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Monostable Multivibrator

Designed and Developed by:

Curriculum Development Laboratory .
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MUL TIVIBRATOR

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.\LI\lrlLllll !-r\'qlll'll~'Y . . .: 7 .. .c' O'. i nn. . . ivl0]\. ' . . ..~~n h'l'J buck _ iI. _ .\Tl()\ j 11 S: 17 put \' \) I Li !--'~'. .()SSA\{'t s' .I{ j V'. Ilil FI'I). TI [I: \1 0'\ OST.\(. • . . Ma \ IIII \l1l1 r r~'q 1. ."\ nd '\q.1. . l'i.ITIVIBRATOR WITH TRl(. .': C[RCllIT ('IRClllT I. .. . .BN 'I\..CFR Rl'covny Tun«.\ C:II'~I'-.. _ 13 API'LI\[H:\'1)1..ltPlit PI..g [_1-.l'll'd hl1111 RI:C'O\TRY TI\11.\ll' LTI \' 1B R-\TO R' Op-Amp WI til P(l~III\. . . . _ F 11 11 12 12 .. Til. . H K q 11HI\'''''i11. .\Tnl{\I--\TI().. . . STI-AI)Y-S-l. ' . COALS.'I' circuit . .'I 1(1( . .\Cl ])AI.--\' [)rs]c'\ Thl' .()STAHi r \flll. . .I.\1\]) H)l'II'\!\-'\T.. i« HJ\]).nu: SUi\-1 i\'lA 1\ Y MATH{li\LS . . Output Pul~l' \\ id t h r 17 IS .--\l Output \Villl Tri!:!--. .(. .A. . . ..2 I)[SC[JSSIOI\:luu/l z in-: F!. ______ .. _ PKJJ{ H)U 1SI IT (._ ""'" i() FXPFR l Ml J\TS _l!culilrilll: Cir. .RFOR\I\.' nl ~. l Iu t y CYl'k_ Amplitudv Of The Time Duration or COUI'L!. .' LlTl"l'l or .\..I!:".. . . Ol:TI)llT 11\ TIll. 01: 11'1: 1 Pu k: .

: ~ (I"" cl (Ill-r~' r() 1'l' ~IS ~I "\\:1\.: 111IIl'lIl I'II~\C' which is )l1(ld'I"C'i! i'\ \lle.-krs to lhi-.' I] r i.ihil i i .' with d time dura\1\ 'II ~I 1 ~II' :1In pi it u \!~....1[11.' (lpl'r~ltilll1 or ~I \\:lk \~."'[.. ~(':11.'-""(_ltvf shanf.'In..1 c'kdl-(111ic .lvior IS i:1 :I~I r.'l! givL" :1!1 i.WheT lriggl'rL'd by an in p.'1111 I~ '.\ nj t l.1 I .7/S arc sho '.' 1I/1I1Iirihr.. .' of fiXl'd width WII"ll tri!.I~\' j .otc o a starni:"-Jrrh-.':ilkd :11)!.'L'r.:lic'I'l:ill::dly 1:1 I 1_L'11rl' 1_ AI till' <.7'pc/ outnut pu/. .t ~'~I t-: .1)'1'. used to orovic» in.. W <'.i.l~ a"7(/ r.')1' 1.' no ru. to till' l'XI\L'!Lc' oj "1)I"l' .I'l' to OCL'ur ill till' 1']"0l'c'r lime' S. 1.t pu t 1'111".' \.~II: ii1I'111 .'I_' tile same au/- Pit pulse.. Ille' EXAMPLES INPUT TRIGGER OF PULSES STkrc.III~..I.: L'll . \\ hich h I...1111)1:11 I'I:h.11)11_11 pI. Three: diitcrcnt an' ottco inpu t S':gl).se of constant 1l0ifOrni V 0 -'rid tim'} rii. <t.)1:1).ir. I ri!-"L'C".'t-'-)iI./DARD OUTPUT PULSE V. l'(lJlH-rtl'd into uni1-1'1'111 sq:1 .introduction: summertzmq the module BACKGROUND Til.]"ie'l\ jllstrulll.'H'111s lk'~'c'IHjS I'll til.ll mul tiv ihl~ll()r pro duces .uil ..I( tunc [1. "():h'-'. a/I 0 f ... Till' tcrm -'II'e-"I()sL.'l':Illl\ q"hlc.' \.u !L' l'l' \~" 1'\ t i1 u-.outs [0 circuits thot reouire pulses of 1 .'1/.0 1'_':::lh'II':lf or.-:()l!'/f:rt then: . I - Of\/F-SHOT i.'.'e!II-'IL:.L'rc'd b\.'1" u: \\ 111.11.'1 S.t V~ I --r-t--~l 11 1----- rl . tc mpor."lhrators width one! arllnlit/.: ~!I:I]1·.'1._. :11'.! III 1\_ Tile' (lTl.'IIII'.11 l'ctis.J '_I rcui! will.i r ---i:-'II:II. \li~t()[-kd or v. t V.'-~il(lt III Lilt ivihr.1 f-T-i . \i'i~'_!!l'l i:lI'..'_ To do t It i~ 11 IS U l t. .c irnu t pub. The one-shot OU/\'f!S ~vi-th a ~:a. T.'ll:.u ter what t hc 1'1]11.'.' .)H'l" r.1..)Wt Ilk.\\'11c'-. One-shot rnuitl.rll'.]1k" r.vbich wil! /JrDr!III.. ..'II a L'ir.'""1.c'. (1'1 i -.-/ .111<.1'.JUL T! VIBRA TOR /v/UL TIVIBRA Vn r 1 __ .: I! . TRIGGER LTiME DURATION POINT will BrujJ- I..e':1.'ll(s .pi ~ljrL'dl'l1 1d h~ 1!ll' I~ ]1l' oj illl'~li ~iglLiI This hdl. I"" \I]. and another tiL!! . Il'vP/)T Pi.i/fJ/'.n.rctior. d l\(1il' that till' )'11!"_' « idr h T 1\ til.' .uiuhly ---11.-./TPt_jT Fiqure t BASIC accept titndn input BEi-!A VIOR OF A OiVE-SHOT T()R.ihl. .t pu t -r..-'1'..t:lbk" or. I.

IIOl :1 I'.' '!:IY\ xl..lllh'.\ which GOALS '_11.11 til.' mnvnnum IlIfF uut ."'.: S.1 I'lll~: ill r..lll\ .' '.llkl .. !Iil\\ .\\ Irig 1>-" " [.'l'" lu h.· Wldlll. I'T1lkr'I:II1i~ III..[ Iii iii.':[\\.11.'\~'I1-: I'.n or.. 'I.'h ."tl'" ].rl ~1.'IllItl'lIl ." [)1l1ltl\iL':ll.\..1 I..1"1'.' .'.'- lel"11' 11.r II" \ ()I1::.' <I~ "()IJ<:plIhl' . * \ k:1 \1i r... '~. '11. t.L'l.1:.I 101 .lilt".i1l:1:'.ItI).1'-1'.11:c' O\/:-.ihk 11:111111 l"I. .."t. lLl. "I'!:illi.' out pu t In :1('1\ !(l lk- . iu.111. x pl. :""" I l i.1:1 ' '.. I' "1':I:i!llll: '.'mul t III Ilh' "/ ivibr.\.llolJ\d ai . lh« dl!l\k (T\. .[.'[\ [(I S.1111Ihl.1': )h n)ll1 rlllllll. .:IIIII'. .:I'!r.I~ \ '1 I \\1.0 \"II.1 ii~'I.1.!'.-.11"'1:'\'Ii'.)">I 111111111'ibl.1.: \1 ht' :11v.I.llILlti'1I1 prol!lh\..: I/OII' t h.'-'( ' ':. 1 1.!!l' ''i'-:!I[1J' ~.' .!h .I<'I~' .'I.".' "hk t() (l!ll..' 1111tJ..: til'" Il·\(.'..lllil.d~I.11I\ I.lTII: t(l ll)lc'l."d \Iilil :111111. [II'~' \\11-.rI !<.' ..( ~.Illd (l\l'lIlo- to !I\l' :111 iJP-:II'l!' 1.'\.'II' IiI'..' 1.:' 1-:1.: l.'I'.\ -'11'1:1 u.:-..1111 II!I"'II' \\ ~1.11.dj':I.'1 k Ii' 1\\ I.-"1 '1":-':111\ '-C':'I 'I.:111 Iii...:1111 \\ It: I I "II' pl.' '. )llllsL'.1 ..IIHI ..' '-lltd'.' . I'llI' I hl' 2 . II' .II'i:l~' \)11.'''>'ci i. 1I'.l[.' tilUl' rcmu lr iv I hr.I'I t h..-' ill till' 11.1 a p(l\iti\"'-~'JIIIIL' TI\~' h:I~ll ~111lL'till' .III h' ll'I\'-..c' . Iw u !"...lI.'[11.II '.i'l. :11:.' :11:.' ll'l 11:.':I..2lT III [l~1 t. .I <>II.. I II I.C'c' I""~II\ .' T 1':111 I..I.II: "lp:11 11.:J.: .: I'~q)id ll'rdh:ld.'..n or ou tpu t il'llqh1l':miy--.' l:lt~ r 111\.. I ["'\1)( lrl"l' () (~illl'I. til. I.' '\1'.I.:.\ .tli l(l PI'I'I [ill' 11.11'('\1it to rc'!III'~1 1'111\ init i. III (hi' Ill.'k.lk.h(o( :11:11' ILI.. I I l~ inpu t 1\111:.: .' 11:.lltll I'.'111 .: '11\l:H"[. .1]' )' /J!()!Jr I\.111-.t:l ')P-ilUP I)~II~.' IIFIllil '.Ii':.':-'.[:d\'... .111 "i' :1I"II'-. 111.u R""".:I['\1.\.:11'1. 1111... .1:'['1.'." TIll.'-..1 h. T 'C.- IU (D I IR p.'1 :11:1:\'1111. )'\]..'". ( .'kdlll \11'1':11i.rhk 111'1.i'l\[ .:'ILI .\ .I!C" .)11':1' 1!1"I :11.'·.1111.:. l/()\()SJ 1/:1 t 1/11 1l1/I}N 1 ro« ~1:i1l' .'~i 11'-_"..' llil' 1'.'.\".. .1 il-r.I. l')'{l11 ~'I)llll'kiitl'l >..\ I" "":1\1'1..: 1hr.'1':) ('I"" \lod- (1.11.: .lk .I!.t n (lutl'lll pul-.' 1'.lH' ['~' 1i Illl' :1lid !IIL'rl':I\.' . .u..I'.·d Build .1.... invcrt nu: I-I V-lith PP'ollih' .~II i i 'Il~:r'[ 'Id iii. I.1. u: GLOSSARY /l( i..' :d.·: .j o: .-:.'1'1.~' \l'rlill~' tlOll ill "I 11111 .ilt rr t hc com11ic-ll""1 ..'I Ill: t h i-.11.lll' 11.t d~:lr:i I~ I ['I.h..-' h lllp.l! k\. .'.'.1111[.lrn.ll()] 1':h:l\ [II' 'lc'~':I~i\_'_'-~'.' II1'illill\1r.I!:.r'lei )1.ill"I.':11c J "Ii:-~.~:\.'. .'I'.' :1'.'~I"):l~l' .uiuu : "!'-.''.111':11 I'li I.').nu p lit illk IIHlili\lhr.Llhk lil'll' iu.'-.'lh)(l[j "t[:~\'.'.i.'11I I.\ .: th.1\ ('111. i'l:["" "I!" II.. II.it: III()\ 111.I:'C".1'.'\I.'['11[1e' I) ..I! :'I~ILd 111:111 "]'-:11'1:' mu 111\lill'.: . .'lur ..«.lll 'I' t ') pr!\d widt l: .. trc- RICOlfl\) 'ill i ['. 1\1'1.d bv dll .lll' .I 111C''..ly II) huih] "'Id l'I'.q tor L'.'1111.-Olhl d .'c\h:l.l'-'':11' It . 1':lh...1111'.t t.' :11111 .:lllr '.'-.I\i. "t.1'1.11<'.1.'.'/.1\._tl<.li\" l"'I.\ . IlL '-III.-I/()I tf(/ nl//J/-.: I t I": I'h' t I ik '. i rill' f:...I:1111f.I'''h.1' .l. ( }I :ilL' Iii.I[llr \!ll)[" '1II'i\\'d 1.'\I .J.- PH E R EOU ISITES ) 'I.111 (llll]'I:! P(1\III\(' (II' 111':11[1\. 1'J\).' .'1'11111 '-I"'h'd .1)' '''' .'.11.-. 1.ludinu u 1)(' ].!IIII'.III'(:C' 1'1 1[:1!1--' 1:ll.I:II '.:I!~ lile' \L'il()\I:lhk '~I. t.11..'.!\ ()Ih' w.1"1' 1.' ()p~1 d (I( 111~rl 1). .' l I. .' " \.'l:II'I>I:II'I\I-~t:lhk IIIL: 1111' pU'I\\h..1(\\.1 <>l'\111.u 111.' lh'.'. ir« ..:atl :Ii".·:I~l' iii': 11111\..' ll~l' rd' II I..1\"'.'1.)11.rll1lllllllllil i\ ('\'.! .: :111 .' [.11. h' II:.k.~k.1\.'II". "\ :1'\ .':l. 1.': \llllll\ t1 t:Jllq'.' rc- of (' 1.:lli.nnplu udv trig!!l'!..k \ ~'I.'d\..Ikp"IHli:)c' cucuu ..!:::II' 1.< I'll' i'I'.II'\\ I'll SI.: ill:1 \ ::1111: 1111 II t nut qUI'lll'l .!Ud.r.' o u t pu t \(.'k IllltPliI "hl'uld I."I.'111 ~II'. \ 11:[ 'I I I .'ILIIT.' .' I.'I}(' t l..-''(.'1:1 (1I'.':II.'([<1'11. ..:I ".'1.'..:.'.

' k.in.'r: rl'~' \'\11 Li~l' Lew I kc t o r m l r.ilS~ I hI .-'h:_ l!le' I'lhiti\.cvel i.1 t L. 3 . d lllc' ~.' i !ic'rv is .lll~ i I.'('11.' \'ull:lgl' l.l':I.: 11 r l i~ !-.I1I11'. ill' til. IlL' ol'lh'gJli\.'nr\ Ill.llll!' output have \I. the (Jut/Jilt is fixed at the negative C0I1S[:111 t Op-Amp With Positive And Negative Feedback: Let us tirxt l'llllSilkr til: cl1-.'r.:ilkd t h a t tll<..Ihi t i\ c' L'c'd· back p:iI II.' (Ji' (IL' Ill' )-'. .~'clL'd \\Ith 1:1ri. i i i-.1 IV(.' 1'11111 2. T lu: fi r~ ( ~t.IY of the' j'. or Il:Il'~' Fioure 2..discussion: analyzing the circuits THE MONOSTABLE MUL TIVIBRATOR dkct In sllldvlt1g t hc Opcrutio ncl .it 1\.: p\lSil ivc .l'~lli\L' suturuuon V:JiIlC t lic disdl~~I'll1 it 1).' L'll:l'.'k i.:dh:l.i':~ .'1.: <. output \\lltl'li.).' op-arnp outpt: t :S dj'I\'~'11 til till' I'lhi Iin' SCIII ration value I f J . Iii. wh.!.: Il'l'd h~ILI-: . network of fl'l and R 2. t o till' r:~'.\::I)1lil'.l1ld IlL')-':lt iv.' 1. AiV OP-AMP CIRCUIT wt ru POSITIVE AND /1/EGJ1 TIVE FEEDBACK IS THE HEART OF THE .lt h ~I circuit whos.h L:\.'. I-II '\ .t III III.. Ikelll \. !.'d 1r) 1lie' .' i) I 11 t tile c(1l1diti\Jlh tile' inpu t bv Frorn a t th\' ()P-.L'L t (I t poxit iv..'d Oil jlUSltl\l' and lleg:JliVl' k. 1 Ii Ill'\.' \.uu! forms t he h:hi~ U] the' 11ll:111\ ibr.till' . Negative feedback is 1)(0· vided through f? 3 .un pI iI'in ou (pll ( to t:iI'l' 1111 '0.1 )'pll.1)'. 11"t\I. J'L'c.'r.rtJ).'1111 '1'1](' op-ump IS l()I'II.l Ill'g.' lid rc-r.1]'1'1i<_'d [\' lil~' invcrt inu in pu t \\.: L"'dh:I.T\'. The' :llll(l(11l1Ill' time -."'11 t h.f.'.\11 o p-u iup rncu rt ill wh ich f~'('dba. p['midc'd t II rou gil I~.'dh:kf. .~'d· hack to l'~IChinput i~ L'olltfl1lkd h~ tile' l'i1:11'!:'lllg <II' u Clp~IUI()r.l:: \ :dlIL'~.MUL TI VIBRATOR.'/ I ! Ill' I"l-.d i() II v :1II:.k is <11')11 i c'd 1(l hi' i l! i:ll'd h combines both [h'!!~ltl\l' Jill! )1(1~ltlh' L'~'dback.: is provi(kd bv IlIl' \'IlILI!!l' divider nv t wo rk R/ and /(~_> .'db. I lf h L' I-e' I ~d Ih' :l11H -un t .lc k 1'T11I1ll' W II a I d'fi.r.'.1 !.-' j"( )1.' < illg up-amp input. t h~' u nul Y ~i~ \\ ill I'L' 1\) .'[.'r tl1:111 I ..III seturthe circuit.' f".!1 i\v \.' l~i1'" it 1 slale is (kklillillc'd h:.'dhdl'!-: paths...!l.ilu L: li. onver se ly it I~ dll\<.V.jll(1 oosrve fperf/lexk is obtained trom stion the voltage dillider value .itor L i [-Cll it.

_!.'.'S. <11'~tllllll'd l:llu Ci:ld I' which mv.' rh is sol i d hill' II .irvu it diLl!.V2.'\ tor i 1'/ l1. l:l:l r . ~il 'o'LII'b\.'ll r. ( -i- I Ii) ( _') Effect \\ c' Of A Capacitor: ~'()t~~.<I"~:II\lr:i\I()11 v.:.! ~.'1.1 'I III gl'll.1 \~lllll'_ S':l:.'n'I~~'.V2. is the S toblc state or the one-shot multi r l__ (. "[S.PHICAL ANAL YSIS OF TIfE CIRFIGURE 2 Fr cm hillatiuns (I) and (2) lila r I V 1 .'~ I'.If I I h k~~ I kill I _'.. -: j Tllic."Jrd l:l_!! tu Iql[111101.lkr Tilt: diITc'r..'d J! the :1.-.' '<il\lr~itl(\:l lim it s.11 -.'~q'~iL' C ILl" h"'11 ad lkd _ rill' ~Id i~ it or d t '('rl ill t:lL' . rile Cd(Jd{.V.u I.'_!!cit ivc tor . ll'irfl rhe Oil II)U / volt.' output I.!:IL' h to cx.IILtl it'.' Fqll.'h:lllgl' ttl:1 /"". :1\ I i" r h.> :i\'~ d rivcn to Ill\' 1lL'1'..c' r IT(l~~.._-~'rLlll1jy in 111)'111 \rllld. ( II.' r'. r 1 .'lll'.: u( r . Tht.' fit) l'ffl'd on th'\.lkh -['.' -I .- '. ~I . i\ :ilv.L'C'i\ Il'lakd t:~" I' i)J1Pl:1 h\ Figure 3. The output then returns 10 the suibtc sure.-' Itlpllf dt'll'rlllillL's st'ilv EOUATION (2) I (i) Using .I :11 (/1..u 1:1<.:r:II. \()ILi~l' i 1'1 Iliff! .!i'nitirl_ li\.-'<.:' i\ (((.-v TIi~' i(.le'r~ 1'1'U:ll till' ()ll~' ill licurr 2 in 111It . i + 1\_' /\ ) /ibretor.' --_ :il'ulit l\) I r. '\(lL' ll'." t h. CUIT OF il is found the au till! Ttiis point GR/. \\ hic'lt di.1 tfie' input \[lIla.)1 1 1 . ~1~.'d fly til.'7 -.: positive :lllLl 11\'~~ltl'.jt lquution is val ill o nl-.' I(). -I :I~Figure 3 xhnw-. It:dV ..i1 !:Ike' UII r-: -1(~) II' \h' j -" - -I t lr.'~ "II' .hll "I. Sl:h'.uninc the' \O]ldC:<. :Q')H(1\ill".I h _l1I. IS f"q!r.-.' vol!:I~" dirkt'<':lL~' 1/. .iqc 31 the stable state .ilu.' I.' dill. -l.'. r i- r '_' .i ll ...'~. 8ASIC W'iE-SHO .-'"iI':il'l((l[' will il.).-'.111..I\.1 c'll'c'Ul1 oj the' l .HUI_ TI VIBRA TOR CI A'CG'I T.-'\ till' ! H-' r i! in \:11 f'igun' 4. l 1'/ _ I _~ I \\ill fx II'.11)".lli()11 111("'1 IL'_!!~dl\ .inl"fi/c·ii Ir: i j "" -v_. 'Illite' 1<1.1 .' key to ddl'rtllilllll.' ~\'lld fine'. v/ .) /I(')'('/" hc'l'()tllL'S Su I' .-"-I ! H. V 1 exceeds V 2 dll(/ ibe ou (UII t is driven to -f V.' becomes at +V unti! C cberqes to the value of V I ne!liltlve. \)( '-" _ Tilt.'-:c'. .( . ~I - ncvvr 1 ~f.ur..1 III l'i~I'r<.' ul hgurv 4. 1-" \\ 1!1 he' li\. is never positive enrt that t voltsqe rel'lams at appro x il'latl'iy .+_ ~ .':11l !h'!__'::III\.' lu dlfkrc'IL'" :. hc r.llId .' {I . .:ti"11 I ~I (2) ha~ bCl'll plulkd..I .llly "LIt. I -----\{) STABLE / STATE : . tt will rcniein and IV I .11"" h.'3/ue.' \ I _' 1 . (\.'1" .V.. It III 11(l\\"~ th. 4 .' is i.1 .'tor C Is dlJrgL'd to _ V ~Vt'HIa oositivc Iliput trlg91'r ouls« Is iJf!!!licd..: \ldUe' 'l1.'.'_L':ativr ~d:llr:111\l11 \..'~ o t I he't\\c"'!1 1)). to r \:11[l<. til. ..: Lql:..r . a~ SIH)\V.

t i:d In!!~.ircu i: rv:1:1<.r.'r. II 1:1 I' i).inno t .'I)('r huck tn-I' :11 1ill' F:.uul '-" ~\\'il lil:' I(l I I:.I[ISl' I j ...lhis .h:lt1'-'~.j"-.'-I\ldth T I~ [l.\'illlllf(' lillie' du r.-in.rei tor c..2\" c\'il.i--.~.1]['1\:11 (': [I:.:.' l t lu I ': :l'\['-II'\"TII'I~ inIh.Ir(' /'/ . c:ql.'~q):k'ji('r .l!rl':[tc'l 111~ln (). II (l \\C'\l' r _ t lu: (ll. tidl:dnr. .kkdor \\III'\l' 1111':1\ \l.'h.11.md tll:ll t h. .': ( I.'11.. Till. ! ..'il m ~'S .('- ._.(lILI.-'~\ I': hrl ut 10..un :1 \ -I' h'\_':il_l:v.1\[')'1\:.Ii. (--- N.'dh..' (1 t Ihe I() ~':I 1':1 .t t[-I~.r.L'~' il'h'l . si i1 L'.....u: u '.: i t (H_ Th 1-. ': I.i~l' (hut he- tor.' \ (\ILI:':.: l'lil'.:~ h~ld\ 10 .' ~I p.!!l'I' pulse \{tl1:i.': .(1l1~1' R . i h.~ ~t. i r . output till' ~I n I 'f) ~ j' v() or ure 2.IL'f. .. Sl:lk . the':] .is ~IHl\>.I:lkd thl' V.Ill seconds._'d 11\ kl'dh:ld.1 .tlll~' ul t he log:uirlllil in I quat ion I C) i\ ~c'ld()'ll far from 011".' t h.[ I h.IIl)!l'd su h- -t. t h.'.c. .' p()Si I[V c' ~..lhk l'S rii. pu t I'" divider 111(r"'.'\)L'[- I'.1iJt~'I\' :J!I.: L'~IPd. '.1i\ Till' -i /\ .".\\111111'.1<1 iuo r.' the' cap.' i~ .2i-'~'r 11111... ui. putse I.'.uu p lit u. ioutse v/ictth) in ::nrl /\'_.'I-I\l'll III the' r».' fir j " hl.han g" I h \ I' I t dl!..'1:.' ..L'L':-II: i 1:'.' . (5) Under this coudition.I](H h<. 1"1.-'d \hi' .until tile' . WIII.1\.'11 hy 1.\11.' V() to sw i t ch 1() 1h.un to rn rrJ.I open-circuit 10 DC_ TIlc'J'l'!'ur.i['~ PI' I..1 t. t .mt iullv 11.'l:tJl~.Ih"t. lil['(lUgil R_..' I1UIl'l! 111'~' ..III i 1 i1c' .I .lr~.' trigger pulxc i~ .1 ~'VCIl I\~.: \:11\-.: (J / fl'r'.' ·'1~'. Inllll \11. -v t hc tr-i!-!. \.u ion T o( the ou t pu t 1'lIlsl' I~ given h\ : "\l're'\~i()11 I~ lk:-jl.' \ d Ill.kt. ': will r.:I..-'~ thr()lI~h N. . til I l!\.: t h. input.\ 1'.\ ()IT:IL'.'I1.: i lu r i-.: i:l ~ 1~i1.'I' (with "" = -I') ..' ~'\lu:li t» .Ii.'\:llllillc' Amplitude We IlIlW Pulse: III ill t hv Apprndi x.il\:1111.'..11:1 . ..i Time duration the ootput of equal to til..:". Time Duration Of The Output Pulse: 'lhi-: circuit is 1)(1 ]11(11'.1i1:1':llln .-2'51'1'!"'.ill III'-' Ill'l'O['l' t h.tnncouvly._)':1'-.'jIU[.prcv iou s an ul y"i -....: l':II'~:lil\lr I..11 s(all' ":I].' i. R.'~ I ''te' .r:_cr:ll1! oj Iiuurc 5.). III tl''-' \t:il_'k \LIL' 1:11'1\. loW:ild :1 I'in.-' pul«: will L':I)!-.il th.-' "wldtil ") l' I" i-'0vnlled crrcurt only l' h th I L c' II :trg i:l).un t. Afln 1"(1 1 pom t( I -I - I -_.md 1'2 will tC'ITlj1III:lrily ui. Si'l~'~' t h." h_ When t hc capa. \\.J!tl. h. till' !1!!!!}"().ll:I!C.ruh [I.' ro.i" I 1 I' u t lrnn I -..' I'.' 1i Ill.-I.il \ (lILIL'l' oi V) -'--' ~ . 'II seconds.-_.!lll.1\.'k j!\ 1"'rll'. till'.:I\'_ t h .:-... N ---. I.: I '" - the' ou t pu t j1I1ISL' is t herc- 0 J J\1'I.: .'11 h . :llli! 1111' ":I1!'I: \.I_gl' J'.'1' )'1:]-.' "~.'lIrc' .'~ .'II L\l. namely Figure 4 will he I'u = -1- till' .nnl till' ]'(l~ili\. r\::ll'lll'~ 1 hr vulu« of V.'ih'r C I' charged to volt.'r'!2II1l'!urg- value .J- couu:x: rf This r'l:slI]t is poxit ivr k.111\1h 1'1:]':11'1'.dif:. 1 ~I.\'._i-'L:.1I]'I.'S 1\\ lil:lrg~' till' ~'. -ion-invcrt im..'d t unv T duri nu wh ic h the output I'. ~'il:ill".TIi: tlll(lli.' h:ls ~'h.'!'lrls to charge )]1[.lltinJl\ ..: l'Il"Lllil i-.IL' :1' (Ill' I--Ig- I' I./\ I.: 11: I': ) l\~"f_.1I) d. j (4) Suppose tli.I« 01 .uul t h. 1"'L'<Wl. :1:'. AI t iu negativl' <II ~l.illl[':l1 i on \:1 I Lie' +1' 1l\'(.' .---..: ..c'il ill 111. \ ()l \'I~~~' f _~ )1. ~'.lL': r.. I I- F: -.I[b 111. . -- ) .it -+- t (til...: :II \\'~l\dl'I-111 ~lill\\11 in the till' output :11 . If a 11\1\lti\'.) illalilS until plil'll iu pu l.1j1Jllil'd II' t h. Approx inurtc time duration ()f the ootpo t pulse in 0) r(lll(lwill~ (1)1lt! i Iii I]b I" . .'r ill1111L'd i~1 kl~ \\\'11 cil.' . 5 . 11 j111 \ \\ it. Of The Output .

lhf'.:1' bloL'f.'.rh "'('1 c' II i: ibr. el7anr..l<.'1h R3 Th is curve hu« a lime constent cqunts Ih/.I ~.' ~'hdr..' ITIlnl:h'lli:lkiy b(. TlIF output trigger OU Ti'{}T i! ~~'/I.lIIJ c! 111c!. 111.' ~ ~(1(lJl J~ J \ h~l\ "w illill'd 10 -I V.lllnli) (':\.']' ~lg:l...'-'1.O. { i MONOSTABLE MUL TIVIBRATOR TRIGGER COUPLING III nrlkr funct iun. - ""-1. __ 'A'I'R71~ _____ L--------J '! v t V t+. ork i\ shown ill i.11 returns ru rl... THE WA VrFOH'.'!-'l' I \I)! 11./'/_/T TR/GGt R PULSL /\ T t o.l!I'I.stor triW/f'TI.h. t '12 time: n.R]C v:'hleli -------- -.} Sldi)/" st atv.!! lid'.! [llc.'.V un tii an I 0 II tht.' "! 7 rhanr.].inl' lor Ill.gurf' be. h t h .' In 1111 111\: I rig_!-'. to v F.1.\.Ipplied to V 1 outnut rlllf.V J/I(! Iii!.'.: tr: .-' I Figur/' Vt R TI NG I Ni'{} T.1. _ - --.'rI.cillg currc nt til Ci after the 1rig~./ ._/ /.l.l_ '>. 1.' hi ..l'r ~kp i" .. ".. OU tou t put». mined '1.' f)/ til lil(: non-invcrti I'!-.'l the multivibr.. Olll' I'(\f WITH '.'- V -: F(l}lIre 5a. -_.'()llpkd ti:L' 0'1.'lIil ivibrator ou 1- ---t ~<----__~~~-------------~-~ .!/! V 7/' T THE _t.'.\1:111 n.' l )_' Inn cn t ~ t hc vo]Llg(' i :11 tile' junct ion 01 f)/ .~Ja! is .'--'rtilli-' m pi.riyurt' 5. j) / d! 'L (1:1)'c' •.1/1 V2/\ T THE /.'_ I']c"'--'ill .' tr +.u or III \'~I:' t o dlllpk IlllTl' mu sr h' t tile' trigg. vOJ/ue of V 7 (ill T -.hul l'L'L~iU'.':!li\'c r hcn -V hy providinu . till' output switches tv ..' ])C Cl .es iron.Tilt: tnf_JU is in thl' stabt» stoto .-(ir_'r ' ) am/ F 2.'(11'l.' U1fJih.:.' ill:md ~!I\cl hl'h'f.11J1. Cap.'r .-\ J'{_1~ltl\l'-"'1111l.es stot» from .ui d f): {rum bl'COlllill~ iuor« :ll'.n sv/itctres to i V and remains ut tins value unt. V 2 SlihV/V increases as cd{Jdutor C cherqe: th!()II...----+:----~ to the c!JarljllJy of ceoacitor C Ttu: Ihf.)11:1".'conll's I\'\ ". THE ~'/A Vf'FOR. 1111'r'lI~'iI (! 6 .Hlvid.I Irl.l1cli 1'~'rLII-Il' In 11\ in it ial q~lk.' \IH:I\'...1111 h. 0 f th-. It rc h turns to V at the como!c tio..I/FFOR.tm ( i [./2 A.'\ COlnln~' !J'i!-_Tl'l ..jl'..LT\h\ /{ i .'2 ~ IN VE H TI NG I/VPU J _ J!.'diu'_' (/r'1fJ hy the voltoqe cii.: 1111'1-l11'.itor ChH_!li'S hac"f. ]_)oel..-' d.i V2 tieconics ~C.'.fl1 1/0.11 lroru I hi./is Ri 1---- .' I'llc'-.!!.1./ur.. ~'/A Vtr-ORA}S OF V). V to J .'-.()f 1-1~'lil'" .V tu ' V.. A ttcr tile {Jilt 5/). I r: put .1 path rill' Ill.iVD Vo ro» /1. " - --.'.

Diodes D 1 and D 2 disconnect the trigger input signal from tlu: muttivibrutor dllring the outpu! pulse and provide of C 1jj v:I • 1 pk II' Oil t Illi t cyr lv. rhis is quite low. IIIr IWIH'lllagl' ottirnc l!Jal tlw Illuliivihralor ou t pul is ill l hc oil-siak dl1rill~'.h:1Ialter time T. One C<!LlSL' S N _.1 sccourl trig!:'.IS much to IT:ICh th" voILig_.. I I' . o nc COIIIurnHS r-------~--__.l' hv : PIYcf!nldlje of lime dur- that the one-she I is in the on-state iny one (JII {/JII (8) t putsc.T {1'(llI:11 ion 7) then.tmiJl:JtioJ1 gradll. --. tlu-n l hc duly' . <lnd slcps an' usually t"kl'll 10 Increase IIIl' 111:1iX mUIlI dilly ryclr .is <l dvby of4to S timL's t hc pu l-«: width T i lsl'l 1"_ The time rt:qllirl'd for l hc circu it to ret (I rn 10 ih initial st:tit' I'ollowilll-'.'s of !uil' . return flilth for the chary/jIg current Recovery Time: of the wave lorms ill Figurl' . t hc output volt<lgl~ has returned to its initial still'.111 T. hill V~ docs 1101 immcdiat cly rcturu to -Y. Thus till" II {(IX iI/III III duty cycle will be given by: output will occur or the Olltput pulse will t Max I rut v Cyell' .the complc uon of the output pulse is l:alkd till' rt'I'III'('ntim« of the l'i rcu it. i:-. In fad V. ei 1her no If the rr covcry tinll' is c:ilkd If' Ihl'11 " specilks the mininnnn allowable value (If lPi)'.l! till' rccov cry t imc pvti ud. 7 . TRfGGEh' COUPLING NE TWORK FOR THE MONOSTABLE Miff TlVffJRAIOh'.il!lln: 7. if:1I1 ou t put pulse 0[' consta 11 t du ra ti 011 is (ksi red I he ci rcu it 11111>.T-I Ir he (l I' sh ort er till r:t1i011 111. _r lOW: (9) hir IIIl' circu i I 0 I I "il!III-" '1-. In other words.') shows I. If:1 jllllsL' of d II r:11ion T with . I' Figure 6. Ik- the percen taqo 01 time that 017 (T) (/urin." Fx. -____.1]1plied till riJl.IS ~IH)WII ill I.and so will not 11:IVl~to (ilarge .r.Du1y Cycle: i\llollllT TRIGGER IllL'lllod of dL'snihilll-' Ilw rl'('(lVlTY l in«: is I() IISl' l liv ilut v cvil«. he- Figur!! 7_ PULSE DUTY fore Ihe circuit i~ ready 10 o pcru tc :lVaill.1 not be triggl'll~d unlil rcvovcrv is COlllpil'k.'Yl'k of tile plilsl' is (IL-I-ilh'd <IS" jlnCl'IlLI)'.. t !off --I R/ C. one output CYCLE_ The dutv cyctc rnuttioibretor output cvctc rTf lo({)- is is H_i ('-.1r is <I P P ro x iIII u lrly 4T. Capacitor C 1 provides all open circu i I for D C voltaqes in the Iflgger source and the rnuttivihretor. Th« dilly' cyde C COUPLING NETWORK I _ -____. Til is is hccnu Sl' the capal'i 101' will no t Il:tVl' L"(IIIlllk kl Y d ischarged.'(.l'!' is .~ eiVl'll by lquation (3).lIly returns IllIISt to -V will' wai I 4 to a time con'd:lnt t inlL's ---~1t-- r- ----1f---t- . so t hut {IIV lIIaxilllltlH duty eyck I'rum lquarion (9) is 2()'_'.1 Iimc hl'lw('('1l [lllls.

Wh~n Vo is at .!..uuph-. the recovery diod« is reverse biased end dues no t affect the chilfging (all: of C.overV diude is tor wnrc! hiasr:r/ dnd ulh:r:. till' recovery time lim i!x I Ill' max imum ou l jlll I rn'( I Ill' 11 cy.hi <l\l'd. .' ur. \VI1'-'11 r. uuun dllty 1 h.:l' 111l'pJ'(lhklll Frequency: circu il to or with till' hgllll' til riyure DIOOF VIODL -v 4 i:-.V until nbout' II T ei tor the cornpletion of the output When Vo switches ]-'ll!llrl' l'hc l'lln't or . 4 t 4'1'.11)' to-V. the diode pulse. til.l'l'O. UII ot time T.' l luminimum :ill(lw:[hk period 01 Ihe lllPlit trigger wuvc C ron II Oil 11l'\ 'VS\<I y r ror n Hlsi~ 11' III out. capacitor C cherqes to .i..lscd :1 III Willi t will .. til. 8 .V. !iT I---___'" mult ivibrutor with :1 rl~l..nd.II' quc nry z-: lI~illg till' cil'.: ohLlilh'd lroiu titlll' :111 Id..IIIi'-rUIIIClII 1- I ( I ()) t'! I I I ) ---------------Figure 8. t /"" tl \ -()-1I1 ~.rl valu. (hi' /<'/'('1/1/('11('\' V dnriru) an outpu t pulse. or 20'.:1i l. FFFECT OF h'ECOV{RY DIDO! ON V2.lId\" . I r :1 n ill put 1rigger i" a]1plil't! hl'r()IT .tddlll!-.whcrc is reverse. the rto. V 2 dOl'S 110 [ reech .c.!I\l' IILI}' 1)<.. 9. Wi thou t tho recovery dim/!'.'s back to -V.l' t hrouuh N.hl.1:\ V" switcll<. DIODE ADDElJ TO REDUCE RLCOVERY hn cx.'()Vny of Increasing The Maximum Sin. The forward biased recovery diode effectively shorts n 3 anr! slto ws C to chsroe very rapidly to V in a time of abou [ .'..' t 111.r x inuuu output I'rl'qllcll- .V.It the l'IHI or V:! till' pul-. 17 after the completion of the out put pulse.(' t hrouuh H.'llil or Figlll . howevur.ip proachcs lu: idc. till' t im« r()r t hc l':tp<ll'it()1" ()IH' rt'(/wr.'II<Irgl' out put [lub.'y' is lilllikd hy' til<: t imc duru tio u 01' til.I r f-~ 1 put 11/11 ]l\l hl'S is rill/IIIII T + ''-' Th is ("oITL'S]l()IHI~ 10 rn'q Ill' nry t pu l or I Ill' nll\'-shol () l': Max iuunn fllllHlCY () Ire- f the one-shu t. I lowcvcr."'.IS bc iorc.' diode is shown in lJ.'. and ( .IS laq!l' as uiaxi- lJ.!. oj' 1.one-shot mul t ivi hrn lo r where cych: h ix Sdll'tlH'. (' till' diode very will he In rw. Thnl'r()r.V. I Ill' 1ll:I\iIIIUIII ou t pu I l rc- IS.' ou Ipu t I'lllv'. 1"11 is /(h'"I'I/ll\"illllllll ii'I'II/ICI/IT is l'qll:11 to till' rl'l'ipm. wlun. will cha rp.:lS shown ill l'i!"llr.. Will'/! the output returns to ." I(k:iI (lilt'-sllOt [tlllllt'di:l1t'iy' . l'ilhl'r IlO output pu!«: will on'ul" (1]" it will hl' pi shortc r durat ion. or lhc valu. a I TIME. III :1 non-ideal. :IIlU uu u ru ou t pu l lrvqucucy . way of r('tllll'ing the rc- covery t i me a IId ill L'rl':ISlll~'.whvn 1:11'1. the 111:1 lllllill xi dut y cycle is 10 d(hl :1 tl iodl' ill pa r.' .Maximum III (ill Frequency: mu ltivibrator. switches to 1 V.rl lc I wit h R. fI[CUVtRY DIOD[ V_: :111 dOl'S no t illlllll'diakly output n-tu r n to -v a lt cr pulse..' S..~r low resistance !Jdlh for r('(uming C 10 .':iI or I'.lj1dl'itor (' hax rccovt-red.. a t till' cud of t till' returns !n -v ../1'.

....I!} Ii' t imv.-'()llll'ktl()[) PI' <Inoutput I'llb. lfu't_ Olll!1l11 Fru/!I:J.rtor C to ~'Il:lrgl' to -v aih'r th~' ._ wll:. ___lUl_ __ _ 1 --l V.. 9 .apa..I I! t_t' ) r ..1'v10NOSTABLE MUL TlVIBRATOR CIRCUIT DESIGN INFORMATION RECOVERY DIODE c I ~) _.'( .jI' 1 fHl _ +v . c -.- "" (. -v Basic M LJ ltiv ibrator C ircu it: v() Vii F ..'( ..- -r -I' H.... or 1lll' t nne nqu ircd for . -I' r -+.'dl\l'ry' ..'L' Ir == r..

.: Width t hc Out t t im c dur.j H.[' ' __fL __ _ 1 1--I I I' I 1< I \! I..1..II_R n \'I)/TiO ( /1\' ({ II \'S \/ I 1.I-.1.vut pu t ( [ r. ?+V' C ("} --- J)J j).. /{_..!-fJ I-11FT '. \LI\. h.'(' I T.--'\ '-.(!_ (l~llpi_'l ~f:1 \ im urn (h t pll t I.:\':fTS Arnplitudr Amplitude or ou t put ( ['"I I ot .1.'ill ill ('(JIlI/JIi/II'II! I'{i/II( " [h.uion ot put l'lIl~L'1 T . C~l'k \1:1\.':1 .MONOSTABLE CIRCUIT PERFORMANCE DATA: (I.1\ .\1 P.] \ ()I I Pi: I 1-1"'1 10 . ll:!ty CYl'k Duty I i rr \\:i\. n· IV . -V /\1)/4 ..i } Il ~V -- .'() .'d in u'( tuu! ( in MUL TIVIBRATOR Iii. 1'111.' ! N.

. TIK stcudy-sta h' and t ri.md used 10 (:1 ILu ia 1<: t Ill' 111:1:\ I t1111 III d II t Y (y ('k..O()lj1j.~T:d 0 II t pu h urc com pa red.11 h~ J..ATOR.]n d till' am PI i III d: J n d Ii III t.l'l1l'LI t Of.1 vc1I :11"<.I) I jJ I: . ilfl':ldh().'t .inc! ':l1111I'~ir\'d with tl i . 1'1 an d I·~. of V _"til\: n:\.'11 t-.'i.'J I'd hie () f Ill' i 111.~':f. I 01 II to] k117. . ~l diu(k . wave forlll.' forms shown From till' t r. r . !\h' :I:>U h' III ~'11 t.experiments: measuring circuit performance SUMMARY c x pcrimc n t s till' bL'h." ..'ry W .. tul -n dill:! for IT III \II t ivi h I'CI r sh (lui TO cd Oll the "( '] RCUT I)A' 1'A " shc'l'l () 11 t h l' ul'P\ d he rL'('\ 1rdPL R 1--"0 R\L\ l\C!..' L'me' t·~ l i m c and tluly l'ydv ur. ':ISlI fl' til . 'h'rmllh'd ...TIVIHR. ThL' till ty cy l'l L' is al '\l1 d \.1(1"<hS till' I.I \'<: C. 11 . The circui: the onc-sh. :S .I~'llili(':llltl) rvtill l'l'd..'d I lloscopc III ami L'UIll ]':1r..1 ()1'~T:ltl()ll:il ampliticr Power Supply: ::-V = 2.' i( JUS Tll . (If t h . l~i t c' p..' du ldtion or lilt. i.u..' Iriggl'rL'd output pubL' arL' me a- MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT with III the r()llowill~ \llI. 1/4W ]OOUl C~IP~ILit()rs..' .rL'sisthe r.(1'.1 ~ to ± 15VDC l' X tcrua sun-d. I- i) Sq t ri !!.'d WI t h the \.l!:'c'.: ftl: By J1Lll'ill~ tor Hi.]Ill p.llHll':\j run ..'(l\. . Di(J(k~' I N() 14 t orcquivalcu tl diode prcv ill the l"lrulit . ....: 111:llL' with th.._':i n ly dis jl by l' d on J 11osci ()~( III ()~.l:!-.'~:i1 t hc Input t er rninals 01 the OP-.-' r.'(()\l'ry tunc h -.l\IUr o t till' one-shot mu l t iv ibru to r will bL' <tudied..'!"\ 'Illh' .'dh:k".. Tlu: v()ILlgt.'() I"': I .-'r111 i 11ed i I1lk pL' :1dcnt ly from I1ll':ISlIrL'l1le'lll\ of tile' output Figlir. valu .[]"(i 7-1.'':.\. ·l.

lI.'II OS..'11"1 1/i.'( vulu> of 1-. Huild tlu: «auurc-wuv« kr-IIIIILII'- ucncrator cuu "howl< .tput \ (lILt. here . .'.liCrdill z: / input !i!' .I\/Ir('d .'!/' i-: !.YOT!:" scrt r..'\l i P'.. (' (' :11 )' ~nl'I I \\ nil the Ill'.:..un plit u d« of the' oi.11)1)'1\ \\) ILI. j).1 I i\.'I)/.'I_ tih' ou \ I'll \ pLlbl' 1-.l III ])1.'1:1"~I'llr\'d pu l-«: \\ Idtll Cotcu Jateet s/etue...'('.Cf 'L'. II!. ( 1).i/(u/.' _~ I I)((//. CUI/I/i! I !III' 'H( 'i 11/iJ\( .' 1/'. Ii/'e' bet ween till' llOll-]l1\c':-11Ih' I + I iupu t o t till' 7-1-1 am plifivr :i:ld p.~.' tli« !I 1'('/ III 1 li'.. I'i. IN THE II.) an d pul«: with til .---- ('.!l<.il1\l ou till' ('ll":'CUI I 1'1-I._!i//.l'- Output With Triggered Input: C'iUiI('( 1(1 till' i th. SC"/Il' If 1I"i_.unl turn in u .If/tr'll /. .~'~' -V (..1l1Ilii. t r to I OH. h. 1 l'\/('rucdll h(' 1r<. :1!ld /11l1. slcu-ur: '. 11(1:1 1111.I( i//lls( 12 . it .".tnd r. '!I(I fl.\/.1I' o n.il- at I ~'(l'll'llllL" .'. elRClllT S)h'..((I'. liu' "I. .('r Vo \'UlI.I/(·-.~' c' 1.' ".'L' ~\' J'I:I~': \\111l1\\1l'l' Ilh' ~lIpply va = --Negative -V = 2V= Supply v'oltsoc.'-..0.'illf!:'ihr.1i lil( '!/hl!..: -------------. .'.'.- ~'_'11l'r'..\I/I.\. : it hcr« and Oil till' nATA 1'1 RrCHU\ji\.OUTPUT I. h../II//(/(' Rc'((lrd T (\) ()~~ill\l'(\)p~'..'·.' -.l/('(/I/li"C .-\ I A -.!.'('.t/1 th.-IO-{!('ak lI~illg l.\.HJj{\1 .£' I\'ii/lli (""It"!/'(' t \n1111 I-qlla/h' value wit h 111.'i/J/Ii/tl! /rrllil l lt : trigger gCl/era/IJ/'_ t li« Output: Amplitude: Vo CIRCUIT DIAGRAM ~7 Pulse T"" Widl!.:ru·J../.11.( ll~l'DC to t lu ou tpu t ter rnin.-\'\ t I./1/': thr (1I11/.l i ih: trcuucn..11- .t STEADY-STATE i.

10.. Indicate peak amplitude and the peak time T = 4. vc trcquc width T :J S is slow Iy i 11- 13 .llld lite pulse width Tj of -I the input voltage.::-:~' il-iI .1_' " :.i: !: .ii! II .. CUIII/JUrl" -r . with 12._ II.-: 1'" 1I i 'i ' i I Ii j j l !:... ii :.i I 'I I I I ' 'I L.Ir-'I· -.: . _.I 1 q i~~: Iii . (. I' i .tIi!I i1 ~ 1 '1::' .__ _.<-tl+'li-t.~~-::-1 I i I : ~ -I ~- __-+1tt-...R2 (R 1 + R2 -) V 1_ Estimat« sketch t- th« n'{'I))'c/T t iun: in s1l'p 15. itt CI1SU(1' lind record I he clwngl' ill 11m /1Iilude ""'V. Ii I--+-++--+'-r-t-t--H -'----"-+----j---'+. Caiculut« lite maxiuuun V.. !Il! :1!! :... till' Max.: I l' i! I': -T! l :i" "1:-.. i !: : 'I!' "Ii .:.\'('/")'(' Ilie /)11/. V 1 _'--.1..illil'S cvcl« Ihe uxi ng I'q uat i ()Jl (9)... : ill:: . .. anti couipu n: it with the meusurcd value...-- DATA sheet.'. II I.._ I he sq uarc-wa creased. _. - _L.. I.. !. Calcu!a II' Ihe ampl! 111£11' o] V I LI si ng hillatiolls (4) and (5). _I ':'! ". V~ 011 the graph the values of the lite oscilkrscopc: 10 15. i: .~_~----T-1~__+_'1 ~I • '.i-I'I".(JIIIIC('/ VI!' iTlVl'rlillg(-) input and ground..:i - ':! iI 1"1" measured pulse width the valu« calculated in step 7. Ir from till' r duly 1 J. Duty Cvcte: 14.__ . ' Pulse Width: T.1. . ! I _. I 1 ~:! i : I! : ~ . Amplitude: 6V 1 = .:~-!-. Calculated Value: Before Trigger Pulse: V 1 Atter Triqqer Pulse: V1 = =- V RECOVERY TIME R1 . .·. all d record here and OIl t Ill' ('I RClJ IT PF R- FORMANCL t-. .('Ic!t 111(' wavcforn: provided. ('aleu fa it' th« change iii amplitude (6 V I) be fore :J 11 d a ftcr trigger pulse.. t h« 1I/lIIIUI <'.. Connri': IIJc (Jsci/l(Js('(){!c between -----_% 3. Carctultv 1111.1'1' IlCY V2 Peak Amplitude T../.

\ .III: .I l h or llh'd~llr.(k:H til.t.hc'd rIll' CIf{Cl!IT dlld bv- w. . :I!hl .'I'\ ."..ilur.'II\'I:I!\ll ':.. I \\ < i.. 14 ."'llll':lrc' it with tlTl' vuiu • c:lk'lll:ic'd Til ~kI' .'1: J\ .~.s.'1\ .' ()llll':il"c' rc.) t T :n:d tilt" pni(ld l' Ill' (h~'~I. 'il \\' vul u« ()I' 11 :111.! t t.'d 1:1 ~(~'I' -L CIRCUIT DIAGRAM =2 T= . ~ /i . Ic'dl\.'ILII!.1 .. 1 I.'I.' ou l pu I SIde' I. l) I1 {max ('al"III. .../ th: !lI'I\' )'''/1/(' wi i h III.' t h.'\ .1{1 UR\1 (l \1. .' 1'1IL.'n.· . F'ii".\ I . Measured Duty Cvcte: _____ " '0' 7.1\.'" li:II.j 11111I.u.ci . / :tl.lle II/I' 1.' wi.' 1\'. Sl.'1'..'i/. { Ii .."11..h ('ii'.-..Iil\: "t 111'.Idll 1111' rctovcrv diu d: 111 !'Jr.1 l'(\I!II'~II" 111'l\' 111..)'1 1'1.'. dividing I" ITLI'-: hy 1-'...ctcl: UiagLllll lite nio ditic.Iii.. t.l I -.i f. r.: fl'l'db:!d. .r. "1)'11:11 L'..! ~I i i. 1.! (/1"1.Iiil' '.~ . : i . rmax p= . ! = II~L' I-I l(l . \ \( I j).i.. Recovery Diode.) r.d 1()(ill/..lll./1/..'11"1 '<I Jilt' (I ric b~. -. '~('( -or.//{ .:.iu. /' ..'.'11.. 1 n.'Shlur IL'~ll!h.] I//(' mil vnuu u: leI/iI.'~I~llrl'd ill it wi t h t'1" N" 1 "i.'} ".0.(1.1 \ It .-.llki with th.

.' 1/. Duty Cvc!c: T T 13_ f tr x 100". /i! 011 t hc CIR]):\TA shcr t.'.'c!\u/n! . Dllty c.l.'('llli-.r: :ILd ih: '!..».'fL".: _ l oll : inpu.:i\r\'in:.'.uu! dlill p~lrc thrm wit h t l«: i'lh' .' 1I./ L'() and 111)'"l re' iI \\ [t it« h till' /1/1/'1(.· 111(' Ill'c'rt:11.1--:: TIllJX p' ('oill/i'd lilt' :llld -.'-~" ~III".I(' .it 1"11 I .. u.:l/('(I''l)tF(' {/i. I lUI il l lu.'1:11'1.II) (-Ii. .~(/ n./.I/')i'/i-'(i..rc J('d I'U/i/. lqu.~ 11/.1'1I1~.-.lnt ill slL'p v ('I'(/C hy the ill.\ I'.il\ Ilill v\\II:I~" 11':lk.E I q u.'Yll I[i.!o' '.'. "'11- \\:II. ln.' . providc.1/. ::lllil()lllP:II(' [11\' CIRCl'IT \11.' \\ idlllllC1~1 h'L~lil' 1(l (_~.Ii ili-.ilu l' s..(/ vcidtt: 1 ni.. . ( ai.1: <'I th.'/('i. dl\ ui.. le):11 I'l pi .t or: 1'. 1'1 RI(IIZ\I-\\( kl"I'.is.i-u I-cd \ .1 il.' 'I n r: \ [./(//01' (-I input ~()lflJIUI'l llud in'ur.t r-u t l\'lllIill. T 171/1X p ---'_ 1 f mex 15 .'r:ltC>T pc'lt"d I<.':1 1.'/I"1" cn::IS. Id../. lri:illi'k_ l'll' ) Illl' out pu t wavctornix and lksLTilx' ] 5.:I-.: !!. _1iJ/Jil rJ.u!«.! I!. . prV\' 1(lIlS \\'id/Ii T.' 1:111.tt ir n: ( l TIl'l 1\ H >R\I.'. ".II. :llld Oil 1. value. (I I_ .. '~" 1. i h.-'qllL'Il(_'Y usi II.'- T::: I. 111' :1'11 ot: 1)'\: I 11.\ tl.n iun I<JI.rt : ih: [\.: i'l ot.'-ri0{{·..i/n(l.ul.'(. I- n-ult 1\1111 Ilk vulur l.1ln i.'c'l :llld n.-' i\Cl_ SiI!. 14. Without Diode: With Diode: f max __ __1 IT+t~) I i'_ /-"".~·.'li\I-11 i ') Ill.u.y]'.-.'1 (11 tll\' II~il \. (('(I.)IJrf'(/ I~_ Max.j t hi: tntcnm.

r ..appendix: DERIVATIOI\IS Input Voltage: ) '. s\) t hu t the' \(11- :Il 111.1~S\\lll\: lh:ll input rOll 11\1 :I\'Hh~ nrm in. :.) Or.u \\\"'11 i) 1 13 11 t \\ I' f /\ '.eTc' h\ d I\ldITl~'.r t hc R' no current tl ows into c i t licr ~-" 1\ / ------ ! J\ _' j 0p-.! J I/( !~ / f\ / ' !~j .!.:' ih. S i Ill'" ill~ (-I t !.· non-invcr tinu (+1 input. I I.i J\ .) (/.llllp. i.: ( J\ / ' R _:) j- -v ] --_:_ _ J' h . 1) _ / I 1 i ~'.j .-'(:lul tn t l:c (HttPI:1 \()II:li'l': niu-t I"c' 17 .R Tj:[ + N v } .-j F. I'. / I R !t R f( i- J / -.1\ _.---. i ' N .( H/ v] 1\ f !/? ". .' r' (I\/!I\_') "0 :\ot. . _ t : J 'j I' -_(-() '.rl l..j f We ldgt' .'II 1 r) " i _i I rR / .nd thus IW \\)Itdf!l' there. J\.npu t.I f t: J . _r \ / r fl-r I _flr. I .111\] 1 h • 0111 prt \OILl!Cc' 1- i~ I' (1 l' II rr c ill rI ow ~IljJ 1c' j nvr rt. JJ= .

--:. rl'maino. "mailer tlll'l1 VI.pllL'll.'-I! _ Forming till' diffLT~llL'~'in Ow input (V f . and is a tumtion.ipu t \'O]t._' 1.nlt:l!!l' i. :1). . ~lIld rile' output stutc inuncdiu Thi" \.+ ) -.lli y. Rl':lrr:lllgil1!:.L'r I'llh' put \..-fix f -/ 1\ _.: RJ .I' / (R I i N~) 8 ~--.Lh til.. Tis: I' J (R / /-F!. The <":.!!!~' im prcxsrd dC!O~S resistor N. I' ..-//..' t)h' \ tcr till' tri:2~~'r jlUlsl' is: I ' -.--. the voltage Ow invertto ~I.'s' (I\/-R') I' . (VI .:r(l.'ondltil):l (or switvhovcr "~ -=- 1 he v aJ uc of tcty l'haJl)!t's.s : 1-. : Or: -]?..) This curve -moo thly j~ shown irlnl'.R _~J+ ~::) if.md when I 'Ii u t her out J111! . Note state that VI! -- when -r'.' JHl:1-JI1H'rling r +) 1:1put voll:lgl' flip to i hrir killpnr:il-Y \..)' J - +) -.v.I L:iP:ILilor inxt ant.i-.J. st. -= )' .?) \v.' reach .: i1:1 \l" thl' at tim.nt tionx: I 'Ii t' J with till' m it i»] \I"hk '. obtuiu: : \'nILl~(' +)' Since iJl.'(· -i:« .. -- -J' ( 11 -r R: C = /1/ -" -::.' outJ (j :lnd Ill.----=. w.ins gradually N.V d lie to (lll.) -! I I lro ill j h or ig: n a I level () f .\ '.- Output Pulse Width T: \\\._' 'f' I -tt: -r -.: j + R:.. h._l) (T(. /-1\ _---. ho wcvrr. till' and: \I\llPlil >.-::)(['-l) On the other h.~:Ik _nndi- -I -) .L:! k. im possiblc to change I'_. I . I' .I_gC hl'. (j .-'h~ll1gl'S wit II time: al:" ill LTV:I ~..-. fR.IC[ form of how 1-: .r .) 1\) Whc n a IfJ)!1!.lSill~ In Figure 5h. the nlitput "Llh' stavs the '<lIl1(" at IOu +V -/\ ' lvrn [Ii.V. III tll.nu-ously.ilu.V 1) -( R _j +-R-.I'·OFj+. I-I i....' \Llbk A" long as ['_:.l' it j.

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