Presented by: Aashish Bari Sandesh Dhanawade Deepak Jain Siddharth jain Rashmi R. Bokolial Kanhaiya L.


1. Transactional Analysis. 3. Interpersonal Communication. 5. Self monitoring Activity. 7. Issues influencing interpersonal


9. Case Study: Implication of T.A. & I.C.

for conflict resolution.

Transactional Analysis
 Transactional Analysis is a theory developed by Dr. Eric Berne

in the 1950s.
 Originally trained in psychoanalysis, Berne wanted a theory

which could be understood and available to everyone.
 Transactional Analysis is a social psychology and a method to

improve communication.
 The theory outlines how we have developed and treat

ourselves, how we relate and communicate with others, and offers suggestions and interventions which will enable us to change and grow.
 TA includes 3 major areas that are –Ego States, Transaction,

and Strokes & Games.

Ego States
Parent Ego State – characterized by
domineering, over protective & loving, stern and critical. It is illustrated by those who establish standard and rule for other.

Adult Ego State – In this people attack
problems in a cool minded rational manner. In adult state information is gathered, carefully analyze it, generate alternative, and make logical choices.

Child Ego State – submissive &
conforming, insubordinate, emotional, joyful, or rebellious. Characterize by very immature behaviors.

Transaction between ego states
Complimentary transaction: It shows 3 possible
complementary. Transactions are complimentary if the message sent or behavior exhibited by 1 person ego state receive the appropriate and expected response from the other person ego state.



















B. Crossed Transaction: It is occurs when message sent
the behavior exhibited by the 1 person’s ego state is reacted to by an incompatible and unexpected ego state on the part of the other person.

C. Ulterior Transaction: They are very damaging to
interpersonal relation because it always involve at least two ego state on the part of 1 person. Individual may say one thing but mean quite another.

Strokes and Games
Strokes: It means simply that beginning in infancy and
continuing throughout their lives, people need cuddling, affection, recognition, and praise. People don’t get positive strokes when they will seek out negative strokes. The strokes is divided in to two categories:Positive Negative

 

Games: Games are set or pattern of transactions that

have surface logic but hidden meaning and attempt to drawing in an unsuspecting participant. The outcome of the games is always a win - lose proposition.

Interpersonal Communicatio n 
Interpersonal communication deals with relationships between people, usually in face-to-face private settings. Interpersonal communication is the primary way through which relationships are created, maintained, and changed.

Uses of Interpersonal Communication
Give and collect information. Influence the attitudes and behavior of

others. Give and receive emotional support. Form contacts and maintain relationships. Make sense of the world and our experiences in it. Make decisions and solve problems.

Self Monitoring Activity
Communication ability

assessment specially listening, conversationorientation & approach while communicating with others. Make sure to be honest about your assessment.

1. No 2. No 3. Yes 4. No 5. No 6. No 7. No 8. No 9. No 10. No Below 6- are poor in 6 – 8 marks- significant 8 – 10 marks- good


room for improvement.

proper communication, needs to work hard to improve listening & other communication skills.

Issues influencing Interpersonal Communication
Personality conflict:
Each of us has a unique way of interacting

with others. Personal opposition always based on :
personal dislikes, personal Ego states, personal disagreements, different personality styles.

Example: Imagine the potential for a top level personality conflict at EMC corp.., a leading maker of data storage equipment.
M.C. Ruegggers was CEO for 9yrs. Gave up his position in 2001,due to personality conflict. In 2002, interview he gave ‘A’ grade to Tucci for innovation & Strategic mgmt. but ‘F’ in fin. Mgmt. because of loss. He is not interested one to one relation. Make tough decisions slowly. He thinks thank-you is a sign of weakness. J.M. Tucci was working under him. Become new CEO in 2001.

Tucci wanted to move faster to cut cost, make acquisitions & introduce new software's.

He ‘ld like to make one-to-one relation. Make tough decisions quickly. Tucci praises & thanks his troops regularly.

Gender Differences


Communication Barriers between men & women:
Difference in style of conversation. Both have different mind set, priorities and

principles. Ways of dealing with the same situation are very different. A research shows that Men use to talk to emphasize status whereas women use it to create connection.

Cultural Differences


Cross Cultural Communication
Barriers caused by differences among

perception. Barriers caused by tone difference. Barriers caused by semantics. Same word mean different things to different people. Barriers caused by word connotations. Words imply different things in different languages.

‘Politically Correct’ Communication:
How do you describe a person who is

‘wheelchair bound’ (as handicapped or physically challenged) Similarly, a blind or visually impaired, Elderly or senior, We must be sensitive of others feelings. Should choose politically correct word. Words might have the same meaning but politically correctness refers either words are soothing or hurting someone.

Heading off a Permanent Misunderstanding
Mindy Martin, Al Sharp, Walter Murdoch are working

together in an organization.

Mindy Martin and Al Sharp were good friends and all

three had very healthy competition between them as they all were at the same level.

Martin was very hard working, ambitious and responsible

employee. Because of their hard work and good efforts, Martin’s division had become the leader in the company and the upper management had praised her lavishly.

She believed that with a good recommendation from

Sharp, she would get that promotion.

But unfortunately Murdoch received the promotion

and moved to Topeka.

Martin was shocked. It was bad enough that she did

not get the promotion, but she could not stand the fact that Murdoch had been chosen.

She and Al Sharp had taken to calling Murdoch ‘Mr.

Intolerable’, because neither of them could stand his pompous arrogance.

She felt that his being chosen was an insult to her. When the grapevine confirmed her suspicion that Al

Sharp had strongly influenced the decision, she determined to reduce her interaction with Sharp to a bare minimum.

Relations in the office were very chilly for almost

a month. Sharp soon gave up trying to get that in Martin’s favor and they began communicating only in short.
Finally William Attridge, their immediate boss,

called the two for a meeting. William said, “we’re going to sit here until you two become friends again.
Martin resisted for a few minutes, denying that

anything had changed in their relationship, but when she saw that Attridge was serious, she finally said, “Sharp seems more interested in dealing with Walter Murdoch.”

Attridge said that, Martin if you’re upset about

that promotion, you'd know that Sharp had nothing but praised for you and kept pointing out how this division would suffer if we buried you in Topeka.
With your bonuses you are making as much as

Murdoch and if you work here continues to be outstanding, you’ll be headed for much better place than Topeka.
Embarrassed, Martin looked up at Sharp and

apologized for treating him unfairly.
The next day office was almost back to normal.

Martin and Sharp use to take a coffee break

Stages/ periods
Before Promotion

Ego States



Interpersonal Communicati on informal & formal, face-toface communication . No interpersonal communication . Only work related short communication . Healthy Communicatio n re-established.

Adult Ego Expecting


Promotion Parent takes place Ego

Did not get the promotion.

Cold war period

Child Ego Felt that was
betrayed by Sharp.

Friendly, giving time to each other, trust & enjoy free time together. Chilly environment in office, not listening to Sharp. Cold war, avoidance & escape from confrontations. New relation have been established, more healthy & strong.

Meeting and thereafter

Adult Ego Came to know
the truth, realized her mistake & apologized.

Now with the help of Psychoanalytical theory

i.e. Transactional Analysis, Martin can understand her different behavior in different situation and can improve those behavior which are not fruitful in those situation.
She can also use Interpersonal

communication as to understand the person, real situation/conflicts better.
She can apply both to understand other’s

behavior so that she can negotiate with them

Any Question

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