EFENSE INSTALLATIO

ON IWO JIMA

Classification ch*ng*d to

I

ED

Maj., Inf. Custodian

CINCPAC-GINCPOA
BULLETIN NQ. 136-45
10 JUNE 1945

8 JUN1945

Defense Installations
on

I WO JIMA

flaintly

CINCPAC-CINCPOA
FLEET MARINE FORCE
V AMPHIBIOUS CORPS

3rd, 4th & 5th MARINE DIVISIONS

JICPOA L" 5 0 6 0 7 - 23 THRU 144

MCH/cc

UNITED STATES PACIFIC FLEET
AND PACIFIC OCEAN AREAS
HEADQUARTERS OF THE COMMANDER IN CHIEF

10 June 1945 - Serial DIS-1OO93O
From:
To:
Subject:
Enclosure:
Commander in Chief, U. S. Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas.
Distribution List.
CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN No. 136-45.
Defense Installations on Iwo Jima.
(A) Subject bulletin.

Enclosure (A), forwarded herewith, need not be reported and when no
1.
. . _
longer of value should be destroyed. No report of destruction is necessary.
M. LBpENDRE,
By direction.
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1 3 CominCh 3 1 ComOpTraPac San Diego Calif 2 1 ComServLant.10 June 1945 Serial DIS-1OO93O OinCPICNYd Wash CO NavResLab Belief OinCTAIC NAS Anacostia DC ComAirPac ComNorPac ComSoPac MEIU#1 FPO SF MEIU#4 FPO SF ComBatRonTWO ComBatDivTWO ComBatDiv CO BB ComCruDesPao ComCruDiv CO CA CB CL ComTaskFlot ComDesRon ComDesDiv ComCortDiv CO DD CO DE PF Com3rdFleet Com5thFleet Com7thFleet Coml4 DIO 14ND CO SEFIC OinCAlCCinCPOAAdvHq OinCAlCNorPac OinCJDU Navy 943 OinCJDU Navy 3011 AtCom Navy 3233 NavylsCom CO NavAdvBase ComNavBase CO NAS Seattle Wash ComdtNOB Navy 3256 ComNOB AdCominPac ComMTBRonPac ComMTBRonsSWPA ComSeaFronPac ComServPac ComServRonPac DirAdBaseComServPac CO InterpRonONE Navy 3256 CO InterpRonTWO FPO SF AcornU'raDet Pt Hueneme Calif BuAer/ BuOrd CNAOpTra Jacksonville Fla 2 3 2 AC/AS (I) AirMinA13USA 2 Whitehall Via CNO 2 2 AirMinistry London Via CNO 5 1 DMI MI 2 Whitehall Via CNO 2 ail MI 15 London Via CNO 1 2 DNIAdmty Whitehall Via CNO 2 2 CNO 1 25 1 USNLOOSS Via CNO 2 ComdtANSCol Wash DC 1 2 1 Comll 2 2 Coml2 1 2 Coml3 1 2 Coml7 1 2 1 ComUSNB PtHueneme Calif 2 ComdtNavV/arCol Newport RI 1 1 ComAiriant 65 3 ComPhibTraPacFPO San Diego Calif 2 3 ComFair Seattle 5 Wash. 1 45 ComSubLant 1 5 CO NavalUnitWestCoast 2 1 CO NACIS NAS quonset Pt RI 3 100 ComUSNavGrp Navy 169 NT 2 100 ComPhibsPac 5 1 150 AdComPhibsPac 1 2 OinCRearEchComPhibsPac 1 o/o AdComPhibsPao 10 1 Com3rdPhibFor c/o AdComPhibsPac 10 Com5thPhibFor 1 10 1 Com7thPhibFor 5 ea ComPhibGrp 1 2 ComSubPac ' 4 2 ComSubPacSubordCom 2 DNINavy Dept Melbourne Australia 2 3 SNORNethNavyinAustralia 441 St Kilda 2 3 Rd Melbourne Australia 2 2 ComMarianas 1 2 ComNavy 3233 2 2 ComNavForces Navy 3256 5 2 ComSubArea Navy 3254 5 2 RepComDesPacCentPacFwd 2 2 2 ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea ea MARINE CORPS ComGenFMFPao Comd tMarCorps ComGenlllPhibCorps ComOenVPhibCorps ComGenMarCorpsSchooIs 25 ea ComGenMarDiv 5 ComGenTraComFMF LeJeune 5 ComGenTraComFMF Pendleton 5 DirofAviationMarCorps 2 ea karlsGom BRITISH 3 COIS BPF 3 COIS EIS 1 RAdmCom4thCruRon 1 RAdmComDDs 1 RAdmComFltTrain 1 ea ComDesFlot 1 ea CO FltTrainShip 2 1 1 1 1 1 ea ea ea ea ea Captain EscortForcee SenOffMinFlot CO BB CO CL CO DD CO DE .

.. . . .. . 2-6 7-119 7-16 7-10 . . . . . . Rockets 200 mm Rocket Launcher 250 kg Rocket Launcher 63 kg Rocket Launcher Pillboxes Rifle Pits Tanks Dummies Radar and Radio Station Revetted Vehicles Air Raid Shelters Ammunition Storage Miscellaneous . . 114-115 ' 116-117 .Table of Contents JAPANESE DEFENSIVE PLAN AT IWO JIMA . Anti-Aircraft Defenses. .. ­ 150 mm Mortars 81 mm Mortars Grenade Launchers . . ... 118-119 MAP APPENDIX Enemy Defense Installations as observed from ground study. . .Artillery 15 cm CD Guns 14 cm CD Guns 12 cm CD Guns 12 cm (Short) Naval Guns 8 cm CD Guns Antiaircraft and Dual Purpose Batteries 12 cm DP Guns 10 cm DP Guns 7 cm AA Guns 25 mm AA MG 13 mm MG Searchlights . . . 11-16 17-20 17-18 19 20 21-25 26-39 26-26 29-31 32-33 34-37 38-39 39-64 39-42 43-45 46-48 49-58 59-60 61-64 65-70 71-86 71-74 75-78 78-80 8I-85 86 87-88 87 88 89-95 89 90-92 93-94 95 96-IOO 96-98 99 100 101-103 104-105 106-108 109-111 112 113 . Arcs of Fire for Casemated Coastal Defense Guns on Iwo Jima.. . Blockhouses with principal directions of fire indicated. Terrain Inland * Obstacles and Mines Mines Trip Wire Anti-Tank Ditches • Caves Coast Defense . . Covered Artillery with principal directions of fire indicated. ILLUSTRATIONS . . ... . Blockhouses Covered Artillery Emplacements 120 mm Howitzers 75 mm (Type 38) Field Guns 75 mm (Type 90) Field Guns • 47 mm Ant i-Tank Guns 37 mm Anti-Tank Guns Open Artillery Emplacements 47 mm Anti-Tank Guns 37 am Anti-Tank Guns Mortars 320 mm Spigot Mortars .. General Terrain Features Beaches . .

rifle pits. Positions were at all times covered with materials which blended into the surrounding terrain and vegetation. need hardly be emphasized.000 map. the terrain. Only small groups were needed to cover very narrow beaches with steep exits along the northern coast. Intelligence prior to the invasion of IWO indicated a formidable garrison force with many major caliber weapons and extensive tank and personnel obstacles.7" (120 mm) to 6M (I55 mm) guns was initially effective against our ships. Captured documents. and caves were so numerous in some sections of the island that it was impossible to plot them all on a 1:10. By December. most beach positions were completed and had been strengthened by the construction of heavy concrete blockhouses. and mortars. INCREASE OF FORTIFICATIONS At the time SAIPAN was invaded. indicate the enemy's battle strength was conserved by countermeasures against shelling and bombing. machine gun and artillery emplacements. COAST DEFENSE Coast defense artillery ranging from 4. only AA defenses. The terrain was well suited for cover. A cross-island defense line in depth protecting the northern part of the island was springing up along the high ground north of Airfield No. and personnel were dispersed in caves and behind protective terrain where naval gunfire and artillery could not reach them. By September 1944* positions had been constructed in depth behind the beaches. increased numbers of covered artillery and coast defense guns. The story of their haste in constructing defenses is told in aerial photographs from 15 June 1944 until D-Day. Company and platoon positions were then in evidence. 19 February 1945. By D-Day. Natural vegetation was used to a large extent to conceal well-built positions from aerial attack. aerial photographs and maps gave only a limited picture of one of the enemy*s best defensive weapons. An amphibious assault in force was limited to the east and west beaches of the narrow southern part of the island. Maximum use was made of IW0*s sparse growth for con­ cealing trenches.Japanese Defensive Plan At Iwo Jima The strategic importance of IWO JIMA. however. 1. confirmed by ground study. the Japs must have known that IWO would be attacked* The only question was VHEH. hasty fire trenches. CAMOUFLAGE Camouflage encountered and camouflage discipline during construction. as evalu­ ated from aerial photographs. Its value as an airbase midway between the MARIANAS and the heart of JAPAN has already been proved. After the occupation of SAIPAN. and concrete pillboxes and covered artillery emplacements were under construction. COVER AND DISPERSAL . and pre­ liminary beach defenses had been prepared at IWO JIMA. key positions had been connected with pillboxes and were protected by covering fire from artillery. nevertheless many positions were not detected until gun fire had blown away the concealing vegetation. Positions as large as those housing 120 mm Howitzers were undetected under the protective covering of trees in their natural state. These conditions gave the Japs an advantage in preparing defensive positions for all-around security. All CD guns were casemated in four to six feet of reinforced concrete. The coarse. previously sighted in. While such practices could not always elude photographic interpre­ tation. Ammunition. Spoil from excavations was planted with grass to obliterate traces of military activity. Additional AA defenses. vol­ canic ash kept damage from shell fragmentation to a minimum. loose. anti-tank guns. stores. and more and more concrete positions and minefields on the beaches were noted on each succeeding photographio softie. was excellent. Each emplacement was so positioned in the terrain that .

twin. and 25 mm in triple. and cave-type firing positions which provided adequate protection against the heaviest of bombs and shells. ANTIAIRCRAFT Antiaircraft batteries were numerous. 1 was more suitable for dug in positions.it was normally protected from naval gunfire. The position of Airfield No. SUHIBACHI and the high ground over the East Boat Basin and around Airfield No. 100 mm. SURIBACHI POSITIONS In the south a cross-island defense line was constructed on the terraced slopes which guarded the approaches to Mt. storage areas. it stretched east across the island to skirt the southern end of Airfield No. WEST BEACH POSITIONS. and most of the infantry positions protecting the east beach were here. Reliance on caves as a shelter and a fighting position was increas'ed here. The center of this belt was 2600 yards deep. positioned so as to obtain long fields of fire which were carefully calculated and tied into the overall defense system. and excellent observation and good fields of fire were afforded here. but their continued use against aircraft and our personnel ashore testifies to the sound construction of their emplacements. 2 were the feey to controlled artillery and mortar fire. 75 mm. The excellent ob­ servation from the heights of SURIBACHI and the high ground around Airfield No. there was an equally elaborate subsurface organization of shelter. 1 limited the depth of these positions to approximately 500 to 700 yards. living quarters. SURIBACHI. . The Japs could not satisfactorily conceal these weapons. 1 permitted these defenses to be 700 to 1400 yards deep giving considerably longer fields of fire and permitting a more elaborate system of dummy positions fronting the actual main positions and designed to draw our preliminary bombardment. 2. 1 was steep and impossible for wheeled vehicles* to traverse. The area between the beach and Airfield No. The terrain was much more substantial for caves and underground shelters. The positions were not so much the target for naval gun­ fire. including 120 mm DP. until they opened fire. Well-constructed blockhouses encasing 25 mm machine cannons to 120 mm short naval guns were the first defenses encountered on and near the beach. MAIN DEFENSE BELT Since landings in strength were limited to the east and west beaches near the southern end of the island. and blockhouses which were capable of all-around de­ fense and were mutually supporting. Supporting fires were delivered from the flanks using the ob­ servation provided by Mt. 2. The defenses of the West Beaches were probably more extensive and elaborate than East Beach defenses. The loose nature of the sand suggests their presence as dummies.' Airfield No. bunkers. The ground at the base of Airfield No. passage­ way. Movement of infantrymen and tanks was impeded by the loose soil with the result that they offered excellent targets to anti-tank and anti-personnel guns and tactics. Beginning in the west at the rocky cliffs to the north of the western beaches. shelters. and terminated in the cliffs which form at the northern end of the eastern beaches. A ship taking a CD gun under direct fire necessarily exposed itself to the gun at which it was firing. the enemy prepared his main defense in depth in a cross- island belt. and single mounts. It consisted of a maze of concrete pillboxes. al­ though they may have been prepared originally as hasty beach defenses before adequate concrete positions were built. Some concrete pillboxes and sandstone revetted rifle pits gave infantry protection to the heavier weapons. In addition to this elaborate surface organ­ ization. It gained its strength from its depth and its concrete and steel structures. Many guns were so camouflaged that their location was unknown. EAST BEACH POSITION The elaborate trench system facing the eastern beaches had been entirely abandoned. and positions were better protected from our naval gunfire.

though in some instances isolated withdrawals were made to preserve units and individuals threatened with inevitable destruction. There were no organized attempts made to counterattack our beachhead. Artillery. no "all-out" banzai charge. however. In defending IW0 JIMA. the bulk of the enemy's forces remained intact and were well entrenched in the most heavily fortified part of the island. magnetic mines. which shielded it from frontal flat trajectory fire. and 14 entrances were found. was able to main­ tain organized resistance for over twenty days. One bluff. radios. . Attacking troops frequently were subjected to fire from flanks and rear more than from their front. without recourse either to costly rtmain effort" counterattacks or organized withdrawals. In attacking these positions no Japs were to be seen. Instead. These features. tended to make this final defensive area equally as strong as the main defensive positions. it housed two battalion command posts and was equipped with lights and telephones. naval gunfire. It was this simple tactic. no retrograde or delaying actions in the military sense. Strong points were established around commanding ground. including heavy mortars and rockets in and behind this defense belt. or air support in reducing these positions. This plan was not only simple in conception but in general was skill­ fully executed and well adapted to the terrain of IW0 JIMA. the enemy committed a minimum number of troops to the southern beach area and defended it by delivering heavy volumes of fire from both SUHIBACHI and the north so that even when the southern area was finally taken. Positions were pro­ vided with complete preregistration data. Many anti-tank guns had one or more supplementary or alternate positions* These weapons were sited in terrain affording fields of fire covering possible tank routes from the beach.Most of the positions showed excellent engineering and terrain appreciation. and explosives carried by hand were employed at the beach where the loose sand seriously impeded the movement of even full-tracked vehicles. and a labyrinth of underground tunnels connecting all areas. all being in caves or crevices in the rocks and so dispersed as to give an all-around interlocking defense to each small compartment. Mine fields. Conorete-faced caves and infantry positions in the erosion-made crevices were frequently so close to­ gether that an equally strong defensive position existed only a few yards to the rear or flank. One of these tunnels was explored for 800 yards. It is now known that this defense of holding to the end without counterattack or withdrawal was the express plan conceived by the Commanding General. mainly the high velocity 75 mm and 47 mm. There were no tactical withdrawals. It was always very difficult and frequently impossible to locate exactly where defensive fires originated. the extremely rough terrain from the coast to 2000 yards inland created a natural defensive area. Anti-tank guns. Contact became so close that safety of our own troops prevented use of artillery. The number of caves and terrain characteristics somewhat compensated for the reduced amounts of concrete and steel. coupled with the incredible rocky terrain and the maximum use the enemy had made of this terrain in constructing fortified posi­ tions which made the capture of IW0 JIMA so difficult* ANTI-TANK TACTICS Captured battle plans indicate the enemy's fear of our tanks. forming something similar to an amphitheatre. This tactic was simply to occupy previously determined D-Day positions and maintain them. coupled with the masses of men employed. could cover most of the beach area. considerable emphasis appears to have been placed on locating an emplacement where it was protected by an abutting bluff or terrace. the Japs employed one basic tactic which in a sense was a departure from the Japanese defensive operations hitherto generally encountered. were the principal weapons employed inland. Com­ munications were maintained by trenched wire. no large scale night counterattacks. contained two terraces and three tiers of concrete pillboxes and oaves* FINAL DEFENSIVE AREA ' • • North of this cross-island defensive sector. by continuing to follow his simple but basic defensive tactic of occupying a position and refusing to yield until dug out and killed without counterattacking and without withdrawing. The enemy.

Their manner of employment was as an anti-tank weapon. rocket. and 57 mm guns fired anti-tank and personnel missions like the many 47 mm guns. Mortars had the primary mission of filling in the gaps between the fires of the other guns. there was a sufficient number of mutually supporting pillboxes to offset the restricted field of fire of each weapon. but many positions were so well protected that they were still firing until reduced by in­ fantry. the cave positions from which mortars and rockets were fired. coast defense and AA artillery were not included in this command. It often had only a small fire port which allowed approximately 30° of traverse. Wherever possible. The rough terrain. size of the island. Emplacements were well constructed and concealed but only a few rounds were fired. . The principal locations of mobile artillery were in the higher ground north of Airfield No. OF TANKS Relatively few tanks. The fixed nature of the defenses permitted personnel normally used for ammunition carriers and for the movement of mobile weapons to be employed to man additional weapons added to basic tables of organ­ ization. and mortar fires were never massed against us in the same manner in which we mass artillery fires. a pillbox was behind a natural mound of sand.BLOCKHOUSES AND PILLBOXES Blockhouses and pillboxes near the beaches on the more open terrain were almost invariably sited for flanking fire. Despite perfect observation. were present on IWO JIMA. Dual purpose guns were used to fire time fire over our troops* An artillery group gave coordination to all field artillery and mortar employ­ ment. 2 with forward OPs in prominent elevations along the main defensive belt. operated to limit the number of pieces which could be brought to bear on a single area. ARTILLERY Artillery tactics were characterized by good observation and careful preplanning of fires. These weapons and the smaller mortars were withdrawn as the situation demanded. 81 mm and smaller mortars found there. Pillboxes were protected similarly. however. but after the land fighting stage was reached they shifted to control of sector infantry commanders. their effectiveness is doubtful. The torn up condition of roads and constant artillery fire may well have prevented any movement. Ammunition was stored throughout the northern half of the island in caves and hasty firing positions were utilized at the entrances. artillery. Many blockhouses near the beach had sand piled as high as 50 feet in front of them. medium and light. The 150 mm mortars were used to fire on landing beaches. and fixed nature of defenses probably account for the limited number. Reports in­ dicate small tank units were to be employed to support local counterattacks. A narrow fire lane through the sand revealed the direction of fire. The elaborate casemated structures in which artillery pieces were housed. camouflaged and stationary. They were used in support of the main cross-island defense belt either in a revetment or be­ hind protective terrain. MORTARS AND ROCKETS Although approximately twelve 320 mm spigot mortars were encountered on the island. infantry commanders often found it necessary to request main battery fire from naval vessels when secondary battery fire could not blast the sand from in front of well built positions. There definitely were more weapons at the disposal of commanders than were organically assigned to the units. IWO's terrain was suited for the use of the many 150 mm. 47 mm. There is little evidence they were so used. Their 37 mm. Range stakes were found in the vicinity of landing beaches.

A 200 mm rocket was used from a mobile-type launcher and a launcher which is mounted on a mortar-type bipod. .Three types of rockets were used as artillery weapons. * * * * * * * * * It is evident that little was left undone by the Japs in constructing as for­ midable ground defenses as possible on an island with the size and particular terrain of IWO JIMA. Rockets were dispersed in deep draws over the north­ ern portion of the island and the launchers could be moved to the site of the am­ munition. The V-trough launcher was used for 63 kg and 250 kg aerial bombs with rocket motors providing the propelling force. Several positions were sighted for firing at ships approaching close to shore. A study of Japanese defense installations encountered in the field is presented with photographs and drawings on the following pages.

000 SCALE IN YARDS JICPOA L-50608-54 .7 mm) A A TWIN MOUNT A A TRIPLE MOUNT A A DUAL PURPOSE FIELD ARTILLERY-HEAVY FIELD ARTILLERY. '20. ARMORED CASEMATE OR BLOCKHOUSE EMPLACEMENT. 136-45 T "• P Q Y --' U ^ V Q W X Y R u ! v w WHIRAIWA BA\ A B C F G H u v rw • -I (VI //<•--£. W X Y W \d^$S. B C TACHIIWA PT. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS. PERSONNEL . SINGLE VEHICLE. THE NUMBERING OF THE IOOO-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE EOO-YARD TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM.LIGHT COVERED ARTILLERY ANTI TANK -MEDIUM ANTI TANK -LIGHT MORTAR ROCKET PROJECTOR. UNOCCUPIED FIRE CONTROL CENTER FIRE CONTROL VISUAL OBSERVATION POST OBSERVATION TOWER PILLBOX PERSONNEL SHELTERS-BELOW GROUND DIRECTION FINDER SEARCHLIGHT SIGNAL TOWER AMMUNITION COMMAND POST BURIED BUILDING AIRCRAFT REVETMENT R W S­ X I T Y THOUSANDS OF CAVES USED FOR DEFENSIVE POSITIONS. AND STORAGE HAVE NOT BEEN PLOTTED. V W X PIN-POINT DESIGNATION OF RJ106 IS BC 750-709 R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE 132 A COAST DEFENSE A A HEAVY A A AUTOMATIC MACHINE GUN (6.4—I 1 1—|— B C D E A B C MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR AREA DESIGNATIONS. AST^BOAT BASIN IWO JIMA ENEMY DEFENSE INSTALLATIONS AS OBSERVED FROM GROUND STUDY 19 FEBRUARY —19 MARCH 1945 THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR.5-7. THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS.

THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS.7 0 9 R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE 132 A BLOCKHOUSES P Y ­ U Q .000 Y ­ U V SCALE I I 1 I—H I 1 I IN YARDS JICPOA L-50608-54 . THE NUMBERING OF THE 1000-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE EOO-YARO TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM.u v w P Q R B C TACHIIWA PT P : Q LJ V R W J -­ F ST^-BOAT BASIN IWO JIMA THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR.A I B C : D E + A B LJ MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO 136-45 S i T -. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS.U V u !v I H—I 1— I D » E Q I R : S C D BAY P Q R d ­.P Y -. PIN-POINT DESIGNATION OF R J I 0 6 IS BC 7 5 0 .. R V ! W! X Y W ! X I I l —— WITH PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS OF FIRE INDICATED =20. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR AREA DESIGNATIONS.

h—•+ 1 h I V 1 B . C D A B C D E LJ MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO 136-45 P U A B C Q ! R V W X V W X U A B p V C : Q R W X Y U V W W X ' D Y u Jtr w x U V W X U V W X Y A B C U A B V C W F G H Y'M /V W B C B I C I D TACHIIWA PT J " F ASTs-BOAT BASIN WO JIMA THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE R S : T THE NUMBERING OF THE IOOO-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE 200-YARO TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM. THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS.7 0 9 R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE 132 A ANTI-AIRCRAFT DEFENSES U V W X Y H « OBIISHI PT '20. PIN-POINT DESIGNATION OF RJIO6 IS BC 7 5 0 . THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS.000 Wl X Y X Y - U SCALE IN YARDS JICPOA L-50608-54 .

136-45 * W X U V WX A F B C G H ROCK W n X.X C D PIN-POINT DESIGNATION OF RJIO6 IS BC 7 5 0 . THE ARBITRARY TARGET SQUARE SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN SALMON WITH BLUE LETTERS AND NUMBERS THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR AREA DESIGNATIONS. U ! V B C D W . Y W X Y A !.I—»——t—I—I—I—I—I—I A B C D A B[ Cj D E MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO. M C U V W RAIWA BAY R W S T X Y F G H WO JIMA THE SPECIAL GRID SYSTEM IS SUPERIMPOSED ON THIS MAP IN PURPLE COLOR. THIS SYSTEM IS TO BE USED FOR PIN POINT DESIGNATIONS.7 0 9 R J I 0 6 IS IN TARGET SQUARE I32A A B COVERED ARTILLERY WITH PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS OF FIRE INDICATED Q R S LEGEND V E ­A B W C D X U V W X ALTERNATE HT POSITION POSITION SUPPLEMENTARY J ­F Q77K Q ! R S W I Xi Y i—i—i —-» — * " R :S 20.000 SCALE IN YARDS X I JICPOA L-50608-54 . THE NUMBERING OF THE IOOO-YARD TARGET AREAS AND LETTERING OF THE 200-YARD TARGET SQUARES HAS NO RELATION TO THE NUMBERING USED IN THE GRID SYSTEM.

r 17' 'T­ IS1 I4I°2O' 21' CONFIDENTIAL MAP APPENDIX CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO 136-45 ARCS OF FIRE FOR CASEMATED COASTAL DEFENSE GUNS -49' ON 49' IWO JIMA PLOTTED FROM GROUND STUDY AND CAPTURED MAP 24° 48' -47' 47'­ 46' 195 45' 45'­ 17' 18' 19' 141 20" 21' JICPOA L-50608-5 5 .

27-45 See In&drt £ 1 nest Tieiqs conrained a i and (21) Taoe. voved.</</. <f others 252 253 mortar grenod (-5!Magnetic mints (H Cosi of flares. minat. \yydstic Removed (eto box mine. 5 /tasty mine fie 4 yds tic A f 3 removed. This area i See Insert 0' ed ines 6 J (i7j Conical <f AntiInsert F mines Scotterec Pattern of Anti.C area (-9B) bombs .B~. to the beach on Terrace.Cleared of mines. <2) USAircraft duds also srr?o//er duc/s stored am me 16 MARCH 45 D plus 25 Removaa mines on Red deo h If 2 On Green Sfemovcd MINE SITUATION of MAP Mined area has bee neutra/jze d of f/'/ct/on qrenodes. 136-45 MAP APPENDIX . ydst cM mines. Novy rocket.. '3) Jnp flora (/'/) fr mines 11 HI Florns L1 0 500 wmmmm•1 1000 2000 yds JICPOA L. (4) AP mines ItS . a// (I) ROW 2 /7( rn mines !3) Rows / Hi rn /nrnes /orf. d caps / ammo (3) Toot-measure This area of rood) and 53 armed (qpproK 100 yds square w onrained 6 Herr. down base as stick mines used. Tape measure mines \yAnfi-p sonnet. The rows ZSaparT. Removed (2*) Ant. 5 t h 2d Sep. her we en rows 411 removed. t theshoulders of road is still mined Extent of field flints are.3/ This area contained in series of 2 with connecfing. 3-3-45 ttap naz ard pattern of Tape -measvre mines le rot* of horn turned upside. nsert G" Pattern of mines Yard shek mines do/ mines I claare This area contain charge p/aced / road with 2 yd either side This area has be&n found dps 60) Kg be •nbs remoireo' 3-i-fS C) Incendi ary re. 3•"•*"'tf6 ' s//Us iv/ vc/sficM r) and not > nown 6 mines removed Single nbrn nemispnencai arid bombs reported in area. 3 3 JLXtll).Measure ape-neat vre See Insert '/f. rows Tort ap 20 ft apart. fuzes ry of mined area (4! BOA /nines remove c i3>Shape charge (I) STjck qrenade tz) s' Duds. groups IS ft. a/so rape-measure. Trench and 19 Hemispherical mines 2"Terrace wen si I raws .(See insert f'J. nvasioni Horned) mine 63'j kgbombs. a. 25 Depth Charge Mine field c/eared z no data on pattern or (19)Smqle horn mines Ci)2 horn oeoch mine ((» US A'oyy gun firs (6OJ US mcrfor duds IS) VS. mines 250 kg bombs iv ydstick mines « rows removed.50608-56 CINCPAC-CINCPOA BULLETIN NO. road bl was also Clean go of t 6­ Z horn min&s) ynK field located approt red pattern not Removedjs) loolb Sombs I. and Marine Divisions. Bn. icol mines.Tank This oreo conrained 57 Co/.imr >e measure mines mines e)Tonh mines Magnetic 2) $o kg bomb a charoe arena cm Horn rninee. Engr. 4 t h . oito mines horn mines i row ac'ft off . opa easur&4 ydstich. Double and si horned mines were fovn Some irunm Mfrnp-Hind son contdbieci scrfetf-pi Tbe\ Conicalmin?S-w 3 rowi(f'f&rrace) onk £ ro (2 terracer). ? This field consisted of 4 ro or mines running approxu s parallel to the beach for i distance of over 1000 yar nd The mines were 63 kg < 250 kg bombs with no 1 d 'ardsrick mines were lashi length-wise TO the bombs ur/ed near the surface .' stoy$t*4di it rt beach and 25'apart ' Hoi were present for additionc mines One Depth charge found. The aerial. a// are Scoftcrev md/scrim natelyt IWO JIMA Compiled by Corps Engineer Section from information received from 3 d . . bombs were place an overage of 35' Qgarf There were approximately j^7rd^m9a'5 mines in the field. 3-/0-45 Underermine stick mines mines Box. (i) &UA mines // were removed HIRAIWA BUY id £0 on each side uop bomb disper \al area (65 to 70) 250 Kg dispersei 1 in groups of S..^r baHe lit p. Appro* line (i every f fi­ / / " on beech 2d Bomb Disposal Co.

Deep footprints indicate loose character of sand on beaches.GENERAL TERRAIN FEATURES -Beoches Amphibious tractor stuck In loose sand on East Beach. .

Bogged down Jeep with chains on East Beach subsequently damaged by enemy fire.Beaches Marston matting on East Beach essential to vehicular movement over the soft sand. 8 .

Terrace on East Beach and amphibious tractor.Beaches Wave-cut terrace on East Beach. .

View of terrace Just inland from Blue Beach #2.Beaches Steep gradient of beach com­ bined with looseness of sand made movement difficult for" vehicles and troops. 1 0 .

This Is a typical area inland along the West Beach.Terrain Inland Looking west. (TA-163J) Clumps of vegetation in the central areas con­ cealed trenches. rifle pits and MG positions. .

(TA-E33M) 1 2 .Terrain Inland Covered artillery posi­ tion housing 47 mm AT gun firing down runway of #2 airfield. Type of terrain in which gun emplacements were least vulnerable to naval gun fire. (TA-183C) Areas of this sort pro­ vided excellent cover to the enemy in his attempts to infiltrate our lines.

(TA-216N) Looking. Since troops could advance here only with great difficulty. (TA-216A) 1 3 . this terrain was a decided asset to the enemy.Terrain Inland Approaching Hill 362 show­ ing the natural rugged terrain which confronted troops. west from thi: area showing sparse vegetation.

(TA-234D) 1 4 . Suribachi.Terrain Inland m Looking south showing the rugged terrain approach­ ing Mt. (TA-132R) This picture is typical of cave-infested north­ ern area terrain.

15 . Rocky terrain near north coast provided the enemy with natural positions for MGs and riflemen.Terrain Inland Rocky outcrops and scrub vegetation characteristic of the northern one-third of the island making move­ ment of troops difficult.

* View of terrain typical of that encountered In vicinity of Hill 382. (TA-200Y) Trench cut through reck leading to gun positions near East Boat Basin.Terrain Inland . (TA-166D) 1 6 .

(TA-180X) View of West Beach showing 55-gallon oil drums which were to be used as land mines. Due to the enemy's dis­ rupted schedule caused by cur bombing prior to D day. they did not have time to set up the mine field in conjunction with the oil drums.Mines Close-up of taried oil drum with the top cut open and ready for land- mine to be emplaced. Electrically con­ trolled mines were to be put into the drums to hin­ der our landing on this beach 17 .OBSTACLES AND M I N E S .

(TA-165 0) View of the West Beach showing one-horned coni­ cal land mines. Many such mines thus employed were located strategically. and well covered with fire from AT weapons. The entire West Beach was mined.Mines 250 kg bomb burled in sand as land mine. These mines were fuzed with yardstick mines Placed on top of the bomb and secured in Place with fine wire. 1 8 .

Trip Wire

Trip Wire. (TA-201S)

This was the only evidence
of trip wire or barbed wire
being used in this area.
It proved ineffective In
stopping troops from land­
ing or advancing.
(TA-148H)(looking east)

Anti-Tank Ditches

View of AT trench,
(TA-198H)

View of AT trench,
(TA-198H)

20

CAVES

Interior view of cave.
This cave had a series
of caves leading off
in different directions
and connecting with
other caves In the near
vicinity. Food, ammu­
nition and .clothing
were found In these
caves indicating troops
had been quartered
there. (TA-199U)

Interior view showing
steps leading out of the
cave which is about forty
feet under ground with
large rooms throughout
for the quartering of
troops. (TA-199U)

2 1

(TA-183W) Entrance to cave (TA-198X) 22 . to Minami Village.Caves Typical entrance to ex­ tensive cave network. extending from under­ neath the quarry near the East Boat Basin with tunnels leading as far bs 800 yds.

Caves

Interior view of exten­
sive cave•network under
CD gun over East Boat
Basin. (TA-183X)

Entrance to cave.
(TA-216D)

23

Coves

One of many caves In for­
ward slopes of hills
guarding airfield No. 2.
MGs and small arms fire
was received from these
positions which provided
excellent observation of
the entire East Beach
area. (TA-183H)

Interior view of cave
showing steps leading
down and passageway
leading off to either
side where troops
were quartered.
(TA-198X)

»

Caves

Interior view of entrance leading down Into cave.

(TA-199UJ

Interior view of passageway In cave.

(TA-132C)

Entrance to two-story cave.

(TA-199U)

25

ARTILLERY.COAST DEFENSE . En­ trance to these casemates Is In the rear connected b - y cave networks which were used as personnel shelters.15 cm CD GUNS 155 mm (15 cm) CD gun show- Ing destruction caused by naval gun fire. These guns were set about 15 yds. apart and had a field of fire cover- Ing the entire West beaches and areas out to sea. thick. food storage and ammunition storage. (TA-216D) Ruins of 155 mm (15 cm) CD gun. (TA-216D) 26 . Reinforced concrete 4 ft.

(TA-216D) Rangefinder placed between two CD guns in same area used as part of fire con­ trol equipment. Destruction caused by naval gun fire.1 cm CD GUNS 5 Front view of blockhouse housing a 155 mm (15 cm) CD gun. food storage and ammunition storage. (TA-216D) 27 . Entrance Is in rear of blockhouse with adjoin­ ing caves throughout for personnel shelter.

28 . built of reinforced con­ crete with walls over 4 ft.15 cm CD GUNS Rear view of 155 mm (15 cm) CD gun In blockhouse showing destruction caused by naval gun fire . thick and connected with rangefinder and OP. Two such Installations. (TA-216D)(SW) Ruins of casemate contain­ ing 155 mm (15 cm) CD gun. were located on the edge Of a cliff at TA-219A.

It is known that "these guns were silenced prior to our landing but ruins of these installa­ tions provided cover for the enemy and afforded an opportunity to inflict casualties on troops ad­ vancing toward Mt. Suri­ bachl.14 cm CD GUNS View of cave entrance leading from casemated 140 mm (14 cm) CD gun back. Into the base of the crater. (TA-132L) Breech-block view of one of the 140 mm (14 cm) guns at the foot of Suri­ bachl showing destruc­ tion. (TA-132K) 29 .

(TA-132K & L) 30 . thick with tunnels lead­ ing from the rear into the base of the mountain and connecting each in­ stallation. food storage and ammunition storage.14 cm CD GUNS Front view of one of the 140 mm (14 cm) CD guns showing destruction caused by naval gun fire (TA-132K) Front view of one of the 140 mm (14 cm) CD guns casemated at the foot of Mt. They were constructed of reinforced concrete about 4 ft. Suribachi. These tun­ nels also connected to personnel shelters.

(TA-132 K) 3 1 .14 cm CD GUNS STAIRS TO AA GUN ON ROOF ENTRANCE TO ADJOINING ROOM Plan view of 140 mm (14 cm) CD gun with 30-foot fire port. This Is one of the four emplacements found at the base of Mt. Surlbachi.

(TA-183W) i ?) \/ 1 i^^ftV. (TA-183W) 32 . re­ inforced concrete.12 cm CD GUNS y • m °pm ••• • -£) r • • * Close-up of 120 mm (12 cm) CD gun showing destruction of Installation by naval gun fire and construction of casemate.:••«&. All four guns In this bat­ tery were destroyed by naval gun fire.*• : .»» ^ ^ ^ ^ ' ' ^"HBL ^' •* ^ * ^ i V I \ 120 mm (12 cm) CD gun casemated In 4 ft. ." .

This 4-gun battery was excellently camouflaged. 120 mm (12 cm) CD gun de­ stroyed by naval gun fire. They were not observed in aerial photos until the blast effect of naval gun fire removed protecting camouflage.12 cm CD GUNS View showing field of fire affonded 120 ram (12 cm) gun emplaced in casemate overlooking East anchor­ ages and beaches. (TA-183Y)(SW) corner. (TA-183W) 33 .

12 cm (Short) Novol Guns The field of fire of 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun firing down West Beach and areas out to sea. (TA-146Y) Front view of 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun firing down West Beach. Completely knocked out by naval gun fire. (TA-146Y) 34 .

(TA-183X) .12 cm (Short) Noval Guns 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun casemated In six feet of reinforced concrete. This Is one of two such guns In TA-183X. l£0 mm (12 cm) short naval gun sited to fire on East Beaches.

(TA-183X) 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun not damaged by naval gun fire. (TA-148L) 36 . case- mated In flve-feet-thlck reinforced concrete with two adjoining rooms for living quarters and am­ munition storage. OP on top of this Installation had a ladder leading up from the Inside to It.12 cm (Short) Naval Guns Rangeflnder for 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun battery. This gun was put out of action by flamethrowers and small arms fire.

oo h—4'. 0 „ &. -REINFORCED CONCRETE o0o Plan view of casemate for 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun. ' » • • >0 0 0. ? ° . (TA-146Y) 37 . . o o O CP e .12 cm Naval Guns 120 m (12 cm) short naval m gun emplaced as a coast defense gun.«o"o?«.tf1—• 9".9" 6'-0" -O'U 3'-0" . AMMO.00 0° ° n° ° ° O O T> o». ROOM LIVING SPACE 0. 0 .'•.v GUN ROOM .» | FIRE-PORT oSo.6" r. 0 ^ _ rt O O o n ^ ^ O o.0"­ -6'.

(TA-147V) 38 . reinforced concrete.15°. Field of fire 345° . (TA-147V) Front view of casemated 76 mm (8 cm) CD gun show­ ing construction of 3 ft.8 cm CD GUNS Inside view of casemated 76 mm (8 cm) dual purpose gun used as CD gun. This gun was not damaged by naval gun fire but be­ lieved to ha"e been put out of action by flame­ thrower and small arms fire.

•v ANTIAIRCRAFT AND DUAL PURPOSE BATTERIES ."•• ". * ^ -1 Plan view of casemate for 8 cm CD gun.-." % ..1 2 0 mm DP Four-meter rangefinder used in conjunction with 120 m (1£ cm) dual pur­ m pose b a t t e r y .v. (TA-147C) >*ii" .'» • ' v % ' • • ' • . (TA-202X) 39 . *: 5-0 AMMO. 8 LIVING 1 SPACE '^:\^v-f C T cl I r~i ' * ' • .»*•*.8 cm CD GUNS •»>'••(• . . • • ' 1 '•* " • • * ' ' • p.

: • .: 40 . and the Installa­ tion was covered with earth having natural vegetation for camouflage• (TA-182U) "«lli:. . . (TA-147R) Underground shelter for personnel and ammunition connected to 120 mm (12 cm) dual purpose emplace­ ment. . » / . . 120 mm (12 cm) dual pur­ pose gun showing revetment made of oil drums filled with sand. . thick. The walls and roof were constructed of re­ inforced concrete 2 ft.12 cm DP GUNS . • . . Ammunition ready boxes were placed In the side of the revet­ ment • This Is one of the guns In a battery of six. . . and It Is known that all personnel lived at their guns In an adjoining underground room which was found at each em­ placement.

Rangefinder was located on an adjacent wooded knoll. (TA-182U) 4 1 . (TA-182U) One of thirty-one 120 mm (12 (1 cm) dual purpose guns she showing excellent observa­ tion for firing ground missions.12cm DP GUNS Director for 120 mm (12 cm) dual purpose battery loca­ ted In small cut stone revetment.

(TA-U7R) Director for 120 mm (12 cm) dual purpose battery. Al­ though no damage can be observed In the photo. (TA-147R) 42 . This proved very ineffective.12 cm DP GUNS Side view of 120 mm (12 cm) dual purpose gun showing- attempted camouflage. this Installation was out of action prior to our land­ ing.

with no retain­ ing walls. A third re­ vetment was under con­ struction. The emplacement was dug In­ to a depth of 8 ft. no additional gun was found on the Island. (TA-217G) This Is one of two 100 mm (10 cm) twin-mount dual purpose naval guns found at TA-217G. However. to 10 ft. 43 .) twin-mount naval dual purpose gun.10 cm DP GUNS Camouflage net Is noted over 100 mm (10 cm)(65 cal.

65 caliber. Camou­ flage net covers shield and part of barrels. (TA-E17G) Rear view of 100 mm (10 cm) twin-mount naval DP gun.10 cm DP GUNS Front view of 100 mm (10 cm) twin-mount naval DP gun showing depth of revetment as compared to shield on gun. (TA-217G) 44 .

with rock piled around the sides. This revetment was dug Into the ground approximately 8 ft. 45 . to 12 ft.10 cm DP GUNS Plan view showing size of 100 mm (10 cm) DP gun revetment. (TA-217G) I 100 mm (10 cm) DP gun with camouflage torn away.

(TA-235V) & ' AA director in lava rock. emplacement for six-gun 75 mm (7 cm) type 88 AA battery.7 cm AA GUNS --: 75 mm (7 cm) type 88 AA gun showing poorly con­ structed revetment which easily crumpled from the effects of our artillery Note the camouflage painted on the barrel of the gun. (TA-183D) 46 .

7 cm AA GUNS Hastily emplaced 75 mm (7 cm) type 88 mobile AA gun. (TA-235V) 47 . The beginning of a revetment is noted (TA-218C) 75 mm (7 cm) type 88 AA gun.

7 cm AA GUNS Although the trail legs of this 75 mm type 88 AA gun were spread. (TA-183D) ROCKS STACKED 1-6" THICK FOR WALL Plan view showing dimen­ sions of a typical 75 mm (type 88) AA gun emplace­ ment found on Iwo Jlma. 48 . the diameter of this em­ placement measured only 16 ft.

believed to have been taken from wrecked LSMs. Several of these mounts. were found. (TA-166C) Triple-mount 25 mm AA MG emplaced with a battery of twin-mount 25 mm AA MGs. (TA-217L) .Triple-mount 25 mm AA MG in lava rock emplacement.

(TA-148P) 50 . This twin- mount.25 mm AA MG 25 mm twin-mount auto­ matic AA MG showing gun in emplacement which was constructed of lava rock. Note ammunition storage box­ es lying around sides of revetment. (TA-148P) "it "**•*' 25 mm AA MG. along with two other twin-mounts. was emplaced in a battery with three single-mount 25 mm AA MGs. There was a passageway lead­ ing from revetment to underground shelter. blocks.

It is be­ lieved that some of these positions had one gun re­ moved in order to reduce vibration. (TA-182Q) £5 mm twin-mount with one gun removed.25 mm AA MG 25 mm twin-mount auto­ matic AA gun in lava rock emplacement. (TA-201U) 51 .

the other to traverse. Note mount for two gunners. (TA-147T) 52 . (TA-164E) 25 mm AA MG placed in revetment using sand- filled oil drums as retaining walls. 1.25 mm AA MG 25 mm twin-mount auto­ matic AA position con­ nected to earth-covered living quarters and ammunition storage over­ looking airfield No. one to elevate. re­ inforced with blocks of lava rock.

this gun Is sited also for use against ground forces. Considerable armor- piercing ammunition was found In various AA positions. (TA-219F) .25 mm AA MG 25 mm AA MG emplacement.. (TA-147T) 25 mm automatic AA in small revetment measur­ ing ten feet In diameter. Like many AA weapons on Iwo Jlma. This is a new type mount modeled after the 25 mm twin-mount MG.

(TA-164E) 54 .25 mm AA MG Three feet of concrete protected this ammuni­ tion box at 25 mm auto­ matic AA position. (TA-164E) Entrance to earth- covered partially underground living quarters at 25 mm twin-mount auto­ matic AA position.

water and first aid supplies for personnel at 26 mm twin-mount automatic AA position.25 mm AA MG Underground shelter having food. Note the nat­ ural grass for camouflage (TA-164E) 55 . living quarters for personnel and ammunition storage. (TA-182Q) General view of earth- covered structure con­ taining 26 mm twin-mount automatic AA position.

LOG AND DIRT COVERED SLEEPING SPACE Plan view of 25 mm AA gun position. (TA-147T) AEMPTY AMMO. GUN BASE BOLTED TO WOODEN TIES 6" SQUARE SIDE VIEW OF BASE . Ammunition was stored around the sides of the revetment as shown In picture.25 mm AA MG 25 mm AA single-mount MO emplaced In revetment using sand-filled oil drums as retaining walls. BOXES USED FOR WALLS .

m G STEPS CUT INTO WALL Plan view of a 25 m m A (triple-mount) gun A revetment. (TA-217I) 57 .25 mm AA MG Plan view of casemated 25 m M position.

Triple-mount 25 mm AA gun.25 mm AA MG ViV 2 5 mm AA g u n . 58 .

Suribachl in very hastily constructed revetment. Nine of these weapons were found around the top of Mt.. (TA-132P) 59 . Suribachl. (TA-132H) 13 mm single-mount MG emplaced on top of Mt.1 mm MG 3 13 mm MG revetment show­ ing how natural vegetation proved to be effective camouflage.

(TA-183C) 60 . (TA-183X) « # # • • 13 mm single-mount MG emplacement carved out of lava rock. Previously encountered twin-mount 13 mm MGs have been equipped with seats on each side of the gun. Note ammunition storage cave at left of gun.1 mm MG 3 13 mm twin-mount with single seat attached to mount in rear of gun.

strafing and artil­ lery fire. (TA-217D) Trailer carrying 150 cm searchlight from which tarpaulin had not been removed when located. (TA-818H) 6 1 .Seorchlights View of AA mobile search­ light showing cliffs and ledges which were used as protection against bomb- Ing.

(TA-132A) 62 . (TA-217Q) Revetment showing search­ light comparator emplaced.Searchlights Revetment containing truck with generator for mobile search­ light.

has been partially blown away. (TA-218V) \ 4 — " • ' Radar adaptation for searchlight control.Searchlights 150 cm searchlight In fixed position. A revetment of loose rock. Attempts to camouflage such posi­ tions with vegetation were not effective. (TA-217C) 63 .

A truck with generator . (TA-217C) 150 cm mobile searchlight protected by stone revetment.for the searchlight was found In a revetment close by. 64 .Searchlights ELECTRIC CONTROL BOX BUILT IN WALL SANDSTONE ROCK STACKED 2'-O" THICK FOR WALL SIZE OF LIGHT COMPARED TO BASE AND PIT Plan view of revetment for 150 cm searchlight. (TA-217Q) Searchlight position for 150 cm searchlight.

(TA-165J) 65 . It Is believed that this block­ house was used as a CP for the defense of the East Beach.7 mm HMG.BLOCKHOUSES Inside view of blockhouse showing intricate construc­ tion of various rooms. (TA-149A) : i \ Embrasure of blockhouse housing a 47 mm AT gun showing tube and carriage . In addition to housing a 25 mm MG and a 7.

(TA-165N) 66 .Blockhouses Front view of fire port for single-mount 25 ram MG In blockhouse. The roof is three feet of reinforced concrete. and the cupola can accommodate a man five feet tall. (TA-165N) Cupola with four observa­ tion ports.

(TA-165N) Front view of blockhouse showing fire port housing a 25 mm machine cannon. a model 92 7. In addition to a 25 mm MG.Blockhouses Rear entrance to block­ house.7 mm HMG fired from the opposite side. (TA-147C) 67 .

Blockhouses Interior view of block­ house housing 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun showing damage Inflicted by naval gun fire. (TA-146Y)(SE) Front view of blockhousi showing fire port and revetted sides to fire lane. (TA-147C)(E) 68 .

It is constructed of heavily reinforced con­ crete with the fire port being protected by revetments faced with sand-filled oil drums.Blockhouses Front view of blockhouse housing a 120 mm (12 cm) short naval gun firing north along the beach. (TA-147C) 69 . Interior view of block­ house housing a 25 mm machine cannon.

also space for ammunition storage.9 HIGH 1 4 WAY OBSERVATION TOWER |2'-O" HIGH PROTRUDING 3'"0" ABOVE'TOP OF BLOCKHOUSE WITH 3 L 0 " X ZLd' HIGH (INSIDE) OPENING AT BOTTOM Plan of blockhouse for 3? .Blockhouses 4 WAY OBSERVATION TOWER 4 L 0" SQUARE. food storage and living quarters.mm AT position at TA-215Y. This position has an adjoining room for a HMG. 70 . SANDBAGS CONCRETE FIRING TABLE (MACHINE GUN) 4-0" X 3-0" X 3 . I4 L O"HIGH FROM DECK Plan of blockhouse for 47 mm AT position at TA-181B.

COVERED ARTILLERY EMPLACEMENTS — 120 mm Howitzers 120 mm (12 cm) type 38 Howitzer In covered artillery emplacement. (TA-219L) 120 mm (12 cm) type 38 Howitzer. Trees In the area hid the posi­ tion frera the air. (TA-201S) 7 1 . This position was built of cut-stone with a roof of logs.

(TA-217A) **f%$ 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer In hastily constructed emplacement. (TA-201S) ! 72 .120 mm Howitzers Front view of 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer em­ placement showing fire port and surrounding areas.

(TA-201S) 73 .120 mm Howitzers 120 m (12 cm) type 38 m Howitzer. (TA-219L) Close-up of 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer posi­ tion. Note screen used to camouflage opening.

120 mm Howitzers LOG LAID ACROSS DECK CHOCK WHEELS OF GUN Plan view of a 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer position. 74 . ROCK LINED PASSAGE LEADING TO AMMO. STORES Interior view of a 120 mm (12 cm) Howitzer emplacement showing gun in firing position.

75 mm (Type 38) Field Guns Front view of casemated 75 mm (type 38) field gun emplacement located at the base of Suribachl firing down East Beach. (TA-132R) 1 • 75 . (TA-132R) Interior view of 75 mm (type 38) fl-eld gun em­ placement snowing extent of damage.

75 mm (Type 38) Field Guns Interior of. (TA-201V) 76 . (TA-218A) Inside view of 75 mm (type 38) field gun position destroyed.75 mm (type 38) field gun position.

(TA-201V) Casemated 75 mm (type 38) field gun overlooking East Boat Basin. (TA-167A) 77 .75 mm (Type 38) Field Gun Ruins of casemated 75 mm (type 38) field gun.

and ammunition was stored in caves at the rear. 78 .75 mm (Type 3$> Field Guns A 75 mm (type 38) field gun was located in this well-concealed concrete emplacement. (TA-218N) 75 mm (Type 90) (Field Guns) Front view of a 75 mm (type 90) AT gun emplacement showing how emplacements were constructed to blend in with the natural terrain. A similar position was located nearby.

(TA-200Y) Alternate position for 75 mm (type 90) field gun hastily constructed. 2. (TA-200-0) 79 .75 mm (Type 90) Field Guns Rear view of 75 mm (type 90) field gun In casemated position. This position fired down runway of air­ field No.

Guns Interior view of 75 mm (type 90) field gun.75 mm (Type 90) Field. (TA-217H) 80 . (TA-217H) Front view of 75 mm (type 90) field gun showing construction of emplacement and how well the terrain was utilized for camouflage.

(TA-215T)(NE) It.4 7 mm Anti. Originally housed a 47 mm AT gun.Tank Guns Interior view of 47 mm AT emplacement showing damage done to gun. V • *. Field of fire 200° .250°. (TA-132C) Front view of emplacement showing thickness of con­ crete and nature of ter­ rain of surrounding area.­ 8 1 .

(TA-181B) Artillery emplacement fo 47 mm AT gun built of lav blocks with a log roof. A connecting MG position built of lava blocks may be seen at center. Note rice-bag revetted walls. The fire port Is at the right. earth covered. (TA-182W) 82 .47 mm Anti-Tank Guns Front view showing the emplacement for 47 mm AT gun.

(TA-132B) 47 mm AT gun emplacement made of materials at hand including logs and lava rock. (TA-183N) .4 7 mm Anti-Tank Guns Front view of 47 mm AT gun shelter showing where gun was kept when not In position.

(TA-183Q) 84 . long and had 14 entrances. (TA-199W) Typical 47 mm AT gun T: shelter. It housed two Bn CPs.entrance to a cave and tunnel sys­ tem which was more than 800 yds.47 mm Anti-Tank Guns Rear view of concrete position for 47 mm AT gun. The field of fire covered the southern part of airfield No. 2 seen in background. At the far end of this shelter was an.

DUMP Plan view of a 47 mm AT position. STORAGE [ 4 \ ' SMALL ROCKS CEMENTED TOGETHER TRENCH TO AMMO. (TA-147I) Rear view of a 47 mm emplacement showing trench where the gun can be moved out when not in use.47 m m Anti-Tank Guns DRUMS FILLED WITH SAND o < o oq oo AMMO. 85 .

(TA-182W) Front view of 37 mm AT emplacement showing destruction caused by artillery fire.3 7 mm Anti-Tank Guns 37 mm (type 94) AT gun In emplacement constructed of sand-filled fuel drums with log roof. (TA-98D) 86 .

logs placed over posi­ tion to support camou­ flage. (TA-183L) 47 mm AT gun covering road at TA-201W. 87 .OPEN ARTILLERY EMPLACEMENTS — 4 7 mm Anti-Tank Guns One of two supplementary emplacements for 47 mm AT gun In nearby covered primary positions. Note.

(TA-217G) 37 mm AT gun In open emplacement.37mm Anti-Tank Guns 37 mm AT gun In open emplacement showing how terrain aided In protecting the posi­ tion. (TA-217G) 88 .

MORTARS— 320 mm Spigot Mortars Photo of 320 mm (32 cm) spigot mortar projectile. 320 mm (32 cm) spigot mortar position showing natural camouflage. Heavy screen garnished with brush was placed over the opening for complete concealment. (TA-199K) 89 . (TA-183L) 320 mm (32 cm) spigot mortar In firing posi­ tion.

Note the earth embankment used in place of baseplate. mortar la firing posi­ tion located near an­ other 150 mm mortar position under con­ struction.150 mm Mortars View of 150 mm (15 cm. the mortar was drawn back Into the cave for protection and concealment. (TA-216J) 90 . When not actu­ ally firing. (TA-198X) Entrance to a cave which had a 150 mm (15 cm) mortar set up in the en­ trance.

(TA-198X) 150 mm (15 cm) mortar position under con­ struction. Adjoining this emplacement were personnel quarters.150 mm Mortars View of the fire port of a 150 mm (15 cm) mortar position. (TA-198X) 9 1 . food storage and ammunition storage.

m (TA-198X) 92 .150mm Mortars • One of a battery of four 150 mm (15 cm) mortar positions. (TA-184I) REINFORCED CONCRETE WALL CONCRETE /TABLE 3 L 4" . These emplacements are approxi­ mately 11 feet In dia­ meter and had ammunition stored In a small covered adjoining chamber. Note aiming stakes on walls.HIGH CAVE IN BLAST WALL OF l"0" SANDSTONE BRICK 4 L 2" HIGH PROTECTED WITH EARTH Plan view of a 150 m (15 cm) mortar position. A fire trench led to living quar­ ters for the mortar crew.

81 m m Mortars Type 3. Some antiaircraft 81 mm mortar projectiles were found on the island. 81 mm mortar used in 120 mm (12 cm) dual purpose gun emplacement. (TA-182U) Close-up of 81 mm mortar in position at TA-182U. 93 .

Note how foliage and ter­ rain were used for concealment. (TA-181D) 81 mm mortar position made of rice bags. (TA-182M) 94 . The mortar Is con­ cealefl partially by brush covering part of the emplacement.81 m m Mortars View of 81 mm mortar emplacement.

(TA-181T) Grenade launcher posi­ tion.Grenade Launchers Well built cut-stone and log position for grenade launcher. (TA-182M) 95 .

(TA-183M) Mortar-type 200 mm (20 cm) rocket launcher.ROCKETS— 2 0 0 mnrTRocket Launcher 200 mm (20 cm) rocket projectiles in shelter adjoining launching site. 96 .

(TA-183M) 97 . (TA-183M) View of 200 mm (20 cm) rocket launcher from shelter for ammunition.200 mm Rocket Launcher t v 200 mm (20 cm) mobile rocket launcher In camouflaged emplace­ ment.

200 mm Rocket Launcher Close-up of 200 mm (20 cm) mobile rocket launcher. (TA-201I) 200 mm (20 cm) rocket launcher in covered position with a frame built over it to sup­ port camouflage. (TA-201I) 98 .

250 kg Rocket Launcher This captured picture of the V-trough rocket launcher for a 250 kg. aerial bomb is Identical to the rocket launcher used on Iwo Jlma. 99 .

Ammuni­ tion was stored in ad­ joining cave. bomb were stored in cave noted to left of picture. (TA-184P) 100 . (TA-184P) V-trough rocket launcher for 63 kg. bomb in natu­ ral emplacement formed by deep draw.63 kg Rocket Launcher Ruins of V-trough rocket •launcher in deep draw with rock dam for pro­ tection from seaward side Rocket motor like one noted in trough and 63 kg.

Camou­ flage net conceals the fire lane. 1. : Note limited field of I fire.PILLBOXES Heavily constructed pill­ box well camouflaged. (TA-183X) 11 0 . (TA-183U) Pillbox sited down runway of airfield No.

1.Pillboxes Entrance to pillbox (TA-147M) View of entrances to two Jap pillboxes firing to­ ward. airfield No. (TA-183L) 102 . It was not unusual to find pillboxes this close to­ gether.

Pillboxes Inside view of pillbox for heavy machine gun. (TA-182R) 103 . (TA-198R) Pillbox having a roof of concrete two feet thick covered with rock and earth. The natural camouflage makes detection difficult. This position can be seen only from the front because of nat­ ural concealment. (TA-165E) Front view of pillbox showing fire port.

These positions were not only excellent rifle pits but also good observation posts for flanking AT positions. (TA-182E) Front view of one-man rifle pit showing fire ports. 2. Sand bags and camouflage were blown away.RIFLE PITS Rear view of rifle pit constructed from a tank turret affording excel­ lent observation of ter­ rain sloping south from airfield No. (TA-181B) 104 .

(TA-165E) Entrance to concrete rifle pit.Rifle Pits Rifle pit carved out of lava blocks. Tank turret mounted in field. (TA-181B) 105 . near beach used as rifle pit. These positions were found scattered through­ out the Southern area. ... . (TA-183R) ••k .

TANKS Japanese medium tank em- placed in a fixed posi­ tion to act as a pillbox. Rugged terrain through­ out the area dictated this use of tank. This tank had a 57 mm gun mounted in the turret. (TA-21QS) Rear view of Jap model 96 light tank revetted in position to fire on ap­ proaches to airfield No. 106 . 2.

(TA-EOOY) Tank in fixed position camouflaged with rocks and vegetation which have been largely blown away. in tank ser­ vicing area. mounting a 37 mm gun.Tanks g tank. (TA-200E) 107 .

(TA-200Y) Revetted and camouflaged medium tank mounting 47 mm gun. model 97.Tanks Destroyed Jap 47 ram AT gun and revetted model 97 Jap medium tank mounting 47 mm gun on foot of slope of Hill 382. (TA-200Y) 108 . (TA-201G) Rear view of Jap medium tank model 97 revetted In foot of slope of Hill 382.

DUMMIES Dummy pillbox showing fire port. (TA-180E) Dummy covered artillery position. Rocks were placed on either side of the fire port to give the effect of a fire lane. This emplace­ ment consisted of a dum­ my gun with a wooden frame supporting sand mound. These positions were numerous throughout the West Beach area. (TA-180A) 109 .

(TA-198F) 10 1 . this position appeared In aerial photos to be a covered artillery em­ placement.Dummies Dummy gun4 Before sand was blasted by naval gun fire from around gun. (TA-166A) This dummy pillbox con­ sisted of no more than a mound of sand with a wooden box frame to simulate a fire port placed on one side to give the appearance of a pillbox.

Dummies

Two dummy tanks made of
wood were found in this
area. They were lightly
constructed and could
be moved around easily.
The enemy hoped to con­
fuse interpreters of
aerial photos. (TA-216L)

Dummy tank. Note detail
of turret showing tank
gun. (TA-216L)

Ill

RADAR AND RADIO STATION

Radio station used as
blockhouse. Note thick­
ness of walls. ' Despite
the many direct hits,
this Installation had to
be cleaned out with flame­
throwers. (TA-184K)

Destroyed early warning radar on Hill 382. (TA-200Y)

Reinforced concrete radio station showing direct
hits from artillery and infantry weapons.
(TA-184K)

12 1

REVETTED VEHICLES

13 1

(TA-H8A) Entrance to air raid shelter. Note the direction markers around the opening. This Installa­ tion was not harmed throughout the operation. This air raid shelter was constructed with walls of soft lava rock around the entrance and leading down Into the shelter. Vegetation was grow­ ing over the earth cover providing excellent camouflage.AIR RAID SHELTERS Steps leading from air raid shelter. (TA-148A) 14 1 . At some time a heavy machine gun was mounted In the opening.

Medical supplies indicated that this was used as a first aid station. (TA-148A) 15 1 . (TA-164E) Interior view of air raid shelter showing how airplane fuselage was used to form In­ terior of shelter.Air Raid Shelters Interior view of well constructed cut-stone shelter with concrete roof.

(TA-234H) 16 1 .AMMUNITION STORAGE Underground ammunition storage. (TA-234H) This cave had many arms that led off from main passage.

(TA-200Y) Underground ammunition storage for 25 mm MG. It was Just below the ground and extended back approxi­ mately 30 feet and led to a large room with connect­ ing tunnels leading to adjoining rooms. (T-181G) 17 1 .Ammunition Storage A well camouflaged ammuni­ tion storage for 81 mm mortar ammunition. (TA-199K) Anti-tank ammunition storage dug into a bluff. This position showed no effects of our heavy gun fire or artillery fire.

(TA-164J) Switchboard for public address system at air­ field No.MISCELLANEOUS Gasoline motor to generate power for communications. (TA-164J) 18 1 . 1.

Miscellaneous General view of earth- covered stone and con­ crete housing for public address system at air­ field No. 1. 1. This posi­ tion was knocked out by flamethrowers. (TA-164J) 19 1 . (TA-164J) Interior of communications room In earth-covered con­ crete structure at air­ field No.

KS 3 1695 00535 5185 .COMBINED ARMS RESEARCH LIBRARY FORT LEAVENWORTH.

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