You are on page 1of 75

Class: Doc.

no: Rev: Date: Approved by: Prepared by: Checked by:

PSP 674557-DP A 2011-09-09 JEL ATA JCP

CAGE code: R0567

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna
Product Specification

Terma A/S, Denmark, 2011. Proprietary and intellectual rights of Terma A/S, Denmark are involved in the subject-matter of this material and all manufacturing, reproduction, use, disclosure, and sales rights pertaining to such subject-matter are expressly reserved. This material is submitted for a specific purpose as agreed in writing, and the recipient by accepting this material agrees that this material will not be used, copied, or reproduced in whole or in part nor its contents (or any part thereof) revealed in any manner or to any third party, except own staff, to meet the purpose for which it was submitted and subject to the terms of the written agreement. . . This document is released for use only if signed by relevant staff or stamped EDM Release CM: . . Controlled.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Record of Changes ECR/ECO Description First issue Rev A Date See 1st page Page 2 of 71

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 3 of 71

Contents 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 7 7.1 7.2 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 10 10.1 Introduction...................................................................................................... 5 Purpose ............................................................................................................. 5 SCANTER 4102 at a glance .............................................................................. 5 SCANTER 4102 applications ........................................................................... 9 Monitoring lower airspace at short and medium ranges ..................................... 9 Helicopter control ............................................................................................. 10 Surface surveillance......................................................................................... 10 Search and rescue........................................................................................... 10 Self-protection.................................................................................................. 10 Navigational assistance ................................................................................... 10 ECCM .............................................................................................................. 11 Application examples .................................................................................... 12 System configuration .................................................................................... 13 Antenna system ............................................................................................... 14 Stabilizing Antenna Platform ............................................................................ 18 Transceiver ...................................................................................................... 20 Utility rack ........................................................................................................ 23 Functional description .................................................................................. 25 Transmitter and TWT amplifier......................................................................... 26 Receiver .......................................................................................................... 27 Signal Processing ............................................................................................ 27 ECCM capability .............................................................................................. 36 Controlling and using the radar ........................................................................ 36 Ancillary functions ............................................................................................ 38 Video Distribution and Tracking ................................................................... 41 Tracker performance........................................................................................ 41 Primary VDT functions ..................................................................................... 42 Functional description ...................................................................................... 43 Peripheral units.............................................................................................. 46 The SCANTER Radar Service Tool ................................................................. 46 Dehydrator ....................................................................................................... 47 Options ........................................................................................................... 48 Air cooling ....................................................................................................... 48 Vertical Reference Unit .................................................................................... 48 IFF ................................................................................................................... 48 SCANTER Workstation .................................................................................... 50 Radar sensor performance ........................................................................... 51 Standard SCANTER 4102 installation and standard conditions used for performance evaluation ................................................................................... 51 SCANTER 4102 Performance Expectations for Air Targets ............................. 51 SCANTER 4102 Performance Expectations for Surface Targets ..................... 52 System interface specifications.................................................................... 53 Power supply ................................................................................................... 53

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A 10.2 10.3 11 11.1 11.2 11.3 12 12.1 13 14 14.1 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 16 17 17.1 18 Page 4 of 71

Cooling ............................................................................................................ 53 Digital data interfaces ...................................................................................... 54 Safety.............................................................................................................. 56 Protection of personnel Cabinets .................................................................. 56 Protection of personnel Rotation and transmission ....................................... 56 Protection of equipment ................................................................................... 57 Environmental Specifications ....................................................................... 58 Environmental Conditions ................................................................................ 58 Availability, Reliability and Maintainability .................................................. 60 Terma support................................................................................................ 61 Terma support ................................................................................................. 61 Verification ..................................................................................................... 63 Definitions........................................................................................................ 63 Requirements tracing....................................................................................... 63 Testing............................................................................................................. 63 Quality assurance certification ..................................................................... 66 Documents, definitions and abbreviations .................................................. 67 Definitions........................................................................................................ 68 Abbreviations................................................................................................. 69

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 5 of 71

Introduction
This product specification defines the characteristics and describes the performance of the SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System designed, manufactured and delivered by: Terma A/S Hovmarken 4 8520 Lystrup DENMARK The document may serve as reference in quotations and contracts. Terma A/S aims to improve the product family continuously and consequently reserves the right to revise product specifications and characteristics without notice. Note that illustrations are for visualization only. Please refer to detailed drawings (available on demand) for specific details. Detailed interface specifications, including mechanical, electrical and data interfaces will be further detailed during project-specific design phases. Interfaces described in this document should be understood as being both summary and for indicative purposes only.

1.1 Purpose

1.2 SCANTER 4102 at a glance


The SCANTER 4102 radar sensor is an X-band, 2D, fully coherent pulse compression radar providing Air channel video as well as Surface channel video simultaneously to ensure a high level of situational awareness on naval platforms in support of various operational needs simultaneously e.g. air surveillance, helicopter control, surface surveillance and Search and Rescue. The SCANTER 4102 enables the user to detect and track both air and surface targets and to present these in a Local Area Surveillance Mission Picture on the Combat Management System

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 6 of 71

Termas solidly proven Frequency Diversity and Time Diversity, and best-in-class advanced video processing gives a truly high-end radar system performing in all weather conditions. A system overview is shown below:

Figure 1-1: System configuration The SCANTER 4102 provides high spatial resolution due to the application of pulse compression and an antenna beam width of 0.6 (12 antenna). A follow-on advantage is that clutter cells become small leading to enhanced separation of targets and clutter and improved clutter suppression. The SCANTER 4102 provides also simultaneously land echo cancellation and moving clutter suppression utilizing Doppler-based processing.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 7 of 71

Various operational scenarios/instrumented range settings can be selected by the operator through predefined profiles. Adaptation to environmental conditions e.g. sea state and rain is automatic based on intelligent noise and clutter reduction and advanced CFAR techniques. Communication interface to the Transceiver is established via a standard IP network (LAN or WAN), which provides network radar video, plots, tracks, control etc. Conventional digital video is also available.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Table 1-1: SCANTER 4102 Radar Sensor Overview
SCANTER 4102 main features 12' Low side-lobe linear array antenna with switchable polarization (HP/CP) Other linear array antennas from Terma'as portfolio Two-channel simultaneous processing, Air and Surface Frequency band of operation: X-Band (8850-9000MHz) Multiple frequencies Software-controlled waveform generation TWT-based transmitter Peak Side Lobe Ratio > 60 dB (Time/range sidelobes) MultiProfile operation optimised for Customer application Interfacing with standard protocols (RS232, RS422, Ethernet) Simple interface implementation (ASCII, NMEA) Radar video distribution via IP network Digital radar video Integrated Tracking System Air cooled transceiver and utility racks Horizontally stabilized platform for antenna Vertical Reference Unit Integrated IFF antenna elements SCANTER Workstation SCANTER 4102 application areas Monitoring lower airspace at short and medium range Helicopter control including launch and landing Surface surveillance Detection and tracking of small surface targets in adverse conditions Indicative
1

Page 8 of 71

SCANTER 4102 performance figures

Target separation capability: Range: down to 40 m; Azimuth: down to 1 Target Echo Dynamics: + 19dBm to -130 dBm incl. Pulse compression gain Small aircraft (RCS = 1 m ), 1000 ft ASL: Detection range 12 NM Jet fighter aircraft (RCS = 3 m ), 5000 ft ASL: Detection range 30 NM General aviation (RCS = 10 m ), 10000 ft ASL: Detection range 32 NM Helicopter (RCS = 20 m ), 1500 ft ASL: Detection range 30 NM RIB (RCS = 5 m ), 1.5 m ASL: Detection range 8 NM Fishing vessel (RCS = 20 m ), 2 m ASL: Detection range: 10 NM Coaster/OPV (RCS = 2000 m ) 15 m ASL: Detection range: 19 NM 1) See section 9 Standard features are indicated with , add-ons/options with
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 9 of 71

SCANTER 4102 applications


The SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System has been designed and developed for ship-borne surveillance applications encompassing air targets as well as surface targets. The SCANTER 4102 is a versatile and flexible radar providing the needed detection performance for: Surveillance of lower airspace at short and medium range Detection low flying aircraft Control of helicopter launch and landing General surface surveillance Small surface target detection Self-protection

Figure 2-1: Key application usages

2.1 Surveillance of lower airspace at short and medium ranges


The SCANTER 4102 monitors the short to medium range, lower airspace around the vessel. The SCANTER 4102 can detect and track general aviation aircraft and jet aircraft up to 30 40 nmi and up to 6000-10000 feet altitude. Larger aircraft like airliners can be tracked to higher altitudes and longer distances.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 10 of 71

2.2 Helicopter control


The SCANTER 4102 coherent radar techniques in combination with the small target detection capabilities enable the vessel to control a helicopter in short range operations. Minimum detection distance is less than 150 m. Capabilities include landing control on own ship or at remote locations. The SCANTER 4102 performance is superior to non-coherent techniques, also when helicopters are hovering.

2.3 Surface surveillance


The SCANTER 4102 is well suited for surface patrolling by detecting and tracking small targets from close range and up until the radar horizon, depending on the weather. Coherence, Frequency Diversity and Time Diversity and advanced processing techniques support operation in all weather conditions. Well-proven clutter processing techniques improve detectability for all targets. Utilization of the Doppler shift further enhances detection of targets moving radially and with speed different from clutter.

2.4 Search and rescue


The SCANTER 4102 capability to detect small surface targets in combination with helicopter control makes the radar well suited for Search and Rescue Operations. Surface objects in distress are likely to move with the same speed as clutter, and good detection on the basis of normal radar is of the utmost importance, whereas reliable helicopter detection requires utilization of Doppler processed signals.

2.5 Self-protection
The SCANTER 4102 provides detection of approaching, asymmetric threats as part of the Situational Awareness. Dedicated profiles, e.g. with high antenna rotation rate, further improve early detection capabilities. Auto-track initiation maximizes the time available for proper assessment, decision and possible engagement of the approaching target.

2.6 Navigational assistance


The SCANTER 4102 surpasses high-end navigation radars with respect to detection and target tracking capability. Utilization of Normal Radar ensures that targets are detected, also when moving tangentially or with clutter. Additional performance is achieved by adding of MTI processed radar information. Simultaneous detection at short, medium and long range ensures that the radar can be used as backup for navigational purposes.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 11 of 71

Figure 2-2: Controlled helicopter operations

2.7 ECCM
The SCANTER 4102 offers some ECCM (anti-jamming) capability through a variety of techniques such as low-sidelobe antenna, frequency diversity, interference filtering and PRF stagger.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 12 of 71

Application examples

Figure 3-1: Long range air surveillance picture

Figure 3-2: Small surface target inside a wind farm area

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 13 of 71

System configuration
The SCANTER 4102 Radar Sensor has the following main characteristics and consists of the following units:

Table 4-1: SCANTER 4102 main characteristics

SCANTER 4102 main characteristics General 2D fully coherent, pulse compression radar Frequency diversity and time diversity 12 kW peak TWT; max. duty cycle 5% 8.850 GHz to 9.000 GHz Software defined, fully digital radar Air and surface channels 16 operational modes (profiles) Built-in target tracker Video, tracks, control and monitoring data on IP-network

Table 4-2: SCANTER 4102 units


SCANTER 4102 units Transceiver TWT Power Amplifier complete with Power Supply unit RxTx Assembly Signal Processing Interfacing Power Management Unit Plot Extractor, Tracker and Video Distribution Stabilizing Platform Control Unit Dehydrator Maintainers Position/Service Display Dual-Beam 12ft antenna with turning unit Stabilizing Antenna Platform Antenna control unit Optional Integrated IFF antenna in the surveillance antenna system Man Aloft / Safety Switch Optional Vertical Reference Unit for platform control (*) Optional remote Maintainers position via LAN

Utility Rack

Antenna system

Auxiliary components

(*) If available, roll and pitch from the ship should be taken from the inertial navigation system. Otherwise, a Vertical Reference Unit (VRU) can be supplied. centre of rotation, typically the gyro room. The Vertical Reference Unit is as far as practicable possible recommended to be mounted in the ships centre of rotation, typically the gyro room.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 14 of 71

4.1 Antenna system

Figure 4-1: SCANTER 4102 Antenna System with Stabilizing Platform

The Antenna System comprises: Rotating Antenna element with turning unit, rotary joint, and azimuth encoder Antenna Control Unit (downmast unit) Stabilizing Antenna Platform, adding Servo Amplifiers, Rotary Joints, and Slip Rings. This also requires a stabilization data source (either from available Inertial Reference System onboard ship or, optionally, from a supplied Vertical Reference Unit: VRU). Option: Integrated IFF antenna elements.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Table 4-3: Antenna Unit Characteristics
SCANTER 4102 12'-HG-HCP-C-35 Antenna Unit Antenna 12 feet nominal < 0.6 azimuth beam width Modified cosec elevation pattern Horizontal and Circular Polarization > 35 dBi gain measured at output flange < 1.3 dB VSWR > 15 dB cancellation ratio 8.850 - 9.000 GHz frequency band Variable scan rate controlled through external command 5 - 40 RPM 8192 ACP and one ARP per scan Polarization control through external command 3970 mm antenna length 202050 mm swing radius 400 kg upmast weight incl turning unit, rotary joint and encoder 1300 mm x 800 mm footprint 600 kg upmast weight incl turning unit, rotary joint, encoder, and stabilizing platform Pitch stabilization 0.5 when pitch is within 10 Roll stabilization 0.5 when roll is within 10 Roll stabilization 1.0 when roll is between 10 and 25 2000 mm x 1500 mm footprint IFF option Color 15 kg to be added to above weights Grey RAL 7001, Gloss factor 20 - 40

Page 15 of 71

Operation

Dimensions Unstabilized Antenna Antenna with Stabilizing Platform

It is recommended to provide access to a free space of min 0,7m around the stabilized antenna to ease maintenance. In addition access from underneath the stabilizing platform seat to access the interior parts from below is also recommended.

4.1.1

Antenna

The antenna denomination is 12-HG- HCP-C-35 indicating a linear array antenna of Termas High Gain series with both a Horizontally Polarized (HP) and a Circularly Polarized (CP) 2 beam. The elevation patterns in both beams are of the modified cosec type, and the antenna nominal gain at the output flange is 35 dBi. One polarization can be used at a time. The polarizations are selectable through profiles/ by the operator as appropriate for operational reasons in a given environmental situation. The interior build of the antenna system is illustrated in Figure 4-2 where the upper part provides the circularly polarized beam and the lower the horizontally polarized beam.
The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 16 of 71

Figure 4-2 SCANTER 4102 Antenna Optionally, a number of co-located planar monopole antennas as well as passive directors can be mounted inside the horizontally polarized antenna to form an integrated IFF antenna. The antennas provide orthogonal polarisations i.e. vertical for IFF and horizontal for the SCANTER radar. The rotating joint provides two coaxial channels for the IFF antenna sum- and difference signals to be fed to the IFF interrogator.

4.1.1.1

Azimuth pattern

The -3dB points are used as the main parameter in antenna specifications for defining the antenna performance. However, achieving good overall shape and low far-out side-lobe levels is equally important.

Figure 4-3: Horizontal Radiation Pattern for 12 HG Antenna. The red solid line in Figure 4-3 shows the upper limit for the side-lobes.
The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 17 of 71

4.1.1.2

Elevation pattern
2

The elevation pattern is designed to be a modified cosec pattern and the peak of the pattern is lifted slightly above the horizon to obtain optimum detection of air targets. This is done without compromising the detection of surface targets out to the natural limit set by the radar horizon.

Figure 4-4: 12 HG Antenna with Cosec Elevation Pattern.

4.1.2

Turning Unit and Antenna Control Unit

Antenna rotation is driven by the turning unit including a rotary joint and an azimuth encoder. The Antenna Control Unit controls Antenna Rotation the ACU interfaces with the Transceiver and controls the Turning Unit. The unit allow for an optimum programming of antenna rotation rate within 5-40 RPM to suit a given operational mode.

4.1.3

Man Aloft/ Safety Switch

The SCANTER 4102 includes a Man Aloft Safety Switch. The Switch will normally be located at a convenient mast access position. When selected to the SAFE position, the Man Aloft Switch will: Inhibit Antenna rotation Inhibit Transmission Inhibit Roll and Pitch stabilisation

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 18 of 71

On reset of the Man Aloft Switch to NORMAL, Rotation and Transmission will not start automatically. Man Aloft Switch status is reported by the SCANTER 4102 BITE via the Safety Loop Open group status. The Man Aloft Switch is supplied as switch with removable Key, and will be suitable for integration with most ships Radiation Hazard (RADHAZ) rules and regulations.

4.2 Stabilizing Antenna Platform


If the antenna is mounted on the ship without a Stabilizing Antenna Platform the antenna rotation axis will be vertical only if the roll and pitch of the ship are zero. The antenna rotation axis will deviate (tilt away from) the vertical as soon as the ship exhibits roll and/or pitch motion. Tilt in the vertical plane containing the antenna boresight means that the antenna elevation pattern will pitch up and down affecting the detection of targets. This effect will be minor for moderate roll and pitch angles but can have a significant effect for large roll and pitch angles. Tilt in the vertical plane transverse to the antenna boresight means that the antenna elevation plane will not be vertical but will tilt according to the roll and pitch of the ship. This introduces systematic errors in the measured azimuth of air targets. The sizes of these errors are illustrated in the following figure:

Figure 4-5: Effect of antenna rotation axis transverse tilt on measured target azimuth as a function of target elevation Above figure shows that antenna rotation axis tilt does not give rise to azimuth errors on surface targets (elevation 0). For air targets approaching own ship at low elevation angles (< 5) typical for e.g. helicopter landing approaches the error is less than 0.5 if the roll or pitch
The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 19 of 71

of the ship does not exceed 5. For targets at high elevations as seen from the radar and for higher roll/pitch angles of the ship, the azimuth errors on these targets can be substantial. The Stabilizing Antenna Platform is used to stabilize the antenna horizontally to compensate for ship roll and pitch movement, in order to improve air target tracking at higher elevations, and to provide a stable and non-fluctuating video as well as good azimuth accuracy. Roll and pitch data are either provided from the ships own inertial unit or measured by the optional vertical reference unit (VRU). These data are fed to the stabilizing antenna platform control. The Stabilizing Platform comprises: Motors, Gears, Servo Amplifiers and Encoders for Roll and Pitch Axes physically mounted on the Platform Power Supply for the Servo Amplifiers physically mounted within the Utility Rack.

Antenna Rotation is driven by the Turning Unit that is built into the Stabilizing Platform. All Axes of Rotation on the Stabilizing Antenna Platform are fitted with Rotary Joints that is, for: Roll Axis Pitch Axis Antenna Rotation.

The Rotary Joint for Antenna Rotation is combined with a slip ring assembly for all Antenna signals these are for Polarization Command/Tell back and IFF signals. Performance data and physical data for the stabilized antenna system are given in Table 4-3: Antenna Unit Characteristics.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 20 of 71

4.3 Transceiver
The SCANTER 4102 Transceiver is located in a 19 width Cabinet. The interior at the rear of the cabinet internal waveguide assemblies are fitted with flanges for the waveguide connection located at the top of the cabinet towards the front. The Transceiver is fitted with removable side (only left side) and rear panels, secured by bolts providing easy access to the interior parts of the transceiver cabinet. The Transceiver rack comprises: Digital generation and D/A conversion and amplification of chirps Transmitter comprising TWT RF Assembly and the TWT High Voltage Power Supply Assembly Microwave components for connecting Transmitter output to the Antenna system, STC units and limiter, and filters. Receiver with additional STC for optimized dynamic range Processing (Air Channel) with Signal Processing on Common Platform Processing Boards Processing (Surface Channel) with Signal Processing on Common Platform Processing Boards LAN Switch Input/Output Unit

The front doors of the displayed racks contain built-in, water-cooled heat exchangers. A aircooled version (so be placed in an air-conditioned place) is also available.

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 21 of 71

Figure 4-6: SCANTER 4102 Transceiver and Utility racks with water cooling in front doors

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 22 of 71

Connector panel with waveguide assembly behind

RxTx Unit

TWT amplifier

TWT power supply

Digital signal processing crate with Common Platform, FPGA-based processing boards

Internal IP-network (LAN) switch

Input/Output unit

Figure 4-7 SCANTER 4102 Transceiver Cabinet Breakdown

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 23 of 71

4.4 Utility rack


The SCANTER 4102 utility rack is a 19 width cabinet. The Utility Rack is fitted with removable side (right side only) and rear panels for easy access.

Dehydrator

Empty positions

Ship Data Handler Processor Drawer for service PC External IP-network (LAN) switch Tracker (VDT) Processor Stabilizing Antenna Platform power unit

Input/output unit

Figure 4-8 SCANTER 4102 Utility Rack

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A The Utility Rack comprises: Video Distribution and Tracking, (VDT) Dehydrator (Waveguide Dryer) Ship Data Handler LAN Switch Drawer for service PC Primary Power Transformer Units Input/Output unit Power Management Unit for Stabilizing Antenna Platform Page 24 of 71

Table 4-4: Transceiver and Utility Racks

Transceiver and Utility Racks Assembly Height Width Depth Service space around Weight 2150 mm incl. service space above 1210 mm 1287 mm > 550 mm recommended 820 kg approximately

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 25 of 71

Functional description
The transceiver incl. the utility rack are the central components in the SCANTER 4102 radar system. The transceiver includes: Transmitter with power supply, modulated pulse (chirp) generation and power amplification using a TWT amplifier Microwave components for connecting the power output of the amplifier to the antenna system and for connecting the received signals to the receiver Coherent receiver, demodulation to IF and 14 bit A/D conversion of the signals Digital I-Q demodulation Digital generation of Normal Radar (NR) video and Moving Target Indicator (MTI) video Digital processing of NR and MTI video or weighted combinations thereof with settings optimized for air and surface target detection, respectively. The processed surface and air video streams are made available as network video and as digital video

Communication as well as signal distribution is on a single or a redundant IP network. Serial communication lines are available too, handling easy integration with other subsystems. The video outputs are available in both digital and IP network formats.

Antenna

Man aloft switc h

Azimuth encoder, Man aloft switch and Antenna unit status

Transceiver

Transmitter

Receiver

Controller

Common Platform Boards

Power supply

I/O managem ent

Power

I/O
Digital video Serial communication ports Auxiliary I/O EMCON and Tx inhibit GNSS data

IP network
Network video Control, monitorin g, and setup

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Figure 5-1: Transceiver block diagram Page 26 of 71

The use and/or disclosure, etc. of the contents of this document (or any part thereof) is subject to the restrictions referenced on the front page.

Digital technology is used for frequency synthesis, up-conversion and demodulation, meaning that amplitude and phase imbalances are non-existent. Integrated BITE functions perform continuous monitoring of the radar during start-up and operation. The monitoring includes key performance parameters, temperatures, voltages, signal activity.

5.1 Transmitter and TWT amplifier


Transmitted signals consist of frequency-modulated chirps on sub-band carriers. Transmission sequences are synthesized, then amplified through a Traveling Wave Tube Power Amplifier - TWTPA and directed to the antenna via the circulator. The transmitter has the possibility to operate with different chirp lengths and Pulse Repetition Intervals (PRI) thereby optimizing coverage and detection at short and long range simultaneously. The SCANTER 4102 will per default transmit for the complete 360azimuth sector. Sector transmission can, however be commanded. Transmission sectors can be of type: Transmit Sector (north stabilized or unstabilized) Prohibit Sector (north stabilized or unstabilized)

Up to 4 sectors can be defined and be active simultaneously. Prohibit sectors have priority over transmit sectors.
Transmitter Type Frequency Band Frequency Diversity Separation TWT RF peak / avg. / Equivalent peak power Peak power at output flange Duty cycle Ionization Microwave radiation Modulation type Chirp duration Chirp Repetition Frequency - CRP Stagger Sector transmission Software-controlled waveform generation Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) power amplifier 8.850 - 9.000 GHz > 100 MHz up to 12 kW / up to 600 W / up to 12 MW (profile dependent) Specified > 7kW, Typical > 12 kW Up to 5% < 0.5 mRAD/hour Does not exceed permitted ICNIRP radiation limits Frequency - up to 20 MHz modulation bandwidth 80 ns to 100 s - Short and long chirps 0.5 to 5 kHz Up to 50 % Up to 4 transmit/prohibit sectors (north or unstabilized)

Table 5-1 Transmitter Characteristics

5.2 Receiver
Returned echoes are directed to the receiver by the internal circulator. The receiver sensitivity is dynamically and automatically controlled in range, in azimuth and over time. Optimum signal-to-noise performance and dynamic range are ensured by highly linear low noise amplifiers. The signal level in the radar receiver chain is controlled by distributed Sensitivity Time Control (STC) and anti-saturation circuits. Thereby the receiver has a very wide linear dynamic range (+19 dBm to -100 dBm inclusive of up-front anti-saturation control) which permits simultaneous detection and processing of small and large targets i.e. spatially close targets with considerably different RCS. Attenuation applied depends of both azimuth and range, based on the actual signal level of both scans and sweeps. This enables extremely fast adaptation to the actual environment without degradation of PSLR. The RF-signal is amplified in a Low Noise Amplifier and down-converted to Intermediate Frequency, where it is sampled by High-Speed A/D Converters, digitally I-Q demodulated, and forwarded for further processing.
Receiver Type Overall dynamic range Noise figure - Low Noise Front End - LNFE System Noise Figure Sensitivity Time Control - STC Minimum Detectable Signal - MDS Pulse compression ratio / gain Peak SideLobe Ratio (PSLR) MTI improvement factor Sub-clutter visibility Sub-clutter visibility in rain Dual channel - Superheterodyne 14 bit IF sampling @ 100 MHz 119 dB - Amplitude span before pulse compression gain 1.8 dB typical < 5.0 dB > 70 dB - 1 dimensional profiled & 2 dimensional adaptive Down to - 130 dBm equivalent after pulse compression Up to 1000:1 / ~ 30 dB > 60 dB 60 dB typical (Ground clutter) 50 dB typical (Ground clutter) 30 dB typical

Table 5-2 Receiver Characteristics

5.3 Signal Processing


The processing of the digital video signals is made using advanced processing techniques further refined by Terma based on many years of experience from many radar sites representing a multitude of environmental conditions. The processed surface and air videos are converted to an 8-bit logarithmic scale before being made available for tracking and image presentation.

5.3.1

Frequency Diversity and Time Diversity

The effect of the Terma SCANTER Frequency and Time Diversity capability is to improve the probability of detection of desirable targets by utilizing the different statistics of radar returns from targets and from clutter. This is achieved by illuminating the target with radar pulses in

different frequency bands and integrating the received radar echoes. In combination with full coherence and pulse compression the application of frequency and time diversity leads to a relative enhancement of targets echoes over clutter and to less fluctuations in target echo strength. More specifically, targets are illuminated by more than one chirp in each pulse repetition interval (PRI). The transceiver is capable of transmitting 2 chirps with instant frequency change from chirp to chirp and the receiver has two receiving channels, making it capable of simultaneous reception of the radar returns at two different frequencies. This is superior to simple frequency alternation from PRI to PRI. Finally, frequency diversity within a PRI is combined with processing techniques considering multiple chirp trains. Time diversity is achieved automatically when applying frequency diversity with an antenna that has a frequency dependent azimuthal squint - see Figure 5-2. The SCANTER 4102 antenna is an example of such antennas.

Rotation

F1 t +
0

F1 t

Squint angle

F2 t +
0

F2t

Figure 5-2: Frequency Diversity and Time Diversity concept The radar returns of the two chirps with the different frequencies are kept in receiver memory, until radar returns corresponding to the same azimuth can be integrated. Illuminating with two chirps of different frequency has two effects: The integrated echoes from a target is enhanced as the application of frequency diversity turns Swerling case 1 target statistics into the statistics of Swerling case 3 targets or better (towards Swerling Case 2) leading to an improved PD (Probability of Detection). The improvement on target detection corresponds to a signal-to-noise improvement of up to 6 dB. The integrated echoes from sea clutter are reduced due to the time diversity effect as sea clutter echoes are partially decorrelated. The total effect of frequency diversity and the induced time diversity is a 6 to 10 dB reduction of

sea clutter relative to small targets in rough sea conditions. In lower sea states the effect is less. Full benefit from the frequency diversity is obtainable only if dynamic characteristics are adapted to actual weather and complex clutter situations. Therefore, the sensitivity is matched to the actual clutter levels, providing optimum detection at all ranges and in all directions. Furthermore, the receiver and processing chain have sufficient dynamic range and all components provide sufficient resolution to handle the variety of signals coming from small and large targets at all ranges. This contributes substantially to provision of crisp and clear radar images in all weather situations. High resolution improves spatial discrimination of clutter from wanted targets and thereby enhancing the processing of targets and clutter. The processed return signals for each of the frequencies are combined corresponding to identical antenna directions.

5.3.2

Full coherency

SCANTER 4102 is fully coherent utilizing amplitude and phase information during transmission and reception. A common, phase stable reference oscillator is used for transmission and reception. Coherency enables pulse compression and allows the receiver to compare the phases of the received echoes from chirp to chirp and thereby detect if targets are moving or not, utilizing the Doppler shift. Sub-clutter visibility is achieved for targets moving radial (moving in range) and with a speed different from clutter.

Antenna

1. chirp

2. chirp

Transmitter

Receiv er Stable local oscillat or


3. chirp

Figure 5-3: Coherency principle

5.3.3

Pulse compression

In order to illuminate a small air target at long distance with sufficient energy for detection, the transmitter has to transmit long pulses. Unless some advanced processing is used, this will lead to a significant loss of range resolution. The SCANTER 4102 radar sensor solves this problem by applying frequency modulation (chirping or frequency sweeping) to long pulses (therefore the name: chirp) followed by pulse compression. This leads to a simultaneous increase in range resolution as well as in signal-to-noise ratio. When closely separated targets reflect these chirps, the frequency content of the echoes

from different targets at a given time will be different as illustrated in Fig. 5-10

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 30 of 71

Equivalent compressed power


Power

Chirp with frequency sweep


Transmitter Antenna Receiver / Processing
Time Power Time

Time

Echo

Figure 5-4: Frequency sweep

By pulse compression, the signal-to-noise ratio is improved by a factor, equivalent to the chirp length times the effective bandwidth of the transmitted chirps. This factor is called the pulse compression gain. At the same time the effective echo range depth is narrowed down to a value determined by the chirp modulation band width. A special feature of the pulse compression technique is that the resulting radar sensitivity to noise is independent of the resolution bandwidth. The resulting signal to noise ratio is therefore proportional to the transmitted power divided by the overall receiver noise figure. In consequence, the bandwidth can be selected freely e.g. to minimize the clutter power, having in mind that too fine a resolution will introduce a range-straddling loss. In other words, the radar sensitivity is determined by the transmitted power (chirp or pulse length), as in normal pulse radar, but the resolution can be selected freely. A drawback from the transmission of long chirps is an extended minimum range the radar is blind during transmission. This is compensated by the radar being capable of producing a mixture of short and long chirps to cover both short and long range. 4 sub-frequency bands are used and two different sequences of chirp patterns can be applied. For shorter range or tactical applications the alternating 1:1 mode is used, while the 4:7 mode is used for longer range, surveillance applications. The chirp pattern to be used is defined as part of individual profile set-ups.

Figure 5-5: Principle sketch of transmission sequence tactical modes

Figure 5-6: Principle sketch of transmission sequence surveillance modes By nature, pulse compression will create time side lobes in a radar image. These are imperfections in range, where a target will appear with artificial targets before and/or after the actual target. Similar effects, called antenna side lobes, can appear in azimuth. Side lobes are unwanted, as they will limit the size of a small RCS target that can be detected next to a large RCS target. The ratio between the peak level of the target and the highest time side lobe is called the Peak Side Lobe Ratio (PSLR). Traditionally side-lobes may be a severe limitation in pulse compression radars. However, a new approach has been developed by Terma to overcome this limitation. The result is that time side-lobes are strongly reduced, in the order of 60 dB.

Time side lobes

Target

Target Antenna side lobes

Figure 5-7: Traditional performance and SCANTER 4102 performance

5.3.4

Sub-clutter visibility and Doppler shift processing

Sub-clutter visibility in the Transceiver is obtained by discrimination of speed based on the Doppler shift in the received coherent signal. The Transceiver supplies two channels at the same time: Surface video and Air video. Stationary targets such as earth ground clutter (land, buildings, etc) will be dominant at zero or low Doppler frequencies, while targets with faster radial speed will produce higher Doppler shifts.

Stationary targets and clutter are suppressed by the use of a series of adaptive MTI filters and correlators. In addition special algorithms adapts the filters to the speed of sea and rain clutter, suppressing clutter even if it is moving, all resulting in the clean crisp display of moving targets only.

Land clutter Shoreline

Moving target

Trails

Figure 5-8: Before and after utilization of the Doppler shift

5.3.5

Target types

5.3.5.1

Air targets

In the air, it can be assumed that targets of interest will have speeds substantially different from the surroundings, or in the case of helicopters, to have high speed moving parts. Aircraft will in most cases have zero radial speed only for short periods, and the majority of air targets will furthermore have large radar cross section when flying tangentially. Basic detection is therefore based on Doppler information. Information from the normal radar is added when desirable.

Transmit

Receive

Transmit

Receive

Figure 5-9: The Doppler Effect seen from the radar

5.3.5.2

Helicopters

The helicopter rotor, particularly the construction between the rotor shaft and the rotor blades, will reflect radar pulses with Doppler shifts determined by the rotor rotation. This makes detection of a helicopter possible in MTI processed radar video when the helicopter is moving and also when it is hovering. In heavy weather conditions the MTI processing ensures that only the targets of interest are detected while land, sea and rain clutter are cancelled.

Figure 5-10: Helicopter near windmill farm

Figure 5-11: Radar image of a helicopter near a windmill farm

In Figure 5-11 the helicopter and the moving wings of the windmills are detected in the Air video. Note that the video trails (in red) indicate helicopter detection very near the windmills.

5.3.5.3

Marine surface targets

For surface radar applications, the utilization of Doppler information is substantially different from the techniques used for air surveillance: Speed differences between targets and surroundings are much smaller and discrimination is therefore less efficient. Targets of interest on the surface will often move tangentially or with low radial speed for prolonged periods and in such cases, they will be completely suppressed. Most small surface targets have radar cross section virtually independent of their aspect angle. Therefore large echoes can not be expected for small tangentially moving surface targets.

Surface surveillance radars relying too much on Doppler information may therefore appear unstable in operation and detection. In consequence, the SCANTER radar series utilize both: Basic detection of surface targets based on non-Doppler processed (Normal Radar) signals and e.g. with scan-to-scan correlation techniques. Supplementary utilization of Doppler processed signals for detection of surface targets is added in applications where additional performance can be obtained.

A combination of the two channels are forwarded for presentation and tracking.

5.3.6

FiveStepVideoPassing

After down conversion in the receiver the signal is sampled with 14 bit at 100 MHz, demodulated, pulse compressed and MTI processed. Surface video as well as Air video is forwarded for display and tracking through the FiveStepVideoPassing. The processes include automatic adaptation to the environment. Smart channel combiner and interference filtering suppresses asynchronous interferences and second/multiple time around returns, as staggered transmission sequences are used. The Doppler processing will simultaneously suppress stationary targets as well as moving clutter. The MTI is compensated for own unit movements and the speed and propagation movement direction of clutter is automatically determined and utilized using specially developed algorithms.

Digital Data from ADC

FFT and Pulse Compress ion Interfere nce Rejecti on

5 StepVideoPassingTM
Azimuth Side Lobe Supression

Doppler Based Processi ng

1
Constant False Alarm Rate

Constant False Alarm Rate

Combination of MTI/NR Frequencies/Chirps/ Pulses Pulse & Sweep Integration Sea Clutter Discriminator

Combination of MTI/NR 3 Frequencies/Chirps/Pulses Pulse & Sweep Integration

4 5

Combiner

Combiner

SURFACE

AIR

Figure 5-12: Signal processing, simplified

Auto adaptive parameter settings are used in the filters, in the Frequency Diversity combiners and in the integration processes to minimize beam shape and other losses as well as to optimize sensibility. Signals are converted from linear to logarithmic as part of the processing. Several techniques have been combined into the SCANTER FiveStepVideoPassing, being able to discriminate targets of interest from noise based on statistical properties in the signal.

5.3.7

Processed digital video output

Two output streams of processed digital video are provided on the IP network. Both videos are weighted combinations of the NR- and the MTI videos. The two videos are: A surface video stream predominantly containing NR video An air video stream predominantly containing MTI video

5.3.8

Environment Adaptation

A false alarm is an erroneous radar target detection decision caused by clutter, noise or other interfering signals exceeding the detection threshold. In general, it is an indication of the presence of a radar target when there is no valid target. The CFAR Constant False Alarm Rate - and other adaptation techniques provide automatic adjustments to provide a flat noise floor. Antenna side lobe suppression is an integral part of the CFAR functions. The SCD - Sea Clutter Discriminator is another example of adaptation processing.

5.4 ECCM capability


The radar offers some ECCM (anti-jamming) capability by providing: Staggered transmission Frequency diversity and time diversity Pulse compression High dynamic range Low side lobes and narrow beam width Anti-interference processing

5.5 Controlling and using the radar


The radar can be controlled and monitored in different and possible parallel ways: Remotely from third party equipment using an open IP network protocol or serial lines

By means of the Radar Service Tool running on any PC and connected to the transceiver(s) via the IP network. By means of the optional SCANTER Workstation

5.5.1

Profiles

Profiles are predefined sets of parameters chosen to optimize the performance of the radar sensor according to specific operational requirements. 16 pre-defined profiles are available allowing the operator to select mode in an easy and reliable way. At any time and if implemented in the external control software, the operator may set specific radar parameters to override the definition of the profile. Optimisation of this type is normally not used, but can be useful for improving performance under very special requirements or conditions such as: Unusual land or sea clutter conditions Atypical target Special tactical conditions and requirements

Many radar parameters can be modified in the sense of defining Profiles as an example, the following elementary parameters are normally optimised: Instrumented range Antenna rotation rate PRF PRF Stagger

The profiles are selectable directly on the transceiver or through the IP network using e.g. the Radar Service Tool, the SCANTER Workstation, or some external control software.

5.6 Ancillary functions


5.6.1 Ship data handler

The Ship Data Handler is a computer in the Utility Rack and acts as both an interface and service module to the radar signal processing. The Ship Data Handler is designed to permit flexible processing of Ship Data to simplify integration of the SCANTER radar in a wide variety of ship systems. The Ship Data Handler will handle: Interfacing to Ship Data: typically Roll, Pitch, Heading, Position and Velocity provided from ships sensors Redundancy processing between multiple sensor arrangements (if available) Generation of best estimate Ship Data for radar processing Estimate of Antenna velocity based on ships translational and rotational motion. Note that roll and pitch motion data are essential to obtain optimum performance of MTI filters. Roll and pitch data may optionally be provided by a vertical reference unit (section 8.2) Estimate of ship translational position and velocity. Table 5-3: Ship data requirements
Own Ship Data Position and Velocity Accuracy Rate Latency Distribution Interface Protocol Heading Accuracy Rate Latency Distribution Interface Protocol Accuracy - static Accuracy - dynamic Rate Latency Distribution Interface Protocol Standard GPS 1 Hz 30 ms Correct time order RS-422 or RS-232 NMEA 0183: $--RMC or $--GGA + $--VTG or $--GLL + $--VTG 0.002sec(Latitude) radian (RMS) 100 Hz 10 ms Correct time order RS-422 or RS-232 NMEA 0183: $--HDT 0.0004 radian (RMS) within 30 pitch 0.0006 radian (RMS) within 30 roll 100 Hz 5 ms Correct time order RS-422 or RS-232 Manufacturer dependent

Attitude (Roll and Pitch)

5.6.2

Input/Output Unit Digital 8 bit LVDS video UDP/IP network video Control signals Data-links Timing signals to external devices.

The Input/Outout unit handles all communication to and from the radar this includes:

To handle the necessary data-rates, the Input/Outout unit contains several high-speed data interfaces. All external connections are accessible at the front of the module as shown by Figure 5-13 and Figure 5-14
Right section Mains switch + fuse Left section Internal connections only Middle section External connections only Keyboard, Mouse and monitor connections

Figure 5-13 SCANTER 4102 Input/Output Unit

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 40 of 71

Figure 5-14 Input/Output Unit External interface section

5.6.3

BITE measurements and error handling Mains-on time, transmitter on time, forward power, internal voltages and temperatures, antenna unit status etc. An advanced error handling system gives a quick overview as well as a detailed description of any error in the system Both features make up a powerful tool for preventive maintenance and fast and efficient repair in case of failure of easily replaceable modules Measurements and errors are stored in a log for inspection and later reference

The BITE monitoring includes continuous monitoring of performance parameters such as:

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 41 of 71

Video Distribution and Tracking


The Video Distribution and Tracking (VDT) unit is an important component of the SCANTER 4102. The VDT provides processed radar video, plots, and tracks on a TCP/IP and UDP/IP network interface. The VDT has been optimized with the SCANTER 4102 to provide allweather detection and tracking of small targets in cluttered environments. Special emphasis is on tracking smaller aircraft, fighter aircraft, and helicopters as well as small surface targets like RIBs, Jetskis, FIACs, wooden boats, sailboats, buoys, etc. However, larger targets like airliners, merchant vessels, and navy vessels will of course also be tracked.

6.1 Tracker performance


Table 6-1: Track data performance
Zones Total zones Zones in radar area Up to 10,000 zones (AAZ, NAAZ, NTZ, VMZ) Up to 125 active zones within radar area Capacity Plots Tracks Up to 5000 plots/scan Up to 500 tracks Speed Surface Helo Air 0 - 70 kts 0 - 120 kts 25 - 1000 kts Accuracy - Position Mean Error Azimuth (deg) Range (m) Helicopter Approach Profile Short Range Profile General Purpose Profile Long Range Profile 0.6 19 37 37 83 9.5
1)

Standard Deviation 0.45

Accuracy - Velocity Mean Error Course (deg) Speed (m/s) Air target Surface target Air target Surface target 1) Depends on selected profile 5.0 5.0 2.5 1.5 Standard Deviation 7.5 5.0 3.5 2.0

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A
Conditions Range accuracy Rmax Target Origin of data Absolute reference system Sea state Probability of Detection Probability of False Alarms (AA) Probability of False Alarms (SU) Assumes target range 90 km Maximum range for the used radar profile Point target, Swerling 3, steady course and speed SCANTER 4102 antenna For Lat/Long conversions, WGS-84 Ellipsoid is used Sea state 3 PD 90 % PFA 10 PFA 10
-4 -3

Page 42 of 71

6.1.1

Time validity

SCANTER 4102 Tracks and Plot are time-stamped with the Validity-Time of the reported Target State Vector i.e. the time when when the radar echo was received from the target in question. The Track Data Validity-Time is determined in accordance with a reference time that is distributed by the time server. The SCANTER 4102 uses GPS Time or a NTP Server as reference.

6.2 Primary VDT functions


The three primary functions of the VDT are: Reformatting the high quality radar video from the transceiver into packets suitable for distribution on a network Automatic detection of potential target echoes (plots). Plots can be distributed on the network interface Initiation and maintenance of tracks on these targets. Tracks are also distributed on the network interface

Figure 6-1 Examples of typical surface and air targets tested against the VDT

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 43 of 71

While the VDT is optimized for general tracking of both air and surface targets, particular emphasis is placed on performance against small surface targets under difficult clutter conditions. Small surface targets are characterized by possibly being non-metallic and of heights in the order of 0.5m to 1.5m. This means that the target will be hidden behind waves for a considerable part of the time, setting high demands on the tracker. The sea states for which small targets are observed are characterized by waves of 0.5 to 2 m height (sea state 2 to 5).

6.3 Functional description


The VDT consists of the Embedded Tracker Package (ETP: contains the mathematical algorithms and processing for plot extraction and tracking) and the Video Distribution and Tracking shell (VDT: handles interfaces to the ETP and to the outside world and performs conversion of radar video to radar network format). The ETP and the VDT execute in a Linux environment on a suitable PC hardware platform. The ETP may be configured with a variable number of tracking lines, each adapted to solving specialized tracking tasks. Up to 6 tracking lines may be configured according to the requirements of the application. 6.3.1 Video converter to network video

The return from each emitted pulse (the sweep) is sampled and processed as a function of time (or distance R = ct) in the transceiver. Each sweep is transferred as an 8 bit signal to the VDT together with information on radar range cell size, sweep azimuth value, and on own unit data. The sweeps are collected into radar video packages that are formatted and compressed with a lossless algorithm by the VDT in preparation for transmission on the network. Uncompressed radar video is also sent to the VDT tracking lines for plot extraction and target tracking. The following is an example of radar network video:

Figure 6-2 Radar network video - example

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A 6.3.2 The SCANTER 4102 tracking configuration Page 44 of 71

The VDT tracker utilizes 6 tracking lines: Tracking Line 1 and 2 (TL1 and TL2) are used for slow and fast air target tracking, respectively, while Tracking Lines 3 to 6 (TL3, TL4, TL5, and TL6) are optimized towards larger vessels, small and slow surface targets, small and fast surface targets, and helicopters, respectively. Moving helicopters may also be tracked in TL1. The configuration is depicted in the following figure:

Processed air and surface radar video

Transcei ver

User input

Control, monitoring and map data

Plot extract ion

Plot extract ion

Plot extract ion

Plot extract ion

Plot extract ion

Plot extract ion

Video to LAN conve rt er

Slow air tacke r TL1

Fast air track er TL2

General purpose tracker TL3

Slow small target tracker TL4

Fast small target tracker TL5

Helicop ter tracker TL6

Correlation and combination

Video Distribution & Tracking VDT

IP network

Figure 6-3 SCANTER 4002 tracking lines configuration Tracking lines 1 and 2 are fed with processed air target video (in short: air video), while tracking lines 3 through 6 are fed with processed surface target video (in short: surface video). The component tracks from the individual tracking lines are correlated, and if more component tracks are associated to the same target, a correlated track is created and sent to the radar network. If a target is associated with only component track, this track is passed on to the radar network.

6.3.2.1

Track data output Track ID number Date and time to nearest ms Track status (tentative, confirmed, lost, automatic, selected) Track kind (Target or buoy) Buoy name, if applicable. Otherwise, empty. Tracking line mask code indicating the tracking lines in which the target is tracked

The VDT distributes track data with the following attributes:

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Plot size Page 45 of 71

Target slant range from the radar Target true azimuth Target latitude and longitude in WGS-84 Target speed and course over ground Track Quality Measure STANAG 5516 track quality Number of lacks i.e. number of scans since last track update by a new plot Track search window in range and in azimuth Standard error on filtered track position

An example of a track message is shown below:


track,199,2008,11,12,13,8,43,991,CA,TARGET,,1,31,69598,5.15790,56.49850, 9.22303,203.30000,0.42140,21,9,0,1875,0.02692,331.00

An extended track message is also available. The extended track message adds information on the Associated Plot i.e. the plot selected for update of the track in question.

6.3.2.2

Plot output Date and time to nearest ms Originating tracking line number Video type Plot slant range from the radar Plot true azimuth Plot latitude and longitude in WGS-84 Plot range and azimuth width Plot peak amplitude Plot integrated amplitude Plot sample count Plot credibility measure

The VDT distributes plot data with the following attributes:

An example of a plot message is shown below.


extplot,2008,11,12,13,7,57,737,1,59892,3.01960,55.69936,10.35875,46,0.00460

Peripheral units
The SCANTER Radar Service Tool (RST) software include tools for set-up, commissioning and maintenance ot the SCANTER radars. All tools and features are part of a consistent whole, including: Situation display: Display live video or single-shot images, A-Scope, primary-, secondary- and AIS tracks, plots, maps, etc. Control/BITE: Control the radars operational state. Monitor the BITE error group status. Display statistics data collected by the transceiver. Parameter setup: Access all transceiver parameters for fine-tuning Documentation Library: Provide a library of all manuals and checklists relevant for setting-to-work and service

7.1 The SCANTER Radar Service Tool

Figure 7-1: SCANTER Radar Service Tool (image from ship-borne radar) The Radar Service Tool runs on a PC/portable PC connected to the IP network.

7.2 Dehydrator
As a result of temperature fluctuations and other environmental effects, pressure differences can arise between the in and outside of the waveguide. Under these conditions, wet-air can enter the waveguide system humid air can also diffuse through antenna-windows and connections. The SCANTER 4102 is equipped with an active waveguide drier of the regeneration type. The waveguide drier should run continuously after completion of the Setting-to-Work activities and during longer periods where the entire platform is in-operational. The dehydrator is powered from an internal 230VAC supply available in the Utility Rack. Static desiccators may be used, if power is unavailable for longer periods.

Options
While water cooling is the recommended standard on the SCANTER 4102 transceiver and utility racks it is possible to have these racks delivered with doors without water cooling provided the racks are placed in a suitably air-conditioned radar room. The air cooling requirements are stated in 10.2.

8.1 Air cooling

8.2 Vertical Reference Unit


In the case that the ship cannot deliver roll and pitch data from its inertial navigation system, a vertical reference unit (VRU) can optionally be provided. It is recommended that such a vertical reference unit is mounted as close as possible to the ships centre of rotation. Roll and pitch data are used as input to the stabilizing platform, but even in the absence of such a platform these data are used for compensation in the Doppler processing of the shipinduced movement of the antenna.

8.3 IFF
If the IFF option of the SCANTER 4102 antenna is selected the system is prepared for integration with IFF interrogators of various types. The details of the integration shall be defined in the individual projects. The parameters of the IFF antenna are as follows:

Table 8-1: IFF Antenna Parameters


IFF Antenna Operational frequency Polarization Polarization Ratio VSWR difference port VSWR sum port Gain Sum SLL Sum 3 dB beam width Difference null depth Azimuthal coverage ( Diff. Above Sum ) Elevation beam width Ant. Beam angle rel. to boresight Peak Power 1020 MHz to 1100 MHz Vertical > 20 dB < 1.5 < 1.5 > 16 dBi < -24 dB < 7 < -30 dB > 4 dB 55 5 0 < 5 kW

Based on typical parameters for a generic IFF interrogator and a generic IFF transponder, and with a gain of 16 dBi of the integrated IFF antenna elements, the following performance can be calculated:

Figure 8-1: IFF performance as a function of target range Above figure shows that the power level from the interrogator will be above the transponder detection threshold to a distance beyond 130 NM. The transponder return will be above the interrogator detection threshold for an even longer distance. The range performance of the IFF system is therefore determined by the activation of the transponder by the interrogator and will be at least 130 NM. Note that performance of the IFF system may degrade when utilizing short range radar profiles with high RPM.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 50 of 71

8.4 SCANTER Workstation


The SCANTER Workstation is made to provide clear and crisp video presentation of even the smallest target. Further, tracks and plots can be displayed to provide surveillance and tactical support onboard Naval vessels equipped with a Terma SCANTER Radar System. Integration to other radar systems is also possible, but may require implementation of dedicated interfaces for the individual case. The core SCANTER Workstation concept consists of a software application able to operate on a powerful processor, with a keyboard, a mouse/trackball and with one or two highresolution monitors. In addition, the workstation may be used for dedicated service and setup of SCANTER Radar Sensor Systems. All information flow to and from the SCANTER Workstation Software including, video, plots, tracks, control to and from the radar system is handled via IP network. The menus etc. are in English. The SCANTER Workstation is available in the three below set-ups: A complete SCANTER Workstation including software, computer, and monitors installed in a console A SCANTER Workstation including software, computer, monitors for integration in a bridge system As SCANTER Workstation software application only, to be executed on a compatible computer and compatible monitors

Figure 8-2: SCANTER Workstation

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 51 of 71

Radar sensor performance


This section will present some indicative performance expectations for a selected number of target examples typically encountered in the operational environment of a SCANTER 4102 radar sensor system. The indicative performance expectations are calculated assuming a standard installation and some standard environmental conditions. In a specific project the indicative performance expectations will have to be replaced by actual performance expectations that shall be calculated based on the actual installation parameters and a user-defined target suite and environmental conditions. Loosely speaking, radar sensor performance is understood as how far away or how early can the radar see an incoming target. To make this precise a performance figure is defined as follows: Target Detection Range (TDR) is defined as the maximum range at which a radially inbound target can be detected with a single scan Probability of Detection PD that exceeds a predefined threshold value.

9.1 Standard SCANTER 4102 installation and standard conditions used for performance evaluation
The following apply for the performance evaluations given below: Antenna height is 25 m above sea level. There is 10 m waveguide between the transceiver port and the antenna unit port. Environmental conditions (sea state, rain rate) are as specified in the individual calculations. Otherwise, a standard atmosphere is assumed. The PD threshold value is 0.9.

9.2 SCANTER 4102 Performance Expectations for Air Targets


A summary of the capability to detect various targets is given in Figure 9-1 and Figure 9-3 below, where the different colours illustrate different Sea States. The chart illustrates max. detection range of the various targets as stated. The model data used is based on the most appropriate for the applicable target i.e. the radar is operating in Long Range mode to detect and track airliners and Self Defence/Helo Control mode whilst detecting e.g. UAVs. The performance figures have been calculated assuming zero roll and pitch of the ship. Note that the figures give no indication of close range performance. Close range performance is partly determined by the selected operational mode (profile) and for air targets also by the cone-of-silence of the radar system. For a SCANTER 4102 with the 12 Switchable Beam antenna the cone-of-silence begins at about 35 elevation.

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A
Air Detection; PD = 90% ; Antenna Height: 25m

Page 52 of 71
Sea State 4 - 0mm/hr Sea State 2 - 0mm/hr

UAV, RCS 0,15m2, 2500ft ASL

7,7 9,2 12,0 11,0 23,0 30,0 27,2 32,7 30,0 30,0 83,1 90,0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95

Ultra Light 1m2; 1000ft ASL

Target category

Fighter Aircraft, RCS 3m2; 5000ft ASL General Aviation/Bomber, RCS 10m2, 10000ft ASL Helicopter; RCS 20m2; 1500ft ASL

Airliner; RCS 300m2; 20000ft ASL

Range [NMI]

Figure 9-1 Performance overview Air Targets Detection Ranges

9.3 SCANTER 4102 Performance Expectations for Surface Targets


A summary of the capability to detect various surface targets is given in Figure 9-2 below, where the different colours illustrate different Sea States. The chart illustrates max detection range of the various targets as stated.
Surface Detection; PD = 90% ; Antenna Height: 25m Sea State 4 - 0mm/hr Sea State 2 - 0mm/hr

Jetski; RCS 3m2; 1,5m ASL

8,5 8,5 8,9 8,9 10,8 10,8 14,6 14,6 19,5 19,5 30,0 30,0
2,0 4,0 6,0 8,0 10,0 12,0 14,0 16,0 18,0 20,0 22,0 24,0 26,0 28,0 30,0 32,0

RIB; RCS 5m2; 1,5m ASL

Target category

Wooden fishing vessel; RCS 20m2; 2m ASL

Fast Attack Craft, RCS 300, 5m ASL

Coster/OPV, RCS 2000m2, 15m ASL

VLCC/Rig, RCS 200000 m2, 50m ASL


0,0

Range [NMI]

Figure 9-3 SU Performance overview Target Detection Ranges

10 System interface specifications


This section summarises interfaces between the SCANTER 4102 and the external systems.

10.1 Power supply


Table 10-1 Power supply requirements
Power supply requirements Designation Transceiver and utility racks Antenna system Stabilized antenna system Power supply 3 x 380-420 VAC, 50-60 Hz + ground 3 x 380-420 VAC, 50-60 Hz + ground 3 x 380-420 VAC, 50-60 Hz + ground Max power 12 kW 4 kW < 14 kW

10.2 Cooling
The transceiver and utility racks can be either water cooled or air cooled. The requirements to either type are given below:

Table 10-2 Chilled water cooling


Maximum inlet pressure Pressure drop Flow, Tranceiver rack Flow, Utillity rack Inlet temperature Max temp. Increase Maximum level of chlorides pH value Suspended solids Glycol Anti-bacterials Required external inlet filter Heat dissipated 10 bar 1 bar approximately 1 m3/hr 0.5 m3/hr 5 - 8 C 6 C 50 mg/l 5.5 - 8 None visible Up to 30% can be added Can be added Pipe strainer with max. mesh size of 0.5 mm 9000 W

Table 10-3 Air cooling


Air cooling Heat dissipated, transceiver Heat dissipated, utility rack (optional) Heat dissipated, ACU Flow rate, transceiver Flow rate, utility rack Flow rate, ACU 6000 W 3000 W 450 W 1600 m /hour 1600 m /hour 250 m /hour
3 3 3

10.3 Digital data interfaces


The SCANTER 4102 exchanges commands, tellbacks, track and plot data by means of digital data interfaces. Interfaces are described briefly below, and are defined in the applicable interface documents which are separate to this Product Specification. In general, SCANTER 4102 digital data interfaces are implemented as ASCII interfaces, distributed by Ethernet according to the TCP/IP standard.

10.3.1

Sensor commands and tellbacks Soft power On/Off Start/stop antenna rotation Select polarization Start/stop transmission Profile selection Selection and definition of transmission sectors

Sensor management covers controls and tellbacks for:

As example, the ASCII command for soft switch-on of the SCANTER 4102 is:
Set,Mains,On

10.3.2

Track management / Tracks and plots Definition of Tracker Zones (Auto-Acquisition, Acquisition-Inhibit, Track-Inhibit) Track operations e.g. initialisation and deletion Plot data output Track data output

Track management covers controls and tellbacks for:

10.3.3

Own unit data Heading data (normally gyro data) Ships position (normally GPS data) Ships course and speed over ground (normally GPS data) Ships roll and pitch angles and speeds (from ships system or from optional Vertical Reference Unit)

The radar sensor interfaces to ships systems to receive:

Fall-back to other sources of own unit data (e.g. ships inertial navigation system) shall be handled externally from the radar system.

10.3.4

Video interface

SCANTER 4102 video is distributed on IP-network Table 10-4 Video interfaces


Video interfaces Definitions Video origin Video orientation Resolution
1

SCANTER 4102 VDT North-oriented (2 / 4096 radians) = 1.53 mrads RInstrumented / 4096 8 bits [0..255] (4096 x 4096) = 16,777,216
3

Azimuth cell width Range cell depth Cell amplitude


2

Video distribution

Video cells / scan Sweeps / video sector Video sectors / scans Video compression algorithm Video compression data slice Fragments / compressed sector Maximum fragment size
4 4

32 128 ZLIB 1 video sector dependent on video content 64,000 Bytes Ethernet, 100 Mbits/s, UDP, Multicast

Transport

Interface

1) Dependent on availability and accuracy of heading data as received on the High Speed Heading interface. 2) Range cell widths are in multiples of 6 m and determined by the decimation. 3) Video sector comprises 32 sweeps, each comprising 4096 range cells, each containing one byte with the video amplitude [0..255] 4) Video for each video sector is compressed, and then split into fragments, with the number of fragments used as required to carry the complete compressed video sector data. A loss-less compression algorithm is used

11 Safety
11.1 Protection of personnel Cabinets
11.1.1 Markings

All units and parts containing hazardous material, fluids, voltages or others are clearly marked

11.1.2

Electrical Protection Earth shall be provided for all cabinets, and for the antenna assembly All primary supplies are protected by either Fuses or Circuit Breakers All electrical hazards are clearly marked All hazardous voltages are covered removal of covers shall only be possible with tools

The following electrical safety mechanisms are provided:

11.2 Protection of personnel Rotation and transmission


The SCANTER 4102 includes processing and devices for protection of personnel against hazards associated with antenna rotation and transmission, and stabilizing antenna platform motion.

11.2.1

Man Aloft Safety switch

The SCANTER 4102 includes a Man Aloft Safety Switch. The switch will normally be located at a convenient mast access position. When selected to the SAFE position, the Man Aloft Switch: Inhibit antenna rotation Inhibit transmission

On reset of the Man Aloft Switch to NORMAL, rotation and transmission will not start automatically, but requires operator intervention. Man Aloft Switch status is reported by the SCANTER 4102 BITE. The Man Aloft Switch can be supplied as switch with removable key.

11.2.2

Transmitter safety

Transmission is protected by an interlock switch controlled by the transceiver door. Transmission is inhibited when the transceiver door is open.

On closing the transceiver door and the SCANTER 4102 is commanded Transmit, transmission will re-start automatically. Transceiver door interlock status is reported by the SCANTER 4102 BITE.

11.2.3

Radiation safety distances 20 m 1m

In the plane of the rotating antenna Above or below the plane of the rotating antenna

11.3 Protection of equipment


11.3.1 Antenna control safety

The antenna is protected against defects that could lead to serious failures in the Antenna and Antenna Control Unit. Antenna control safety is verified by a 20 mA circuit that must be closed if this circuit is opened, the safety inhibits are activated. On detection of a failure in antenna control, rotation and transmission are inhibited. On removal of the antenna control failure, rotation and transmission does not start automatically. Antenna status is reported by the SCANTER 4102 BITE

12 Environmental Specifications
The SCANTER 4102 is designed to perform satisfactorily during and following exposure to natural and induced environment associated with conditions of equipment storage, transportation, and shipyard installation. The environment specifications for shipboard installation are summarized in the following sections. Satisfactory performance of the system during and following exposure to these environment conditions has been verified by assessment and/or demonstrated through test. The environmental capabilities allow for world-wide operation of the SCANTER 4102.

12.1 Environmental Conditions


12.1.1 Below Deck Conditions The following conditions apply to equipment fitted below deck for the SCANTER 4102, this means: Transceiver Utility Rack Antenna Control Unit.

Table 12-1

Environmental Conditions - Below Deck


Temperature (Storage) Temperature (Operational) Temperature (Survival) Temperature Shock Relative Humidity Rainfall Pressure Shock Vibration (4 12.5 Hz) Vibration (12.5 80 Hz) Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Immunity -25C .. +70C 0C .. +45C +55C 2C/minute 95% non-condensing IP52 860 .. 1085 millibar 30g half sine in 11ms, All orthogonal axes 1.6mm 1g EN60945/EN6100-6-3 EN60945/EN6100-6-2

12.1.2 Exposed Conditions The following conditions apply to equipment fitted in open weather for the SCANTER 4102, this means: Antenna with turning unit Stabilizing antenna platform.

Table 12-2

Environmental Conditions - Exposed


Temperature (Storage) Temperature (Operational) Temperature Shock Relative Humidity Rainfall Corrosion Sand and Dust Salt Fog Acidic Atmosphere Pressure Shock Vibration (5 13.2 Hz) Vibration (12.3 100 Hz) Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic Immunity Relative Peak Wind Speed (Survival) Relative Wind Speed (0 25 m/s) Relative Wind Speed (25 40 m/s) Relative Wind Speed (40 70 m/s) Solar Radiation Hail (Size) Hail (Striking Velocity) Ice (Operational at reduced performance) Ice (Survival) -40C .. +70C -40C .. +55C + sun radiation 2C/minute 10 - 95% non-condensing IP55 Class 5, Marine IP55 Severity (1) DEF-STAN 08-123 Data Sheet 3 860 .. 1085 millibar Vertical: 25g half sine in 33ms Horizontal: 15g half sine in 33ms 1.0mm 0.7g EN60945/EN6100-6-3 EN60945/EN6100-6-2 70 m/s No RPM Limitations RPM 20 rpm Disable Rotation 1120 W/m 10 mm 45 m/s 20 mm 200 mm

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A Page 60 of 71

13 Availability, Reliability and Maintainability


A Logistics report will be provided as a separate document. Periodic maintenance as well as occasional faultfinding and defect repair will be required. The expected workload associated with the SCANTER 4102 is not expected to require full time support from on-board maintainers it is therefore expected that maintenance of this system can be shared with other similar systems on board. Support is estimated as: Area of Responsibility Management Transceiver, Utility Rack and ACU Antenna, SAP
1)

Personnel SCANTER 4102 can be handled within the scope of normal W&E departmental organisation 1 x Petty Officer (Radar/Electronics) 1 x Assistant (Radar/Electronics) 1 x Petty Officer (Electrical/Control/Electronics) 1 x Assistant (Radar/Electronics)

Table 13-1 Maintenance Support Requirements

Depending on ship/departmental organization and training, the Antenna and Stabilized Platform might be considered as a separate unit

14 Terma support
The Terma SCANTER radars are designed for un-interrupted service, tailored to individual applications and optimized for low life cycle cost. The radar systems are furthermore modular in construction, and equipped with extensive BITE facilities. Preventive and corrective maintenance is easily accessible and maintenance on transceiver systems can be performed during operations. For the antennas, however, a short interruption is required for preventive maintenance at 6-12 months intervals.

14.1 Terma support


The Terma support covers the entire life cycle of the SCANTER products and Terma offer complete turn key solutions including delivery, installation, setting to work, training and maintenance. Installation, setting to work, training and maintenance may alternatively be conducted by non-Terma personnel, but trained by Terma.

14.1.1

System definition, system location etc.

Terma offer expert support for system definition, system location etc. This may either be prior to contract or as part of the programme of works for a given contract.

14.1.2

Programme of Works

The considerable amount of experience and expertise gained at Terma over a number of years as both a prime and major subcontractor has resulted in a comprehensive and uniform approach to the Programme of Works providing: Establishment of a permanent, dedicated project management office common to all SCANTER Radar projects, acting as the single point of contact and responsibility to each individual project Clear, strong, and unambiguous lines of authority and responsibility for programme managers across functional boundaries High management visibility into programme progress, to permit rapid response in problem solving, resource allocation or other management actions

The project team set-up for the SCANTER product supplies is a highly dedicated group of employees with several years of experience within the field of radar technology, electronics, software, and telecommunication matters. Furthermore, this project team has access to the complete range of Terma expertise.

14.1.3

Installation and set-to-work of equipment

The installation and set-to-work of equipment takes its beginning by proper planning, documentation, outlining of cable plans and establishment of an actual implementation plan. This includes studying and preparation of special documentation as applicable.

14.1.4

Training

Training of customer operators and maintenance personnel is adapted to the specific equipment delivered. The training courses are conducted by experts (design engineer and/or technician) from Terma and any involved major subcontractor(s). The course instructors have in-depth knowledge about the products and their operation. The theoretical training takes place in dedicated classrooms all being equipped with the necessary services.

14.1.5

Spare parts

The Terma SCANTER radars are often part of mission-critical solutions. This call for redundancy and/or fast access to corrective maintenance and spare parts. The Terma support includes: Supply of spare part packages and consumerables Exchange service for spare parts, where a defective LRU is replaced with a repaired or new unit from stock at a fixed price Repair service where a defective LRU is repaired at cost.

14.1.6

Maintenance contracts

Terma offer contracts for preventive and corrective maintenance, to individual customer requirements.

15 Verification
15.1 Definitions
Compliance with the requirements will be proven by test, analysis, demonstration, inspection or review. Test is defined as the measurement of performance data of the properties and characteristics of the functions, under the appropriate conditions and in accordance with the test procedures. The data are subsequently used to evaluate quantitative performance and effectiveness characteristics of the function under test. Evaluation includes comparison of the demonstrated characteristics with the requirements. Tests are conducted when an acceptable level of confidence cannot be established by other methods or if testing can be shown to be the most cost effective method. Analysis is defined as the use of analytical techniques (including computer models) to interpret or explain the behaviour of an observed component or function. Demonstration is defined as the presentation of non-instrumented functions where visual observation is the primary means of verification. Demonstration is used when quantitative assurance is not required for verification. Inspection/Review is defined as the visual and dimensional checks or measurements to verify design features, workmanship, physical conditions and dimensional requirements, by review of the approved documentation (drawings, specifications, processes) or the equipment itself. External is defined as verification of certain external interfaces (typically data) that are necessary to meet the defined performance level for the SCANTER 4102 to achieve the required specifications in this document. Verification of external systems will not be carried out by Terma within the scope of these formal tests.

15.2 Requirements tracing


The Test Verification Matrix will define the basis for the tracing of validation of requirements in this Product Specification.

15.3 Testing
Verification of the SCANTER 4102 will be conducted in accordance with the Test Verification Matrix. Verification testing will be conducted by Terma A/S where validation requires testing of the radar together with other systems (for example, integration testing), tests will be conducted by Terma and the various partners involved. Tests will be carried out according to a Test Procedure which defines the objective, method and success criteria of each test. Results will be formally noted in a Test Record. Testing will be executed by Terma A/S, and approved by a Witnessing Authority who will represent the Customer. Apart from Terma-internal testing (for example, production testing of Assemblies and SubAssemblies), the radar will be subject to the following formal Acceptance Tests.

Phase

Test

Description Schedule The FAT will be conducted on completion of production, and normally shortly before the Prime Equipment is shipped for installation. The FAT will verify and demonstrate that the SCANTER 4102 is fundamentally functioning on completion of production. Because the FAT takes place under a controlled environment, certain system validation trials that cannot be carried out on-board a ship, will be executed at this time. The SCANTER 4102 will be tested as a stand alone system with ship data simulators. The FAT procedure shall be produced by Terma and submitted for approval prior to commencement of the FAT. The HAT will be conducted on completion of installation and setting-towork phase on-board. The HAT will verify and demonstrate that the SCANTER 4102 is functioning as specified when ship fitted, and with the ship alongside. Depending on the arrangements and schedules for the specific project, the HAT might be carried out with all interfaces, or with some interfaces simulated. The HAT procedure shall be produced by Terma and submitted for approval prior to commencement of the HAT. The SIT will normally be conducted on completion of the system integration phase which will normally follow the HAT. SITs are normally executed for both hardware and software interfaces. Preliminary SIT(s) might take place at earlier phases of a project.

1.

Factory Acceptance Test (FAT)

Description

Document

Schedule

2.

Harbour Acceptance Test (HAT)

Description

Document

3.

System Integration Test (SIT)

Schedule

Phase

Test

Description The SIT will verify integration of the SCANTER 4102 with all interface partners. In general, a SIT will be carried out for all electrical interfaces with the radar, and with emphasis on datainterfaces. Successful completion of the SIT demonstrates that the SCANTER 4102 can be fully integrated into the total Combat Suite. Individual SITs are normally carried out for each individual interface. SIT procedures (typically there are multiple test procedures) are normally produced by the leading interface partner for each interface. For those documents that are produced by partners or by the CSI, Terma will provide support in preparation of test procedures. The SAT will take place on completion of Combat Suite setting-to-work and integration testing. The SAT will verify the SCANTER 4102 in the fully fitted configuration, with all interfaces and in a sea-going environment. The SAT will normally be the final acceptance test of the radar. The SAT might be structured into phases that also include SATpreparatory tests such as Alignment. The SAT procedure will normally be produced by the CSI, and will normally be defined as a Combat Suitewide test procedure. Terma will provide support with the preparation of the SAT procedure, and can provide test definitions for the SCANTER 4102 verification phases.

Description

Document

Schedule

Description 4. Sea Acceptance Test (SAT)

Document

16

Quality assurance certification


AQAP-2110 For more than 25 years, Terma A/S has been certified to the NATO Quality standard AQAP1, later AQAP-110 and AQAP-150, and since 2006, Terma has been assessed and certified to AQAP-2110 by Bureau Veritas Certification. ISO 9001 Since 2003, Terma has been assessed and certified to ISO 9001 by Bureau Veritas Certification.

Terma Quality Management System Terma Quality Management System is an inherent part of the Terma Management System (TMS), which is an on-line process orientated information system on Termas intranet. TMS is formed as a front-end to the Quality Handbook and other business procedures for each business area giving an easy way to gain relevant information to the individual employee based on the actual job and stage in the process. Other certifications Contact Terma A/S for a complete list of various second party approvals and certificates

17 Documents, definitions and abbreviations


Table 17-1: SCANTER 4102 Cross Reference SCANTER 4102 cross reference Diagrams
Installation Drawing 264420-ZD

Interfaces
Transceiver External Interface Specification Utility Rack External Interface Specification SCANTER Radar System Protocol SCANTER 6000 Series Transceiver Control Protocol Data Definition SCANTER Network Video Protocol SCANTER Track Management Protocol SCANTER Plot Management Protocol SCANTER Own Unit Management Protocol Own Unit Data Interface 264000-DI 264640-DI 502074-DI 386308-DI 304124-SI 303949-SI 304284-SI 304203-SI 582744-DI

Handbooks and Qualification


Operators Manual Technical Manual Embedded SW package, licence for 1 site RST SW package, licence for multiple users N/A 264400-HT Included Included

Options and Accessories


Installation materials Man aloft switch Tabletop service display computer Ruggedized service display computer Laptop service display computer Digital video cable Maintenance tool kit Individual Individual Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional

Subsystems
12'-HP_HP/CP-C-35 Antenna System 349880-DP

ARM
SCANTER 4100 Logistics Report 309269-RA

17.1 Definitions
Table 17-2 Definitions
Definitions Accuracy The difference between the average of repeated measurements of the same quantity under identical conditions and the known reference value (the true value). For example, accuracy can be estimated by comparing the difference between the average of the radar measurements of the range to a fixed reference target and the range value calculated from the geographical co-ordinates of the reference target and the radar Azimuth angle () Measured in horizontally stabilised, north-oriented reference plane, centred on the SCANTER sensor antenna. Positive Azimuth : Clockwise Rotation from above [-180 +180] or [000 +360] ( = 0) (Target = North) Cell (radar) The disc around the radar out to the maximum range is covered by a polar grid that comprises 4096 equal-angle azimuth sectors, with each sector divided into 4096 range cells of equal range depth. A specific range cell in a specific azimuth sector is termed a radar cell. Precision Range Scan SCANTER time Sweep Track The standard deviation of repeated measurements of the same quantity under identical conditions, for example, the standard deviation of the measurements of the range to a fixed reference target SCANTER radar range is Slant range, with origin at the radar antenna One complete rotation of the SCANTER antenna The validity as reported by the SCANTER radar is synchronized with an external time server and is reported in ASCII format in millisecond precision The radar return of one transmitted puls as a function of range A track is a filtered version of a time series of radar plots. As apart of the filtering process characteristics such as speed and course of the target are derived. The track state vector for a certain time will contain considerable information on the target of which the most prominent are

18 Abbreviations
Table 18-1 Abbreviations
Term AC ACP ACU ADC AQAP ARM ARP ASCII ASL BITE CCTWT CFAR CMS COG CP CSA CSI DBSA DC ECCM EIA EMC EMCON EMI ESD ETP FAT FM FMCW GNSS GPS HAT HDG HP HTML I/O IEC IFF IMO IP ISO Definition Alternating Current Azimuth Count Pulse / Antenna Count Pulse Antenna Control Unit Analogue to Digital Conversion Allied Quality Assurance Publications Availability, Reliability and Miantainability Azimuth Repitition Pulse / Antenna Reset Pulse American Standard Code for Information Interchange Above Sea Level AToN Aids To Navigation Built-in Test Equipment Coupled Cavity Travelling Wave Tube Constant False Alarm Rate Combat Management System Course Over Ground Circularly Polarized Canadian Standards Association Combat System Integrator Dual Beam Stabilized Antenna Direct Current Electronic Counter-Counter Measures Electronics Industries Alliance Electro-Magnetic Compatibility EMission CONtrol Electro-Magnetic Interference Electro Static Discharge Embedded Tracker Package Factory Acceptance Test Frequency Modulation Frequency ModulationContinuous Wave Global Navigation Satellite System Global Positioning System Harbour Acceptance Test Heading Horizontal Polarization Hypertext Mark-up Language Input/Output International Electrotechnical Commision Identification Friend or Foe International Maritime Organization Internet Protocol International Organization for Standardization

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A
Term LAN LNA LRU LSAR MDR MDS ME MFC MM MMI MMIC MRP MRS MTBF MTI MTTR NMEA NTIA NTP NTZ NAAZ PA PC PEX PPI PRF PRI PSLR R&TTE RCS RMS RPM RSAV RTV RxTx SAP SAT SCD SCL SD SIRP SIT SOG SRRT SSI Definition Local Area Network Low Noise Amplifier Line Replacable Unit Logistics Support Analysis Report Minimum Detection Range Minimum Detection Signal Mean Error Multi Function Console Missile Man Machine Interface Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits Master Reference Plane Master Reference System Mean Time Between Failures Moving Target Indicator Men Time To Repair
National Marine Electronics Association

Page 70 of 71

National Telecommunications and Information Administration Network Time Protocol Non-Tracking Zone Non-Automatic Acquisition Association Power Amplifier Personal Computer Plot Extractor Plan Position Indicator Pulse Repetition Frequency Pulse Repetition Interval Peak Sidelobe Level Ratio Radio and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive Radar Cross Section Root Mean Square Rotations Per Minute Radar Sensor Administration and Viewer Radar and Track Viewer Transmitter - Receiver unit Stabilized Antenna Platform Sea Acceptance Platform Sea Clutter Discriminator Ship Centreline Standard Deviation Ship Internal Reference Point System Integration Test Speed Over Ground SCANTER Radar Recording Tool Sweep to Sweep Integration

SCANTER 4102 Naval Air and Surface 2D Radar System with 12' HP/CP Antenna Doc. no: 674557-DP, Rev: A
TVM TWS TWT UDP/IP UL VCRI VDT VDU VMZ VRU VSWR W&E WAN WGD Test Verification Matrix Track While Scan Travelling Wave Tube User Datagram Protocol / Internet Protocol Underwriters Laboratories Verification Cross Reference Index Video Distribution and Tracking Video Distribution Unit Video Masking Zone Vertical Refernce Unit Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Weapons and Electrical Wide Area Network Waveguide Dryer

Page 71 of 71