# AN OVERVIEW OF SIMULATION , MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS

Dr. C S P Rao NIT Warangal.
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Simulation
• Is the process of building a mathematical or logical model of a system or a decision problem, and • experimenting with the model to obtain insight into the system’s behavior or to assist in solving the decision problem.
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Simulation
• Recent survey of management science practitioners: simulation and statistics have the highest rate of application over all other tools by over a 2:1 margin!

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Simulation
• Usually, a simulation model is a computer model that imitates a real-life situation. • It is like other mathematical models, but it explicitly incorporates uncertainty in one or more input quantities • When we run simulation, we allow these random quantities to take various values, and we keep track of any resulting output quantities of interest • In this way, we are able to see how the outputs vary as a function of the varying inputs 4

Simulation • Is able do deal with problems exhibiting significant uncertainty • Shows the whole distribution of results. not just best guesses • Is useful for determining how sensitive system is to changes in operating conditions • Enables us to experiment with a system without actually building / changing the physical system! 5 .

Models Prescriptive Deterministic Discrete vs. vs. vs. Descriptive Probabilistic Continuous 6 .

Descriptive Models Inputs: Decision and Uncontrollable Variables Simulation Model Outputs: Measures of Performance or Behavior: Output variables 7 .

Simulation Process • Develop a conceptual model of the system or problem under study • Build the simulation model • Verify and validate the model • Design experiments using the model • Perform the experiment and analyze the results 8 .

Simulation Models • Monte Carlo Simulation • Distribution of an outcome variable that depends on several probabilistic variables • Risk analysis • System Simulation • Models sequences of events that occur over time 9 .

Benefits and Limitations • Does not require simplifying assumptions • Can deal with problems not possible to solve analytically • Provides an experimental laboratory: possible to evaluate decisions/systems without implementing them • Generally easier to understand than • Building models and simulating is timeconsuming for complex systems • Simulation results / simulated systems are always approximations of the real ones • Does not guarantee an optimal solution . .lack of precise answers • Should not be used indiscriminately in place of sound analytical 10 models.

Simulation modeling • Simulation modeling on spreadsheets is quite similar to other MgmtSci modeling approaches • Main difference: • Simulation uses Random Numbers to drive the whole process 11 .

Simulation Modelling • Simulation is a modelling and analysis tool used for the purpose of designing planning and control of manufacturing systems. • It is an abstract framework of a system that facilitates imitating the behavior of the system over a period of time. • Simulation may be defined as a concise framework for the analysis and understanding of a system. • In contrast to mathematical models. simulation models do not need explicit mathematical functions to relate variables 12 .

they are suitable for representing complex systems to get a feeling of real system. • Simulation can also stops continuity of the experiment. • One of the greatest advantage of a simulation models is that it can compress or expand time. 13 .• Therefore . • Simulation models can also be used to observe a phenomenon that cannot be observed at very small intervals of time.

14 . experimenting. • Simulation are capable of taking care of stochastic variable without much complexity.• Simulation modelling techniques are powerful for manipulation of time system inputs. and analyzing real-life complex systems such as FMS. and with visual animation capabilities they provide an effective means of learning. • They enable the behavior of the system as a whole to be predicted. • They are cost effective for modelling a complex system. and logic.

or of a subsystem within a complex system. and the effect of these alterations on the model’s behavior can be observed.WHEN SIMULATION IS APPROPRIATE? • Simulation enables the study of. • Informational. and experimentation with. organizational. and environmental changes can be simulated. 15 . the internal interactions of a complex system.

valuable insight may be obtained into which variables are most important and how variables interact 16 . • By changing simulation inputs and observing the resulting outputs.• The knowledge gained in designing a simulation model may be of great value toward suggesting improvement in the system under investigation.

• Animation shows a system in simulated operation so that he plan can be visualized. 17 . so as to prepare for what may happen. • By simulating different capabilities for a machine.• Simulation can be used as a pedagogical device to reinforce analytic solution methodologies. • Simulation can be used to experiment with new designs or policies prior to implementation. • Simulation models designed for training allow learning without the cost and disruption of onthe-job learning. requirements can be determined. • Simulation can be used to verify analytic solutions.

It is easier to perform direct experimentation The resources are not available The cost exceeds savings The time is not available No enough time and personal are not available Un-reasonable expectations The behavior of the system is too complex to define 18 . The Problem is solved by analytical means.WHEN SIMULATION IS NOT APPROPRIATE? • • • • • • • • • The Problem is solved by common sense.

2.They are just like verbs in simulation language. 3. Entity: Building blocks of mfg.they represent the beginning or end of one or more activities. events are classified as endogenous (internal).THE ELEMENTS OF DISCRETE SIMULATION 1. (M/Cs. 19 . Activity start end times are known Events :Points on time scale at which some changes takes places in the model. Duration is assumed as fixed. exogenous (external). AGVs) Activities: Function performed by entites. sys.

States:defines the condition of various elements and the model as the whole.Queues:formed when an entity is waiting in the system for some activity. Attributes: These are adjectives of simulation language. Activity cycle diagram (ACD): This is used in defining the logic of simulation model. qualifying nouns. 20 .

environment Arrival Waiting in queue dispatch machine idle Activity cycle diagram 21 .

CONVERSION FOR DRAWING ACDS ARE AS FOLLOWS. Each type of entity has an activity cycle. • The cycle is closed • Activities are depicted by rectangles and queues by circles or ellipses. • The cycle consists of activities and queues • Activities and queues alternate in the cycle. 22 .

. Throughput analysis. Times jobs spend in queues. A new product will be produced in all or part of an existing building.g. Number and type of machines for a particular objective.Table – 1 : Use of Simulation in Manufacturing Manufacturing Environments Manufacturing Issues Performance Measurement of Manufacturing System Throughput (number of jobs produced per unit of time). Changes may be in the equipment (e. Evaluation of control strategies 23 . Proportion of time that a machine is under fadum. New equipment is required in an old building. Upgrading of existing equipment or its operation.g. Time that jobs spend being transported. blocked until and starved. Makespan analysis. Proportion of jobs produced which must be reworked or scrapped. Concerned with producing the same product more efficiently. Sizes of in-process inventories (WIP or queue sizes). scheduling rule employed). Time in system for jobs (makespan). Return on investment for a new or modified manufacturing system. Bottleneck analysis.. Evaluation of a change in product mix (impact of new products).e. introduction of a robot) or in operational procedures (e. Evaluation of the effect of a new piece of equipment on an existing manufacturing line. Location and size of inventory buffers. Manpower requirements planning. Utilization of equipment and personnel (i. New equipment and buildings are required (called “green fields”). Evaluation of capital investments. proportion of time busy). Evaluation of operational procedures.. Evaluation of policies for component part or raw material inventory levels.

Problem Definition Statement of Objectives Model Formulation . Planning Data Collection Model Development Steps in simulation study Continues Development Verified? Validated? Experimentation Results Analysis More Runs? Documentation & Presentation 24 Implementation .

Procedure for Conducting a Simulation Study Plan Study Define System Build Model Run Experiments Analyze Output Report Results 25 .

. .and many more Webbased simulation JAVASIMWEBBASED SIMULATION. C + +VB. . ... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . VB+ + . . Table – 2 : Commercial Simulation Language 26 .. . .. . . . .SIMULATION SOFTWARE 1st Category Channel purpose language FORTRANC. . .. . .many other oriented languages 2nd Category Simulation language GPSS (1965)SIMSCRIPT (1963)SIMULA GASP (1961)ALGOL SLAM (1979)SIMAN GPSS/4 (1977)SLAM – IIAWESIM (1995)GEMS 3rd Category Simulation Packages ARENA (1993)AutoMOD QUEST EXTEND PROMODEL TaylorED WITNESS. . . . . ... . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . ...

Chapter 3 27 .Simulation Software Ref: Law & Kelton.

• Process Orientation – Time oriented sequence of inter-related events that describes the experience of an entity as it flows through a system.Modelling Approach • Event Scheduling – System modelled via characteristic events – Events have subroutines which update state variables. 28 . – Overlay to an event scheduling system. – Approach adopted in most current software.

1)) Generating random variates from a specified probability distribution. 4. 5. 29 . 3. ~U(0.Common Features 1. Collecting output statistics and reporting the results of the simulation run. 7. Adding and deleting records from a list. 2.e. Determining the next event on the list event and passing control of to the appropriate piece of code. Generating random numbers (i. 6. Trapping error conditions. Advancing the simulation clock.

• Frequently include specific modelling constructs (such as material handling systems). • Long(ish) development cycles. • Steep learning curve. • Significant modelling and programming expertise is necessary.Simulation Languages • General in nature • Can model almost any type of system. 30 .

• Rapid model prototypes. • Built in assumptions can be problematic. • Short development cycles. • Do not handle “unusual” situations. • Lack flexibility to model outside of class. 31 . • Gentle learning curve.Simulators • Facilitates the development of models related to a specific class of problems.

32 . • GPSS was originally intended for analyzing time sharing options on mainframe computers.A Brief History of Simulation • Simulation has been around for some time. • The software was included as a standard library on IBM 360s and its use was quite widespread. • Early simulations were event-driven (see SimscriptMODSIM) and frequently military applications. • In the 1960’s Geoffrey Gordon developed the transaction (process) based orientation that we are now familiar with. • Gordon’s software was called General Purpose Simulation System (GPSS).

2. • Interarrival time = 2.0 minutes (exponential). • Assume an infinite queue.0) QUEUE SERVQ SEIZE SERVER ADVANCE RVEXPO(2. 1. * Simulation of M/M/1 system SIMULATE GENERATE RVEXPO(1.0) RELEASE SERVER TERMINATE 1 CONTROL STATEMENTS START END 1000 * * * 33 .0 minutes (exponential) • Service time = 1.GPSS Code • Assume an M/M/1system.

34 . – A feature of this new language is a graphical model builder. the network is translated into SLAM code. • A market developed for alternative software that could run on newer machines (VAX & UNIX).SLAM • IBM stopped support and development of GPSS about 1972. • In the early 80s Pritsker and Pegden develop SLAMII. Alan Pritsker and David Pegden create SLAM (Simulation Language for Alternative Modeling). – Users enter their model as a network diagram. When complete. • In 1979. which ran on engineering workstations.

RESOURCE.0. FREE.EXPON(1. CREATE.INF. • To speed up compiles.0.{{SERVER.0.0.YES.NONE.1}}.1}}..SLAM-II Code • Originally one of the slowest components of a SLAM model was compiling. ACTIVITY.{1}. TERMINATE.ALL.1.1.. INITIALIZE. • Controls were designed to be short and changeable. • Compiling really translates the model into a set of FORTRAN subroutines. while models were to be big and relatively fixed. 1 2 3 4 5 GEN.1. “controls” were separated from the main body of the model.NO.1.1). LIMITS. FIN. NET.1.1. AWAIT. 35 .SERVER. ACTIVITY.1000.EXPON(2.{{SERVER..1).INF. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 .. ACTIVITY.

feel. REPLICATE.SIMAN • About 1983 or so. 36 .EX(2. RELEASE:SERVER:DISPOSE. END.1. • A lawsuit entailed. RESOURCES: 1.1). Dennis Pegden develops his own simulation language. QUEUE. DELAY: EX(1. content and style to SLAM. SEIZE: SERVER. 1. • The language was designed to run on a PC. 1000. BEGIN. END.1). 1. BEGIN.. DISCRETE. CREATE. 1. • It is remarkably similar in look. • SIMAN (SIMulation ANalysis). SERVER.

SIMAN AND SLAM
• SIMAN is tailored for the PC market. • SLAM remains focused on workstations. • SIMAN introduces an animation package (CINEMA) about 1985 or so.
• The animation is an add on unit for the model. • Originally it required specialized (& expensive) hardware.

• SLAM responds with a PC version of SLAM in the late 1980s (which also has animation). • Both firms develop software to integrate factory scheduling into simulation runs. 37

Early PC Versions
• By the mid-80s the PC market is dominant.
• Mainframes are expensive. • Cycles are expensive. • Central IS groups are expensive.

• Engineers become computer experts. • A lot of IE’s end up writing simulations. • There are a number of issues:
• User development cycles are very long. • Total memory (model, entities, etc) limited to about 32k by FORTRAN/C and early versions of DOS. • Simulation language development tends to lag OS development. 38

SIMULATORS
• Advent of Windows 3.0/3.1. • Mass penetration of PCs. • Powerful hardware and software (especially OOC) becomes available. • We start to see the creation of a variety of simulators. • The simulators are usually graphically oriented (drag & drop model development),have integrated animation, and low purchase cost. • Huge number of simulators come onto the market. • These often lack statistical rigour.
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Today’s Market
• There has been something of a rationalization in terms of the number of simulation languages/simulators available.
• See the May 1999 edition of IIE Solutions.

• The large simulation companies have all been bought or sold at least a couple of times in the past two – three years. • SLAM  Frontstep Systems (a logistics software supplier). Not in active development (last release ’99). • SIMAN  Rockwell Software (logistics & controls).
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• Advanced statistical functions • Curve fitting for input data. • Bolt on “Optimizers” – Tools to search for optimal settings of parameters. • Automatic detection of warm up • Output analysis modules (including replication). 41 .Trends • Virtual reality animations.

call centers.000 (\$US) 42 .Witness (Lanner Inc) • • • • Simple building block design Interactive Full range of logic and control options Elements for discrete manufacture.000-\$17. process industries. finance and government Statistical input and reports Link system to other software easily (CAD/Excel) Optional 3D/VR views • • • \$13. BPR. health. ecommerce.

43 . Integrates with Microsoft desktop tools Spreadsheet interface Crystal reports Free runtime software. Builds reusable modules.000 .ARENA • • • • • • • • • • Process hierarchy. Various add-in modules available.000 (\$US). \$1. Fully graphical environment.\$17. Optimization with OptQuest for Arena. No programming required. VBA embedded.

ARENA • Arena can be used for simulating discrete and continuous systems • Arena employs an object based design for entirely graphical model development. 44 . • Modules are organized into collections called templates.

• Proven.GPSS/H • Successor to the “orginal” simulation language (GPSS). • ~\$5. • Extremely flexible. reliable software. • Extensive error checking routines. – Was freeware on IBM 360’s • Makes use of common program blocks. • Post-process animations (Proof) can be built.000 (\$US) 45 .

– Manufacturing operations – Material handling systems – Tanks and pipe networks – IC Manufacturing – Transportation and logistics systems • \$15.Automod • Combines Virtual Reality (VR) graphics with a discrete and continuous simulation environment.000 (\$US) 46 .\$100.000 .

• The main focus of the AutoMod simulation product is manufacturing and material handling systems. AutoStat for experimentation and analysis. 47 . and Auto View for making AVI movies of the built-in 3-D animation.AutoMod • It includes the AutoMod simulation package.

• Each element has associated geometric data and parameters that define its behaviour 48 . Built-in element classes include AGV and transporters.QUEST • QUEST if offered by Deneb Robotics • QUEST models are based on 3-D CAD geometry. • A QUEST model consists of elements from a number of element classes. parts and process. machine. labour. buffer. conveyor.

49 . • ProModel offers 2-D animation with an optional 3-D like perspective view.ProModel • ProModel is offered by ProModel Corporation • It is a simulation and animation tool designed to model manufacturing systems.

• WITNESS models are based on template elements.WITNESS • WITNESS is offered by the Lanner Group. • WITNESS is strongly machine oriented and contains many elements for discretepart manufacturing. Elements may be combined into a designer element module to be reused 50 .

METHODOLOGY FOR SELECTION OF SIMULATION SOFTWARE Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Need for purchasing simulation software Initial software survey Evaluation Software selection Software contract negotiation Stage 6 Software purchase 51 Figure – 3 : Stages of simulation software selection methodology .

in simulation Initial software survey 52 Continued in the next slide . Combi ned disc/co nt Individ ual prefere nce Previous exper.Need for purchasing simulation software Purpose of simulatio n Constrai nts Models to be simulate d Model develope rs Educati on “Quick and dry” ind D/C – ind or researc h Time Discret e Contin uo.

Short list of software for evaluation Initial software software survey Initial survey Initial software survey Initial software survey Initial software survey Initial software survey Results of Evaluation Software selection Selection of software Legend: Software contract negotiation Contract acceptable Stages Intermediate Results Software purchase Elements 53 .

• Output analysis module • Optional optimizer.Promodel • State-of-the-art simulation engine • Graphical user interface • Distribution-fitting. • Modules designed for: – Manufacturing – Healthcare – Services • \$17.000 (\$US) 54 .

Case study Table – 1 : Machine Area Information Machine M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 Area (m2) 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 20 x 20 55 .

Table – 2 : Part Job Sequence and Quantity Information Part Type P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 Job Sequence 8-6-8-10-4 7-9-2 6-5 3-1-3 5-6-7-10 7-9-7-8 7-9 3-4-1-6 2-7 2-7-9-5 10-8-5 1-3-10 8-10-5-6 9-2-7 6-8-10 4-3 6-5 4-3-1 Quantity 160 310 280 265 80 125 360 240 175 95 100 230 285 315 50 275 260 150 56 .

Table – 3 : Processing Time Information (in minutes) Part Type P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 P18 Machines M1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 M2 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 M3 0 0 0 2+ 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 4 0 6 M4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 M5 0 0 4 0 4 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 M6 3 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 M7 0 2 0 0 1 2+ 1 4 0 2 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 M8 2+ 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 M9 0 3 0 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 M10 4 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 3 0 2 0 0 0 57 .

Here the initial solution for the above case study is obtained using genetic algorithm as below Cell Formation Cell 1 = 3 1 Cell 2 = 8 6 Cell 3 = 2 9 10 7 4 5 58 .

57) 59 .(Run Hours 231.

97+20.from above table average process time in percentage of total scheduled hours (39.1131*231.31%=0.1131 average process time = 0.05 = 60 .89+23.16+21.89+20.88+11.51)/18 = 11.7+16.57*60=1572.99+22.62+14.04+11.

61 .70*231.57*60)/(100*18) = 661.average material handling time per part type = (85.52 min.

Run hours 352 The solution for the above case study using heuristic method is as follows Step 1 : Arrange all machines randomly according to the given dimensions of machines. (. Here machine to machine clearance of 1 m is also considered.85) 62 .

Step 2 : From job sequence of parts. M8 – M10 and bring those 2 machines closer or nearer to each other. M4 – M3.37) 63 . (Run Hours 229. M5 – M6. M8 – M6. check the minimum sequence (2 machines) common for all parts e. M7 – M9.g.

all parts uses the same machines. calculate number of times.Step 3 : From job sequence. M1-4 M2-4 M3-6 M4-4 M5-6 M6-7 M7-8 M8-6 M9-5 M10-6 64 .

2-7-9-5. it will take more time for the vehicle to move from one machine to another machine. 9-2-7.M2 and M4.g.24) 65 .The least utilized machines are M1. 3 must be closer to 1 and 2-7. (Run hours 223. these machines are kept away from remaining machines or at periphery so that they will not obstruct other more utilized machines. In this step.e. 13-10. 3-1-3.( e.e. since the row distance is high. i. 3-4-1-6 i. 2 must be closer to 7 & 9). So the row distance is reduced from 5 machines to 3 and 4 machines.

4.) Run hours 220 66 .( eg. 1st –3. checking the position of this machine in the job sequence and corresponding parts to be processed. It must be placed at corner position so that processing starts from that position only. 8 also. 310+125+360=795 2nd – 2.Step 4: from above we can see that most utilized machine is M7. 80+125+315=520 from above 1st position is higher. 175+95=270 3rd –3.

These machines are kept at minimum possible distance. 67 . 7-9 P2=310.Step 5: Here M5 is accompanied M6. P7=360. M3 is accompanied by M4. P14=315. M7 is accompanied by M9. 9-2-7 So these machines are at minimum distance in straight line manner (7-9-2) In next iteration next lower maximum parts are considered. Step 6: now considering maximum number of parts to be processed and their job sequence. 7-9-2.

(Run hours 213) 68 .

Step 7: place remaining machines closer to respective machines according to job sequence.24+21.92+2 2.88+12.45*60 = 1571.273%=0.1273*213.43+24.84 min.25)/18 = 12.1273 average process time per part type =0.10+23. 69 .54+18.75+12.98+16.83+25. average process time(%) per part = (42.

75+12.45*60) / (100*18) = 585.84 min.24+21.average material handling time per part type = (82.43+24.273%=0.25)/18 = 12.54+18.92+22. 70 .1273 average process time per part type =0.27 min average process time(%) per part = (42.26*213.45*60 = 1571.83+25.1273*213.10+23.98+16.88+12.

ELL FORMATION ell 1 – 2 ell 2 .10 9 5 7 6 71 .

79 91.57 160.74 264.29 123.2 2 1572.55 100. of vehicles 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total Time(hrs.36 Process Time(min.9 6 661. From this we can find out optimum number of vehicles needed for given throughput No.3 EFFECT OF NUMBER OF VEHICLES ON CYCLE TIME PER JOB TYPE he effect of number of vehicles used for material handling purpose on the cycle time is shown below in the tables for case study both for GA and heuristic layout..75 91.2 2 1572.22 1572.2 2 1572. ) 1572. It is seen that as the number of vehicles are increased.22 1572.95 330.22 72 .52 440. cycle time( average material handling time) is getting Case study 2(GA) reduced.75 91.57 220.) 457.2 2 1572.5 189 165.35 231.2 2 1572.75 Material Handling time(min.) 1322.

14 1864. 95 1571.0 9 109.Cycle Time(min . 95 1571. 18 2233.3 2 1571.7 3 91. 53 2157. 56 1806.) 422. 96 1739.3 9 213.78 91. 17 1718. 95 1571.5 8 Case study 2 (heuristic) No.6 1 234. 95 1571.78 1170. 96 1836.78 91.1 0 195. 58 585. 05 1766. 74 2013.78 91. ) Material Handling time(min. 95 2742. 95 1571. 79 1792. 22 1962.2 7 390.2 2 146.) Cycle Time(min .0 1 167.2 2 1737.4 5 144. of vehicles 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 Total Time(hrs. ) Process Time(min . 95 1571. 95 1571.1 9 292.7 2 1761. 17 1902. 27 73 .) 2895.

) GE (%) Tt (hrs. ) Initial solution by GA GE (%) Tt (hrs.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Summarized Table of grouping efficiency.57 661.) Mt (min.5 2 81 213.52 GE : Group Efficiency Tt : Total Throughput Time Mt : Total material Handling Time 74 .82 11.57 7. total throughput time and total material handling time for two case studies.) Improved solution by heuristic Percentage improvement GE (%) Tt (hrs.2 7 6.) Mt (min.) Case study 2 76 231.4 5 585.) Mt (min.

89 20.25 24.92 22.16 16.98 12.7 39.89 11.54 42.48 8.75 Percentage improvement 8.88 23.47 8.88 25.48 8.04 75 .62 11.97 21.Summarized Table of machine utilization for the case study Machine Initial solution by GA ( % ) Improved solution by heuristic ( % ) 16.51 22.48 8.83 12.24 23.53 M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 14.43 21.41 8.5 8.42 8.47 8.1 18.99 20.35 8.

Case study 2(GA) 76 .The bar charts of machine utilization for 2 case studies are shown below.

Case study 2(HEURISTIC METHOD) 77 .

83 Improved solution by heuristic ( % ) 37.59 27.73 Case study 1 Run hours forklift 1 forklift 2 Case study 2 Run hours forklift 1 forklift 2 78 .74 7.33 25.57 99.6 20.68 31.93 Percentage improvement 7.1)    Summarized Table of resource utilization for two case studies Resource Initial solution by GA ( % ) 40.92 99.67 30 231.83 99.3 213.25 22.45 99.82 7.07 7.

Resource utilization bar charts for 2 case studies Case Study 2 (GA) Case Study 2 (Heuristic Method) 79 .

Resource states graphs of 2 case studies Case Study 2 (Heuristic Method) 80 .

2 : Case Study .Graphs of cycle time verses number of vehicles for two case studies Graph .2 2900 2700 Cycle Time 2500 2300 2100 1900 1700 1500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Number of Vehicles GA Heuristic 81 .

82 .CONCLUSIONS • the application for simulation to address manufacturing problems. • Developments in the area of simulation – existing softwares for discrete event simulation and conduction of simulation studies were reviewed. • we hope this paper may encourage the extensive use of simulation in manufacturing and development of simulation technology for addressing the problems which need serious attention. • The necessity and importance of simulation for modeling and analyzing the various classes of manufacturing problems was focused in this paper.

Man and Cybernetics IIE Transactions on IE Research International Journal in Computer Simulation Management Science ORSA Journal on Computing Simulation System Dynamics Review Journal of the Operational Research Society 83 .Journals • • • • • • • • • • • ACM Transactions on Modelling and Computer Simulat Computer Simulation Modeling and Analysis European Journal of Operations Research IEEE Journal of Systems.

W.Springer-Verlag • Klaus G. et al. 1998. McGraw-Hill • Charles Harrell. Mit. 1996. Richard B. Pearson Ptr. David. Educational Technology Publications 84 . “Computer Simulation in Management Science”. “Managing Change with Business Process Simulation”. “Simulation Using ProModel”. Pappo. et al.References • Averill M. et al. Fishwick. 1991. “Social Science Microsimulation”... “Simulations for Skills Training”. Modjeski.2000 “Simulation Modeling and Analysis”. John Wiley & Sons • Michael Prietula. Press • David Profozich. 1998. “Simulating Organizations: Computational Models of Institutions and Groups”. Physica Verlag • Michael Pidd. “KnowledgeBased Simulation”.2000 “Tools and Techniques for Social Science Simulation”. McGraw-Hill • Ramsey Suliman. Springer Verlag • Harry A.. Troitzsch.. Kelton. Law.1997. • Paul A. et al. 2000. 1998.

com 85 .in (or) csp_rao@rediffmail.C. Engg. Rao Manufacturing Simulation Lab. Department of Mech.Warangal – 506 004 E-mail : cspr@recw.S.ernet.P.Thank you Contact information Dr. Regional Engineering College .