This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Sometimes the output of a DSP system can be used directly, without conversion of a digital signal back to an analog signal. This is often the case in signal analysis systems, and sometimes in control or communication systems. However, in many cases the DSP system must interface with the analog world at both ends (input and output). In those cases, the digital signal must be converted back to an analog form. The digital signal is a sequence of integers in binary format. The first step in converting the signal from digital to analog form is to convert each integer in the sequence to a Voltage (or current). There are many circuits which do this, and a discussion of their internal operation is beyond the scope of this course.

V(n) Binary to Level Conversion . the output Voltage level may be thought of as an estimate of the input signal Voltage which produced the nth sample in the sequence. we’ll call this first step in the digital to analog conversion process a binary to level conversion: conversion of an integer in binary format to a Voltage or current level. If the input to the binary-to-level converter was an analog Voltage signal.Digital to Analog Conversion For the sake of this discussion. and if the binary-to-level converter produces a Voltage level.

and holds that level for one sample period. The output of the zero-order hold is a sort of staircase approximation to the analog signal we’ll eventually produce.Digital to Analog Conversion The binary-to-level converter is followed by a zero-order hold circuit. V(n) Binary to Level Conversion Zero-Order Hold . It takes one sample (as a level. This is a sort of reverse sample-and-hold. not as an integer).

The output of the zero-order hold is a sort of staircase approximation to the analog signal we’ll eventually produce. It takes one sample (as a level. not as an integer). and holds that level for one sample period. V(n) Binary to Level Conversion Zero-Order Hold . This is a sort of reverse sample-and-hold.Digital to Analog Conversion The binary-to-level converter is followed by a zero-order hold circuit.

.Digital to Analog Conversion Here’s a 1 kHz sine wave. before sampling.

. with samples taken at fs = 22 kHz.Digital to Analog Conversion Here’s the same 1 kHz sine wave.

Digital to Analog Conversion Here’s the sequence of samples. . For a high-resolution system. The Matlab “stem” command was used to plot the sample values in this fashion. this would be a good approximation to the input to the zero-order hold.

.Digital to Analog Conversion And here are the samples along with the staircase output of the zero-order hold.

Digital to Analog Conversion The output of the zero-order hold is still. in effect. Power Spectral density -fs -B B fs 2fs -fs/2 fs/2 . This means it still has an image at every integer multiple of the sample frequency. so it still has the spectral characteristics of a discrete time signal. It only changes at integer multiples of the sample period. a discrete time signal.

filter.Digital to Analog Conversion The last step in recovery of the analog signal is to remove the images with an anti-imaging. This filter could have the same frequency response as the anti-aliasing filter at the other end of the system. Power Spectral density Frequency response of recovery filter -fs -B B fs 2fs -fs/2 fs/2 . or recovery.

. If we smooth it.Digital to Analog Conversion Here’s the time-domain view of the zero-order hold’s output. it’ll be a good approximation to the original sine wave.

smoothing the stairsteps is the time domain view of the same action. This is a lowpass filter.Digital to Analog Conversion We add the recovery filter previously mentioned to strip off the spectral images. so it smooths the staircase output. V(n) Binary to Level Conversion Zero-Order Hold Recovery Filter V(t) . Removing the images is the frequency-domain view of the effect of the recovery filter.

Digital to Analog Conversion Here’s are the staircase output from the zero-order hold. . along with the smoothed output of the recovery filter. This completes the digital-to-analog conversion.

or DAC. the binary-to-level conversion. zero-order hold. and recovery filter.Digital to Analog Conversion These three stages. comprise a digital-to-analog converter. V(n) Binary to Level Conversion Zero-Order Hold Recovery Filter V(t) Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) .

with an external sample-and-hold. or ADC. we have the analog-to-digital converter. The ADC may inclode both the quantizer and the sampleand-hold. or it may consist of the quantizer only. V(t) Sample And Hold N-bit quantizer Vq(n) Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) .Analog-to-Digital Conversion At the input end of the system.

07843 074 7/07 4/ #0.071907 8244939089.45.3902.794 0.943. /42.94190 70.041900110.4. 2.4:82039430/94897541190850.443.7.3.07 907 '9 .3.0 43.943 '3 3.4.//9070..088901706:03.97.4..789058890920/42.804:95:9 #024.9.071907570.07843 0.04190 8.20.08%88.881907 8498244989089.

4. 94 .43990 824490/4:95:9419070.943.4 .709089.7.07843 .071907%8.43.804:95:9174290074 47/074/ .425090890/9.07843 070 8.3.9.443..

443.07907 47 '3 3.0.07843 %080970089.4.425780.43./9.9.071907 . 94 .43.3. 94 3.794 0.07 907 '9 9.07907 .3/ 70.4.08 90-3.943.0 43.07843 074 7/07 4/ #0.07843 074 47/074/ .4.443.7 94 0.

07907 47%02.3.3.3/ 4/ '9 $..250 .4/0-49906:.3/908.250 .4 94 9.3/ 4/ 4792.3907 '6 3 3..4 94 9.4 94 /9.07843 99035:903/419088902 0..3.250 3/ 4/ -9 6:.43.07907 .43.309073.390743 9.3907.4388941906:.8.090. 43.

- OFDM.pdf
- FGP_502
- Demodulation Channels
- idsb-t
- Ssa
- DG4000
- Sangean DPR-202 FM/DAB portable
- Introduction to GSM Network
- Workshop Poster Presentation
- GuideDiodes.pdf
- Term Paper on Television by Tahsin & Parvez_ICT_3rd Batch_1st Semester_2011
- LTE Advanced
- rfcommsystem_prezo[1]
- doremi_datasheet_1_eng_2
- Multichannel Analyzers
- Carrier Sense Multiple Access
- Hdtv
- Si Compact Bro
- 10_RF System Spec
- DPTV400_TM
- 0709 Internet Radio
- 23036144 Television Broadcasting Industry Analysis
- PCM
- EEM496 Communication Systems Laboratory - Report3 - White Gaussian Noise
- Uses of Radio
- CSMA
- Reference Information
- Http
- GP300_SM.pdf
- dsp1
- Digital to Analog Conversion

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd