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5.1 The Euclidean Algorithm The Euclidean algorithm, or process, for finding the greatest common integral divisor (gcd) of two positive integers is so named because it is found at the start of Book VII of Euclids Elements, although the process no doubt was known considerably earlier. This algorithm is at the foundation of several developments in modern mathematics. Stated in the form of a rule, the process is this: Divide the larger of the two positive integers by the smaller one, then divide the divisor by the remainder. Continue this process of dividing the last divisor by the last remainder, until the division is exact. The final divisor is the sought gcd of the two original positive integers. (a) Find, by the Euclidean algorithm, the gcd of 5913 and 7592. Solution. Please view the following:

Thus, according to the Euclidean algorithm, the gcd of 5913 and 7592 is 73. (b) Find, by the Euclidean algorithm, the gcd of 1827, 2523, and 3248. Solution. Please view the following:

Thus, according to the Euclidean algorithm, the gcd of 1827, 2523, and 3248 is 29. What I did to modify this to work was determine the gcd of one pair and then find the gcd of the remaining number with the gcd of the first two numbers. Essentially, my thinking is that .

5.8 The Angle-Sum of a Triangle Assuming the equality of alternate interior angles formed by a transversal cutting a pair of parallel lines, prove the following: (a) The sum of the angles of a triangle is equal to a straight angle. Explanation. Please view the following:

Since we are allowed to assume the equality of alternate interior angles formed by a transversal cutting a pair of parallel lines, then we see that

Now, it is obvious that angles of a triangle is equal to a straight line. (b) The sum of the interior angles of a convex polygon of sides is equal to

straight angles.

Proof. The reason that this is correct is because is the number of triangles that can drawn into a polygon without overlapping in any way. Typically, this drawing is from one vertex to all the other vertices except two (since those two vertices are connected to the chosen vertex by the adjacent sides of the polygon). Please view the following examples for clarification.

In the examples, we see a pentagon has three triangles and a heptagon has five triangles. This implies that pentagons have three straight lines in them and heptagons have five straight lines in them.

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