P. 1
Cleaner Production

Cleaner Production

|Views: 8|Likes:
Published by Yz Egg

More info:

Published by: Yz Egg on Dec 02, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/03/2012

pdf

text

original

Name: Tan Yit Zen

Matrics Number: BK09110015

Date of Submission: 16/11/2011

Title: Case study on cleaner production: Practice (Shouguang Alcohol Factory (SAF), East China)

I.

Induction to Cleaner Production (CP) The strategy of cleaner production (CP) was formulated and launched by United Nation Environment

Program (UNEP) in a conference in Canterbury in the year of 1990. Since then, cleaner production has adopted worldwide and applied in different ways, and have shown a noteworthy ability to combine many of the ideas that developed over the last decade in environmental management. Previously, in 1970s, UNEP was emphasized against pollution abatement where emissions and effluents were treated to satisfy certain requirements before discharged to the environment. During that period, 3Ps concept was used by UNEP and it stood for the polluter pays principle which emphasis on end of pipe solution in the period of 1975-1989, where major industrialized countries were reported spent billions of dollars on industrial pollution mitigation activities such as purchasing and maintaining the treatment technologies. However, this same term do applied after the year of 1989 but it stands for pollution prevention pays due to stringent legislation has declared at the mid-1970s on the use of chemical. (El-Kholy, 2002) Based on the official definition released by UNEP, cleaner production (CP) signify continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy to processes, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment. (Mohr-Swart, Coetzee, & Blignaut) Another definition of CP was given by Johanes Freshner at year of 1998 is CP is a preventive strategy to minimize the impact of production and products on the environment. In his worksheet, he mentioned that the principal players of CP are the companies, which control the production processes. The companies are greatly influenced by their customers and politics. However, the main focus of CP is always the same which is to create cognizance for pollution prevention, to find the source of wastes and emissions, and later delineate a program or process to reduce emissions and increase resource efficiency by implementing and documenting Cleaner production options. Some examples of practical approach of CP is good housekeeping with materials, process modifications to minimize the waste and emissions, internal recycling, and etc. Besides pollution prevention, another advantage that holds by CP is it contributes to the model of sustainable development in a company level as sustainable development does not allow an economy that ruins valuable natural capital. (Fresner, 1998)

1

& Nie.000 tons tipple per year and has an alcohol production capacity of 10. The company being emphasis here is the Shougang Alcohol Factory (SAF).II. Huang. Traditional Approach versus Options of Cleaner Production Strategies After the survey have done on 14 typical alcohol factories and questionnaires by related experts. Chen.9 x 106 m3 of carbon dioxide (CO2) is generated during fermentation process where such gas is emitted to the atmosphere as greenhouse gas without effective air pollution control. raw materials enhancement. Yu. It occupied a large land area of 470 km2. During that period.8 x 104 tons of washing water is directly discharged to Zhangzeng River annually. However. 1.5 x 104 tons of liquid alcohol lees is generated was discharged to the water bodies annually. This factory was able to produce 50. From the liquid wastes aspect. Chen. East China. technology adjustment. over 5000 tons of distilled spirit lees with 50-60 % moisture content are generated each year. Liu.8 x 104 mg/L) was drained continuously to the ambient water bodies per day after simple treatment process. (Guo. 2004) 2 .0 respectively in the appendices. Huang. Huang. approximate 71. Liu. It is one of the oldest alcohol companies in China and it located at Shougang Economic Deveopment Zone of Shandong Province. after material balance and process analysis have done by experts before the year of 1997. & Nie.0 has shown the principle procedures of its alcohol production of this factory. Liu. From the solid waste aspect.06 x 108 m3 of waste gas is emitted from the industry boilers per year which this included approximately 4. It employed a total of 1500 workers including 260 technicians. Lastly. 2004) III. Chen. from the gaseous wastes aspect.4 % of 10. approximately 55.000 tons. Yu. (Guo. Yu. it caused impairment of the ambient environment and adverse impacts on the local community. The five CP considerations are good housekeeping. 2004) IV. it was found that over 400 tons of organic wastewater with a extremely high chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration (could reach 3. product changes and reuse or recycling. there are five group of cleaner production technologies are being deliberated to design the suitable CP options for SAF. Besides washing water. Environment Issues Related to Company In general. & Nie. The flow diagram in Figure 1. This factory was founded in June 1945. the estimated conditions of water consumption and waste discharge of this factory were identified. (Guo. The principle screening processes and related criteria for CP options are illustrated in Figure 2. Business Background Alcohol industry has been one of the main contributors to the China economy.0 and Table 1.

the usual concentration of saccharified wort that used is 14. liquid. fermentation and distillation. (Guo.. Parts of the profits gained from 1st stage after been used for 1 year. if thicker wort fermentation technique is utilized. Yu. a more advanced technique has to be implemented which is adopting a four-tower differential pressure distillation to substitute the previous system. Yu. a two-stage implementation plan was designed which in first stage. saccharification. SAF uses reclaimed CO2 from the factory to produce high purity of CO2 byproducts into 3 major forms (solid. Based on the evaluation done by H. Guo et al.After the screening procedures. 2004) The second CP option that suggested by H. Huang.5 BX0 with a ration of 1:3.C Guo et al are illustrated in Table 2. Chen. Hence. Liu. follows by reduction of the amount of cooling water in the subsequent processes such as cooking. By applying the new system.5 (feed to water) which eventually produced the alcohol concentration of 7.0 of the appendices. (Guo. 2004) The first CP option that proposed by H. this will reduce the amount of generated waste significantly. (Guo. Huang.5-8. & Nie. Liu.8 but the concentration of wort that had to use is 18 BX0 and can yield alcohol degree up to 10-11 V/V. & Nie. it combined option 1. SAF just directly discharged CO2 out to the ambient atmosphere and had caused major air pollution issues in China. Hence.C. four integrated cleaner production options recommended by H. In this CP option. Guo et al and has employed by SAF is the use thicker wort (higher concentration of saccharified wort) in fermentation process. 2004) The third option is reconstructing distillation system. 2nd stage of integrated CP plan was launched (option 2). Chen. Guo (start implemented by SAF at 1998) is reusing CO2 gas (approximately 7500 tons of CO2 produced annually through the fermentation process of saccharified wort). Yu.3 and 4 and launched in the year of 1997. Chen. the waste heat produced from each tower can be used efficiently for high quality producing technique that improved product quality. Liu.C. 2004) 3 . & Nie. Thus. However.C.5% V/V.0 in appendices. Previously. Liu. Previously. Chen. As the water consumption is lower. The flow diagram of principle processes of option 2 is illustrated in Figure 3. the ration of feed to water can be controlled as low as 1:2. Yu. this reduced the water consumption during feed mixing and the dosage of resources as the concentration of saccharified wort has increased. (Guo. gas). & Nie. SAF uses the two-tower halfdistillation under normal pressure to produce tipple but it consumes huge amount of steam and cooling water which is estimated over the necessary level and caused other associated pollution. In most alcohol factories in China includes SAF. Huang. reduce resources expenditure and pollution mitigations. less gas will be consumed during distillation and digestion processes. Huang.

Besides. & Nie. The flow diagram of the principle processes of option 4 is shown in Figure 4. (Guo. & Nie. Yu. Liu. Plus. At the same time. Liu.4 tons and 211 kg. and reduce more wastes. this can avoid global climate change due to large discharge of greenhouse gases to atmosphere. (Guo. the digestion liquid discharged by the anaerobic treatment of methane production which contains abundant element of nitrogen (N).6% and 15. 1997 to June 30. the discharge of associate pollutants is decreased significantly as less wastewater will be produced compare with the traditional approach. over 2000 tons of CO2 can be reclaimed per year. productivity and quality of alcohol can be improved and more economic profits can be gained from methane and agriculturally useful fertilizer. Chen. 2004) V. (Guo. 2004) VI. Huang.3% lower than the planned values.5 x 104 tons of lees liquid are produced annually during alcohol production where most of them were discharged in traditional approach of SAF. 1997. such integrated system able to generate more benefits such as save more water and energy. On the other hand. Huang. 2004) 4 . this option provides a better. Yu. However. Overall Effects of Two-stage Implementation Plan on SAF Based on the systematic characterization and analysis in SAF.4 tons and 668kg which are 0.6% lower than the planned values. According to the statistic analysis from March 21. Huang. approximately 10. Yu. The consumption of water and coal per ton alcohol was 63.0 in appendices. economywise approach which is utilize waste liquid lees to produce methane and organic fertilizer as high COD concentration (approximately 3. Liu. Then. Benefits of Cleaner Production Options to SAF After implemented the 1st option as suggested above. phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) that suitable act as raw material to produce high-quality agriculture organic fertilizers.94% and 0.4 tons per ton alcohol with a reduction ratio of 18%. the discharged wastewater and COD per ton alcohol were 60.The fourth option is produce organic fertilizer and methane from alcohol lees liquid. Chen. it also added extra income which is expected up to 94000 USD annually to SAF. Compared with individual option implementation. As mentioned earlier. option 1. The amount of pollutants generated by the production was reduced by over 5% and the pollution burden of COD was declined by over 27%. Hence.8 x 104 mg/L) is the best resources to produce methane. which were 2. approximately 63 tons of processing water has saved per day and reduced the steam consumption to 5. Chen. by employing the 2nd option. 3 and 4 were combined into 1st stage of an integrated cleaner production system and has implemented since 1997. & Nie.

this option has improved the environmental quality in the surrounding regions by reducing the consumption of non-renewable source (coal) and reduces the amount and concentration of hazardous compounds in the wastewater discharged from SAF. after employed the 3rd option. 2004) VII. Liu. Annually. SAF able to produce over 20 m3 of methane per ton of waste lees liquid. Yu. after a two-stages integrated system of four cleaner productions was introduced. Huang. this has provided a good evidence that cleaner production is able to provide a better environment for our future generation through pollution prevention concept.15 million tons of BOD and 2. it is found that the amount of waste lees liquid generated has reduced to 12-14 tons per unit product and consumption of steam has reduced to a lower level of 46 tons/ tons of alcohol.2 million tons of COD has released to the environment which occupies 18. For example. 5 . air floating. Therefore. 2004) Hence. approximately 6000 tons of lees liquid can be reclaimed and 1500 tons of coal has saved. produce numerous organic pollutants. wastewater and boiler dregs that discharged from the factory. and cause serious pollution to the environment.5% of total industrial discharge of China.3 billion m3 in China and over 1. & Nie. economy-efficiency. Conclusion In the nutshell. the annual discharge of wastewater can approach 0. significant results has shown in term of surrounding environmental quality. In short. (Guo.On the other hand. productivity and quality of the products of SAF throughout the 4 years of implementation period. every single human being should start our own effort today and being one of the people that support cleaner production strategy that introduced by UNEP because every single effort we put in is showing our love towards the nature. Liu. For example.. Furthermore. concentrating. Yu. Huang. and flocculation.to the water bodies of Zhangzeng River (Guo. However. it also accounted a saving of 30% steam and cooling water which has cut down the amount of waste gas. & Nie. this option has caused the discharge of COD and BOD5 decreased greatly where the reduction of COD content in the wastewater is up to 80%. SAF has utilized the excess heat energy gained from each distillation towers efficiently for higher product quality improvement techniques. hence more studies need to be done in cleaner production for the sake of our future generation as this case study only shows parts of the cleaner production efforts on conserving the beauty of mother earth. implemented in SAF (one of the alcohol factory in China) for 4 years. On the other hand. Chen.0% and 12. which mitigated the associated pollution that caused by alcohol lees liquid. the digest liquid after methane production (contains numerous organic and inorganic components) can be used to produce 5500 tons of organic fertilizer per year by undergoes processes such as depositing. Chen. after implemented option 4. In addition. Besides. it is not doubt that alcohol industry has been proved as one of the industries which consume large amount of water and energy.

J. Cleaner Production. V. What does EOP stand for? (n. Coetzee. 791-798. G. 1-4). Yu..d. J. 2011. A.. Guo.com/End-of-Pipe-(EOP). M. B. & Nie. Journal of Cleaner Production . Jovanovic.snh. A. (1998). Reference / Bibliography An introduction to environmental auditing. (2004).). A. & Blignaut. from Acroynmfinder: http://www.). Retrieved November 8. 6. M. Sustainable Development in the South Africa Mining Industry: The Role of Cleaner Production and EMA. Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change (pp. E.. (2008). Chen.. Fresner.. J.org.. Journal of Cleaner Production . (1996). Jovanovic. Cleaner Production as a means for effective environmental management. Serbia. X.. 165-192. El-Kholy. M. Jovanovic. 94-103. from Scottish Natural Herittage: http://www. Journal of Cleaner Production . L. Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory. Munn.uk/publications/on-line/advisorynotes/45/45. Retrieved November 8..htm Davis. Introduction of cleaner production in the tank farm of the Pancevo Oil Refinery. H. 171-179. D. O. Introduction to Environemtal Engineering. Huang.. (n.html 6 . 18. In T. Singapore: McGrawHill Education.VIII. & Cornwell. Mohr-Swart. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. X. 2011. l. Ltd. Journal of Cleaner Production . (2002). (2010)..d. 14.. Liu.acronymfinder. & Marinovic.

. G. Chen. Liu..0: The screening process for CP options for SAF.) 7 .. & Nie. X.. H. Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory. Chen. Huang. Liu. Journal of Cleaner Production . G.) Figure 2. 94-103. Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory. X. (2004).. X. L. Appendices Figure 1. 14. (2004)... H.. at 8 November 2011. Huang. Yu. at 8 November 2011. Yu.. B. B.0: Flow diagram of principle procedures for alcohol production in the Shouguang Alcohol Factory (SAF). 14. (Retrieved from Guo. & Nie. 94-103. Journal of Cleaner Production . (Retrieved from Guo. L.IX. X..

) 8 . (Retrieved from Guo. Liu. & Nie... G. at 8 November 2011. (Retrieved from Guo. B. G.. 14. & Nie. X. Chen.0: Criterions for screening CP options for SAF. L.... H.. Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory. Journal of Cleaner Production .Table 1. L.) Table 2. Liu. at 8 November 2011. B.0: Introduction of four cleaner production options to SAF. Journal of Cleaner Production . H. Yu. (2004).. Yu.. 94-103. Chen. 14. X. X. (2004). X. Huang. Huang. 94-103. Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory..

L.. & Nie. Liu. B. Chen. X.. H.. at 8 November 2011. (Retrieved from Guo. X. Huang. 94-103.0: The principle process flow diagram of option 2. (2004).Figure 3. G. Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory.. Yu.) 9 . Journal of Cleaner Production . 14..

94-103.. Huang.0: The principle process flow diagram of option 4.. (Retrieved from Guo.. Chen. (2004). X. L. 14.. Journal of Cleaner Production . Liu. & Nie. B. Yu. X. at 8 November 2011..Figure 4. G. H.) 10 . Assessment of cleaner production options for alcohol industry of China: a study in Shouguang Alcohol Factory.

3904907.190702540/907/45943 $.0/94.039 147 07 574/:.8:90/900.947 470.890.0/94 9438507:39574/:.24:3941..2.870/:.9 2574..70/1742901.36:08  08/08  9 ..24:3941.443. /89.90/.9/8.890.30/1742 0.907.8.907 .870/:.250 9814:3/9.3/.341 890.041  9438.3/-407/7089.8.:9/4390.438:2594341890.4:390/.02039 90.9.4070.8 .9 6:.3/....3/ .0880.943 94078 011..84 .8900086:/ 0307.2.90307.990.

0397.8 3974/:.7/8903..90 9..3/ /0.8 430 41 90 3/:89708 .8 .08808 8:.55742.20/ .9.5574..-0 94 574/:.0.3 -0 :80/ 94 574/:. .094.890.307 574/:.:9 41 24907 0./8.07 .3 :  0     '   43.94341.3/ -03 430 41 90 50450 9. 40.44 3/:897 .3.907./0.43./0/. 9438 41 ..3 90 -0. .90   9438 41 008 6:/ .8 700. 4.54:9.7432039.943 974: 54:943 570.3/ 41949.7 - :3/07408 574.1907.07 830 :2.0397.0783001147905:9388434:74.059 03.9  0.398 .884./8.0.8 98 .4.3/ 347.250 90..7/4:8.  ..3/  .  574/:.890.9./03.7041 . -43233.78412502039.9.:800..0/  25020390/ 3 $ 430 41 90 ..943  3 8479 98 45943 .43. ..70413.80/70.7 14.90709070/:.4.:843 3 90 3:980  9 8 349 /4:-9 9..43.90/90...8 2574.798 41 90 .79  %0701470  0.303#..307 574/:.78  831...94341 . 6:.3 -03 84:/ 89.0.:80/90 /8.3.44 008 6:/ :79072470 9845943.-0 84:7..0/ .9841$974:4:9900.7432039.39 708:98 .943 0114798 43 .9 .09.07   2 41 209.07 :4 03 : :.6:.93908:774:3/370438-70/:.03.70.24:3941.0/-&!-0.80 89:/ 43 848 5.0 98.8 -003 574.907..8574.8 843 3 9072 41 8:774:3/3 03.0.9078:594   .907-4/0841.44/0.7432039 470.:808074:854:943 949003.3/0307 574/:.24:39.03943 .80/ 9490 03.0/ 3.04.943 147 90 8.947 3 3.3/ 14..4254:3/8390.90/889024114:7 .07   243 9438 41   .3/ 4.0   9438 41 47..3/6:.943 .383:2074:847.7432039 .43807.3/   243 9438 41   .0 2470 89:/08 300/ 94 -0 /430 3 .44  3 90 4907 .438:2594341343 7030.438:20 .93  .94190574/:.3/.//943 90/0896:/.-09907 03..44 1.0/9003.90/54:9439.03:2074:847.439039390.1907209.0 .890 008 6:/  33:.3/  943841.0 41 4:7 1:9:70 0307.1907 25020390/ 45943   $ ..:508  .3.70/ 1742$ 9490. .890.30574/:.7041.-094574.0890.943 897.9438 .9438. ..8 /054893  .9 .3.4342 011.943 .3  :  0   03..88.7432039 147 4:7 1:9:70 0307.907/8.70.79 4:7 43 011479 94/.33:. 107907 507 0.3 -0 70...083907.:.307 574/:..93  .94 89.3/:897.307574/:.0.3/70/:.9 8:55479 . 29.  147  0. .307 574/:.:80/-.390.3/.9:70    .30 507 943 41 .3.9 3974/:..439.9435074/  :4 03 : :.425430398  .

0.'  #010703.

9439403.4998.5 33974/:.0/4. 0799.02-07   1742$.7432039.9:7.0995..-47.:/93   #0970.

.

 83 47 :.

.9438.5:-.

43 30.

/..84734908.

.

8.94341.3  :   0     88088203941.3.330073 $3.743213/07 995.307!74/:.3.307!74/:.410. '    3974/:.9/408 !89.02039 4:73.450/.  4.943      4.943943.414-.307!74/:.7432039.3/147 3 / #0970. 4:73.4 #01307 $07-. /:.3.3..943 459438147.41 0.0452039390$4:917.943     :4  03  :  :.943 3909.381470110.734.943 3% :33 3.89:/3$4::.943    .443/:897413.307!74/:.943   4      0.947 4:73.02-07   1742.0..0/4.:9   3 / $:89.34..9.79  40900   3.410.003..   .410.307574/:.307574/:.724190!.307 !74/:...3.5470.34.20.  4.3/ 4:73..943..943     47 $...33 3/:897%0#40410. 92 ..743029...30 55   00780430 $438 9/  708307    0.943.0.307!74/:.44..7.34.7432039.2..8    4730      3974/:.-00.307!74/:.31.0.

.

42.743213/07 .. .

3/ 41 !50  ! 92               .

307!74/:.943        .50 574.70033574.44 3/:897413.44 .943 3 90 $4::.44 ..3 .3    :     0       880882039 41 . 41 0..088147!459438147$  #0970.02-07     :70  %08.943 459438147.3 .307574/:..2 41 573..947  4:73.  5503/.0/:708 147 . 89:/ 3 $4::.947 4:73.44 574/:.08   :70   4 /.94.44 3/:89741 3.947 $  #0970.0/ 1742 :4    03    :    :.44 .89:/ 3$4::.02-07     .307574/:.943459438147...9  4.410.943     .0.307 !74/:. .3  :   0     880882039 41..3 .0.0/1742:4  03  :   :.7.

943459438147.943        ..44.3 .307574/:.0.443/:897413.9434114:7.94.. ..943459438147.307574/:.3.02-07     .307!74/:.947 4:73.94345943894$  #0970.943     .9  4.44 .-0   7907438 147 8.-0  3974/:. 41 0.307574/:.02-07     %.44 3/:89741 3. 89:/3$4::.0/ 1742 :4    03    :    :..3  :   0     880882039 41.307 !74/:.410..3  :   0     88088203941. 89:/ 3 $4::.0/1742:4  03  :   :.0.0.947  4:73.70033 ! 459438 147 $  #0970. %.

08814/.9  4.943        .. 41 0. 89:/ 3 $4::.0/1742:4  03  :   :.44 .50574.307574/:.24145943  #0970.7..02-07        .  :70 %0573.0.943459438147.307 !74/:. .3  :   0     880882039 41.947  4:73.44 3/:89741 3.3 .

947  4:73.307 !74/:. ..3 . 41 0. 89:/ 3 $4::.44 .7..44 3/:89741 3.24145943  #0970.02-07      .0.307574/:.9  4.08814/.0/1742:4  03  :   :.943459438147.3  :   0     880882039 41.943        .50574.  :70 %0573.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->