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Also known as reverse innovation or constraint-based innovation.

It takes the needs of poor or resource constrained consumers as a starting point and works
backwards to meet these needs. It is applicable to both products and business models, in a way
that involves rethinking entire production processes.
This thesis focused on the healthcare system but its ndings could be applied to other industries
and organisations. Its objectives were to:
Assess Ihe ussumpIIon IhuI IruguI InnovuIIons cun Increuse uccess und quuIIIy und reduce
healthcare costs in high-income countries.
IdenIIIy II und where Ihe Iessons Irom IruguI InnovuIIons cun be successIuIIy uppIIed
IdenIIIy where IruguI InnovuIIons In Ihe heuIIhcure sysIem ure currenIIy beIng uppIIed und where
more effective leverage points can be found
SusIuInubIIIIy requIres un undersIundIng IhuI resources ure hnIIe, IhIs Iuck oI undersIundIng
is a key reason why products are over engineered and business models are inefcient. Frugal
innovation puts constraints at its core, which is why it is a good way forward.
The producIs und servIces deveIoped Ihrough IruguI InnovuIIon muy provIde Iessons Ior deveIoped
countries on how to produce and consume more sustainably.
CompunIes Irom muny Iess deveIoped counIrIes ure dIsrupIIng murkeIs oI IndusIrIuIIsed counIrIes
through frugal innovation in product design and business models.
TrudIIIonuIIy, hIgh-Income counIrIes huve Imposed IheIr Ideus on Iess deveIoped counIrIes
(especially in the healthcare industry), but frugal innovation encourages shared learning between
boIh. II requIres humIIIIy on Ihe purI oI hIgh-Income counIrIes encourugIng Ihem Io recognIse IhuI
collaboration could provide a breeding ground for new innovations.
Needs and preferences differ between and within countries so frugal
innovation will not be transferable? Discuss

Is frugal innovation only taken seriously during a recession? Discuss
Denition:
Frugal Innovation: Sonia Naran
Research description:
Things an individual/company could learn:
Discussion question: