ISBN 9781451014365

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F 0 U R T If S E R I E S.
VOL. 1.


on tl)r :propbedt~
VOL. Dr.

of ~irldt1.

© 2010 Forgotten Books

w &. YORK. CLARK. © 2010 Forgotten Books . ~C. HAlrr IWRE. I).RIB • Eft. nUBI. T. TSQX AXD CO.A H ~I~T lWN G.IN. ):F. WELFOn AND . r.TON. ANU CO.T.forgottenbooks. ADAMS.oxnox. EDINBURGIL .

OF THEOLOGY.A. D.forgottenbooks. J A 1\-1 S E 1\1AnT I N. tan s1a:ith ho-m t h t OJ urn mr BY REV. B.BIBL CAL COl\Il\IENTARY O~ THE PROPH OlES 0 F EZEKIEr_1~ ItT CARL FRIEDRICH CTO& A!'D P&(t'Fl::SSOR ~EIL. VOL TT.D. © 2010 Forgotten Books ..

forgottenbooks.© 2010 Forgotten Books .

-THE Al\~OUKCE lENT OF SALVATIOX CHAP. Conquest.-XXXII. 1-19).Il of Jerusalem © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. xu. xxxiii. 2 of Egypt by 1'ebuchadnezzar (Chap. on (Vcrs. XXL"I:. 20-26). (Cbap.ontiuued. 7~ after the F. EX P 0 SIT I 0 N. 1-JlO).org .). AGAI:\'ST EGYPT (CHAr. PREDICTIONS OF JUDGMENT UPON' E IIEATHEN NATIONS- continued (CHAP. Calling of t-he Prophet for the Future ( 'ers. XXIX -XXXIL). Preaching of Repentance 23-$3).). towards the 6! The Calling of the Prophet. 1 The Judgment upon Pharaoh and his P pie and Land (Chap. .). xxix. 15 Destruction of the Might of Pharaoh by . 17-21). 1-16). and his Futu e Attitude People (Chap. XXXIII. 26 Lnmentatioue xxxii. 41 SEC01'D HALF. over the Ruin of Pharaoh and his People (Chap. The Day of Judgment 10 upon Egypt (Chap.CONTENfS. ebuchadnezzar xu. and Plundering xxix.forgottenbooks.-XL VIII.

The H ly Cells in the Court. 13-27). 1---4).org . Resurrect on of Israel and Reunion as one Nation (Chap. xlv-xliii. xxxi . xlii. with Bouudary Ce Is (Vers. 15-28).). xxxv. 12). 157 180 K KGDO)f OF GOD (CUAP. and Restorati. 28-47).). 24). Wall. Descri tion and Consecration of the Altar of Burnt-Offering' ( :lp. Re. 79 Depositio of the Bad Shepherds. with its Gates. XI. and the Extent D main around the Temple (Chap. l'AC& TllE RE. etion (Cbap. 5-27). . 16-38).VI CONTENTS. The I ner Court.cxxxrx. Side-storeys. .ST{) AnON OF ISRAEL.). 48-xli 26).). xliii.. A:. and . I3-xlvi.unio of Israel as one Nation uuder the future King David (\ era. • TilE NEW or Army of Kations (Chap. I-xxxvi.). • Entran e of tbe Glory of the Lord into (C ap. Res ction of Israel to oew Life (Vers. Cells. 106 114 114 129 The Satv tion of Israel founded upon its Sanctification xxxvt. 1-12). and Back- 209 223 bu ding (Chap. Collecting and Tending of the Floc . of the Land of Israel 80 94 (Chap . of the Holy 253 273 the New Temple rdinances of Divine Worship (Chap. and xxxix. Destructi n Gog with his great xxxv ii. xxxrv.). The T mple-bouse. and SlaughteringTa los (Yers. 18~ 182 186 The 0 tar Court. The New Introd emple (Chap. xliii. 283 :284 Pashia of the different Classee of the People in relation to the N w Sanctuary (Chap.D DESTRUCTION OF GOG AND MAGOG (CHAP. Gate-Buildings. with tbe Porcb..on (Cha . . xliii.forgottenbooks.-XLVIlI. 15). 1-14). © 2010 Forgotten Books 298 www.). xl. xl. Devastatl n of Edom. xliv. and Appointment of the One Good Shepherd (Chap. xxxvii.

Sacrifices for the Sabbath and New Moon. IS-xlvi. Description of the City of God (Chap. xlvii. xlvii.). 350 351 361 © 2010 Forgotten Books . The Holy Heave of the Land and the IIeave-ofierings People (Chap. xlvi. and Daily Sucrifices (Chap. xlv. IS-xlviii. Boundaries and Division of the Holy Land. 35). 1-12). 15).CO:NTENTS. of the Vll 318 332 3:)9 I TIS tru ctions concerning the Fesnal and Daily Sacrifices (Chap. xlvii. xlv. . Freewill-Ofl'ering2. and xlviii. and Distribution of it among the Tribes of Israel (Chap. 1-17). 1-15).forgottenbooks. Blessing of the Land of Canaan. The River of Water of Life (Chap.

org .forgottenbooks.© 2010 Forgotten Books www.

XXJX. xxix. expressed in gran and genet'al traits. xxx. 1HE announcement of the jud ment upon Egypt is ___ . The last two words of God n eh. 20-26) foretells the annihilation of the might of Pharaoh by the king 0{ Babylon j and the fifth (ch. A 10. be ause he regards tho power of Pharaoh and Egypt as the embodiment of that phase of the imperial power which im gines in its ungodly self-deification that it is able to uphold the kingdom of God. 17-21) gives a spe ial prediction of the conquest and plundering of Egypt by N buchadnezzar. 1-16. xxx.THE PROPHECIES 0 EZEKIEL. xxxi. II. The third (ch." The first five are threats.) hol s up as a warning to the king and people of Egypt the glory nd the overthrow of Assyria. a second lamenta ion over the destruction of his imperial power. EZEK. .-Ezekiel's ropheey concerning Egypt assumes this elaborate form. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. The fo rth (ch. _ .-XXXII. xxix. 17-32. and thns seduces the people of God tore! with false confidence upon the imperial power of this world. xxxii. a lamentation over the king of Egypt j and eh. xxxii.-AGAIN T EGYPT. The first ch.. 1-16) contains a threat of the judgme t upon Pharaoh and his people and land. proclaimed in seven "words of God. 1-19) depicts the day of judgmen~ which will break upon Egypt and its allies. The second (ch.forgottenbooks. xxxii. viz. contain lamentations over the destruction of Pha aoh and his might. CIIAP.

13-16). saying." Ver. the land shall be turned into a barren wilderness. 1. But after the expiration of the time appointed for its pm ishment. I will put a ring into thy jaws. and devastation of Egypt. without naming the instrument employed to execute t ie judgment. The contents also harmonize with t is. Vers. 1tpon the © 2010Forgotten Books www. in the tenil: (month). this prophecy belongs to the tenth year of the aptivity of Jehoiachin. Ver. 5. it "vas the firat word of God uttered by Ezekiel concernin this imperial l. inasmuch as the threat which it can . Vel'. I will deal 'I. 2-5a). and I have made "it fo myself. 3. tains merely announc s in general terms the overthrow of the might of Egypt and is king. rivers which lIang up n tllY scales. a d the people shall be scattered over the lands (vers. 1-16. Spe k and say. In order that Israel may no longer put its trust in the fragil power of Egypt.vil~thee. and draw thee ut of thy rivers. So of man. V cr.forgottenbooks. T E JUnmmNT UPO~ PilARAOII AND ms PEOPLE AND LAND. 2. ling of Egypt. the sword shall cut off from Egypt both man and beast. XXIX. direct thy face against Pharaoh the king of Egypt. In ilce tentl: yea1'. on tke . Behold. both people and land shall be restored. of the month. 1. 50-12). the word of Jehovah came to me. thou great dragon which lieth in ts riuere. though onl to remain an insignificant kingdom (vel's. Pharaoh. thee a ul all tlle fishes of thy rioers . Vel'. and all the fishes of thy. he is to be destroyed with his men of war (vel's. AlId will cast thee into tlie desert. Destlllctiou of the might of Pharaoh. Tlms saith the Lord Jehovah. and cause he fishes of thy riser» to hang l1pon thy scales.2 THE PROPHECIES OF EZEK1EL. It lJfine is the river.. CHAP.-Acco 'ding to ver. 1-12.ingdom. and as we may see by comparing it \ ith the other oracles against Egypt of which the dates are g ven. 'lv/deh saitli. and at the same time the future condition of E pt is also disclosed. Because Pharaoh looks upon himself as the creator of bis kingdom and of his ight. a d propllCsy against !tim and against all Egypt.

thou breakest and causest all their loins to shake.. and I scatter tile Egyptians among tlie nations. rllake tlie land of Egypt a waste in tlte midst of devastate lands.. " ly ng in the midst of his rivers. €v . t e water-snake. and the foot of beast ~aill not pa.". 2) is equival nt to l'~1J. Therefore thus saul: the Lord Jehovah. 18). thou crac est and tearest open all their shoulder. is called "the great dragon" in vel'. and w£ll cut off from thee man and beast. Because it is a reed-stail to the house of Is1 ael. ag inst whom the threat is first directed. the king of Egypt. V. Ii. the snake. I b1"ing tip n thee the sword. 13).-The date given. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. 1. und I have made it.and he supposes the Al xandrian reading to have originated in the fact that the last date mentioned in eli. 'When they grasp thee by tlty branches. Ver. xxxii. Isa. 9. And the land of Egypt will become a waste and desolali and they shall learn tka: 1 am Jehovah.)Of"&Tf. thou wilt not be lifted up 710?gathered together. Isa.Ver.. behold. Ixxiv. give thee /01' food to the beasts of the earth: and the birds of tit heaven. and dispel' e them in the lands.~$ throu It it.{IX. . c'.c=-Pharaoh.CHAP." points at once n. we are to understand the ar s and canals of the Nile (vid. viz. 1 had already brought down the ccount to the eleventh year. the crocodile. 7.. xxvi. and its cities shall be waste among desolate cities f01·ty ears .. the standing symbol of Egypt 'n the prophets (cf. 13y tI\~K. 3. and will make the and of Egypt into barrett waste desolations from. I will deal witlt thee and thy rivers. Ps. . which i here transferred to Pharaoh. And aU the inhabitants 0/ Egypt shall learn t tat I am Jelurcali. " in the tenth year' is defended even by Hitzig as more correct than the reading 0 the LXX. vii. x. The foot of man will not pass through it. 11. 1-12. jj. • £ . 12. 3 su~race of tile field wilt thou fall. literally. xxvii. Because he eaith : "Tlte ricer is mine.). as the ruler of Egypt and repl'es ntative of its power. to the border of Cush.-Ver. 10. Behold. The predicate. Therefor . 6.ry (here and ch. er. thc lengthened animal. and wIlen they lean upm thee. here. Ver." Vel'.~ €'TEL 'TCJ O(. and it will not be inhabited for Jorty years. Ver.ligdol to Sy ne.

up. His words affirm this: "the river is mine. in connection with which we must bear in mind tha Egypt is indebted to the Nile not only for its greatness. it belongs to me. The words. but devoured by the wild beas s and birds of prey. I?. I. In this respect Pharaoh says emphatic lly it is mine. The figure is derived from the manner in which even in ancient times the crocodile was caught wit large hooks of a peculiar construction (compare Herod. is false. where ~?. where he a (l the fishes that have been drawn out along 'with him upon hi scales will not be gathered . III. " I have put it into its present condition by constructing canals. dams. p. © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. ego feci memetipsum.." The suffix attached to '~jT~'P:tands in the place of s as ver. § 315b). There is an incorrectness in this use of the suffix. The ~!~: I?. because ie regards himself as the creator of the greatness of Egypt This pride. Ewald. which evide t Iy passed in to the hngu age of literature from the popular phra eology (cf. is the expression used by him as a king who regards the laud and its rivers as his own pr perty . 21). so did Pharaoh regard himself as the omnipotent 100'd of Egypt. and Jomard In the Description de l'Egypte. 0. in which he forgets God and attributes divine p wer to himself. or." simpl explain the reason for the expression and affirm more than 'I have put myself in possession of this through my own ower. as thongh he were lord of the liver. or have acquired its blessings for myself" (Hiivernick). ii. pp. I have t ade it for myself. 9. because he regards himself s the creator.4 rns PROPHECIES 0 EZEKIEL. and the testimonies of travellers in Oedrnann's Vermiscltten Sammlunqen. and buildings by the river-side ') (Hitzi). for which he will be ove thrown by God. Pharaoh calls himself the creator of the Nile. God will draw the crocodile Pharaoh out of is Nile with hooks. sluices. to the proud security in his own po ver to which Pharaoh gave himself up. but or its actual . " I have made it for myself. and cast him upon the dry land. As the crocodile lies uictly in the waters of the Nile. is the cause of his sin.forgottenbooks. The rendering of the Vulgate. clearly shows. 6 sqq. the suffix is ''''anting.

in which animals that inhabit the -ater must I . '6&.. invar ably closes a train of thought. namely. ch.lnn with a double Yod is a copyist's error. of which w.. The casting of the beast into the wilderness. but Egypt."ilx.7 in vcr. and the thought is simply that the monster will be cast upon the desert land. The correctness of this construction is established beyond all dou t by the fact that from ver.ry?~. Moreover. and is never followed by the ad ition of a further reason. Kliefoth. 6 the construction is a subject of dispute. that Pharaoh would advance with his army int the desert of Arabia and be defeated there. for which it assigns the reason. 3-5. und others). pro ably occasioned by the double Yod occurring after n in hich follows.CHAP. ust not be interpreted in the insipid manner proposed by H tz-ig. 4. so that IY: intro uces 1':. A dual form for o'l!l} is unsuitable.e have an example just below in vel's. and commencing a new p riod with vel'.0 frequently elsewhere in Ezekiel. as invers. are the inhabitants of Egypt.-The fishes which hang upo the scales of the monster. a sentence commencing with i~~ just as invariably followed by an apodosis introduc d by is I?~. for the Nile represent the land.). 9. if only for the simple reason that the formula i"ijn: I?~ I~ . 7 as (\ further development of ver. and ore especially ch. which occurs :. x. But it is deci edly wrong to connect together the two halves of the sixth vel' €. and are drawn along with it out 0 the Nile. xxxviii.lJ'1~1. t:lking the second hemi tieh 'm c~il8 lP~ as dependent upon the first half of the vel'S. and then interpreting ver. and is not used anywhere else even by Ezekiel (cf. 4. 8. 8 (Hitzig. For both these reasons it is absolutely necessary th: t we should regard 'm tl~\ln I~~as the beginning of a protasis the apodosis to which commences with 1.forgottenbooks. 9b and lOa. 1-12.-In vel'.. inasmuch as many of the commentators f How the Hebrew division of the verse. form c. The wilderness i the dry and barren land. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. xix. wh re it putrefies and is devoured by the beasts and birds of prey. 6b onwards it is no longer Pharaoh who is spoken of. where it will finally becom the food of the beasts of prey.

The expression 1tJ::JJ causes some difficulty.e." which is grammatically inadmissible. since the ordinary meaning of ~~ (hand) is apparently unsuitable. he suffix attached to ciJ. but to the Egyptian people regarded as a singl individual. beca se he has misunderstood the construction. b~~ with n oes not mean to grasp with something. ut ver.. G). to give greater vivacity to the description. 7 is clearly shown. Vel'. The Keri ~?. to take hold of a person © 2010 Forgotten Books or . the apodosis to whi h commences with the 1~?in vel'.'~. to be an explanatory intermediate clause inserted as a parenth sis. as Havernick maintains. from r~." etc. 8. and which he wo ld conjecture away. based upon the rendering "to grasp with he hand. refers to C~~~l? as a land or kingdom. clearly show that the figure of the reed is still continued.forgottenbooks.e. nd recalling to mind Isa. to break quite through). And inasmuch as the protasis is removed in consequence t some distance from its apodosis. with its thick growth of tall. for the purpose of giving additional en basis to the announcement of the punishment. i. thou breakest. i iasmuch as the verb ri'l]. thick rushes. E cause the kingdom of Egypt was a reed-stuff to the house 0 Israel (a figure drawn from the physical character of the anks of the Nile.l i a bad emendation. the words concerning Egyp are changed into a direct address to the Egyptians. 7 cann t in any case be regarded as the protasis. both by the contents and the form. not to Pharaoh.6 a new train thought. At the same time. Ezekiel has introd need th formula" thus saith the Lord Jehovah 'J at the commence nent of the apodosis. but to seize upon so ething. i. the Lord would bring the word npon it and cut off from it both man and beast. but indicates the deceptive nature of Egypt as the stan ing characteristic of that kingdom. to break or crack (no to break in pieces. But before this apodosis the figure of the reed-staff is more clear] defined:" when they (the Israelites) take thee by thy br riches. This explanation is not to be ta cen as referring to any particular facts either of the past or uture. to which Hitzig takes exception. xxxvi.

32.?. 7.cnsr. 17). The Lord will make of Egypt the most desolate wilderness. 15. and if a man lean upon it. i:e. Deut. so that . '. is also unsuitable and cannot be sustained. since the tall reed of the Nile.J for palm-branches in Lev. and the land made into a desert waste by the sword. This is carried out still further in vel'S. 'Vhen it cracks. 40.h. more especially the papyrus. ix. so far as the language is concerned. so that the power to stand is impaired. by war. The only meaning appropriate to the figure is that of branches. iii.v9~. For if a stick on which a man leans should break and penetrate his loins. xxiii. by the use of the plural ni~. or grasp of the hand. and this is apparently in perfect harmony with natural facts.J. The latter meaning cannot be established from the usage of the languagel and would be unsuitable here. still less to render stiff and rigid. it breaks in pieces and causes all the loins to tremble. Throughout its whole extent from Migdol. and of the singular ilrp for the collection' of branches in Job xv. XXIX. 5. v. '1. 7 (Isa. lxix.e. swordshaped leaves at tho lower part of the . is furnished with hollow. and not to remain stiff and ligid. 13. 3b) the inordinate pride of the king is placed in the foreground as the reason for the devastation of his land and kingdom. desolation of the wilderness. hence the US~ of the feminine suffixes ':1:?¥ and '1l1!l? in the place of the masculine suffixes ~7 and in ver. ver. as the plural nie~ alone is used in this sense in Song of Sol. the reed-staff pierces the shoulder of the man who has grasped it. as in Ps. and once again in the protasis 9b (cf. Mi. Man and beast shall be cut off. to shake the firmness of the loins. 24. '~l1il cannot have any other meaning than that of to cause to tremble or relax. xix. ~1?¥ © 2010 Forgotten Books www. i.:l can only be an explanatory apposition to ~7' The meaning grip. which is sustained. ix.!I!l. 1-12.J"lr:' is intensified into a superlative by the double genitive il'?9:f . 9b-12. it would inflict such injury upon them as to cause him to fall. and tears it. 6.-In the apodosis the thought of the land gives place to that of the people.¥~ cannot mean to cause to stand) or to set upright.forgottenbooks. and Isa.

the most southerly border town of Egypt in he direction of Cush. on ch. 13. i. 6 and xxi. Restoration of Egypt -Vel'. This devastation shall last for forty yea 5. and will bring them back into the kind of Pathroe. 15. (iii. The number forty i neither a round number (Hitzig) nor a "ery long time (E" . Geogr. and exalt itself no more 0 €'I' the nations. Ver. which is not to be understood in a chronological sense. 6).. (. lIa the desolation is more fully depicted. But after the expiration of that time they sh II be gathered together again (ver. ld). to Syene. 171 (ed. Ethiopia. 'Yessel). and so long shall the people of Egypt be scattered amon the nations." as in Joel iv. 155). the most northerly place in Egypt. Reieeber. nru gsch . it will not dwell.) 2 . on the eastern bank of the ile. Egyptian . schr. in the Coptic j_l!eslttoI.:)lyl) -'-'~ is situa ted to t11 north-east e f th em (vid. !~ry N'. and they shall be a lowly kinoaom there. owlier titan the kingdoms shall . At the end of /01' y yea'l's I will galhe1' the L'gyplians out of the nations. 13). 1. poetical for "be inhabited. or cap blo of being calculated. xxx. iv. In v f.forgottenbooks. 'and to the border of . twelve Roman miles from Pelusium. 14. For thus saitlt tile L01·d Jehovah. according to the Itiner. 261 seq. Verso 13-16. pp.e. 247. 1. I. p. p. 3). Ver. 1. And I will turn the captivity of Egyp. probably tho profane designation of the place Coptic Souan). where Egypt terminates and Ethiopia begins. and I will © 2010 Forgotten Books www. to Syene (for the construction sec ch.). v~v1}. into the land 0 their origin. The additional clause. still further advanced.8 THE PROPHECIES OF 'ZElnEL. and eyrer in Herzog's Encyclopaedia). etc. 20. Magdolo. some ruins of which are still to be seen in the modern Assvan w hich (Assuan. Sun in the inscriptions. but simply defines with s ill greater clearness the boundary toward the south. aus A e. Al1 on.' does not give a fresh ter inal point.~:..qyptel1) p. xiii.Jl£a'klr (Brugsch. wltithe'l' tit y were scattered. be. i1. but is a symbolical term denoting a period appointed by God for punishment and penitence (see the cornm. viz. according to Brugsch (Geogr. Egypt as a nation.e. 4 and 15) and Diodorus ie. Meues or 11 na. or s uth land. is out of the question to take iW as the suhje t to i1. Ver. for after the ex iration of that period the Lord will gather the Egyptians a ain from their dispersion among the nations. LXX. sprang from the city of Thinis (Thyni8). but also by the Egyptian mythology. 50).e. J~~.-The t wing of the period of Egypt's punishment is connected by '~. 16). or the land of their nativity. bringing iniquity to remembrance wILen they incline.i!l9. The subject to n~~. xvi. not only because of the arrangemen of the words. J er. and founded the ity of . "forty years. viz. xliv. see ch. i. XXIX. It will be and continue a lowly kingdom. Upper Egypt. 16. p.~~~ ~r6 in the sense of "no more shall one who calls guilt to remembrance inspire the house of Israel with confidence)' as Kliefoth proposes. notwithstanding the fact that it has reviously been construed in the feminine as a land 0\' I . Brugsch." For f rty years shall Egypt be utterly laid waste. in the neighbourhood of Abydos in Upper Egypt. viz. xvi. according to \V iich the first king who reigned after the gods. which became so celebrated in J ter times (vid.lIfemplds in Lower Egypt. that it may not again become a gro nd of confidence to as to fall into guilt and punishment.up'1J'i. (i. Tenj. orgottenbooks.CRAP. i. to Pathros. 13-16. FOl' it. and in c~~~~t:. turn their capti 0.~ .: the Egyptians are spoken of in the plural nu bel'. 9 make them small. tow rds it i and tlwy shall learn that I am the Lord Jehovah. Histoire d'Egypte. 1. w ieh refers to the time indicated. is confirmed not onl by the accounts given by Herodotus (ii. a power upon which Israel can rel . 3)1 and lead them back in to the land of their birth. so tha: they shall rule no mewS ave?' the nat lIS. 3). on ch. but because the more precise definition of j\¥ '. of t eir origin (for l"I. the Egyptian Pet07't8 (naBo. 'I~rf? © 2010 Forgotten Books WWW. But E( ypt shall not attain to its former power any more. i. the 'I'hcbais of the Greeks and Rom nsThe designation of Upper Egypt as the mother country of the Egyptians. 1). And it shall be ?to more tlte confidence of the liou of Israel. put an end to their suffering (see the cornm. namely.

20. There/ore tlnu saith the Lord Jehovah. xxi. has made l. I give Nebuchadnezear. brings into remembrance before God the guilt of Israel. In that day will I cause a horn to sprout to the house of Israel.iclt he performed against it. inasmuch as Egypt never recovered its former power after the Chaldean period. making Egypt the ground of confidence. as 't'1~ t:l\ibN clearly shows that Egypt is the subject of the sentence. whereas. over.~ is in apposition to MIP?. Son of man.forgottenbooks. if we compare the Messianic promise for Egypt 'in Isa. and make booty of its booty. Behold. the land oj Egypt.'e. CllAP. and I u'ill open the mouth for thee in the midst of them i and they 8hall know tllat I am Jehooah. on tlte first of the moon. 17-21.adnezza7'. and this may be the wages of his army. 28. 19. 17.-Morc. already referred to in the introductory remarks 011 ch. that he. I . the king of Babylon. saying.-The truth of the prediction in verso 13-16 has been confirmed by history. is the saying of the Lord Jehovah. Ver. Vel'. Jllebucll. may cal'1'yaway its possessions. xix. and no wages have been.10 TilE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. 18. 13-15. Ver. and plunder its plunder. we are struck at once with the peculiarity of Ezekiel. the king of Babylon. As the pay for which he worked. In ale seuen and www. given to him and to llis army from Tyre for the work wli. twentieth year. in tile fir at (moon). XXIX. I give him the land of Egypt. the word of Jehovah came to me. namely. that he leaves entirely out of sight the Messianic future of the heathen natious. 18-25 with the prediction in vel's. in order to connect this definition in any way. CONQUEST A~D PLUNDERING OF EGYPT BY NEBliCHADNEZZAU. Ver.' every head is bald. because they did it for me. xxvv-xxxii." ~-¥ ":P!. "which it committed. and el'~y shoulder g1' army perform hard wo'rk at Ty. which consists in the fact that the Israelites turn to the Egyptians and seek salvation from them: so that He is obliged to punish them (vid.29). Kliefoth is compelled to resort to the interpolation of the words.-« © 2010 Forgotten Books V er. 21.

this threat of judgment. which is as brief a it is definite. also show that the present word of God contains the last of Ezekiel's rophecies against the Egyptian world-power. which is obviously iute ded to bring the previous word of God to a close. it is not to b taken in connection with the utterance which follows in ch. nd was the latest of all the predictions of EZE'kiel that are s pplied with dates. B.C. 586. was well fitted to prepare the way and to serve s an introduction for the more elaborate threats which follow. 17-21. If we ompare with this the date given in vel'. oint to the time immediately following the termination of he thirteen years' siege of 'I'yre by Nebuchadnezzar. I-HI so as to form one prophecy. xxviii. 21) from the Tyrian annals agrees. 26. xx.zar as spoil in return for the lard labour 'which he and his army had performed at Tyre. the assurance that God would give Egypt to Nebuchadnez. xxx.C. xxxii. 30. the siege was bra ght to a close in the twenty-seventh yeal' of the captivity f Jehoiachin. 17. This ten iination.forgottenbooks. 11 This brief prophecy concerning Egypt was ut ered about seventeen years after the preceding word of God. The contents of the prophecy. after eli. T is is at variance not only with the formula in ch.e. 572. namely. which is analogous to the closing words of the proph des against 1)re and Sidon in eh. that the Lord would cause a 11rn to bud to the house of Israel) contained the correlate to tie declaration that Egypt was henceforth to be but a lowly kin dam.-was that the promise in ver. P: i. i.1 iI~~~ '~~R~. and that the on y reason why the prophet did not place it at the end when ollecting his prophecies-that is to say.CHAP. 1. or about two years after the destruction of Jerusalem. as Bitzig supposes. but al 0 with ver. ' hich is the usual introduction to a new word of God.o cau c a work to be t 1 For the purpose of furnishing the proof that th temple at Jerusalem lay in ruins for fifty yeara) from the time of its des ruction till the com- © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. and must therefore have eommenc d in the year D. 21 of the present chapter. XXIX. and with this the extract gi\'lm by Josephus (c. 25. But notwithstanding its . Moreover.

to execute his design and conquer the city. v. ot that he may lead away the multitude of its people (De " ette. Niebuhr. Kliefoth. TIley co firm what we have said above. its wealth . as in Isa. th n that which is gained by workiug. These words have been correctly interpre ed by the commentators. in w the same time. p. des Allert. xxvi. concerning the capture of 'I'yre. iio~. I~ ~b~... Gesch. xxxvii.~.). 10 and elsewhere. abundance of possessions. Jsa. that every head was bald and every shoulder grazed. pp. II. the recompense for labour as in Ley. etc.~is taken by Hitzig as referring to the Egyptians. At adnezzar is given by mistake the date of the beginning of the siege. had not found the booty he hoped for when he city was taken (see the introductory remarks on ch. even by Ewald. or ser vice to be rendered. P1?b~~~'?l. Phonixier. the argurnen s employed by Hitzig in mencement of its rebuilding. Assllrs u.~. 1. 106 sqq.. 5. 18). 437 sqq. But neither he nor his army had received any recompense for their severe toil." (Hitzig). 13 and other passages. I. Gesch. p .) © 2010 Forgotten Books I www.' as referring to the leavy burdens that had to be carried in order to fill up the stra t which separated Insular Tyre from the mainland. 16. his labour was 'so severe. Ps. etc. Bab. . xxvi. (Compare on this point Movers.). the Lord will give him th land of Egypt with its possessions as booty. for "Nit'J is not the appropriate expre sion for this. xix. "in c nsequence of lhat which they have done to me. nh!!?l the doing of a thing. M..~ may be taken in this sense (vid. To compensate him for this. lxv." But althoug . the seventh year of Nebuc instead of the seventeenth or nineteenth kings and judg~s of 'l'yre from the kingdom i from which it commencement of the siege of ich Cyrus began to reign. and rendered. in whose reign Cyrus too is apparent tha~ fifty years elapsed from the Tyre to the fourteenth year of Hirom. that e may carry off the abundance of its possessions. in other 'words.-xx iii.e. 8U. executed. Duecker. Josephus gi 'es in the passage referred to above the years of the several reign8 of the Ithobal to Hiram.12 THE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. in the remarks on ell. This does not imply that Nebuchadnezzar had been unable to ccomplish the work which he had undertaken.forgottenbooks. but simply that he had uot received the recompense which he expected after this severe labour. i. and M.

xx.. th a t "th assertion th a t Neb uchad nezz ar besieged Tyre in th o Jehovah could only have been properly made by Ezekiel i the event of the city having been really conquered. for this simple reason. the siege itself might still be a work und rtaken in the service of Jehovah. 38.'?tl? does not signify the Egyptians in this passa e. if not ! at varianc with.. And the principal argument namely. For the uilt of Egypt and its Pharaoh mentioned by Ezekiel is not an crime against Jehovab. but the land of Egypt alone is spoken of both in the verse efore ·us and throughout the oracle. 11 am ely. for o. 1b~ in ch.t e mark .-Ver. the Lord will cause a horn to sprout or grow to the house (people) 0 Israel.. But wha is absolutely decisive is the circumstance that the thought i self. The horn is a symbol of might and strength. inasmuch as with ~~~ every Hebrew reader would ine ita bly take . but simply Pharaoh's deification of hi self. and the treacherous nature of th e help which Egypt aff rded to Israel. On that day." i. 30 j and the objection which he raises. ni"'? i1~ is not the appropriate expressio for this. "in consequence of what the Egyptians have done to I e. is foreign to.forgottenbooks. ii. and for this ~~I~ is quite 1 nsuitable." is out of lace.. have performed their har work at 'l'yre for me and by my commission-have no force '\ hatever.:. in support of which assertion we might point to '.. whereas the context suggests in the most natural . by which the attacks of foreigners are warded off."s altogether i wide of ".-21.~. ay the allusion to Nebuchadnezzar and his army. oppositio I? ='? © 2010 Forgotten Books www..I~). 21.~ as referring to Q~"}~i?.e . This use of i1~¥ is thoroughly established by Gen.e.. all the prophecies of Ezekiel concerning Egypt. 13 otd_inary l'endering-CC for they (Nebuchadhis army) have done it for me. By the overthrov of Judah the horn of Israel was cut off (Lam. that the assumption that the city v 8S not taken is a mere con jecture j and even if the coujectur could be sustained.. 3. Jnt evil they have done. "that we should necessarily expect i1~'~ (instead f 'i. when the 'udgment upon Egypt is executed by Nebuehadnezzar. xxiii. XLl:L 1." i. namely.

a niversal outpouring of the Spirit of God would then take pia c. and also with the fulfilment of that promise in eh. 22. so far as the . is that" Egypt presented itself to the prophet as the power in which the ideaof heathenism was e bodied and circumscribed.e. Then also will the Lord gi \'C to His prophet an opening 0 the mouth in the midst of Israel." Bu Kliefoth has quite mistaken the meaning of the words whe he discovers in them the thought that "Got! would then g \'e the prophet a new word of God concerning both Egypt nd Israel." and is Messianic in the broader sense of the vord. that with the dawn of salvation in Israel. The horn which the Lord will cause to sprout to the people of Israel is neither Zerubhabel nor the Messiah. ords are co cerned. xxiv. which cannot be taken as applying to Egypt and Israel but can only refer to m~ ~!'n~'. but they have a much more comprehensive rneaninj ." Such a view as this is proved at once to be false.forgottenbooks. that "t rough Ezekiel He signified the whole band of prophet-s.namely. The reason for connecting this promis of salvation fOL' Israel with the overthrow of the power of Egyp . with Ps. 1. © 2010 Forgotten Books www." In the might of Egypt the world power is shattered.8 Jj~I?~~the promise coin~ cides. apa t from other grounds.14 THE PROPHECIES F Havernick has observed. compare also Jer. xxxiii. in the c urch of the Lord. and the overthrow of the world-power is t e dawn of the unfolding of the might of the kingdom of Go. . the word of prophecy would sound forth in t e richest measure. v but it also points back to the p ophetic words of the godly Hannah in 1 Sam. the house of Israel.. 25). by the expression c~in~ (in the midst of t rem). but tl e Messianic salvation. and that this is contained in the oracle in ch.. " :My hor is exalted in Jehovah. according to Joel (ch. my mouth hath opened itself wide ov r my enemies.). inasmuch as. ii. xxx. i. In this light Theodoret is correct in his remark. ii. xlviii. 27 that after the fall of -Iorusalem the mouth of Ezekiel should be opened. These words are unquest onably connected with the promise of God in eh. 17 . cxxxii. I-ln. In 1.

The heading does not contain any chronological information.2-5). xxix. and the captivity of the daughters of the land (vers. 17-21. which is furnished with a date. XXX. XXX. and (c) the extermination of the idols of Egypt.. when the siege of Tyre was ended. Kliefoth. 1). with the introductory words '" . and regard it as the latest of all Ezekiel's prophecies. 3 the day of judgment upon Egypt is threatened as near at hand. is. prove anything.\Y OF JUDGJIENT Commencing with a call to lamentation. It is very evident from this that eh.forgottenbooks.CHAP. 1-19. xxix. and the nations in alliance with it (vel's. xxix. Jerome assigns this oracle to the same period as the prophecy in ch. that nothing definite can be gathered from it as to the date at " v hich an oracle was . and are furnished with dates. xxix. xxix. and this did not apply to the tenth year (ch. and Nebuchadnezzar was on the point of attacking Egypt. the slaughter of its male population.. "the day of the Lord is neal' at hand." is so relative a chronological phrase. TIlE D.~~ . and will burst upon Egypt. He then depicts in three strophes. 17). 6-~). Nor does the fact that OUI' prophecy stands after the prophecy in ch. xxix. whilst others connect it more closely with ch. 15 UPON EGYPT.vernick) Hitzig. 17-21. CHAP. But the expression. 10-12). that in ver. 1-16. and the contents furnish no definite criteria for determining with precision the date of the prophecy. and some others. though it was perfectly applicable to the twenty-seventh (ch. 13-19). the prophet announces that the Lord's day of judgment upon the nations is near at hand. all bdong to a much earlier period. 17 sqq. for the other prophecies which follow. the conquest and demolition of its fortresses. Ha. 17-21 is inserted w itho ut regard to chronological © 2010 Forgotten Books www. namely: (a) the destruction of the might of Egypt and the devastation of the land (vers. xxix. The principal argument adduced for linking it on to ch. The latter is the conclusion adopted by Rosenmiiller. 1-19.~) the execution of this judgment. (b) the enemy by whom the judgment will be accomplished (vel's.

the resemblance of v rs. 10 and 12 is not sufficient te warren the assumption of a contemporaneous origin. Verso 1-5. 3b. 2. 17-21). a day of cloud.:li'~. Ethiopians and Libyans and Lydians. sequence. 5. i~¥ oi~ and O.:J~~. the words f om l~~ o.16 THE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. and say. Vel'. Ezekiel rests upon Joel i. viz. p1'opltesy. 9) and Zep han iah (Zep h.i~ME contain h sentence. and II the rabble. Ver. 13. Announcement of the judgment up n Egypt and its allies. 17). xxx. 1) and the first month of the Ieventh year (ch. t1 at he uses . beat been mencription of its 0 co-ordinate www. is followed by such a picture of the earness and terrible nature of that day. 15). wi. 2. xxx. saying. 6 and 17 to ch.c-s-Ver. a and there will be pangs in Ethiopia. Son of © 2010 Forgotten Books I . and ii. the day of Jehoval: near. In ver. i. 7. Vel'. e time of the heathen will it be. xix. and consequently ch. and her foundation» re destroyed. And the sW01'd will com upon. which is supposed to indicate similarity of date.s e ith the Lord Jehovah. and adds to the force of the expr ssion by the repetition of 0)1 . and Chub. whilst. 3. since all the reasons assigned for the closer conn crion of our prophecy with the one immediately preceding (ch. so as to prepal'e the way for a de real nature here. . wi. Egypt. xxix.~ to . where the designation already applied to the jl1dg ent upon the heathen world by Obadiah. 4. 20). 1-19 may just as well belong to the period between the tenth month of the tenth year (eh."l~~: are not to be taken together as forming one day of cloud will the time of the nations be" ( cause the idea of a "time of the nations" has tioned before. And the word of Jehoocdi came to me. Howl ye! TYoe to the day l Vcr. when tlie slain all in this exception. and they take her possessions. as to the twenty-seventh year (c 1. xxix.z fall by tTti sword with them. on the other hand. " Ez(:!kiel also does the same. and tile sons of the covenant land. vel'. xxix.=)0' instead of . that even Isaiah (Isa. "the day of Jeh vah Ii (Obad. are invalid. 6.-In the announcement of the judgment in verso 2b and 3.forgottenbooks. 14) :] ppropriate the v rds of Joel. 5. iii. Thu. 1. or the day is near. Ie a e 'Vette).

Egypt possessed a military for e composed of native troops. ~~a EZElL 11. but decidedly erroneous. did no constitute the foundations of the Egyptian state and kingdo . ~·. Ethiopia will be so terrified at this. the mercenary troops obtained from those pI ces. xlvi.. xi. 22). ev 11 if they were auxiliaries or mercenaries of Egypt. The subject to ~n~? is indefinite. Phut. 3 and lxxxii. friendly. i. is not only extremely improbable. © 2010 Forgotten Boo s I :B www. that ush. on 1 Kings . when their might is to be shattered (c • Isa. the regulations and institutions on which the stability and prosperity of the kingdom rest. which are to be destroy d.. xiii.he who e of the mixed t crowd (see the comm. but the notion that Cush. is sufficient of itself to show that these tribes. arc Dot the foundations of its buildings. like M. XXX. (vel' in eh. which is to uccumb to the sword. but may be u derstood in a £gurative sense as relating to persons. ii. ich are h called the props of Egypt in vel'.-.· CDAP.." i. but that. By ~)¥. 1-5. 2) and a time of the heathen. 9. on the contrary.-7Tav f. The foundations of Egypt.e. as in Nah. when heathen (C:1~ without he article) arc judged. after he analogy of Isa. because. of great calamity (as ill Joel ii. 'Ve there interpret ~'~l'D:. 6. tc. th t it will writhe convulsively with anguish (l1?Q?O. i. xix. the enemy.. etc.e. 3S referring to the real foundations of the state. after the analogy of Ps.e.the Libyans and African ydians (see the comm. 10).. . Phui and LlIf!. t will be a day of cloud. P1~b~ nl?? signifies the plundering and removal of the possessions of the land. Cush. 15. are inte ded. 17 affirmations concerning the day of Jehovah. 11 and Isa. on ch. which was simply strengthene by auxiliaries and allies. "they. 3).e. 9). xxvii.e. i.. arc to fall by the sword along with the Egy tians (O~:. 5. Th neighbouring. and allied peoples will also be smitt n by the judgment together with the Egyptians. 6.TOt. The announcement in ver.IK. they served in Neche's army. according to J r. the Ethiopians.~. are mentioned he e primarily as auxiliaries of Egypt. txix. Phut.. i.' ot E7iIP. 19.forgottenbooks. xxi. as Hitzig assumes. 'I'his day is coming upon Egypt.:). 10.

ed. de populo Judaeorum " and the LXX.l TWJJ v£wv TiJ~ 8tae. de filiis terr e foederis. however. etc.. And so long as nothing certai can be gathered from the advancing Egyptological resear lies with regard to the name Cub. 9. Nubia. which were obtained from different nations (chiefly Greeks. Ha vernick can n eets this name with tbe people of Kula. Maurer suggests 'ob. iii. according to 'Vilkins n (~l[allners. .).The following expression. 1. in the Itiner • . Hitzig therefore ima ines that Kufa is probably to be found in Koldsto». would be quite in keeping here.::l (U7T'. . 4.~~' of ah.forgottenbooks. so frequently me with on the Egyptian monuments.OlJ. who are to be unde 'stood by the term O'-?i'. has but a ery weak support in the Arabic translator. iii. But 've certainly cannot admit that the covenant land (made efinite by the article) is Canaan. 8. :li:.e. "sons of the covenant land. etc." is also obscure. we are then to understand the mercenary 5 ldiers IU the Egyptian army. Hitzig has correctly observ d. £a. 'Vessel. :m.IS TIlE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. is destitute of any solid foundation. from which. the more es ecially as this conjecture is naturally suggested by the Cl. the conjecture that :I~~ a m a-spelling is for :1'~ is Dot to be absolutely set aside. undoubtedly thou ht of the © 2010 Forgotten Books I ~~> www. 1. and the suppositi n that may have been the earlier Hebrew form for Nubia ( itzig). and Carians. (see the comm •. x.T erome wri tes wi th out rc se rv e. as they are called by' Herodotus. pp.ture ffered by Gesenius (Tiles. oi €7rt OVPOl. a city (municipiurn) of Mauretania. the Holy Land (Hit zig and {liefoth).~) by the side of QI!" in Jer.). in their t 'anslation. a district f Media.~) their allies. 13). the Egyptians can hardly hay obtained mercenary troops. P: 664). In ad ition to these. xlvi. 9 and 2 Chron. althou gh . they inhabited a portio of Asia farther north even than Palestine. 17. i. But. and he ranks the (p. that it cannot be synonymous with C~I!1\? . On the other hand. xvi. rhilst the Liby-Aegyptii of the ancients. Fenians. the conjec.A nton. viz. LXX. on Gen. AE'Y') is also men t ion ed.]JC"'~ P. 379) among the enemies of Egypt. 361 sqq.).. and the form :I~' by the side f Ol-?~' is analogous to .

XXX. as Ilitzig supposes. G. In that day will messengers go Im·tlt from.. 6-9." We therefore agree with Schmieder in regarding rp:~~ as signifyillg a definite region. Those wlto SUppOTt Egypt will fall.1igdol to Syene will they fall by the sword the ein. and he warriors (ver. 8. me in ships to t N'ijy the confident Ethiopl:a. Al the S11pp orts and h elpers of Egypt will fall. is the saying of the Lord Jehovah. 20 and Dan. 13). And they will li 'waste in the midst 0/ scoste lands. for they are included in the term in ver. Ver. xxiv. xi. from Ps.).CHAP. G~. but as the sum otal of all the thlngs on which the Egyptians n~ 7: ~':np © 2010 Forgotten Books www. and xliv. lxxiv. who formed the foundation of the migl t of the kingdom. that 1 am Jehovah. but the dols and princes (vel'. 8. where Peter cal s the Jews" the children of the prophets and of the covenant. For the application of the expre sian" land of the covenant" to the Holy Land is never met wi h either in the Old or New fire into Egypt. 1 hen I b?. 9) or from Acts iii. i1j~ ji~t.Ver.. jor." which s an expression applied jn ch. 15).forgottenbooks. behold) .. though one unknown to lJS. from. xliii. . is to be taken here in a general sense. which was inhabited by a tribe that vas independent of the Egyptians. in the vicinity of Egypt. the fortified cities (ver. and the whole land vith its cities will be laid waste. and its eitiee be in the midst aesolate cities. and understood ll?t merely of the temples and idols of Egypt. V or. If. xi. 28. and cannot be inferr d. "the pride of its might. 19 Jews.'t cometlt. Wid its Froud might will sink. yet bound to render help i time of war. or upportcd in allY way from either the epithet "the land of romiso " in Heb. 21 to the temple at Jeru alern. along with J er miah after the destruction of J erusalern and the murder of t e govemor Gedaliah.-" Tho e who support Egypt" are 110t the auxiliary tribes and allie. according to "I'heodoret's exposition. xlii. 25. Titus saith tlie L01'd hovah. 17). 9. who Red 0 Egypt. and there will be unit/ling among them as in the day oj Egypt. Tiley "ItaII learn. for fear of the vengeance of the ChaJdean (Jer. and all its helper» are shattered. Vers.

and the . thiopiaus. the most terrible who of a similar fate.. 'I'argum on Nu to tii:l.~~~ is the '. 4. xix. The dread tidings Egypt (vel'. ships. 0V-?. and reduces 'i1lDCi'7 subject to day of judgment upon Egypt and Hltzig follow the LXX. on Isa. xxix. f their kingdom. o':~(Dan.1?. nr. 1156). xxxiii. 10-12. S) of there and is the fire of war. Isa. xi.:. 24Rabbins. Cush se the Cush (Ewald. © 2010 Forgotten Books Vel's. that repetition from of the of t\i"i) C)I~. flee before Rum. cauy the tidings with performing to think forces of Chaldea. 12. equivalent to the confident 287c). among Ethiopians but the i. have both by the form of the noun. not the pr ancient Symm.Vel'. trieres. The subject to ::J-? . as in the day of Egypt. And I will put an end to the tumult of E01'P t!J. the for who hemistich. (Ex. 2 floating before his mind.dllezz!1. judgment messengers as being '~~?l?.engers alone.~~ \~t. p.l repeated from ver. xv. as who is regarded while e. sent day of Egypt's punishment. For 'm ~. The viz. the service of mesof Egyptians.J· king of Ba~ylon. 'n~n i1~~Q. TAus [with the Jord Jehoroh. xxix. O'~'. 30).~ is gender TUE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. present by ship to Ethiopia.see the comm.?b. for the '~J~~ have only just heard well-known Ewald of this from the messengers. and on the ground of which it s indestructible.xecuting (d. 21. is attached me or confident. warlike the pr phet has Isa. 1).e. Vel'. God fire which God will bring Vel'. judgment. taking Oi'? fore'~. (cf. thither. go.from in Egypt.1?l?~. G-8). in incorrect and unsuitable. In the first are not . in to xxiv. according in Hieron. the Jehovah. ~~~~. 10. Ges.. Tlies. messengers. 12 sqq . 10.'f!? reg rded as a country. 01'1. which is predict d in the preceding The executors verses (vel's. 9.forgottenbooks. www.rou[Jl~J\-:' .~ the God. 7 of ch. but this is both into a tame is to be taken n~-? I . Ve have who are sent thither rather The there they would not b content .20 rested the might they regarded on eh. though regulated into been and the subject the number to and is almost a literall repetition of the verb The !:l~'J. will be ca ried awaken The of this judgment by messengers to Ethiopia. xviii.

with of their propert the Ian d .org © 2010 Forgotten Books . a. ch. And I put fire £n 1:. 4-6. i. 1will exiermin 0. my fur'!} upon Sin. ':i--:~. XXX. and BII bast WI will te the idols no more upon the lld ol'ing a prince laud of fire into 5. 11 and 12. Ver. of the ju Igment. the fact itself. and I put te1'1'0_'I' Egypt. 1'/1. and No Vcr. description J udg. For \:n 'j. xxvi. and execute judgments U1Jon 1VO. -Vor. see Isa.-Vel'. slaying the xxviii.. 21 men. 7. 13-19.forgottenbooks.(:m en of On. . therefore) to the of the arms of the Nile must not be restricte of the Ohaldeans the natural into the land. to deliver it resources sell a land or people into the hand of any into his power (cf. Ver.:ith slain. his men of wal'. 14. 30. 7./1' the deities from Noph. .as as in ch. ~.~~:) to For 13. is thus specifically explained its possessions. xi. ii. the possession and enjoyment The expression N ebuchadnezz ar will destroy people ~'~~.). Vel'. ~~?t?. 12.. xix. xii. but embraces on which the country 0 fact that God would clear away the hindra n es to the entrance lso the removal of epended.~..] 6. they will raw their swords against Egypt) and fill the land 11. Thus saitl: the L01'd Jehovah. and cut e..) \~'!¥.-l\O~ cnunot be understood as signifying either the multitude of I eople only. 14. cf. a tude of lVO. which signifies the tum It of the people in (cf. 13). for 1'1'~?:" is not really applicable to either of these meanings. 17. and its fulne s by tile !land 0/ foreigners. Sill will uiritlu: It-enemies by day.s in ell. see cit. in ch. or the abundance of possessions alone. 11. 13-HI. lite Slj'011g1/Old of Egypt. 'm P :~. violent if the nations. and on which and prosperity of Egypt i He and his people with him. xxiii. 7.. fa ll by the suiord. And I pour out d cut off the multit . Vers. ch. Further xxxii. xix. And flay Pathros waste. Zoan. and lay waste the land.)b . 14.e. will be brought to destroy the land. www. hy which the land was wa red. xxviii. and iVO will be broken. The drying up . 6.~. They are evidently both included in the j\oJ:. 42. the fertility '?I.CHAP.the arms anti canals of the NHe. Dent. 1 Jehoxal« luuie spoken it. And I will make the rivers dr'll! and sell the land into tlie luuul of wicl'ed Ver. and there shall b from the land of Eg1lpt. open. etc. n in pain.

iIi? (literally. xxix. And thus I execute judgments upon Egypt. The Egyptian name Pheromi a so signifies dirty. which derives its name from . t they may know t!tat I am Jehoxah: . p o n ti i a Ver. see the comm. X ·vi. 8. nis.forgottenbooks. ~ }wyaA"I of the Greeks (see the comm. it~1:jl}~. x ii. a Nah. and an end will be put to its proud haughti~ S8. tl\>'?~ j a e synonymous. 18. 13b 'i'.OPHECIES QJ OF . vi.r. 802). 4): the latter tracea Ie to the reading of Isa. xix. 6. and then names several more of t e principal cities of Lower Egypt along with the chief city o U ppeL' Egypt. 19. xvii. w ich is also to be Jaid waste. compal'c the Aram. 1. . Jane.e. Copt." Egypt. xix. epithet applied but the to false deities deities being the ordinary b Ezekiel (see the comm. t e former signifying not the images. there shall be no more a prince from the land of Egypt. 7rdAt. 11'anopl) or Jfenoph = ~b in Hos.THE Pr. 8). ~). an ancient city of Lower Egypt. on the Tanitic arm of the . 14). Egypt. idolatry (see the comm. In vel'. i:l'~)~ and d tlley themselves will go into captivity. 6 and Isa. a native prince. on ch. iii.dt. From Lower Egypt Ezekiel passes in ver. t-:. 25). cloud will COvel' it. the ancient c pital of Lower Egypt. (wIIOfLa(YTat. 22 and Isa. iii. o e of the principal o t seats of Egyptian 13). 14 t Upper Egypt (Palkros. on ch. a'1ro TOU 7T'1AOU 74'1]Aor. the s cred name of Thebes. i. of the Greeks and Romans. with the celebrated temple of Flail. i. the celebrated royal city of Upper 'gypt. j~ ) is n'1JAo{. see the eomm. -Ier. Hos. cit.. 17b). at a distance a twenty stadia from the sea.J n~l:? belongs Nlip~. Zane. tpY. on N um.J = lin~ ~J in N ah.Egypt will lose its ols and its princes (cf. p. house of Amon. ix. the .the yokes Egypt there. Pi-amen. 11. b cause there were s\vamps all round. contracted from 9)9. to which it gave its name. and its daugltters will go into cap~ ily. Ver. Adr. mire..t. From this the Arabs have made © 2010 Forgotten Books www. to put fear upon (cf. probably " abode of Amon. is the 'I'auls. xlvi. At TacIt· ncliee the day will be darlceued when 1shatter . xix.a~ov. Strab. is ~lemphis. ix. Pelusium.or. It was situated on the e stern arm of the Nile.l ile. or muddy.

: "'f that the © 2010 Forgotten Books www." '1'0 tbis also it wny be objected. 5. the one basketvery good figs. preposition . commend themselves as either sim Ie or natural explanations.~ into .forgottenbooks. 8.' As Hitzig has correctly . Ezekiel calls it the ." and renders it: "Memphi will be eternal rust. which is possible. 13. to rend " ).: fortress or bulw rk of Egypt.lfem !tis) as the capital of Upper Egypt. 25). 13-19.ttators find play upon the name of the god ~~~ (Jer. 6. and is the pposite of i1?. " Egypt i difficult of access here from places in the East." for which eason Hirtius (de bell.~. cl?" 'J¥ is the same as 1:l:!~~~'JV in -Ier. The expression C. ii. 1 Ewald proposes al ter \. (." nut to this Hitzig has very properly objected tha in ch. 41).? 'Jl~ in Obad. 16 Sin (= elll$i!tm) is mentioned again as the border fortress. Al. c." because.?l' ':!¥ ~~ has cau ed some difficulty and given occasion to various conjectures none of which. The enemy who comes y day.In ver. is not equivalent to perpetual . In t{J ji~~ many of the comme.CHAP.. rust is called and that even i1~(m. interdill. 2. and 'T:I~~l} would be inappl'opriate. and in he vicinity of the few ruins of the 'aneient Pelusium there is st 11a castle called ~. 27) calls it "the key of Egyp . xv. xxlv.ebes) as the chief city of Upper Egypt." Iemphis will have enemies ill broad daylight. XXX. see Leyrer ill Herzog s Encyclopaedia. and still further. xxiv. as Strabo (l. however.) (( the key both of the entrance and exit 0 Egypt." On the history of this city. is the enemy who does not shun op 11 attack.c. in Ps. and~Noph (= J. xlvi. ]1/0 (= T!. to explain C\~¥l fro I tbe Aramaean 1. as we should not expect to find a god mentioned again here after v r. vi. ver. 3 Doi' doe uot wean perpetual or eternal. not in the night. but not very probable. as ali falling within the range of the judgment.Iemphis shall beco e perpetual rents. and that in C':I\'. 23 Elfarama .e. that tl':~ Hebrew has the standing meaning of oppressors ." and Suidas (s. the chief deity of Thebes. could n t be omitted before '. \1 TH~vernick proposes or tear in pieces. Tho connection with ~~ is to be explained by the s me rule as Jcr.~ (after tb e A ramaesn) I" rust.) observes. ~rt?.11. Tineh (compare the Chaldee cla) in Dan.

which was worshipped tbere in a splendid temple. 18. xliii.24 THE rROPHEClES OF EZEKIEL.t"nl? in J er. This expla ation of i1~Q is commended by vTlbl in vel'. The tJ'!~n~. i~. i. the Egyptian lana. according to Jer. not al ryuvaZlw. 166. xlvi. on Gen. i. Bovf3atT7or. or Anu). 2). ii. xli. and others) but the cities themselves. pp. ed. xliii. shall go into exile. the place of Paslit. Ll Ot sqq. which was egun by Necho and finished under Ptolemy II. on Gen. a cording to Herod. so c lied from the cat-headed Bubastis or Paslu.. 9. xli. npr\~. is Ta¢vaL.e. 107).. nd possessed a celebrated temple of the sun. xvi.e. the young military men. 16 (Chetib). after the time of Psammetichus a fortification witl a strong garrison. ~·. xli. i. (He ·od. 15). Dot far from it junction with the Pelnsiae arm of the Nile.). 45). portion of the Jews took refuge there. After the destruction of J er Gen. iv. about seven hours' jour ey from the Nile (compare Ges. where a palace of Pharaoh was also to be fund.) or Bo'J{JauT{r.forgottenbooks. It was situated on the royal canal leading to Suez.e.their civil population as distingui hed from tho military garrison. because On. Egyptian Pi-Pashi. was destroyed by the Persian.. and has €ntirel disappeared. 45.eliopolis (iVp. or idol) is probably s~lected intentionally in the sense f an idol-city (see the cornm. will be lled with them. s. 59). xliv. and the form i~~(a vain t iog. Sic. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. a frontier city of Egypt in the vicinity of elusiurn. ii. with the exception of some heaps of ruins wh ch still bear the name of Tel Bastah. It was the chi f seat of the Nomos Bubastiies. The Kamas of . on Has. with a numerous and learned priesthood (see the comm. who demolished its walls (Diad. 14). is the popular name of IIeliopolis in Lower Egy t (see the comm. ii. 13) was from time immemorial one of the principal seats of the Egyptian worship of the sun. a. (LXX. l~~= iix. 7 ~qq. and i1~~. ii. 1. was assigned to the warrior-cast of Calasirians. Td¢lJ7} (LXX. awl C~~'7'8 in J r. xliii. CCl~7i}~ or C1r~~J:I (Jer. Tiles. or LJarpva~ (H rod.e. 30. and Leyrer in Herzog's Encyclopaedia. (LXX.v. 50 (Egyptian n.). will f 1l by the sword. 45. 51).

will go in to captivity in tho persons of their in ha bitants. ch. I and to them Jeremiah of Egypt predicted case the punishment ( pieces from tho bondagc of E vpt is of its yokes (see also Ezek. as ':l~mdoes not f urn ish all and the parallel passages. xiii. It tha all QWS o\s er there in this 9sqq. 4. Isa. In ver. x: vi. iii. all favour ~:::.xii... when the Lord wil break the yokes of Egypt. xliii.).!~ li~~.. to an at tho caller} the breaking 27). to dawn upon where xxxiv. t\1i}. i. the smaller eiti sand hamlets dependent upon bel' (cf. and this is confirmed palace there. Amos viii. the border fort 'ess of the land towards Syria and Palestine. xvi. e itions This Masora . 8. Joel ii. ell.forgottenbooks. as in ver. and her daughters. by the circumstance the is to be put words of would have been was a royal ~f we compare an end threat verse. 1 sqq. 4. to the effect that Taehpanches of Daphne must with the threatening Nebuchadnezzar at that time Jer. I . form.e. 3 giving xliv. that in Taehpanches to the proud might of Pharaoh. it is evident that the si uation war © 2010 Forgotten Books www. set up his such that tln one at t 10 and smite Egypt. Joel iii. x . 13. 10. on sqq. the deliverance of Israel . 15. That which took place then is to be repeate of that kingdom points back is to The yokes which Egypt put upon the nations are to be b 'oken .n. varies. These words point back to Le v. will be overthr wn by the judgment. B-1!). in all the ancient rea ding.e. darkening of the day is the phenomenal prognostic f the dawning of the great day of judgment upon the natio a (d. here.:. G). many correct be found in all the codices examined codices '1l:-'~as the rca ing to by the author f the and printed versions. and all the proud might head in an absolute be brough end (.CHAP. 9.). from this that Daphne was the chief city of a Nomos in Egypt. printed In the of 12'n the reading Masora at Gen. etc. the the conquest by Nebuchadnezzar xxxix. iv. which stand to OI]~~lJ~~. 413 and xxvi. 10. xiii. T e city (Daphne) will be covered with cloud. 10. rhis Jay is Egypt at Tachpanches. whereas 'is evidently the of the have 1:j~. The . Ian. xxx. ). 25 of xliii. and this is adopted appropriate meani ng. i.

1. But as t ere is no allusion whatever in ch. xxx. and its repulse by the Chaldeans. after the army of Pharaoh Hoph a. the prophecy before us was separated from the former by an interval of three months. on Iu seven (h of th e 'fIWlI ih. between Egypt and Ba ylonia would necessarily be decided in at' near this city. and will break otli his arms. the strong one and the broken one. nor do the contents of this verse furnish allY proof that .). to put on a ba duge to. arid will call e the 8W01'd to fall out of his hand. xli ii. and. that it may g1'OtO strong to g1'QSp the . Ver. xxix. 7) If we compare with this the date of the first prophecy agains Egypt in ch. say ny." this short word of threatening agai nst Egypt faIls ill t e second year of the siege of Jernsalem by the Ohaldeans. Vel". to apply remedies. it will no more be bound ttP. as vel'. or to his -epulse. to Pharaoh's attempt to orne to the relief of the besieged city of Jerusalem. in the jil's t _ (moll tIL) . Son of man. 21 clearly shows. beliol . Therefore titus saitl: the According L01'd Je/tol:aiI. Vel'. 22. the ani val of the Egyptian army in Palestine. " In the eleventh yeal'. DESIR CTION OF TIlE 1\UGllT OF II:IARAOn BY N .forgottenbooks. 23. to the head'ng in vel'. xxix. 5. will deal with Pharaoh the kil1g of Egypt. the seord of Jehoeali came to me. zekiel did not utter this prophecy of his till a r LeI' the Jews h settled there (Jer.)'U.01'. bind it up. its'de' at. had been clef atcd by the Chaldeans who turned to meet it (J er. aud xli v. xxxvii.26 HECIES OF EZEKIEL. nd. 20-2G. CHAP. 20. And I will scat er the Egyptians among the nations and © 2010 Forgotten Books www. Vel'. towards the clos of the tenth year. which marched to the relief of Jerusalem. hese prophetic utterances cannot be explained) 3S Kliefoth su poses) from the fact that many Jews had settled in Daphne. seems to have occurred in the interval between these two prophecies. the arm of Pharaoh the !tillg of Egypt liaoe I In'oken. 21. 19 serves to round ff the prophecy. Behold.

nec~\t1sc any more to victorious power. Vel'. 25. a d give my sword into !tis hand.forgottenbooks. Th fact that the further judgment which is to fall upon Pharaoh (ver.strong or sound. XXX.RAP. altogether apart from il~<:I. so as tu be abJ Pharaoh is not to attai to grasp or hold the sword. This may be seen bot from the allusion in ver.. I will scatter tke E!l!Jptians among the nations.:ill. I will strengthen the a?'Jns of the king of Babylon. and also to the obviously antithetical relation of vel'. that the word will fall from his hand. willsl1·engtllell the arms of the king of Babylon. i. that is to say. 21& to the condition resulting frot the 'J~.~.J~is a present. se of ver. nd the a)'ms of Pharaoli will fali . may be accounted for on the round that the causal i!l' forms a link .1 of B bylon. 21: the ann shall not be healed. powel'. the . is subordinate to the PI' ceding clause. tka: he may stretch it against the land of Egypt.e. as is apparcll t from tbe infinitive cla ses (m n~?) which follow. 27 disperse then: in the land 1 Ver. here for military he arm is a figurative expression for powel'. and c1J signifies to bind up. there- nth of his arms. i1~:p. Tho © 2010 Forgotten Books fore God will shatter www. 22) in which future events are predicted" (Hitzig).~ with the concluding cia. will smite it so completely. 24. God broke the arm of Phar oh by the defeat which the Chaldeans inflicted upon Pharaoh ophra. M8!J:" that it may become . 10TWll I give my suiord into tlie hand of the 1. Vel'. for the purpose of healing a broken lim . And. 2 . but a pure preterite.~~ in vel'. and go\'erns the infinitive which follows. and disperse the in tlie lande . and will break the arms of Phara It. 21 is not a prophetic utterance of the certain yof t( the future. when he was marching to the . as it wields t-Ile sword. and they shall lenow that I a Jehovah. the sound one and the bro en one..that remedies may be applied and a bandage put on. and they shall know that I am Jehovah.-The pe feet . so that he shall groan the groanillgs of a pierced one before hi . relief of besieged Jerus lern. nctwithstandii is introduced with i?? (therefore) here g the fact that it has not been preceded by any enumeration of he guilt which occasioned it. 22). 21-26..

v ·ith it to hell (vers. IS a very goo d one. is dr nisce destr was caul \VU. Egy tians are to be scattered among the nations. LX . 18. of the .aVT€I). and from he the preceding like that comparison the conclusion remiupon the empire and of its that will perish greatness of lofty ccdar. does Pharaoh resemble (vel'.28 THE PRopnEClES OF EZEKl£L. TnE GLOTIY AND FALL OF ASSHUR OF EGY1~T.L in vel'S. "/VWuOIlTa£ the rendering . so that e\-'cl'ytl1ing mourned over its fall. The question. A TYPE minus six days from the time when the pl'ecedi g word of God was uttered. Jehovah and is: may come to recognise to the Lord. 2). that the reminiscence not fail to make a deep impression the prophet's heal' rs. ]2. 10-14). proceeds to depict Asshur hty towering cedar (vers. and equip and strenkrthen that the latter with the sword. 25 and 26 with an intimation of tl e purpose men of this divine procedure. whom Pharaoh resembles. • subject ~. cast ower of his might announcement and with that of the destruction of the between having as Egypt was confirmed Egypt by a comparison of Asshur. him to destroy is repeated the might of Pharaoh. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. 3-~) which has been felled and own by the prince of the nations on account of its height and ride (vers. God will give the swor into the hand of the king of Babylon. xxix.-The empire all reliance ce of the of the Assyrian to overthrow etion was well adapted migl t and greatness Egypt.. \' tau. whom Ezekiel open d his prophecy the . as is repeated in v r. That as God purpose may groan before him like one who is pierced This thought that The . r.1~:1s i indefinite. 15-1 ). in wl ich the former migl t of the with ami.. Ezekiel received another thre tening word against In two months the king and the people drawn of Egypt. because many nations went down . 23 »erhatim from eh. is then repeated in ve '.forgottenbooks. The fall of that great upon till so fresh in the mind at the time.

Nor mast \VC rC!gard the word as applying to the multitu e of people only. a shadowing thicket. A nd lie was beautiful in his g"ea ness. aud. whom does Pharaoh with his tumult rese ible in his greatness. XXXI.CHAP. 29 V 1~9. arid its top was high in gl'owth. no tree in the garden of God resembled him in his beaJlly. 3. 2. the flood mad lnm high. Vcr. but to the people with their possessions. Cedars did not obscure him in tlie garden of God cypresses did not resemble his branches. ayirtg. Behold. It is true that Ewald has followed the example of Mdbom ('Canal'UJlI. and.forgottenbooks. which gave rise to luxury and tumult.y many urate 'S. under its LOllg/ts all the beast of lite field brought forth. i. and plane-trees were not like his boug/ts. Vcr. aud. 4. xxx. 10. beautiful in ~ uches. © 2010 Forgotten Books www.e. I\S in ch. its streams ioeni 'round about its plantation. 8. In the eleventh year. (mol tit).. and it se: t its channels to all the trees of the field. in the lell!Jtlt of hie shoots j for his Toot Ulas /. and its boughs long from man!! urate s in its shootill!J out. whoever and whatever occasions noise and tumult in the land 'Ve must not interpret this. Wate:!'brought liin« up. is followed in the place of a reply by a de cription of Asshur as a glorious cedar (vel's. and all the trees of Eden ~dtict were in tlte qarden of God ell vied 'lim. Vel'. 6. as Hitzig has done.-The word of God is addressed to King Pharaoh and to biD~. A sailIll' was a cedar-tree upon Lebanon.. 3~9). 1. and in its S!lQdOlO tJat great 11 ali S of all kill ds. Ver. as si Juifying the ruling classes and estates in contrast with the quie in the land. 7. and 'is branches became great. in the tlzi. for no such use of jiC. to his tumult. Whom art thou like in thy greatness? Ver. 1-'. however. Therefore its growtlt became lliglter than all the trees of the field. Vcr. is anywhere to be foun. mong the clouds.yl '·S. 9. In its branelies all the birds of i e heaven made their nests. 5. I had made him beautiful in t Ie multitude of !ds . say to Pharaoh the king of Egy t. on the fil'st of tlte month. Vel'. Vel'. his tumult.Ver. thci riches. The might of Pharaoh resembles the greatness and lory of Asshul'. Son of mau. The inquiry. tile lCOI·d of Jehoual: came to me.

D. corresponding to the further expansion of il.he clouds. and taking '~9 as a substantive formation after the analogy f ~~l:?. whom does he resemble? is asked again in ver. 10 -17.30 HE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. shade-giving thicket ('~~ is a IlipTtil p rticiple of . B t apart altogether from there being no foundation whatever f r such an explanation in the usage of the language. w hose destruction is not 0 nl y t hrea ten ed in vel's. 18 Hitzig).'. 12 and 16. in Cod." Under the figure of the felling of ace ar there is depicted the overthrow of a king 01' monarchy. by taking the word '~I!l~ in 11 appellative sense. '0 c~h. xvii. lose all their force." If we bear this in mind. p.~t:. rd~. as a further expansion of 9?¥. . But what is decisive against the proposed conjecture is the act that neither the noun ~'12 nor the ad- . because it was there that the most stately ced rs grew. Asshur is called a cedar pon Lebanon. and 'I' j:l~~ being co-ordinate with one another. whi h has already taken place. there is nothing in the fact to justify it. Compare vel's.i~ t1~as signifying a particular kind of cedar. on the contrary. Michaelis. 18. spec. namely. For it is not anywhere affi ed that Pharaoh resembled this cedar. but declared to have a ready taken place. the question. 10 onwards it becomes perfectly obvious that it is not Assyria but Egypt itself which is meant by the cedar-tree previously described. The picture of the' glory of this cedar recalls in several respects the simil r figurative description in ch.. 70) and J. Analogy would onIy req uire an ad' ecti ve in the c ODS true t state in t he event of the three stateme ts 'V ilP:. belongs to n~. 18 plainly designates the overthrow of Pharaoh nd his power as still in the f uture. And as ver. the tallest species of all.forgottenbooks. Michaelis is wrong in the supposition th t a from Vel'. and understanding . where he past is indicated quite as certainly as the future in vel'. intm "ea. III.~!-? ~. the reas ns assigned by Hitzig for altering ti~h into an adjective ti1q. Moreover. the cedar. and endeavours t set aside the allusion to Asshur. [labl'.r © 2010 Forgotten Books www. can only be Asshur.?P j:J~~ by" its t p was among t. and not Egypt at all.~~).

in ch.. in ver. a conjec nre which is precluded by the use of 'J'?iil. 3. and sent out br oks to all the trees of the field. © 2010 Forgotten Books www.. is construed throng iout as a feminine. XXXL 1-9. For n1:-ie. thi ket of clouds.l.n?~7 cannot mean" since it (the stream) sent out the wa er " (Ewald) j for although elm. 11. on ch..~':? an- nat signify foliage. i.While the place where the cedar was planted was SutTOU ded • T i be by the streams of the flood. It is true hat there still remains ~omething striking in the masculine 1?.~ as an accusative used for the more precise definition of the rna ner in which the flood surrounded the plantation. The rendering of the Vulgate. and ~Il)'~ril_.CHAP. 14. and take 1>'. n~ is not to be take as a preposition. and for n~9~. on ch. the plantation for which the flood existed.1 . whilst the Seventy omitted the word as unintelligible to them. in any case) . But the difficulty rem ins even if we follow Ewald.v. 4 is also construed s 3.-'to a defecti ely written or irregular form of the Hipldl 11?1il. PI~~. it nd about the plantation belonging to tile flood or the place situ ted near it. see the cornm. xxxii. as in Deut.forgottenbooks. i. 4). 6. its (the flo d's) plautation. . The cedar ther fore surpassed all the trees of the field in height and luxurian e of growth (vel'. but as a sign of the . viii.1.ilI. xvii. since O:. to cause to run to cause to flow away. is used here to signify the source or starting-point of a H iod. where the cedar was planted. Avy. although of common gender. an Aramean mode of spelling for i1T~?.. xix. The difficult words 'm ~Iry. and that. The cedar grew to so large a size because it 'was richly watered (ver.~ -n~ are to be taken literally thus: as for its (the flood's) strean (the flood) was going round about its plantation. xvji. A flood poured its streams round a out the place 'Where the cedar was planted.1J:1 are co-ordinate with r. branches. only the brooks and channel of this flood reached to the trees of the field. and rl9. ~~~~... "fro nemorosuel' is merely guessed at.tha on ch. see the carom. r 5. 5). where n'~. 7.e. 31 jective t:i1q is eyer met with. an Aramean formation with '1 inse ted) for nb?~..?. even in this very verse.\ a7l'. For tl"1}J~.

and consequently i~V.forgottenbooks. 8 onwards. in verso . \). Ciiefotb. the suffix can ot be taken as referring to C\jj~. It must rather be taken as embracing very thing which contributed to the growth and greatness of Assyria. 6-9 the greatness and glory of Asshur are still further de icted. In ve s. The tree was 50 beautiful (~I~from in its greatness. 8). for this is much too far off. ch. and all envied it on that acco nt j that is to say. the fact glimme s through the 6gure. masculine. birds..32 THE PH PHECIES OF EZEKIEL. the spreading not a ly of the branches." £. as in ell. Ewald and Huvernick think that he had. 13. that 7 would then conta n a spiritless tautology. There is no ground for Klicfoth's objection. 'l'p-. ~oatiJlg be are his mind. had the desc iption of the rivers of Paradise in Gen. 23 and Dan. iv. and men. either solely or especially. b\ ~ 1~is the garden of Paradise . beasts. " as it (the tree) sent them (the branches) ant. Havernick.i i1~: © 2010 Forgotten Books www.all kinds of great nations. " in its spreading out. since the stretching out of the bra ches is nlready contained in the fact of their becoming numer us and long. J er. It is questionable whether the prophet. Upon and under the branches of the stately tree. xvii. In C'~":! t:\~·. to which T)~:p is som times applied (cf. we must not understand." is open to this objection.16. And the explanation proposed by Rosenmliller. all the other nations and kingdoms in God's c eation were far inferior to Asshur in greatness and glory. By the many waters which ade the cedar great.10 sqq. 'Ye eet with this for the first time from vel'. that of all the trees in the garden of God no one was to be compared with . and others. The tautology has no existence if the object is eft indefinite. but itzig and Kliefoth take a decidedly opposite view. xxviii. the numerous peoples which rendered Assyria reat and mighty. There i certainly no distinct indication of any such allusion. ii. but also of the roots. when describ ng the Hood which watered the cedar plantation.?. 6. found shelter and protection f r life and increase (ver. and 18 is also Paradise. all cr atures. cf. as the Chaldee and many of the older comm ntators have done. xvii.

Because thou didet exalt thyself I ~heig/d. . btl the garden planted by Jehovah in Eden. there i a peculiar mr © 2010 Forgotten Books www. plantc by God by lllflOy waters. and he stretched his top to the midst of t1~ clouds.. It is at stated in so many words in vel's. the garden in Eden." The very fact that a distinc ion is made between trees of the field (vets. so that the words" which are in the gar en of God" gi. the words" whic are in the garden of God" will contain a superfluous pleon sm. as all the nations and kingdoms of the world are regarded as rees planted by God. shows that the rees are not all regarded here as being in the same sense plan ed by God.. the world itself is quite consistently calle a garden or plantation of God. or the verthrow of Assh ur on account 0 fits pride. re thus said the Lord Jehoeah. planted by God by inany waters. «. Tlieref. as Kliefoth imagines." Moreover.forgottenbooks. iz. 8 and 9 that the cedar sshur stood in the garden of God. resembled the cedar Asshur. The fcUing of this cedar. that by the garden of God we are to understan simply the world and the earth as the creation of God. and his heart exalted EZElL 11. in VCI'. It was not all Eden. 0 that if ijl? be taken in this sense. 33 emphasis in the separation of o'~S~1~7from elf. and in support of which he argues tha .V er. 8: H cedars . cypresses and planes.CHAP. In Gen. a mere tautology. If the garden of God stood for the world. ii. there wa not one so beautiful and glorious as the cedar Asshur.'e intensity to the idea of the" trees of Eden. wher should we then have to look for the field (iI. but it by no means follov s from this.. 10-14. lO-14. 10. which formed the real paradisaical . 4 and 5) and tree of Eden in the garden of God (vcrs." Not one even of the other and most glorious trees.•• even such as were found in the gard n of God. in its boughs and branches. 8 a distinction is also made between and the garden in Edell.:J)1 The tho ght of verso 8 and 9 is not that" not a single tree in all God's broad earth was to be compared to the cedar Asshur. Vcrs. as Huvernick has correctly pointed out." but tha even of the trees of Paradise. XXXI. 8 and 0).

Ie shall deal with him. 13.-In the descript on of the cause of the overthrow of Asshur which commences wit . 14. 2. Upon his fallen trunk II the birds of the heaven settle.-that i to say. an cast ld1n away: upon tlie mOlmtairM and in all the t'alleys Iris soots fell. violent ones of the nations. tlte grave.'ednes8 I rejected him. Ila. and no uiater-drinkers stand.forgottenbooks. and all the beasts oj the field are 0 er his branehes : Yer. it is spoken of in the thir person. w:nthe midst 0 the children of men. but against the Assyrian. I give it up. in his . but belongs to the past.v rhilst the address in vel'. their top to the midst a the clouds. And strangers cut him down.~~ j~~. . 10 and 11 is not directed agains Pharaoh. thc figurative language changes in the third clause i to the literal fact.and therefore the w rds merely communicate what God had © 2010 Forgotten Books www. he perfect . and let: him lie. and the imperfect (fn ure) in vel'. Vel' 11.~~ is therefore a preterite here : the Lord said •• for His part: because Asshur has exalted itself in the 'ride of its greatness. ut is defended is b against critical capri e by the imperfect n?'~~ which . In the nrst clause the. are both . The form ~i1m~1 not to be changed into ~i1~Q~~.THE ROPHECIES OF EZEKIEl" itself in its luig At. who is depicted as a state! cedar. The direct address in -the nrst clause is to be explain d from the vivid manner in which the fact presented itself. Ver. or stretch. to those that go into.caltthe selves on account of their height.tree itself is addre sed. lOa. and all the nations of the eartli withdrew fro Ids shadow. the towering of the cedar being interprete as signifying the lifting up of the heart in his height. That 110 trees by the water may e:. Ver. upon themselnes in their ealtation: for tltty are all given up to death into be accounted for from the fact that the fall of Asshnr is related in the form in which it was deno need on the part of Jehovah upon that imperial kingdom. That the penal sente ce of God is not to be regarded as being first uttered in the ti e then present.' for Ids Wich. I will give him into the han d of tlu: prince of the nations. and his bougl!s W6)'e broken in pieces into all tlte deep laces of the earth. The divine sentence in vers. but in the clauses which follow.

.ding of many of the more exact manuscripts a d editions-belongs to ~i1'f. where both readings occur just as in met with once in the case of '. In vel'. Job xlii. as in .~' a ram.\0. xxix.CHA1'. to. compare P . where many . n9\i'~ . whereas. but it is an independent sente ce. »ariae lecti. compare a. 10-14. already spoken.-is clearly shown by the preterites commencing te ses m~:?~~ and . to a person. xv.~: the strong one. 1) i1~p'~ ib¥ is not a relative clause. hich must not e turned into futures in violation w of grammar.) up old as the rea. l. namely. its height. but a powerful one of the nations. they C~iJ © 2010 Forgotten Books Assyrian cedar. com- of '!'~. nd the a preterite ~S~?. ii. 2 Sam. where we have the plural tl'?~. ] 2 the flgure of the tree is resu ed. and nowhere else. or on account of. ~n~1?~~: east him away a d let him lie. in the sense of exultation from pride. 1 and Ezek. xxviii. equivalent . xvii. 13. I rejected him. the historical which would be a tautology. ?. and i1~'~~ is a forcible exprespared with Ezek.~: for. s lvi. C'?~.. "who should reat him ill. Nebuchadnczzar. 8. 29." nor is the l relat.\ISS have )'~ (vid... ut to exalt itself (be proud) in. 'l.'I~~. form for "~. in Joh xlii. omitted on account of the pl'e eding ib¥. or according to. and the extinction of the empire is described a the cutting down of the proud '¥. ~'¥. ad It. . h''M?. www. do anything is in an evil sense. 5." used here as it frequently he w Jl deal with him. 5. tl. whi Norzi and Abarbanel (in de Rossi. his wickedness. ad It. 11. 8. in the se se of a strong one.'·W c':-! as in h. For the fact itself. also Ex.~ is a simple appell tive from and is neither a name of God or a defective construct state of '. 5 sqq. xxii. i.J2 C ron.?~ in '?'~. nd in the same way is ~1' lso a affirmed of the heart. . in this instance.b S~ does not mean God. 1.iI~tf~!.forgottenbooks. a rain. 21. 7 and xxx.:). 12. to be high in its heiglLt.~does n t mean.). t.e. after the analogy sion for the imperative: "let him deal with him. with ~iI'''. for example. xxx i. de Rossi. x. the For this defective form is only the case of )~. and C'!'~. l.. the scriptio plena very frequently alternat s with the defectica. »ariae lecu. as Hitzig imagines.

'\'~ to be n n un. cannot be with the suffix."tIJ.e. Ixi. "The thought expressed is.e=Ver. .~n:. that their pri ces may not lift themselves up in their pride.'~~ N'. many have taken . high gro md and valleys of lUO ntain (namely that con ecture 110t ~'l:1 was Lebanon) j and Hitzig is mistaken in his the original reading.. to which ~~ the Masora calls attention. 6).~.. omnes (ceterae orbores] bibentes aq 1/ m (Vatabl. and Klief oth).KIEL. For 'm !I. eli.~ n'l?? upon the ide of a corpse. see vel'.36 xxxlii. 12 and 13 are simply a further expansion of the tllOught expressed in t iat fly. I~~ are trees growing near the water. in the sense of fortes. This fate was prepared for Ass ur ill order that henceforth no tree should grow up to the sky any nlore. 11. i.. around which both birds and beasts of prey gather together to tear it in pieces (cf.. 4 and Isa. an appropriate expression for O'Ifll!.. and in the second that of letting lie. that many nat ons took advantage of the faIt of Asshur and rose into new life npon its ruins. xviii. or tereMntlti (vid. all the © 2010 Forgotten Books www. for vel's. 3). with t61 o:~ Tee e under the preposition t-:. as '''!~. to come towards or over any one.:~ (they descended) is to be exp aincd from the idea that the tree had grown upon a. ill vel'. to be above it. '·r... is On the falling of the branches beasts are commen- tre . and the nations which had sat Ull 81' its shadow withdrew.l?~~ in vel'. that no powerful one of this earth (no king or rince) should st rive after superhuman greatlless and migllt • is dependent upon ~. a n~~l? (Judg. away pre ominates. TilE PROPHECIES OF EZF. 8). and the efore nourished by water. Isa. the birds which had made their nests in its nat irally flew away. If. Starck. the tree became so shattered to atoms that its boukrhs and branches fell upon the mountains and on the low the idea of casting so that in the first sentence the earth. 4. 13. then. birds and sai to settle upon the fallen trunk.forgottenbooks. as several of the tat rs have correctly observed. or. xxx i. Th words'm 0Vl?~ ~'9l!~ are difficult'-' As t:lry'~~. and have rendered the clause either tit non perstent terebin Ii e01'Llrn in allitHdine fma. xiv.c. By the cas ing away. the descriptionis based . 1\lauL'BI'. 14. . 10.

E.\P. or relying in a reflective and precedes suffix is to be taken sense. gods in their only but has simply The ''?¥ He has not is to is t mime follow t = to course the LXX. against proud ot reflecting is of by to them by G d" (Starck).I~~ Y:!~ = idst of the u1~'~~1ii1~: © 2010 Forgotten Books www." "and no trees abounding themselves) (rely upon on ace unt of their water-drinkers have attained to great tree grows through are princes of thi earth who powel' through rich resour es. § 314c). xxxiv. 50 m narc accustheir abundance. and take and point. or upon and many commentators. as in Pro. princes. contend with their (1).forgottenbooks. n~(ch. or signify.. earth] y potentates) xxvi. are in ten ded. t:~~~f' as in ver. as a pronoull. remaining pride. (vid. in upon anything. 1'S or princes of the watcr-tr has therefore "and (that) asserted. Terebinths. no water-drink may conproved. e5. would be s the object. as in ch.:1'~~. "As a the moisture of water. xxxiii. T1'J. ftgainst." that O~\~~ senseless ideas. whom n)'T:'~8 reason for this warning that these waters have beep supplied ill ver.·etc. all or water-trees named. 10. Bible is very gootl: height. on the contrary. up to death.~. self. the noun to which it refers. it t:. 'rargum.xaltation that already in the II the proud tomed to become proud through The given them. :XXXI. 37 drinkers unnoticed to them. referring to pride. is really synonymous wi h O~!? except behind 1111011 '~r'~. The I:m'S~ of tion oneself he sense resting. 20). the subject of the sentence. or unexplained. 2. great ones of this earth are delivered ki ngs. of water (Hii.l'ernick).IV: to st = . 26). xiv. ~~ '!. 14b in the general the water-drinkers statement. C?~.~~ (ell. 20 (01' example. and rendered tend however.ClI. Ewald it thus: the suffix must be taken as referring But the water-trees these have neither are what taken te ebinths nor they m st either be. ald. . O~!? 'J]Ci-'~. that the figure of the tree falls into The rendering the background of tl e Berleburg in water stand the fact themselves The portrayed. Bot both render ng:s founder either water have on the simple fact that they leave the suffix uti in c""t-: As only the trees of til been spokeu of previously.

a picture is drav n of the impression which it made upon the whole creation. for a warning of Israel.~ iiZl in a past sense. (Starck). and slopped its st1'eams. as in vel'.I?~~ry and 11)~? together as asyndeton.e. the choice (m most beautiful of Lebanon. among the nations. i. 16. 1made tie nations tremble at the noise of his fall. Impression made lpon the nations caused a 'mourning: covered the fl od for his sake. TIlE PROPHECIES F EZEKrEL. and lie amo1l9 uncircumcise ones uruh. In the day that he 'Went down to hell 1 V ers. for the fil'st time. fect is evi ent from the use of the perwhich cannot \f:I?. i. . Y o '. be taken in a prophetical sense. to Pharaoh the his is the way in which thl'OI1Hh the prophe . those pierced uritl« the sioord.erthrow of the Assyrian. when 1cast him down t hell to those who go into the grave: and they comforted ihemse es in the net/tel' icorld. Whom dost tlio« thus resemble ill glory and great1!e$s am l1g the t"eas of Eden 9 So .. T ere is no necessity to understand ." as Ewald an Havernick prollose.d Jehovah.33 children teaches ground of men.~halt thou be thrust down to the tees of Eden into tIM nether soorld. to those pierced W1:tl~ the StOO d.1~V' followed by the histor cal imperfects. " to veil ill mourning. Iwyalso went with him into II ell. both. so as to form one idea. 18. that and decomposition Hence he takes all of proud boasting by the fall or Asshur. " Th us the prophet death that princes must die as w II as the people. all the water-drinkers.forgottenbooks. The © 2010 Forgotten Books www.t. even all the trees of Eden. tke L01. as Kliefoth supposes. Vel'. 10. It is contrary to He rew usage to connect ~J.e. Hi-I8. who sat as his helpere in his shade. the destruction of the Assyri n empire. 17. like all othc are common away" t men.Ver. viz. may be placed in the dearest light. Vel'.-In order that the o'. is the sa!Jing of the L01'd Jehotalt. or turned into futures. and its application t Phal'aoh.. the great scorer were held back: I caused Lebanon to blacken itself for him and all the trees of the field pined for him. 'Vhat God did on the overthrow make and known the people of Asshur He may That veu now. This i8 Pharaoh and II his tumult. 15. Thus saitl. words are to be in terpretsd.

forgottenbooks. The mourning of the flood is to be taken as equivalent to drying up. to clothe in bla k. "l~~. 150.. as in jj~~:Isa. t. x. because it ppeared inappropriate to Cji1'. i19? is to be explained from Pi? i19?. God covers the flo d on its account. and all the other I . maul' ed over the fall of the cedar Asshur. i:e. .e. the cedar-forest (Isa. as Haschi. that the whole of the resour es from © 2010 Forgotten Books www. the ermination il-. 5). made the cedar-tree gre t j and now that the tree has been felled. lix.being softened into il-:.1-n~ \I?¥ i1~? cannot mean here. cji1f.!.J?.-. but cut table to conte. i.. 34).39 circumstances under which . i19?~ is regarded by Ewald as a Pual formed after the Aramean mode. "1 stopped its s reams. 4. Kimchi. Lebanon. so that the streai s which issued from it were deprived of their water. that is to say. and man others have shown. 20. to veil or wrap in mourning. The UIISU own by strangers. which poured ts ni1~~ round about its plantation.. xxiv. whilst Hitzig proposes to change the form into In any case the i1~?r. as a nomen »erbole appear unsuitable. The following clauses. 7 and xxvi. Ii. word must be a perfect Paal. it is' more .1"li?J}. so that the plural is construed with the 'Singular feminine (Ewald. The word p~ is omitted.specifically defined by a detai of the objects which were turned into mourning. two verbs an: JUllIed form one idea are of a totally different kind. l( to cover the flood upon (over) hi "(aftel' ell. 19).!~V is placed first as an absol ute. to faint with grief (ef. and the ( doubling of the' being dropped on account of the teva. A flood. and it must also be a third person feminine.. to turn into moumiug. The thought is the following: all nature was so painful] affected by the fall of Asshur. and in the s ntences which follow. § 317a). for this is altogether either the more remote or the more immediate tree Asshur was not destroyed by a flood. Vatsblus. show very plainly that the connection between t e flood (tlii11:t) and the tree which had been felled is to be un erstood in accordance with ver." etc. In this instance ~r. by ttaching the syllable ae instead of doubling the middle radica .

40 'tilE PEOPnECIE OF EZEI\:lF. and both word are placed side by side in the construct state.Vith this expla ation . and could only denote t e army of the Assyrian.~-." i. 16 the trembling of he nations is expressly named. as a declaration of the reason for their descending nto hell along with the ABsyrians. . "All the trees of Eden" are all t ie powerful and noble princes. the picked and finest cedars. and others. 14.-and render the passngc hus: H for as his arm (as his ~'1: © 2010 Forgotten Books www. with all the trees of Eden." i. (cf.L. Ewald. to the princes and peoples whom Asshur slew in 'ars to establish his imperial power.1" is evidently meant to co respond to Ol~~ c~.forgottenbooks. (ver. his arm.:. his resources.-in ot ier words. xxxii. 6. compare c . for these words obv ously point back to . so that he has no adva tage over them.]. so that . : . 9. To interpret the different figures as specially relating to princes and nations ~ppenrs a doubtful p 'ocedure. vel'. for tho simple reason that in ver. !lh~1'l)-?. They come thither to those pierced with the sword. should be tal en in a relative sense: "and . In that case i~~:1 ~~~. But this does not harmonize with th sitting in his shadow among the nations. and is actually identical with c~ i. because th are thereby warned of the perishable naturo of all earthl greatness and of their own destruction.e. xiv. which its prosperity and might h d been derived were dried up. 'Ve therefore agree with Osia der. "the choice and beautifu ODes of Lebanon.e.e. as in Dan.i~'~ (cf. i. ix." ". the inhabitants of t ie nether world console themselves with the thought that the ssyrian is now sharing their fate (for this thought. in regarding the whole of the seco d hemistich as more precisely determining the su bject. 31 and Isa. ~'trees of Eden" is explained by the apposition.10). § 339b). 2.]. i. They comfort themselves because they ave gone down with him into Sheol. \1:'1' might also belong t as a second subject. "w ich sat in his shadow among the nations. The idea itself. -'Vhilst all the nations on the s rfaee of the earth tremble at the fall of Assyria.~ 6). Grotius.? are connected) as in 1 Sam.1'r would be different from D. and sti 1 further strengthened by the expression C~!? I~b:.

-After this description of the greatness and the destructio of the imperial power of Assyria. The chapter can ains two lamentations times: the first. so that it is immediately followed by the am ouncement. xxxi. aod the ith his blood (vel's. viz." etc.\r. LA Pharaoh. in verso 1-] 6. His birds and beasts of prey to devour.e. xxix. is unsuitable. 14. be made to 15a. and his seed. LA:I XTATIOXS AND OVEn THE RUUI OF PHAP. 2. 20-26. phecy concerning hell composed at different to the fall of Pharaoh.forgottenbooks. not" he is. 2-13). ~ is used in In any case..7) is worked out in elegiac form. At his destruction u lose their brightness. cop.18 t ie question already asked in ver. XXXII.' as that would require N~J' i11. xiv. and cast out upon the earth.-\OH rns PEOPLE.- Vel's. does not a ply. c'~::v" uncir umcised. 3: to whom is Pharaoh like? i'1~~.' 11. and all the nations © 2010 Forgotten Books www.i1 is the predicate: his is (i. xxx. 1-16. but t-:. that it sat in his shadow aOlong the nations. !ENTATION OVER THE KIXG OF EGYPT. in support of which appeal for the simple reason that the sta eroent. in ch." lace of a causal particle. the pro- he casting down of this imperial power into (c1I. relating contained which rests upon t ie prophecy ch. 41 so that the LXX.e. under such circumstances. as in ver. when the glorious cedar Asshur has been smitten by such a fate (Hitzig). i. 1-16. so. 21. CIIAP.[l. I-Hi in w bieh and t e second. Ezekiel I'epents in ver. Th reply to this question is really contained in the description given already. the the conjecture might which Ewald has adopted from and the Syriac. a sea-m . \. :!XXII. is drawn by the nations out of his waters with the ne flesh is given to th earth is saturated the lights of heav of God. might) they sat in his shadow among the nations. H and thou wilt be thrust down. so does it happen to) Pharaoh. equivalent to ungodly heathen '!) I-:li1.!'')!jl. in verso 17-32.

forgottenbooks. Tlly fleslt tv'ill I put upon the mounta~ s. and will cause all the bird» of the heaven to seule upon thee. Ver. the word of Jehovah came to me. raise a lamentation over Pharaoh the kin of Egypt.-The ver.42 TIlE PROPHECIES OF EZEKJEL. €Bvoov OOpOtWB'I]'> (LXX. month. leoni genliu assimilatus es (V ulg. Tlwre!ore will I spread out my net ovm' thee in tit midst of fnany nations J that they may drau: thee "P in my yar . is construed in throe other ways. Son of 1'fJ. 7-10).org © 2010 Forgotten Books I .-l'his lamenta 'on begins.un.he low places shall become full of thee. will destroy both the land a desert The kin of Babel will date giYen in n the first of the agrees man and beast. cannot come into consideratio for a moment. win be amazed thereat (vers. 5. wast comparedto a yOlmg lion a ong the nations. The destruction of Pharnoh. xxix. hurL thee 1tpOH lit surface of the field. 11-16). sayillg" with the relation in entirely which the substance of the od itself stands to the prophecies belonging to the tenth and eleven h years in ch. thou dids break [ortli in thy streams.??. yet wast like a dragon in the sea.). For til se reasons he adopts the rendering. and Hilzig's objections to the ordinary rendering 0 the words will www. the Lord Jehovah. which would then IJe synonymous. xxx. 2-6. on the ground that the frequently recur ing i19V would only have this meaning in the present passage. and fill tlu: 'calleys "with tTty funeral heap. Ttiou. 3. Hitzig objects to the ordinary explanation of the word l)\~'H c~h "o/~. "lion of the nations. like others. 1-16 and eh. 1-" In the twelftlt year. Thus and dids: tread their streams. Aud tcill cast thee ~tpOIl the la II d.~. whereas the cliff ent date found in the Septuagint Vel's. and t." But it would be contrary to the ana ogy of all the nb'~ to commence the lamentation with such a threat. G.). with a picture of the glory of the falle king. 4. and will (vers. but not with the nominative. sa urate the eartli ~I)ith thine outflow of thy blood even to the mount ins. V er. and. th u belongest to death. come upon make Egypt. V er. and say to him. I uiill. AeOVT/. in the twelfth month. 2. Ver. and the beasts of the whole earili to satisfy the selves with thee. and that . 20-26. and didst trouble the waters witA til feet.

~p. 33) has only the intransitive meaning to break out. C'f':ll as in cb." and alter ". Ewald and Hitzig have taken 0 ence at the words ':I'Q'. has his meaning in the Kal. "though he was rather tu be compar d to the crocodile. with thy nostrils (Job xli.~ is only met . 2-G. 12).cmr. and akes the waters and their streams turbid with its feet. for M1?".~~~ n~j)J thou didst break forth in thy treams. lf ~'?1~ '~"". But what is decisive in fa rour of this rendering is the fact that the following clause is con ected by mea ns of the ad versa ti ve iI'. Plmraoh was regardell as a mighty conqueror of the nations. and the construct on of the Niplial with the accusative (not nominative. 11. then breaks occasionally forth in its streams.forgottenbooks. The lion is a figurative representation of a pOI erful and victorious ruler j and o~b "~1 is really equivalent to t::b ~~ in ch. but they have not considered that n~f.O?with o. but the words addressed to it as a lion of the n tions would float in the air and be used without any intelligib e meaning.j'Z:i~~~ into ':J'I)'. 3-(3).1~1 (but th au). xx. as Hi zig says) may be derived without difficulty from the constructi n of the synonymous S~. tho fresh waters. proves nothillg. The circumstance that the Niplt:"Z n~'. which stirs up the streams. xxxi.wi h here in the sense of op. . 43 not bear exa illation. XXXIT.otOUq()aL. The thought is simply this: the crocodile lies in the sea. stirring up and disturbi g the life-giving streams of the nations. There ore shall Pharaoh also end like such a monster (vers. and cause him (I © 2010 Forgotten Books www. The guilt of Pharaoh did not consist in the fact that he had ssumed the rosition of a ruler among the nations (Kliefoth) j ut in his polluting the water-streams. and life-giving springs of the nations most perniciously witl mouth and feet) and renders turbid all that is pure" (Ewa d). Piel. which shows hat the comparison of Pharaoh to a o'~I:1forms an antithesis to t ie clause in which he is compared to a young lion.: contained a dcclar~tion of destruction. and Hitlrpeel. not only would this an itliesis be lost. 3.I wou ld be qui e 0 U t 0 f pi ace with such anal teration I as 1J'~ in both the Ka and Hipldl (J uug. God will take him in is net by a gathering of nations.

forgottenbooks.j~~Y:.. Ver. 8. or in that of putrefaction or decomposed bodies. the U'1T. 9. that which flows out.44 to be drawn TH PROPHECIES OF EZEKIE. I will cove?' the sun with cloud. and tlie moon will not callse ts l£ght to shine. © 2010 Forgotten Books www.. and I b?'ing darkness over tlty land. up to the top of the mountains. 5. xxix. 4.Ve 7.ery. and their 'tI~~ r~. because of thee. a flow. and the appended word 19'~ indicates the source whence he flowing takes place. as spectators of the event (Havernick) j but ~ denotes the il strurnent. as 15 evident from the '. or medium employed. His 0 erthrow fills the whole world with mourning and tel'l'or. i:e.~. which has been attribnte to it from the Arabic. is the aying of the Lord Jeliouah. although t e source from which this meaning of the word is derived has not yet been traced. out of h s element upon the dry land.. ch. I will COlle?' th« sky and darken its st 1'S. c' ~Q to the mountains.t of many nations when I brillg out thine ocertlirou: amo'lg the aiions into lands wltich thou knouiest not.L. according to which ~n1 signify a height or a heap) which may the context defines s a funeral-pile. to be high. The thought in these verses is probably simply this. and that many nations would derive advant ge from his fall.itZl1 in some of the codices.~. Vor. as i11fll does not yield suitable meaning either in the sense of reptile. i1~~.). lw~1 can only refer to the carcase of the beast. 13).. strictly speaking. rVAen I extinguish thee. and of what the outflow consists. a participle from ~. The tv rds " o~~~ 31'e not to be understood as referring to the nati ns. There is 110 worth to be attached to tl e reading r. Under these circumstances we ad ere to the derivation from c1'. the outflow (Hitzig). And I will trouble the Iiea .. And 1 will nuke many nations amazed at thee. . All the sTtiniHg b'g/tts in tlie s~'y do I rken.10. According to the parallelismus w membrorum. 7-10. 12. is Dot to e taken in connection with but is a second object to 1l}1i?::. where he shall become food to the irds and beasts of prey (cf. that th fall of Pharaoh would hring destruction upon the whole of t ie land of Egypt. 't:. here the persons-by whom Go causes the net to be thrown.1 hic follows. Vel's. Ver.

that the darkness consequent thereupon is a figurative represen ation of utterly hopeless circumstances (Schmieder).cuxr. 7).-The © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. oubt regarded the dng In 'lJ~tb~~ Pharaoh the first magnitude nated as a. lO. so that the land 0 Pharaoh becomes dark. the constellation xxx.~~. etc. everyone for his life on tlte day oj Ids fall. is evident he carom. 7 and 8 is not light by tho paraphrasey " when thou art extinguished. and for the explanation of 1D\:::l.)." accompanied with the remark. 3 (= ~D!. xiii. which collapses with his fall. The th ught on which the figure rests is that of the day of the Lord.-The thongl t of vers. th t the sea-dragon the constella ion of a dragon. so far as Egypt is concerned. 3 and Joel ii. bright mind. ch. Isa. 7 10.forgottenbooks. there is no necessity to assume. xxi . and on it t ie shining stars of heaven are darkened. rests upon prophet's coincides in ver. xiv. 9).ey shall tremble every mo ellt. almost but in this conception Isa. Egypt is a world-power fepresente by Pharaoh. 4 upon the connection bet wee 1 the phenomena of the heavens and great catastrophes on earth. 9 and as a star of Ezekiel is desigis no . The contents of both verses may be fully explained from the biblical idea of the day of the Lord and the accompanying phenomena. 10. where of Babylon T at this passage was in the the fact that vel'. xxx. Thi day bursts upon Egypt with the fall of Pharaoh. 2 and ell. Compare the remarks to be found i tile commentary all Joel iii. and of the dragon in the sky th e I ights of heaven los their brightness (cf. 7 extinction at once from veToutim with Isa. when the present heaven and the present earth will prish in the judgment-fire. is an omen But the overt trow of this world-powerof the ov rthrow of every ungodly on the day of the last j dgment. Ii. t e day of God's .d 45 be/m'e their hngs sllall slwdder at due when 1 bra dish my tl. and exhausted xxxtt. fuee . of Egypt is presented for there is no connection between the compa ison of Egypt to a tannim (see j or sea-dragon. Ii. and prelude world-power 35 Dereser and Hitzig here under have done. 12. all will be extinguished. on Isa. SWD?. on w hi..

~:. and the land is made desolate of its fulues». i support of which he adduces the rendering of the LXX. 35. Ver. lOa compare ch." Cons quently there is no need for either the arbitrary alteration of '. xxvii. 9 and 10 do not r late to the mourning of the nations.i By swords 0/ heroes urill cause thy tumult to fall.. Vcr. n r any houf of cattle disturl) them. to afflict the heart.AW(TLalJ (TQU.. When I make the land of Egypt desert. The sword is brandished before their face when it falls time after time upon their brother the kin of Egypt. that no foot of man mag disturb them any more. For vel'. but to fill it with anxiety. but to anxiety and terror i to which they are plunged by God through the fall of Phara h and his might.J . to brandish. still less can vers. 9~iV. to deprive it of its peace and cheerfulness.7~into '.v~o:. which Ewald proposes.. Vel'. and obscuration of the stars are not merely a figurative l'cpre~ sentation of the mournin occasioned by the fall of Pharaoh. 11-16.. violent ones of the nations a1'e they all. that 9'9~ describes the prisoners scattered am ng the heathen as the ruins of the ancient glol'Y of Egypt.forgottenbooks.J. For thus sail It tit e Lord Jehovah.'Jci. \Vhen I bring thy fall among the n tions " is equivalent to "spread the report of thy fall. because I8m te all the inhabitants therein. and they © 2010 Forgotten Books www. and all its tumult will be destroyed. 'For vers. The judg ent uponEgypt will be executed by the ki ng of Ba by 10 n. with the imaginary render'ng announcement or report. is the sayin of tile LONl Jehovah. by moments == every moment (see the cornm. nor for the marvellous assumptioi of Havernick. 0 1s3. 13. And I will cut off all its cattle from the 9 'eat waters. )? O\. to ca se to fly. I' . 12. 3). The sword oj ilu: king of B bylon will come upon thee. does not mean t make it sorrowful. nd will lay uaste tl.-?~. Then 'will I cause hei» ieatere to seule and their streams to flow like . C'}'n~. 9 and 0 be taken as an interpretation in literal phraseology of the figurative words in verso 7 and 8. Vel'.14.e pride of Egypt. 15.46 TUE PROr ECIES OF EZEKIEL. which is founded upon the change of into .VeIl. iX)La. whereby they are thrown into alarm for their own lives. xxvii. Vel's.

\) one is summed destruction up briefly in literal tel" S. it fertile. Gen. 11). ix. tke daugll of the nations will sing it mournfully.CHAP. over Lgypt and over all its tumult toill tltey sin!} it mournfnlly.16. 12 and 13 must not be restric of people. by wh ch Hitzig of streams of the nations were stirred up. 12 (see the I . is ale saying of the L I'd Jelwvall. 'as According to this explanation. and this is therefore specially mentio ed in ver. to the multitude everything l\O~ ill vers. but for which there.e. understand of water this as signifyillg in the Nile.-Vel'. xlvii 6. of the numerous of Egypt includes the destruction of the cat le. 13. nd of the proud might of Eg -pt and his brave will be effected through violent hosts. xxxi. 14) there is a slight a. where of water. and they will sing it mournfully. intimation 0 the close (vel'.forgottenbooks. herds which fed on the grassy banks of he Nile and were driven to the Nile to drink (cf. on eh. '~':l!. he © 2010 Forgotten Books www. x. 2. ful ode) is t1lis. 2 and IS) people undoubtedly predominates is proud t:. of the water is therefore of the imperial n figurative on 4. Then will God cause the waters of Egypt to sink. lid he r0\ of the wild driving the life-giving Kliefoth abundance no further power of Egypt. with an allusion to the consequence thereof.. 7). s a the king of Babylon in ch. which the diminution had previously flowed the land and rendered pUt'pose now. 1 a. (as in ch. n-ie. XXXlr.. Ex. xxviii.. is mentio is depicted reprcsentat with evident reference a sea-monster. proud} but whatever i. and embra in Egypt by which noise and confusion were m de the idea of a multitude of is he in the use of ib~ in ver.~"f'" ~~~. 2 sq<]. that either the waters of the Nile would The disturbing disturbs the not be disturbed of the water Pharaoh streams by the foot of man or hoof of beast (compare anv m re ~ vcr. nam Iy. The 0. j d es It signifies although tumult. Ver. the utter devastation pride of Egypt. disturbance which to vel'. xli. xix. xxxi. 3b ed as he with ch. 47 A lamentation (rnou nrs shall know that I am JelwMlt. is not that of which Egyp or exalts itself in Egypt. 3).-In this concluding strophe the figllrativt: announ emeat of the preceding and toward better future.

15 as tile time when the devastation has taken place. ation Jerome is the following: ." can only s gnify to settle.lself. r~. 11Iv~'. to make their streams understand this as signifying Oil the slow and gentle a £gure of which the to And are 13). the of he usage of the language. flow of the Scriptures or Hebrew oil-rivers which symbolical up is flow y the parallel 0 clause.7J like oil. contain a continued picture a mistake. blessing. in opposition both to the words and or in other verse conta the Chalde make nution context. with ~':1ryr as synonymous have correctly But . whereas Kl efoth takes the 15th verse." © 2010 Forgotten Books or www. according to " like rivers of oil. 13). Then will purest waters. TilE pnOl-'HECI ES OF EZEE"I rr. en disturbed by the sway of the dragon. is more precisely defined by 'm 'ry1}~ in ver. but are the nutri raoh the Lard will cause the waters of the stream. might if we consider in ·hich reference is made to the disturbance of the water throubh its being trodden with the feet (ver. The figure is a very appropriate one for Egypt. after the fall of Ph I The expl which had b another.. i. as the land is indebted t the Nile for all its fertility. so that their streams flow like oil) and eut of true light. iminished 3 water. 6).forgottenbooks. Job of Gael (cf. 14. tunc. The correctness of this explanation confirmed with oil. assumed. signify led by lPi?~o:_1. of the devastation of ut this is evidently for the simple reason that it is irreconcilable with the t~. by which the thought is introduced. The a promise.e.48 words waul the land. be restored not by y the Lord IIir.Vhereas its water had been s irred up and rendered turbid by Pharaoh. would introduce representation trace in Hebrew. flow quietly like oil. regards DS as the sequel to ver. ph aseology. is equivalent a e not rivers which in oil instead of the rich blessing cant P~r. vords. but rivers of water ( cf.' in itself no doubt of water.1lJn. to become clear through tile Rinking to he bottom of the slime which had been stirred (cf. a figurative is used throughout of the divine the paw r of the divine Spirit. as most of the commentators. he abundance atcr sink. Deut. and xxxii. ch. xx iv. to a dimithe and Jerome." xxix. 18). 1.

J er. xxvi. ix. II. like other great nations. XXXII. which Ewald aptly describes as a "du I. "The Messianic times will then for the first time daw on Egypt. 17-32.-Ver. T e words do not contain a summons to the daughters of the na ions to sing the lamentation. llrcsening the uniform and monotonous character of the lamenta ions for the . 1> © 2010 Forgotten Books www. But this blessing 'ill not flow to Egypt till its natural power is destroyed. 16). that gypt.-21. 2" (rIitzig). lament over ~lte tumult oj Eg!Jpt and l!UJ'l it clollJu. and will make its streams flow with oi." we have six regular strophes. is cast down to the nether w rid. SOli 0/ man. in which the thought is worked out. Tiie whole 1)£ it is simply an elegiac expansion of the losing thought of the previous chapter (ch.18. according to the heading in er. heavy lamentation. Ew III has therefore given the following as the precise meaning of v 1'. 49 which pours its blessing upon the land to purify themselves. no doubt the 12th month.14. to be attributed to a copyist in this inst nee also. Introduction and first tl'ophe. 17.CHAP. 1." Vel'. and the omission is. The clarified water and flowing oil are figures of the Hfe-gi ing power of the word and Spirit of God. 18-21. because mourning for the dead w s for the most part the business of women (cf. through the true knowledge to which t e chastisement leads. The stat ment of the month is omitted here. Vel's. xxxi. belongs to the same year as the preceding. Vel's.-This second lamentation or mourning ode.forgottenbooks. and to the 5th of the month. that is to say. no doubt. in which ease it was composed only fourteen Jays after the first. as in ch. The daughters of the nation are mentioned as thesingers. but the declaration that they w II do it. 16 "rounds off the passage by tu ning back to ver. FUNERAL-DIRGE FOR HE DESTRUCTWN OF MIGliT OF EGYPT. her. in which the thought is implied that the predicted de astation of Egypt will certainly occur. 1.). In the ode. TilE EZEK. when the waters no more become devastating an turbid.

!~can only be th nations enumerated in verso 22. the lamentation over E ypt is extended into a funeral-dirge on the fall of the heat en powers of the world.PRorllECJES OF EZEKIEL. The 8tro11g ones of te heroes sa!} of it out of the midst of hell with its ltelper~: tIt are gone down.'':1~8 and i1:l 'Jl\'. § 340b). 20. Pl.b By thus as placing nations.:. 24 sqq. which.:. 15 (d. 1Vith the lamentat all. All these glorious nations ha e also been hurled down by the word of God. 19. daughter Tyre. But tbi prominence consists in the brief inquiry t.. 20.e. but res roes the principal idea contained in the object already nam d. xxvi.~ © 2010 Forgotten Books www. O:!¥I?. the sword is handed. like the daughters 0 gl01'ious 1lCltions. 'Whom dost tlwu 8urpas8 in loveliTle8s? Go own and lay tl!yself with tke uncircumcised. are already in Shea}. its population. they lie It. into tke nether world. by givi g prominence to the glory of the falling kingdom.') before wh mart thou lovely? i. slain with the 8fVoj'd.~l'{ is not intended as a repetition of the suffix !)"7. compa e ch. as in 1 Sa . is Ezekiel to thrust down the tu ult of Egypt into tIL pit! Vel'. The lamentation is God's word . Egypt. A mong til se slain ~cith the sword tlJill tAey fall. Vel'. denotes the populati n of powerful heathen nations. to those who go in. . and all her tumult. to Pharaoh with all Egypt on a level with all the fallen an r. and "'~.-1'1~~) utter a lamentation. For n. art thou more lovely than anyone else The words are addressed either to i\O~ C:J¥1? (ver.. dr her doum. 18). in the ex ression. thrust it (th tumult of Egypt) down. 19. not about to be thrust down. and Egypt s to be associated with them. Consequently the copula' before . n. but thrust down already. daughter Babel. Ver. .~?is to be taken in the sense of a comparison. Ewald."!.it( and the daug iters of glorious nations are co-ordinate. The ode itself commences in ver. viz. or by means thereof. the unci?'eumeised. xii. according to hese verses.e. i. an as such it has the power to accomplish what it utters.~~. are co-ordinate. The c."!'1i1. the enumeration of whi h fills the middle strophes of the ode. 01' 'hat is more probable.

org . vel'. 32).. pleasure when descending into Sheol." with an allusion to Isa.. 21). g eeted with malicious however obvious the by the kings already Bu fact may be that Ezekiel has this passag in mind. For it is not allowable to connect \'l!v-n~(taken in the sense of alo g with their helpers) with c'. r'!. f r tile simple reason that. This thereof the uncircumcised. to "20. as embodied in the person of Pharaoh.~~ as a noun in apposition. to ehe world- fate than to go down into Sheol. address him. greet him. 101 but simply a statement concerning the Egyptians. 11). i. eli. xii. 21. mad in the third person.forgottenbooks. which sponding to helpers onsequently "liv-n~ 11 m) wi th his helpers. 9 sqq )_where the king ot in Sheol are speaking (I '1~If'\)in an 'I Ex. the already handed or Pharaoh to the executor his t multo fall in sword of those pierced with the of the j dgment. out still further in The subject They The ord. and the meaning of the question is the following :-Thou. 18." same fate has hapt of otc. i> ~'~':!... 51 ower. that the Egypt and for already words are addressed to the hearers of the sword : Draw its tumult down into Sheol ' (l~~'1 is imperative of his de truction. art indeed lovely. lie there. therefore thou canst not expect any better and there lie wit is carrier assigned and S (cf. The words. and. there is no address in the verse before ns as in . there speak to hir . \>. tbe two are separated by . who have already is qujte in order as gone down before him into hell (cf. point once more pened to the Egyptians as to all the re the rulers and © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. according t ver. lk (of "1!11.\~~ !Jin~. his (Pharaoh's) suffix.!~. the heathen Babel. The singular COCl'C- are his alii s. ~ they to. xxxi. can only belong to ~. but thou art not better or more lovely than ther mighty heathen his tumult nations. xiv. Moreovel'. x: x. 18-21. as in ch. xxxi.e. 'I they have to the fact that th one down.s i rendered by many.CIUP. 8). \'11v·rll$ could hardly be mad to harmonize with '~~'~1.Isa. o'>JP. has offended Hitzig. and the ground midst ~Sb~ is is the Egyptians.jng of Babel (ch. is there. vel'. Egypt. Their destruction i so certain. Egyp. XXXII. the I.!i:. iv. if"" signified ad eum.

prophesied. of the world nether whom world. Meshech-Tubal. Asshur. In heathen already There t iat has DO bearing upon this for in the sense in whi h Ezekiel understands circumwere un ircumcised. Assyrian and Chaldean in any case." . who had once so grievously had already been swallowed mpire. are grouped with Edam. oppressed that" enough came" and the Aramean the kingdom kin s. the Sidonians and princes of the north. 'i~:p.52 nations THE rnQrHECI S OF EZEKIEL. Sidon. xxxi. nations. not the place of punishment com are the comm. :J~~ is a predicate.forgottenbooks. in the more the neighbouring imm In this no regard Elflm the empire of Asshur. will share the same fate. G d has judged. Elam. and Edom. up It may. world-powers and among two nations. of the dead. 11 on ch. said t. associated hich only rose to the rank of iate and more remote future. and of this that epithet "the is one observed t 0 in apposition the Egyptians. at the time w hen Ezekiel etc. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. their esh. be said princes of Israel in the. \Vith th re are and three smaller neighbouring paid to the time of destruction which had already fallen. On Kliefoth has the Egyptians '~?I}without q circumcision j passage cision. 11.. i.hat descended reigning w ith already t e same justice many of the rulers all it also be of Egypt had also may when Pharaoh. the Syrian k ngs. estion whether to o'~:!~:ry. was to share the same fate. although the Sidonians had Ion ago given up their supremacy to Tyre. whom he the even the Egyptians the four if they were accustomed to circumcise following with of strop es (vel's. The six are is and into two classes-three great and remote .30) a series of nations is enumerate who Egyptian finds in hell. into in and Elamites.e. divisible the princes the north. For o\:i. t e gathering-place for the damned.::l~ \?~. n tions. It is Ezekiel's day. Meshech-Tubal. indeed.hell = the the article correctly received the application ~tl'ong ones of the heroes. 22. to welcome but Sheol had already descended [nto Sheol both of the Assyrians the Egyptians countrymen at the time as soon as they (Kliefoth). and are six of these-namely.

e. Yer. and and nations more in the light of n worldof all the heathen the prophetic into it under in its fall the overthrow predicting that and his tumult picture. so © 2010 Forgotten Books www. Second stropbe. and Hitzig therefore proposes to erase these words. or people. commences here. 22. and its multitude sUtil1. deepest together extremity They all lie there fallen by the sword. the intention of which is merely to furnish an exemplification" (Kliefoth). 24. slain. true that and that but the predominant that idea is not that of the king It is' of the kingdom or world-power. . 23.. the graves of Asshur sides. all of them Whose gmves Me made in is round about its grare. is construed as a feminine.~ in ver.and the graves of its countrymen tIle graves of its ruler.fallen by ale sword. so long as this of the living. therefore. therefore.e. the utmost or with its people was in the land i. which round about it their graves. on tll:lt the ideas of the kingdom It is affirmed of Asshur. 25 and 2 G. 22. discerning power of 'the looks upon Egypt world. ment of God. i. by the Chaldcans. 53 upon chronological evident. that been overthrown It is important and 'WBI:5.Jallen the deepest pit. 2:!. enumeration had already to notice aU spread terror in the land of the the world. 23 the declaration Jie in the utmost whereas of Sheol.forgottenbooks. but the alternation separate. 26. ill the suffixes attached to \'rfl?l? "r::i:l'-?~ in vel'. XXX]I.9 in vel'. as coming to share their fate with them. but that the words oscillate from one idea that as a world-power are round about as those who have that power lies in SIJC>ol. as ri~ioq which follows in every case plainly shows.CH. S~tJ ':12. '\~\:l'-?? in vel's. and its king are not it the ground kept strictly to the other. with Asshur.23. '1A)lLO There is Assliur and all its multiiude.U. who have been swept away by a judgTo this is added in c?.e. by the sword. livil1g. may be very simply explained. Shea}. It is obvious. that [I any such reflection relations is out of place in connection with our text. 23. the masculine alternates with the feminine.-The power. and that Ezekiel power. Vel's. that Pharaoh are expected and welcomed descended • by the princes have already 22.-Ver.

org . and whic 1 is mentioned along with the Modes as one of the conq erors of Babylon (Isa. round about it are their graves " all of tltem uncircumcised. i. and its multitude is round about its grave" (the grave of this world-power). they are hurled down to the 10 est hell. the warlil e people of Elymais.forgottenbooks. the deeper in the nether world. whos archers served in the Assyrian army {Isa. and all its multitude round about its qrave . The on Iy di renee is. and that he also sets the bearing f shame © 2010 Forgotten Books www. and almost in the same words. Elam. xxii. 6). an repeats it a second time. 24. The higher on earth. 22). all of t em slain.pced '1}. Tltere iB Elam.e.. xxi. looking for the honour f burial. whereas Jeremiah prophesied it destruction at the commencement of Zedekiah's reign (Jer. and bear their shame w<'th those wlw went int the pit.t all its multitude. ones i8 he laid. that his description is more copious. Havernick has entirely misunderstood the words "round about Asshur are its grave3 " (vel'. fallell by the mcord.-Ver.rae PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. so that the dead are waitiug graves in deepest sorrow. xlix 34 sqq. the modern Chusistan.itlt the 8U'Q-l'd j because terror 'I.).C s spread before them in tlte land of tlie living. 24 and 25. In tlte midst of sla 11. long as they ruled on earth. Susiana. but looking in vain.arne with those wllO have gone into the pit. Vel's. In the midst of tlte slain have tlley made ~'t bed willt . they spread terror all aro nd them by their violent deeds. who spread terror before them in the la ld of tlie living. but simply that the graves of the people lie round bout the grave of their ruler. 2). who went down uncircumcised into tlu: nether world. and that he expre ses more distinctly the thought of shameful destruction which s implied in the fact of lying in Sheol among the slain. Ezekiel says just the same of Elam as he has alrea y said of Asshur. whe he finds therein the thought that the graves and corpses re to be l'egarded as s~parated. There is DOt a word of this in the text. Vel': 25. they bear their s]. pie.-Asshur is followed by O?IV. From the loftiest height 0 earthly might and greatness. Third strophe.

55 into Sheol in contrast with the terro around it during its life 011 earth.- which Elam had spread Nb~) as in ch. tvllO went down into ltell wit" tltei1' weapons of war. Vel's.O~-~~? is either the the fact of being in the midst 0 O?'V. and Ewald. as a northern power. xvi. their iniquities have co upon their bones. xxxviii. as in 2 Chron. he (Elam) midst of the slain. i. and the majority of whom lad miserably perished not very long before (Herod. Vel'. and lie with those slain witl. Tiley lie not with the fallen heroes of llncircu cisetl men. this view is ounded entirely upon the erroneous supposition that in this uneral-dirge Ezekiel mentions only such peoples as had susta ned great defeats a longer or shorter time before. and oth rs suppose that the reference is to the Scythians. Meshech-' ubal comes into consideration here.. 14. W lOse suiords they laid under (ILeir heads. 28.~~.' here as one people or heathen power.Tttbal and all its 'multitude. the resting-place xvi. the Maselli and Tibareni of the Greeks (see t e comm. Vel'.CHAP. are joined together acruvcel"w<. The last clause in vel'. xxvii. '1~ and . 26 Ezekiel makes the © 2010 Forgotten Books www." or a crowd.). and ~~Q1 has an indefinite sub was given. :l~~I?. as in ch.forgottenbooks.~?~ er. 26. who invad d the land in the time of . ut apart from the fact that the prophets of the Old T~stamentl ake no allusion to any invasion of Palestine by the Scythians see Minor' Prophets.. "they gave" == there f the dead. on ell. 106). which is overcome in its conflict with the ki gdom of God. is an emphatic repetition is brought or 1aid in the . Hitzig.. i'I? refers to ect. and is prophetically exhibited by the proph t as having already fallen under the j~dgment of death. 2G 28. Eng. The . the eioord. ii. slain with the word) because they spreacl tel'ror before tkem in tlte land of tlie living. In vel'.l in i'I. 13). its gr 'es round about it i all oj them uncircumcised. Fourth strophe. vol. 52. because they were a terror of the heroes in tile nd of lite living. Tbere is Meshed!. P: 124. 26-28. Thou also wilt be dashed to pieces am ng ullcircumci. 'with of association.sed men. XXXII. 27. transl. 25 of the leadillg thought.

But the a nouncement in ver. although © 2010 Forgotten Books www. 25. and therefore N'1 might stand for N tl. because they fell . Ewald. 26. And the probabili y of this conjecture is heightened by the allusion made to heroe . according to the revailing in ancient times. and. but with thc heathen. Dot with tbe righteous. Have nick. ith honour. Aen. they do lie wi h them. viii. The custom of placing the weapons of fal en heroes along with them in the grave is attested by Diad Sic.. and regard the verse before us as containing a declaration that the slain of Meshech-Tubal woul not receive the honour of resting in the nether world alan with those fallen heroes whose weapo:1S were buried hem in the grave. 282). nnouncement as he has already made coucerning Asshur in ve s. and with regard to Elam in verso 24. vi. and others. there is not the slightest indication of su h excitement in the description given here as could render this a sumption a probable one. i. inasmuch as. regard this verse as a question (~~ in the 13 nso of t'b~): " and should they not lie with (rest with) other fallen heroes of the uncircumcised. But altho gh the interrogation is merely indicated by the tone wher the language is excited. Virgil. S5.56 THE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. as in Ex. 22. who have descended into the nether world with their weap ns of war. something is therei affirmed which does not apply to all the heroes who have oue down into hell. lWsenmliller. !" i. 'Ve therefore follow the Vulgate.' · '~7 ~'! 1 C. pp. . xviii. who were only known to Israel by hears y. and many of the earlier commentators. at all events. 233 (cf.forgottenbooks.e. there! re.. at the com encement of the sentence suggests the supposition that an antitl esis is intended to the preceding verse. and could not possibly expect a better fate. 23. Arrian. 22. it was a mark of great respect dead. nut the last place in which we should expect to vith any allusion to the payment of such honour to the -onld be in connection with Meshech and Tubal. 281.. the Rabbins. those wild ordes of the north. On the contrary. who . Dou aei Analectt. 27 is obscure. a Lapide has already given the true meaning: "He compares them. 5. wbo..

as in Deer. Moreover. A direct addres variance with the whole plan declaration contained in the ver o!f. thcy will be more wretched than these... vi. therefore. 28 we cannot take 1) as many of the conunento that people would be at f the .forgottenbooks. But if we consider th2 sense of thewords. flu there is not sufficient ground to 'Tr€7T''Tw!(6'TWIJ a'Tr' alwlIo<. when the punishment consequent of the sinner. \Ve must there- fc. 57 of war. weapo s.. '~'lt\e words. terr of their savage and cruel nature nryt5\as referring to Meshech-Tub tators propose. i'\t~ resting with those who were buried with their weapons of furnishes the proof that the l' guilt lay upon their bones. vi.. In the last cI nlf. The words.which is a very natural and even Havernick sibly have had such passages ting before his mind. The text leaves it uncertain who the were who had been buried with such honours. this com ination can hardly be sustai'ned.11 ~~ is re~ .l! as a conri uatiou of ~:J?~\ so that their f'?J.CHAP. WII possibly thinking of the gibborim Hitzig propose to alter the text imagines that the prophet may po 'as Gen. if \\i c' simply take notice of the coos ruction. the e would contradict what pre- uncircumcised. hilt they with ignominy.:~ with hie even to heroes on account In ver. 4 in his mind. of Gen. But warrant an alteration of the text.. for the latter went down the sha-des with glory. and lying upon tI eir swords. Dathe and this. 4 and x.e. i.ll:r.olanation of the reason for thei descending into Sheol with th(~ir weapons. he would no doubt have written ol. 'fhe Seventy have confounded with i1!?~?1?. as if conquered and slai " © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. terror of the heroes. i. had met with a glorious th.1. i. 4." and so we e their iniquities upon their bo-nes" (or they came upon them) can well be understood as an ex.instruments Ol?~~~ O~)Jp) and rendered O'?~W? Ol?~~.~\.1e regard c~bip' '. have no at er meaning than the phrase r verso 24 and 30. and if Ezekiel had had Ge . 9 sqq.??? ~N?~ in Sin comes upon the bones pan it falls I1pon the bones use we connect D':.. The clause Oi1.e. 4. vi.:t'. XXXII 26-28. " -: 'ilA\~ garded by the more recent com cntators as a continuation of the preceding 'm ~)~:~.

It is the Egyptbn who is addressed. tribe-princes. they lie there as uncircumcised. occurring in the midst of the list of peoples that have already gone down to She01. kings and c'~'~7' i. And through thi announcement.ey lie with the uncircumcised and wi It those that have gone down into the pit. not only are such peoples mentioned as have lready perished. the perfects ~'l! in vel's. 29. secondly. Fifth str phe.-In th s strophe Ezekiel groups together the rest of the heathen natio in the neighbourhood of Israel . and all the Sidonians who Ita gone down to the slain. been P·rJ.' © 2010 Forgotten Books www.forgottenbooks. he changes the o~ of the preceding list ~'or il:. do ot favour this explanation. ith the .27 .e. The allusion is to the 'allu- '*i~. and he is told that this fate 'will also fall upon him. 30. U~?rhl . J. 'Ye therefore regard ii'~~ as imply a variation of expression in the sense of "thither have th y come. There are t 'e princes of the north. th annouucement cannot be made to it for the first time here.!. and ill doing so. even in the p evious strophes.110 have gone into the pit. much as they are used as pre erites in verso 22. nd bear their shame with those 1/. 25. 29. in the fi st place. cedes.thither. th.t to shame in spite of the dread of them because of their bmver$. " to these do the also belong" (Havernick).ike Elam and Meshech-Tubal. V er. which did not rise into historical importance. according to ver. all of them.. but some. As Meshech-Tubal is already lying in Sheol among the slain. the design of that list s once more called to mind. if~"liS. There are Edom. This might be taken prophetically: thither n. or exert any in uence upon the development of the kingdom of God till a ter Ezekiel's time. .58 TUE PROPIIE IES OF EZEKIEL. But." without discovering any allusion to the future.<}ot • such nations being mentione here as are still awaitiDgw::t~ destruction. 29 and 30. 26.ill they come. Vel's. are mentio ed.-In tl e case of Edam. tl at it is to be dashed in pieces and laid with those who are slain. 26. and. 24. 30. whereas the Edomites and Sidonians were already approaching destruction.-Ver. its kings and all its princes who in spite of their braIJe1'Yare associated with those tlia: are pierced with the suiord .~.

Edom. on or with their bravery.. with its many separate to the Aram of Sc ip- and princes although near.n. and more especially turo. see he There is something remarkable carom.princes. are grouped. and Sidon. 5 C~1~JP. xiii. 21 and Mic. at ian y ra te. is the lJayirlg of he Ver. Pilar 011 and all !tis 0" Lord Jehovah. identified with the Sidonians. 'm he of in ch 'Nlf~~) as in ver.CHAP. Elam. H there are six: heathen nations mentio ed. of it. SeVell. ad north of Palestine.}. eumcised. the princes of he ncri:h. families of the people were probably xxxvi. we sl aU . and if we add Egypt to the list. xxxvi. the heads of the lead ng nt nd (Gen." :'fitlirinciplc is also clearly discernible in the mode in wh ch tht'. is certa in. lit. (see the comm. Edom princes of the north. xxv. literally. Verso 31 and 32. (which proceeded) from their . Asshur. in ite in the allusion to prin es of the north ('?'~?. that the princes of the north are no to be'. persons enfeoffed. Sixth and last stropbe. wh their bravery inspired. "the kings of the north) both far a conclusive proof of this. XXXII. that states allusion is made to (Havernie ). The association with the Sidonians Ten the conjecture a very natural one.). Elam. 31 sqq. vassal. dread of them.forgottenbooks. i. 4) in connection with Sidonians. v. viz'. on Josh. does not furnish So mu h. as Kliefoth has 01're&tly observed. 31. l~g)p.-Ver. 31. army are slain with the ncovd. to depict the fate of universal heathenis . and Meshech-Tubal fel re- sent the greater and more distant world-powers. Asshur. and comfort himself Ol:er allltis multitude. For. as it as Iltinpently intended.e. r. 26. 15 sqq. 32. PIWl' will see them. 32.fesheeh-TuLal. and Sidon the neighbouring nations Israel on both south and north. cl):~::~~ DO'~I)~. 24. which would be thoroughly adapted. 59 pMm or phylarchs." J er. and after Meshecb-TubaI the representative of northern nations. inasmuch as the kings were elective. i i.e. literally chillarchs.). For I caused him to spread terre in the land of lhe livbl[h therefore is he laid in the midst of un ir- those slain witll the sword) Pharaoh and allltis mu ti· © 2010 Forgotten Books www. in whose hands the governm lay. chosen by the phylarehs G n.

that oven to the New Egypt of the Ptolemies the characte of the Old Egypt was a perfect enigma. 1-19). in'J.~. and discerns in what he accomplishes the sum of all that in the course of ages has been £l'aduaUy fu filling itself in history. Moreover. it is eq ua lly cert in that this © 2010 Forgotten Books www. " onf'r~'rl)y needs to enter the pyram.e. In ver.ll!-n~ l'.60 THE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. xxi. And this prophecy has been completely fulfilled. Babylon as executing this judoment upon Egypt. we close with a review of the whole of the contents of the words of God directed against Egypt. 24 and 26. on eh. Pharaoh will see i the nether world all the greater and smaller heathen natio s with their rulers. Hitzig's assertion. 22. he will comfort himself over the fate whi h has fallen u pan himself and h is army. The Keri '. we must bear in mind that . tude. 22). xiv. power foretold. I ba 'e made him an instrument of terror. this destruction was so thorou h. 16 and xiv.p~ :1.ids of Egypt and its atacolav<t~ 0 see that the glory of the Pharaohs has gone dowr int€mile And it is equally certain that this destruction of he f). a thing forgotten an incomprehensible." But if Ezekiel repeatedly speaks of N ebuehadnezzar the king of. in a I of them is the destruction of the might of Pharaoh and Egyp as a woi-ld. 32b the ode is brought to a close by retur ing even in expression to verso 19 and 20n.-In the e verses the application to Egypt follows. that ~~ O~? never signifies to comfort oneself. If. At the same tim e.•an empire. on h. As Kliefoth has most truly observed. I have given terror of him. as in ch. as he will perceive t at he could not expect any better lot than that of the oth r rulers of the world. comfort oneself.!Il7':1 arose from a misunderstanding. is the saying of the Lord JellOvah. i. Ezekiel regard Nebuchaunezzar as the instrument of the righteous punish ent of God in general.ll}?. as in the ase of 'I'yre (see the carom. IS incorrect (see the comm.forgottenbooks. ancient Egypt dates from the times of the Babyl nio-Pey}. The CILetib Is confirmed by vel's. and when he sees them all given up to t e jndgment of death. >p r:ij. xxviii.

Volney. and his bei g slain by Arnasis. still wounds afterwards (ch. with their accounts performed.ons this as an indisputable their accounts Egypt f priests. and 0 mighty feats of Neche. who suppressed ~tiog to the pride of Egypt. greatness. anc. from the would have no foundation did conque could recove of its capti which which Egypt really lay it waste. 3 I 32. 61 in truth and unless view of the prophet Nebuchadnezaar thereby. and their But is a most" an st teroents are even opposed historians. same historians Nebuchadnezzar derived Egyptian iserable " argument. of Per ia inflicted a lowly kingdom. w ilst he has simply rejected the attempts to reccncile Haver- of the con- quest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar . proves of t e fact. monarchy upon but of and the migllt and glory of this anci nt em pire were so shattered that it never deadly and its former ity. Vitringa. The remark that.CHAP. 151 sqq. Diodol'US Sicul us.forgottenbooks. sur l'ltist. yet even Hitzig ill do not say a word ab ut the defeat of Neche by at Carchernish. rn ke no allusion whatever to of Egypt. t ie imperial could" even after the turning Babylonia remained the i. and others. statements of a Chaldean but not refuted nick. however. The accepts of the s lence of Greek an invasion to such an occurrence. fact. P: 231). especially of Herodotus. 1I0UU. Amasis appeat·s as an independent king by be side of Carnbyses.e. nations" by N ebuchadnezzar. with Hero161 sqq. after its recovery it. But Hitzig has that was humiliand e deavoured to cover it up which 0 e erything of glorious deed the Pharaohs proved that had the by means of the Greeks are at va ianee with the assumption of P rizonius. in the description gi 'en by Herodotus. no more rule over xxix. XXXlJ. only less powerful even assuming than the Persian the correctness mon rch. of He -odotus and his successors the commnnieati. dispute the conques and devastation of Egypt dotus (ii. (UI pp.) at their head. the b blical narrative invasion of Egypt.). 13-16). in his BecluTclt. because the G eek historians. concerning the © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. and Hitzig (Ezek. than nothing that morel Amasis vith the accounts given by ier Greeks.

And the reigning killg he slew. xliii." but. . and having appointed another in his place.c.Jeremiah had prophesied (Jer. therefore. had made Egypt once more independent of Babylonia on the sudden overthrow of the Ohaldean monarchy. 19) to the effect that" the Babylonian got possession of EHypt. x. because." Josephus not only quotes from Berosus (l. "he fen upon Egypt to conquer it. making a distinction. And suspicion is not to be cast upon this testimony by such objections as that Josephus does not mention the name of the Egyptian king. saying. 7. after the attitude which Pharaoh Neche assumed towards the Babylonian empire. Syrie. the assertion that he gathel'ed this from the prophecies of Jeremiah is untrue . relates the complete fulfilment of the prophecies of Scripture.if no gr~at importance can be attached to the notice of Megasthenes. made those Jews prisoners who had hitherto resided there. i. on the ground of such statements.Ap.Jerusalem when besieged by the Chaldeans." And even if Josephus does not give his authority in this case. Phoenicia.62 THE PROPHEctES OF F. 20): "he says that he (Nebuchadnezzar) conquered. 9. but confirmed by testimony outside the Bible. The conquest of Egypt byNebuchadnezzar. between prophecy and history. Even.Anti.forgottenbooks. immediately before the words we have quoted. and even attempted to maintain in the time of Zedekiah by sending an army to the relief of . Arabia. in . with reference to Nebuchadnezzar. 01' state precisely the time when Egypt was conquered.) had thus come to pass. and xliv. he says that what .org I .ZEKIEL. is not only extremely probable in itself. handed down by Strabo (xv. 1. 6) and Josephus (c. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. the greater part of Libya and Iberia. and led them into Babylon. but merely affirms in eeneral terms that it was after the war with the Ammonites b and Moabites. i.

16-21. and a horn to grow thereto in the second half ( eh.-XLVITl. g of serve after the judgment of the destruction generation to their of the refractory not merely their restoration up of the covenant nation the Lord upon Him (compare own land. but the s tting made with the fathers. he has threatened tion. 36.-This out still further announcement of the book.. 20.). 01' of the world with devastation they XXY. and xxxii. 21. 25 sgq. 15 sqq. 37. by the Spirit of God. and xxix. xx vi. to the heathen nations. is e rried xxviii. xi. 21). where fi 'st of © 2010 Forgotten Books www.. 19).SECOND HALF THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF SALVATI N. 36. so that xxi. with offerings accepta Ie to xvi. xxvi. I nds . 40 sqq.. cause it to dwell safely and happily in the land servant gh'en J aco b. 16. de true- will be remembered humiliation (compare no more (compare and overthrow ch. CHAP. and xx. and xxviii world rather with the lasting nether of their a gl rious tHis glory in the 13 sqq. U 'dispersion the restored kingdoms -- Nthe first half of his book. Ezekiel severe judgments. has pre icted natio and srael the both to the covenant the turning But to the people of of the kingdom in the heathen and the renewi an he bas also promised of its capt vity. the other hand.forgottenbooks. xxvii. 10.). xxxi. gather Israel from its dispe sion. whilst God will create thing in the land of the I . xxix. so that it will His holy mountain ch. 60. the heathenish people and everlasting On and ch. 17 sqq. XXXIII. 7.

org .-name1y. and this constitutes the second half of the prophetic rni istry of Ezekiel. blessing. an the pardon. after its sifting by the judgment of e ile.j . xl. the promise of the restoration and glorification of Isr e1 (ch. there is depicted the establishment of the r' novated of God for everlasting continuance (ch. an then. XXXIII.j . toget he) God how the shment. according to its contents. AN IllS FUTt. the second (vers. The introduction to this is contained in ell XXXUI' whilst the announcement itself is divisible into tw parts. j xxxiv--xxxix. as just indicated. and glorification promised to the covenant nation. The second was utter dafterwards. Previous to this catastro had appointed him to be a watchman over Israel: to people their sins. and secondly) the apocalyptic picture of the new constitution of the kingdom of God (ch. This chapter is divided into two words of God of ductory character.lNG OF THB PROPHET.: PROPHECIES OF EZEIUEL. 21). and the estrucits foes is foretold (ch. 21 and 22) though substantially they re one. 1-20) exhibits the callillg of the pr het for the time to come. and to proclaim the consequent pun namely) the destruction of Jerusalem and Judah. The first (vere. The fall of the holy city formed a turning-poi t in the prophetic work of Ezekiel. which are separated introby the historic I state- ment in vel's. THE CALI. xlviii."RE ATTiTUDE TOWARDS THE PEOPLE. mouth was opened to make the annou cement 'The prophet's when a fugitive brought the tidings of the destruction both of Jerusalem and of the kingdom to the captives by the C aboras.64 iHr.). xxxiv--xxxix. xle-xlviii •• cnxi-. rer willi © 2010 Forgotten Books www.forgottenbooks. are unfolded tion of secondly. The first prec des tho arrival of the messenger) who brought to the prophet and the exiles the tidings of the conquest and destruction of J rusalem by the Chaldeans (ver. kingdom according to their leading features. l'st. 23-33) sets before him his own attitude towards the people) and the attitude of th people towards his further announcement.

who are inclined to despair nder the burden of their sins. 2-9 is essentially a return to the wor in ell. The kernel and central poi t of this word of God are found in the lamentation of the peo le : "Our transgressions and sins lie upon us. where the thought is more fully expanded. a kingdom 0 to this. And tile reason assigned in vel's. the desponding consolation of God iu new life. and assign the reason for it. 1-20). and we are pi ing away through them. why do ye wish to die 1" (vel'. and the judgment predicted by him had taken bject to be aimed at was to inspire those who were and despairing of salvation with confidence and by predicting the restoration of the fallen kingdom new aud glorious form. that the judgm nts of God can be averted by repentance and conBZEK. and more precisely from vcrs. however. how then can we live 7" (ver. whi © 2010 Forgotten Books www. turn Y nrsel ves . 65 n of the people among the heathen. 12-20 carry out this pr mise of God still further. t getller with the reply given by the Lord: H By my life.OllAP. 17-21. xviii. but will give life to him who turns from his iniquity (vel's. 11). his calling to be the spiritual watchman vel' the house of Israel is renewed (vers. is introduced and explained are not nc\'. 12 20. I hay no pleasure in the death of the wicked . but repetitions of earlier words of God. turn ye. 11. 10-20).he task imposed upon the prophet. that the Lord has no pleasure in the death of the sinner. But after the len.. 10). iii. whilst vers. E the dispersi city had fa place. II the first (vel's. thus presented s au antidote to despair. is taken fran ch.. The preparatory introduction in vel's. with special inst -uctions to announce to the people.forgottenbooks. 20-32 of that ch pter. together with the divine promise in vel'.. where the prophet unfolds the wOl'king 'of the righteousness of God. The two divisions of our chapter correspond h was to be henceforth t. XXXIII.-The t oughts with which the promise of the . with which the Lord closes the prophet's all by pointing out to him the duty and responsibility conn cted with his vocation. to show them the way to d to open the door for their entrance into the new God. 2-9). The way is pre ared for this by verso 2-9.

or the" remarkable" fact that the date (vel's. When I bring the 13 ord upon a land. Ver. the section. 80 Vel'. 1-20) preceded that event.. Vel'. which and preceding before the this arrival historical of the fugi- his mouth was opened for further speaking statement it is placed been se it was a renewal of his call. speaks of tbreatenings and warn ng2. and of th manner in which Israel is to receive them.'om their compally and set !tim for a watchman. 3. the ord ()I Jehovah $pea to the 130118 of thy people. whereas the word by which the prophet was prepare for his further labours (vers. and of the faithfulness wit-a which Ezekiel is to utter them. then. 1. and say to them. If. From all this it is indisputably evident that the :6rst sectio of this chapter contains an introduction to the second half f the prophecies of Ezekiel. 4-. versi n. and the asser ion that . or could connect it with the preceding orad against the foreign nations. the first andsecon of the words of God contained therein. Son of man. For there is no force in the other argu ents which he adduces in support of this combination.6G 'IHE PROPHWmS OF EZEKIEl. (vel'. was no doubt addressed to the prophet the tidings of the fall of Jeru alem. 8aying. 21 and 22) is not given till the middle of the chapter. and arnetl« the people . 1-20. where it stands between. The prophet's office of watchman. Calling of tile Propl. ch. and this also explains the absen e of any date at the head of the section. 1 I is incomprehensible how Kliefoth could find II DO sign of introductory houghts" in this section. 1-9. one should liear the that tile sword blast of the {joumpet and not take wQ'J'ning. AHa he se th the llwm·tl come upon the lund. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. 2. xxxiii. and.. hrough 22).et for the Fulm'e." simply shows that he has n ither correctly nor perfectly understood the contents of thi5 section and i train of thought. for DO other reason than to secure Iourt en words of God for that portion of the book which contains the propl ecies against the foreign nations.! Vers. i.-Ver . 1-20.forgottenbooks. And came to me. ulId V . blouiet]: lILe trumpet. and oincided in point of time with the working of God upon after the fugitive had arrived with the p ophet on the evening tive. ike people of tlie land take a 7nCH(.-The word of God n verso 23 sqq.

tds blood 1vould come upon Ids· own head. But if the watchman seeth the sword come. ke. Thou. lie would have delivered !tis soul. 7. however. and that this obligation rested upon him still. but his blood will I demand FOIn the watchman's hand. 17 -19. liast delivered tlty 80 ul. his blood will come lpOJt him: wl.P. and the sword should come and take awa. but has already warned them of it. and made so plain that everyone who heard the words must see that Ezekiel was obliged to call the attention of the people to the judgment awaiting them. Sinner. in order to fulfil his duty. The meaning of it is the following : As it is the duty of the appointed watchman of a land to announce to the people the approach of the enemy. But if thou lias! warned the sinner from his way."I/ a soul from them. 2-6.forgottenbooks.-V ers. then. 8. but thou.e~eas. serves to connect the following prophecies of Ezekiel with the threats of judgment contained in the first part. V er. 5. as the watchman of Israel appointed by God. so Ezekiel also. lie is taken away throltglt Ids gttilt . iii. to turn from it.. is introduced. he will die f01' Ids iniquity. and the people is not warned. Vel'. and thou speake3t not to warn tlie sinner from his . so that whoever has not taken waming has © 2010 Forgotten Books www. The repetition of the duty binding upon the prophet. from 'lis way. 6. by an example taken from life. and his Mood I will demand from thy hand. thou shalt hear the word from my mouth. and if he fail to do this he is deserving of death. In this respect the expansion. ). Ver. 1-9. D. if foe had taken warning. thois tvill die the deail«.. in vers. 67 should come and take him away.!. and of the responsibility connected therewith. 80n of mau. the sinner. Ver. which is wanting in ch. wi til th e ezce ption of slight deviations which have little influence upon the sense. and took not warning. Ver. and he does not turn. I have set thee for the watchman to the house of Lsrael . iii. JIe heard the blast of the trumpet. and warn tltem for me. 7-9.CB_.'XXlII. will die for his iniquity. and to warn them of the threatening danger. are repeated verbatim from ch. not only is bound to warn the people of the approaching judgment. If [say to the sinner. and bloweth not the trumpet.

will ye die. tU1'11 ye from yo'w' evil wa s ! for why. As. lte unll die. say to the sons of t!IY people.?. 2 (see-the comm. Thou then.g that lIe lias done. 1III.all will not deliue» him in tlie day of his t1'a1189'1' ssion. n~\~~t.~ is placed at the head in an absolute form.e. 11. that the Lord will preserve from destrnctio those who turn from their sin. 6. 12. and for his wrol. one taken from the whole body of the people. 1/ 1say to the sinner. J er. 5). Our traYlsfJJ'e88ionB and OUT' 'sillS lie tpon us. 7-9. then.weno pleasure in the death of the sinner . from the end of the people of the la d. both before and afterwards it is a pe feet.-Ve . And thou.As truly as I live. xlvii. Ezekiel is to ann ounce to those who arc despairing 0 the mercy of God. see the exposition of ch. Ye 1'igh ly sa. on Gen. but wIlen the sinner tU1'1U!th j om liis way. Ezekiel has only discharge his duty and obligation by so doing. For 'ers.forgottenbooks. iii. so has he the same duty still further to perform. and lie reliee upon !tis 10£ ldeousnees and does w1'ong. Ver 14. can we live? Ver. The righteousness of he righteoWl m. "if I bring the S\ ord upon a land. and the sinner will not fall through Ids sin in the day tlia lee tll. B!owing the trum et is a signal of alarm on the approach of an enemy (co pare Amos iii. and in the we vanish away. i~l? in ver. II 1 say tlte ?'isltteo1t8 man that lie 81. 13. as in Gen. and lead them into lifc. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. iv.y. lie shall lice. 5b is a participle on the other hand. all his been oyer taken by the swor ?'ighteousnesses will not be re: embered . and the "ighteous man will not be able to lil. 0 house of Is?'ael? Vel'. Tlwu shalt diet and Iie turns from Iii sin. 4). Turn ye. son of man. son of man. 17-19.-In ver. xis. and does justice and 1·i9'tteous-. because of his sill.'e thereby in the day tko: lie suinetls: Vel'. Say to the . then.. Vel's. 2 r. 10." is to be understood with this restriction: "so that the enemy is on the way and an attack may be cxpec ed" (Hitzig). and 'm ~'~~ '?.metll from leis sin. say [0 the house of Israel.68 THE PROPIlE lES 01<' EZEKIEL. pointed with ](amelz on account of the tone. As watchrna over Israel. luna. is the saying oj the LOJ·d Jelicoali. . i.

ts will of th> The threat contained in the law (Lev. The way oj tlie Lord 1'S '!lot ?'J:glit. An yet ye say. XX\·j. 18. but here) to lift up til hearts of those who were despairing of salvation. x. But if the wicked man turnetli front his wickedness an doeth right and rigldeousnes8J he wilL live tllel·eby. accompanied with th summons to salvation for them to lay to heart:' there. on account of their sins the gracioi. V er. 10-20. Itt slwll die thereby' Vel'. Ver. But in order t preclude the abuse of this wad of consolation by making it .CIIAP. 17. 17 and xxiv. not die. (wanting in ch xviii. 39). ~ji\~ C:i~?. but in despair of any deliverance.-In verso J and 11 the prophet's calling for the future is set before hi . G "es8. 15. Ezekiel had already set this word of gl'llC before the people in eh. 20. saith the Lord. but they their way is not right. 19. he will live. I will j!Jdge yo t everyone according to his 1lJays. 23 and 32) : "as truly as I I © 2010 Forgotten Books . A II his s ins which he ha committed shall not be remembered against !Iim. 23. TIle way of the Lord is not . and for thi reason it is accompanied with the asseveration. 0 house oj Israel."{XIII. Ver.. xviii. 23). when predicting the conQl1es and destruction of Jerusalern by the Chaldeans (compare cl . Ezel"iel is to mel' this despair of little faith by the announcement that the Lor has no pleasure in the death of the sinner. he w£ll live.forgottenbooks. iv. had pressed heavily upon their hear when the threatened judgment took place. not "in self-defence. and. And ate sons 0 tlly people say." ane with the urgent appeal to repent and turn. If the rig!Jteol/s man tumet I from his r£glde011sness and doeth wrong." as Havernick erroneousl supposes. restore wltat has been robbed.·jghl. of which Ezekiel had repeatedly reminded the peopl with warning. 32. but desires his can versio_n and his life. so that they qllot the words. So that the wicked returns the pledge. walks in th« statutes oj lije without doin wrong. lie lias don justice and t'igldeousness. Vel'. it wa done to overthrow the delusion that the present generation ha to atone for the sins of the fathers. inasmuch as God instructs him to announce to those who ar in despair Lord. last of all. Vel'. www. 16.

righteousness IIp first of aU in verso of the rig teous is to the unri oh teous0 of no avail to him if he gives himself ness. 17-20. xviii. after it occur ed. vi. calling substituting the eleventh the Syriac. and th prophet 'was able to speak and prophesy that the tidings only reached of the destruction place in the fifth month of the eleventh year. and 80 was rn mouth opened. thoughts containe Ezekiel in that in verso 12-20 the principal the thought that the announcement (eh.Vcr. mont of the promise made by God to the prophet ill h. 30). ch. in the tenil: (month).corn rare ch. xviii. The C£ty is smitten. the reproof of those who find fault with the w y of the Lord (compare ch. 24. x. xxii. and that the sinner will not perish if he turns from his wickedness on account after righ his sin ousness and strives (::1? ~~~~.of Jerusalem. of false confidence ill their own righteousness. as in IIos.T rusalern. v. . secondly. of the text and 'Vit © 2010 Forgotten Books . and lIe opened tn mOIM/ that is to say. And tile hand of Jehovah had come upon me in tll €1Jenin. year as Doederlein in question the correctness for the twelfth. 25. and I was silent no more. er. 22.q before tn. serves to mark with prec sian the. and xxi.h month of the twel th year. THE PROPJlECIES OF EZEKJET. 15. precise t is recorded.e arrieal of tile fugitive. Tidings of the fan of Jerusalem. time at after the prediction The of the destruction of .29. and said. 5. 12. on the fij~/t of the month after our being taken captire. without restraint.. till he came to me in tlie morning.. destruction chronological arrived datum. and the consequences with regard to the prophet. 25. Jer.'i0 ground repeats 12-16. 27. 25-27. xviii. in vel's. nearly a yeal' and a half not warrant om' following have done. . he fact wh icli took as to the with the accou point of time at which the obstacle was removed. and for vel's. Vel's. the?'e carne to me a ~fugitive [rom Jerusalem. ver. 21 and 22. 20-32)-namely. are said to have the exiles in the tent.-In these verses t e fulfil'~ especially 5 and 7). which the messenger of the of Jerusalem.. 21 . more and then.forgottenbooks. xviii. does an IIttzig the diswww.xiv.And it came to paS8 in the twelfth year. 14 and 5.

that Ezekiel would contradict himself. according i1j"~ the '~1. 2. His © 2010 Forgotten Books I www.:. were communicated to the prophet and ttered by him. 2. But nothing can be gathere from vel'. potamia.exterminated. of which no chronol gical data are given. is pluperfect.~¥.. 1.~~ formula indicates tile translation.forgottenbooks... XXXIII. narnel . It is not stated there that zekiel received this information through a fugitive or any man whatever. on ch. coincides with i'~:.e. which follows. ·hen this and the fol owing words of God (as far as ch. i. he received intelligence of the affair in the eleventh year. that is to say." etc.1 ?'. fo~ this would be opposed to the follow ng sentence. s for the clause '. 22 with regard to the time . xxvi. 3).of Jerusalem even before it occurred.-It was in all probability sh rtly afterwards that Ezekiel was inspired with the word of od which follows in verso 23-33. 21 and eh. the silence imposed pOll him was taken away. conquered and destroye . to the Inter u age. i.mitten. is an em hatic repetition. xl. i.). but simply that God had revealed to him tl e fall. of the prophet i to an ecstatic state (see the comm.. WD1S~?. "till he came to me i the morning. 21.Z1 mS~? in ch. in srnuch as. which laid the foundation for the rophet's further prophesying. The words. xxxix. 22. 71 Meso- tance at which Ezekiel was living. They simply affirm that the opening of the mo th took placebefore the arrival of the fugiti\'e. a year and a half might very asily pass by before a fugiti"'e arrived with the information. as we may infer from the ontents of the word .CHAP. in northern confusion which followed the catastrophe. after ur being led away (ver. according to ch. the night befor the morning of his arrival. in which his outh was opened to speak. and with the fearful i10?~. is founded upon a misiuterpretation of the passage quoted. The ] II and .. '~nl)~:!. ut Hitzig's assertion. 1). introduced as a link with which to connect he practically important statement that from that time forward he was not speechless any more. are not to be understood as signifying tha the prophet's mouth had only been opened for the time from vening till morning . 'verb . 'stands .

(1/ word of Gou. 'Ve perceive from these last verses that the threat uttered n vel's. speechless. and th t the land is to be utterly waste and without inhabitants (ve s.. so that the whole of this word of God has only t e force of an introduction as their contents connected. immediate t continuous speaking. but of a rebuki g nature. But howev r close y the two halves of this word of are concerned) The state of heart God may appear to differ. and that they will still se k it .forgottenbooks.. 22 or n of these divine . that after gain. either in ver. and not do his words. so f r are ne verthcless disclosed in the first reference to the judgment half. wi h that has already fallen upon t e © 2010 Forgotten Books www. but are to perish miserably. which Ezekiel received after tl e arrival of the fugitive with the iutelligence of the destructi n of . the destruction of Jerusalem and of the kingdom f • This delusion the prophet overthrows by the announc merit that the unrighteous are to have no share in the posse - sian of the land of Israel. the contents Hengstenberg.EZI. fancied th t they could still remain in possession of the promised land ev n after Judall. ·e1'3. and directed against those who. was not of a consolatory. 24-29 was to form the basis for Ezekiel's further PI' phecies..Terusalem.72 b~irig "silent THE PROPiIECIES OF .. The Lord then shows him that his countrymen 1" Il indeed come to him and listen to his words.. but will only 0 that which is pleasant after to themselves. to his further they labours. not be t ll ill his words have beeu fulfilled that they will come to t e knowledge of the fact that he really was a prophet (.. There is no ground for the assumption that It these words of God were communicated to him in one llig t no more" by no means involves (Hl1vernick. and others). while boasting in n impenitent state of mind of the promise given to the patriarc s of the everlasting possession of the Holy Land. Verso 23-33.. 23-29). The first Preacldsu] of Repentance after the Fall Jerusalem. 30-33 . but simply recalls the command to e .KmL.

tke lan(l is given to us for a possession. Speak tit us to them. the people's coming to the p ophet to heal' his words is a sign of penitential humiliation u der the punishing hand of God.This threat is directed against the people who remained behind in the land of J udah after the destruction f Jerusalem. It is only by confounding . the exil s who surrounded Ezekiel. Vel'. Son of man. and tohoeue» is in the ope" field him. Ver. 2(. and the mOllrttai IS of Israel shali be waste. and -eceioed the land /01' a possession. and li t ttp your eyes to your idols. . t1~e inllubitants of these ruins in tlte land of Israel speak thus: Abraham was one. Thus saith. and shed blood. and by the inhabitants thereof. ~ Israelites who dwelt amidst he ruins of the Holy Land.Vel'. 28. and its proud might shall haoe an end. And I make the land devastation all waste.J~~'Jwe are to und rstand the district bordering on the Chaboras. those who a1'e ill lite ruins shall fall by the siaord. Vel'. Thus saitl. and thoee who are in the fortresses and caves sliall die the pestilence. Ill. tlie Lord JellOval" Ye eat upon the blood. 24. nb.. is to pre lude the illusion. but tue a1'e many. and would ye possess the lan ? V er. Vc 29..C1UP.n<1 IJ\:. t at the salvation which he is about to foretell to the people is nly to be enjoyed by those who turn with sincerity to the Lo ·d. Therefore sa!! to tit 1ft.~~ an . And tltey shall know that I am Jeluroah. the remnant of the people left ehind in the land. tlLe Lord Jehovah B!! my life.~"! that Kliefoth is able to sot aside the more precise defi ition of the inhabitants of these © 2010 Forgotten Books www. and would ye po sess the land? are the v . 23.-29. do abomina ion. False relian e upon God's promises. so that 110 one passe/It throuql«. saying. For it is so evident as to need no proof t rat Kliefoth is wrong in asserting that by n. do 1give to tile beasts t devour.forgottenbooks.. Vel's. 23-29. 26. and to bring out the truth. 27. and one defiletl« another's wife. which was not properly cultivated. wIlen I make the land devastation and waste because 0/ all tile abominations mhic they !Iave donc. 73 that the fact of land and kingdom.-. ~ If . And the scord of Jeluroali c me to me. Ye rely upon yoar sicord.

hese people should be told of the state of heart of those who h d remained behind on the ruins of the Holy Land. 24-29." in the words '. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. that if Abraham. as referring to the waste a places both in the Holy Land and on the Chaboras. that verso 30-33 treat of the Israelites by the Chabo as. m reovcr. was a delusion. Vers.. The fact. and llreacl repentance and conversion as the only way to life. book Ezeki uttered the threatened prophecies concerning the destru tion of Jerusalem and Judah in the presence of his countrvmen by the Chaboras. 32). becaus they stood in the same internal relation to the Lord as their retbren in . "Abraham was a e. 24-29.~ 'P. 30-33 depict contai vel's.s in the first part of . that in vel'S. they must also be referred to in v rs. but they would 110tdo his words 1.~~l?. is no proof whatever that. on which those who remain d behind in the land relied.74 rums l rns PROPHECIES OF EZE~IEr. 24-29. as one solitary individual. not merely to his threats. nd take it. For the relation in which the two halves of this wo d of God stand to one another is not that" vel's. 27 it is only in a forced manner that he can ge eralize nt:r~~~. It is quite in harmony with this.. vhich the impression made upon the hearers by the words ed in vel's." so that "the per50ns alluded to in 0-33 must necessarily be the hearers of vel's.t{ jJ with c'!. and to connect 'b '. n 0-33 treat in qnite a general manner of the attitude the prophet's countrymen would assume towards his words that is to say. "they speak concerning the land of Israel.forgottenbooks. ho were victi ms 0 f this del usion should be destroyed by sword and pestilence. but also to his predict ons of salvation. so here does he hold up thi delusion before them as a warning. in order that lie may d selose to them the worthlessness of such vain hope. . is. they would only attend to that which had a leasant sound to them. and that it honid be announced to them that the fixed belief in the perma ent possession of the Holy Land.?~. and in vel'. and that those \." etc. and addressed them to these. . The eaning of the words spoken by these people..$.. Just.T erusalem and Judah..

26 and 1 Sam. for the purpose of sho ing them that they have thereby incurred the loss of this po session. lifting np the eyes to idols ( f. 26. .forgottenbooks. iJ'")1J~'¥ 1. or rely (1.' his own possession. see the carom. In er. en © 2010 Forgotten Books www. use as in ch. from the descent of the many from the one. and the shedding of blood (cf. 1l)'~'V. but for his seed or descendants to possess.CHAP. The antithesis of the iI one" and the" many" derived its significance. on the other hand. ch.?¥. ch. the rna y sons of Abraham." but I s written in the place of C 00 account of the n which follows. xix. 3.?V. 39). is eating flesh in which the bI od is still lying. xviii. 6. 27). and also from the fact. as in Lev. Otl the defiling of neighbour's wife. 19. To work abomi nat ion J a in ch. to support oneself. xxxi. which is take for granted. 10.~ (the play upon the word is vel' obvious). xiv. 32. 14) upon the sword. 75 received the 1a d of Canaan for a possession by the promise of God. "ye women. 37 the punishment is individualized (cf. vii. ch. to put confidence in . TIley relied. which has not been cleansed from blood. 25. those in the open country shall perish by wild beasts compare 2'!Gngs xvii. 23-2'J. 4)t and is repeated y urged in the law (cf.26). which is assumed to be known from the book of Genesis. xviii. XXXIII. that the laud was not P ornised and given to the patriarch fa. 15).e. tho e who are in mountain fastnesses and cayes. Eatiog upon the blood. on ch. xxiii. not a fern in ine. In this connection we are not to thi k vf the use of the sword in war. Iter the analogy of ji'1~for ci'.). etc. the sam God could not take this possession away from them. i. xviii. xviii. xiv. xxii. This is also the case with the prohibition of idolatry. Ex. 33. Such daring s nners the Lord would destroy 'wherever tlley might be.iolence and bloodshed. 6). an act the prohibition f which was firs~ addressed to Noah (Gen. 21). Thos in the niY)~ shall fall by the . 33. in relation to their argumen . simply reminds them f their own sinful conduct (vel's.i. Lev. like the Jews of the time of Christ (Jolm viii. 25. Ezekiel. 12.~ (Hitzig). Lev. upon their corp real descent from Abraham (compare the similar words in ch. ix. 22).

).-This which of the nectio occasi as th himsel verso agains attenti with t was e sibilit addition to the preceding word of G~d. and had warned him not to allow himself © 2010 Forgotten Books www. i6 sqq. out from Jehovah. 28. are not to be taken as referring merely to the time of the Babylonian captivity. B lit wll en it com th-beltOld. on ch. For jJ!~ ~N~. is addressed to Ezekiel personally. one talketli to anothel. 3 . applies to the whole second half of his ministry. and repeated. to the difficulties connected e discharge of the duties of :1 watchman with which he trusted. As God had directed the prophet's n. the sons of thy people converse about Iiee by the walls and in the house-doore . and u:ill hea» thy words. behold) tlio« art ll1ltO litem Nke a plea alit sl:nger. but they will '11 ot do them. in vers. 33. compare ch. Ver. Behaviour of the people towards die prophet. 29. Come and let us hear u'hat k nd of word qoetl. Even he devastation and utter depopulation of the land. 24 For ver. and sit before thee as my people.30-33. as Klicfoth acknowledges. beaut1ful in voice and playing well.Ver. 31. everyone to his brother. y words. 14.tind they wilt c ne to thee. like an assembly of the people. where hey are safe from the sword and ravenous beasts. Ver . sayi1ig.forgottenbooks. 80H of . and stands in obvious conwith the instructions given to the prophet on the n of his first call (ch. on the occasion of his call. This threat is not to be restric ed to the acts of the Chaldeans in the land after the destru tion of Jerusalem. it cometh-tltey will know tliat a prophet was in the mi st of them. in opposition to his assumption that -20 of this chapter belong to the prophecies directed the foreign nations. Vel'.76 TnE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. see the comm. . by setting before him the object and the respon· of his vocation. so far ir substance is concerned. A nd. their heart goeth after t eir gain. but not do them. but embrace the devast tion which accompanied and followed the destruction of Jerusa em by the Romans. 7-9. but applies to all succeeding times. is pleasant in their mouth tltey do. tlley wilt hear tl. vii. iii. vi. shall perish by plagu~ and pestilence. threat ned in vel'. A91d thou. 32. V er. VIa tliat u: ich.

1 and xx. another word is addressed to him personally. Dot in a hostile sellse. 13. 30 to ve . © 2010 Forgotten Books I www.:. so that they alked of him both secretly and openly. but in the sense of concerning. in order that he may not be mistaken in his expectations cancer ing the people. 33. xiv. equi valent to secretly . i. as in Mal. God foretells this to him. 30-31). so here in verso 30-33. But J is to be ndorstood. and that the predicate to '1J1?P'1. 77 to be turned aside by the oppositio of the people. everyone. nd the verb belonging to ~9l! 'p follows. and cil~ by he side of ''!tl. Kliefoth has thus correctly explained the c ntents. one neighb ur conversing with another. ch. in order that he may not be influenced in til further prosecution of his calling by either the pleasure or displeasure of the side of he walls. But now that his proph cies concerning Jerusalem had been fulfilled. 16. in the u-!J. the exiles cou d not fail to be still more attentive to his words. n vel'. that the whole passage from vel'.S~~. at d in the doors of the houses. sitting against the walls. 3 as contrasted with j. like ~ j~. iii. 33 forms but one clause. in other words publ icly.! in 1 Sa • xix. but vcry man to his neighbour.~. and encouraged one a other to come and listen to his discourses. but announces to him at the same time that this di position on the part of his countrymen to listen to him is ev u now no sign of genuine conversion to the word of God. to speak agai st a person. 'I'hc participle is continued by the finite '~!1. .org .~. There is something monstrous in itzig's assumption. cxix. .-His former utterances had already ind ced the elders of the people to come to him to hear the word of God (cf. at the commencement f the second section of his ministry.e. aud connection of these verses as a whole.d es not occur till the ~1I1:~f o 1iij'J?:) \'CI'. Aramean for 'Ij~.p. 23. the sons of thy people who converse about thee.~ is recip ocal. xxi. .'!. design. and the form of all apodosis. not merely one here 01' there. '11 iu N urn. 30 the article before the participle O''"!~1?takes the place of the relative and the words are in apposition to ':l9i! "_~. 7.forgottenbooks. 3 . 1). X..1 of ver.CIiAP. as in the passage cited from he Psalms.

but.?~V. as t~? :lt~!. which ch. from preaching This concllnsion of the word of God. it 5. that is to say. that he proclaimed God's word to them. 28). it will come as well) clea surely salem." this cannot mean like pleasant song. ne cherishes is wrong an eager to their desire. it cometh. the source from promise themselves advantage or gain. what thou sayest. Th refore Ezekiel is not to be prevented.~.e. o¥~~. is opposed both to the and the sense.forgottenbooks. Gen. ii.-behold.e. as my people. or rophesiest.)~:P. taste pleasant things in The mont . by the misuse which will be made of his words.78 men flock TIlE. i.back to points to the pro-. but do them not. 33. for the pllrpose of attaching the threat in ver. are things for which their Havernick rendering. planation is given of the reason why they come to the prop he . like my people. a singer.e. I. i. "Thou art to them i:l':.-namely.t~~ "~f. as y prophecies concerning the destruction of -Ieru- th n will they know that a prophet was among them (cf. ).? (cue who can play no y shows. n ver. li • as the coming of a people.~:.e. what thou ost announce to them as my word. "they hear thy words. to heal' my word from hee.?¥ is a predicate. constructio which the hey do it with their mouth. PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. as when a crowd of ogether in crowds or troops. xxv.\': stands for the concrete . al a shows that it forms the introduction phecies wh ch follow. the truth. like a singer of pleasant songs. 320. a man of song (Hitzig). i. 32 a clearer e. 1:l'~P. word I:lQ. notwithstanding the fact that they not wish to do his war s. But they do not think of doing thy words. i. as if they wished. The abstract .their gain. The in taking CI." is re eated with emphasis. i. But when it cometh. In Vel'.org mean illicit love. ch. © 2010 Forgotten Books www. according (cf. O~~:<.t is quite inapplicable to such a meaning.

CHAP. 15-28). the mountains of Seir Jl become a perpetual land of Israel shall be nd be filled with man desert (ch. and blessing and through to t e whole of the flock prom se is carried comprehensive chapters enmity possession in the following cherishes sought perpetual to take j in vari us phases. and bring in peace into the land and kingdom. and beast (cb. And. will do this for His from their sins. when it has been glorified The house of . which 5 of the salvation. nto a garden of God (ch. when Israel © 2010 Forgotten Books I www. that they may walk in His commandments. out of the and de- hand of its evil shepherds. tbe Lord will awaken to new life. and has become like a fi ld full of dry bones of the dead. xxxvii. bear fruit. 1-15). finally. protect His servant out still Because in which feed and teod them on the strong. when holy name's sake. them together. is own flock.) whereas the devastate The Lor and sown once more.-THE A!{D DESTRUCTlON The covenant promise nation RESTOR TIO:'il" OF ISRAEL. in th last time. reignty of Israel (ch. and renew them by His Spirit in heart and mind. ommences with the announcement will deliv er Israel care of 3. which has been slain with the sword. gather good meadow.).MAGOG. cause them to servant aeob under the seveof His servant David. xxxvi. of their sh land. unite the two divided peoples and kingdoms of Israel He wil into one people dwell in the land given to His will liberate them from th it sins. XXXIV.' gathered out of the nations. xxxvi. and dwell above thei in the sanctuary.-XX:U . 16-38). xxxv. will establis (eli.-XXXIX. and will take the weak sheep against security This (ch. was. xxxiv.forgottenbooks. David further Edom and Jehovah rebuilt. xxxvii. agai st the sons of Israel. will cleanse His peopl by sprin ling them with pure water. after that the the Lord to blossom fat' the judgment. 79 CllAr. XXXIV. 1 14). OF GOG A 'D . will mak with them a covenant as their God for ever in the midst of them which He of peace for ever. nd multiply greatly iII their land. has bring who only fe d themselves stroy the flock.

CHAr. so that Israel may dwell there in securit and no more be carried and off either as booty for the nations or by famine. The shepherds. and xxxix. and so have compassion pon the whole house of Israel. will be deprived by the Lord of their ffice of shepherd (\·e1's. feed and tend it on good pasture in the land of Israel. and ell. the lasting establishment of th s salvation. into the land that has been restored from the sword. the L rd will bring Gog from the land of . xxx iii.vxxxvii. who hav~ fed themselves and negle ted the flock. And He will take charge of fis own flock.i--Frcm this general survey it is evident that tl e words of God contained in ch. and ift it by the extermination of the fat and violent ones (vers. make a covenant of peace with His people. and because He has poured out H s Spirit upon it. XXXIV.2). and Tubal. but when he has come to plunder and prey.forgottenbooks. xsxiv. xxxviii. He will appoint His servan~ David shepherd over His flo k. and bless the I nd with fruitfulness. 1-$. xxiii.j. will hide His face from it no more (eh. COL- LECTIKG AND TENDING OF TIlE . A POINT- 1I1ENT OF THE ONE GOOD SHEPHERD. Meshech. T e threat against the bad shepherds simply forms the foil for the promise. through the extermination of those enemies who rise "I) against the restored people of God. Jehovah as its God (vers. 23-3 ). is dwelling in its own land in security and peace. announce the rc toration and exaltation of Israel to be the sanctified people of od. with a powerful army of n merous peoples. DEPOSITION OF TilE BAD SHEPHERD AND . 1-10).80 rUE PROPHECIES OF EZEKIEL. 11. and xxxix. and by this judgment display His glory among the nations. gather it together from its dispersion in the la ds.Magog. the L rd will destroy him with all his army. so that it has been scattered and has become a prey to wild beasts. © 2010 Forgotten Books may acknowledge www.OCK. Tllis word of God is a repetition and further expa ision of the short prophecy of Jeremiah in J er. the prince a Rosh.

priests. Only we must n t take the term rulers as applying to the kings alone. 23. ere leaders of the people. whether we are to underst nd by the shepherds. shall servant David. "t e whole body of official persons charged with the direction of the nation!! (Kliefoth). does not apply to the former ulers only. 1-8). SYI'" and Theodcretjy. plunged into misery by bad he gather d and tended by the Lord and His whom Jeh vah will appoint prince over His it is esse tially a prophecy of salvation for Tsrael. ut only so far as they held magisterial offices. Thi is proved not only by the biblical idea of the shepherd gene ally. which dates from the time succeeding the destruction of Jerusalem.. the kings who had that the 'flock. D vid. where we are to understand by the shepher s. i. by reason of their office. or simply the kings (Hengst. lastly. or all those . hut ore particularly by the primary passage already referred t (Jer. so that }' © 2010 Forgotten Books www. shepherds. Hav.q~). 24). .or the false prophets and false teachers of the people (Glass and others). that ouly the rulers of the nation are intended. And apart from other grounds.forgottenbooks. people. for the simple reas n that our prophecy.81 which has been. not on account of their spiritual calling and rank.e. 9 on ards. or the whole body of the civil authorities 0 Israel. by the antithesis to the good shepherd. who is to feed the flock of Jehovah as prince (~'.'ether) is everywhere employed to denote rulers alone. and... llJay be settled by the simple can lesion. and others). but must understand thereby all the persons entrusted with the govern ent of the nation. rulers. to the exclusion of priests and propl ets. out of whose hand and tyranny the Lo d will rescue Israel His flock. we are not warranted in restricting t re idea of shepherds to tbe kings alone. among whom priests and prophets come into consi eration. the priests "and kings (Ephr. and prophets. kings and princes. nd nut as priest or prophet (vel's. against whom Jeremillh first prophesies from vel'. which (probably in distinction from the idea of the bell.The question in dispute among the commentators. xxiii.

V r. lieor ye the wo of Jelwvah. Vel'. 8-10). the promised P ince of David. S. prophesy. that tlley may feed themselves no more)' and I will delicer my sheep rom © 2010 Forgotten Books www. and even afte tbe captivity until the coming of the Messiah. and over all the land hace my sheep been scattered.!y heep uiander about on all the mountains. to t!te shepherds. The ~eak ones ye do not 8trenglllC'li. Therefore t/ley wcr'c scauered. 10. should not tlte skep 'ierds feed the flock? Ver. ye . Ye eat the fat. tlie shepT/erda. and came them to cease to feed my fiock. and became food t all the beasts of the field. 1CltO fed themselves. 7. !till. but do not fee the sheep. Vcr.Ver. ers. 7 ierefore. 6. BellO d. fallen along with the kingdom of Judah. lfToe the Shepherds of Israel. but although tre ting of shepherds. Vel'. and the sheplte1'ds feed themselves. hear ye the word of Jehocali : Vel'. Thus su-itlt the L01·d JellOvall. wllO asks for them. Thus sailh tlte Lord Jehovah. Vel's.. 3. as something to be effected in the future (d. 2. the flock ye do not feed. and ye rule over them. and there is '11 on. because without shepherd. the scattered ye ring not back. the wounded 011e ye bind not 11p. s I live. ye slay the fattened. assumes that the rule of these shepherds is still continuing and announces their removal. 5. so that it also refers to the civil rulers who gov rned Israel after the overthrow of the monarchy.forgottenbooks. and no one who seeks them. 9. and that which is sick e do not cW'e. because there is no shepherd. and my shepherd» do riot inquil'e iter my sheep. ye shepherds. with violence and with severity. and clothe youtselve with the wool. and s y to tit em. protlte sllepherds of Israel.'y ltigli. and my she<:pbecome food to all the beasts of tlie eld. I will deal with. 1. Vel'. and will demand my sheep rom their lland. 4. Ver. saying. because my sheep b come a prey. who had scattered Israel among the na ions. and the lost one ye do not seele. fl. and were scattered. Son of man.82 THE PRopnECIES OF EZEKIEL. and on eve. is the saying of the Lord Jekoooh. An t!te pl18SY concerning word of Jelunial« came to me. Ver. 1-10. Therefore. or the deliverance of the flock 0 t of their hand. 'Woe to the bad shepherds.

c'. as Kliefoth maintains. is not introduced till afterwards. which is r."001 their own adva tage. that of the sheep for the wellbeing of ver. in the ase of the sacrifices. 5 and 6). xi 16.. and of the dispersion of the flock oc asioned thereby (vers. The reason for the woe pronounced is gh-en in the apposition. Til disgracefulness of their feeding themselves is brought out by he question. ::IS the best portion of he flesh. 4. in vindication of the reading in the text. that ll. and ver. to Zech . and it follows v I'Y suitably after the general they make use 0 both the flesh and the . 3 and 4).org . and slay the fattene . for example. who fcd themselves.forgottenbooks. which Bochart and Hitzig propose t alter into :J?Q'. after the Septuagint and Vulgate.CHAp. that "the slaughtering of the fat beasts. 3 shows how they fed themselves. Havernick has very properl pointed. which was laid upon the altar.'~1is the Nipkal participle of © 2010 Forgotten Books www.ey ma.. statement.4 how they neglec ed the flock.!/'? is an exp anatory apposition to c~'?~.y be food to them. se ipsos (cf. but those that are well fattened. are joined together in the one clause. and the charge that they only care f r themselves is still further explained by a description of thei conduct (vel's. 1-10. where the two clauses. :J~tJ. Observe the periphrastic pre erite c·~. 2 tlie ir mouth. is men ioned here as pars melior P1'O toto. " Ought not the shepherds to feed the flock ~" V r. the milk. 3.l Z). ye eat the fat. is Dot open to any objection. They care nothing for the flock: this s stated in the last clause of explained in det il in ver.-In vel'." There is no force in the objection raised by Hitzig. as being the Rowel' of all the flesh. t:lryi~ is reflective.i. ~'~. tlO 83 mOI'e.' for this clause contains a heightening of the thought that the use the flock to feed themselves: they do not even kill the le ncr beasts. and is 110t to be taken in connect on with '" . The fat. they were feeding.. U the flesh of the fatt ned one will he eat. which shows that the woe h relation chiefly to the former shepherds or rulers of the n tion. XXXIV. the fat.~ nz" in opposition to the constant use of this form hi.. which 0 19ht to be mentioned first. 'whereas they au ht to have fed the flock. Gesen § 121.

xxv.84 THE PROPHECIES OF r. G) was. © 2010 Forgotten Books . was no sheph rd worthy the heathen people descri attributable applying to external sequence of falling away people had al for its own si be kept out the idolatry 0 0 i. wandering repeated with is still further the straying of and www. xvii. that n. because there took place when fate of the and Israel was ca ried away into exile. th tive expressio t-:~. neglect as in Dent. 43. in accordance And it could very properly as the rulers had also occasioned i1r~~:l~~ is with the dcsi n of this prophecy. 1. rom the Lord 0 for this was in itself simply a coninto idolatry. an animal with a leg or some other member scattered.. and became food to t]18 beasts of prey. i. 1'1'. i12~. guilty eir neglect of their theocratic made also. 6. and the thought upon not be understood as signifying all the mountains as Theodoret and hills mus to the worship on high places. sight. bad The the people. xxii. 1 but this is passed by here. This i1¥\ on accoi nt of there not being a shepherd. 5. nj7~~' literally.14. is weak in consequence which is weak in itself. and of their It is true that the of this sin. like i1?I}~ in Isa. i1?in i~ determined According by to these.forgottenbooks. where !J~~~is applied to the tyrannical m asures adopted by Pharaoh for the oppression of 1'111:) the Israelites. partly by their neglect of their duty. 11.ZEKIEL. inasmuch their er.and The the is a contracted between which predicates that form of 1'1i>~~. 4. so that it but a airs (Hitzig). where ations. that the sheep .org and partly emphasis ~pallded the people in b at t e close of vel'. of the name. 5. of ver. 46 j but there as well as here it points back to Ex. . of the flock is summed In the last clause up in the posiand severity.e. 13. were scattere The result of this (vers. of sickness. themselves was obliged t atone not only for the sins of its shepherds. example.~~ P!I! and distinct on respectiv and n?~? signifies and i1?h tha injured. t it became a prey to 'Vhen we find this mournful about ed as brought by the bad shepherds) faults of theirs. we must not regard the words as mel' t Iy to the mistaken policy of the kings with regard calling. to rule over them with violence !J~~~i111 is ta en from Lev.

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