cc+Cp)+
21TTee.
.
.qlc"
W +xCW]}I. 'T/DB 2v.
2
(71)
where r, is th.e emitter resistance, C. the emitter capacitance, Cc collector capa~itaDce,Cpany other.parasitic capacitance connected to base lead, and IEc:.t:Jleemitt~r current which is essentially.equal to collector current Ie. The expression for r.,is obtained by differentiating 9 with .respect to rhe emitter voltage.
Clearly, fromEq. 71,10 increase the cutofffrequency, the transistor should have a very narrow base thickness (one of the critical dimensions shown in Fig. 17), a narrow collector region, and should be operated at a highcurrent level. As the collector width decreases, however, there is a corresponding decrease in breakdown voltage. Therefore, compromises must be made for highfrequency and highvoltage operation.
J
160
.'~lpolar.Translstor
il1cro.,ave
Transistor
161
I
Fig. ~ Twoport network showing used 10 sparameter definitions.
TWOPORT NETWORK
incident
wave (a" a2) and reflected
waves (b" b2)
1010 LI
.J.....
..L__
.....:.......J..... ....
103 104
10
1()2 Jc (A/em2)
I
high frequencies than other: kinds of parameters.P" Figure 20 shows a general twoport network witb incident (ilt. il2) and reflected,(bJ, b2) waves to be used in sparameter definitions. The linear equations describing the twoport network are
Fig. 19 Emittercollector delay time as a function of collector current density for the device shown in Fig. 10. (After Poon, Gummel and Scharfetter, Ref. 28.)
As the operating current increases, the cutoff frequency increases because the emitter charging time TE is inversely proportional to the current. However, as the current becomes sufficiently high, the injected minoritycarrier density is comparable to or larger than the base doping and the effective base thickness increases from WB to (WB + We) as discussed in Section 3.2. Figure 19 shows the calculated emittertocollector delay time Ttc for the transistor shown" in Fig. 10..At low current densities, Ttc decreases with Ie as predicted by Eq. 71, and the collector current Ic is carried mainly by the drift component, so that
(72)
[:~J=[;~: ;:JC:J
where the
S II
(74)
s
parameters
a2=O
SII, S22, S12,
and
S21
are
il2 = 0,
bll = :;141
. " . = mpu t re flecti coe fficient with output terminated ection b h y a mate ed load (ZL = Zo sets the reference impedance) where Zo is
S22
= 142 a 0 = b ~21 output reflection coefficient with input terminated ,y a matc hed load (Zs = Zo sets al = 0) = :21
I
where uc, Nc, and 'lc are the mobility, impurity doping, and electric field, respectively, in the collector epitaxial layer. As the.current increases, delay time Ttc reaches a minimum and increases rapidly around. I., where JI is the current at which the largest uniform electric field 'lc = (Vco + IVCBI>/Wc can exist where Vco is the collector builtin potential and VCB is the applied collectorbase voltage. Beyond this point, the current cannotbecarried totally by the drift component throughout the collector epitaxial region. The current JI is given fremEq, 72 as
JI = qp.cNc(V co+ !VcBI>/Wc• (73)
S21
= forwardtransmission gain with output terminated
a2=0
in a matched load
SI2 =
:11
= reversetransmission gain with input terminated in
a matched load.
2 a,=O
We shall define several figures of merit for microwave transistors using the s parameters. The power gain G; is the ratio of power delivered to load to power input to the network:"
Because of the previously mentioned Kirk effect, there is an optimum collector current that gives the maximum cutoff frequency. It should be pointed out that,as VCB .·,increases, theicorresponding value of II also increases. 3.3.2
Microwave Characterization
where
and
D= N=
SIIS22  SI2S21 s22Ds~.
To characterize the microwave performance, scattering parameters (s parameters) are extensively used because they are easier to measure at
162
BipOlar Trans'istor
Microwave
Transistor
163
,
!
In Eq. 75 Re conjugate. The stability a combination feedback, The
means the real part, and the asterisk denotes
the complex
factor K indicates ifalransistor,will oscillate upon applying of passive load and source impedance with no external factor, is. given by K = 1+ IDI2 ls1I1
E~_...
le
INPUTOUTPUT
2 ls221: 21s12s211 .
(76)
If K is larger than 1, the device is unconditionally stable, that is, in the 'aosence of external feedback, a passive load or source impedance will not 'cause oseillatien, If K is less than I,the device is potentially unstable, that is, applying a certain combination of passive load and sourceimpedance can induce oscillation. The maximum available gain Gamax is the maximum power gain that can :be realized by a particular transistor without external feedback. The maximum available gain is given by the forward power gain of the transistor when the input and output are simultaneously and conjugately matched, and is defined only for an unconditionally stable transistor (K >1): (77) It is obvious from Eq. 77 that, when K < 1, the terms in parentheses become a complex number and Gamax is not defined. The unilateral gain is the forward power gain in a feedback amplifier with its reverse power gain set to zero, by adjusting a lossless reciprocal feedback network around the transistor .•Unilateral gainis independent of header reactances and commonlead configuration; This gain is defined as U=
B~~~(0)
o~
B
LC
C
OUTPUT 
E~t~~~(b)
~ __~
B
Fig: 21 Si~plifie~ microwave equivalent circuit for (a) commonbase and (b) emitter configurations. common
ISIIsfsl2s211 , 2 (1lslIl )(1ls221 r
(78)
Similarly, the smallsignal commonemitter current gain
•
We shall now combine the above twoport analysis with device internal parameters. Figure 21 shows the simplified equivalent circuits for a highfrequency bipolar transistor.', The device parameters have been defined previously. The smallsignal commonbase current gain is a. We shall consider the stripebase geometry shown in Fig. 17 with emitter stripe width S, length L, and' spaced S from the base stripes on either side. The collector capacitance can be approximated by C; = CoSL, where Co is the collector capacitance per unit area. The base resistance for this geometry is approximately rb = roSIL with ro = PBIW where PB is the average resistivity of the base layer. The smallsignal commonbase current gain a is defined as a =hfb
f3 is defined as
(80)
f3h 
je 
_dIe dIB
From Eqs. 21, 22, 79, and 80 we obtain
a
aao ao+ IEalE (81)
B
f3=f3+I~ o
and
alB
= ~:~.
__
(79)
f3
=_a_
Ia·
_
~_~
__
~_~_

~~~~_
J
164
Bipolar
Ttansistor
MICrowave Transistor
165
,
I
At lowcurrent levels, bothc; and f30 increase with current (Fig. 7),'"a8da and f3 are larger than theirvcorresponding static' values. At highcurrent levels, however, the. opposite is ~e. .. For the equivaIeIlt circuit shown in Fig. 21a, the gain is given by68 U
=

... la(f)f { 21fJr.Ce 81T/rbCe  Im[a(f)] + 1+ 41T2Fr;C;
(82)
}
From Eq, 86 it can beshownthat at medium frequencies where f 4:: fa, the noise figure is essentially a constant determined by rb, r.,(1 ao), and Rs. The optimum termination. Rs . can be calculated. from the condition d(NF)/dRs = O. The correspon~ingnoisefigurejsreferredloas NFmin. For lownoise design, a, low valueofq~ao),that is, a high ao, is very ~p rtant. At high' frequencies beyond th~'.··corn.er" frequency / = 0/.., the noise figure'increases:appr~ximately as p. 3.3.3
Device Geometry and. Performance
where Im[a(f)] is the imaginary part of the commonbase current gain. If a(f) can be expressed, asao/(1± j//h), and if /<.h, Im[a(f)] can be approximated by'ao///r or aoW'Tee. The gain is then given by
I
U
ao 161T2rbCer( 'Tee r.Ce/ao) + ao/r (83)
where the relationships rb = roS/L and C; = CoSL have been used, and 'T!: is the sum of 'Teeand r,CJuo. If ao = 1 and 'Tee> r,Ce, Eq. 83 reduces to the simplified form /rW 81TS2roCo'
/ mv.,
(84)
Figure 17 shows the basic stripebase bipolar transistor. At present all microwave bipolar transistors are planar and almost all are a silicon npn type. The geometry falls into three general configurations (Fig. 22):46(1) interdigitated, (2) overlay, and (3) mesh structures. As discussed previously, because of the voltage drop along the baseemitter junction, the emitter current tends to flow near the emitter periphery. Therefore, the currentcarrying capability of a' bipolar transistor is proportional to the emitter periphery. The structures in Fig.22 all have large ratios of emitter periphery to emitter area: .. .: For all transistor structures, a final metallization process is used to make ohmic contacts to the emitter, base, and collector.
Another important figure of merit is the maximum oscillation frequency which is the frequency at which unilateral gain becomes unity. From Eqs, 83 and 84, the extrapolated value of / max is given by
=itS b d L
U & Ub
db:J
(a)
/max
or
= 41TS
1(
ao )112 roCo'T!:
(85a)
SECTION AA
1 ( iT )112 /max= 2S 21TrOCO •
(85b)
L... i~Gi
(b)
..J
SEcnONB"8
Note that both unilateral gain and maximum oscillation frequency will increase with decreasing S, which is why the emitter stripe width S is a critical dimension for microwave appliCation. Another important figure of merit is the noise figure, which is the ratio of total meansquare noise voltage at the output of the transistor to meansquare noise voltage at the output resulting from thermal noise in source resistance Rs. At lower frequencies the dominant noise source in a transistor is due to the surface effect that gives rise to the 11/ noise spectrum. At medium and high frequencies, the noise figure is given by" NF
~t;S!j
SECTION CC
Ie)
m EMITTER
~
EJ OXIDE
DIFFUSION
P+, BASE DIFFUSION
= 1+.!!!..+.2L
Rs
2Rs
+ (luo)[1 +(lao)I(f/faf](Rs 2aor.Rs
+,." + ref.
(86)
fig. 22 Tnree types ofmierowavetransistor and (e) mesh. (After Cooke, Ref. 46.)
geometry:
(a) interdigitated,
(b) overlay,
I
166
COLLECTOR,c BEAM LEAD
Bipolar ;rra,,~lst()r
Microwave Transistor
167
EMITTER BEAM LEAD
EMITTER,,· COLLECTOR BULK (EPITAXIAL SILICON SILICON) (a)
SILICON ..
CHIP ... (0)
I
i
EMITTER
rEFFECTIVE ACTIVE
EMITTER
WIDTH
BASE
EMITTER
(b) (b)
Rg. 23 Beamlead transistor
transistor.
structure
<a) schematic
and (b) top view of an actual
Rg. 24 <a) Steppedelectrode transistor structure. ture. (After Sakai et aI., Ref. 48; Archer, Ref.·49.)
(b) Implantedbase
transistor
struc
<After Lepselter, Ref. 9.)
, ... "
An important metallization process is the use ofj,ea.m~l~a.dtechnology.Y" Figure 23 shows a silicon highfrequency beamIea<nransistor .with stripebase geometry as shown in Fig. 17. Metal leads about 10 #Lm ~ck are used for structural support of the silicon chip as well as for electncal contacts. With beamlead technology, the devices made have.~}(cellent reliability and electrical performance. . To reduce the spacing between emitterbase electrodes, a steppedelectrode transistor has been developed (Fig. 24a).48 Theinverse trapezoid shapes are formed by selective etches in polycrystalliqe silicon. The edges of the inverse trapezoids form shadows to separate the evaporated base and emitter electrodes. The.spacing between the emitter diffused layer and the base contact can be mad€: asslDall as 0.4 I'm orIess, and cutoff frequency of 8.4 GHz has been obtauled ..
Figure 24b shows another improved microwave transistor structure where the active and inactive base regions are formed by separate, independently optimized processes." Because the effective emitter stripe width and the base resistance are reduced, high cutoff frequency and low noise figure are obtam.~.Figure 25 shows the power gain and noise performance of such a transistor. These results are obtained from the sparameter measurements. The unilateral gain U varies as in agreement with Eq. 84. The extrapolated value at U = 1 (0 dB) gives the /max, which is about 25 GHz for this microwave transistor. The maximum available gain G andthe.commonemitter current gain hie also vary as The cutoff frequency IT is obtainable at hie = 1 (0 dB) to be above 5 GHz. The minimum noise figure increases from about 1dB at 1GHz to 4dB at 8GHz.
r:
r2.
4max
I
30
I!ower yran .....
169
•
VCEl0V Ic=5mA ARSENIC EMITTER
E
ii
20
... z
z
Figure 2&~howsthe mi~rowav~ power output as a function of frequency for the stateof ..the..artbip61ar transistors.5O.The pQwer output 'varies as liP as a result of the limitations of the avalanche breakd.PWn field and carrier saturation velocity" (refer to Chapter 10 on device powerfrequency limitations). Under pulse condition,about 500 W can be obtained at 1GHz. For cw operation, 60W at 2GHz, 6.Wat 5GHz, and 1.5W atl0GHz have been achieved. With the development of new fabrication and processing technologies, we can expect a threefold increase over the presently realized performance .
c
(l)
10
II
Fig. 25 Unilateral gain, maximum Illlailablegllin,c9"1monemitter noise figure of an implanted bipolar t~ansistor. (After Archer,Ref. 1000
"_" _ _ _:::'_.:;,_<:'
3.4
POWER TRANSISTOR Resistor
3.4.1 Temperature Distribution and Emitteri3allasting
.high voltages and large currents. For power transistors the main concern is
current gain, and ~9.)
Power transistors are designed for power amplification and for handling
BIPOLAR ,0,PULSE
TRANSISTOR";
flGHZ'
Fig. 26 Output power versus frequency for stateoftheart microwave bipoJartransistors. (After Allison, Ref. 50.)
"with.theabsolute.values of power and. the limitation of operation imposed by second breakdown. For microwave transistors discussed in Section 3.3, the emphasis was on cutoff frequency and power gain. There is, however, no clearcut boundary between power and microwave transistors, because the powerfrequency product is mainly limited by material parameters. 18 In a power transistor as the power increases, the junction temperature T, increases. The maximum .. j is limited by the temperature at which the base T region becomes intrinsic: Above 1j the transistor action ceases, since by then the collectonds effectively shortcircuited to the emitter. To improve transistor performance, the encapsulation must be improved to provide an adequate heat sink for efficient thermal dissipation. To handle a large amount of.power, the stripe width S and the base thickness WB should be appropriately adjusted. The interdigitated and overlaystructures (Fig. 22) have also been used for power transistors to handle large currents. and to distribute the current more uniformly. Figure 27aand.b. show the current and temperature. distribution, respectively.calonghalfthetransistor emitterbase junction (emitter stripe width is 250,_..m),under four different biasingconditions," The totaIinputpower levels are the same (60 W). Note that at higher voltages and lower currents (curves A and B), the current is concentrated at the center of the stripe and the temperature rise at the stripe center can be very high; At lower voltages and higher currents (curve D), the current is crowded near the emitter peripherythe emitter crowding effectebutthetemperaturerise at the stripe center is much lower. Therefore, the highvoltage lowcurrent condition imposes a more severe thermal problem. A useful technique to distribute evenly the current in an interdigitated' or overlay transistor is to add a distributed emitter resistance RE so that any undesired increase in the current through a particular emitter will be
168
170
Bipolar Transistor
Power Transistor
171
A 75.0 0.4
• 40.0 0.75
'C tID
D 7.5
0.74
3.1
5.3
IZ
I&J
a: a: o
::;)
<l
.0
CALCULATED MEASURED.
I
DISTANCE (a) (ILrn)
§
H
<.>
10r~~~.F~+~4+~
25
50
75
100 125
DISTANCE
(ILrn)
(b)
Flg.27 (a) Currentdensity distribution and (b) temperature distribution along half the transistor center finger baseemitter junction. (After Gaur, Navon, and Teerlinck, Ref. 51.)
limited by the resistor. Such series resistors are referred to as stabilizing resistors or emitter ballasting resistors. The Fig. 28 insert shows a circuit configuration of; the ballasting resistor, where the resistor RE is in series with the emitter resistor reo The collector current is given byS2 I . {qVin Lc  so exp ..

1,=","""' _
__'__'1.~_;__,JI.._'_..J.__....J
0.7
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1.0
1.05
V,N(VOLTS)
qId(RE +rt)/a +lJ"b(1/a1) Eg(1j)]} . .. k(To+ RthIc V d .
<. r,
(87)
Fig. 28 •. alculat~dal1d measured, results for the collector current Versus voltage for C differentemitter ballasting resistors Re The insert shows the circuit configuration with Reo (After ,6,rnolcFandZorogl(i, Ref. 52.)
where Iso is a constant, independent of temperature; Eg is the bandgap at junction temperature Tj;Tois the ambient temperature; andRth ;is the thermal resistance. Figure 28 shows the measured data and the calculated curves based on Eq. 87. The agreementis very good; when the ballasting resistor is small (less than 0.74.0): the differential resistance dV1NldI becomes negative at high current levels and current runaway occurs. For higher values of RE,the transistor becomes unconditionally stable since the differential resistance is always positive. 3.4.2 Second Breakdown The use of power transistors and other semiconductor devices is often limited by .. phenomenoncaIled a "second breakdown" which is marked by an abrupt decrease in device.voltage with a simultaneous internal constriction of current. The second breakdown phenomenon was first reported
.
by Thornton and Simmons," and has since been under extensive study in highpower, semiconductor devices.sv'" For highpower transistors, the devic.e must be operated within a certain safe region so that permanent damage caused by the second breakdown can be avoided. Figure 29 shows the general features of the Ic versus V CEcharacteristics of a transistor under second breakdown conditions. 56 The avalanche breakdown (first breakdown) occurs when the applied emittercollector voltage reaches a value given by Eq. 44. As the voltage increases further, second breakdown occurs. The experimental results can generally be treated as consisting of four stages: the first stage leads to instability I at the breakover voltage; the second to switching from the high to lowvoltage. region; the third to the lowvoltage highcurrentrange; the fourth stage .to.destruction (marked by D in Fig. 29). The initiation of instability is mainly caused by the temperature effect. When a pulse with given power P = Ic . BVCEO is applied to a transistor, a
__

J
I
172
Bipolar Transistor
Power Transistor
173
TO. 27"<:
Is7°c
SECOND
BREAJ<OOWN
III
...
~
U H
2
~ tO~r~r~~~~+~~
a::
III
...
Cl) Cl)
a::
I05~
~ 5
APPLIED
~ 10
PULSE POWER
L
~
o
15
(W)
20
VCE (V)
Fig. 30 Second breakdown triggering time versus applied ambient temperatures. (After Melchior and Strutt, Ref. 57.) breakdown at two ambient tem
pulse power for various
Fig. 29 Currentvoltage characteristics of second peratures. (After Dunn and Nuttall, Ref. 56;)
time delay follows. The device is then triggered into the second breakdown condition. This time is called the triggering time. Figure 30 shows a typical plot" of the triggering time versus applied pulse power for various ambient temperatures. For the same triggering time'T,thetriggering temperature T~" which is th¢ temperature at the "hot" spot prior to second breakdown, IS approximately related to the pulse power P at differentambienttemperatures To by the thermal relation
(88)
whereC, is a constant. From Fig. 30 note that for a given ambient temperature the relationship between the: pulse power. and the triggering time is approximately
'T 
e:x:p(CzP)
(89)
where C2 is a constant. Substituting.Bq. 88 into Eq. 89 yields
'T 
exp [ 
g~ rr,
To)
l
(90) (91)
The triggering temperatureT; depends on various device parameters and geometries. For most silicon diodes and transistors, r,vis' the temperature at which the intrinsic concentration nj equals the collector dopiilg'concen
whereP
is power dissipated. Therefore, the thermal limit defines the limit
174
Bipolar Transistor
SlI'it(!hlng
Transistor
175
higher ambient. temperatures, the thermal limitation.reduces the power that can be handled by the device, Eq. 93, and the SOA is reduced. 3.5
SWITCHING TRANSISTOR
4
I
u
H
T~= 25·C
A switching transistor is a transistor, designed to function as a switch, that can change its' state, say'·from thehighvoltage Iowcurrent+toff) condition to the lowvoltage highcurrent (on) condition,in a very short time. The basic operating conditions of switching transistors are different from. those of microwave transistors, because switching .Is a. largesignal transient process while microwavetransistorsa ..egenerallyconcerned with smallsignal amplificapQn. "The basic device g~Qmetries,however, are similar to those •for microwavetransistol's· (Fig.J7). The. most important parameters for a. switching transistor .are current gain and swjt~hingtime."['ojmproyeJhecurrentgain, usually lower doping in the base region is used. l'he transistor can be doped with :gold to introduce midgap .recombination centers and thus reduce the switching time. A switching transistor can be operated in,varlOus switching .modes. Figure 32a showsthe two basic modes and their corresponding load lines. The modes areclassified",as saturated.jand current modes, Which are determined .by, the portion.' of. the transistor output "characteristic: curve
veE IV)
Fig. 31 Safety operating area (SOA) for transistor'operation. burn, and Rubin, Ref. 58.)
(After Oettinger, BlackSATURATION REGION ACTIVE REGION EMITTER
BASE COLLECTOR
um
for the maximum allowed junction temperature: Rtlt(peak) = (LC x
If
T;(max) ~
Tj(max)
I
en
/.
.
v:CE).limit.
To
(92)
150"Cand Rth (peak) is assumed constant, then
(Ic
X
VCEl1imit
=
Tj(max)
To RtIt(peak) = constant.
(93)
Thus a straightline relation with a slope of 1 exists between In Ic and In VCE (Fig. 31). As shown in Fig. 27, athigher'voltagesandl.ower c~ents the temperature rise at the stripe center can be substantial. This te~perature rise is responsible for the second breakdown, and the slope IS generally between 1.5 and  2. The devic~ is.eventually limite? by ~he first breakdown voltage BVCEO in the SOA, as indicated by the vertical line. For pulse operations, the SOA can be extended to higher current values. At
(a) Minoritycarrier Moll, Ref. 59.)
(b)
Ag. 32 (a) Operation regions and SWitching modes of a·switching
transistor, (b) densities in the base for cutoff, active, and saturation regions. (After
176
177
utilized. The output characteristic curve can be divided into three regions: Region I: cutoff region, collector current off, emitter and collector • junctions reversebiased. .•..•....... '..... « Region II: active region, emitter forwardbiased and collector reversebiased. Region III: saturation region, emitter and collector both forwardbiased. Figure 32b shows the corresponding minoritycarrier distributions in the base for the cutoff, active, andsaturation regions." For all:switchingmodes the .switchoff condition is characterized by an excursion of the load line into the cutoff region of the transistor. Therefore, the operating mode is determined primarily by the direct current level in the switchon condition and"by the location of the operating points. The most common mode of operation is the saturated mode,which most nearly duplicates the function' of an ideal switch. The transistor is virtually opencircuited between the emitter and collector terminal in the off condition and shortcircuited in the on condition. The currentmode operation is useful for highspeed switching, since the storage delay time associated with the excursion of the transistor into the saturation region is eliminated. We shall now consider the switching behavior of a transistor based on the EbersMoll model. Referring to Eqs. 47a and 47b derived previously, the coefficient a's can be determined from the following four quantities which can be directly measured:
lEO:
From th~ quantities above and from Eqs. 47a and 47b, we obtain' the coefficients: .
lEO aJl==~~ Ia~l
a alleo 12IaNal aNIEO IaNal leo IaNal·
a21=
(94)
I
a22= _
In regions I and II the collector junction is reversebiased. Equations 47a and 47b reduce to
IE Ie
==
lEO
eqVa/kT
1  aNal
aNIEO
eqVE"JkT
+ (1 aN )IEO
1  aNal
(95a) (95b)
1 aNal
+ (1 al )Ieo
1 aNal •
~e c:quivalent circuit corresponding to Eq. 95 is shown in Fig. 33a. In this circutt, base resistance rb, emitter resistance r., and collector resistance Tc
the reverse saturation current of the '.emitter junction with the collector opencircuited,
eqVa/kT ~ 1, Ic = O. the reverse saturation current of the collector junction with the emitter opencircuited, eqVc"JkT ~
EO""""'~
'_~INV()
Ic
C
leo:
1,
IE
= O.
aN:
al:
the normal current gain under. the normal operating conditions where the emitter is forwardbiased and the collector is reversebiased. The collector current is given by Ic =  cr~IE+JeOo the inverse current gain under inverted operating conditions; that is, the emitter is reversebiased and the collector is forwardbiased. The emitter current is given by IE = aile + IEOoFor most transistors, aN is greater than al. Because the emitter area is usually smaller than the collector area, the .latter is much more effective in collecting the carriers,which diffuse away from the emitter; than vice versa.
FIg: 33. Eguivalent currents for sWitchingtransistors region III. (After Ebers and Motl, Ref. 32.) ....
(a) in regions I and II and (b) in "
J
I
Bill()larTransls~()r
SwHchlng Trallslstor
179
have been added.to acc:()untfor~e finite resistivity of.the .~~Illicondul;tor. In region III it is most convenientto consider the currents asindee~ndent variables. From the equations above we obtain VEB
= kTln(~
q
IE +a1le
lEO
leo
+
1)
1) .
(96a)
v:cs  kT 1····( q n 
Ie + aNIE +
(96b)
(a)
Figure 33b shows the equivalent circuit for this region. Equations 95 and 96 form the basis on which a nonlinear largesignal switching problem can be analyzed. To characterize a switching transistor, we must consider the following five quantities: currentcarrying capability, maximum' opencircuit voltage, off impedance, on impedance, and switching time. The currentcarrying capability is determined by the all()wable power dissipation and is related to the thermal limitation as it Would be to a power transistor. The maximum opencircuit voltage is determined by the breakdown or punchthrough voltage discussed previously. The impedance at the off or on condition can be obtained from Eqs. 95 and 96 using appropriate boundary conditions. For.example, for a commonbase configuration, the off and on impedances are given by Ve(1 a~I) Vdldoff, region I) = L I eo aN EO and .
(97)
lEI
t,
o
I
"'t
I I
I
(bl
Ie
I
. Ve/Ie (on, region III)
= L .In
qe
er (.
Ie + aNIE) . 1'
eo
(98)
It is apparent from Eq. 97 that the off impedance will be high for small reverse saturation currents leo and lEO of the junctions. The on impedance, Eq. 98 is approximately inversely proportional to the collector current Ie, and is very small when Ie is large. In practice the ohmic resistances Fig. 33b contribute to the total impedance of the transistor and must be added. We shall now consider the switching time, which is the time required for a transistor to switch from the off to the on condition, or vice versa; where in general the turnon time is different from the turn~ff time." Figure 34a shows a switching circuit for a transistorconnected.in the commonbase configuration. When a pulse is aPillied to the emitter terminal (Fig. 34b), from time t = 0 to t J (Fig. 34c) the transistor is being "turned on" and the transient is determined by the active region parameters (region II) of the transistor. At time t h the operating point enters the current saturation region (region III). The period of time requir~d for the current to. reach 90% of its current saturation value (= Vee/Rd IS .called the turnon.time 'To. At time t2, the emitter current is reduced to zero, and the 'turnoff transient
(e)
Fig.34 (a) Switching circuit using an non transistor. (b) Input emitter current pulse. (c) Corresponding collector current response, Where 'To is the turnon time, 'T1 the storage time, and'T2 the.decaytlrna, (After Moll, Ref. 59.)
begins. From t2 to t3 the minoritycarrier density in the base layer is large, corresponding to the operation in region III (Fig. 32b), but decaying toward zero. During the time 'TJ the collector has . a low impedance, and the collector current is 'determined ··by the external circuit. At 6 the carrier density near the collector junction is nearly zero. At this point the collector junction impedance increases rapidly, and the transistor begins to operate inactive region II. The time interval 'Tlis the carrier storage time. After time t3 transient behavior is calculated from the active region parameters.
180
Bipolar Transilltor
1J"latedDevlce.Structures
181
At time t4 the collector current has decayed to 10% of its maximum value. The interval of time 1'2, from t3to t4, is called the decay time. The turnon time 'Tocan be obtained from the transient response in the active region. For a step input function lEI the Laplace transform is given by IEds. If the commonbase current gain a is expressed as aN/(1 + jW/WN) where WNis the alpha cutoff frequency at which a/aN = 1/../2,the Laplace transform of the current gain is aN/(1 +S/WN)' Thus the collector current in the Laplace transform notation is given by
aN Ids) = 1+ /
S
3.6 RELATED DEVICE STRUCTURES 3.6.1 Scaled DeviCe For integratedcircuit (IC) applications, especially for VLSI (very large scale integration), bipolar transistors must be reduced in size. to meet the highspeed highdensity requirement. Figure35illtistrates the reduction in bipolar transistor sizes Inthe.pastdecade." Note that the main difference of a transistor in IC as compared to a discrete transistor is that all electrode contacts are located on the top surface of the wafer, and each transistor must be electrically isolated to prevent interactions between devices. Prior to 1970, junction isolation was .used (Fig. 35a), and the pisolation region was always reversebiased with res~ct to the ntype collector. In 1971, thermal oxide was used for device isolation, resulting in substantial reductionin device size (Fig. 35b). In 1975,the emitter was extended to thewalls of the ~xide f~r an ~dditional 50% reduction in area (Fig. 35c). Presently, all the linear dimensions have been scaled down, devices have reduced by a factor of2,resulting in a reduction ofthe device area by a factor of 4 and the base width by a factor of 2 (Fig;, 35d). Figure 36 shows a threedimensional view of a transistor with oxide isolation. The isolation region can be merged directly into the device structure, reducing not only the silicon area but also significantly improving device 'performance because parasitic capacitance is reduced. With .the
lEI . WN S
(99)
The inverse transform of this equation is given by Ic = IElaN(1 e"W). (100)
If we denote ICI= V cdRL as the saturation value of the collector current, 'Tois given from Eq. 100 by setting Ic= 0.9IcI: 'To= _1_ln(
WN
lEI 0.9lcdaN
hI
)
•
(101)
Based on a similar approach as outlined above, the storage time and decay time for commonbase configurations are given as follows. 59
(102) 1 . r ( ICI  aNIE2 ) 'T2= WNn a.lIcI  aNIE2
(103)
where WI is the inverted alpha cutoff frequency, and lEI and IE2 are indicated in Fig. 34. From Eq. 102 note that thestorage time 'TIbecomes equal to zero if thetr~risistordoes not enter saturation region III (a~ in current mode), because in this case ICI= aNIEI. For the commonemitter configuration, the equations above can be used with appropriate changes of quantities: for 'To and 'T2, wNis replaced by its corresponding beta cutoff frequency WN(l aN), lEI and IE2 are replaced by IBland IB2, respectively, and aN is replaced by aN/(l  aN); for 'TIthe latter two operations apply: lEI and IE2 are replaced by IBI and IB2, respectively, and aN is replaced by
aN/(IaN)' It is apparent from the aboveequatipns that the switching times, that is,
the turnon time 'To the turnoff time ('TI r;J, are inversely proportional and + to the cutoff frequencies. T()"increasethe switching speed, one must increase the cutoff frequencies. It is important to note that the cutoff frequencies of most switching transistors are limited by the collector storage capaCitance which should be reduced to increase the cutoff frequency.
(0)
(b)
(e)
(d)
fig. 35 Reduction of horizontal and vertical dimensions of bipolar transistor in the past decade. (a) Junction isolation; (b) Oxide isolation; (c) and (d) Scaled oxide isolation. (After Rice, Ref. 60.)

J
_.__
..
_._.
__
.

_
.
._



.__.__
182
Blpolar.Translstor.
183
'. OUTPUT
~
Fig. 36 Threedimensional Clemens, Ref. 11.)
view of atransistor
with oxide isolation,
(After Labuda and
development of ion implantation, lithographic, and dry etching technologies, we can expect that bipolar transistors with submicron dimensions and powerdelay products less than 1pJ will exist in the near future.
3.6.2 Integrated Injection Logic6M2
LATERAL
pnp tQ,)
pSUBSTRATE (b)
Since its introduction in 1972; integrated injection logic (12L). as. been h extensively used in IC logic and memory designs. Attractive features of 12L include compatibility with bipolar transistor processing, easeof.layout, and high packing density. Figure 37 shows the electrical schematic diagram and a cross section of the I~. The I~ has a pnp lateral transistor (Qt) and an inverted vertical npn transistor Q2 with multiple collector contacts. Current is injected from Qt into the base of Q2. Since I2Ldoes not require isolation regions or resistors, its circuit density can be very high. The collectors can be replaced by Schottky diodes (refer to Chapter 5) to further improve the speed performance."
3.6.3 Heterojunction Transisto .....
Flg.37 (a) Circuit diagram of an integrated an integrated injection logic.
injection
logic. (b) D.evice cross section of 
temp~rature range of operation; a heterojunction transistor can be operated at a higher temperature ( 350°C)because of its larger bandgap and can be operated down to liquidhelium temperature (4 K1because of its shallow impurity levels. To date, current gain /30 = 350 has been obtained." However, because of technological problems the cutoff frequency is limited to about 1GHz. '
Figure 38 shows the band diagram of a heterojunction transistor with a widegap emitter: The device has atl'!type AlxGatxAs emitter, ptype GaAs base, and ntype GaAs collector. The potential advantages of heterojunction transistors include (1) higher emitter efficiency, since holes (minority carriers for the emitter) flowing from the base to emitter are blocked by the high barrier in the valence band; (2) decreased base resistance, since the base can be heavily doped without sacrificing emitter efficiency; (3) less emitter current crowding, because of a low voltage drop along the emitterbase junction; (4) improved frequency response because of higher current gain and lower base resistance; and (5) wider
Ey
nGoAs (COLLECTOR)
EV
Flg.38 Energyband diagram of an npn heterojunction transistor.
~





~'_



184 3.6.4 HotElectron Transistors
Bipolar
Transistor
A hot electron is an electron with energy more than a few kT above the Fermi energy, where k and T are Boltzmann's constant and lattice temperature, respectively. Thus the electron is not in thermal equilibrium with the lattice. Many bipolar transistorlike threeterminal structures having hotelectron transport from emitter to collector have been proposed. The first of these structures, a metalinsulatormetalinsulatormetal structure (MIMIM) in which current flows through the insulator layer by tunneling (Fig. 39a) was proposed" in 1960. The device performance can be improved by replacing the collector insulator by a Schottky barrier (Fig. 39b). Using a Schottky emitter structure would improve the device even more (Fig. 39c)~ A spacechargelimited emitter structure was also proposed (Fig. 39d). The main di1ference in these transistors is the method used to inject electrons into the base." Only the metalbase transistothasthe potential to give a better microwave performance than the bipolar transistor. However, experimental ao at room temperature is low, of theorder of 0.3, which is obtained from a SiAuGe transistor with 9OA gold film.68 By using advanced technology, such as molecularbeam epitaxy, to grow singlecrystal metal film on semiconductors," and operating the device at low temperatures, one can expect to obtain good microwavefrequency performance with higher current gain.
3.6.5 PermeableBase Transistor
70
EMITTER Fig.4O Schematic diagram of a permeablebase
CONTACT (After Bozler et at, Ref. 70.)
transistor.
COLLECTOR
IV
IV
IV
Figure 40 shows a threedimensional drawing of a permeablebase transistor. The device consists of a fourlayer sandwich: the n + GaAs sub
~ ~
EMITTER BASE COLLECTOR
(a)
(a)
(b)
(e)
(e)
fig. 39 Four types of hotelectron transiStors. (a) MIMIM structure. (b) Tunnel transistor. (e) Metalbase transistor. (d) Spaceeharge:limited transistor. (After Moll, Ref. 67.)
Fig. 41 . Calculated e~uipotential lines in the unit cell of a permeablebase transistor shown In cross section for three different basebias conditions. (a) VeE = 0 V (b) VeE = 0.3 V. (e) VeE = 0.5 V. (After Bozler et at, Ref. 70.) .
_
185
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