GRAPHITE

44 Graphite

G

raphite, also known as plumbago or black lead, is a variety of naturally occurring carbon. It crystallises in hexagonal system and has a lamellar form, a grey- to-black metallic lustre and greasy feel. Natural graphite is divisible into two commercial varieties: (i) crystalline graphite and (ii) amorphous graphite. Both flaky and amorphous varieties of graphite are produced in the country. The quality of graphite is dependent upon its physical qualities as well as carbon content. In addition to natural graphite, synthetic or artificial graphite is manufactured on a large-scale in electric furnaces, using anthracite or petroleum coke as raw feed. The latter is known as Calcined Petroleum Coke ( CPC).

has been esstimated in 2006-07. In the western extension of Arasanur block, a new block named Kiranur block, was investigated and the results were found to be not encouraging. The west of the Kiranur block, 135 m east of a mine of M/s. V. Thiruvanavukasasu, a trench (KT-1) across graphite gneiss exposed three bands of graphite having 1.90 m, 2.5m and 1.6m widths. In 2007-08, Directorate of Geology, Jharkhand, carried out exploration in Mukta Tabar and Nawadih area of Palamau district. About 1.05 sq km area was mapped on 1:2000 scale, collecting 155 samples and 56 cu m pitting/trenching. As a result, one million tonnes graphite resources of possible category were estimated with fixed carbon content of 5.95 to 23.47%.

RESOURCES
Graphite occurences are reported from various states but the deposits of economic importance are located in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. As per the UNFC system, the total resources of graphite as on 1.4.2005 are placed at about 168.77 million tonnes, comprising 10.75 million tonnes in the reserves category and 158.02 million tonnes under remaining resources category. Resources containing +40% fixed carbon constitute about 1.11 million tonnes and resources analysing 10-40% fixed carbon 21.23 million tonnes. Balance resources of 146.43 million tonnes fall under 'others', 'unclassified' and 'not known' grades. Out of total resources, Arunachal Pradesh accounts for 43% followed by Jammu & Kashmir (37%), Jharkhand (6%), Tamil Nadu (5%) and Orissa (3%). However, in terms of reserves, Tamil Nadu has leading share of about 37% followed by Jharkhand (30%) and Orissa (29%) (Table-1).

PRODUCTION STOCKS & PRICES
Production of graphite at 116 thousand tonnes in 2007-08 decreased by 29% as compared to that of the preceding year due to less demand and temporary closure of mines. The output of graphite is reported in terms of run-of-mine (r.o.m..) which contains varying carbon content. In all, there were 28 reporting mines in 2007-08 as against 33 in the previous year. Ten principal producers accounted for 93% of the total output during the year. The share of public sector in the total output was 43% in 2007-08 as compared to 47% in the previous year. About 70 % of the total production in 2007-08 was accrued from five mines, each producing more than 5,000 tonnes annually, while 22% was contributed by seven mines, each in the production range of 2,000 to 5,000 tonnes per annum. The remaining output of 8 percent was reported by 16 mines, each producing below 2,000 tonnes annually. Orissa was the leading position contributing a major share of about 44% of the total output during 2007-08, followed by Tamil Nadu 43% and Jharkhand by 13% (Tables - 2 to 5). Mine-head stock at the end of the year 2007-08 was 45 thousand tonnes as against 72 thousand tonnes in the beginning of the year (Table - 6). The average daily employment of labour during 2007-08 was 331 as against 490 in the preceding year. Domestic prices of graphite are furnished in Table - 7.

EXPLORATION & DEVELOPMENT
GSI continued exploration for graphite in PuvandiArasanur and Usilampatti area in Sivaganga district, Tamil Nadu. In Arasanur block, presence of graphite mineralisation has been proved for a strike length of 1 km. The average width of the zone is about 12 m. and overall average grade is 14% F.C. A resources of 0.76 million tonnes of graphite (average grade of 13% FC)

44-1

1 : Reserves/Resources of Graphite as on 1. .2005 (By Grades/States) (In tonnes) Reserves Remaining resources Total (A) Feasibility STD211 Pre-feasibility Measured STD331 Indicated STD332 Inferred STD333 STD221 STD222 930118 51326 951 238500 8952091 2330151 3127538 1858393 1596449 3283001 5882 1070312 8740 2750 39836 80 930038 5956595 16506673 134489932 73897 61497720 72918315 158025030 276531 11614601 5613152 64633890 75886856 168774938 1110109 21229460 5846472 64701416 75887481 12000 78386 37000 41386 12000 Reconnaissance Total STD334 (B) Total resources (A+B) Probable STD121 STD122 4564534 10749908 342807 833578 9614859 233320 67526 625 3943249 210952 67526 1021869 77132 937943 6794 - Grade/State Proved STD111 All India : Total 5163505 By Grades + 40% F.4. 413639 10-40% F.Table . 4733667 Others 15574 Unclassified - Not known 625 GRAPHITE 44-2 1135 1135 2750 35600 38900 39486 172032 2486 8740 29136 10700 720000 12000 3276091 196914 26062 3106969 213520 3929217 2163106 188812 17762 1217349 165920 810450 670448 6794 8300 336327 - By States 124758 2520805 1143701 18200 1148350 103281 250000 647500 301306 835000 1059520 5180124 52500 240418 1006660 1160000 1954721 1450034 3266390 72758257 61681035 24350 26290 426064 72758257 3355805 62740555 7070925 70700 1424368 1006660 1160000 2315964 1700034 3984998 10700 427199 72758257 3355805 62740555 10347016 267614 1450430 1006660 1160000 5422933 1913554 7914215 10700 Andhra Pradesh - Arunachal Pradesh - Gujarat - Jammu & Kashmir - Jharkhand 442537 Karnataka 1308 Kerala - Madhya Pradesh - Maharashtra - Orissa 1553293 Rajasthan 47600 Tamil Nadu 3118767 Uttarakhand - Figures rounded off.C.C.

O. Ltd. Orissa.Cuttack. ’000) 2006-07 State/District No. Sambalpur. Shri Sunandan Pradhan (Pradhan Industries). Patnaikpara. K. PO . Orissa. Khetrajpur. Bolangir. Ranchi. K. Chennai – 600 005.2 (Concld. Ramesh Kumar Agrawal. Orissa Pramod Kumar Agrawal. Orissa. 9. Dist. Balibanda Distt. Farm Road. Jharkhand. Dist. Diamond Graphite Industries Pvt. Orissa Manganese & Minerals (P) Ltd. Natwar Lal Agarwal P. Orissa. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (By Sectors/States/Districts) (Qty. Dist. 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By States) (Qty. Kantabanji. Dist. Modipara. of mines India Public sector Private sector Jharkhand Palamu Latehar Orissa Bargarh Bolangir Nuapada Rayagada Tamil Nadu Madurai Sivaganga 33 1 32 9 8 1 22 4 15 2 1 2 1 1 Quantity 162293 58961 103332 12999 12695 304 88758 1605 22847 12983 51323 60536 1575 58961 Value 59296 18514 40782 4842 4751 91 35083 642 11312 5166 17963 19371 857 18514 No. Bariaju Road. Sambalpur. of mines 28 1 27 9 8 1 17 4 11 1 1 2 1 1 Quantity 11 6 0 0 7 49308 66699 14762 13918 844 50702 7425 30720 8486 4071 50543 1235 49308 Value 47430 15532 31898 5599 5325 274 25627 3198 17610 3394 1425 16204 672 15532 2007-08(p) 44-3 .) Location of mine Name & address of producer State Prabhas Chandra Agrawal. value in Rs. Sambalpur. Tamil Nadu District Sivaganga Table . Poddar Niket.GRAPHITE Table – 2 : Principal Producers of Graphite 2007-08 Location of mine Name & address of producer State Tamil Nadu Minerals Ltd. ’000) 2005-06 State Quantity India Jharkhand Orissa Tamil Nadu 125651 16286 50385 58530 Value 43050 4921 24021 14108 Quantity 162293 12999 88758 60536 Value 59296 4842 35083 19371 Quantity 11 6 0 0 7 14762 50702 50543 Value 47430 5599 25627 16204 2006-07 2007-08 (p) Table – 4 : Production of Graphite. Orissa. Poddar. Sambalpur. Shakti Kunj. in tonnes. Esplande Mansion Kolkata West Bengal Orissa District Bargarh Bolangir Bolangir Orissa Orissa Bolangir Orissa Rayagada Orissa Bolangir Nuapada Palamau Orissa Bolangir Jharkhand Orissa Bolangir Nuapada Jharkhand Palamu ( Contd.) Table – 3 : Production of Graphite. 31. in tonnes. value in Rs. Girdharilal Agrawal. Telanga Bazar. Khetrajpur. Chepauk. Orissa. Tamil Nadu. Kamarajar Salai. Alishan Complex. Sambalpur.

head Stocks of Graphite.C. 55-60% C (-200 mesh) 60-65% C (-200 mesh) 70-75% C (-200 mesh) 80-85% C (-200 mesh) 60-65% C (-80 mesh) 60-65% C (-100 mesh) 70-75% C (-100 mesh) 60-65% C (-150 mesh) 70-75% C (-150 mesh) 80-85% C (-20+50 mesh) 80-85% C (-50+80 mesh) Market Ex.7 : Prices of Graphite. per tonne) Grade Below 10% F. of mines 2006-07 India Upto 500 501-1000 1001-2000 2001-3000 3001-4000 4001-5000 Above 5001 33 16 2 6 1 1 2 5 2007-08 28 9 3 4 2 2 3 5 Production for the group 2006-07 162293 1777 1438 8506 2677 3540 8825 135530 2007-08 116007 836 2774 5662 5292 7288 12936 81219 Percentage in total production 2006-07 100 1 1 5 2 2 5 84 2007-08 100 1 2 5 5 6 11 70 Cumulative percentage 2006-07 1 2 7 9 11 16 100 2007-08 1 3 8 13 19 30 100 Table – 6 : Mine .factory Ranchi(Jharkhand) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) Ex-factory Patrapati (Orissa) 2005-06 400 9000 10200 11500 12800 11000 13000 9800 14000 30000 18800 2006-07 400 13000 12000 11500 13250 12500 34000 20500 2007-08(p) 400 15000 14000 17000 13000 39000 23000 44-4 . 2005-06 to 2007-08 (Domestic Markets) (In Rs. 2007-08 (p) (By States) (In tonnes) State India Jharkhand Orissa Tamil Nadu At the beginning of the year 71999 4625 44262 23112 At the end of the year 45140 3791 17196 24153 Table .GRAPHITE Table – 5 : Production of Graphite. 2006-07 and 2007-08 (By Frequency Groups) (Qty. in tonnes) Production group No.

grade concentrate containing 98 to 99% F. Amongst these.C.C. The beneficiation plant located adjacent to the mine site was commenced in November 1994 to produce 9. is blended with higher grades to meet the requirements of beneficiation plant.o. etc. it is seen that lower grade graphite having +5% F. Sometimes.C.).o... Tamil Nadu Minerals Ltd (TAMIN) produced flaky graphite from a mine in Sivaganga area. to produce marketable grade graphite which contains normally 70 to 80% F. New Chemicals and Metals Products Private Ltd. 4. Amadalavalsa.m. The r. The technological changes in recent years have considerably reduced the use of graphite as a lubricant. acid leaching and froth flotation.04% ash. it often requires beneficiation for obtaining desired grade for various end-uses. 0.98% ash. recycled graphite is being used in producing clay-bonded graphite crucibles. from such mines generally contains 10 to 20% F. O.C.C. contains 40% F. sorting. Sargipalli underground mine in Sambalpur district.6%) assayed 98. product has been obtained by many producers after repeated cycles of beneficiation. has to be invariably beneficiated before marketing.032% iron and 0. It is a disseminated deposit of flaky graphite containing 5 to 20% F. In Orissa. Graphite of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts is utilised mostly by the graphite crucible industry while graphite worked earlier from Kalahandi district used to be despatched to foundry units.46% sulphur was subjected to froth flotation in two stages and further subjected to acid leaching under different conditions to reduce ash content.C..C. graphite (r.C. Daltonganj. The ore from the mine is partially beneficiated in a 3. +10% F. areas in and around Bolangir are the chief mining centres where several graphite grades are produced.o. About 92% F. The remaining output is sold to other beneficiation plants nearby. Ranchi..240 tpy of natural graphite concentrate containing 96% F. Active mining centres of graphite are in Latehar and Palamu districts in Jharkhand. is a promising opencast mine in which the r.C.C. Nuapada. National Metallurgical Laboratory had undertaken study on graphite sample from TP Mineral Industries of Sambalpur district. Beneficiation Plants in India Andhra Pradesh Srinivasa Graphite Crucible Industries. However. P.GRAPHITE MINING & MARKETING Graphite mines are mostly small and opencast barring a few underground mines.C. mining activities are concentrated mostly around Sokara village in Palamu district. Orissa to produce high-purity graphite. Mineral Industries (TPMI). produced graphite. in the past. Bargarh. Beneficiation plants in Orissa seem to have been designed for treating +10% F. Daltonganj. which can be used as a substitute of imported product. beneficiated concentrate is further enriched by chemical treatment (acid leaching. At Bolangir.e.) to obtain a very high. operated by M/s T. Carbon and Graphite Products. P. on an average.2% F.o. Dangachacha mine. The sample assaying 48. Rayagada and Bolangir districts in Orissa and Madurai and Sivaganga districts in Tamil Nadu.o.m.C.12% sulphur with 90. Indigenously fabricated equipment is used generally to upgrade the r.o.m. a few opencast workings are deeper than 45 m from surface and the r. containing about 10% F. The final graphite concentrate produced (yield 42. A list of important beneficiation plants in the country is given below: BENEFICIATION Graphite occurs generally admixed with the country rocks and hence. Sivaganga district in Tamil Nadu.m. low grade ore analysing +5% F.m. In Jharkhand. also owned by TPMI.2% fixed carbon distribution. Water seepage beyond 6 m depth is the main problem faced by almost all mine owners in Orissa. District Srikakulam. with 92% recovery from r. Thus. Jharkhand Chhota Nagpur Graphite Industries. analysing up to 40% F. i.C.C. is also used. The common processes adopted are washing. 46. 0.16% F. chlorination.C. In practice. 44-5 . Processes for graphite beneficiation depend upon nature and association of gangue minerals present.m.000-tpy plant. Hazaribag Road. tabling. Few plant owners claimed to have obtained product containing as high as 95% F.C.58% volatile matter and 0. froth flotation process is used widely as it helps in producing a fairly high-grade graphite concentrate.

Patel. Titlagarh. Agrawal. S. gasket. Good quality graphite which is one of the materials for this purpose. brushes. braid. Sambalpur. expanded graphite-based sealing. Sambalpur. Laxminaryan Girdharilal. brake lining. District Sivaganga.g. Sambalpur. R. Sivaganga. sealing gaskets in refineries. District Palamu. graphitised grease. Raimata Graphite Industries. India Minerals.) (micron) Mag-Carb refractories Alumina-Carb (graphitised) alumina refractories Clay-bonded crucibles 12 8-10 87-90% 85% min 150-710 150-500 60-65 +80 -20 to +100 mesh. District Vadodara. Bhubaneswar. P. National Carbon Products. Farmsons Minerals Industries. District Bolangir. Sambalpur. Sambalpur. Devgadhbaria. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu Minerals Ltd (TAMIN). fuel pumps. It is also used in a minor amounts as a vital additive for producing other products.GRAPHITE Parijat Mining Industries (India) Private Ltd. Bolangir. T. The specifications of graphite for some possible uses are as follows : Colloidal graphite Foundry coatings are used to prevent fusion of liquid metal with the sand at the mould or core face. Misrilal Dharamchand Jain. Graphite Industries. Titlagarh. Examples of such uses are in refractories. Pradhan Industries. Kellanpur. Specifications of Graphite End product Percentage of graphite used Quality of the graphite used Fixed Carbon Size (F. Indesmin Graphite. On drying. Chhota Udepur. Sambalpur. +150 Silicon carbide crucibles Expanded (or flexible) graphite foils and products based thereon (e. P. Sambalpur. 44-6 . Graphite International. Patnagarh. Trinath Pradhan. Mangalam Graphite Industries. Padmapur Diamond Graphite Industries. Muthai. etc. Pioneer Graphite. foundries. Lakshminarayan Makhanlal Company. Kartabanji. K. Minerals Industries. does not peel off in flakes. Jatpur Road. in ship) Graphitised grease (used in seamless steel tube manufacturing) Recarburisation of steel 40-50 95% min Amorphous powder flake - - +99% 38 max 100 100 99% 99.g. Sambalpur. Minerals Private Limited. B. Graphite is used in bulk for producing certain products. automobiles) Pencils Brake-linings Foundry Batteries a) Dry cells b) Alkaline Brushes 35 100 80-89% 90% min 250-1800 (preferably +99%) 50-60 1-15 - +95. They are applied as coating by spraying or painting in the form of suspension or by dusting or rubbing as dry powders. Rayagada. it imparts a smooth surface to the casting. Vadodara.g. Sambalpur. District Panchmahals. pencils. G. Gandhamardhan Graphite Udyog. Gujarat Harikrupa Minerals. G. C. Carbon and Graphite Industries. District Vadodara. District Bolangir. Patnagarh. Repala.98% 98% min 40-70% 50 max 75 max 53-75 - 88% min 98% min Usually 99% 75 max 5-75 Usually less than 53 53-106 5 Lubricants Sintered products (e. Sargipalli. clog wheels) Paint - 98-99% 98-99% Up to 75 50-55% 75% min Braid used for sealing (e. Orissa Agrawal Graphite Industries. etc. Ranchi. M. more sophisticated applications of graphite have emerged. Now.9% Micronised Colloidal SPECIFICATIONS Traditional uses are in crucibles.

Synthetic graphite is manufactured by heating petroleum coke bound with pitch to about 2500oC under pressure. Mumbai.44 million tonnes and 4. The carbon content of graphite should be around 80%. Varanasi. require flaky graphite having only about half the size of those needed in clay-bonded graphite crucibles. Only good quality flaky graphite is preferred in the manufacture of crucibles. This area has about 70 small-scale crucible manufacturing units out of 90 such units in the country. The specification for natural graphite lays down 1% moisture (max) and 3% volatile matter (max). Maharashtra and Kolkata. Jharkhand. Carbon electrodes used in electric arc furnaces and various other electrolytic processes are made from synthetic graphite. respectively. Uttar Pradesh. West Bengal. 25 . Hindustan Electro-Graphite Ltd and Carbon Corporation Ltd have a plant each in Mandideep near Bhopal.854 tonnes. The graphite crucible industry is concentrated in Rajahmundry-Samalkot area in East Godavari district. Padur. 1 to 200 are commonly manufactured. Both the material should pass through 75 micron sieve (75% min) and 150 micron sieve (100%).5% (max) and fixed carbon by difference. Graphite crucibles are used for melting both non-ferrous and ferrous metals. Green crucibles are dried and finally baked in a muffle or down-draught kiln at a temperature of about 1300oC in a reduced condition. a by-product of petroleum refineries of Indian Oil Corporation (Guwahati. 20% (max) for Grade II and 30% (max) for Grade III. The specifications are given for natural (three grades) and synthetic graphite (one grade).78 million tonnes and 4. Such crucibles consist of 25-40% flaky graphite and 40-60% silicon carbide besides some other ingredients. However. 44-7 . The production of graphite electrodes and anodes in 2006-07 and 2007-08 was 94. non-graphitic carbon 3. at Haldia in West Bengal and Goa Carbon Limited at Margao in Goa. There are three small-scale units and two large-scale units in organised sector in the country. respectively. Orissa.30% clay. volatile matter 2% (max). Other centres in the country are Titlagarh and Sambalpur. Petro-carbon and Chemicals Co. Salem and Chennai.5% (max) for Grade I and 2. The ingredients are mixed in proportion with water and are heated for a day or two and then subjected to thorough mixing in pug mill several times. ash 3% (max). Silicon carbide-graphite crucibles The silicon carbide-graphite crucibles use isostatic pressing technology. Specification for synthetic graphite is : moisture 1% (max). Calcined petroleum coke manufacturing units are Indian Carbon Limited at Noonmati and Guwahati in Assam and Budge-Budge in West Bengal. respectively. Maharashtra. Madhya Pradesh and Nasik. Tamil Nadu. Gujarat. Wapi. INDUSTRY Graphite Crucibles Clay-bonded graphite crucibles The clay-bonded graphite crucible usually comprises 60 .802 tonnes. India is self-sufficient in the requirement of petroleum coke. The sales/consumption during the same period was 5.34 million tonnes. Production of petroleum coke from crude oil refining in India was 3. Graphite India Ltd has two plants. Non-graphitic carbon content should be 0.5% (max) for Grade II and III. Graphite crucibles are designated by numbers which denote the capacity in kilogram of molten metal (copper as standard) that can be handled at a time.550 tonnes and 112. Ranchi. the use of silicon carbide-graphite crucibles is restrictive. Production of carbon black during the same period was 423. The large-scale units are located at Mehsana in Gujarat and Walunj near Aurangabad in Maharashtra.020 tonnes and 428. Gugai. respectively.GRAPHITE BIS has prescribed IS-1305-1984 for graphite for use in foundry coating. respectively. The bonded material so obtained is then shaped into crucibles through moulds of different sizes. Andhra Pradesh. Ash content should be 12% (max) for Grade I material. (Jamnagar). Crucibles are made by mixing various ingredients like graphite with clay and borax.13 million tonnes in 2006-07 and 2007-08. Fixed carbon content is the balance by difference. Digboi and Barauni) and Reliance Industries Ltd. 5% silicon carbide and 5% borax. Indian Oil Corporation at Barauni in Bihar.65% flaky graphite. Crucibles up to 1000 size are made in India. one at Durgapur in West Bengal and the other in Bangalore. The proportion of flakes of the desired size in the total graphite content must not be below 25%. of which crucibles of size Synthetic graphite and other carbon products Calcined Petroleum Coke (CPC) is the raw material for manufacturing synthetic graphite. Many of them manufacture clay-bonded graphite crucibles.

Other countries Source: World Mineral Production.9 : World Resources of Graphite (Natural) (By Principal Countries) (In '000 tonnes) Country World : Total (rounded) Brazil China Czech Republic India* Madagascar Mexico USA Other countries Reserve base 210000 1000 140000 14000 3800 960 3100 1000 44000 Source: Mineral Commodity Summaries. Division. Norway.000 tonnes WORLD REVIEW The world resources of graphite are believed to be quite extensive. Germany. the consumption of various grades of graphite during 2005-06 to 2007-08 ranged from 13. chemicals.E People's Rep. As per the information received from various graphite consuming units and estimates. paper. 162. over 67% (Table-9).800 tonnes to 14. Rajahmundry (Andhhra Pradesh) and field survey to Samalkot/Rajahmundry area by M. Consumption of graphite for beneficiation purposes is estimated at 14.007 tonnes respectively.651 tonnes. 2006-07 and 2007-08 was 125. Industrywise consumption data are given in Table . pharmaceuticals and rubber) Table . 2008.600 tonnes (32. Figures in parentheses denote the number of units in organised sector reporting consumption.7%).300 tonnes (44. having a share of about 86%. rough estimate of the reserve base of graphite has been placed at 210 million tonnes of which Chaina alone holds 140 million tonnes. pesticide. the refractory industry accounted for 6. Table . (e)* . China continued to be the leading producer. i. IBM in March.100 tonnes.1%). 44-8 . Dem.293 tonnes and 116. * India's resources of graphite as per UNFC system are placed at 168. and Brazil (4%) (Table-10). Table . 2007.8. Ukraine and Zimbabwe are included in other countries. of Mexico Russia Ukraine Zimbabwe 2005 2000 76 1 7 (e) 1650 126 3 0 (e) 12 14 (e) 10 4 61 2006 2039 76 15 1730 124 3 0 (e) 12 14 (e) 6 7 25 2007 2100 77 15 1800 116 3 0 (e) 10 1 4 (e) NA 7 (e) 31 Figures rounded off. Out of total consumption in 2007-08. 2003-2007.Based on the information supplied by The All India Graphite Crucible Manufacturers Association..77 million tonnes Others (asbestos 700 (20) products.e. Figures for Canada.1 million tonnes in 2007.000 tonnes (7.10 : World Production of Graphite (Natural) (By Principal Countries) (In '000 tonnes) Country World : Total Brazil @ Canada China# India* Korea. * Production of graphite in India in 2005-06. paint. followed by India (6%) second largest producer.E.8 : Reported Consumption of Graphite 2005-06 to 2007-08 (By Industries) (In tonnes) Industry All Industries Dry cell battery Electrode Foundry(e) Graphite products (Crucible)(e)* Graphite products (pencil)(e)* Refractory 2005-06(R) 13800 400(2) 600 (5) 1000 (4) 4500(3) 500 (1) 6100 (23) 2006-07 14000 400(2) 600 (5) 1000 (4) 4500(3) 500 (1) 6300 (23) 700 (20) 2007-08(p) 14100 400(2) 600 (5) 1000 (4) 4600(3) 500 (1) 6300 (23) 700 (20) World production of graphite was 2. Data collected on non-statutory basis. Turkey.GRAPHITE CONSUMPTION Reliable consumption data on beneficiated graphite concentrates are not available. North Korea. crucible industry 4. However.6%) and foundry industry 1. Sri Lanka. @ Including beneficiated and directly shipped material # Including flake graphite. (e) Estimatead consumption taken from Market Survey conducted by IBM.

Table – 13 : Exports of Graphite Bricks & Shapes (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Nepal Saudi Arabia Oman USA Ethiopia Canada Kenya Uganda 4 3 1 Value (Rs.GRAPHITE FOREIGN TRADE Exports In 2007-08. imports of graphite (artificial) increased to 18. Malaysia.666 tonnes in 2007-08 from 9.’000) 715 225 202 131 62 51 32 12 2007-08 44-9 . Imports of graphite bricks and shapes decreased to 159 tonnes in 2007-08 from 333 tonnes in 2006-07.420 tonnes from 1.’000) 44538 10682 9364 7422 4509 1193 1141 704 222 9301 2007-08 Table – 12 : Exports of Graphite (Artificial) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries Germany Iran USA Austria France Netherlands Sweden UK Poland Japan Other countries 6877 2214 1670 1290 105 118 193 197 225 162 703 Value (Rs. Imports were mainly from China (89%) (Tables . Silicon carbide crucibles were exported mainly to Iran. USA (8%) and Poland (7%).905 tonnes from 2.’000) 624595 227954 59580 126747 21614 23337 33833 19868 10135 29104 72423 Qty (t) 14586 7475 1677 1149 517 247 283 208 529 1073 52 1376 Value (Rs.877 tonnes in 2006-07.321 tonnes in 2006-07. Indonesia.850 tonnes in the previous year. Table – 11 : Exports of Graphite (Natural) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty (t) All Countries UK Germany France Netherlands Australia UAE New Zealand Malaysia Poland USA Other countries 1850 262 150 77 3 49 37 43 62 129 168 870 Value (Rs.’000) 1502775 790605 150660 109932 97510 49296 48095 37185 30322 21436 8988 158746 2007-08 Imports Imports of graphite (natural) increased to 11. Exports of graphite bricks and shapes increased to 62 tonnes in 2007-08 from 4 tonnes in the previous year.794 tonnes from 749 tonnes in the previous year. Norway (14%).586 tonnes from 6. Graphite (natural) was mainly imported from China (87%). Graphite (artificial) was exported mainly to Germany (51%). exports of graphite (natural) decreased to 1. Germany and France (15% each).927 tonnes in the previous year.450 tonnes in 2007-08 from 17. Imports of graphite crucibles increased in 200708 to 1. UAE. Imports of graphite (artificial) were mainly from China (69%). The exports of graphite crucibles increased to 622 tonnes in 2007-08 from 393 tonnes in the previous year while exports of silicon carbide crucibles decreased in 2007-08 to 1. Iran and Bangladesh were the main buyers of graphite crucibles. Similarly.16 to 20).698 tonnes in the previous year. Graphite bricks and shapes were mainly exported to Nepal. Graphite (natural) was exported mainly to UK (22%). Iran (11%). Exports of graphite (artificial) increased to 14. and Germany (6%). Indonesia China. Turkey and Malaysia (Tables .’000) 50012 15785 8009 3182 89 2103 1929 1321 1812 2519 4785 8478 Qty (t) 1420 311 221 220 52 34 35 23 4 520 Value (Rs.11 to 15).’000) 57 31 26 Qty (t) 62 33 8 10 4 3 3 1 Value (Rs. Egypt.

(t) 1905 484 152 106 84 79 95 81 109 28 9 678 Value (Rs. ’000) 133199 32494 10608 6875 6470 10323 7237 8371 3920 5818 8325 32758 Q t y.15 : Exports of Silicon Carbide Crucibles (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Q t y. ’000) 129802 33159 18539 11846 8610 7644 6542 5940 5125 2841 928 28628 2007-08 44-10 . Rep. (t) All Countries Malaysia Indonesia Iran Sri Lanka Nigeria Bangladesh Chinese Taipei/Taiwan Philippines Australia Oman Other countries 393 15 31 48 58 4 40 186 11 Value (Rs.GRAPHITE Table – 14 : Exports of Graphite Crucibles (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Q t y. ’000) 23840 5212 5135 3005 2350 2004 1630 1610 1426 1468 2007-08 Table . of China Malaysia UAE Thailand Singapore Other countries 2698 366 97 64 74 96 73 68 50 69 1013 728 Value (Rs. (t) 622 170 115 82 35 36 62 50 20 52 Value (Rs. (t) All Countries Iran Egypt Indonesia Turkey Korea. ’000) 22487 713 1618 2733 833 297 835 15060 398 Q t y.

GRAPHITE Table . (t) All Countries China Germany Madagascar Sri Lanka USA Italy Japan UK Belgium Unspecified Other countries 9927 9225 29 40 417 80 7 14 82 ++ 20 13 Value (Rs. ’000) 229768 175140 10723 8774 8603 7532 2846 2456 2301 1282 4062 6049 2007-08 Table . (t) All Countries China USA Germany France Norway Japan Netherlands UK Italy Switzerland Other countries 17321 11227 317 490 101 3486 844 241 68 73 23 451 Value (Rs. ’000) 1016252 429643 98512 78747 48047 92195 137705 71439 18637 9016 4314 27997 Q t y. (t) 11 6 6 6 10166 131 280 411 130 37 20 40 11 220 220 Value (Rs.17 : Imports of Graphite (Artificial) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Q t y. (t) 18450 12652 718 1155 368 2539 413 195 132 125 23 130 Value (Rs. ’000) 1 3 2 2 6 11 507247 263415 188464 98771 77424 52123 46634 45388 22931 3923 16291 2007-08 44-11 . ’000) 209100 176993 4506 1271 8656 5330 595 4970 4976 58 556 1189 Q t y.16 : Imports of Graphite (Natural) (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Q t y.

(t) All Countries China France Germany Japan UK USA 333 261 52 5 3 12 Value (Rs. On world scenario. Value (t) (Rs. ’000) 843 216 271 160 96 30 9 41 6 11 3 33795 10158 9547 6539 2387 2111 1024 978 568 256 227 2007-08 Table . wireless phones. 44-12 . Jharkhand. New products of synthetic graphite are graphite fibres/ropes and graphite insulation blankets. Detailed exploration of graphite deposits in Orissa.20 : Imports of Silicon Carbide Crucibles (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. Value (t) (Rs. The silicon carbide crucible industry should be encouraged to increase the exports of its products for increased margin of profits. ’000) 19074 11871 5668 721 71 743 Qty. Value (t) (Rs. such as aerospace and these advanced materials are produced in Hyderabad in a pilot plant. Carbon-composite materials are used in very high technology areas. Silicon carbide-graphite crucibles are being diversified and manufactured to improve upon the use of inferior grade material with less quantity and at the same time ensuring longer life of crucible. Some important higher applications have emerged in exfoliated graphite which are for making sealings. ’000) 159 131 23 3 2 7549 5766 1614 139 30 2007-08 Table . gaskets. which is a graphite foil material conducting heat only in two directions.GRAPHITE Table . (t) All Countries China Hong Kong USA Germany Italy Singapore Poland Chinese Taipei/ Taiwan France 40 4 861 193 749 675 30 Value (Rs. (t) All Countries Germany USA UK Czech Republic Switzerland Italy Japan France China UAE Other countries 236 124 26 44 4 1 12 12 4 9 Value (Rs. ’000) 46055 43799 1202 Qty.18 : Imports of Graphite Bricks & Shapes (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty.19 : Imports of Graphite Crucibles (By Countries) 2006-07 Country Qty. flat-panel displays. Cost-effective b e n e f i c i a t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s f o r l o w-g r a d e g r a p h i t e o r e need to b e d e v e l o p e d . Jammu & Kashmir and Kerala should be carried out. a potential largevolume end-use for natural graphite has emerged in heat sinks. It has thermal conductivity above aluminium and almost equal to copper. ’000) 1794 1594 100 24 42 30 3 1 76292 69468 4646 840 617 448 177 96 2007-08 FUTURE OUTLOOK The graphite reserves having +40% fixed c a r b o n a r e r a t h e r l i m i t e d i n t h e c o u n t r y. also called spreader shield. braids and brushes. digital video cameras. etc. These are used for carrying away heat in laptop computers. ’000) 24809 9904 3807 5902 774 14 2651 742 644 371 Qty.

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