# THEORY OF MACHINES

L T 4 RATIONALE Diploma holder in Mechanical Engineering comes across many machines. He must have the knowledge of various mechanisms, power transmission devices, balancing of masses, vibrations etc. Hence this subject is offered. DETAILED CONTENTS 1. Basic Concepts 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 2. Definition of statics, kinetics, kinematics and dynamics. Rigid body and resistant body. Links. Kinematics pairs and their types. Degree of freedom. Kinematics chain and their types. Constrained motion and mechanisms. Classification of mechanisms. Equivalent mechanism. Laws of inversion of mechanisms. Single slider crank chain and its inversions. Quick return mechanism and IC engine mechanism. Double slider crank chain mechanism and its inversions like scotch yoke mechanism. Applications of mechanisms and their selection from manufacture catalogue. Indicator mechanism, pantograph. Steering gear mechanism. P -

Fly Wheel 2.1 2.2 2.3 Functions of fly wheel. Types of fly wheels. Mass and size calculations in different cases

3.

Governors 3.1 3.2 Functions of governor Types of governor - elementary knowledge of porter governor, watt governor, proell governor, Hartnell governor, spring controlled gravity governor Hunting, isochronism, stability, sensitiveness of a governor Simple problems related to watt, porter and proell governor

3.3 3.4

jockey pulley.10 5.4. reverted and epicyclic Horsepower transmitted by a gear train Selection of gear trains.6 Functions of gear Classification of gears Gear nomenclature Simple. Slip in belts. joint preparation for flat belt.3 5. SHM and uniform acceleration and deceleration Power Transmission Devices (Belt.1 4. classification of chains Selection of belt. Rope and Chain Drive) 5. availability of space. compound.14 Introduction.4 5. Types of pulleys .6 5.3 6.power brake and disc brake . Brakes and Dynamometers 7. Laws of belting and length of belt Ratio of tensions Power transmitted and maximum power transmitted by belt Centrifugal effect on belt Initial tension.5 Simple cam profile for uniform velocity.9 5. flat pulley.2 Introduction Brief description of different types of brake such as block or shoe brake. Types of V Belt and Flat belt.1 5. Belt and rope drives. and chains. Gear Drive 6.step pulley. Cams 4. 5.2 4. Material for belts and ropes.3 4.4 6.2 6.5 6.4 Definition of cam Classification of cams Followers and their classification Brief description of different types of cams and followers with simple line diagram 4. power to be transmitted.16 6. creep Chain drive.13 5.11 5. open and crossed belt drives.simple and epicyclic 7. slip.7 5. velocity ratio.12 5.1 6. internal expanding. ropes. action of belt on pulleys.1 7.15 5. chain length.8 5. Crowning in pulley. band brake.2 5.5 5. velocity ratio Selection of rope based on the load to be lifted Simple problems on power transmitted by belts and ropes 5. chain and pulley for different applications on the basis of centre distance between the shaft.

4 9. cams and gear drives. Give assignments for solving numerical problems. Use teaching aids for classroom teaching. Vibrations 10. brake etc.2 9. 2. 3. .4 Simple problems related to shoe brake and band brake Definition and types of dynamometers. action due to unbalanced masses.7. 4.5 8. transverse and torsional vibration Damping of vibrations INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY 1. rope brake dynamometers. fly wheels.longitudinal.3 8.7 Need of balancing Concept of static and dynamic balancing Balancing of rotating mass by another mass in the same plane Forces due to revolving masses Concept of reference plane Balancing of several masses rotating in same plane Balancing of several masses rotating in different planes 10. governors. belt transmission dynamometer and Bevis Gibson torsion dynamometer 8.7 Function of clutch Classification of clutches Principle of working of single plate clutch and cone clutch with simple line diagram Multi plate clutch Calculation of frictional torque for uniform pressure and uniform wear Horse power transmitted Selection of clutches for different applications from hand book/catalogue 9. Clutches 8. Balancing 9. chain.1 8.3 9. Video films may be used to explain the working of mechanisms and machine components like clutch. gear drives.2 8. Arrange industry visits to augment explaining use of various machine components like belt. pony brake dynamometer. hydraulic dynamometer.1 9.5 9. governors.3 7.2 10. brake clutch.3 Introduction Types of vibration .6 9. rope.4 8.1 10.6 8.

SS Rattan: Tata McGraw Hill.) Ltd. Theory of Machines. 5. 2. Theory of Mechanism and Machine. Khanna Publishers. New Delhi. S. . Theory of Machines by RS Khurmi and JK Gupta.RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. 6. New Delhi. 7. New Delhi..Chand and Company Ltd. 9. New Delhi. SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS Topic No. 4. 8.. 1. Wiley Eastern. 3. 4. A Ghosh and AK Malik. 3. JS Rao and Dukkipati. 5. East West Press (Pvt. Total Time Allotted (Hrs) 6 8 8 8 8 8 4 4 8 2 64 Marks Allotted (%) 10 12 12 12 12 12 6 6 12 6 100 . 2. New Delhi. 10. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by PL Ballaney. Mechanism and Machine Theory.

types of inspection and various measuring instruments are required.4 2. calibration. Construction features and use of instruments for precision measurements : vernier calipers. electrical. limit. uses. callipers. Concept of primary texture and secondary texture. electronics and pneumatic comparator. CLA.1 3.1 2. working principles of different types of comparators: mechanical. feeler and wire gauges.4 Precision. Introduction 1. 3. Angular Measurement 3. micrometers. sensitivity. V-block.5 Construction features and use of instruments for non precision linear measurement: steel rule. knowledge and skills about standards of measurement. Comparators – Characteristics. response time.1 Definition of metrology 1. surface plate.2 4.4 4. angle plate.3 4. Measurement of Surface Finish 4.5 Terminology of surface roughness.2 Construction and use of instruments for angular measurements: bevel protector. sets of slip gauges. clinometer.3 2. Indian standards of slip gauges. Hence this subject is offered DETAILED CONTENTS 1. Slip gauges. RMS and RA value. accuracy. fits and tolerances. Optical instruments for angular measurement.Controllable and random errors 1. For this purpose. 4. auto collimator.1 4.2 2. hysterisis.METROLOGY L T 3 RATIONALE Diploma holders in these courses are required to measure and inspect for ensuring quality of product. P 2 2. angle gauges. vernier height and depth gauges. use of slip gauges. repeatability. Factors affecting surface finish.2 Standard of measurement 1. uncertainty of measurement Linear Measurement 2. Cylinder bore gauges. sine bar. Principle and operation of stylus probe instruments for measuring surface roughness .3 Types of errors.

Instrumentation Brief description about the measurement of displacement. 7.4 Measurement of screw threads. Measurement with height gauge and depth gauge. 12. temperature and humidity by electromechanical transducers LIST OF PRACTICALS 1. frequency. Measurement of gear characteristics Measurement of angle with sine bar and slip gauges Measurement of worn out IC engine piston clearance between cylinder and piston. Use of feeler gauge. 4. checking of pitch and angle of threads with gauges. Profile projector. Measurement of flatness with dial indicator.1 5. Tool maker’s microscope.Introduction. testing of alignment of teeth. vibration. 6. 8. .4 Definition and terminology of limits. Study and use of slip gauges. 11. Type of fits. Measurement with combination set and bevel protector. Limit gauges. 8. fits and tolerances. 6. Limits.3 7. measurements of external and core diameters. drilling machine and milling machine. 3. Measurement of flatness using comparator. Measurements of gears (spur) – Measurement of tooth thickness. Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM). pitch. Fits and Tolerances 7. Measurements of Screw threads and Gears 5.2 5. 9. Effective diameter measurement by three wire method.1 Alignment test on lathe. Determination of temperature by (i) pyrometer (ii) thermocouple. 10. 7. radius gauge and fillet gauges for checking of standard parameters.3 5. pressure. wire gauge . Machine Tool Testing 6.1 7. Demonstrate use of various measuring instruments while imparting theoretical instructions. Hole basis and shaft basis systems. 5.2 7. Internal and external measurement with vernier caliper and micrometer. Measurement of surface roughness of a surface INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY 1.5. 2.

Khanna Publishers. S Chand and Company. 1. Metrology Laboratory Manual by M Adithan and R Bahl. 5. 4. New Delhi. 3. 7. 6. Engineering Metrology by RK Jain. 2. Stress should be laid on correct use of various instruments. 4. Total Time Allotted (Hrs) 4 8 7 6 6 6 5 6 48 Marks Allotted (%) 10 18 14 12 12 12 10 12 100 . RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. Chandigarh. A Text Book of Production Engineering by PC Sharma.2. 2. Engineering Metrology by RK Rajput. 8. 3. SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS Topic No. New Delhi. Ludhiana. SK Kataria and Sons. NITTTR.

box tool holder. mounted wheels and diamond wheels. indexing head and tail stock. Grinding 3. Milling methods . form tool holder. straddle milling and gang milling. broaching and automatic machines which is very essential for Mechanical diploma holders to work in manufacturing industries DETAILED CONTENTS 1.1 2.10 3. recessing tool holder. Milling 2. knurling tool holder. Indexing on dividing heads. bar stops.7 2. collets. Knee tool holder. spiral milling attachment. Introduction to turret tooling layout Comparison of capstan. vertical milling attachment.3 2. circular table.up milling and down milling Identification of different milling cutters and work mandrels Work holding devices Milling operations – face milling.2 1.4 1. Cutting speed and feed. Bond Common wheel shapes and types of wheel – built up wheels.9 2. .3 1. brief description and applications of milling machines Details of column and knee type milling machine Milling machine accessories and attachment – Arbors. tap and die holder. milling.6 1. grinding. Grade. Capstan and Turret Lathe 1. roller steady.2 3.5 Concept of capstan and turret lathe Principal parts of capstan and turret lathe Turret indexing mechanism. slotting attachment and rack milling attachment.7 2. angular milling. simple numerical problems. Bar feeding mechanism Work holding devices – Jaw and collet chucks Tool holding devices – Slide tool holder.4 Specification and working principle of milling machine Classification.5 2. gear manufacturing.1 1. adaptors.8 2.3 Purpose of grinding Various elements of grinding wheel – Abrasive.1 3. vices. P 6 1.PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY. form milling. plain and universal dividing heads.2 2. Vsteady box tool holder. structure. turret and conventional lathe. Specification of grinding wheels as per BIS.I L T 3 RATIONALE This subject provides knowledge and develops skills on various machine operations viz capstan and turret Lathe. 2.6 2.

Teaches should lay special emphasis in making the students conversant with concept. Surface grinder Cylindrical grinder Exercise on tool and cutter Grinder a) b) c) To grind Lathe tools To grind a drill bit To grind a milling cutter INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY 1. Elements of broach tool. types.4 3. tool material. 5. Truing. vertical type pull up. 3. 3. cylindrical grinding and centreless grinding.1 5. . dressing.2 Gear hobbing Gear shaping 5. push down. Selection of grinding wheel Gear Manufacturing Processes 4. 2. PRACTICAL EXERCISES 1. Grinding methods – Surface grinding. Grinding machine – Cylindrical grinder. procedure and practices related to various manufacturing processes Focus should be laid on preparing jobs using various machines/ equipment in the workshop Aids/ Video films should be used to show operations 2. balancing and mounting of wheel. internal grinder.5 3.7 4. Gang milling and straddle milling To produce a gear by indexing device on a milling machine Preparing job on following machines:a) b) 6. pull down.3 Introduction Types of broaching machines – Single ram and duplex ram horizontal type.1 4. centreless grinder. Broaching 5. tool and cutter grinder. Exercise on Turrent/ Capstan Lathe to prepare a job of given dimensions To produce a rectangular block by face milling and prepare a slot on one face.6 3. broach teeth details – nomenclature.3. 4.slab milling.2 5. principle. Exercise on milling. surface grinder.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. New Delhi SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS Topic No. Manufacturing technology by Rao. Standard publishers Distributors. New Delhi Workshop Technology vol I. 2. Wiley Eastern Ltd. 2. 6. Tata McGraw Publishers. Galgotia publications. New Delhi Fundamentals of metal cutting and machine tools by Juneja and Sekhon. Standard publishers Distributors Practical hand book for Mechanical Engineers by AB Gupta. 5. 1. 4. New Delhi Manufacturing technology by M. Total Time Allotted (Hrs) 12 12 8 10 6 48 Marks Allotted (%) 28 28 12 20 12 100 . II. 4. III by Champman. Adithan and AB. New Delhi Production technology by HMT. 5. 3. New Age International (P) Ltd.. 7. Tata McGraw hill Publishers. Gupta. New Delhi Principle of metal cutting by Bhattacharya. 3.

5 1. erase.3 2. Teachers should show model or realia of the component/part whose drawing is to be made. dimensioning. . snap.2 1.6 Tool post Tail stock Screw jack Safety valve Stuffing Box Bench vice 3. circle. layout of sheet. Isometric Drawings by CAD Drawings of following on computer: Cone Cylinder Isometric view of objects 4. Transformations.4 2. ellipse.1 1. translation INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY 1. copy. Teachers should ensure use of IS codes related to drawing. and ortho mode Drawing commands – point.3 1. Introduction to AutoCAD commands 1.6 1. Assembly and detail drawings of the following using AUTOCAD (9 sheets) 2.4 1. lengthen and explode. stretch. coordinate system. rotation.1 2. scaling. 3D Modelling 3D modelling. line. Tool bars in Auto CAD. Dimensioning and placing text in drawing area Sectioning and hatching Inquiry for different parameters of drawing entity 2.COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING L T P .6 Concept of AutoCAD.5 2.2 2. grid. arc. 2. Emphasis should be given on cleanliness. 3. Editing commands – scale.

New Delhi. Delhi. AutoCAD 2000 for you by Umesh Shettigar and Abdul Khader. Machine Drawing by P. Udupi. Vikas Publishing House.RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. New Delhi.. Nageswara Rao. AutoCAD for Engineering Drawing Made Easy by P. Dhawan . Gill. S. A Text book of Machine Drawing by R. 3. 4.S. . Kataria and Sons. 5.Chand and Company Ltd. Janatha Publishers. 2. Engineering Drawing with AutoCAD 2000 by T. Jeyapooran. Tata McGraw Hill.K. Ludhiana.

1.1. methods to reduce stress concentration. necessity of design 1. toughness.2 2. tenacity.5 Characteristics of environment required for a designer 1. Introduction 1. malleability. strength 1.3 Practical examples related with design procedure 1.Maximum shear stress theory .2 Selection of materials. General design considerations Engineering materials and their mechanical properties : 1.3.1 Various design failures . stress concentration.3 3. criterion of material selection 2. adaptability to new situation and continued learning skills for problem solving.MACHINE DESIGN L T 4 RATIONALE The contents of this subject are organised to understand the intricacies of different engineering design aspects. strain.2 Design procedure 1. factors affecting factor of safety. factor of safety. innovative skill.1. Fatigue.1.Maximum principal stress theory. Type of design.1.1 Design – Definition. plasticity. ductility. fatigue.2 Design terminology: stress.1 Properties of engineering materials: elasticity.Maximum strain theory Design for tensile. compressive and torsional loading Design for combined torsion and bending P - 1.3 2. endurance limit.3. Design of Shaft . creep.4 Characteristics of a good designer 1. This will also help the students to enhance their imagination.1 Comparison of designed and undesigned work 1. . hardness and resilience. Design Failure 2. DETAILED CONTENTS 1.

3 3. 5. 5. 5.3 Axially loaded welded joints.3 4.2 Permanent Joint: Welding symbols.2.4 4.1 Temporary Joint: 5. Cotter Joint – Different parts of the joint. Type of loading on shaft. : Rivet materials.2. materials of key. design of the knuckle joint.2 3. type of knuckle Joint. 5. standard sizes of shaft available Shaft subjected to torsion only.1 4.1. advantages of a coupling. Design of key (Determination of key dimension) Effect of keyway on shaft strength. 5. determination of shaft diameter on the basis of : Strength criterion Rigidity criterion Shaft subjected to bending Shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending Design of Key 4. (Figures and problems).2.4 Types of key. strength of parallel and transverse fillet welds.1 Knuckle Joints – Different parts of the joint.1.2.1 Welded Joint . Rivet heads. shaft materials. type of cotter joint – spigot and socket joint.3. types of couplings. sleeve and cotter joint.1 3. functions of key Failure of key (by Shearing and Crushing). (Figures and problems). material used for the joint. Design of Joints Types of joints .5 Different modes of rivet joint failure.2 Strength of combined parallel and transverse weld.Temporary and Permanent.2. single and multi riveted joint. . 5. Design of Flange Coupling Necessity of a coupling. Design of cotter joint (Figures and problems). standards and materials having high weldability.2 4. (both protected type and unprotected type). gib and cotter joint. Type of shaft. 5. circumferential and longitudinal boiler joints 6.2. 5.2 5. utility of joints 5. design of flange coupling. Diamond (Lozenzo) joint. leak proofing of riveted joint – caulking and fullering.4 Riveted Joints.Type of welded joint.6 Design of riveted joint – Lap and butt.

A Agarwal. New Delhi.3. Presentation should be arranged for various topics. 2. Khurmi and JK Gupta. 5. Total Time Allotted (Hrs) 6 3 14 4 20 6 3 8 64 Marks Allotted (%) 10 5 22 6 30 10 5 12 100 .B. Nature of loads on nut and bolts. Katson Publishing House.1 7. Design of Pulley 7. Initial stresses due to screwing up. SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS Topic No. Meerut. REFERENCE BOOKS 1. New Delhi. 3. 4. 1.S. Tata McGraw Hill. Form of thread (ISO). stresses due to combination of different loads. crowning of pulley. 6.1 8. 5. Machine design by J. . Nav Bharat parkashan. Machine Design by R.) Limited. components of a pulley. Use models of machine parts/components. pulley materials. Kapoor.7. 8.2 8. Ludhiana. types of failure of nut and bolts.2 Types of pulley. Eurasia Publishing House (Pvt.Bhandari. Bolt and Thread 8. 7. Nut.K. 2. Machine Design by V. 2. Determination of pulley dimensions (Figures and problems). Machine design by R. INSTRUCTIONAL STREATEGY 1. Machine Design by Sharma and Agrawal. 8. 3. 4. type of threads and their nomenclature. Type of nut heads. Design of Screw. B. Bharat Parkashan. Meerut.

tool off sets. Part Programming Part programming and basic concepts of part programming. lubrication and cooling system.1 Definition 1. NC control and PLC control system. Components of CNC System Machine control unit.CNC MACHINES AND AUTOMATION L T 3 RATIONALE Students are required to supervise and handle specialized machines and equipments like CNC machines. CNC vertical and horizontal machining centre. Automation 1. P 4 2. machines DETAILED CONTENTS 1. multiple pallets.2 Types of Automation 1.3 Need of Automation 1. This subject aims at development of knowledge and skill about CNC machines tools. use of on-time fault finding diagnosis tools in CNC machines 6. CNC. electrical. subroutines and do loops. pneumatic. basic concepts of NC. slide ways. equipment and use of high tech. machine bed. NC words. screw and nut assembly. axis drive motors. cutter radius compensation and wear compensation 5. spindle and spindle motors. bolt. . DNC and adaptive control. automatic tool changers. Common Problems in CNC Machines Common problems in mechanical. Other Automation Equipment CNC turning centres. part programming formats. CAM. swarf removal mechanisms and safety provision 4. introduction to C axis and special constructional requirements of CNC machines. electronic and PC components of CNC machines. simple programming for rotational components. diagnostic study of common problems and remedies.4 Advantages of Automation Introduction to Numerical Control Computer applications in manufacturing. advantages and application of CNC machines in industry 3. part programming using canned cycles.

RECOMMENDED BOOKS 1. 6. Study the constructional details of CNC lathe. INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGY This is a highly practice-based course. 2. Study the constructional details and working of following:Automatic tool changer and tool setter Multiple pallets Swarf removal system Safety devices Develop a part programme for following lathe operations: Plain turning and facing operations Taper turning operations (internal and external) Thread cutting operations (internal and external) Preparation of preventive maintenance schedule for CNC machine. Khanna Publishers. Numerical Control of Machines Tools by Yorem Korem and IB Uri. it should be ensured that students get opportunity to individually perform practical tasks. 3. 4. 4. 2. 5. 3. Kundra and Tiwari. 2. SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTION OF MARKS Topic No. Computer Aided Manufacturing by Rao. 1.. Tata McGraw Hill.introduction to flexible manufacturing system (FMS) and robotics LIST OF PRACTICALS 1. During practice work. Total Time Allotted (Hrs) 4 6 10 16 6 6 48 Marks Allotted (%) 8 14 20 30 14 14 100 . New Delhi. CNC Machines –Programming and Applications by M Adithan and BS Pabla. New Age International (P) Ltd. Efforts should be made to develop programming skills amongst the students. 3. New Delhi. Delhi.