Dr Sudhir Shah MD DM Neurology
Professor of Neurology – K.M.School of PGMR Head, Department of Neurology – VSGH, AHD Director of Neurosciences – Sterling Hospital Consultant Neurologist - Ahmedabad, INDIA


3rd Jan 2010

Why Meditation ?

. • The cause of miseries : thoughts. past & present and attitude • The quest for the god.• We exist in two forms : body and mind. : exercise. (essay) • At some stage you realize that peace and happiness are not outside. • All great people have done meditation. aspirations..


as we do for body. • Fourth stage of consciousness.What is meditation • Exercise of mind to keep it healthy and clean. . • A state of altered consciousness. • Spiritual ecstasy with neurological manifestation. • Not really a Hallucination. • Caution.

Spirituality Meditation Philosophy Devotion RELIGION Karmayoga Charity Character Morality Rituals .

to give away Mental aerobics Intentional self regulation Dedication Stay connected • Patanjali • Buddha • Narad .What is meditation? Definitions • Stability of mind • • • • Wavering of mind is stopped Concentration on one target Unified thought process Thoughtlessness • • • • • • • Introspection Lack of activity To leave.

concentration. contemplation or posturing Frees the mind from distractions and allows for communication with the “Master Within” The ultimate goal is ILLUMINATION : ENLIGHTENMENT .What is meditation? Definitions Definition : Thinking deeply or spiritually about a subject It is a complex cognitive task It is more than relaxation.

Meditation : advantages • Physical. asthma. . • Spiritual health. rheumatism etc. • Interpersonal relations. • Produces relaxation and reduces reactivity. coronary artery disease. • Better concentration and sharpness. DM. • Improves Job performance. mental and emotional health. • Stress relief. • Cure / control of psychosomatic disorders including high blood pressure.

.Meditation : advantages • Brings change of attitude • Inner peace. • Improves quality of life. healing power. • Brings control over thought process. • Cultivates and promotes positive emotions and removes negative thoughts. • Intuitive knowledge. magnetic personality and occult powers. patience and happiness. • Helps in controlling anger and conquering fear.

Stress : Over activity of Sympathetic system.Meditation is an antidote to stress • The neuro chemistry and neuro physiology of meditation is just the reverse of stress. . • Meditation: Over activity of Parasympathetic system.

• Please do not sleep. right method. it is not a push button system. correct understanding. • Meditation industry is at height. extreme faith and full conviction. Hence there is a 90 to 95% -drop out rate. you need patience. constant practice. appropriate place. • Not to make comparisons. because of commercialization. so one should be careful. All systems are great .Caution • However. You need to have right guide.

Krishnamurti . but also inwardly. . not only of the things about you outwardly.• Meditation is hard work. It demands the highest form of discipline which comes through constant awareness.J.

The Real Purpose Of Meditation • Elimination of Ego • Elimination of Mind .

MEDITATION : PHILOSOPHICAL PURPOSE • Philosophical self realization • God realization • Total bliss (total relief of pain) • Total liberation .

Meditation techniques • Focus on Breathing • Focus on an object. light • Focus on a sound • Focus on a thought • Focus on sensual object • Focus on sensory perception • Imagery • Soul meditation .

equanimity -WARMING UP• Prayer • Pranayama……… internet connection…….Meditation Practice • Choosing a place and atmosphere • Sitting Posture • Time of meditation • Importance of Consistent Practice • 4 purities : Mouth..” or neutral witness • Pure moment-to-moment awareness. or mindfulness Non-judgmental inner listening. Body.. Broadband . Place & Clothes • Mental attitude – “bare attention.

S Meditation Kundalini Kayotsarga Tratak Suryasamyam Adarshdhyana (mirror) Swaminarayan Dhyana Arup Dhyana Purnayoga Dhyana Atit Dhyana (past) Bhavidhyana (future) Sarpalanchan Dhyana Samarpana Dhyana Tathata Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation)  Sahaj Dhyana  Your own system              All methods are great . Nyas Kriya Yoga Mrutyu Dhyana T.Meditation : methods                 Patanjal Dhyana Anapan Sati Smriti Upasthan Vipashyana Preksha Dhyana Jain Dhyana Spand Dhyana Mantra Dhyana Nabhi Dhyana Swapna Dhyana Nidra Dhyana Yoga nidra.

non-stealing celibacy and aparigriha (Non-collectiveness) Purity. truth.PATANJAL RAJ YOGA • Yama : Nonviolence. Penance (Austerity) Satisfaction Spiritual learning Worship & dedication • Niyama : • Asana • Pranayama • Pratyaahar • Dharna • Dhyana • Samadhi : : : : : : .

Flame or Photo with eyes open or closed .Meditation over an object. place or thought Chakra.

• Give full attention to the feeling of the breath as it goes in and out. moment by moment. . but not to control the breathing. • Dwell in the present. • Observe your mind with moment-to-moment awareness.Basic Instructions for Meditation Anapan Sati • To bring the attention to the breath. It is not pranayama. breath by breath.

Basic Instructions for Meditation
• When attention wanders, note it and then gently bring awareness back to the breath. • Why breathing ? Truth, vital, secular, always with you, present tense, carrier of mind – Emotions, thoughts, and perversions • Continue to watch the breath, accepting each moment as it is for 1 hour. Not to loose single breath - The power of „NOW‟ - The concept of „VOID‟ • When breathing takes consciousness into each cell, there is a vital dance

• Smriti Upasthan : Observation & awareness of thoughts Budhha, Krishnamurti Avoid conflict with mind The root cause of miseries is thoughts Study beginning, end, structure & content of thoughts. Pl. do not criticize Observe & know your thoughts Study movement of mind and feel separated This will lead to detachment with thoughts Becoming aware of one‟s consciousness Observer will realize that himself is being observed Maharishi Aurobindo‟s method of combination Yoga Empty your thoughts & know your mind

• Purnayoga


Meditation Jaindhyana
• Jain religion is Bhavadharma, so
meditation is of utmost importance.

• Dharmadhyana & shukladhyana…
excellent remedy for all health. types of

• Several types of meditations.

• Samayik & kayotsarga are super

• Preksha, vipashyana, granthibheda

• Atmadhyana.

To dissociate soul from the body at every moment and the sentinence – the application of knowledge is the ultimate meditation.Atmadhyana • Meditating on the soul is one of the best meditations. • To remain constantly aware of the soul and its characteristics and its functions. • Samayam api ma pamayae GOYAMA ! .

Non-violence. celibacy and non-collectiveness .Shunyakriya. Pratikriya .Meditation-Techniques • Prekshadhyana : To see –To observe ( Jain Method-Lord Mahavir) Acharya Tulsiji – Acharya Mahapragyaji • Breathing (Shwas-Preksha) • Thoughts (Vichar-Preksha) • Body (Sharir-Preksha) • Mind (Anupreksha) • Leshyadhyana etc. Mitbhashan. Maitri. Bhavkriya Truth. Prerequisites : Mitahaar. non-stealing.

Meditation-Techniques • Vipashyana : To see –To observe ( Buddha) Goenkaji through mahasi sayado Breathing : control of emotions & perversions Thoughts : detachment from thoughts Body and perception of sensations : control of Raga and Dwesha .

by the mind • Calm and quiet mind • Awake and attentive mind • Equanimous mind .Vipashyana Operation of the mind.

for it is beyond all form. its meaning and vibration . This knowledge acts as our wings. of vibration.Pir Hazrat Inayat Khan To do chanting on mantra. so can we create this world by the same power. helping us to rise from the earth to heaven and penetrate through life seen and unseen.The Sound of Om in a Drop of Oil CHANTING MEDITATION "Since all things are made by the power of sound. The knowledge of sound is supreme." -. And the mastery of that knowledge helps us to rise to the formless. By the knowledge of sound we obtain the knowledge of creation.

These are effects of the words “Love and Appreciation” These are the effects of “You make me sick.Effect of sound chanting Mr. I will kill you!” . Emoto decided to see how thoughts and words affected the formation of untreated. distilled water crystals by typing words onto paper and then taping them on glass bottles overnight.

A Yantra is a graphic representation of the sound of Mantra .

Emoto decided to see what effects music had upon the structure of water.Mr. This is the effect of Bach‟s “Air for the G String” This is the effects of Heavy Metal Music . He placed distilled water between two speakers for several hours while playing music and then photographed the crystals that formed after the water was frozen. The results of the effects of these two very different types of music speak for themselves.

• Observing thoughts without getting caught up in them. • Eating meditation. sitting meditation. yet does not involve trying to get anywhere. Not a passive process.Mindfulness Practice • Observing the body and mind intentionally Letting experiences unfold from moment to moment and accepting them as they are. working meditation and meditation during each act is the goal of mindfulness practice. No effort to control anything except the focus and direction of the attention. .

3 • Know your soul with your own soul. 1 • Wherever there is body. 2 • Develop wakeful plain observorship (Sakshibhav or Drushtabhav) Rule No.Rule No. . mind should also be there without any exception Rule No.

Transcendental Meditation (TM) • Movement founded by Maharshi Mahesh Yogi of India. .


Sri Sri Ravishankarji • Sudarshan kriya • Art of living course has changed thousands of lives .

then only we speak. Do small things with great love.SILENCE / CONTEMPLATION In the silence of the heart God speaks Let God fill us. .

is love The fruit of Love …….Mother Teresa .is Prayer The fruit of Prayer…. is Faith The fruit of Faith…… Service ..The fruit of silence…..

DHYANA YOGA • Perfect relaxation • Observorship • Non Decisiveness Dynamic Meditation .

Purnayoga Aspiration Rejection Surrender .

Nyas Kriya Yoga Mrutyu Dhyana T.Meditation : methods                 Patanjal Dhyana Anapan Sati Smriti Upasthan Vipashyana Preksha Dhyana Jain Dhyana Spand Dhyana Mantra Dhyana Nabhi Dhyana Swapna Dhyana Nidra Dhyana Yoga nidra.S Meditation Kundalini Kayotsarga Tratak Suryasamyam Adarshdhyana (mirror) Swaminarayan Dhyana Arup Dhyana Purnayoga Dhyana Atit Dhyana (past) Bhavidhyana (future) Sarpalanchan Dhyana Samarpana Dhyana Tathata Hoo-Dhyana (Dynamic Meditation)  Sahaj Dhyana  Your own system              All methods are great .

Swapnadhyana Nidradhyana Yognidra Nyasa .

inner flame. speech and learn to get isolated Then. breathing etc. . chanting. seeing an idol.First Practice Silence of body.

cortisol and beta-endorphin) is absent .Benefits of meditation – Oxygen consumption is reduced by 16%. even greater than the reduction of 12% in sleep – Neural structures that are intimately related to the control of the autonomic nervous system are activated – Diurnal. cyclic secretion of stress hormones (adrenocorticotrophic hormone.

STATISTICS • Physicians. and other Professionals are increasingly adding Meditative Techniques to their practice. • Over six thousand Physicians have begun the practice of Transcendental Meditation and regularly recommend the TM technique to their patients. Psychotherapists. . • Many Physicians consider Meditation a key element of an Integrated Health Program.

Knees Depression & Anxiety Substance Abuse Skin Disorders Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Overweight Sleep Problems . Hips.Health Conditions in which Yoga may help heal or treat • • • • • • • • • Arthritis Allergies Asthma Hypertension Coronary Artery Disease Irritable Bowel Syndrome Heartburn (GERD) Constipation Tension Headaches and Migraines • PMS and Menstrual • • • • • • • • Discomfort Menopause Pain of the Back.

2/3‟s of chronic pain patients had a 30% reduction in pain. used less pain medication. cancer patients decreased their degree of depression.Medical benefits of meditation Researching the Benefits of on Meditation : • • • With 7 weeks of meditation. patients with anxiety and panic disorders still showed a benefit. anger.and felt more vigor. With 10 weeks of meditation. and could be more active. . All patients with fibromyalgia who meditated for 10 weeks improved. and half had more than a 50% reduction. less mood disturbances. chronic pain patients had less pain. and chest and stomach symptoms by 50% . The benefits were still present one year later. fatigue and quality of sleep. and over half showed moderate to marked improvement in pain. With 10 weeks of meditation. • • Three years after an 8-week meditation instruction. anxiety. confusion.

• People trained in and performing an imagery-based relaxation prior to injection. improving the immune system‟s helper to suppressor cell ratio. . belching. It also reduces post-traumatic stress.Medical benefits of meditation • Meditation has been found to be quite useful in most of the psychosomatic disorders including asthma. rheumatism. gut problems. or beta-endorphins. less flatulance. had less inflammatory reaction to chili pepper “extract” (capsaicin) injected under the skin. blood pressure. • With 6 months of meditation. people who meditate don‟t have the daily fluctuations in the cortisolstimulating hormone (ACTH). • With 6 weeks of meditation irritable bowel syndrome patients had • Even though daily fluctuations in cortisol are unchanged. bloating and diarrhea. suggesting a change in feedback sensitivity. athletes had less increase in the CD8+ suppressor T cell response to strenuous physical stress. diabetes etc.

people who meditated had over 50% less doctor‟s office visits. • With 6 months of meditating for 20 minutes twice a day. infectious disease. Only childbirth rates were the unchanged. • Over a 5 year period. coronary artery narrowing showed regression rather than progression. heart disease.Medical benefits of meditation • Patients who meditated during ultraviolet light treatment for psoriasis had quicker clearing of their skin disease. hypertensive African Americans had a decrease in the carotid artery wall thickness. and nervous system disorders). . and an average of 50% less hospital admissions (including a reduction all 17 major treatment categories such as benign and malignant tumors. • With 4 years of daily meditation.

Relative contraindications of meditation • • • • Psychosis Severe depression Confusional states Extreme anxiety • Dementias .

• Mechanisms producing meditative effects include metabolic. interactive basis. autonomic. neurological. . endocrine. and psychological manifestation.Physiology of Meditation • Meditation produces a specific physiological response pattern that involves various biological systems. • Physiological response to meditation occurs on a multidimensional.

5-2 waves per sec .Neuro Electrical Changes During Meditation BETA: Alert/Working 14-20 waves per second ALPHA: Relaxed/Reflecting 813 waves per second THETA: Drowsy/Meditating 4-7 waves per second DELTA: Sleep/Dreaming 3-4 waves per second DELTA: Deep & Dreamless Sleep .

imagery.increase Alpha (8-13 Hz or cycles per second) production .increase high Beta (20 .  Theta patterns are associated with reverie.increase Theta (4-7 Hz) production .40 Hz) activity ( with experienced meditators).  Alpha patterns are associated with calm and focused attention. and creativity.Neuroelectrical Effects  Mediation (the Fourth State) was shown to .  High Beta activity is associated with highly focused concentration .

Important features of EEG changes related to meditation are : Establishing alpha activity in spite of open eyes • • • • • • • Increased amplitude of alpha activity Slower frequency of alpha rhythm Rhythmical theta waves Increased synchronization (hypersynchronization) Dissociation of perception from the external sense organs Transcendent signal Occasional fast wave activity .

Decrease in Beta-wave activity after meditation .

alpha is the gateway to meditation and provides a bridge between the conscious and the subconscious mind. visualization. Ranging between about 8 cycles per second and 13 cycles per second. sensory imagery and light reverie.ALPHA brainwaves are the brainwaves of relaxed detached awareness. .

Beta is your normal thinking state. . your active external awareness and thought process.BETA brainwaves are the fastest frequencies ranging from 14 cycles per second up to 38 cycles per second. Without beta you would not be able to function in the outside world.

THETA brainwaves are the subconscious mind. theta is present in dreaming sleep and provides the experience of deep meditation when you meditate. Theta also contains the storehouse of creative inspiration and is where you often have your spiritual connection. Ranging from about 4 cycles per second up to 8 cycles per second. Theta provides the peak in the peak experience .

and healing spring – and alpha provides the bridge. .The MEDITATION brainwave pattern is a combination of alpha and theta where theta provides the depth and profundity of the meditation experience – the subconscious inner space from which creativity. insight. to the conscious thinking mind so that you can actually remember the contents of your meditation. or the link.

But when present in combination with other waves in a waking state.5 cycles per second. Delta provides intuition.DELTA brainwaves are your unconscious mind. . Delta acts as a form of radar – seeking out information – reaching out to understand on the deepest unconscious level things that we can't understand through thought process. and instinctual insight. ranging from about 4 cycles per second down to 0. the sleep state. empathetic attunement.

theology or meditation technique.AWAKENED MIND brainwave pattern It is a brainwave pattern shared by people in higher states of consciousness regardless of their philosophy. This brainwave pattern can be found during “peak experience” and in all forms of creativity and high performance .

Davidson found that their brain activity – as measured by the EEG – was especially high in this area With chronic meditation. Using functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) on the meditating monks.Permanent EEG changes Davidson‟s research is consistent with his earlier work that pinpointed the left prefrontal cortex as a brain region associated with happiness and positive thoughts and emotions. gamma wave activity(high level information processing) is found in many meditators .

with practitioners seeming to demonstrate decreased amplitude & latency for sensory EPs & with mindfulness inducing a decrease in habituation .Evoked potentials & meditation Meditation sometimes produces altered amplitudes.

• In meditation the usual frameworks of time. slow-wave sleep and wakefulness . meditation shows no reduction in total brain blood circulation or perfusion • Regional maps of brain blood flow/perfusion differ among meditation. although the mind is not asleep • Compared to quiet or slow-wave sleep. in which brain blood flow is reduced. space and other aspects of conscious content are absent.

MEG (magnetoencephalography). . and improved EEG (electoencephalography) allow detailed studies in understanding the effects of meditation on neural behavior. meditation results in the sense of no space and no time. real time MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).Parietal area of the brain is responsible for giving us a sense of our orientation in space and time. By blocking all sensory and cognitive input into this area.Neurobiology of Meditation  Imaging. such as rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow).  SPECT study shows.

cms DYNAMIC BRAIN MAPPING meg -eeg fmri seeg pet neurons ms spatial resolution temporal resolution minutes .


SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation Prefrontal Cortex Prefrontal Cortex Baseline Meditation .

SPECT Images at Baseline and During Meditation Baseline Meditation Superior Parietal Lobe Superior Parietal Lobe .

Comparison of Baseline to Prayer : Limbic inhibition Baseline Scan Prayer Scan LIMBIC LIMBIC .

0166 0.25 Meditatio n Mean 1.0001 0.29 1.19 1.0025 0.0114 1.Results from Meditation SPECT Study Part of the Brain P-value 0.29 1.7 8.16 0.60 11.14 0.3 0.0001 0.4 5.14 1.91 1.25 1.09 0.8 0.34 Percent Change 7.3 10.2 25.2 SD 0.45 1.22 1.0075 0.26 1.0017 0.06 0.19 1.24 0.13 0.0074 Baseline Mean 1.31 1.0114 0.08 0.8 8.09 Midbrain Orbital Frontal Cortex Posterior Cingulate Sensorimotor Thalamus 0.36 25.40 1.9 14.08 Anterior Cingulate Cingulate Body DLPFC Inferior Frontal 0.21 .97 1.

 This is not hallucination. .  All Meditators have same findings.Summary of SPECT findings  Increase rCBF in frontal lobe and shut down of rCBF in OAA in parietal lobe is the key finding.

fMRI changes during Meditation .

temporal lobe. and pre. . Lazar SW.11(7):1581-5. pregenual anterior cingulate cortex. striatum. Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. • This indicates that the practice of meditation activates neural structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system.Results • Significant signal increases were observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices.…. thalamus. hippocampus/parahippocampus. 2000 May 15. – Neuroreport. Benson H.and post-central gyri during meditation.


fMRI changes during Meditation

• PET, SPECT & fMRI allow examination of changes
in regional blood flow, metabolism or receptor (sites of neurochemical and drug actions) activation in the brain in response to various tasks

• Most types of meditation, which involve an initial
focusing of attention, are associated with increased regional blood flow or glucose metabolism in the prefrontal and cingulate cortex, areas that are important in selection of a mental task

• The frontal lobes, especially the prefrontal

regions help to organize, prioritize, plan and focus attention

• During visualization regional blood flow

increases in the “visual cortex” and visual association areas in the occipital lobes

• In contemplation of “self” the parietal lobes on
both sides are activated

visual imagery

meditation on weight of body parts .

abstract perception of joy .

symbolic representation of the self .

Thalamus & Hippocampus in meditation .

transient hypofrontality. increased frontal lobe & decreased parietal lobe activity & also to a Deafferentation of the PSPL • Functional Deafferentation means a decrease in distracting stimuli to visual cortex & PSPL. increase focus • This results in altered perception of selfexperience .• Thalamus is a relay station and filtering station for sensory information. Excitation of RN through PFC. decreases activation of PSPL & thereby decreases body awareness & also decreases input to visual centre (GABA) • The studies point to prefrontal activation (predominantly right). hence.

• Activity in Hippocampus is increased in connections with hypothalamus & autonomic nervous system • Stimulation of Right amygdala causes stimulation of ventromedial hypothalamus & peripheral parasympathetic system. thereby causing subjective sensation of relaxation & more profound sense of quiescence .


Noxious LASER stimulation of a Yoga master who claims to feel no pain during meditation • Orme-Johnson. et al. et al. Mindfulness vs. 2006 – fMRI... Psalm 23 recitation Kjaer. 2001 – SPECT. TM effects on brain reactivity to pain . Franciscan Prayer Lazar. 2005 – fMRI. 2003 – fMRI... 2001 – fMRI Onset of meditation Newberg. Yoga Nidra Lazar. et al. Raja Yoga Baerensten.. Zen Lazar. et al. et al.. 2000 – fMRI. 1990 – PET.. et al... 2003 – fMRI. et al.. Yoga meditation Jevning. 2001 – PET.. et al. et al. et al. 1999 – PET. et al. Kundalini Ritskes. et al.. Kundalini Yoga Khushu. 2003 – SPECT. 1996 – Rheoencephalography. et al. Tibetan meditation Azari. TM meditation Lou. Yoga Nidra Newberg. 2005 – MRI.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Herzog... 2000 – fMRI. 2002 – PET 11C-raclopride binding. et al. et al.. Buddhist Insight Meditation Kakigi.

involved in memory mechanisms & attention  Meditation has also been associated with increased melatonin availability . an important neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that influences mood and behavior in many ways. It can stimulate increased production of Acetylcholine.Neurochemical Changes During Meditation  Meditation increases Serotonin production.

thereby decreasing norepinephrine production • Relatively greater activity of parasympathetic system causes decreased production of catecholamines. epinephrine & norepinephrine by adrenal medulla . locus ceruleus activity decreases.Neurochemical changes during meditation • During meditation.

other inhibitory structures Pineal Gland Dorsal Raphe Basal Gangia Paraventricular Nucleus Locus Ceruleus Arcuate Nucleus Dopamine Cortisol Norepinephrine β-Endorphin .Neurochemical Changes During Meditation Neurochemical Arginine Vasopressin GABA Melatonin Serotonin Observed Change Increased Increased Increased Increased Increased Decreased Decreased Rhythm changed. levels unaltered CNS Structure Supraoptic Nucleus Thalamus.

• Galvanic skin responses. . • Reduction in limbic arousal may explain how meditation strengthens and enhances the ability to cope with stress. • Decreased limbic arousal in the brain-reduces stress and increases autonomic stability to stress.Meditation and the Autonomic Nervous System • An increase in the skin resistance. showed that meditators recovered from stress more quickly than non-meditators.

the sense of time and logic no longer dominate consciousness during meditation.  Accelerates neural conduction or augments the release of neurotransmitters. . thereby decreasing synaptic time.Meditation and the Central Nervous System  The practice of meditation decreases muscle reflex time.  By inhibiting the left cortical hemisphere.Suppression of Ego faculty and later on Mind. resulting in a change in muscle firing threshold and pattern.

The Plausible Hypothesis • When meditation acts as a constant repetitive stimulus. • This higher centre will exert inhibitory control over present neocortex and thereby over mind as a whole. . certain permanent qualitative and quantitative changes develop in nervous system. • Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators may stimulate growth of dormant neurons to develop a centre higher than neocortexGod module.thereby suppressing consciousness and all mental activities. • Spiritual ascent is from the least evolved state of consciousness to near perfect state with which the mind itself will cease to be and there will remain only non-dual experience.

• Meditation produces its anxiolytic effects by promoting GABA action in specific areas of the brain. and epinephrine. • Increased levels of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). • Similar effects can be achieved by Reiki.Meditation and the Endocrine System • Reduced blood levels of lactate. producing a decreased response to stressful situations . cortisol. . melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. • Reduces sympathetic adrenergic receptor sensitivity. Acupuncture.

• Blood flow to the kidneys and liver declined in the practitioners. • Decreased breathing pattern. not from a forced reduction of breathing. • Decrease in the level of oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide elimination by muscles. with an increase in cardiac output.Meditation and Metabolism • A wakeful state accompanied by decreased metabolism. decreased heart rate. • Longevity and delayed aging ! . and decreased blood pressure. • The metabolic changes arise from a natural reduction in metabolic activity at the cellular level.

interoception & sensory processing like the PFC & right anterior insula were thicker in meditation practitioners” • Meditation probably offsets age-related cortical thinning & thereby suggesting to promote Neuroplasticity .Meditation & Neuroplasticity • A recent MRI study showed that. “brain regions associated with attention.

increases mental concentration. • Both subjective and objective examinations reveal that meditation enhances perceptual sensitivity.Meditation and Psychology • Practice of meditation improves cognitive task performance. . and reduces susceptibility to stress.

allowing for greater productivity. creativity. learning ability and organization of memory.g.. tolerance and compassion • Improved mood.Meditation and Psychology • It improves the attitude & personality of a person • Improved concentration and attention. e. • Enhanced self-image • Less “catastrophic reaction” to stressful situations. problem-solving. in survivors of attempted suicide • Better sociability. sleep & scores on selfactualization .

We are in charge of our Attitudes ”.. the more I realize the impact of attitude on life. The remarkable thing is we have a choice every day regarding the attitude we will embrace for that day.. than what other people think or say or do.Attitude • “ The Longer I live. is more important than facts.. .. a church….. And so it is with you…. The only thing we can do is to play on the only string we have.Charles Swindoll .. We can not change our past. We cannot change the inevitable. successes. It will make or break a company……. I am convinced that life is 10% what happens to me and 90% how I react to it. a home. giftedness or skill. It is more important than the past. we cannot change the fact that people will act in a certain way. Attitude to me. It is more important than appearance. and that is our attitude……. than education.

Neural correlates of anxiety • Factors decreasing anxiety during meditation : – Increased parasympathetic acitivity. endorphins & AVP – Decreased LC firing with decreased noradrenaline & decreased levels of stress hormone cortisol Depression • Factors contributing antidepressant effect : – Increase in serotonin. GABAergic drive. dopamine. melatonin. endorphin & AVP – Decrease in CRH & cortisol . serotonin.

leading to inhibition of LGB – Increased DMT. causing hallucinogenic effects – Increase in NAAG.Psychosis • A variety of schizophrenic effects can be seen • Meditation can induce psychotic states via mechanisms such as : – Increased 5HT 2 receptor activation. having dissociative hallucinogenic effects – Increase in dopamine affecting temporal lobe .

Implications for Psychiatry • • • • • Complementary & alternative medicine ? Alternative to Hypnosis Low cost.g. with continuation for life Group dynamics & group practice Combination e. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy or Spiritually Augmented CBT • Enhancing one‟s psychological resources/holistic living/self actualization • Meditative state changes may develop into traits • Preventive Psychiatry .

Unresolved issues – New Frontiers • Although we can understand how the various lobes and neurotransmitters function during meditation. how are these actions directed and by whom? • What accounts for the actual awareness of the experience and of self and where are they perceived? • How do we actually know that something is true and meaningful? What accounts for this conviction? • The link with the Master Within and with Cosmic Consciousness has not been explained and cannot be approached from a neuroscience perspective .


you will get the solution .Four way Truth • That there is a problem • That there is a cause • That there is a way • If you follow the path.




“Now Monks.” -Lord Buddha . I have nothing more to tell you but all that is composed will decay. Strive after your own Salvation.


J.Swami Vivekananda .Suresh Vakil .REFERENCES • Jain Agam • Dhyana Dipika.Krishnamurti – Andrew Newberg • Medical References from several journals . Puranas and Upanishadas • Tripitak • Dhyana Yoga • Meditation • Dhyana Kumbh • Meditations • „Why God will not go away‟ .Osho . Dhyana Shatak • Patanjal Yoga Sutra • Holy Vedas.

R. • Newberg A..(2008) Neurobiology of spirituality.The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation:neurotransmitter and neurochemical consideration. Psychol Bull.Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Mens Sena Monograph.Department of Health(2007) Meditation Practices for Health:state of the Reasearch . Polich J.ERP and neuroimaging studies. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine • Cahn B. Meditation states and traits:EEG. • U.B.(2005)..Med Hypotheses.REFERENCES • Aries et al..(2006). Systematic review of efficacy of meditation techniques.Neuroreport • Mohandas E.S.2006.(2003).

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