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CONTENTS
EARTH COORDINATE SYSTEM SYSTEM 3 3 .4

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CELESTIAL COORDINATE SOLAR SYSTEM SUN PHASES OF THE MOON MOON SEASONS OF THE YEAR SOLAR ECLIPSE LUNAR ECLIPSE GALAXY COMET CONSTELLATIONS CONSTELLATIONS ASTRONOMICAL

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6
6 7

8 8 8
9 9

OF THE NORTHERN

HEMISPHERE

10 12 14 15 16 16

OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE OBSERVATORY

RADIO TELESCOPE PLANETARIUM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

2

CELESTIAL COORDINATE

SYSTEM

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celestial sphere - -',

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- declination

celestial equator --\

vernal equinox

--

- - ecliptic

terrestrial sphere - -,'

right ascension

South celestial pole - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

celestial meridian

EARTH COORDINATE

SYSTEM

- - - - - - - - North Pole Arctic Circle --,

latitude -', - Northern tropic of Cancer - - -hemisphere

equator - --

tropic of Capricorn

- - - - - --

- Southern hemisphere

longitude

- -,'

Antarctic Circle - -'

- - - - - - - South Pole

3

SOLAR SYSTEM

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PLANETS AND MOONS

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Phobos Deimos

...

Mars

ci-.

Sun

Moon --,

Earth

6--,
Q--,

Venus

Mercury

Q--'

Ganymede - --

Callisto - --

Europa

10

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Jupiter

ORBITS OF

THE

PLANETS
asteroid belt

4

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Uranus

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W

Pluto

lE'

Charon

h

Saturn

Titan

W

Neptune

Triton

5

SUN

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STRUCTURE OF THE SUN

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photosphere

spicules

chromosphere

corona

convection

zone

radiation zone

core

flare

faculae

sunspot

filament

prominence

granulation

PHASES OF THE MOON
new moon new crescent first quarter waxing gibbous

6

MOON

LUNAR FEATURES
cliff bay ocean

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lake

sea

mountain

range

cirque

wall

crater

full moon

waning gibbous

last quarter

old crescent

7

SOLAR ECLIPSE

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IMoon Moon's orbit Earth

TYPES OF ECLIPSES

total eclipse

annular eclipse umbra shadow penumbra shadow

partial eclipse

LUNAR ECLIPSE

Moon's orbit

umbra shadow

Moon

TYPES OF ECLIPSES

partial eclipse

Earth

penumbra shadow

total eclipse

SEASONS OF THE YEAR

vernal equinox

--

_ winter solstice

summer solstice summer - - - - autumnal equinox

8

COMET

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head

dust tail

GALAXY

HUBBLE'S CLASSIFICATION

barred spiral galaxy ,,- - spiral arm

- - - - nucleus

9

CONSTELLATIONS

OF THE NORTHERN

HEMISPHERE

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10

Pisces Fishes

9

Aquila

Eaq!e

25

Draco Dragon

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2

Cetus Whale

10

Sagitta Arrow

26

Lyra Lyre

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3

Aries Ram

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12

Cygnus Swan

27

Hercules Hercules

4

Triangulum Triangle

Lacerta Lizard

28

Ophiuchus Serpent Bearer

13

Cepheus King

29

Serpens Serpent

14

Cassiopeia Lady in the Chair

30

Corona Borealis Northern Crown

15

Camelopard us Giraffe

31

Bootes Herdsman

16

Perseus Perseus

32

Coma Berenices Berenice's Hair

17 Auriga Charioteer

33

Canes Venatici Hunting Dogs

18

Taurus Bull

34

Ursa Major Great Bear

19

Orion Hunter

35

Leo Minor Little Lion

20

The Milky Way

36

Cancer Crab

5

Andromeda Andromeda

21

Gemini Twins

37

Canis Minor Little Dog

6

Pegasus Winged Horse

22

Lynx Lynx

38

Hydra Water Snake

7

Equuleus Little Horse

23

Polaris North Star

39

Leo Lion

8

Delphinus Dolphin

24

Ursa Minor Little Bear

40

V!rgo Virgin

11

CONSTELLATIONS OF THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE

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12

Cetus Whale

2

Aquarius Water Bearer

12

Dorado Swordfish

28

Pictor Painter's Easel

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3

Capricorn us Goat

Reticulum 13 Net

29

Columba
Dove

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4
Piscis Austrinus Southern Fish

14

Hydrus Sea-Serpent

30

Canis Major Great Dog

5

Grus Crane

15

Tucana Toucan

31

Puppis Ship's Stern

6

Phoenix Phoenix

16

Pavo

Peacock

32

Pyxis Ship's Compass

17

Indus Indian

33

Carina Ship's Keel

18

Corona Australis Southern Crown

34

Vela Ship's Sails

19

Sagittarius Archer

35

Crux Southern Cross

20

Serpens Serpent

36

Centaurus Centaur

21

Scorpius Scorpion

37

Ophiuchus Serpent Bearer

22

Ara Altar

38

Libra Scales

7

Fornax Furnace

23

Triangulum Australe Southern Triangle

39

Hydra Water Snake

8

Eridanus River Eridanus

24

Apus Bird of Paradise

40

Corvus

Crow

9

Orion Hunter

25

Musca Fly

41

Virgo Virgin

10

Lepus Hare

26

Chamaeleon Chameleon

42

Crater Cup

11

Caelum Chisel

27

Volans Flying Fish

43

Sextans Sextant

13

ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORY

>
~ TELESCOPE

Z

~~~~~ prime focus observing capsule

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prime focus ~~~~~ ~~~~~interchangeable end assembly

flat mirror ~",

~~~~~~~~ horseshoe mount

declination

axis ~ ~ hydrostatic pad

primary mirror ~~

~~~~~~ telescope base

OBSERVATORY
,~~ air intake dome shutter ~~~~~~

,'~ ~ rotating dome arch ~~~~

_~~ telescope crane ~~

~ airlock

~air space windscreen ~

~~ exterior dome shell

'~~ rotating dome truck

girder ~~~~~ ~interior dome shell

14

RADIO

TELESCOPE

ALTAZIMUTH MOUNTING

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parabolic reflector- - - - - - - - - radio wave

upper laboratory --\

,- - receiver

C,ounterweight

,

~econdary reflector

rotating track

support structure

laboratory- -'

elevator

control room

15

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

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...

------------apertu re door --,

antenna

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,'- - equipment

section

__ - fine guidance system -

- - aft shroud

secondary mirror --

primary rnirror

v.:

- scientific instruments

star tracker radiator --

camera

PLANETARIUM

tweeter working area

zenith

projection

dome - -',

midrange --\

auditorium

- -,

control room - --

control console - - - - - --

woofer

planetarium

projector

auxiliary projector

16

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