EVALUATION OF PROTECTIVE RELAYS

PREPARED BY GOPALA KRISHNA PALEPU ADE/MRT(PROTECTION)

CALIBRATION AND MOVEMENT OF THE DISKS.e EACH FUNCTION OF THE SCHEME HAVING A SEPARATE RELAY. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION. DISADVANTAGES: ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAYS HAVE A LOT OF MECHANICAL PARTS. AFFECTING BOTH OPERATION. NO OF RELAYS ARE MORE AND SPACE OCUPATION IS MORE AND INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM IS MORE. IT REQUIRES PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE AND ADJUSTMENT. . WHICH MAY BECOME CLOGGED WITH DIRT OR CORRODED DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.1 ST GENERATION FIRST GENERATION RELAYS : THESE ARE ELECTRO MAGNETIC RELAYS IN THIS NO OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS PROVIDED FOR ARRIVING A SPECIFIC FUNCTION i.

IT REQUIRES PERIODICAL MAINTANENCE AND ADJUSTMENT. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION.1 ST GENERATION NEXT MODIFICATION : ELECTRO MAGNETIC RELAYS WITH STATIC COMPONENTS IN THIS SOME OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. THE PCBs & COMPONENTS PERFORMANCE MAY BE AFFECTED DUE TO DIST & DIRT. AFTER SOME TIME THESE ARE TO BE REPLACED FOR CORRECT OPERATION WITHOUT DRIFT. DISADVANTAGES: THE PCBs ARE MADE WITH TRANSISTORS AND ARE BROUGHTOUT ITEMS WITH DIFFERENT MAKE. IN THIS QUANTITY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAYS ARE REDUCED. QUANTITY OF RELAYS ARE REDUCED AND SPACE OCUPATION IS REDUCED SOME WHAT. .

2 ND GENERATION SECOND GENERATION RELAYS : STATIC RELAYS WITH TRANSISTORS IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM IS STILL NOT REDUCED. A reliable DC power source within the relay. or switched mode power supply designs. IN THIS INITIALLY EACH FUNCTION IS DERIVED WITH SEPATATE STATIC RELAY. . DISADVANTAGES: Static relays generally employ a lot of electronic components made by other manufacturers. the measuring circuits are inoperative and the relay is dead for any measurements. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION. For a variety of reasons. No protection is available to the network. It requires periodical Maintanence. shunt. Most of the static relays in use do not have the means to detect the failure of power supply and initiate an alarm. QUANTITY OF STATIC RELAYS ARE MORE BUT SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS. Most of the static relays employ series. if these power supplies fail. If these electronic components are not tested with rigorous quality control. to electronically measure circuits has to be generated from available external power sources. the chances of failure of components during the relay life time may exist.

SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS. SO TOTAL RELAY IS ONE BUT FOR EVERY FUNCTION IS PCB IS AVAILABLE AND CONNECTED TO MAIN PCB. IN THIS ALL STATIC RELAYS ARE TAKEN TO ONE MASTER PCB AND EACH FUNCTION PCB WILL BE ADD ON CARD TYPE.2 ND GENERATION NEXT MODIFICATION : STATIC RELAYS ON SINGLE PCB IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB. THIS IS PART OF MAIN PCB. DISADVANTAGES: DISADVANTAGES ARE SAME AS ABOVE. COMBINING ALL IS CALLED ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION. . NO INTER CONECTION WIRING.

NO SEPARATE PCB FOR EACH FUNCTION . NO INTER CONNECTION WIRING DIAGRAM.3 ND GENERATION THIRD GENERATION RELAYS : STATIC RELAYS WITH ICs IN THIS NO OF COMPONENTS ARE REDUCED AND BROUGHT OR BUILT IN ONE INTEGRATED CHIP. ALL ARE INTEGRATED IN ONE PCB. DUE TO THIS THE RELAY SIZE IS REDUCED AND SOME OF THE FUNCTIONS ALSO TAKEN IN TO ONE INTEGRATED CHIP. IN THIS ONLY MASTER PCB IS AVAILABLE. ONE PROTECTION FUNCTION ONLY ONE RELAY AND ALL FUNCTIONS ARE INTEGRATED. . PROBLEMS ARE SOME WHAT REDUCED. SPACE OCCUPATION IS LESS. THIS ALSO BUILT IN ONE PCB. ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE DERIVED FROM STATIC COMPONENTS PROVIDED ON THE PCB.

IN THIS SOME FUNCTION CAN BE ENABLED AND DISABLED. BASED ON THE REQUIREMENT.3 ND GENERATION NEXT MODIFICATION : SEMI NUMERIC RELAYS IN THIS SOME FUNCTIONS ARE CAN BE PROGRAMMABLE AND INTERFACE THROUGH PC. SOME ICs ARE HAVING THE FACILITY TO INTERACT THROUGH COMMUNICATION PORT. IT IS SOME WHAT MODIFICATION TO IC BASED RELAYS. .

. MOST OF THESE RELAYS HAVE AUTO TEST FEATURES WHICH TEST THE ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT FUNCTIONS. AND OTHER PATTERNS. CLOCK FREQUENCIES.4 ND GENERATION MICROPROCESSOR BASED NUMERICAL RELAYS IN THIS ALL OF THE FUNCTIONS ARE BROUGHT ON ONE IC. THE FOURTH GENERATION PROCESSOR-BASED RELAYS DO HAVE THE WATCHDOG FEATURE WHICH FACILITATES THE CHECKING OF POWER SUPPLY FAILS.

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION.4 ND GENERATION 1ST DEVELOPMENT: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS APPLICATION BASED RELAYS i. GENERATOR PROTECTION . Example: LINE PROTECTION. BUSBAR PROTECTION.e EACH PROTECTION FUNCTION HAVING SEPARATE SOFTWARE & HARDWARE.

REX 5XX SERIES FLATFORM 2.e SOME PROTECTION FUNCTIONS ARE TAKEN IN TO ONE FLATFORM AND PROVIDED COMMON SOFTWARE. FROM THIS INBUILT FACILITY OF EVENT RECORDER AND DISTURBANCE RECORDER IS DEVELOPED. RED 600 SERIES FLATFORM . Example: ABB: 1. REX 316 SERIES FLATFORM 3. REX 670 SERIES FLATFORM 4. RED 500 SERIES FLATFORM 5.4 ND GENERATION 2ND DEVELOPMENT: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT IS SOME GROUP BASED RELAYS i.

Example: SIEMENS: SIPROTEC SERIES – DIGSI GE MULTILIN: ENERVISTA AREVA : MICOM S1 . ONE SOFTWARE ONE MANUFACTURER.4 ND GENERATION 3RD DEVELOPMENT: UNIVERSAL SOFTWARE FOR ALL TYPES OF RELAYS FOR PARTICULAR MANUFACTURER.

ONE HARDWARE FOR ONE MANUFACTURER. Example: GE MULTILIN: UR SERIES & SR SERIES . RELAY IS COMMON HARDWARE BASED ON PROTECTION FUNCTION. BUT IT IS MODULAR DESIGN.4 ND GENERATION 4TH DEVELOPMENT: UNIVERSAL HARDWARE FOR ALL TYPES OF RELAYS FOR PARTICULAR MANUFACTURER. PARTICULAR CARD IS ADDED.

INTERFACING AND NETWORKING. THIS IS SPECIAL FOR AUTOMATION OF STATIONS. ANY RELAY CAN BE COMMUNICATED FOR COMMON COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL. ALL MANUFACTURERS ARE FORM A GROUP AND PROTOCOLS ARE STANDARDIZED. Example: IEC 61850 IEC 60870 .4 ND GENERATION 5TH DEVELOPMENT: UNIVERSAL PROTOCOL FOR COMMUNICATION.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful