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AERONAUTICS AS A SYNTHESIS OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY

by
L.M.B.C. CAMPOS

Instituto Superior Tecnlco. 1096 Lisboa Codex. Portugal

SUMMARY:

We consider

complexity

in

aeronautical

and

space'

engineering jrom satellites' disciplines (iii) the and

three points oj view: (iJ the various types oj aerospace neloctpters. rockets; remotely piloted
(W

vehicles, e.g. airplanes, their which

vehicles, missiles,

launch

the technical

and scientific

contribute

to the destqn. oj each oj these vehicles. structures, oj electronics and systems: oj an aerospace needs is based development oj civil

such as aerodynamics, chronological starting which with . vehicle, leading design, further

propulsion, sequence

the establishment oj a specification,

or military

to the statement

upon which

a

has to be proved saje, and may be modiftea to satisjy

needs. Given the .spread oj subjects, and the substantial

. oj experience in each oj them, we can hardly do more than give a jew typical examples oj complexity in each area.

..

amount

§

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INTRODUCTION

Aerospace is not a single technology, like electronics, computers or materials: rather it is the integration of all advanced technologies in an aerospace vehicle. Thus. in order to address complexity in aerospace engineering, we need to know the technologies involved (part I) and how they are integrated (part II) for which kinds of aerospace vehicles (part 111).We have divided each part into six topics. each of Which. if treated with some depth. would involve enough knowledge and experience to justify a paper on its own right, e.g. on control by M. Pelegrin. What we try do here (Figure 1) is to give an overview of

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aerospace engineering. by selecting a few typical examples from the technical disciplines. so as illustrate the contribution of each to the overall design of various types of aerospace vehicles.

PART I -

CONTRIBUTING TECHNOLOGIES

Progress in aerospace depends on the harmonious development of several scientific and technical disciplines. It is of no use to develop an excellent aerodynamic shape for flight (that was done for airfoils by Joukousky in 1876) if there ~s no engine available, which is at the same time light and powerfull enough. We may have the aerodynamics and . the engine, but the aircraft will not have the required payload and range. unless its structure is light and strong. Also. in order to achieve safe flight we need adequate control. The performance of the mission may require on-board electronics. e.g. for precise navigation from one point to the other. Also, an aircraft requires a number of systems. ranging from pressurization, to actuators or the landing gear. The fact that it flies in three dimensions. and has constraints on weight. size and power, means that each of these technologies has to be advanced to high degree, in order to be usable in aerospace vehicles. For this reason aerospace is a .leading developer and user of several advanced technologies.

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- AERODYNAMICS

Aerodynamics is converned with the flutd flow around the aircraft. as influenced by the shape of the wing. fuseage. control surfaces. air intakes. exhaust nozzles. etc ... Aerodynamics models involve: (I) incompressible flow for Mach numbers M s 0.3 (M=U/ c where U is the flow velocity and c sound speed) and compressible calculations at high sub-sonic 0.3 s M s 0.8, transsonic 0.8 ~ M s 1.2. supersonic 1.2 s M s 3.0 and hypersonic 3.0 s M s 26 speeds: (i1) invtsctd flows away from walls or turbulent regions. and viscosity effects otherwise; (iii) unsteady effects in the wakes of control surfaces.

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presence of vortex interactions, etc ... The solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, to account for viscosity effects. near a wall, in a compressible flow, with unsteady effects. for a realistic aircraft configuration, exceeds the capacity of the most powefull computers available today. Even in these computers simplifications have to be made. The predictions of computational flutd .mechanics have to be compared with measurements in flight. if the aircraft already exists. or with scale models in a wind tunnel. if it is under development. Making wind tunnel tests of models accurately represent the real aircraft in flight is a most difficult task: (i) the effects of wind tunnel walls must be accounted for. requiring a cross-section larger than the model: (tt) the model cannot be small otherwise the Reynolds number (Re = UL/v where L is a lengthscale, U flow velocity and v kinematic viscosity) is different from flight: (iii) the kinematic viscosity (v = III p, where Il is the static viscosity and p the mass density) may be reduced. and Reynolds number increased. by pressurizing the wind tunnel: (iv) to achieve a high Mach number it may be necessary to reduce sound speed (c = ~ 'YRTwhere R is gas constant. 'Y adiabatic exponent and T temperature) a criogenic wind tunnel with say nitrogen at T=.1 00 K. may be used: (v) at transonic speeds or to simulate engine operation, air may have to be supplied or bled out of the tunnel walls. A crtogeruc. pressurized wind tunnel of large cross-section. with perforated and movable walls,. is one of the most complex and expensive test facilities. in terms of power required. special instrumentation for low temperatures. etc .... The largest such facility in Europe, the ETW (European Transonic Wind Tunnel) shares costs between four nations. We can hardly do more than pick-out one of the the aerodynamic topics. viz. the wing planform. i.e. shape as the aircraft is seen from above. In order to fly long distances economically at low speed. an aircraft with a given weight should need low power. Since in straight and level flight (Figure 2) lift balances weight, and trust balances drag, we want high lift-to-drag ratio: this is the objective of good aerodynamic design. In an incompressible flow this is achieved with a wing planform like a Sailplane. viz. large span and small chord: their ratio is known as aspect ratio. and high values leads to high lift-drag ratios. At high speed. the effect of compressibility on drag is such that we need a low

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thickness to chord ratio. If the Wing Is not to be too thin. or lacking in internal volume for fuel. etc ... then it must have a large chord. either by being swept-back or of a delta (Le. triangular) shape. Thus we need a Wing with a large span and small chord (1.e. large aspect ratio) at low speed. and large chord and moderate thickness Ii.e. Iowthtckness to chord ratio) at high-speed. A solution is the variable geometry wing (Figure 3) which rotates about a pivot: (i) in the swept forward' position it allows low flight speed and economical subsoniC cruise: (il) in the swept-back position it gives low drag for high-speed flight without excessive power requirements. The swing-wing brings several structural complications. e.g. the structure .near the pivot must be very strong. it needs a powerfull actuator to push the wing forward from high- to' low-speed configuration. there must be an interconectlonbetween the wings to prevent 'asymmetric positions. etc.i. There are also aerodynamic problems: as the wing moves back the center of lift (c.l.) moves back. and this affects aircraft stability: the movement of thec.l. is reduced by having a fixed portion. or 'glove' of the wing. At low speed the fuseage , and wing glove make little contribution to lift. and the c.l. is that of the wing: at high speed the fuseage and wing glove contribute more to the total lift. and so the c.l. moves aft less than the wing. Even so a large tatlplane is needed to "trim" the aircraft. i.e. balance the shift in c.l.

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The preceding complications imply that the swing-wing is used mostly in a class of military aircraft used for long.-range ground attack. They use a forward sweed for long-range cruise to the target area. and rearward sweep for high-speed attack and escape. Most other military aircraft. and all civil. have a fixed planform shape, which is a compromise between low- and high-speed requirements. e.g. (Figure 4): the cranked delta combines. high-sweep near the fuseage, for highspeed flight with thickness for usefull internal volume. and a thin outer panel with lower sweep to increase span for low speed flight: the ogival wing of Concorde has high sweep inboard and outboard for efftclent supersonic flight. and a lesser sweep in the intermediate area, to keep internal volume for fuel. and increase span for landing at not too high speed. The compromises on (i) wing planform shape are an example of other aerodynamic compromises. such as: (tt) wing section. including

others at the sides of the rear fuseage. low risk of flame-out at high altitude.e. with less drag.PROPULSION AND NOISE Thts leads to the next topic of propulsion. and other control surfaces: (tv) location of engines. driven by two turbines. some jet airliners have engines underwing. All this is a complex compromise even for a single mission aircraft. and foremost. lowinstalation weight and volume. which involves not only the aerodynamics of the location of the power unit. In a jet engine (Figure 5) air is admitted via an intake to a compressor. t. jet exhaust clear of obstacles.g. for the same range. which drives the compressor via a shaft. via two concentric shafts (twin-spool engine). air intakes and gas exhaust. and variations from root to tip: (iii) size and relative position oftail plane. We pick the latter point. 1 kg of fuel per kilogram of thrust in one hour. To increase thrust it is possible to use two compressors. because fuel consumption. This . and a smaller engine for the same speed. and good aerodynamic interference with wing.5 shape. e. it is preferable to accelerate a larger mass of air at a lower speed. To reduce fuel consumption. vertical tail. for the same thrust. The location of the engine should provide good airflow at intake for all flight attitudes. low volume and weight. curvature due to movable sections. and the exhaust provides thrust. has a cascade effect on aircraft design: lower fuel consumption means. Also. lower fuel consumption means lower operating cost.e. rapid response to throttle. smaller tanks with less fuel: the reduction in volume and weight allows a smaller wing. i. low fuel consumption. like structural weight. and then mixed with fuel and burned in a combustor: it expands through a turbine. to improve efficiency. but also for the design of the engine itself. §3 . A turbojet has a specific fuel consumption of 1 kg/kg. We illustrate the search for low fuel consumption with jet engines.h. Thus a 1 kg reduction in one area may imply a 10 kg reduction in the overall weight of the aircraft. fuselage and control surfaces. hence needing less thrust. low risk of foreign object damage near the ground. foreplane. The design of the engine should provide tolerance to distorted airflow.

have an adverse effect on propulsion efficiency and fuel consumption. The turbofan engine (Figure 5) is less noisy than the turbojet. but the by-pass flow is also accelerated. unless fuel prices rise substantially.h for a turbojet. Acoustic treatments or noise absorbent linings in fan cases and exhaust nozzles are effective for high-frequency noise.h for a high by-pass ratio (6:1) turbofan. but add weight and decrease thrust. (if) the forward velocity of the aircraft.B kg/kg. The propeller becomes Inefftcient when the speed of blade.jet engine in which' the turbine drives a propeller (instead of a fan in the turbofan engine).6 kg/kg. or 0. tips approaches sound speed. Le. and scatters the noise of the core jet. but rather a propeller. of hot high-speed gases. like a jet airliner.B. because the core exhaust. which acts as a lowpressure compressor.6.h could be achieved for a by-pass ratio of 20: 1 to 30: 1: this is no longer a turbofan. which drive the fan and compressor. Over recent years more stringent noise limits have been .4 kg/kg. which goes through the high-pressure compressor. The speed of the propeller tip consists of two components (Figure 6): (1) the rotation velocity of the propeller. is surrounded by a cold by-pass flow of lower velocity. to O. which entrains large amounts of air. with curved and. (Ii) only a part is taken as a core flow. but with a fuel consumption lower than that of the turbofan. so that propellers are only efftclent below this speed. and allows the aircraft to -crulse at M=O. at a lower speed. which emits less sound. for this reason the turboprop engine was developed: it is a. A special design of propeller. it requires a new aircraft design. twisted blade tips. is called propfan. An even lower specific fuel consumption of 0. In the turbofan fuel is burned only in the core flow.6 is achieved in a twin-spool engine of turbofan type: (1) all of the air intake flow goes through a large fan at the front. The total' speed reaches M=1 when the aircraft is flying at about M=0. The propeller is the most efficient propulsion system at low speeds.h for a turbofan with low by-pass ratio of 1:1 (by pass flow equal to core flow). and then expands through two turbines. and replacing a fleet of aircraft is hard to justify on fuel economy alone. the result is a reduction of fuel consumption from 1 kg/kg. The prop-fan cannot be retrofitted to existing aircraft as a replacement for the turbofan. is burned in the combustor. A limitation on engine design is noise.

just aerodynamic compression in the intake and a combustor. This is usable in a military aircraft for short periods. and the range too short (e. The sonic boom is almost impossible to attenuate. ratio of 6: 1. i. For a supersonic transport the fuel consumption is prohibitive. because the temperature would be too high (e. This was done in turbojets by adding (Figure 5) an afterburner after the turbine. which is a happy but rare combination. The noise problem of the prop fan may affect both passengers in the cabin and others on the ground. Another problem is that the engine of a supersonic alrcraf~ must have a high exhaust speed. The propfan reduces fuel consumption relative to the turbofan. because the blade tips are close to the speed of sound. i. The extra fuel could not be burned in the combustor. Supersonic aircraft pose even bigger noise problems: the sonic boom prevents flight overland. We note in passing that at hypersonic speeds no compressor or turbine is needed. where more fuel is injected and burned. 1800 K) for the turbine to withstand (the limit of the latter might be 1300 K). and is. and double the specific fuel consumption to 2 kg/kg. Thus the high by-pass ratio turbofan reduces both fuel consumption and noise. stronger during acceleration from subsonic to supersonic speed. But this high exhaust speed makes the turbojet much notster at take-off than turbofans. and the reverse decceleratlon. and a future supersonic transport. anti -noise sources. as turbofans with higher by-pass ratio produce lower notse levels. nonafterburning turbojet for supersonic cruise. but produces more noise.g. must use a large.h. to increase thrust.e. leading to the ramjet engine. The most one can conceive for a supersonic engine is a variable-cycle engine which: (i) is a turbofan with a by-pass ratio of 1:1 at take-off and landing: (ii) in cruise the by-pass and core flows are . Tupolev 144) if afterburning is needed in cruise. The turbojet has the high exhaust speed necessary for supersonic flight. Thus Concorde.' and are not shrouded by nacelles or flow. so that the total fuel consumption per hour is tripled. The current noise standards are possible for turbofans with a high by-pass.7 imposed. nolse reduction is possible due to sound refraction in the flow or by active methods. An afterburner may increase the thurst of a turbojet engine by 50%.g. take-off at hig~ weight or combat.e.

etc . fairings. However the fighter with a carbon fiber wing already ... etc . shafts. but alloys using lithium and berillium offer somewhat higher strength-toweight ratio. An increase of lOOK in TET means a major increase in thrust and reduction in spectftc fuel consumption. Composite materials were used first for non-structural elements like doors. The design of a variable cycle engine is a complex task because: (1) it needs a change of internal geometry between turbojet and turbofan: (It) it must be efficient in supersonic cruise and have at take-off and landing noise levels comparable to those of airliners powered by high by-pass ratio turbofans. §4 - MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES The materials and structure are topics related both to aerodynamics and propulsion. Aluminium is the traditional material.. besides the overall issue of reducing the number of parts and components. like the compressor. combustor. There are problems in other parts of the engine. There i~ research on materials specifically aimed at the turbine application. One of the most complex tasks is the design of a turbine blade. the efficiency of an engine depends very much on turbine entry temperature (TET). and high-load areas may need titanium. which involves: (1) aerodynamic shape (airfoil section and twist from root to tip) designed for helical flow: (ii) optimization of blade cooling by choice of cavities and cooling flow: (iii) selection of materials and growth as a single crystal with minimum defects: (iV) design of the root and attachment to turbine-compressor shaft to take high centrifugal load (typically at 10900 rpm): (v) design of the tip with minimum clearance from the casing aI}d flow leakage. bearings. and the engine may take longer to develop than the aircraft (it is sometimes advised not to develop both at the same time). The airframe of the aircraft needs a light and strong materials and construction methods. The aerothermodynamic problems of engine development may be more complex than the aerodynamics of an airframe. The turbine is subjected both to hightemperature and high loads. bearing in mind thermal' expansion between 300K (cold engine) and I500K (maximum thrust).8 mixed to give a turbojet.. For example.

The swept-forward wing can be made aeroelastically stable by increasing the bending stiffness from root to tip.?: (iii) which construction and assembly techniques? The latter could Incltde superplastic explosive forming (the material is exploded onto a mold of the right shape). e. structural design. Thus the aerospace engineer has a complex task in deciding how to build the vehicle: (1) which materials should be used where? (ii) what kind of structure in terms of panel. and also the effects of lightning. etc . viz. so that control remains effective at the outboard sections. chemical milling for high quality finishing. since these materials are non-conducting. next a simpler example. and the all-composite fuseage may come with a future generation of airliners. until fracture occurs. the swept-forward wing (Figure 7). assembly using welding. and these tasks could be performed manually..9 exists. There are also various methods of assembly. using a thicker skin towards the tip.. from joining basic components and finishing later to the reverse. because if it is deflected by a load. flow separation at the root does not spread to the tip. it is aeroelastically stable. fasteners. The aim is to produce the lightest and strongest structure at the lowest cost. construction techniques and assembly methods which achieve that purpose and this is a good example of complexity. increasing again the load. We single out. It is much more complex to choose the combination of materials. designed to be difficult to detect. so that a load bends it in such a way as to increase the frontal area. by either absorbing or being transparent to radar waves. However it has the disavantage that flow separation at the wing root spreads outwards to the tip until control is lost. A sweptback wing is attached to the fuselage at the front and free to bend to the rear.g. and that is easy to state. In a swept-forward wing. resistance to fatigue. because it is fixed at the rear. The disavantage is that the swept-forward wing of uniform thickness is aeroelastically unstable. the bending moment tends to return it to the equilibrium position. by numerically controlled machines or by robots. which in the case of a composite wing means putting more layers . The application of composites to primary structure raises problems of resistance to damage and crack propagation. frames. All composite construction is already applied to 'stealth' aircraft and drones.

The bigger wing. The change from the transcontinental to the transatlatic aircraft required a larger wing. gives the best overall bending stiffness.g. §5 - CONTROL Aircraft control will be the subject of a lecture by Doctor Marc Pelegrtn. We start with active structural control. Involving a longer range. which will go much deeper than our brief overview from the standpoint of design integration.in air combat requires coordinated aerodynamic and propulsion control to do the most effective evasive manouever and gain a good. 880/990): (tt) the company (Boeing) quickly replaced the transcontinental aircraft (720) by an all new.10 towards the tip. We will take simpler examples. e. for maximum aeroelastic stability. implying pratically a new aircraft. The problem is then that of finding the optimum thickness distribution from' root to tip. larger fuel load and higher take-off weight. a fighter . to give volume for the additional fuel. These control activities may be combined. The subject of control is related to all other. This problem has been solved. firing position. would produce a larger bending moment at the wing root. which. In the past there were two possibilities: (1) the aircraft was a market failure because it could not fly the Atlantic (Convair . digital engine control. such as the flight control via aerodynamic surfaces. this would mean re-designing the wing box and fuseage attachment. subjected to the same flight loads. transatlantic aircraft (707). Instead structural active control was applied: the control surfaces were deflected on the wing. . by giving an actual example. An airliner (Lockheed Tristar 100) had been designed for transcontinental flights between the east and west coast of the United States: the intention was to adapt it (Trtstar 500) to transatlatic flights between the United States and Europe. and to take-off and cruise at higher weights. . and is not among the most difficult for structural optimization: the problem involving non-linear behaviour such as bucking may be more complex. or active structural control. and larger. involving only one control activity at a time. The advent of active ·structural control opened a new posibility. for a given amount of material.

g. negative stability means small trim forces. and thus increases lift.. e. and hence high manouevrability. which is designed to fly long distances at low altitude with high speed penetration. and thus had a variable sweep wing.) is ahead of the center of lift (c. and c. with the center of gravity ahead of the center of lift. landing or low speed flight. rather than aerodynamic control. Active load suppression can be used not only in derivative aircraft.by one of two means: (i) in an airliner the center of gravity may be moved aft by transfering fuel between tanks. to reduce the bending moment at the root.g. configuration the trim. A statically unstable configuration' can be obtained i~ flight. In this case the foreplanes provide gust load alleviation and ride control. Thus the larger wing. the control surface would deflect the wing down. Thus a canard fighter. and in high-speed low-altitude flight atmospheric gusts can cause structural vibrations which reach. cutting development costs to a half. as is most appropriate to take-off. For a fighter.11 to mintmize the structural loads.posiuon of the c. but also at the design stage. by reversing the . which deflect to p~ovide" gust alleviation and prevent the excitation of longitudinal vibration modes of the fuseage. For an airliner. can fly at lower speeds and take-off and land in shorter distances than a convential tailed aeroplane-of the same size. unconfortable amplitudes in the cockpit: for this reason the aircraft is fitted with a pair 'of foreplanes near the nose. which add to instead of subtracting .l and the trim load on the tail decreases lift. In Figure 8 we have considered stable static stability. The aircraft has a long fuseage.In a canard.g.l..l. the same fuseage structure could be used for both. if there was a wind gust causing an upload. load is applied on a foreplane. e. An example is the Rockwell B-1 strategic bomber. had the same bending moment as the smaller wing. like the Saab Vlggen. In a conventional statically stable aeroplane with tail (Figure 8) the center of gravity (c. with active load suppression. to a tank in the tailplane: (ii) in a fighter the center of lift moves forward at transonic and supersonic speeds. The use of foreplanes for aerodynamic control applies to fighters with the canard configuration which we discuss next.g. and . negative stability has the advantage of very quick response. .

g. such as magnitude of trim forces. Since a negatively stable aircraft cannot be flown manually. . because the response of the human pilot is too slow. the control system must have a very high redundancy: a triplex or quadruplex system. it depends on the aircraft configuration and the Judgement of the relative importance of various opposing factors. size of control surfaces.. less fuel. The complete separation means that . e. which can be switched-off by voting comparison with other channels. values can cause problems. each channel has its. The question of which is the optimum level of negative static stability has no universal answer. it can be controlled dynamically if deviations from equtllbrtum are compensated very rapidly by an automatic system.. lift: this allows a smaller Wing. Although a moderate amount of negative stability is desirable. In a triplex system voting can disable one channel only. . and a distinct program written in a different language. a smaller engine. large deflections. speed of control response. Le. hence less drag.12 from. etc. by requiring large 'control surfaces.etc. or even causing structural fatigue. each channel uses distinct hardware and software. too large. We have seen that negative static stability has benefits for a fighter in combat and an airliner in cruise. own computer and links. A programming error or a hardware fault thus disables only one channel. so that no single failure affects more than one channel.. but in a quadruplex system it can overcome two failures in turn. The main questions are: how can an aircraft fly with negative static stability? What are its limits? What is the optimum? An aircraft with negative static stability is like an inverted pendulum. controls and actuators.. requirements on actuators . with each channel completely separate from the others. the usual cascade leading to higher efficiency. very rapid response and hence placing heavy demands on processing.

so that. where control surfaces control the trajectory. If it flies at high-altitude. so that the likelihood of loss is high. or flying around hills.g. at night or in cloud.g. be triplex or quadruplex. The terrain-following systems preceded hlstortcally the control systems of unstable aircraft. which it can be intercepted. Such a system must be automatic and operate in all weathers. i~1 . so that no localized damage disables more than one channel. in the combination of control and radar in terrain following navigation. which provides an image of the ground ahead: (tt) a control system which modifies the aircraft trajectory to avoid obstacles. Since the system is critical to flight safety. masked by the hills. Suppose an aircraft is to attack a target among hills (Figure 9). In order to increase the changes of successful attack. or in ground attack a bomber releases a store. Terrain masking means flying low over hill tops. within limits. giving ample warning time. to be clear of hill tops. along valleys. it must have high redundancy. e. We Willtake a simpler example. A terrain following system depends on two elements: (H a forward looking radar. to induce the system to overfly them. the control system receives weapon aiming data.g. it is necessary to reduce the warning time. then it is detected at long range. even without visibility. balloons and other false obstacles can be put in Valleys. and survival. and use Similar redundancy principles. Another solution is . and other control surfaces control the attitude of the aircraft.13 §6 - ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS Control of course uses electronics. The terrain following system still has the dtsavantage that the radar emits ahead. putting the aircraft in an exposed position to ground artillery or missiles. and controls the aerodynamic surfaces and engines to fly the aircraft along the desired trajectory while pointing the nose in the right directions. This would lead us to the subject of decoupled flying modes. when in air combat a fighter tries to take a favourable position. the signal wires of each channel follow different paths. e. e. e. and interfaces not just With other electronic systems.g. For example. by flying low. the aircraft flies in one direction and points at another. navigation or fire control. with independent paths. and its signals can be used to detect the approaching aircraft: also.

The best known cases. The issues of data fusion are particularly critical for one type of aircraft: the airborne early warning. like the E-2 Hawkeye and.the problem of sensor fusion: of the various signals received by each sensor.14 the Tercom (Terrain Comparison) system used in cruise missiles. such as radar. the risk of detection is reduced. and also target tracking. and there is less time to interpret the data. because then it is connected with aerodynamics and propulsion. e. As the variety of sensors increases. The problem of control is more complex when it is associated with aiming a weapon. a pilot who has to fly the aircraft. E-3 Sentry. and changed to steer .g. 'or even a dedicated system operator. The radar can scan all airspace. This leads to. infra-red. The same target may be tracked by different sensors. this difficulty being resolved by flying in Circles. The task of fusion and interpretation of data from various sensors is again an example of complexity. not forwards as the terrain following radar. have a large radar aerial in a rotodome above the fuselage. and needs automatic data analysis. An interesting development is the use of conformal arrays fitted on the fuselage sides: this is cleaner from the aerodynamic point-of-view. which are targets. the missile may fly toward the target from one direction. their sensivity increases the number of signals. Each phased array consists of a matrix of emmitters. but in the final run-in change path to come from an unexpected. Also the digital map allows preprogramed trajectories. television or electronic surveillance: the tracking 'is preceded by target detection and selection. due not only to quantify but also due to amblgulty. decoys or spurious? How can we correlate the same target as detected by different sensors? In the past the interpretation of sensor data was made by human operators. may not-cope. or eventualy. Since the altimeter emits downwards. and. By matching the two the position of the missile or aircraft is established. except for the 'shadow' of the fuselage. and then adapted to aircraft. with phase shifts computed so as to form a radar beam. artiflctal intelligence. This system is based on the comparison of (1) a digital map of the ground stored in a computer: (ii) a radio or radar altimeter which measures the profile of the terrain below. or less defended direction. with a suitable choice of location can give instantaneous coverage in all direction.

fire-control and multi-mode radar..actuators. ground. and at last but not least the undercarriadge. plasma or liquid-cristal displays. and the co-existence of other means of detection (electronic.15 the beam electronically. or ram-air or auxiliary power units in emergencies. require hot air bled from the engine. . etc . fire suppression. beacons." the mechanical and electrical system in aircraft can be quite diverse including air conditioning and pressurization. controls. civil transponders and military identification systems. Besides. In modern high by-pass ratio turbofans the core flow is relatively small. central and distributed computers and data buses. each steering electronically several radar beams. self-test. infra-red and television sensors. de-icing systems. driven from the engine. monitoring and recording systems. such as hyperbolic. and de-icing of engine intakes and wing leading edges. from progress in electronic systems. The existence of several arrays. doppler. to form multiple radar beams. data links between aircraft and ground. The conformal array allows for various combinations of emitters. weatfier.· A number of functions on current aircraft. optical or surveillance) brings added complexity to the task of sensor fusion and interpretation. §7 - ELECTRICS AND MECHANICS The spectacular recent progress in electronic systems has received much more attention that the evolution of the old-fashioned electrical and mechanical systems. head-down and head-up displays. electronic cathode ray tube. hydraulic and electrical power units'.. and satellite navigation. terrain-following. Thus there is a trend away from pneumatic systems towards electrical . and scan different areas of air space. and benefitted from. pneumatic. collision avoidance. such as pressurization and air-conditioning of the passenger cabin. sea or . stabilized sights. as we show with one example each from the electrical and mechanical systems. • • ~f·. Whilst aerospace engineering has ocntributed to. radio and radar altimeters. UHF and VHF radio. which may track different targets. and to extract air for auxiliary purposes degrades engine performance. position. bearing and instrument landing systems. inertial. Some of these can be quite complex and sophisticated.

about 20 years in advance of ABS systems on cars: (il) the retraction mechanism may be quite elaborate to fit into the available space: (iii) they must be designed to fall by gravity or airloads. like carbon. samarium and other exotic and expensive materials are used. most have steering. Such substitution Is more or less difficult depending ·on the task. and it must be much less than 1% of the cross weight of the aircraft (compare with a carl). whereby electrical impulses break-up the accumulated ice. even longer for the undercarriage. Use of electric fans. in the event of power failure: (tv) some undercarriadge nose legs are extensible. but may give way to optical fibres. as a comparison with a car might show: (1) the four wheels of a car support up to 2 tons. at maximum landing weight. since no landing flare is used): (ti) all the kinetic energy at landing must be absorbed by the brakes. the brakes use materials with high heat capacity. All electric actuators for control and high-lift surfaces are too large and heavy. The difficulties in the design of an undercarradge are: (1) it must withstand. For de-icing hot air cannot be replaced by Joule heating. The undercarriage structure use~ light high-strength materials. Thus hydraulic actuation. and air conditioning is feasable. and must be stopped in 3000 meters from a landing speed of 250 km/h. at 3000 or 4000 psi will remain. a sink speed of 3 m/s (5 rrr/s for operations from aircraft carriers at sea. The task of undercarrladge design can be so difficult that at one time . The extreme case would be the all-electric aircraft where all hydraulics and pneumatic systems would give way to electrics. Aircraft undercarriadges can be quite sophisticated in other ways: (i) they have been fitted with anti-skid systems. to increase aircraft incidence for take-off. The undercarriage of an aircraft is a sub-system whose design can be quite difficult. and some are collapsible to take less space during retraction.16 and hydraulic systems. The undercarriage is 'dead weight and volume' from the point of view of mission performance. which is then blown away by aerodynamic forces. and the braking distance may be 300 meters from a speed of 170 km Zh: (ti) a Boeing 747 weights 300 tons at landing. All electric signalling is already in use. which are more imune to electromagnetic interference. heaters and coolers for cabin pressurization. to avoid aquaplanning on wet runways. unless cobalt. which is wasteful in energy: it is necessary to use electrical impulse de-icing. like titanium.

Establtshrng a specification or a set of requirements can be a complex task even for a civil airliner. when a new generation of aircraft is already available. §8 - CIVIL REQUIREMENTS We start the consideration of the method of establishment of a specification for an aircraft design with the simplest case of a single airline finding its needs.. and concludes it needs an aircraft with can fly a certain distance with a given number of passengers.. payload. e. over the second decade improved and modified versions may appear. or specification.. which may remain in service for a third decade . PART n- DEVELOPMENT CYCLE The preceding technologies.In terms of performance.. The development of an aircraft may take up to one decade. projects this data into the future. the number of passengers over each leg. ground and flight tests. do meet the specification. In the case of military aircraft the mission is to be performed in the . so that threat analysis is an important element. range. e. are integrated with regard to a mission.presence of an enemy. by taking the most advantage of contributing technologies. which the design must satisfy. speed. The airline studies its route structure. with introduces an element of complexity beyond the contributing technologies (Part I). It is then necessary to prove. that the prototypes based on the design .g. etc . and also satisfy various other safety standards and certification requirements. it leads to a specification . runway required. We proceed (Part II) to outline the life cycle of an aircraft.g. which has to meet the needs of several airlines with different route structures. Whatever the economic' or operational scenario. Paris to New York with 300 .17 the limitation of capacity in this area was decaying the development of new aircraft. It is the Job of the designer to find the aircraft configuration which rest meets the requirements. by means of simulation. which contribute to the design of an aircraft.

Thus the market analysis for' an airliner must take into account the present and future needs of several airlines. leading to a long range. and fuel tanks partially filled. certification.e. The two most important points in a payload-range curve are: (A) full cabin. (B) fuel tanks full. for the same gross weight. for the aircraft company. with a reduced number of passengers. even point higher. to minimize costs and investment in training aircrews and maintenance staff. with different stage lengths. or a similar cockpit in a large and a small capacity short range aircraft. with the maximum number of passengers and cargo. each more adjusted to certain sectors of its route structure. Besides having the absolute minimum number of different types of aircraft. only cargo is decreased: before point A . It may be that the development of new versions is needed to expand the market. to assess the sales prospects and life-cycle costs of the new aircraft. the same engine in a medium range twin-engine aircraft and a long range four-engine aircraft. compensate for the investment in research. Since no fuel is added. 18 passengers. such that the new model has a prospective market in number of units as large as possible. so that arriving at a specification is a compromise. some flexibility to meet different requirements as we illustrate next with the payload-range curve (Figure 10). Beyond point B the range increase is small. the airline will try to economize by having common elements. The aircraft designer has. production and support. and certainly larger than the break-even point. The aircraft 'designer needs to sell his aircraft to many airlines in order to reach production figures which break-even.· . leading to a short range. to trade fuel or range for number of passengers or cargo. due to limits on aircraft gross weight. the airline will try to minimize the number of different types of aircraft it operates. Of course the airline has many other routes. and its development potential for new variants. the specification is a compromise among the needs of several airlines. and in spares and repair and support equipment. however. The airline will also consider it has a mixed fleet with several types of aircraft. e. tooling. although it also increases costs and moves the break. and numbers of passengers. development.g. t. Between points A and B its possible. Thus. Nevertheless.

e. but clearly if affects lift and drag. Also. Some aircraft have special versions. The preceding discussion has concentrated" on payload-range. in hot-and-high airfields. in order to retain acceptable payload-range when operating from short runway. at high ambient temperature and high altitude. An aircraft can have several cruise speeds: (1) economical. or minimum percentage of seats filled. which require carefull study: they are interdependent. the cross section of the fuselage. but there are other aspects of performance. and a smaller number of passengers over a long-range.g. landing. for each cruise condition. Noise limits at airports may also reduce gross weight.g.. since the latter determines how much load"and fuel can be carried.due to being "unable to extend runways at certain airports. and are affected by choices of aircraft configuration... and/or require special take-off and landing flight profiles. Thus the most useful part of the payload-range curve is between paints A and B. Of course the airline has a load factor. then the gross weight is reduced. number of seat rows and aisles. size of containers in freight hold. etc . the payload-range depends on the aircraft gross weight at take-off. such as take-off. . cruise altitude. two different airlines.. The cross-section of the fuselage may be determined by passenger capacity.19 fuel is decreased and range lost.. but no passengers or payload are added. and hence all aspects of performance. If take-off is to be made from a short runway. with a larger wing and smaller fuselage. Each of these cruise conditions leads to a different payload-range curve. to make the flight profitable. and depends on other factors such as cruise speed and take-off weight. Clearly there are economic penalties . for which fuel consumption is lowest: (it) long range for which distance travelled is maximum: (iii) fast for which travel time is minimum. or the same airline on distinct routes. and the loss of payload and/or fuel means that the payload-range curve degrades down and to the left in Figure 10. The payload-range curve is not unique. climb and descent conditions. etc . e. giving the airline" some chotce. may use the same aircraft with a full cabin over short ranges.

political and social constraints. and achieve high rate of success and survivability in each mission? (11) given an aircraft and a set of primary and/or secondary missions. Thus there may not be enough aircraft to . e. and the capabilities needed to accomplish it sucessfully and with low losses. ground attack in close support of friendly troops. and what can the threat do to match it? All these factors are interrelated! e. Thus the establishment of requirements for military aircraft is a balance between two elements: (i) an assessment of the 'threat'. There are here several elements of complexity: (i) an air force has several missions and several types of aircraft: which aircraft should perform which mission. and evaluating which of the prospective weapon systems is most costeffective.e. (Hi) what investment do we have to do to gain and sustain thiS capability. and for how long can the mission be performed?. maximize the bang for the buck. and small numbers can be produced.20 §9 - MILITARY SCENARIOS The establishment of specifications for military aircraft can be even more complex than for airliners. air defence over friendly air space. both in quality and quantity. i. . This implies considering various scenarious of action against the threat. The cost-efectlvtness depends on many parameters. such as: (i) exchange ratio. and high mission success. bearing in mind that we want to minimize the number of different types' of aircraft. the environment is hostile. the greatest possible capability against the threat must. low-cost aircraft or a small number of very sophisticated warplanes? The military must 'look for the most cost-effective solution. and the effects of the enemy or 'threat' have to be taken into account: a very efflctent bomber is useless if it is short down easily. and its foreseable evolution: (11) a specification of the mtsston to be performed. it will be costly. Within that budget envelope . what level of capability should be sought: a large number of simple.g. how many of our aircraft. Le. with a given level of capability. are needed to defeat the threat?. long-range interdiction of targets 'deep into enemy territory.g. in addition to all the 'trade-offs on how to best perform the mission. The defence budget is determined by economic. air superiority over enemy air space. a very capable aircraft would have a high exchange ratio. (H) attrition: what losses will we and the threat incur. be obtained. because. however.

The specifications for an aircraft fall under two categories: (i) the general requirements and standards of safety and certification which every aircraft in that category must meet. cruise at a speed M=0. and they put an aircraft and crew at risk? The answer to all these questions. cost and numbers? Should some missions be abandoned. May be the solution is a high-low force mix with a small number of very capable aircraft and a larger number of less capable aircraft: but will the budget accomodate the life-cycle costs of two families of aircraft? And what level of capability should each have and what number should be bought of each? Would. depends on a number of other questions: (1) what is_the capability of the threat? (ii) what budget can we expect? (iii) what capability can be obtained from what technology and at what cost? (tv) how good are the scenarios. " § 10 . and drive costs too high? Should other missions also be abandoned! because their value is small. high· attrition. In the case of airliner the specification could be simply: take-off from a given runway with 300 passengers.expected of the particular aircraft to be developed. capability and cost? These are the kinds of complex defence analysis which determine which weapon systems should be developed and to what specification. and it is up to the designer to make the best use of available technologies to meet them.83 at 33000 ft altitude. The specification tells what capabilities the aircraft should have. The specifications may be short and simple for a civil aircraft and long and mutually interfering for a military aircraft.21- perform all the missions.SPECIFICATIONS AND DESIGN . and land . A simpler aircraft might be cheaper and available in larger numbers: but it might be unable to perform the more demanding missions. because they are too demanding. a single aircraft family be more effective? At what level of capability. they may be too outnumbered and suffer attrition without replacements being available. which may be called the design specification. or done in other ways. the Simulations and the assumptions on technology. (ii) the specific capabilities . We start with the latter. for a fixed budget. and it could suffer.

The. etc. and drive the design as regards cost and complexity.. etc. preliminary design phase may involve Simplified representations of the effects on the overall aircraft of local changes in aerodynamics. etc . etc . until a single configuration is chosen out of the intermediate phase. to select the most promising configurations. control. for they depend on how important is that extra capability for the missions envisaged for the aircraft: does that extra capability make the difference between mission . growth potential. development risks.except at high cost and complexity: this leads to two versions or two designs: (It) a more frequent situation is that in which some requirements are more demanding than others. The. leading to various possible situations: (i) a rare situation is that of incompatible requirements.. At the start of the design the experienced engineer considers a number of possible configurations.. wind tunnel tests. Each of these is then evaluated against the others in a series of more detailed studies. This raises the question: should we accept the cost and complexity of meeting the most demanding requirement? Or should some requirements be relaxed to allow a more cost-effective solution? These question cannot be answered by the aircraft designer alone.. ground rigs and simulators.. prior to detailed design.22 10000 km away at a given runway. looking not only at how well the specification is met. and leads to a few more promising configurations. structures. model flight tests. engines. In the c~se of military aircraft there are usually several requirements. propulsion. process of turning that specification into a design is even more complex. control surfaces. using computer projections. concerning wings. and it is necessary to proceed via partial and sequential optimizations. but also at other consequences of the design: performance in secondary roles.. He then conducts comparisons. and many trade-off studies. which a single aircraft cannot meet . so that a complete optimization is not possible. The final phase is the refinement of each aspect of the design. which are not independent. This preliminary design phase may involve hundreds or thousands of configurations. We have already seen (§8) that arriving at such a simple specification way involve complex analyses of airline route structures and elaborate market prospective studies. production cost. fuselage.

the configuration and capability of the aircraft have been fixed. Thus some Air Forces are putting forward less rigid specifications. .but whatever is done afterwards the cost of the programme cannot e be -changed by more than 10%.tdea is to tell the designer what results he should aim for. in two ways: (i) as money which was already spent: (il) as money which 'was committed. life-cycle cost. Thus the designer has multiple objectives. so 90% of the cost of the program has been decided: at this. to assess what is the operational value of that extra capability. This combination of operational scenario and design options makes the aircraft optimization even more complex. The conclusion is the following: at time T in the preliminary design phase. maintenance and reliability targets. greater freedom of choice and a more complex optimization. because design decisions have been made. time only 10% of the money has been spent. The realization that 90% of the cost is fixed. without restricting his choice on how to do it. giving ranges of variation. The .afterwards. when only 10% of the money has been spent. All that can be done after time T Is to spend that extra money. it is half-way between that and Just meeting a specification at any price. and it will no longer be possible to reduce cost . Although this is not a design-to-cost exercise (the best you can do at a given price).23 success or failure. which are acceptable from the operational point of view. The designer is left. etc . or is it needed to give a good chance of survival? Or the loss of that extra capability has a modest effect on survivability '~d mission sucess? That question has to be put to the Air Force.. This is illustrated in Figure 11. The 'flexible' specification involves not only ranges of variation for performance but also economic objectives such as: production costs. free to seek a higher or lower performance as he thinks he can do a more cost-effective design. Getting the designer involved with cost-efectiviness means he has to consider operational aspects as well as the relevant technologies in his trade-offs. means one must be very carefull about the specification and design: once those are fixed there is very little room for any cost savings. The preceding example highlights a complex and important issue: the relation between the operational requirement and the program cost. where we plot against the development time in years the cost.. .

and may proceed to a complete airframe. The certification of a new civil aircraft to US FAR-standards or European JAR-standards takes at least one year and thousands of flying hours. and can last several years and a few thousand flying hours... performance. etc . The civil airworthiness requirements are concerned mostly with safety and environmental protection.24 § 11 - CERTIFICATION AND TESTING Besides the specifications for the aircraft there are military standards or civil airworthiness requirements.. but not the civil. which act as design constraints. A wide range of facilities is used for testing depending on: (1) the type of testing: wind tunnels for aerodynamics. involving take-offs. shakers for structures. and the fatigue life of the ground specimen must be ahead of the aircraft in service for the logest time. The compliance with the requirements must be demonstrated by aproved methods of ground and flight testing: the latter are also needed to prove that the specification has been met. rigs for controls and systems: (ii) the stage of testing development. loaded by shakers and fitted with strain gauges. landings. hot) or man-made "(survivability to damage by weapons. testing of cabin furnishings for strength. demonstration of escape procedures from cabin. The military standards involve many compatibility and standardization aspects. Manufactorers of airliners which sell aircraft as military transport may find that the main modification is to produce tons of additional documents. All this validation testing is preceded by development testing. Simulating hostile environments.. both natural (cold. authorities care about. structural testing starts at the development stage with components. like ultimate fracture load. and may be followed by tests through the life of the aircraft. etc . validation and continuation testing . verification of flight critical hardware and software. For example. The ground structural tests must precede the measurement of loads in flight. The military testing may be even more severe. l. noise measurements: in addition there are ground tests for structural integrity. altitude chambers for engines. Some tests. flammability. and can be much more extensive thgan civil standards. handling. can be done only on the ground. which only the military.

Then a ground rig is built. In this way. This unprecedented safety in the development and testing of aircraft is ultimately due to progress in mathematical modelling. during their development and testing phase. of course. before continuing with the tests. e. It is a remarkable fact that the most modem fighters. its causes are identified and corrected. all of the supersonic centuryseries fighters developed jn the US in the sixties and seventies had several crashes of prototypes: much the same can be said of other combat aircraft. particularly in the military field. The' needs for testing increase when there are development problems or new designs. as long as no discrepancies arise. If a test confirms the prediction. starting with the 'safest'. For each flight critical system a mathematical model ts developed. at any time up to the 1980's. This used to be an expensive aand risky phase of aircraft development. one proceeds to the next test point. and high -speed computers for real time data analysis. and have to be proved safe by testing to those limits. Modern flight testing uses telemetry to relay data to the ground.25 - may use the same or different facilities: (iii) the facilities may be owned by the aircraft industry or national research establishments. the response of an unstable aircraft to inputs and its control system. The flight tests are done to check the validiuty of the control system at various points of the flight envelope (Figure 12). which ate more complex and capable than anything which preceded them. . if there is . Thus a totally new system can be tested to its limits. in some cases none at all. For example.a discrepancy.g. depending on scale and cost: (tv) the test procedures may be defined by the manufacturer for development. several test points can be covered in a single flight. and flown by a pilot in a Simulator. but must be approved by the authorities for certification. the flight testing of prototype aircraft. to refine and optimize the control system. have had few accidents. and proved safe. The ultimate validation is. In this way a potentially dangerous incident is detected and corrected before it can become an incident. by a testing process that puts aircrew and aircraft in no danger. where aircraft are flown near to their limits in operations. whether developed in the US or abroad.

which is an aeroelastic instability associated with flow induced vibration of control. Yet the duration of flight test campaigns for certification and validation has not reduced. where we have indicated the various boundaries: (1) the stall limit is the lowest speed at which the aircraft generates enough lift to compensate its weight. say. flutter. transmit and analtze thousands of signals at high sampling rates. because the amount and variety of testing Is continually increasing. i. a control system is safe. but as speed increases so does drag. ~r density and dynamic pressure are less. which is illustrated as altitude' versus speed for a fighter in Figure 12. the dynamic pressure (2 p U2 with P mas density 1 and U airspeed) sets a structural load limit: (iii) at higher altitude. In order to ensure that. do flutter boundaries lie inside the flight envelope? The real-time flight testing. e. record. (iv) within its flight envelope. as aircraft become more complex and sophisticated.g. Thus flight testing is now much faster. To put in another way. the amount of flight testing required for development and certification would be prohibitive in terms of time and cost without large sensor arrays and real time data analysis. where thrust is just enough to keep level flight. a . surfaces. suggesting an array of test-point as in Figure 12. until it reaches a ceiling.e. I. is that often it must cover the entire flight envelope. which are a costly phase of aircraft development. using telemetry and high-speed computers. allow a larger number of tests to be performed in a single flight. it must be tested over the whole flight envelope. requires testing near the boundaries of the flight envelope.26 This reduces the time spent on flight tests. the aircraft has enough excess thrust to climb. to determine whether flutter is or not problem. Modern instrumentation systems can measure. and nO further steady climb is possible. Certain types of testing. gain altitude. and it increases as air density decreases with altitude: (It) at high speed and low altitude.e. safer and efflctent. until it matches the thrust available from the engine. One of the reasons aircraft testing is a major task.

One of the major causes of aircraft accidents to emerge recently. In this way corrective measures are taken before incidents become accidents. but for civil aircraft confort is also a major consideration. This safety has been achieved to a high-degree in aircraft. with changes in ambient density and temperature. Fire resistance. In some respects the safety precautions in aircraft exceed those in an ordinary home. etc . and can cause an aircraft to increase its sink rate at landing. after 25. transponders for collision avoidance. for example. A horne is filled with objects which can break and cause injury: fittings and seats in aircraft are designed to resist abuse and crash loads. It is the constant concern with safety. like all others certification requirements. on average. large altitude variations. It should be noted that in civil aviation there is an 'incident' reporting system. much lower than that of cars. he would have an accident.000 km). as rising safety standards eliminate other causes.g. There are always limits to safety. The accident rate of aircraft per passenger-kilometer is. reduce the risk of accidents which are already rare. This is an atmospheric event which produces a downflow near the ground.. where' an unsafe but non lethal occurrence is reported. e.SAFETY The certification and testing are required to ensure that the aircraft is safe to fly. or are shielded by non-combustible coverings. In the case of military aircraft safety is paramount. with the source de-tdenttfled. or reduce climb rate at . although it operates in a difficult environment: control in three dimensions. testing. This means that if a passenger flew every week around the world (40. New types of equipment. atmospheric storms. and validation which makes aircraft safe by using proven advanced technology in a demanding environment. so causes of accident unotlced before become apparent. is the windshear. require testing using aproved procedures.000 weeks or 5 centuries. Both of these reduce the lift.. which often cause more casualitles than the fire itself: such materials are banned from aircraft interiors. Many of the furnishings in a home produce large quantities of toxic fumes in case of a fire. large speed range including very high speeds. The current accident rate in jet airliners Is one fatality by hundred-million 108 flight hours. and a change from headwind to tailwind.27 §12 . and as the safety of airliners increases.

although most spins are recoverable.000. A windshear is a very rare occurrence: once in every million landings. The spin is rare in ctvtl aircraft. which do not fly at extreme altitudes. such a rare occurrence is a major contributor to accidents. most fatal losses of control end up in a spin. or agresstve manouvering . such as rain. which is uncontrolled and causes a rapid altitude: it may be fatal near the ground. the spin is the major cause of accidents: of a famous fighter with a production run of 4. a laser to measure changes in wind velocity. A wtndshear is dangerous when close to a runway end. For military aircraft. -given high safety standards in other areas. in particular in combat and in wartime. excepts after a major failure. The solution to the windshear problem is to detect it early and divert the aircraft to another runway or airfield.g. Also. over 500 were cost in spin accidents over 20 years. The high manouver limits and thrust to weight ratio of modern aircraft mean that they fly at large angles of attack and stdsltp. e. and its justtftcatlon for such a rare event: do you put a laser wind detector in an aircraft which is most likely never to find a windshear? Is a ground based Lidar (laser radar) reliable enough? -What is the most cost-effective solution? Military aircraft are flown in more extreme ctrcunstances. The decision of whether to install such equipment .28 take-off. or require a difficult ejection if control is not regained at a safe altitude. A spin is a spiralling fall of an aircraft. cloud and other storms may require more than a radar. and thus at higher risk. the cost of ground and airborne installation. because it can cause an aircraft to land short of the runway or to fail to climb after take-off.on the aircraft or on the ground is a complex one: it depends on the efficiency of the equipment. The remote detection or distinction between windshear and other atmospheric events. To put it in another way. realistic training means flying in conditions not too different in peacetime or wartime. The measures taken by the military to safeguard against spin accidents are manifold: (0 every training aircraft is used to demonstrate spin entry and recovery for pilots: (Ii) every operational aircraft is . Yet.in air combat. where abrupt manouvers or an engine flame-out can cause entry into a spin. whether it means low level flying for terrain masking.

spin is probably a chaotic phenomenon: (iii) flight tests try to cause spins in all possible ways. starting at high altitude. t. The spin is an exampleof a complex phenomenon of importance to safety. then appropriate control action could lead to spin recovery. and inyolve vortlcal or separated flows. (tv) control systems have hard limits to prevent inadvertent spins. under non-linear aerodynamic forces and moments. aerodynamic and control effects. the latter become innefective and the spin is unrecoverable.. with six degrees-of-freedom. except for some results from bifurcation theory: (il) spin tests with aircraft models in a vertical wind tunnel depend very much on the 'skill' of the operator in throwing the model with the 'right' initial conditions. control and physiological aspects. to which mathematical modelling has not been applied with much success. which may be summarized as follows: (1) find all possible spin modes of an aircraft: (It) show all possible of starting each spin mode (to avoid it. Dynamically a spin is the motion of a rigid body. The latter can be quite complex. The problem of spin has dynamical. If the separated flow affects the controls. that an operational aircraft may find itself in -a spin never found before. Yet the spin continues to be a major cause of accidents. and what is the best control action? (iv) if the spin is dangerous to the pilot how long does he have to eject without injury? . (v) there are so many spin modes. because a spinning aircraft may have high angles of attack and side-slip. the human mind imagines that the aircraft turns a few more times. All these are aspects of the spin problem. One of the effects of spin is severe spatial desorientation of the pilot. and methods of entry and recovery. Even when the spin stops.e. If some control power remains . of course): (iii) if a spin mode has been entered is there recovery. aerodynamic. A very severe spin can involve accelerations which cause 'Injury to the pilot prior to ejection.29 tested extensively to find when it enters a spin and how to recover. and trying various recovery techniques: (iv) if recovery fails at intermediate altitudes a large anti-spin parachute is deployed to stop the spin. (iii) flight manuals deal with spin prevention and recovery. If the spin is severe it may be difficult to abandon the aircraft. (i) it is a complex non-linear interaction of rigid body. and the engine is re-started if it has flamed out in the mean time. because:.

30 § 13 - PRODUCTION AND MODIFICATION The recovery of an aircraft from extreme flying conditions also depends on the ability of the structure and systems to survive high loads. may be so specialized that there is no choice of alternative sub-contractors. The timely and economical production of an aircraft is a complicated process. Certain sub-systems. This brings us back design aspects. The market for airliners responds by amplification to economiC boom of depression. and other conditions complicating the assessment of economic benefits. also affect the technologies to be employed. and leading to waiting periods for delivery from zero to forty months. performance. such as performance and a safety margins. both by the decision to be taken and by the number of partners involved. Sales may be affected by credit terms. Some sub-contractors may share development and production risks and costs. raisong questions such as: (i) what is the best choice of material and constructiori technique for each part? (ti) should it be produced m8?ually. such as undercarrtadges or engine nacelles. The sale of the . But aircraft design is affected not only by specifications. and some long lead items may have to be ordered up to two years in advance. by numerically controlled machine or by a robot? (iii) should it be produced in-house or supplied by a subcontractor? (lv) sub-contracting should be limited to small parts or extend to major sub-assemblies? (v) which sub-contractors canibe relied upon for critical sections involving advanced technology? (vi) how can the risks of production delays due to a few components be avoided? (vii) should sub-assemblies come fully furnished (Airbus method) or be assembled first and fitted later (Boeing method)? (viii) how should the final assembly line be organized for maximum rate production? (Ix) what test and quality pro~edures to ~mploy? (x) how to convert former staff and train new staff for an increase in production? = To gain an idea of the slope of these questions. an aircraft production programme may have tens of thousands of sub-contractors in several continents. changing production rates over a factor of five. taking in older aircraft for re-sale. certification and safety standards: the requirements of production. operation and maintenance.

This account could be misleading if 'We did not mention the way in which the same basic technologies can be combined to produce different kinds of airplanes and another types of aerospace vehicles. like agricultural or aerobatic aircraft. (iii) the Olympus engine Concorde has a 16-ton thrust and was derived from an initial version with a 5-ton thrust. decade. (11) modified and improved versions of the aircraft can be produced another 10 years. and the income tens of airlines.000 km with 120 passengers in the series 10 to a range of 16. testing and certification. Apart from special cases. The overall economics' of an aircraft program is difficult to assess because it involves many elements: costs of research and development. The costs may involve tens of thousands of subcontractors. and revenues from direct sales and spares.31 aircraft is folowed by the supply of spares over ten years or more.TYPES OF VEHICLES contributing to the development cycle of aerospace vehicles has used as examples mostly airplanes. However product support requires a holding of many types of costly spare parts. civil airplanes fall in Our outline of the technologies . tooling and production. PART m . in different versions. development cost Justified by a better integration of new technologies? That dectston may have to be Justified over a time-span of two decades. The ftnanctal picture changes over many years: (1) from the start of market studies to the aircraft entering service in quantity may ellapse 5 to 10 years. The development potential of aircraft and engines is such that one of the most difficult questions a manufacturer may have to answer is: when should improvements to an aircraft stop in favour of a completely new design? Is the higher " . and decide whether the company survives or not.000 km with 260 passengers in the series 70. To give examples: (I) the Boeing 747 has been in production. which may be a significant addition to purchase cost. until superseded by new models: (iii) even after new models appear the older aircraft ~ay remain in service for a third . for 20 years: un the Douglas DC-8 was developed from a range of 9.

32 _ the transport category. which are usually specially designed or converted ltghtplanes: (iii) fire-fighting aircraft. of other combat (fighters.. which are amphibians or groundbased aircraft. All these vehicles. with business Jets and regional aircraft in between. space launchers. etc .· training) types. short.. bombers) and non-combat (reconaissance. As an illustration of the civil aircraft market. some serving as business transports. we recall briefly the history of jet airliners. together with some jets.. many different types. and satellites. there are helicopters. (iii) cargo aircraft. which can be a hazardous mission. medium. but there is a variety. listed in Table I use the same basiC technologies to perform different missions. The jet transports includefast. but small business Jets with 8 to 30 seats. in the category of vertical/short take-off and landing (V/Stol) aircraft. and other rotorcraft.(3000 to 5000 krn) or long-range (5000-16000 km) airliners. which may have four engines or more. of which there are. (11)regional transports. varying from small (100-200-seat) to large (200-400 seat). cargo aircraft which may be or not conversions of airliners. the latter are the most important class. Aerospace vehicles other than airplanes include remotely piloted vehicles or drones. which spray pesticides contained in a tank. produced by amateurs to their own design. on forest fores: (tv) training aircraft. with 2 to 16 seats.(l000 to 3000 km). The propeller driven transports include: (1) single or twin engine Ilghtplanes. The closest military aircraft are passenger and cargo airplanes. The special purpose aircraft include: (1) agricultural aircraft. The first Jet airliner was British. Besides conventional airplanes. and payloads of tens of tensor. (ii} aerobatic aircraft.Civil airplanes can be classified (Table II) into special purpose aircraft. as detailed below: §14 - AIRPLANES (CIVIL) The . usually twin engine. in low flying. which may be adaptations of lightplanes: (v) homebuilt aircraft. ~r from plans bought from others. like tilt-wing and tilt-rotor: the latter fall. between 12 and 70 seats. and propeller driven and jet transports. the De . ranging in size from lightplanes to jetliners. designed or converted to drop water o~ fire retardants. missiles.

but with more modest success. an hitherto little known problem in aviation. which developed in sucessive versions. 260. and designed a larger aircraft. and the One-Eleven Douglas DC-9/Boeing 737 on shortrange sector. with two engines at the 'sides of the rear fuselage: it was a technical success. ·Its commercial success was helped by the fact that the US Air Force ordered 622 as in-flight refuelling tankers. In the meantime the Boeing 727 . The British aircraft industry tried to compete with the US in every range category: the Vickers VC10 versus the Boeing 707/Douglas DC-8 in long-haul. which flew for the First time in 1958 (one year after the Boeing 707). with sales of one or two hundred. which was a transcontinental aircraft. which has since been mastered as a consequence of this . and sold modestly (about 100) for routes between the east and west coasts of the US Boeing realized that the North Atlantic was a better market. but the small French company could not match the marketing clout of the US Giants. used to extend the range of its bomber fleet. A competitor was the Convair 880/990. the De Havilland Trident versus the Boeing 727 in medium-range. which preceded the commercial 720 and 707. monopolizing the market as it developed. and making enough profit for extensive updates. sold nearly one thousand. but its career was doomed by early problems with structural fatigue. compared to one two thousand. and sold 2000. . while the Douglas DC-9 and Boeing 737 sold over 1000 each. The Douglas DC-8 remained as a competitor to the Boeing 707. the 720 which had transcontinental range. it went out of the jet airliner business.appeared as the medium-range trt-jet. like the Boeing 720: the market was small. Boeing developed . before being replaced by stretched. It introduced a new configuration for jet aircraft.33 Havilland Comet. With this large and profitable backlog of military orders. and years ahead of the competition. The next jet transport was the Boeing 387. the Sud-Aviation Caravelle. which flew in 1952. and since Convair lacked the ressources (or military orders) to develop a transatlantic aircraft. The British aircraft were in no way inferior to the American aircraft in originality or . the 707. second-generation versions of the Boeing 737 and Douglas DC-9. unfortunate case. ending its former long line of propeller driven transports. The Caravelle sold only . The first short-range jet transport was French. In all cases the British lost to the Americans.

Boeing 747 has sold for twenty years. the first widebody. but they were designed to the peculiar needs of British state airlines. which impressed the market with a . which would have caused its bankruptancy. and made good technical choices prevail over the political impositions on 'Government Airplanes' of the past. had it not been bought by McDonnell. The architect of this was Airbus. or better. as the . its rescue by the US Government. and were poorly adjusted to world markets.. Boeing had only one way to match the low operating costs of the late DC-8 series 60/70: it launched a totally new aircraft. the American manufacturers Boeing and Douglas. another wide-body medium-range trt-jet. a consortium of European aircraft manufacturers in several countries. whose sales were half those of the Boeing 707. the DC-8/series 60-70. which put their skills and ressources together. Their modest sales did not allow the kind of continued development. which watched their competition." The McDonnell Douglas DC-lO (or MD-lO) had a competitor in the Lockheed L-lOll Trtstar. by stopping production of the only aircraft which could match its low seat-mile costs. Douglas made the success of the Boeing 747 easier. provided the ·technical background. the 747. Ironically. very profitably. The gamble paid-off. which did cause the demise of the company. Airbus rose from nothing to challenge Boeing on the basts of exploitation of market holes with aircraft of superior quality: (1) it started with the Airbus A300/310. Europe re-entered the jet airliner market in the secondgeneration (Table IV) with degree of success never attained in the ftrst-generatton. were dominant on the world market. Again here. when the fuselage was stretched to take 260 instead of 180 passengers. finally got an edge. the military engine for a large military transport aircraft. At the end of the first generation of jet liners (Table III). for the aircraft needed the ftrst high by-pass ratio turbofan in commercial use. for it has no direct competitor. the DC-lO. It was a huge ftnanclal gamble. a threeengine medium-range aircraft. the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy. The reason was that Douglas wanted to sell its new wide-body. the first wide-body twin-engine short-range large capacity aircraft. ·which eventually made the American aircraft superior in their later versions. The Douglas DC-8.34 technical quality. Since the Boeing 707 did not have the same development potential.

Boeing has had a strong point: it offers a complete range of aircraft (small to large. or 'perform other surveillance or intelligence mission. . confort and reliability. and maybe the market cannot Justify them anyway. record electromagnetic data. the Boeing 777. assess tactics to be employed. so that at anyone time at least one model is selling well. makes it more economical than any improved versions of the Boeing 737/McDonnell Douglas MD-9:DC-9. §15 . ships. short to long range). (iii) at last Airbus challanged Boeing on the long-range airliner market with the Airbus A330/ A340.AIRPLANES (MILITARy) We may classify the military airplanes tnto combat and non. (ii) long-range maritime patrol aircraft. or casualty evacuation. The transport aircraft fall into three categories: (1) strategic. equiped with radar and other sensors. which take photographic images. to flnance the development of others and keep the company afloat. (v) the latter mayor may not be combined with command aircraft. and is now in a position similar to.35 its economy.. which detect and attack submarines. [ti) tactical. McDonnell Douglas may not succeed in finding the ressources to develop successors to" the MD-9 and MD-IO. before the Boeing 767/757 appeared as non-Inovattve competitors. the first airliner with relaxed longitudinal 'stability. transport and miscellanous. which move smaller loads from the long runways where strategic aircraft can land.. Itt) it followed with the Airbus A320.. whose superior technology. The latter (Table V) include trainers. and transmit orders to the available forces. with which it is competing' over the whole range of airliners (Table IVJ. which tries to match Airbus technology for the first time in a Boeing design. to smaller airfields closer to the . which are equiped to receive data on the operational situation. Airbus has overcome its handicap of manufacturer of a single model of aircraft. installations. to detect aircraft. (iii) reconaissance aircraft. which carry large numbers of troops and heavy equipment (up to main battle tanks) over intercontinental distances. The third competitor. forcing Boeing to 'protect' the Boeing 747 with a new aircraft. (tv) airborne early warning aircraft. Boeing. ground forces. derided as 'wondermachine' by Boeing. combat types. The miscellanous include: (1) lightplanes used for observation. .

and may be helicopters as well as airplanes. such as air superiority. Concerning fighters (Table VII).36 frontline: (iii) intra-theater. or interception. involving detection of enemy aircraft at long ranges: (it) air-to-ground missions. or read to an effective dedicated ground attack variant. Thus the bombers may be classified into: (1) strategic. they perform the role of 'light' bombers. such as close support of friendly troops. usually a two-seat modification. respectivelly for air-to-ground and air-to-air missions. . We concentrate next on the evolution of Jet fighters. of sufficient performance to demonstrate in a realistic manner the essential flying skills.' which is the best example of incorporation of advanced technologies. Since most fighters can be used for ground attack as a secondary role. typically 800016000 km: (ii) medium. typically 2000-6000 krn: (tii) the light bombers are replaced by long-range interdiction fighters. carrying a very large load over intercontinental ranges. The training aircraft correspond to the hierarchy of the training syllabus: (i) primary trainers are small lightplanes used to essess rapidly and at low cost whether a candidate has the potential. or have dedicated ground attack variants. with the added advantage of having a better self-defence capability. The combat aircraft traditionally include bombers and fighters. which deliver smaller loads to the combat area. The evolution of the jet fighter follows in all countries (Table VIII) five generations. which carry large loads over transcontinental ranges. they may perform: (1) air-to-air missions. with performance and handling approaching those of combat aircraft: (v) all pilots have conversion training prior to converting to an operational aircraft. which carry out strikes up to 1000 km from the frontline. and there may be regular or irregular refresher courses using the conversion training version of the operational aircraft. Usually a good air superiority fighter can perform well a secondary ground attack role. The main Jet bombers produced in some numbers are listed in Table VI. involving air combat over short ranges. at a moderate cost: (iii) pilots destined for non-combat tasks then proceed to multi-seat crew training aircraft: (Iv) other pilots proceed instead to advanced trainers. or long-range interdiction to destroy targets deeper into enemy territory. to become a pilot: (it) basic trainers are turboprop or jet powered aircraft.

limited by fuel consumption with afterburner: the fifth generation of agile aircraft uses a thrust greater than combat weight to sustain hlgh-g turns (up to 7g) which require high lift.e. the reduction of overall wave drag requires fuselage area ruling. reduced infra-red emissions from engines). provided by the first afterburning turbojets.e. In the second generation wings with moderate sweep delayed compressibility effects to M=O. For the same payload. so that the fuselage has reduced cross-section ('coke bottle' shape) near the wings. because the power produced by a piston or turboshaft at high .95. a smooth evolution of total cross-section along the length of the aircraft. to achi~ve this the centrifugal compressors in early Jet engines were replaced by axial compressors. and small acceleration over a long time. i. to reduce frontal area and drag. and other low observables (e. ceiling and climb rate reduced manouvrability. In the third generation low supersonic speeds were attained by using wings with high-sweep or delta platforms with thickness-to-chord ratios of less than 5%.8. without the benefit of aerodynamic lift which an aircraft gains during the take-off run: Similarly for landing.37 which are similar in technology and capabilities (Table IX). The f)rst generation Jet fighters were basically propeller designs with the piston engines replaced by early Jet engines: their unswept wings had compressibility problems at M=O. The sixth generation uses engines sufficiently p~werful" without afterburrung to sustain supersonic cruise with moderate fuel consumptions: the advantages of supersonicmanouvering are enhanced by a composite structure reducing radar reflections.g. limiting the speed of these aircraft. high speeds were achieved with small excess of thrust over drag. i. allows speeds of Mach 2. Also. for low wave drag: even so increased thrust was required for supersonic flight. an helicopter needs two to three times the power of an airplane for it lifts-off vertically on engine power alone. and involve high drag. § 16 - ROTORCRAFT Airplanes are the most numerous class of aircraft. Greater thrust augmentation with afterburner (up to 50%) in the fourth generation. an helicopter is mechanically much more complex than an aeroplane of Similar payload. The race for speed. the next being (Table X) helicopters.

such as search and rescue and off-shore oil support. an helicopter cost two to three times more to build and operate than an airplane of similar payload. or a busy personality pressed for time: (iii) support of isolated facilities hardly accessible by other means. on the civil side: (1) search and rescue of survivors of shipwrecks.. to ensure stability. The development of the helicopter was historically delayed relative to airplanes due to ground resonance induced by the rotor.g. as well as higher failure rates: they have a safety plus. with take-off and landing paints close to the destinations. The more sophisticated helicopters have: (1) twin interconnected engines driving a common gearbox for safety. rain and strong winds. Modern helicopters are noisier and have higher levels of Vibration than airplane. requires lubrtflcatron and maintenance. be it a patient requiring urgent mefical treatment. On account of the greater power requirements and increased complexity. in cloud. to monitor traffic Jams.. : (tv) ground observation requiring stationary or quasi-stationary positioning. which Virtually shattered to pieces. the first prototypes. Furthermore. and prevent the fuselage turning in opposite direction to the rotor.. over rough seas or inhospitable land. e. with the power of one engine being increased for a limited time (half to one hour) in the event of failure of the other engine: (It) equipment for IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) . until that problem was solved. The rotors must be mechanically interconnected. Some of the missions performed by helicopters. the possibility of autorotation landing following an engine failure.. and all this gearing causes noise and vibration. such as offshore oil rigs. The cost and complexity of helicopters relative to an airplane can be justified only for those mtsstons where vertical take-off and/or landing is essential.38 revolutions (2000 to 10000 rpm) must be transfered to the rotor at much lower revolutions (200 to 300 rpm) Via a gearbox. Such missions include. assess the effects of natural disasters. there must be either contra-rotating main rotors (coaxial tandem or displaced sideways) or a tall rotor (open or ducted). can be very demanding: they have to be flown in bad weather. control riots. victims of ski accidents. and people cut-off from other means of communications "by man-made accidents or natural disasters: Hi) rapid transport over-congested areas. involves some power losses and increases production cost. powerplants in remote locations. viz. etc. etc .

e. and provide mid-course guidance for anti-ship missiles. as for airplanes. observing enemy forces. requiring passive defense by low flying under the cover of ground obstacles and active defense with onboard weapons as a last resort: (ii).g. depth charges or torpedos. besides the primary anti-submarine and anti-ship roles. such a MAD (magnetic anomaly detectors). secondary missions such as warning. but also In the anti-ship mission: an helicopter hovering away from the ship can detect other vessels being the ship's horizon. The military missions of helicopters analogous to civil roles include: (1) search and rescue of the crew of downed aeroplanes. The naval helicopter can extend the range of the ship's sensors and weapons not only in the anti-submarine role.39 - allowing flight without visibility on any weather: (iii) navigation systems. The most specialized military helicopter. (receiver) acoustic conobuoys: for attack they use Similar weapons. is that designed for anti-tank missions: (1) its crew consists of pilot and gunner. The naval helicopters based on ships have an anti-submarine mission similar to land-based maritime patrol aircraft: to detect and attack submarines. which may include guidtng strtkes : against them and sometimes participating in the attacks as armed scout: (tv) casualty evacuation. weapons or equipment to the frontline. The naval helicopter can have. The mission mentioned last is that closest to civil operations. search and rescue and uri-board resupply. as other rapid deployement missions. more demanding: for helicopters. including hyperbolic and satellite navigation. can use a . or even behind enemy lines. most technological advances were introduced first by the military. seated in tandem in a staggered position.dunking sonar in hover for submarine detection. sniffers (for exhaust fumes) and active (emitter) or passive. which are. They. which may involve dangerous flying over enemy territory. if anything. to give good visibility to both (there is a t . doppler radar and radio altimeter allowing precise blind flying and stabilized hover. bestdes methods common to maritime patrol aircraft. On the other hand there are two specifically military applications of helicopters: naval and anti-tank. All the missions of Civil helicopters have military equivalents (Table XI). transport of troops. and adapted later to the civil sector. in the assault transport mission: (iii) scout.

as could be expected. which is unbeatable for short ranges. The anti-tank helicopter can be very effective in using ground cover and stand-off weapons against tanks. for take-off and landing. and the helicopter is designed to survive a crash landing at 5-6 m/ s sink rate.40 long-standing argument over which sr ould sit in fron to have the best visibility: the pilot to fly nap-of-the. convertibles are even more complex and expensive than helicopters. The simplest convertible is perhaps the tilt-wing or tilt-rotor: (I) the wing or engine' nacelle is in the vertical position. (u) the systems are redundant and designed to survive shells hits.. four times the productivity measured as rayload x distance flown in a given time. the only effective counterweapon may be the antihelicopter helicopter. rockets and missiles to targets. and to aim cannon. and the rotors vertical. it extends its range and increases speed. viz. it is inefficient in cruise: (1) helicopter speed is limited to about 400 kIn/h. besides. some parts like crew seats are armoured. helicopters now have air-to-air as well as airto-ground weapons. A long-sought solution is the 'convertible'. and thus generates large out-of-balance lift forces: (ti) the fuel consumption is high because the rotor-is inefficient for forward propulsion. so that pratical range does not exceed 600 km (or 1000 km if payload is replaced by fuel tanks for ferrying). The biggest problem tends to be transition between horizontal and vertical flight and vice-versa. Thus the convertible does not replace the helicopter. the hover performance is not as good as for an helicopter. All convertibles are even more complex . Such a convertible may have twice the cruising speed and range of an helicopter. because an advancing rotor blade has higher relative speed than a retreating blade. or the gunner to engage targets as soon as they appear). and the fuel capacity is limited by the maximum weight for vertical take-off. and the rotor horizontal. (tii) there are sensors to allow flying at high speed and low altitude at night and bad weather.arth.e. I. While the helicopter is unsurpassed for hover performance. and like an airplane in cruise. (ti) in cruise the wing or engine nacelle is horizontal. which flies like an helicopter at take-off and landing. -nacelle and rotor between horizontal and vertical. (iii) the transition between cruise and hover is made by tilting the wing. with exchange ratios of 10:1 to 40: 1. acting as large propellers. and helicopter air combat is a prospect.

. and the payload-range is modest.41 - and costly than helicopters. compensate cross-winds: (iii) control in hover is by reaction jets. this is a tribute to the progress of high-authority control systems in the 80's. All of the more than twenty convertible prototypes developed in the 1960's and 1970's had crashes due to control problems. mostly during transition:' the first convertible developed without a single crash was the XV-IS. tested and flown in prototype form. mostly common to all V/Stol jet designs: (1) the vertical exhaust Jet causes ground erosion.g. between an erodable surface . and it represents a steady development of the deflected thrust principle: (i) a turbofan engine at the center of the fuselage exhaust through four nozzles. cost-effectiviness is weak point of convertibles. They all have in common two problems: (1) the convertible carries an additional dead weight and volume of engines. The study of jet exhaust. namely the Harrier jet fighter.. with transition to aerodynamic surfaces for cruise. a shaft accross the span of the wing. control by engine and aerodynamic forces. using engine air. and nose and tail of the fuselage. to interconnect the two rotors. the engine is oversized and innefficient in cruise. at the tips of the wings. controls. Le. Still it has problems. e. and prevent asymmetric tilting. 1127. two at the front for the fan' and two at the rear for the core flow: (ii) the nozzles are horizontal for cruise. and be tilted slightly . Hawker Siddeley Kestrel and British Aerospace/McDonnel Harrier. vertical for take-off and landing. interconections. Besides safety. in ground effect. and. and only" one such aircraft has reached service in significant quantities. is the most difficult phase of flight. both propeller/rotor and Jet driven. which is perhaps the 'simplest' convertible. because of its hybrid flying modes: (11)the transition _between horizontal and vertical flight.forward to . and can throw debris against the structure: (il) the hot gases between the aircraft and the ground can produce destabilizing forces. etc . cause engine overheating or shut-down: (iii) Since the take-off weight is determined by engine thrust. needs in addition to the mechanics. Over its long evolution it was destgnated Hawker P. other convertible schemes have been designed. the tilt-rotor. of the conventional helicopter. This probably the 'simplest' concept for a jet powered V/Stol (vertical and Short Take-Off and Landing Aircraft). Many'. and if reingested via the intakes. oblique for transition.

and reductions in structural weight through the uses of composites. and a high sink rate undercarriage.42 and an aircraft underside. Still the payload/range of a V/Stol aircraft is poor compared with conventional aircraft. using a short take-off (e. . This leads to the concept of STOVL (Short take-off and. modern agile fighters. and logistic support of dispersed aircraft is an additional complication. with high thrust to weight ratios. Progress in lighter and more powerfull engines.g. vertical landing) where: (i) the aircraft has a good payload/range by taking off at a weight greater than available thrust. to go beyond the semi-empirical design 'cures' used at present. The carrier-borne aircraft is conventional except for the provision of structural strong points for the catapult and hook. is kept running. even if the runway has been damaged in the meantime. (iii) on landing the engine. have improved much the payload/range of V/Stol aircraft. why not use it for a conventional aircraft. (sometimes the nose leg is extensible to give high angle of attack for take-om. and can land vertically.ould only 'bomb the end of the runway' to their current ability to perform useful misstons. is a fonnldable fluid mechanics problem.aircraft: It). they take-off in tens of meters with the help of a catapult. and the aircraft flies the angled deck for another try.' (il) they land without flare at a high sink rate (4-5 m/s) and are arrested by a hook angagmg wires crossing the deck. a short ground roll. in case the hook fails to catch an arrester wire. with possible re-ingestion by the air intakes. from the time c. The arrester hook and cross-wire can be used for landing on conventional runways (sometimes they are fitted at the end of runway as a safety measure). in which much research is needed. with less penalties? That has been done for decades with carrier borne . (ti) on return to base the aircraft is light. 1. for payload/range is modest. 100-150 ml possibly with sky Jump. possibly with the use of a sky jump. It may be argued that the cost and complexity of vertical take-off and landing is not Justified. have relatively short take-off runs anyway (about 500 m). Since short take-off may be needed to give useful payload -range to a V/Stol aircraft.e. One way to reduce the gap is to use Stol. which improves substantially the payload/range.

modified to burn a low volatility fuel. the Lockheed SR-71 was then already at the design stage. The high-flying reconaissance aircraft might be out-of-reach of fighters. it used blended aerodynamics for the wing and fuselage and the engines were designed for high-thrust at high-altitude. Its jet fighter engine. requtrtng the use of special materials and cooling techniques.43 §17 - DRONES The technology used in aircraft also finds application in unmanned vehicles. (b) the vehicle is too small to accomodate a human being. In high altitude cruise the difference ". Since it operates beyond the 'heat barrier' of Mach 2. of which RPVs (Remotely Piloted Vehicles) or drones are the closest. Dedicated two-seat training versions were used to familiarize experienced and well-paid pilots with the difficulties of flying the U-2. There are two reasons for not having a pilot: (a) the mission is too hazardous to risk a human life. with a high aspect ratio wing with the i . using special materials and fuels. with large span and small chord. but accidemts were frequent. giving ample time for missile interception. The modern solution is simpler. symbolized by the first jet aircraft specifically designed for that purpose.2 to an end was the shooting down of Gary Powers' aircraft over Soviet Union by a surface-to-atr missile. cheaper and no less effective: a drone looking like a. This costly aircraft was far ahead of anything else in its time. (ii) to accomodate as much fuel as possible structural weight was minimized in general. The successor of the U-2. . creating the 'coffin corner' of the flight envelope: a bit too much speed could cause structural damage. the Lockheed U-2. and too little speed could end in a stall and spin. 'The design was an extreme one: (1) to provide high lift-to-drag ratio and long range in cruise the wing was unspept.giant sailplane. The incident which brought the career of the U-. but it could be detected at long-range on radars. allowed subsonic cruise at altitudes of about 20 km. A good example of class (a) is strategic reconaissance. as a delta wing aircraft capable of flying continuously at Mach 3 at 24 km altitude. between maximum and stall speed was very small. and in a reconatssance mtsston would cover 250000 km2 in an hour. the structure is subject to temperatures of hundreds of degrees. including a stmpltfted undercarriadge.2.

structure and aerodynamics are simple. The myth of the simple and inexpensive drone is not simple to realize because: (1) even if the propulsion. and showing the wreckage to the press. where a large number of small. to simulate a high performance target.drone is not the air vehicle. expandable drones is thrown to confuse enemy defences: (iv) decoys. For this reason. have a similar Signature in radars and other sensors (using corner reflectors and other signal augmentators) to divert attention from the main aircraft: (v) the drones may be armed. expandable targets: (iii) saturation. e. control and navigation out-ofline of sight require either programming or indirect data relay: programming the flight path of the drone is easy for a target drone but in the case of a reconatssance drone requires good knowledge of the enemy territory to be overflown. like missiles used for offensive missions: (vi) armed decoys are used. guns and missiles. e. the multi-mission drone does not exist. which are released from an aircraft. to prove a new weapon or to give firing practice to anti-aircraft forces: (11) if the drone is too valuable to be shot-down. We give as example a reconaissance drone for the army: (1) either it is of helicopter-type or it is launched using a rocket motor. a small low-speed drone. proves little and has none of the political ernbarassment of capturing a pilot. Most drones are too small and inexpensive to accomodate a pilot. low level reconaissance . The drone itself may be expensive if high altitude or high Mach number capabilities are needed. Often the most complex part of a .44 span of Boeing 747. fly a Similar trajectory.g. it can tow cheaper. be it for development testing. in both cases from a truck: (ti) line-of-sight command from the ground is limited to short ranges and high altitudes. and attempts to develop it have been costly failures.g. and can perform a variety of tasks such as: (1) targets for aircraft.g. Shooting down a drone. e. flies at high-altitude for up to 48 hours: this endurance would not be possible in a manned aircraft. even if they are identified as decoys. itself but rather the supporting system used to collect and process the information in good time. to force the enemy to intercept them. and no pilot is exposed to risk in this kind of hazardous strategic reconatssance mission.

and like expendable drones. or ionospheric reflection. etc . . is vulnerable to Jamming or interference: (lv) a programmed flight requires good knowledge of the area to be overflown. which destroyed the radars.g. they are not recovered: the distinction between a missile and an armed expendable drone is debatable. where are the points of interest.. In the first instance expandable drones were flown into the radar field of view.. in a 'safe' rear area: (vi) the data recorded from the sensors must be analized quickly before it becomes out-of-date. aircraft or satellite.45 at some distance requires a programmed trajectory or a non-line-ofsight data link: (iii) a non-ltne-ofstght data link using an intermediate vehicle. A't present drones are a complement to aircraft. (v) the recovery of the vehicle is by ~arachute.g. There is an enormous range in size and complexity in missiles. after which the fighters came to destroy the missile launchers. . down: then the attacker sent fighters to destroy the missile launchers before they could be reloaded. bears witness to the fact that the human pilot is the most flexible system in existence. and helping them to survive others. how to set the sensors. In the second instance the defender did not want to waste all its missiles on 'harmless' drones: but this time these were radar-homing armed drones. most missiles must be ready for use after long storage periods. The day when all aircraft Willbe replaced by drones is farthert away than science-ftctton suggests. to transmit television images. If real-time data is needed there is no alternative to data link. The fact that a missile flies only once allows some simplifications. e. performing one mission only. which may need high data rate. e. replacing them in certain dangerous missions. or by flying into a net. but often also a loss of" flexibility. and the defender spent his missiles shooting them. The replacement of the pilot requires not only increased automation. like the use of short life components: on the other hand. The fact that drones tend to be specialized vehicles. § 18 - MISSILES Missiles are unmanned air vehicles. Two examples of the use of aircraft and drones in conflict in the middle east will suffice to illustrate this: in both cases the target were surface-to-air missile batteries and firecontrol radars.

g. ship-to-ship missiles. or from an aircraft. . whether land-based. deployed so as to cover all altitudes and ranges in an overlapping manner. an aircraft or a ship (Table XI). command centres. including radars. hence are detected late and require rapid reaction.g. hard targets.g. e. and shoulder-fired infantry weapons.g. e. Among the nine combinations possible some classes are less. and stand-off weapons launched against distant ground targets out-of-range of their anti-aircraft defences. an anti-radar missile or an air-launched cruise missile: (iii) surface-to-air missiles can form a dense air defence system. at short-range. to home on the submarine: (iii) short.and medium-range anti-aircraft missiles used for the air defence of ships much as for the air defence of land targets: (tv) special short-range anti-missile missiles for use against anti-ship missiles. numerous. so that the system protect·each other from air attack. in a dogfight. The missiles related to aircraft include: (1) air-to-air missiles. medium-range missiles with separate launch and tracking vehicles. which may be launched by other ships. surface-to-surface missiles range from the light anti-tank missile carried by an infantry soldier to an intercontinental ballistic missile weighting several hundred tons. . or from another submarine. submarines. Missiles of interest to ships include: (i) anti-ship missiles flying at high speed close to the sea surface. We do not attempt to list all types of missiles. an IR-guided anti-tank missile or a Tv-guide glide bomb used against a bridge. and for long-range interception: (ti) air-to-ground missiles. which upon falling into the water release a torpedo. launched against other aircraft. e. used at short-range to attack point. aircraft or coastal batteries: (ii) anti-submarine missiles fired from a surface ship. The simplest classification if missiles is by launcher and target. whereas others have a wide variety. The surface-to-surface missiles include: (i) light anti-tank missiles carried by infantry or heavier anti-tank missiles mounted on vehicles: (It) artillery missiles.46 from those comparable to simple drones to others requiring advances relative to aircraft technology.mentton three classes: those related to (a) aircraft and (b) ships and (c) surface-tosurface types. but . which have small cross-sections. e. short-range missiles mounted on vehicles with their own radar. or fixed installations.

being a 'hittile' relying on impact for target destruction. this and missile systems. which bum's with fuel as a rocket in the booster phase. leaving a lower-thrust longer-burning rocket sustatner to power the rest of the flight. until the combustion chamber is free and the air intakes are opened for the ramjet to function in the sustainer phase: (tv) the missile may have no warhead. ramjet. or still a ballistic trajectory. using aerodynamic surfaces. may have a fragmentation warhead for use against aircraft. uu in a semi-active system the radar illuminates the target. or a tandem warhead for use against the reactive or spaced armour of a tank: (v) control may be by spin-stabilization only or by steering along a trajectory. and reflected signals are picked by the missile for homing: (iii) in an with ranges . propulsion possibilities exist. depending on whether respectively external control. and sends intercept commands to the missile. or the missile alone are involved: they are active or passive depending on whether guidance involves or not emissions. e. e. we indicate the systems common to all missiles: (1) although some missiles ressemble aircraft. more compact. Guidance systems may be command. are the most sophisticated strategic weapons.g. or is decoyed from it.g. small rocket thrusters. rocket or ballistic stages. or vectoring of the main nozzle for high-agility.47 from tens to hundreds of kilometers. with conical noses and tapared connecting sections. For example. by which it finds its target. a ramrocket is a ramjet filled with oxidizer. Before proceeding to the latter. together with cruise missiles. which may give away the presence of the missile.· a high-thrust rocket booster giving a short-period high acceleration to a cruise speed. after rocket motor burn-out: (iii) other. semi-autonomous or autonomous. consisting of cylindrical stages. and one or more ballistic stages: (iii) intermediate range" intercontinental and submarine-launched ballistic missiles. most have simpler aerodynamic shapes. for an active radar-guided missile: (1) command guidance means one or more radar on the launch aircraft or ground tracks the target and missile. when the booster drops of. with fins for stabilization or control: (U) propulsion may be by turbojet. an explosive warhead (perhaps augmented by residual fuel) for use against ships. which. The most characteristic system of a missile is the guidance.

but requires . and the disavantage of giving away the presence of the missile.g. infra-red or . and sucessive integrations give velocity and distance. The system is entirely selfcontained and does not depend on external reference. ~ 'IV. detects its angular motions.g. and sends signals to electrtc motors to keep it stabilized in space: (it) a set of accelerometers measures accelerations in fixed directions in space. Infra-red guidance is always passive. 1. a lead-sulphur infra-red detector tracks only the hot exhaust gases of an aircraft from behind..g. but has usually shorter range than radar. is inertial navigation. e. or different frequencies .300 K (lead-sulphur detectors of exhaust . The basic idea follows directly from the principles of classical mechanics: (0 a set of gyroscopes is put on a Cardan suspension.. etc . These guidance systems may be combined.. This enters the field of countermeasures and counter-countermeasures. radar by metal foil known as chaff. but jamming is impossible only if it is selfcontained.e. Certain guidance systems may be all-aspect.. e. in the active mode.48 active system the missile has its own radar emitter and picks the echos to home on the target. e. combining radar.gasesl or 300 K (cryogenic detectors of airframe temperatures). Discrimination of decoys can be improved by using dual mode seekers. or has to switch to a memorized position. and may not be efective in cloud and haze. corresponding to temperatures of 1. which includes jamming command links. because water vapour absorbs infra-red rays: otherwise detection is possible in windows of atmospheric absorption. e. Radar guidance has the advantage of operating in all-weather. The only guidance system which cannot be decoyed is one independent of external sensors: a guidance system may be more or less difficult to jam. A guidance system which cannot be jammed or decoyed. Passive radar guidance is possible for anti-radiation missiles launched against radars: if the radar is shut-off guidance is lost.g. infra-red by flares. command guidance to the vicinity of the target by a powerfull longrange radar on the ground (or launch aircraft) and final active homing by the smaller radar in the missile. or coding them to be jamp-reststant.. radar or cryogenic infra-red detectors: others work only on certain directions. All guidance systems can be decoyed. detect the target from all directions.. etc .

and radar and/or infra-red seekers for final' homing. see §6). a .. small aeroplane. Hitting a target with a few kilometer accuracy in another continent. instead of having a powerfull rocket boost for a few minutes and reaching the target in half-an-hour.0 1 o/hr and accelerometers with an accuracy of 10-4 g. whereas an ICBM is a large multi-stage rocket: (ti) it flies at subsonic (or in the future low supersonic) speeds at low altitude. using terrain masking and small radar Signature to make detection difficult. whereas the ICBM send one or more re-entry vehicles.. was made possible by INS: this accuracy is sufficient for atomic warheads. in a ballistic trajectory hundreds of kilometers above the surface of the earth. Doppler radar or hyperbolic navigation systems like Loran or Omega. as follows: (1) the missile flies a programmed trajectory to the vicinity of the target. . which use inertial '. low thrust turbojet engine which provides a range of a few thousand kilometers over several hours. The errors of inertial navigation do not depend on position or distance.to confuse defences. navigation for mid-course guidance. and the time of flight (half-an-hour) is short. for which the position of the launch silo and target is known. but accumulate with time. and may be reduced by updating position using other navigation aids: star trackers.49 extremely high precision: an error of 2 km/hr on position requtre s gyroscopes with a drift of 0. Inertial navigation systems (INS) were first developed for intercontinental ballistic missiles. Examples of this include anti-ship missiles. . whose accuracy is independent of time. and decoys .'. Inertial guidance can also be used against moving targets. using inertial navigation. and allows target attack from any direction. whereas INS for ICBM has an accuracy independent of position. and leads to a predictable trajectory: (v) the guidance accuracy of Tercom is meters and allows the use of conventional warheads. (11) nce o the target is within the range of an active seeker the latter takes over. (iii) it is powered by a small. satellite navigation like GPS (Global Positioning System). (iv) it is guided by a Tercom (Terrain Comparison System. A completely different type of strategic weapons is the cruise missile: (1) it is closer to a drone in that its configuration ressembles. 10000 to 16000 km away.. .

The first US space launchers. by using VLF (Very Low Frequency) communications at kilometric wavelengths. with their warhead sections replaced by satellites to be put on low earth orbits: to boost satellites to high . filled with electronic equipment and trailing communication wires several kilometers long. while staying submerged. § 19 - SPACE LAUNCHERS The ICBMs are multi-stage rockets using much 'the same technologies as space launchers: (1) if the separation velocity imparted by the last stage to the payload is less than 8 km/s (or 28. like a missile warhead: (tt) if the velocity imparted exceeds 11 km/s the payload escapes the earth gravity and becomes an interplanetary probe: (iii) for velocities between 8 and 11 km/ s the payload becomes a satellite with an elliptic orbit around the earth.which together with strategic bombers and land-based ICBMs are the ultimate strategic weapons: (1) the SLBM has to smaller than an ICBM so that a submarine can carry up to 24: (ii) the first generation SLBMs had a range of a 2000-3000 km and had to be fired close to enemy shores at inland targets: (iii) the second generation SLBMs with a range' of a range of about 5000 krn can be fired from less vulnerable positions in mid -ocean: (iv) the third generation SLBMs have intercontinental ranges of 8000-12000 krn. 'which penetrate a few hundred of meters into the water: (viii) the emiters are large ground stations or specially modified transport airplanes. Atlas and Titan. the Thor-Delta. then it falls back to the earth on a ballistic trajectory.50 whereas the accuracy of INS in ICBMs is kilometers.000 km/h or Mach 26). needing atomic warheads. and receive commands. and the rocket motors ignite when they reach the surface: (vU INS is used not only to guide the missile in its ballistic trajectory. and can be fired from protected waters close to home ports: (v) the missiles are ejected underwater from their launch tubes by compressed air charges. were intermediate-range or intercontinental ballistic missiles. The most impressive application of INS is the submarine ballistic missile (SLBM). but also for the submarine to know its position at time of launch: (vii) the submarine may update its position.

51 earth orbits upper stages like Centaur were developed. and to land km from the point of re- entry into the atmosphere. at a time when it may lack the financial ressources to use it: meanwhile the US would do well to use such a large launch vehicle to set up the space station Columbus. of the early US expandable . due to damage during re-entry and cross-range. who worked with Werner von Braun in the US. Thus the costs of putting a payload in orbity are quite high. and the external tank of the orbiter can be refurbished after being recovered from the sea: (11)the external heat resistant tiles of the orbiter also need refurbishment. It was hoped to reduce these by changing from expendable launchers to reusable ones. designed to send the Apollo capsule to the moon. the Energta. Japan failed all its attempts to develop indigenous launch vehicles. and whose payload of over a hundred tons in low earth orbit exceeded largely any military needs. ending up each time producing under licence Americam rockets. but the tooling for the Saturn is unusable . After the failure of the Europa European nations this time the Ariadne like the re-invention space launcher in the late 60's the sucessfully with a 20At first these looked launchers tried again in the late 70's.S.. The Soviet Union succeeded recently to develop a large launch vehicle. developing series of space launchers. flying to a conventional unpowered landing. developed in many versions into a fairly reliable vehicle. Tsien. The Soviet Union relied for a long time on the Vostok launcher. Its attempts to develop a large launch rocket comparable to Saturn failed completely due to disastrous launch explosions: the Soviet Union had to settle for lunar exploration with small unmanned probes. directed by H.: bedevilled by explosions.... The aerodynamic design for unpowered supersonic glide of a vehicle without wings way developed in the 60's and 70's using a series of lifting shaped there body fuselage is enough prototypes: can provide control these demonstrated 1000-2000 that a thick airfoil enough lift for a high-speed glide. China succeded in developing ballistic missiles and launch vehicles after many years of efforts. The first dedicated space launcher was the Saturn rocket. The payload of a satelite launcher is 1% of its launch weight. This idea was behind the US Space Shuttle program: (1) the solid boosters.

52 year delay. The specification of Ariadne 1 looked like an Atlas. and that of Ariadne 4 like a Titan. But Ariadne is quite efficient in .putting satellites in geosynchronous orbits 36000 km above the earth. whereas the space shuttle requires supplementary stages like PAM (Payload Assist Module) and IUS (Interim Upper Stage) to lift satellites from low to high earth orbit. In the end the launch costs of a satellite are much the same for the expandable Artadne and the re-usableSpace Shuttle. The much publicized accident of the Space Shuttle created a large waiting list for launches; the less publicized failures of the Titan and Thor conventional launchers left the US temporarily without space launch capability for the first time since the first space launchers were developed. The situation would have been disastrous internationally if Artadne was not available to pick up some extra launches. Now the US has decided to develop new expandable launchers. to reduce dependance on the Space Shuttle. and compete with Ariadne; the latter continues to evolve. with the new Ariadne -5 using ectogenic propergols (liquid oxygen and hydrogen) to provide for the launch of larger satellites. and the European mini-shuttle Hermes. The next stage in launch vehicle development will be the TAV (TransAtmospheric Vehicle). under development in the US as NASP (National Aerospace Plane). in Germany as Sanger. whereas the British precursor Hotel Sits still for lack of funding. Whereas an expendable launcher rises almost vertically once into orbit. and the space shuttle glides back once with a cross-range of 1000-2000 km. the TAV could fly into orbit and back several times. It could explore the altitude range above aircraft (>30 km) and below low earth orbit «160 km). with potential military uses. It provides a space launcher 'with single stage to orbit capability, by taking off and landing using runways like an aeroplane, and ustng rocket propulsion to go into orbit and glide back. in the case of NASP. In the case of a two stage vehicle like Sanger, the upper stage flies into orbit from a lower stage which is an hypersonic (Mach 4-6) transport. The TAV will be the most sophisticated aerospace vehicle ever. and put tremendous technological challanges in all areas. including: (0 flight mechanics. for planning optimum trajectories of ascent into orbit. change of orbit. flights in the higher atmosphere. combining

53

aeroplane and rocket modes: (ti) aerothermodynamics of flight up' to Mach 26 in air of densities from sea level to vacuum of space: (iii) materials to stand kinetic heating to several hundred degrees during re-entry. which requires active cooling: (tv) most critical is propulsion. with a combined scramjet (supersonic combustion ranjet) in the atmosphere and rocket propulsion above: (v) most difficult will be control, since propulsion structures. flight dynamics and aerodynamics are all closely related. e.g. during re-entry; (vi) simulation. testing and validation wilt use to, the limit extisting aerospace facilities. and probably require new ones. The transatmospheric vehicle. even more than a future supersonic transport. can only be a world wtde development: there are no ressources for more than one programme of this level of cost and complexity. Present projects accumulate experience to claim competence and positions in a world-wide international programme.

§20

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SATELLITES

The transatmospheric vehicle. as the most advanced vehicle ever designed. would be a fitting conclusion to an exposition on complexity in aerospace engineering. were not for space stations. which may one day claim that title. and are based on the curren.t satellites. The international space situation Columbus will be assembled in space from payloads launched by a number of Space Shuttle flights; a much smaller number of flights of a larger rocket would have sufficed. but Saturn is no longer available and Energta is in another political bloc. The problems of assembly of the space station are similar to those of folding-out satellites: the process must be carried-out with much care; since large flexible structures can develop vibrations which are difficult to damp out in space. The long-term survival of man in space stations. which is essential to an eventual manned exploration of outer space. involves besides engineering problems. other. biological ones: for example. reproducing the life cycle of the earth on a space vehicle. bering in mind that a long space travel will require re-cycling all substances and self-support of all forms of life.

54

Returning to satellites. they may be classified into (Table 12) SCientific. civil and military. The scientific satellites includes: (1) sondes, which fly in the ionosphere of the earth. and collect data complementing that obtained by sounding rockets and high-altitude baloons: (ii) planetary explorers which fly past planets or release payloads to their atmospheres and surfaces, and recay photographic, physical or chemical data to the earth: (iii) landers, which land on the surface of planets, move about and may return samples, for analysis on the earth: [iv) probes which fly into interplanetary space, and collect data on local conditions: (v) observers of physical, chemical and weather phenomena on the earth: (vi) space observatories of the sun and other stars, free from the distortions of the earth's atmosphere: . (vii) microgravity experiments in fluids, materials. pharmaceuticals, biology, etc ... as in space laboratories, which provide much longer testing time than .earth bound Simulators (sounding rockets and aircraft in ballistic flight). The commercial satellites include: (i) telecommunications by telephone and television. in which six suceeding generations of satellites of increasing size provide greater capacity in number of channels, and coverage of large areas with more powerfull emitters allowing the use of smaller receiving antenas: (11) weather forecasting. by giving images and measurements of the atmosphere, earth and 'oceans: (iii) cartography by providing high-resolution images of the earth: (tv) earth ressources by using various spectral bands to assess the state of agricultural production, possible geological ressources, effects of pollution, etc ... The elements of all these satellites fall into the same categories: (1) stabilization systems to keep solar panels aimed at the sun. or for pointing instruments or aerials: (il) control systems to perform attitude changes, and propulsion to change orbits or travel into space: (iii) rotation .or other methods of thermal control: (tv) on-board electronics for house-keeping and communications: (v) missionOriented payloads: (vi) life support systems for manned missions. It should be borne in mind that 50% of the investment on an unmanned space mission is on the ground, with testing, launch and tracking activities: in a manned space mission the safety requirements increase the portion of ground investment to 70%. This Is not too

55

different from the cost of spares for the maintenance of an aircraft or engine over its lifetime, when compared with purchase cost. The military satellites are perhaps even more dependent on ground infrastructure than civil ones, and include the following types: (i) telecomuntcations allowing world wide command of forces: (il) data relay, allowing indirect transmission of data from satelites invisible from a given ground station; (iii) navigation, allowing position accuracies of a few meters, good enough for targeting, and degraded for non-military users: (vi) reconatssance satellites, for photographic and electronic surveillance, including counting of the number of strategic mlsstle silos, for compliance with arms limitations treaties: (v) early warning satellites, which give half-hour warning time of the launch of ICBM's, i.e. twice the warning time of land-based sensors, reducing the risk of precipitous, erroneous response. Setting aside such controversial space systems as star wars, or SDI (Strategic Defence Initiative), the military reconaissance and early warning satellites are essential to the preservation of peace, by giving a check on the balance of forces and warning of an impending perturbation. With this peace note we conclude an account on aerospace engineering, whose progress has been mostly fostered by the military.

§21

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CONCLUSION

In our account on aerospace engineering we have side-stepped, jumped, avoided or mentioned only in passing many toptcs, presenting only those essential to a reasonably connected account. The latter may be sufftctent to demonstrate the several kinds of complexity in aer-ospace engineering: (I) the balanced integration of several advanced technologies is essential to the design of an aerospace vehicle: (II) the development cycle may be long and involve complex technical. economic and market/operational decisions: (III) a wide variety of vehicles uses Similar development methods and benefits from technological advances in the same contributing areas. The examples from aerospace large number of variables and engineering suggest the following parameters. whose relations and

outline definition of complexity: a complex system is one specified by a

backed by improved quantitative. The consideration of a complex system thus involves both systematic analysis and subjective judgement. Progress in the use of complex systems comes from inspired 'guesses based on experience and practice.56 constraints are not fully known. modelling and optimization. . even if the latter is incomplete.

. etc .Airplanes Aircraft f civil \ military helicopters Rotorcraft { tilt-rotor.. Aerospace vehicles drones missiles space launchers satellites Other -TABLE 1 .

Aerospace vehicles drones missiles space launchers satellites 'viI Other TABLE 1 .Airplanes { ~tary Aircraft helicopters Rotorcraft {tilt-rotor.. etc ..

medium.or long-haul TABLE 2 .Fighting Trainers Homebuilt Civil aircraft Propeller Transports Lightplanes Business airplanes Regional Transports Cargo airplanes Business Jets Jet Transports Cargo Jets Airlin .Agricultural Aerobatic Special Fire.{small-or large-capacity es short-.

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SECOND GENERATION JET AIRLINERS BOEING AIRBUS A320 A300 A310 01BERS McDonnell Douglas MD-9 small large twins twins 737 757 767 747 777 long-range A330 A340 McDonnell Douglas MD-IO Lockheed Tristar (out of productioni TABLE 4 .

.. reconaissance/surveillance airborne early warning command post Military aircraft (non-combat) strategic transport tactical intra. basic trainers advanced crew conversion .theatre pnmary . TABLE 5 . observation/eval uation maritime patrol Miscellanous .

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JET FIGHTERS SHORT-RANGE LONG-RANGE air-to-air mission: air-to-ground mission: air superiority close suppon interception interdiction TABLE 7 ...

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Airplanes AIRCRAFT {conventional V/Stol Rotorcraft {convertibles Helicopters TABLE 10 .

Tank/Helicopter Off-Shore Police Specializes TABLE 11 .x x x X Assault Scout Anti-Ship/Submarine An ti.HELICOPTER MISSIONS Search-and-rescue Casualty Evaluation Transport Observation NaVal} Army Army CIVIL MILITARY .

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rrARY data relay telecomunication navigation reconaissance early warning TABLE 13 .SCIENTIFIC ionospheric sondes planetary explorers landers and sample-return earth observers interplanetary probes stellar observatories microgravity laboratories SATELITES telecomunications weather CIVIL { cartographic .earth ressources rvm.

Introduction CONTRIBUTING TECHNOLOGIES aerodynam ics propulsion and noise materials and structures control electronic systems electrics and mechanics' COMPLEXITY IN AEROSPACE TYPES OF VEHICLES DEVELOPMENT CYCLE airplanes rotorcraft drones missiles launchers satell ites civil requirements military scenario specification & design certification and testing safety production and modification FIGURE 1 .1.

.. o rn C ::::0 ....

C . O"l ........... O"l o .

FORWARD SPEED TOTAL VELOCITY .LIFT DRAG DIRECTION OF FLIGHT AIRCRAFT WEIGHT FIGURE 2 ...VELOCITY PROPELLER FIGURE 6 ..

TURBOJET SHAFT I AIR INTAKE / JET EXHANST I COMPRESSOR COMBUSTOR TURB INE TURBOFAN BY-PASS FLOW HIG~-PRESSURE TURBINE AIR II. t I· LOW-PRESSURE TURBINE COMPRESSOR FAN TURBOJET W "T H AFTERBURNER c::::> ~ / / c I ~ f' ..' II CORE EXHANST INTAKE /' /' ----T"'-----------\ \ III . TURBINE~ AFTERB URNER RAMJET COMPRESSOR COMBUSTOR I='I~IIDI=' c::::: . .

fixed aeroelastically stable control surface ineffective flow separat ion spreads to the tip I sweptbackwing t ! swept forward wing ! flow separation tothetip does not spread control surface effective FIGURE 7 .

trim trim c. c. 1i ft 1ift I trim increases 1 1i ft weight I="I~IIDI=" oR .g.wing .tail 1ift 1i ft c..l. weight trim 1 ! trim trim reduces 1ift t tai led aerop lane canard aerop lane t ! canard - ! wing ..l..

nigh .ai rcraft ----- high-altitude flight . detected at short range FIGURE 9 .target detected at long range aircraft terrain-following .------ .

.......maximum number of passengers A .. low weight \ \ \ range maximum range .. .......... .cost money commited 100 % - =l gO % 1------' 10 development ttrne years FIGURE 11 ........ high weight .. FIGURE 10 . ..

altitude celling x X X thrust test-points dynam ic pressure Mach number FIGURE 12 .I .

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