SEMESTER Subject Code Subject Title

: III : DSM4 : Machine Drawing

Structure of the Course Content BLOCK 1 Section Views
Unit 1: Need Sectioning Unit 2: Hatching Unit 3: Half Sectioning and full sectioning Unit 4: Removed and offset sections

BLOCK 2 Limits, Fits and Tolerances
Unit 1: Basic Definitions Unit 2: Limits Unit 3: Fits Unit 4: Tolerances

BLOCK 3 Keys and Surface finish
Unit 1: Basic Definitions Unit 2: Types of Keys Unit 3: Design of shaft and keys Unit 4: Indication of surface roughness

BLOCK 4 Threads and Fasteners
Unit 1: Basic Definition Unit 2: Types of Threads Unit 3: Types of Bolts and nuts Unit 4: Types of Rivets

BLOCK 5 CAD Drawings
Unit 1: AutoCAD Theory Unit 2: Sleeve and Cotter Joint Unit 3: Machine Vice Unit 4: Screw Jack

Books :
1. N.D.Bhatt, Machine Drawing, Edn.37, Charotar Publishing House 2. R.C.Parkinson, Engineering Drawing Published by English University Press, London

2 BLOCK 1 Section Views

Unit 1 Need Sectioning
Structure 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. Introduction Objectives Sections Purpose of Sectioning Cutting Planes Summary Keywords Exercise



A section is an imaginary cut taken through an object to reveal the shape or interior construction. Below figure shows the imaginary cutting plane in perspective view. The imaginary cutting plane is projected on a standard view so that the sectional view with orthographic representation is obtained as shown in Figure. A sectional view must show which portions of the object are solid material and which are spaces. This is done by section lining (cross-hatching) the solid parts with uniformly spaced thin lines generally at 45º.

Figure 1.1



3 After studying this unit we are able to understand  Sections  Purpose of sectioning



In order to show the inner details of a machine component, the object is imagined to be cut by a cutting plane and the section is viewed after the removal of cut portion. Sections are made by at cutting planes and are designated by capital letters and the direction of viewing is indicated by arrow marks. a. A sectional view shall be made through an outside view and not through another sectional view. b. The location of a section is indicated by a cutting plane with reference letters and arrowheads showing the direction in which the section is viewed. c. Sectional views shall not project directly ahead of the cuttingplane arrowheads and should be as near as practicable to the portions of the drawing that they clarify. d. The axes of sectional views should not be rotated; however, the cutting plane may vary in direction. If views have to be rotated, the angle and direction of rotation must be given. e. Visible and invisible outlines beyond the cutting plane should not be shown unless necessary for clarification. f. 1.4. Shafts, bolts, nuts, etc., which are in a cutting plane should not be cross-hatched. Purpose of Sectioning

On many occasions, the interior of an object is complicated or the component parts of a machine are drawn assembled.


represented by hidden lines in usual orthographic views, which results in confusion and difficulty in understanding the drawing (Fig. 1.2a).

In order to show such features clearly, one or more views are drawn as if a portion had been cut away to reveal the interior (Fig. 1.2b). This procedure is called Figure 1.2

sectioning and the view showing the cut away picture is called section view.

When there are complicated internal features, they may be hard to identify in normal views with hidden lines. A view with some of the part ―cut away‖ can make the internal features very easy to see, these are called section views. • In these views hidden lines are generally not used, except for clarity in some cases. • The cutting plane for the section is, - shown with thick black dashed lines. - has arrows at the end of the line to indicate the view direction - has letters placed beside the arrow heads. These will identify the section - does not have to be a straight line • sections can be lined to indicate, - when the section plane slices through material - two methods for representing materials. First, use 45° lines, and refer to material in title block. If there are multiple materials, lines at 30° and 60° may be used for example. Second, use a conventional set of fill lines to represent the different types of materials.

7. or at an angle.3d).5. 1.4c). 1.4 1. The plane may cut straight across (Fig.3 Figure 1. parallel to the profile and/or horizontal plane (Fig. 1.3a) or be offset (changing direction forward and backward) to pass through features (Fig. Summary In this unit we have studied  Sections  Purpose of Sectioning  Cutting Planes 1.3b. The plane may also be taken parallel to the frontal plane (Fig.4b and 1. 1.4a). Figure 1. 1. Keywords .5 1.3c and 1.6. Cutting Planes Various cutting planes can be selected for obtaining clear sectional views.

Explain the purpose of sectioning. . 2.8. Exercise 1. Explain sections.6 Sections Cutting planes 1.

2. In the case above.Hatching 2.6.1).3.Exercise 2. Hatch lines should match the color of the cutting plane line 2. The pattern of the hatching used represents different types of materials. the hatching would represent where the saw actually touched the object as it was being cut. The simplest form of hatching is generally adequate for the purpose. if the part was cut with a saw.7 Unit 2 Hatching Structure 2.Objectives 2.Summary 2. .Introduction Hatching is used to show where the object has been cut.Introduction 2.2. preferably 45°. and may be continuous thin lines (type B) at a convenient angle. This generic hatch is sometimes used to represent iron or steel.3.4.1. a generic hatch has been used. In other words.5.Hatching Hatching is generally used to show areas of sections.Keywords 2. to the principal outlines or lines of symmetry of the sections (Fig. 2.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Hatching 2.1.

In case of large areas.2 a). 2. following the contour of the hatched area (Fig.4). Hatching should be interrupted when it is not possible to place inscriptions outside the hatched area (Fig.2 Hatching of adjacent components . Fig.8 Fig.3). the hatching shall be identical. The hatching of adjacent components shall be carried out with different directions or spacings (Fig 2. 2. but may be off-set along the dividing line between the sections (Fig.1 Preferred hatching angles Separate areas of a section of the same component shall be hatched in an identical manner. the hatching may be limited to a zone. 2. 2. Where sections of the same part in parallel planes are shown side by side.2 b). 2.

Fig. fasteners.5 Cutting plane indication .8. Figure 2.6).4 Hatching interrupted for dimensioning The cutting plane(s) should be indicated by means of type H line. 2. that of sectioning in three continuous planes. spokes of wheels and the like are not cut in longitudinal sections and therefore should not be hatched (Fig. 2. The section should be indicated by the relevant designation (Fig. In principle.3 Sectioning along two parallel planes Fig 2. 2. 2.5). The cutting plane should be identified by capital letters and the direction of viewing should be indicated by arrows. ribs.7 represents sectioning in two parallel planes and Fig.9 Fig 2. shafts.

2. in which one is shown revolved into plane of projection.8 Sectioning in two intersecting planes. 2.16 Sections not to be hatched Fig.7 Fig. as . 2.10 Fig.

uses medium. "Section Lining" or "Cross Hatching" or "Hatching" is added to the Section view to distinguish the solid portions from the hollow areas of an object and can also be used to indicate the type of material that was used to make the object. Different materials have different patterns of lines and spacings. Fig. lines drawn at a 45° angle and spaced 1/8" apart. 2.9. General Purpose "Section Lining".11 shown in Fig. which is also used to represent "Cast Iron". 2.9 . thick. Section lining should be reversed or mirrored on adjoining parts when doing an Assembly Section.

or the general purpose (cast iron) crosshatch pattern can be used when preferred.Exercise 1.Keywords Hatching Section Lining Cross Hatching 2. The pattern style can indicate part material. Explain hatching with a example.4.12 Crosshatch Patterns Used in Section Lining on Engineering Drawings.6. . 2.Summary In this unit we have studied hatching 2.5.

7.3. Introduction Objectives Full Section of the Chuck Jaw Solid Model Full Section Drawing of the Chuck Jaw Half Section Auxiliary Sections Summary Keywords Exercise 3.5. Figure 3. 3. 3.1a shows the view from the right of the object shown in Fig.13 Unit 3 Half Sectioning and full sectioning Structure 3. 3.in full section. 3. The cutting plane is represented by its trace (V. 3. 3. The sectioned view provides all the inner details.1. better than the unsectioned view with dotted lines for inner details (Fig.T) in the view from the front (Fig.1a. .6.1.Introduction A sectional view obtained by assuming that the object is completely cut by a plane is called a full section or sectional view.2.4.1c) and the direction of sight to obtain the sectional view is represented by the arrows.1b). 3.8.9. 3. 3. 3. 3.

2 Incorrect and correct sections .2 represents the correct and incorrect ways of representing a sectional view.14 Fig. hence. The view should also contain the visible parts behind the cutting plane. in a sectional view. the portions of the object that have been cut by the plane are represented by section lining or hatching.3. Sections are used primarily to replace hidden line representation.1 Sectioned and un-sectioned views It may be noted that. Further. Figure 3. Fig. hidden lines are omitted in the sectional views. in order to obtain a sectional view. 3. but is not actually shown removed anywhere except in the sectional view. only one half of the object is imagined to be removed. as a rule.

showing the remaining part as a full section.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Full Section of the Chuck Jaw Solid Model  Full Section Drawing of the Chuck Jaw  Half Section  Auxiliary Sections 3.15 3. the recess and large holes in the middle. The edges created by the offsets are not . and the back slot on the right side the offset section is shown in the front view.Full Section of the Chuck Jaw Solid Model The cutting plane is centered through the middle of the model. but the visible background lines of these features are drawn.4. The two right angle bends indicating the position of the cutting plane are shown cutting through the small hole on the left. The part of the contact plate that is solid material at the cutting plane is shown crosshatched.2. 3.3. The part of the object that is hollow at the cutting plane is not crosshatched. cutting exactly through the centers of the two counter bores and the small hole. The front part of the object is then assumed to be removed.Full Section Drawing of the Chuck Jaw The cutting plane line is drawn on the top view.

The two most common types of full sections are vertical sections and profile sections. as shown in the figure below. as shown in the figures below. Only the cutting plane line in the top view conveys this information. A full section is a sectional view that shows an object as if it were cut completely apart from one end or side to the other. .16 indicated in any manner in the sectioned view. Such views are usually just called sections.

5. Figure 3.Half Section A half sectional view is preferred for symmetrical objects. it is a good practice to omit the hidden lines. for obtaining the half sectional view from the front. the top half being in section. the cutting plane removes only one quarter of an object. For a symmetrical object.3a shows an object with the cutting plane imposition for obtaining a half sectional view from the front. Figure3. Students are also advised to note the representation of the cutting plane in the view from above.3b shows two parts drawn apart. . It may be noted that a centre line is used to separate the halves of the half section. a half sectional view is used to indicate both interior and exterior details in the same view.17 3. Even in half sectional views. For a half section. exposing the inner details in the sectioned portion. Figure 3.3c shows the half sectional view from the front.

18 Fig. The half section shows one half of the front view in section. . Remember. 3. In the top view. since the object is not actually cut. use only one arrow. the cutting-plane line could have been left out. a full section makes an object look as if half of it has been cut away. Imagine that two cutting planes at right angles to each other slice through the object to cut away one quarter of it. A half section looks as if one quarter of the original object has been cut away. Use a center line where the exterior and half-sectional views meet. since no part is actually removed.3 Method of obtaining half sectional view A half section is one half of a full section. as shown in figure E. In the top view. Figure D shows the exterior of the object (not in section). as shown in figure E Half sections are useful when you are drawing a symmetrical object. show the complete object. because there is no doubt where the section is taken. If the direction of viewing is needed. Both the inside and the outside can be shown in one view. as shown in figure A through C below.

half in plain view and half in section (Fig 3.4). .19 Symmetrical parts may be drawn.


Fig. 3.4 Half section A local section A local section may be drawn if half or full section is not convenient. The local break may be shown by a continuous thin free hand line (Fig. 3.5).

Fig. 3.5 Local section Arrangement of Successive Section Successive sections may be placed separately, with designations for both cutting planes and sections (Fig. 3.6) or may be arranged below the cutting planes.

Figure 3.6 Successive sections 3.6.Sectional Views Orthographic views when carefully selected may reveal the external features of even the most complicated objects. However, there are objects with complicated interior details and when represented by hidden lines, may not effectively reveal the true interior details. This may be overcome by representing one or more of the views ‗in section‘.

21 A sectional view is obtained by imagining the object, as if cut by a cutting plane and the portion between the observer and the section plane being removed. Figure 3.7a shows an object, with the cutting plane passing through it and Fig. 3.7b, the two halves drawn apart, exposing the interior details.

Fig. 3.7 Principles of sectioning

22 Half Section of the Collet Fixture Solid Model. The cutting plane has a right angle bend and is aligned with the center of the large vertical through hole. The cutting plane also goes through the center of the small pin hole on the side of the collet fixture. The right front quarter of the object is then assumed to be removed, showing the remaining part as a half section

Half Section Drawing of the Collet Fixture The cutting plane line is drawn on the top view indicating the position of the right angle bent cutting plane. The half section is shown in the front view. The part of the object that is solid at the cutting plane is shown crosshatched in the front. The part of the object that is hollow at the cutting plane is not croshatched, but the visible background lines of these features are drawn. Her the visible background features include the back of the large vertical through hole, the small pin hole, and the half-slot on the end of the fixture. 3.7.Auxiliary Sections Auxiliary sections may be used to supplement the principal views used in orthographic projections. A sectional view projected on an auxiliary plane, inclined to the principal planes of projection, show she cross-sectional shapes of features such as arms, ribs and so on. In Fig. 3.8, auxiliary cutting plane-X is used to obtain the auxiliary section X-X.


Fig. 3.8 Auxiliary section 3.8.Summary In this unit we have studied  Full Section of the Chuck Jaw Solid Model  Full Section Drawing of the Chuck Jaw  Half Section  Auxiliary Sections

3.9.Keywords Half section Auxiliary sections 3.10. Exercise 1. Under what conditions, a sectional view is preferred ? 2. Describe the different types of sectional views. Explain each one of them by a suitable example. 3. What is a full section ? 4. What is a half section ? 5. How is a cutting plane represented in the orthographic views for obtaining, (a) full section and (b) half section ? 6. What is an auxiliary section and when is it used ?

When removed.1).Introduction Revolved Or Removed Section Cross sections may be revolved in the relevant view or removed. the outline of the section should be drawn with continuous thick lines. 4. 4. 4. as shown in Fig. 4. 4. 4. The removed section may be placed near to and connected with the view by a chain thin line (Fig.2.5. Introduction Objectives Offset sections Summary Keywords Exercise 4.4 b. When revolved in the relevant view. the outline of the section should be shown with continuous thin lines (Fig. 4. .4. 4 a) or in a different position and identified in the conventional manner.6.24 Unit 4 Removed and offset sections Structure 4.

If the revolved section does not fit within the edges of the cut surface.25 Fig. as shown on the far left section of this chisel drawing. a thin cross-section "slice" is revolved (rotated) in place at 90º to the cutting plane. . Imaginary slices of this chisel are taken perpendicular (at right angles) to the view shown.The slices are then rotated 90º in place where the "slice" was cut. break lines are used to show the section.4 Removed section In a revolved section. 4.

Use bold letters to identify a removed section and its corresponding cutting plane on the regular view. When a sectional view is taken from its normal place on the view and moved somewhere else on the drawing sheet. The figure below shows correct and incorrect ways to position removed sections. as shown below .26 In a removed section. that the removed section will be easier to understand if it is positioned to look just as it would if it were in its normal place on the view. do not rotate it in just any direction. a labeled cross-section is moved out of its normal position in a drawing. however. the result is a removed section. Remember. In other words.

Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Removed and offset sections 4.Offset Sections .2.3.27 4.

28 The cutting plane line is offset to run through the major interior features.

Offset sections allow one cutting plane line to transect multiple areas of a part. This reduces the amount of work needed to complete a drawing Notice that there isn‘t a line added to show where the offset portion of the cutting plane line changes direction.

Cutting planes often follow the center line of the object. If the center line does not show all of the interior features, the cutting-plane line may be "offset" or bent to cut through the main interior features. In sections, the cutting plane is usually taken straight through the object. But it can also be offset, or shifted, at one or more places to show a detail or to miss a part. This type of section, known as an offset section, is shown below. In this figure, a cutting plane is offset to pass through the two bolt holes. If the plane were not offset, the bolt holes would not show in the sectional view. Show an offset section by drawing it on the cutting-plane line in a normal view. Do not show the offset on the sectional view.


Examples 4.1 Figure 4.1 shows the isometric view of a machine block and (i) the sectional view from the front, (ii) the view from above and (iii) the sectional view from the left.


Fig. 4.1 Machine block Figure 4.2 shows the isometric view of a shaft support. Sectional view from the front, the view from above and the view from the right are also shown in the figure.


Fig. 4.2 Shaft support 4.2 Figure 4.3 shows the isometric view of a machine component along with the sectional view from the front, the view from above and the view from the left. 4.3 Figure 4.3 shows a sliding block and (i) the view from the front, (ii) the view from above and (iii) the sectional view from the right.

4 Sliding block 4.5 Figure 4.6 shows the orthographic views of a bearing bracket. The sectional view from the . 4.4 Figure 4. 4. The figure also shows the sectional view from the front. 4.3 Machine component Fig.32 Fig.5 shows the orthographic views of a yoke. the sectional view from the right and the view from above.

4. Fig.5 .33 right and view from above are developed and shown in the figure.

7 Bearing bracket A removed section can be a sliced section (the same as a revolved section). 4.) Fig. 4.6 Bearing bracket (contd.34 Fig. or it can show ...

4. shown in Fig. You can draw it at the same scale as the regular views or at a larger scale to show details clearly.1 Vice body Fig.Summary In this unit we have studied Removed and offset sections 4. 2 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front and (ii) the view from the left of the sliding support. Besides removed sections.4.5.Exercise 1. Explain Removed and offset sections DRAWING EXERCISES 1 Draw (i) sectional view from the front.6. They can also be complete views or partial views.2 Sliding support . 2. These too can be made at the same scale or at a larger one. Fig. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the right of the vice body shown in Fig 1.35 additional detail visible beyond the cutting plane. you can also draw removed views of the exterior of an object.Keywords Offset Sections 4.

3 Shaft bracket Fig. . (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the left of a fork shown in Fig. 9. (ii) sectional view from above and (iii) the view from the right of a depth stop shown in Fig. 4. 4. 3. 5. 6 Draw (i) the view from the front. Fig. 4 Anchor bracket 5 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. 8 Draw (i) the view from the front and (ii) the sectional view from above of a flange connector shown in Fig. 7 Draw (i) the view from the front. 9 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front and (ii) the view from above of a bearing bracket shown in Fig. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the sectional view from the left of a centering bearing shown in Fig.36 3 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. 8. 6.4 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the left and (iv) the view from the right of an anchor bracket shown in Fig. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from right of the shaft bracket shown in Fig. 7.

(ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the right of a shaft support shown in Fig. 10. 6 Depth stop Fig. 11. 8 Flange connector 10 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front and (ii) the view from the left of a shaft support shown in Fig. 12. 13 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. 12 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. 14 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. 13. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the . (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the left of a machine block shown in Fig. 5 Fork Fig. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the left of a motor bracket shown in Fig. 11 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front.37 Fig. 7 Centering bearing Fig.

2. (ii) the view from above and (iii) the view from the left of a vice body shown in Fig.9 Bearing bracket Fig. 15 Draw (i) the sectional view from the front. from the orthographic views shown .38 left of a sliding block shown in Fig. 11 Motor bracket Fig. 9. Fig. 2. from the orthographic views of a sliding bracket given in Fig. 10 Shaft support Fig. 16 Develop the sectional view from left. 12. 12 Sliding bracket 17 Develop the sectional view from left. from the orthographic views of a shaft bearing given in Fig. 18 Develop the sectional view from the front of the shifter.

Fig.39 in Fig. from the orthographic views shown in Fig13. 20 Develop the sectional view from the left of a hanger. 19 Develop (i) the sectional view from above and (ii) the view from the left of shaft bracket. 15 Shaft bracket Fig. 16 Hanger . 11. from the orthographic views shown in Fig. 13 Shaft bearing Fig. 14. 14 Shifter Fig.

Fig.40 21 Develop (i) the view from above and (ii) the sectional view from the left of a lever. 17. from the orthographic views shown in Fig. 17 lever .

therefore.4.3. However. has to be given some allowable margin so that he can produce a part. 1. 1. Introduction Objectives Basic Definitions Summary Keywords Exercise 1. experience shows that it is impossible to make parts economically to the exact dimensions. 1. (ii) inaccuracies in setting the work to the tool. (i) inaccuracies of machines and tools.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  basic size  limits  allowance  tolerance  deviation 1.Basic Definitions The workman.Introduction The manufacture of interchangeable parts requires precision. 1. 1. Precision is the degree of accuracy to ensure the functioning of a part as intended.3. .1. etc. 1. This may be due to.6. and (iii) error in measurement.41 BLOCK 2 Unit 1 Basic Definitions Structure 1.

1 – Interrelationship between tolerances and limits Tolerance . The same must be reflected on production drawing. for guiding the craftsman on the shop floor. is the basic size or the nominal size.1 explains the terminologies used in defining tolerance and limit. It is the difference between the maximum and minimum permissible limits of the given size. shown in the figure. If the variation is provided on one side of the basic size. The study of limits. Figure 1. shaft and hole are chosen to be two mating components. Similarly. For the convenience. Limit System Following are some of the terms used in the limit system Tolerance The permissible variation of a size is called tolerance. The zero line. The relationships between the mating parts are called fits. tolerances and fits is a must for technologists involved in production. it is known as bilateral tolerance Limits Fig.42 the dimensions of which will lie between two acceptable limits. The definition of the terminologies is given below. 1. a maximum and a minimum. it is termed as unilateral tolerance. The system in which a variation is accepted is called the limit system and the allowable deviations are called tolerances. if the variation is provided on both sides of the basic size.

unilateral has tolerance only on one side.4. between upper limit and lower limit. allowance. 1.. it is the difference of dimension between the minimum possible size of the component and its nominal size. Depending on the type of application. tolerance. Lower deviation Similarly. When tolerance is present on both sides of nominal size.Summary In this unit we have studied all definitions of basic size. i. bilateral and unilateral. For that matter.5. The Fig. it is termed as bilateral. either of the deviations may be considered. First two values denote unilateral tolerance and the third value denotes bilateral tolerance.43 Tolerance is the difference between maximum and minimum dimensions of a component.2 shows the types of tolerance. deviation 1. Figure 1. Allowance It is the difference of dimension between two mating parts.e.Types of Tolerance Tolerance is of two types.Keywords . the permissible variation of dimension is set as per available standard grades. Upper deviation It is the difference of dimension between the maximum possible size of the component and its nominal size. Values of the tolerance are given as x and y respectively. limits.2 . 50 is a typical example of specifying tolerance for a shaft 0xy0 of nominal diameter of 50mm. Fundamental deviation It defines the location of the tolerance zone with respect to the nominal size.1.

Exercise 1.6.44 Limit System Tolerance Limits Allowance Upper deviation Lower deviation 1. Define the terms: (a) basic size (b) limits (c) allowance (d) tolerance (e) deviation .

2.2. such as a wheel attached to an axle.) and the corresponding basic size. the interests of interchangeable manufacturing require that (1) standard definitions of terms relating to limits and fits be used.1. 2. and (4) a uniform system of applying tolerances (bilateral or unilateral) be used.45 Unit 2 Limits Structure 2. Introduction Objectives Limits Summary Keywords Exercise 2. Deviation It is the algebraic difference between a size (actual.5.6.3. (2) preferred basic sizes be selected wherever possible to be reduce material and tool costs. Thus. 2. is considerably different from the fit that is designed to prevent any relative motion between two parts. . The character of the fit depends upon the use of the parts. maximum. 2. In selecting and specifying limits and fits for various applications. The degree of tightness or looseness between two mating parts that are intended to act together is known as the fit of the parts. 2. (3) limits be based upon a series of preferred tolerances and allowances.1. etc. the fit between members that move or rotate relative to each other. such as a shaft rotating in a bearing.4. Introduction The extreme permissible values of a dimension are known as limits.

Lower Deviation It is the algebraic difference between the minimum limit of the size and the corresponding basic size. 2. Upper Deviation It is the algebraic difference between the maximum limit of the size and the corresponding basic size. it will result in maximum interference. Figure 2. If the strength and stiffness requirements need a 50mm diameter shaft. Allowance It is the dimensional difference between the maximum material limits of the mating parts. Here.1: Diagram illustrating basic size deviations and tolerances . then 50 mm is the basic size of the hole.1 illustrates the basic size. intentionally provided to obtain the desired class of fit. If it has to fit into a hole.2. the two limit dimensions of the shaft are deviating in the negative direction with respect to the basic size and those of the hole in the positive direction. deviations and tolerances. Figure 2.46 Actual Deviation It is the algebraic difference between the actual size and the corresponding basic size. If the allowance is positive. then 50mm is the basic shaft size. Basic Size It is determined solely from design calculations. Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand about limits and its fundamental deviations. The line corresponding to the basic size is called the zero line or line of zero deviation. it will result in minimum clearance between the mating parts and if the allowance is negative.

maximum possible tolerances must be recommended wherever possible. In fact. the actual specified tolerances dictate the method of manufacture. the design size is the same as the basic size. then its design size is (50 – 0. Tolerances Great care and judgment must be exercised in deciding the tolerances which may be applied on various dimensions of a component. If tolerances are to be minimum. from which the limits of size are derived by the application of tolerances. If there is no allowance. that is. the cost of production increases.47 Design Size It is that size.05) = 49.05 mm for clearance is applied. If an allowance of 0. Actual Size It is the size obtained after manufacture. . if the accuracy requirements are severe. A tolerance is then applied to this dimension. Hence.95 mm. say to a shaft of 50 mm diameter.

Fundamental Tolerances Tolerance is denoted by two symbols.2 shows the tolerances (in microns or in micrometres) that may be obtained by various manufacturing processes and the corresponding grade number.2 Degree of accuracy expected of manufacturing process Figure 2.48 Figure 2. called the grade. . a letter symbol and a number symbol.

001 D where i is in microns and D is the geometrical mean of the limiting values of the basic steps mentioned above. 2. w have not been used.1. in millimetres.1A Relative magnitude of IT tolerances for grades 5 to 16 in terms of tolerance unit i for sizes upto 500 mm Thus. It may be seen from Fig.1A. The shaft size. Example 1 Calculate the fundamental tolerance for a shaft of 100 mm and grade 7. 80 to 120 mm and the geometrical mean is = 98 mm The tolerance unit. q. IT 0 to IT 1 to IT 16. the fundamental tolerance values for different grades (IT) may be obtained either from Table 2. 16i = 16 × 2. the value of tolerance is.1). known as ―Fundamental tolerances‖.1 or calculated from the relations given in Table 2. W and i. as per the Table 2. o. Table 2. there are other empirical relations for which it is advised to refer IS: 1919–1963.3) for the fundamental deviations for the shaft and hole are as . O. For each nominal step. standard tolerance unit. that the basic sizes from l mm to 500 mm have been sub-divided into 13 steps or ranges. This relation is valid for grades 5 to 16 and nominal sizes from 3 to 500 mm. L. designated as IT 01. 2. Table 2. l. The fundamental tolerance is a function of the nominal size and its unit is given by the emperical relation. 100 lies in the basic step. Similarly.45 × 3 D + 0. Fundamental Deviations The symbols used (Fig. it can be seen from Table 2. The letters I. It is also evident that these letter symbols represent the degree of closeness of the tolerance zone (positive or negative) to the basic size.3 that the letter symbols range from A to ZC for holes and from a to zc for shafts.1 lists the fundamental tolerances of various grades.1A gives the relation between different grades of tolerances and standard tolerance unit i. i = 0. there are 18 grades of tolerances.172 = 35 microns (tallies with the value in Table 2. For grade 7.1A.3 shows the graphical illustration of tolerance sizes or fundamental deviations for letter symbols and Table 2. Q. For grades below 5 and for sizes above 500 mm.49 Figure 2.

50 follows : Table 2.1 Fundamental tolerances of grades 01. 0 and 1 to 16 (values of tolerances in microns) (1 micron=0.001mm) .

) .51 Table 2.2 Fundamental deviations for shafts of types a to k of sizes upto 500mm (contd.

) .) Table 2.2 Fundamental deviations for shafts of types a to k of sizes upto 500mm (contd.2 Fundamental deviations for shafts of types m to zc of sizes up to 500 mm (contd.52 Table 2.

) Table 2.3 Fundamental deviations for holes of types A to N for sizes upto 500mm (contd.) .53 Table 2.3 Fundamental deviations for holes of types A to N for sizes upto 500 mm (contd.2 Fundamental deviations for shafts of types m to zc of sizes upto 500mm (contd.) Table 2.

54 Table 2.3 Fundamental deviations for holes of types P to ZC for sizes upto 500mm (Contd.) Table 2.3 Fundamental deviations for holes of types P to ZC for sizes upto 500mm (Contd.) .

Formulae For Calculating Fundamental Shaft Deviations Table 2. ei = es – IT Holes. Shafts. The value of D is the geometric mean diameter of the range.3 and the other deviation is calculated from the following relationship.55 For each letter symbol from a to zc for shafts and A to ZC for holes.1. EI = ES – IT where IT is fundamental tolerance of grade obtained from Table 2.4 shows the formulae for calculating the fundamental deviation of shafts. NOTE The term ‗shaft‘ in this chapter includes all external features (both cylindrical and noncylindrical) and the term ‗hole‘ includes all internal features of any component. the magnitude and size of one of the two deviations may be obtained from Table 2.4 Formulae for fundamental deviation for shafts upto 500 mm . Table 2.2 or 2.

with the following modifications (i) As a general rule. letter and grade but disposed on the other side of the zero line.56 Formulae for Calculating Fundamental hole deviation The fundamental deviation for holes are derived from the formulae. the lower deviation EI for the hole is equal to the upper deviation es of the shaft of the same letter symbol but of opposite sign.. i. ES is 0 (iii) For the holes of size above 3 mm of types J. all the deviations for the types of holes mentioned in (ii) and (iii) below. For example. corresponding to the shafts.e. M and N of grades upto and inclusive of 8 and for the types P to ZC of grades upto and inclusive of 7. are identical with the shaft deviation of the same symbol. increased by the difference between the tolerances of the two grades in question. the upper deviation. (ii) For the holes of sizes above 3 mm and of type N and of grade 9 and above. the upper deviation ES is equal to the lower deviation ei of the shaft of same letter symbol but one grade finer (less in number) and of opposite sign. Example 2 Calculate the fundamental deviations for the shaft sizes given below : . K.

2)..1. 25 microns. Method 1 In this method. the size 40 is in the range 30 and 50 and hence the mean diameter D. 2. i. Methods for Placing Limit Dimensions (Tolerancing Individual Dimensions) There are three methods used in industries for placing limit dimensions or tolerancing individual dimensions. From Table 2. The following are the equivalent values of the terms given in Fig. the tolerance dimension is given by its basic value. is 38. Hence.4 : . comprising of both a letter and a numeral.1 is 16i.73 mm The fundamental tolerance for grade 7.e.57 (a) 30 e8 (b) 50 g6 (c) 40 m6. ei = 25 (IT 7) – 16 (IT 6) = + 9 microns (tallies with the value in Table 2. followed by a symbol. the deviations for shafts are obtained : (a) The upper deviation es for the shaft e From the Table 2. from the Table 15. The fundamental tolerance for grade 6 is 10i or 16 microns.4.

3) and the number symbol 11 signifies the grade. Figure 2. . 2.58 The terms υ 25H7. the basic size and the tolerance values are indicated above the dimension line. The capital letter C signifies that the lower deviations is 120 microns (Table 2. The value of the tolerance. Method 2 In this method. the value of which is 21 microns (Table 2.1) which in turn is equal to the upper deviation. the value of which is 160 microns (Table 2. corresponding to grade 11 is 160 microns (Table 2.1). The capital letter ‗H‘ signifies that the lower deviation is zero and the number symbol 7 signifies the grade. The upper deviation is obtained by adding 160 to 120 which is equal to 280 microns or 0. 10H10 and 40C11 refer to internal features.28 mm. which in-turn is equal to the lower deviation. The letter ‗h‘ signifies that the upper deviation is zero (Fig. since the terms involve capital letter symbols. since the terms involve lower case letters.4 Toleranced dimensions for internal and external features The terms υ40H11 and 10h9 refer to external features.1). the tolerance values being in a size smaller than that of the basic size and the lower deviation value being indicated in line with the basic size.3).

Figure 2. the variation being zero in one direction.7 shows dimensioning with a unilateral tolerance. Design Size Actual Size Basic Size Deviation Keywords . the variation being unequal.4. 2.5 shows dimensioning with a bilateral tolerance. the variations form the basic size being equal on either side Figure 2.59 Figure 2.5: Bilateral tolerances of equal variation variation Figure 2.3.6 shows dimensioning with a bilateral tolerance. Summary In this unit we have studied about limits 2.6: Bilateral tolerances of unequal Figure 2.

60 Actual Deviation Upper Deviation Lower Deviation Allowance 2. What are the different methods used for placing limit dimensions? 2. . Exercise 1. Name the two systems that are in use for finding out limit dimensions.5.

7.2.Keywords 3.61 Unit 3 FITS Structure 3.Objectives 3. e.Summary 3. Transition fit: Assembly usually requires press tooling or mechanical assistance of some kind.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand fits and their types. Interference fit: Parts need to be forced or shrunk fitted together. shafts and holes. Hole Basics and Shaft Basis Systems Minimum Clearance It is the difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft in a .g. 3.1. ranging from loose low cost. to free-running high temperature change applications and accurate minimal play locations.6.Exercise 3. Creates running & sliding assemblies. The fit represents the tightness or looseness resulting from the application of tolerances to mating parts.1.2. Fits are generally classified as one of the following: Clearance fit: Assemble/disassemble by hand.4.5.3. Creates close accuracy with little or no interference. Creates permanent assemblies that retain and locate themselves.Fits 3.Hole Basics and Shaft Basis Systems 3.Introduction The relation between two mating parts is known as a fit.Introduction 3.

1 Clearance fit .10 mm) and interference fit.15 mm. depending upon the actual values of the tolerance of individual parts. when shaft diameter is 29.62 clearance fit. Figure 3.1 is a clearance fit that permits a minimum clearance (allowance) value of 29. It results in a clearance fit. 3.95 (– 0. The fit between the shaft and hole in Fig.2 may be either smaller or larger than the hole and still be within the prescribed tolerances.90 = + 0.95 – 29.00 and hole diameter 29.05 mm and a maximum clearance of + 0.05 (+ 0.05 mm). when shaft diameter is 30. The shaft in Fig. Maximum Clearance It is the difference between the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of the shaft in a clearance or transition fit. Transition Fit This fit may result in either interference or a clearance.95 and hole diameter is 30. 3.

25 – 30. Minimum Interference It is the magnitude of the difference (negative) between the maximum size of the hole and the minimum size of the shaft in an interference fit before assembly.63 Figure 3. which has an effect similar to welding of two parts. . so it requires a press fit.25 mm. The shaft in Fig.15 – 30.05 mm and maximum interference is 30.2 Transition Fit Interface Fit If the difference between the hole and shaft sizes is negative before assembly.3 is larger than the hole.30 = – 0. 3. The value of minimum interference is 30. an interference fit is obtained.40 = – 0. Maximum Interference It is the magnitude of the difference between the minimum size of the hole and the maximum size of the shaft in interference or a transition fit before assembly.

3. viz.3 Interference fit Figure 3..4 Schematic representation of fits 3. two systems are in use.Hole basics and Shaft Basis Systems In working out limit dimensions for the three classes of fits.4 shows the conventional representation of these three classes of fits Figure 3. the hole .64 Figure 3.

.65 basis system and shaft basis system.1 : Equivalent fits on the hole basis and shaft basis systems .. e. where spindles of same size are used as cold-finished shafting and (ii) when several parts having different fits but one nominal size is required on a single shaft.1 gives equivalent fits on the hole basis and shaft basis systems to obtain the same fit. the size of the hole is obtained by adding the allowance to the basic size of the shaft. the lower deviation of the hole is zero. The shaft basis system is preferred by (i) industries using semi-finished shafting as raw materials. This gives the design size for the hole. The hole basis system is preferred in most cases. the size of the shaft is obtained by subtracting the allowance from the basic size of the hole.5 Examples illustrating shaft basis and hole basis systems Application of various types of fits in the hole basis system is given in Table 3. Tolerances are then applied to each part separately. are used for making a hole. textile industries. broaches. etc. reamers. The letter symbol for this situation is ‗h‘.1 Table 3. This gives the design size of the shaft. Table 3. Tolerances are then applied to each part. Figure 3. Figure 5. In this system. the upper deviation of the shaft is zero. The letter symbol for this situation is ‗H‘.5 shows the representation of the hole basis and the shaft basis systems schematically.g. since standard tools like drills. In this system. Hole Basis System In this system. Shaft Basis System In this system.

66 Table 3.2 Types of fits with symbols and applications .

6.4.67 3.Keywords Clearance fit Transition fit Interference fit 3.5.Summary In this unit we have studied  Fits  Types of fits  Hole Basics and Shaft Basis Systems 3.Exercise .

When is a shaft basis system preferred to hole basis system? . Differentiate between clearance fit and transition fit. 3.68 1. Differentiate between hole basis system and shaft basis system. 4. What is meant by the term ―fit‖ and how are fits classified? 2.

1 c.1.4.69 Unit 4 Tolerances Structure 4. Introduction Tolerances of size are not always sufficient to provide the required control of form. Figure 4. 4.Introduction 4. The form of these components can be controlled by means of geometrical tolerances. in Fig.Standards Followed In Industry 4.1 b.1 Errors of form 4.Indication of feature Controlled 4.7.5.Exercise 4.3. the component has the same thickness throughout but is not flat and in Fig. For example.Summary 4.Tolerances a the shaft has the same diameter measurement in all possible positions but is not circular. 4. in Fig. Objectives . the component is circular in all cross-sections but is not straight.Keywords 4.8. 4.2.Objectives 4.

2) Figure 4.70 After studying this unit we are able to understand Tolerances. Tolerance Zone It is an imaginary area or volume within which the controlled feature of the manufactured component must be completely contained (Figs. with reference to another form (datum) feature. straight lines. (i) to specify the required accuracy in controlling the form of a feature. planes. Form Variation It is a variation of the actual condition of a form feature (surface. 4. line) from geometrically ideal form. (ii) to ensure correct functional positioning of the feature.1.) to which the tolerance features are related (Fig.2 a and b). Definitions Datum It is a theoretically exact geometric reference (such as axes. Geometrical tolerances are used. Position Variation It is a variation of the actual position of the form feature from the geometrically ideal position. (iii) to ensure the interchangeability of components. 4. Geometrical Tolerance and Tolerance zone. Geometrical Tolerance Geometrical tolerance is defined as the maximum permissible overall variation of form or position of a feature. etc. and (iv) to facilitate the assembly of mating components. Datum Feature .

4. Table 4.2). such as an edge. a capital letter is enclosed in a frame. terminating in a filled or an open triangle (Fig. Indication of feature Controlled The feature controlled by geometrical tolerance is indicated by an arrowhead at the end of a leader line. The datum feature is the feature to which tolerance of orientation. 4. the form of a datum feature should be sufficiently accurate for its purpose and it may therefore be necessary in some cases to specify tolerances of form from the datum features. from the tolerance frame. which forms the basis for a datum or is used to establish its location.71 A Datum feature is a feature of a part.3. Datum Letter To identify a datum for reference purposes. surface or a hole. Further. position and run-out are related.1: Symbols representing the characteristics to be toleranced . which represent the types of characteristics to be controlled by the tolerance.2). Figure 4. Table 4.2 Datum Triangle The datums are indicated by a leader line.1 gives symbols. 4. connected to the datum triangle (Fig.

when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane of the part so dimensioned (Fig. when the tolerance refers to the line or surface itself (Figs.4 d) or on the axis. 4. On the outline of the feature or extension of the outline. . 4. when the tolerance refers to the axis or median plane of all features common to that axis or median plane (Fig. terminating with an arrow in the following ways: 1. On the projection line. and 2. 4. but not a dimension line.4 a to c).72 The tolerance frame is connected to the tolerance feature by a leader line.4 e). at the dimension line.

73 4.4 Indication of feature controlled (outline or surface only) Standards Followed In Industry Comparison of systems of indication of tolerances of form and of position as per IS: 3000 (part1)-1976 and as prevalent in industry are shown in Table 4.4.2. 4. . Fig.

74 Table 4.2 : Systems of indication of tolerances of form and of position .

Explain the term tolerance zone with reference to the tolerance of form and position. Exercise 1.7. .5. What is fundamental tolerance and how tolerance is denoted? 3. What is an unilateral tolerance and what is a bilateral tolerance? 2. geometrical tolerance and zone. Keywords Form Variation Position Variation Geometrical Tolerance Tolerance Zone Datum Datum Triangle Datum Letter 4. Summary In this unit we studied tolerances. 4.75 4. What is meant by tolerance of (a) form and (b) position? 4.6.

using the tables for tolerances and name the type of fit obtained: (a) 45H8/d7 (b) 180H7/n6 (c) 120H7/s6 (d) 40G7/h6 (e) 35 C11/h10 11.005 Find out: (a) Tolerance of shaft (b) Tolerance of hole (c) Maximum allowance (d) Minimum allowance (e) Type of fit 12. parallelism. Basic size = 60mm and given as 60 – 0. Identify them. Drawing Exercises 10. With the help of a sketch. for the following cases: a. 9. 8. The dimensions of a shaft and a hole are given below: Shaft. . (c) symmetry and (d) radial run out. With the help of a sketch. Define the following terms: (a) datum. Basic size = 60mm and given as 60 – 0. A schematic representation of basic size and its deviations are given in Figure.76 5. show how geometrical tolerances are indicated on a drawing. A schematic representation of basic size and its deviations are given in Figure. 6. (b) perpendicularity. Calculate the maximum and minimum limits for both the shaft and hole in the following. What are the various ways by which a tolerance frame is connected to the tolerance feature? Explain with the help of sketches. show how the tolerance frame is connected to the feature controlled. 7. show how the geometrical tolerances are indicated. With the help of sketches. (c) datum triangle and (d) datum letter. as prevalent in industry.020 Hole. (b) datum feature. Calculate the following in each case for a shaft of 50 mm basic size: (a) Upper deviation (b) Lower deviation (c) Tolerance (d) Upper limit size (e) Lower limit size 13.

77 .

For mounting a part at any intermediate location on the shaft.. such as pulleys. After positioning the part on the shaft such that. Keywords 1.4. 1. cotters and pin joints discussed in this chapter are some examples of removable (temporary) fasteners.10. both the keyways are properly aligned. 1. The standard proportions of these joints are given in the figures. 1. Assembly and removal of these joints are easy as they are simple in shape.2. 1. For making the joint. 1.78 Unit 1 Basic Definitions Structure 1.Introduction Keys.1. Figure 1. Summary 1.5. Introduction Objectives Keys Cotter Sleeve Cotter Joint Socket and Spigot Cotter Joint Pin Joints Dowel pins Split pins 1.6. 1.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand all the basic definitions 1. saddle keys.11. couplings. sunk keys .9. the key is driven from the end.3. 1. Keys are classified into three types.7. 1.12. wheels. till it is fully engaged with the key.3. first the key is firmly placed in the keyway of the shaft and then the part to be mounted is slid from one end of the shaft.1. grooves or keyways are cut on the surface of the shaft and in the hub of the part to be mounted.8.Keys Keys are machine elements used to prevent relative rotational movement between a shaft and the parts mounted on it.2.1 shows the parts of a keyed joint and its assembly. viz. resulting in a firm joint. gears. 1. etc. Exercise 1.

The cotter passes through slots made in two coaxial parts and thus prevent the relative motion between them. The cotter joints are used only to transmit axial pull between two rods and they are not made to rotate.79 and round keys.Cotter A cotter is a metallic strip of uniform thickness but tapers in width. The rod end may be enlarged to compensate for the slot.Sleeve Cotter Joint Two plain cylindrical ends are made to butt each other and a single sleeve covers both. The cotter can pass through two specially made ends of two coaxial bars which may be circular in section or rectangular or it may pass through sleeve put on the plain ends of rod (two cotters will be needed).5. We shall now see both types of joints. Figure 1.1 Keyed Joint 1. 1.4. Two slots are made in the sleeve. The taper may be very small like 1:100 but may be as large as 1:30. each coinciding with the slot in the rod end. .

4. a rod with enlarged end and a sleeve. The internal diameter of the sleeve match with the external diameter of the rod and the slot matches with the cotter.3 Figure 1.2 shows a cotter. The two views of sleeve cotter joint are drawn in Figure 1. Two cotters are needed to join two rods. Figure 1.3 shows two rod ends pushed in a sleeve with a slight clearance at butting ends to accommodate cotters.2 Figure 1.4: Two views of Sleeve Cotter Joint . Figure 1.80 Figure 1.

In engineering practice the following types of pins are generally used.6 Socket and Spigot Assembled 1.Socket and Spigot Cotter Joint One end of a rod carries a socket while other end of another rod carries a spigot. The socket also has a collar.1. It may be fitted such that half the pin lies in the hub and the other half in the shaft as shown in figure-1. gears or levers to a shaft.81 1. to secure wheels. Socket and Spigot Figure 1.7 (b).1. The socket is a hollow and spigot a solid cylinder with a collar.7 (d).7 (c). gears.7 (c) or as in figure. The pin may be driven through the hub and the shaft as in figure. the pin is under double shear and we have . (a) Round pins (b) Taper pins (c) Dowel pins (d) Split pins Round and taper pins are simple cylindrical pins with or without a taper and they offer effective means of fastening pulleys.Pin Joints These are primarily used to prevent sliding of one part on the other. pulleys.6 shows the spigot inserted into socket with their slots for receiving the cotter aligned. on shafts. Figure 1. levers etc.7.5: Cotter.1.5. Pins and keys are primarily used to transmit torque and to prevent axial motion. The spigot the socket and the cotter are shown in Figure 1. For example. for the shaft in the assembly shown in figure. such as.6. These joints give positive grip and the pins are subjected to a shear load. Figure 1.

8: Some uses of Dowel pins 1. Small cylindrical pins are normally used for this purpose.1.9. τ is the yield strength in shear of the pin material and T is the torque transmitted.8 demonstrates the use of dowel pins. They are generally of semi-circular cross section and are used to prevent nuts from loosening as shown in figure.82 where d is the diameter of the pin at hub-shaft interface. Figure 1.1.8.Split pins These are sometimes called cotter pins also and they are made of annealed iron or brass wire. These are extensively used in automobile industry. Figure 1. .9. Figure.7 Different types of pin joints A taper pin is preferred over the straight cylindrical pins because they can be driven easily and it is easy to ream a taper hole.Dowel pins These are used to keep two machine parts in proper alignment. 1.

plan and side view of the assembly.11. Draw the elevation and side view of cotter joint from three parts shown in Figure 1.10. . Keywords  Keys  Cotter  Pin joints  Dowel pins  Split pins 1. Assemble the four parts and draw elevation.12. Exercise 1. A rectangular fork ahead of a square section bar carries slot for a cotter and a gib as shown in Figure 1.9: Typical use of a split pin 1.83 Figure 1. A square bar carries a slot at its end similar to that in the fork and also shown in the above Figure. Cotter joint. Socket and Spigot Cotter Joint 1. 2. Summary In this unit we have studied about Keys. Cotter.5.10.

10 .84 Figure 1.

3. Single Head Feather Key 2.6. When placed in position the shaft and mating part rotate as a single unit without any slipping. 2.5. Double Headed Feather Key 2.3. 2. 2. Tapper Sunk Keys 2. The key is a prismatic bar inserted between the shaft and the hub so that it passes through both or one of them. That part of the gear or pulley which sits on the shaft by surrounding the shaft on its entire circumference is called the hub. Introduction Objectives Types of Keys 2. Hollow Saddle Key 2.3. A shaft always carry upon at some other part like gear or pulley. Parallel or Feather Keys 2. Woodruff Key 2. Sunk Keys 2. The hub and the shaft are provided with a positive interfering part which is called a key.2.3. Flat Saddle Key 2. Peg Feather Key 2. It may be tapered or of uniform cross section. Unit 2 Types of Keys Structure 2. Summary Keywords Exercise 2. 2. Round Keys A shaft rotates in its bearings and transmits torque.2. Splines 2. The torque then can pass from shaft to . Saddle Keys

1). Apparently if the key is to pass through one or both the mating parts a proper groove. 2. Figure 2. with uniform width but tapering in thickness on the upper side. These are made in two forms: hollow and flat.3. When a hollow saddle key is fitted in position.2. Saddle Keys These are taper keys. A keyway is made in the hub of the mounting.1. 2. called keyway must be made. on which it is sed.Types of Keys There are several of the keys used in practice which are explained below: 2.3. the relative rotation between the shaft and the mounting is prevented due to the friction between the shaft and key (Fig.1: Hollow saddle key . 2. The magnitude of the taper provided is 1:100.3. Hollow Saddle Key A hollow saddle key has a concave shaped bottom to suit the curved surface of the shaft.86 mating part and vice versa.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand 2. with a tapered bottom surface.2.

half the thickness of the key fits into the shaft keyway and the remaining half in the hub keyway. except that the bottom surface of it is flat. Figure 2. Sunk Keys These are the standard forms of keys used in practice.87 2. Figure 2. the flat one is slightly superior compared to the hollow type.3. However. Saddle keys are liable to slip around the shaft when used under heavy loads. 2. as the fit between the key and the shaft is positive. and may be either square or rectangular in cross.3.2 Flat saddle key 2. Hence.section.5. Sunk keys may be classified as: (i) taper keys. uniform in width but tapered in thickness. The end may be squared or rounded.4. the bigger end of the key is provided with a head called gib. the keyway in the shaft is parallel to the axis and the hub keyway is tapered. a flat surface provided on the shaft is used to fit this key in position (Fig. The two types of saddle keys discussed above are suitable for light duty only. A tapered sunk key may be removed by driving it out from the exposed small end.3 shows the application of a key with a gib head.3. If this end is not accessible. Flat Saddle Key It is similar to the hollow saddle key. Generally. (ii) parallel or feather keys and (iii) woodruff keys. Following are the proportions for a gib head: If D is the . the magnitude of the taper being 1:100. 2. Tapper Sunk Keys These keys are square or rectangular in cross-section.2). Apart from the tapered keyway in the hub of the mounting. These keys are used for heavy duty. The bottom surface of the key is straight and the top surface is tapered.3.

W = 0. Width of key. H = 1.67 W (at the thicker end) Standard taper = 1:100 Height of head.88 diameter of the shaft. B = 1. T = 0. then.5 T Figure 2.75 T Width of head.3 : Key with gib head .25 D + 2 mm Thickness of key.

5. The feather key may be fitted into the keyway provided on the shaft by two or more screws (Fig. These keys are used when the parts (gears.5).1 gives the dimensions of taper sunk keys. .4) or into the hub of the mounting (Fig. for various shaft sizes. To achieve this. 2.6. 2. 2.) mounted are required to slide along the shaft. Parallel or Feather Keys A parallel or feather key is a sunk key. a clearance fit must exist between the key and the keyway in which it slides. uniform in width and thickness as well.1 Proportions of taper sunk keys for various shaft sizes 2.3.89 Table 2. Table 2. As seen from Fig. these keys are of three types: (i) peg feather key. (ii) single headed feather key and (iii) double headed feather key. clutches. permitting relative axial movement. etc.

Figure 2. a projection known as peg is provided at the middle of the key.5: Feather keys . The peg fits into a hole in the hub of the sliding member (Fig.3. The head is screwed to the hub of the part mounted on the shaft (Fig. the key is provided with a head at one end. Peg Feather Key In this key. 2.4 Parallel sunk key 2. the key and the mounting move axially as one unit. 2. Once placed in a position.8.5 b).90 Figure 2.3.5 a). Single Head Feather Key In this. 2.7.

with a sliding fit. the key and the mounting move as one unit (Fig. Splines Splines are keys made integral with the shaft. These heads prevent the axial movement of the key in the hub. Figure 2.6: Splined shaft and hub Table 2. once placed in position. Here too.1: Proportions for splined shafts of various sizes . 2. 2. providing a positive drive and at the same time permitting the latter to move axially along the shaft (Fig.6).3. fit into the corresponding recesses in the hub of the mounting.5 c). Double Headed Feather Key In this. the key is provided with heads on both ends.3. The splines on the shaft. 2.10.91 2. The shaft with splines is called a splined shaft.9. by cutting equi-spaced grooves of uniform crosssection.

Round Keys Round keys are of circular cross-section.85 W Figure 2.1 mm Depth of keyway in shaft. T2 = 0. . Woodruff Key It is a sunk key. As the bottom surface of the key is circular. 2. A keyway is made in the hub of the mounting. 2. where the loads are not considerable. the keyway in the shaft is in the form of a circular recess to the same curvature as the key.7 a). where D is shaft diameter. Once placed in position. Woodruff key is mainly used on tapered shafts of machine tools and automobiles.25 D. The following are the proportions of woodruff keys: If D is the diameter of the shaft. Round keys are generally used for light duty.35 W Depth of the keyway in the hub. 2. in the form of a segment of a circular disc of uniform thickness (Fig.5 W + 0.3. the key tilts and aligns itself on the tapered shaft (Fig. W = 0. in the usual manner. Diameter of key. usually tapered (1:50) along the length. The mean diameter of the pin may be taken as 0. d = 3 W Height of key. T = 1.3.92 2.7 b).7: Woodruff key 2. Thickness of key.25 D. A round key fits in the hole drilled partly in the shaft and partly in the hub (Fig.8).12.11. T1 = 0.

6. . 2.5.93 Figure 2. What are the different types of keys? Explain.Summary In this unit we have studied the various types of keys.Keywords  Saddle Keys  hollow saddle key  Flat Saddle Key  Sunk Keys  Tapper Sunk Keys  Parallel or Feather Keys  Peg Feather Key  Single Head Feather Key  Double Headed Feather Key  Splines  Woodruff Key  Round Keys 2.4.Exercise 1.8 Round key 2.

flywheels.Objectives 3.Keywords 3. Splines And Pins Keys. which is used to transmit power and rotational motion. which apply very extensively.2.Design of Keys.5. Axles are non rotating member.4. thrust bearings.94 Unit 3 Design of Shaft and Keys Structure 3. are used on shafts to secure rotating elements. pins and splines.8.1. Most of keys.1. splines and pins . The shaft rotates on rolling contact or bush bearings.Exercise 3.Design of Keys.6. The rotational force (torque) is transmitted to these elements on the shaft by press fit. pulleys (sheaves). Splines And Pins 3. Elements such as gears. and sprockets are mounted on the shaft and are used to transmit power from the driving device (motor or engine) through a machine. dowel.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Design of Keys. keys. grooves and steps in the shaft are used to take up axial loads and locate the rotating elements.Introduction A shaft is a rotating member usually of circular cross-section (solid or hollow).Summary 3. pulleys. Splines And Pins  Key Joints  Pint Joints 3.Introduction 3.2. such as gears. clutches. splines and pins have been .3. or other wheels.Pint Joints 3.Key Joints 3. 3.3.7. Various types of retaining rings.

The end may be either rounded or .95 standardized. welding joints. better centering quantity. 3. In this chapter the selection and strength calculation of straight keys. Transmitting torque from a shaft to a hub or vice versa  Key joints  Flat key joint  Woodruff key joint  Taper key joint  Tangent key joint 1. pins. used for transmitting load by pressing and shearing of higher speed. bonded joints. Explanation of Nouns: Hub: The central part of a car wheel (or fan or propeller etc) through which the shaft or axle passes Joints of shafts and hubs :To join the shafts and the hubs using some other elements.  Plain flat keys  Guided keys Straight key joints Straight keys are of square or rectangular cross section. A fastening inserted into the keyway of two mating parts to prevent relative angular or sliding motion between the parts 2.Key Joints A key is a fastening inserted into the keyway of two mating parts to prevent relative angular or sliding motion between the parts. splines. The application of key joints 1. The types of joints of shafts and hubs :keys. interference-fit joints.4. Loose key joints No locking force :The load is carrying by the sides of the key Flat key:The structure is simple and it is easy to assemble or disassemble. splines and pins will be introduced respectively. bolts. It is mainly employed to transmit torque from a shaft to a hub or vice versa. riveted joints.

but the stress of keyway end of the shaft is greater. straight keys are classified as: Plain flat keys Guided keys Feather keys Plain flat keys are used only to transmitting torque (fixed joints). and prevent relative rotation of mating parts. 2. but it is not easy to position the key unless a screw is used to help the fixing. Different from a guided key. The keys are fastened to the shaft by screws. in this case. Another advantage of the woodruff key is its stable position on the shaft. a feather key is used for long axial movements and moves along with the hub to which it is screwed. Model B: The stress of keyway end of shaft is reduced. excluding tipping and pressure concentration. but allow and guide free axial sliding of one part over the other. Guided keys are used to slide key joints. does not require manual fitting of the key. Feather keys can make the keys shortened. According to the difference of the end. Model C is used at the end of an axle mainly. Round end Square end One square and one round end Model A can get good fixing. plain flat keys van be categorized into three models.96 square. which. According to the purposes. Woodruff key joints are used to improve the producibility of the joint. Feather key joints are also sliding key joints. Woodruff key joints Convenient to assemble or disassemble used for the joints of vertical mandrels and hubs slacking down the shafts seriously. .

the working surfaces of taper keys are the top and the bottom. Machining 1)The key seats on the shafts Disk milling cutter. light loads. Tighten key joints Taper key joints Exist locking forces. in contrast to flat keys. and the demand of precision is low.97 3. used for the huge rotary elements. Materials of keys Finishing pull steel σB=500~600N/mm2、Q255、45# 2. too. end milling cutter 2)Key seats on the hubs Scraping out cutter or slotting tool . friction forces. Tangent key: Slacking down the shaft seriously. the working surface of taper keys are the top and the bottom. Taper key joints Taper keys are in fact wedges that usually have 1:100. Tangent key joints Tangent key joints are employed in the heavy engineering industries for severe dynamic loads. They are in fact wedge that usually have1:100 Wedge key: Weak centering quantity used for the working conditions of low speed. The materials of keys and machining key seats 1.

fixing and location to select key type. centering quantity. do like following: . Strength calculations of key joints Some possible failures of key joints:  The working face of the weaker element may be crushed  The elements are worn excessively  Keys are snipped  The first and the second one are the common cases of key failure. materials and size of the joined part accomplish. End milling cutter 1. working condition. get the section (b × h)and length L of the key. 2. Selecting the type of the keys According to the configurations. The last form seldom takes place unless serious overload happens. 3. Check the strength of keys Strength calculations of straight key joints: For plain flat key joints:  p 2T *103 p  [ kld  p] For guided and feather key joints: 2T *103  [ p] kld If the strength is insufficient. Assure the configuration and size of the keys According to the diameter of the shaft.98 Disk milling cutter Strength calculation of plain flat keys (1)The design steps Prerequisite: The design of configurations. the transmitted loads is given.

Types of spline joints In the light of spline tooth and the purpose. But it should not be beyond 2. lighter and heavy. and the demand of manufacturing precision is high. nvolute spline joints. and more uniform pressure distribution over the height of the spline. large stress centralization Types: light. The technology of manufacturing is complex. They are used as fixed joints between a hub and a shaft. splines are classified as: parallel-sided spline joints. Parts mounted on spline shaft are more accurately centered and guided if they slide along the shaft. Paralleled-side spline Feathers :Easy to manufacture. wide use. manufacture conveniently. inner keys by pulling.25d Spline Joints Spline joints consist of spline shaft and hub joint. . Greater carrying capacity because of greater working surface 3. The characteristics of splines 1. the strength of the tooth root. as sliding joints without load and as sliding joints subject to loads. thin tooth involutes spline joints.the strength calculation will be carried out for 1. The centering is good. Greater fatigue strength of a spline shaft compared with keyways 2. 4. The keys are integral with the shaft. Marking with the centers by external diameter: Outer keys by grinding. high precision. The methods of marking with the centers: 1.99 ①Use two keys: These two keys install at an angle of 1800. 5.5 keys ②Make the hub longer.

3. pin joints are often regarded as a kind of safe installation. Involute spline Feathers: Good technology higher position precision higher strength little stress centralization easy centered used for transmitting high torque. Marking with the centers by the width of tooth :Use for carrying heavy loads. Marking with the centers by min diameter Hub and grinded hub. and where the size of the shaft is large. dm is the average diameter of spline and l is the working length of spline tooth . Strength calculation of spline joints: The failures of spline joints are mainly due to working surface damages: crushing (fixed joint).5. it is mainly used in joints of light load. wear and blinding or seizing (sliding joint). Marking with the centers by the tooth side. In some equipments. to some extent. Thin tooth involutes spline Features:More teeth. small diameter.100 2. h is the working height of spline tooth. and it is small, weakening the strength of the shaft less. The design condition is: For fixed joint  p  2T 103  [ p ]  zhld m 2T 103 For sliding joint p   [ p]  zhld m Where ψ is the coefficient f load with no equal apportionment between tooth. . specially the joints of shaft of small diameter and thin wall element. to transmit relatively small loads.Pin Joints Pins are chiefly used as dowels for precise mutual location of members. the unit of l is mm. and. 3. z is the number of spline tooth.

Keywords  Hub  Key joints  Loose key joints  Woodruff key joints  Straight key joints  Tighten key joints  Spline Joints  Paralleled-side spline  Involute spline  Pin Joints 3. failures and strength calculation of keys and spline.7. Explain Pin Joints .Exercise 1. Explain Key Joints 3.Summary In this unit we have studied the types. application. Explain Design of Keys 2. characteristics.6. 3.101 Usages of pins: Pin for joining pin for locating 3.8. configuration.

Surface Roughness 4. Friction between mating parts is also reduced due to better surface finish. Keywords 4.7.1. The higher the smoothness of the surface.9.1.Indication of Surface Roughness 4. will have some minute irregularities.5. The properties and performance of machine components are affected by the degree of roughness of the various surfaces.Machine Symbols 4.Indication of Machining Allowance 4.Introduction It is not possible to achieve in practice.8. The actual surface condition will depend upon the finishing process adopted. 4.Objectives 4.Summary 4.11. Exercise 4.2.Indication of Special Surface Roughness Characteristics 4. a geometrically ideal surface of a component and hence.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Surface Roughness  Machine Symbols  Indication of Surface Roughness . production drawings of components must also contain information about the permissible surface conditions.102 Unit 4 Surface Roughness Structure 4.6. Machine components which have undergone machining operation. when inspected under magnification. the better is the fatigue strength and corrosion resistance.4.3.Indications of Surface Roughness Symbols on Drawings 4.2.10.Introduction 4.

.3. Surface waviness. Rt and mean roughness index Ra of the microirregularities. It is the profile to which the irregularities of the surface are referred to.1 It is the profile of the actual surface obtained by finishing operation. The surface roughness is evaluated by the height.1: Figure 4.103  Indication of Special Surface Roughness Characteristics  Indication of Machining Allowance  Indications of Surface Roughness Symbols on Drawings 4. It passes through the lowest point B of the actual profile.Surface Roughness The geometrical characteristics of a surface include. Macro-deviations. 2. Following are the definitions of the terms indicated in Fig. Micro-irregularities. 1. 4. It is the profile. and 3. parallel to the reference profile. It passes through the highest point of the actual profile.

such that the sum of the material filled areas enclosed above it by the actual profile is equal to the sum of the material-void areas enclosed below it by the profile. Surface guage 3.1). Profilometer 6.8 mm and is expressed in microns. The surface roughness may be measured. 4. Talysurf . The measurements are usually made along a line. Surface Roughness Number The surface roughness number represents the average departure of the surface from perfection over a prescribed sampling length. which are determined from (Fig. using any one of the following : 1. It is given by. Optical flat 4. usually selected as 0.104 It is that profile. Straight edge 2. Surface roughness values are usually expressed as the Ra value in microns. Profilograph 7. It is the distance from the datum profile to the reference profile. It is the arithmetic mean of the absolute values of the heights hi between the actual and mean profiles. within the sampling length chosen (L). running at right angle to the general direction of tool marks on the surface. Tool maker‘s microscope 5.

1: Surface roughness expected from various manufacturing processes .1 shows the surface roughness expected from various manufacturing processes.105 Table 4. Table 4.

4. 4. If the removal of material is not permitted. If the removal of material by machining is required. as shown in Fig. must be obtained by removal of material by machining. must be obtained without removal of material. to indicate that a surface is to be left in the state. a circle is added to the basic symbol. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. as in Fig.Machine Symbols This article deals with the symbols and other additional indications of surface texture. This symbol may also be used in a drawing. defining the principal criterion of roughness.2c. This symbol may be used where it is necessary to indicate that the surface is machined. representing the surface considered (Fig. Figure 4.4. a line is added to the longer arm of the basic symbol. 4.3c. inclined at approximately 60° to the line.3a. 4. The basic symbol consists of two legs of unequal length. without indicating the grade of roughness or the process to be used.3. When only one value is specified to indicate surface roughness.2b.Indication of Surface Roughness The value or values. 4.5.2 4. as in Fig. may be obtained by any production method.3b. as in Fig. Figure 4. to be indicated on production drawings. When special surface characteristics have to be indicated.3 A surface texture specified. 4. a bar is added to the basic symbol. resulting from a preceding manufacturing process.2a). relating to a production process. 4. it represents the maximum .2d. 4. whether this state was achieved by removal of material or otherwise.106 4. are added to the symbol as shown in Fig.

If it is necessary to impose maximum and minimum limits of surface roughness. with the maximum limit. Table 4.2. as shown in Table 4. both the values should be shown.4 The principal criterion of surface roughness. above the minimum limit.107 permissible value. 4. a2 (Fig.4a). Ra may be indicated by the corresponding roughness grade number. Figure 4. a1.2 : Equivalent surface roughness symbols .

it may be necessary to specify additional special requirements. it is specified by a symbol added to the surface roughness symbol.6. Also. If it is necessary to indicate the sampling length. 4. any indications relating to treatment of coating may be given on the extension of the longer arm of the symbol.4b. NOTE: The direction of lay is the direction of the predominant surface pattern. 4. as shown in Fig. this method should be indicated on an extension of the longer arm of the symbol as shown in Fig. applies to the surface roughness after treatment or coating. both before and after treatment. as shown in Fig.4e. If it is required that the final surface texture be produced by one particular production method. 4. concerning surface roughness.Indication of Special Surface Roughness Characteristics In certain circumstances. for functional reasons.4c. . If it is necessary to define surface texture. If it is necessary to control the direction of lay.108 4. this should be explained by a suitable note or as shown in Fig. Unless otherwise stated. the numerical value of the roughness. 4. it should be selected from the series given in ISO/R 468 and be stated adjacent to the symbol.4d. ordinarily determined by the production method employed.

3: Symbols specifying the directions of lay .3 shows the symbols which specify the common directions of lay.109 Table 4. Table 4.

Figure 4. Figure 4. If it is not practicable to adopt this general rule. that they may be read from the bottom or the right hand side of the drawing (Fig.5a. This value is expressed normally in millimeters. as shown in Fig.5 4. defining the size or position of the surface (Fig.6a). 4.6 The symbol may be connected to the surface by a leader line. 4.Indication of Machining Allowance When it is necessary to specify the value of the machining allowance. If the same surface roughness is required on all the surfaces of a part. 4. or to an extension of it (Fig. 4.8). the symbol is only used once for a given surface and. Figure 4. this should be indicated on the left of the symbol. either by a note near a view of the part (Fig.6b).6a) In accordance with the general principles of dimensioning.110 4. placed relative to the symbol. or in the space devoted to general .7.Indications of Surface Roughness Symbols on Drawings The symbol and the inscriptions should be so oriented. it is specified. near the title block. The symbol or the arrow should point from outside the material of the piece.8. the symbol may be drawn in any position (Fig. if possible. provided that it does not carry any indications of special surface texture characteristics. either to the line representing the surface. 4. 4.5b shows the various specifications of surface roughness.7). on the view which carries the dimension. terminating in an arrow.

or the symbol or symbols (in brackets) of the special surface roughness or roughness‘s (Fig. except where otherwise stated (Fig.111 notes.9b).9c). or where space is limited.8 Figure 4. 4. or following the part number on the drawing. If the same surface roughness is required on the majority of the surfaces of a part. the notation. 4. a simplified specification may be used on the surface.7 Figure 4. it is specified with the addition of.9 To avoid the necessity of repeating a complicated specification a number of times. provided that its meaning . 4. Figure 4. or a basic symbol (in brackets) without any other indication (Fig.9a).

Indicate how various surface roughness specifications are placed relative to the symbol. surface roughness symbols on drawings. Drawing Exercises .10). (c) mean roughness index (d) surface roughness number. 3. machine symbols. 7.10. Exercise 1. (b) datum profile.9. 4. Indicate roughness grade symbols for the following roughness grade numbers: (a) N 12 (b) N 10 (c) N 8 (d) N 6 (e) N 2 8.112 is explained near the drawing of the part. 4. What is meant by direction of lay? How is it shown on a drawing? Sketch the symbols related to the common directions of lay. Indication of machining allowance. Keywords 4. Mention the geometrical characteristics of a surface. near the title block or in the space devoted to general notes (Fig. Figure 4. What is the importance of surface roughness? 2. How surface roughness values are indicated on a drawing ? 6.11. 4. What are the various means that are used to determine the surface roughness value ? 5.10 4. Special Surface Roughness Characteristics. Define the following terms : (a) reference profile.Summary In this unit we have studied surface roughness.

Indicate the roughness grade symbols used in shop floor practice. 2. 3. (b) grade 1 milling machine column guide-ways. show the method of indicating surface roughness on the following components : (a) symmetrical surfaces requiring the same quality. Show how the roughness is indicated on the component for the following situations. 4. . (b) machine reaming. (b) surface to be obtained without removal of material (c) surface to be coated. 5. and (d) surface to be given a machining allowance. (d) faces of a milling arbor spacer. and (e) precision lathe bed guide-ways. and (c) same surface quality all over. (c) splines on a shaft. (c) milling. With examples.113 1. with their range of roughness values. Suggest suitable surface finish values and the process of obtaining them for the following components (a) precision drill sleeve. What are the roughness values that can be normally obtained by (a) fine turning. (a) surface to be obtained by any production method. (d) precision grinding and (e) chrome plating. (b) cylindrical part.

1. transmit power nearly parallel to the axis of the screw.2. as on valves. 1. the pitch diameter is the diameter of an imaginary coaxial cylinder that would cut the thread forms at a height where the width of the thread and groove would be equal.4.3. Where strength is required for the transmission of power and motion. triple. For a single thread. 1. Lead is the distance advanced parallel to the axis when the screw is turned one revolution. a thread having faces that are more nearly perpendicular to the axis is preferred. lead is equal to the pitch. For a straight thread. it is called a singlethread screw. If a single helical groove is cut or formed on a cylinder.114 Unit 1 Basic Definitions Structure 1. Thread forms have been developed to satisfy particular requirements. with their strong thread sections. lead is twice the pitch.6.1. for a double thread.1. a double thread will be formed on the screw. 1. Double. 1. Pitch and major diameter designate a thread.5. . These threads. a left-hand thread advances when turned counterclockwise. A right-hand thread on an external member advances into an internal thread when turned clockwise. Introduction Objectives Basic Definitions Summary Keywords Exercise Introduction A thread may be either right-hand or left-hand. 1. and even quadruple threads are used whenever a rapid advance is desired. Should the helix angle be increased sufficiently for a second thread to be cut between the grooves of the first thread.

Screwed fasteners occupy the most prominent place among the removable fasteners. between corresponding points on adjacent screw threads. etc. The fasteners are of two types permanent and removable (temporary).3. cotters. The threaded portion engages with a corresponding threaded hole (internal thread). screwed fasteners are used : (i) to hold parts together. Riveting and welding processes are used for fastening permanently. studs and nuts in combination.  Pitch It is the distance measured parallel to the axis. . In general.  Screw Thread Nomenclature A screw thread is obtained by cutting a continuous helical groove on a cylindrical surface (external thread).115 1.. forming a screwed fastener. and keys..  Pitch diameter This is the diameter of an imaginary cylinder. (ii) to adjust parts with reference to each other and (iii) to transmit power. Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand the basic definitions of various terms. passing through the threads at the points where the thread width is equal to the space between the threads. Following are the terms that are associated with screw threads (Fig. 1. The process of joining the parts is called fastening. Screwed fasteners such as bolts.2.  Basic Definition Screwed Fasteners A machine element used for holding or joining two or more parts of a machine or structure is known as a fastener. are used for fastening components that require frequent assembly and dissembly. 5. set screws. etc.1). machine screws. couplings.

measured in an axial plane.  Root It is the bottom edge of the thread that connects the adjacent flanks at the bottom.116  Lead It is the distance a screw advances axially in one turn. Keywords  Screw Thread Nomenclature  Pitch diameter  Pitch  Lead  Flank  Crest  Root  Thread angle 1.  Crest It is the peak edge of a screw thread. Exercise . Summary In this unit we have studied the various definitions 1.4. on either side of the screw thread.6.  Thread angle This is the angle included between the flanks of the thread. that connects the adjacent flanks at the top.5. 1.  Flank Flank is the straight portion of the surface.

Root h. Crest g. Lead e.117 1. Pitch d. Thread angle . Flank f. Define the following terms: a. Screw Thread Nomenclature b. Pitch diameter c.

Exercise 2.3. More screw threads are produced each year than any other machine element. with the former being called a straight thread and the latter called a tapered thread.13. .Thread Designation 2.4.Introduction A screw thread.7.11. Summary 2.Introduction 2. A screw thread is a ridge wrapped around a cylinder or cone in the form of a helix. Hexagonal and Square Headed Bolts 2.Representation of Threaded Parts in Assembly 2.Methods of Drawing Hexagonal (Bolt Head) Nut 2.10.Objectives 2.8. Keywords of Drawing Square (Bolt Head) Nut 2.5.12.Bolted Joint 2.1.118 Unit 2 Types of Threads Structure 2. is a helical structure used to convert between rotational and linear movement or force.Right Hand and Left Hand Thread 2.Other Threads Profiles 2.6. often shortened to thread.

1. the lead of a screw thread is chosen so that friction is sufficient to prevent linear motion being converted to rotary that is so the screw does not slip even when linear force is applied so long as no external rotational force is present.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Other Threads Profiles  Thread Designation  Right Hand and Left Hand Thread  Representation of Threaded Parts in Assembly  Bolted Joint  Methods of Drawing Hexagonal (Bolt Head) Nut  Methods of Drawing Square (Bolt Head) Nut  Hexagonal and Square Headed Bolts Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) adapts ISO (International Organisation for Standards) metric threads which are adapted by a number of countries apart from India. 2. The design profiles of external and internal threads are shown in Fig. 2.119 The mechanical advantage of a screw thread depends on its lead. which is the linear distance the screw travels in one revolution. In most applications. This characteristic is essential to the vast majority of its uses. The following are the relations between the various parameters marked in the figure: .2. The tightening of a fastener's screw thread is comparable to driving a wedge into a gap until it sticks fast through friction and slight plastic deformation.

providing more frictional resistance to motion. in the case of internal thread.14P = d – 1. V-Thread(Sharp) This thread profile has a larger contact area.54P D2 = d2 = d – 0. It is also used in brass pipe work. providing more frictional resistance to motion. Hence. It is also used in brass pipe work.08P It may be noted from the figure that in order to avoid sharp corners.W) Thread .120 Figure 2.75H h3 = (d – d3)/2 = 17/24H = 0.1 Metric screw thread P = Pitch d3 = d2 – 2 (H/2 – H/6) H = 0. it is used where effective positioning is required. British Standard Whitworth (B.22P D = d = Major diameter H1 = (D – D1)/2 = 5H/8 = 0. 2.61P D1 = d2 – 2(H/2 – H/4) = d – 2H1 R = H/6 = 0.3. rounding is done at the root (major diameter) of the design profile. Similarly. it is used where effective positioning is required. Hence.Other Threads Profiles This thread profile has a larger contact area.86 P = d – 1. the basic profile is rounded at the root (minor diameter) of the design profile of an external thread.S.

In this. The profile has rounded ends. quick acting carpenter‘s vice. as in the case of a screw jack and other similar applications. Worm Thread Worm thread is similar to the ACME thread. It is used on shafts to carry power to worm wheels. Buttress Thread This thread is a combination of V-and square threads. but is deeper. like the ability to transmit power and low frictional resistance. It is much stronger than square thread because of the wider base and it is easy to cut. Figure 2.2: Types of thread profiles Thread Series . Square Thread Square thread is an ideal thread form for power transmission. the normal force between the threads. as the thread flank is at right angle to the axis. The inclined sides of the thread facilitate quick and easy engagement and disengagement as for example.121 This thread form is adopted in Britain in inch units. making it less liable to damage than sharp V-thread. the split nut with the lead screw of a lathe. It exhibits the advantages of square thread. It is used where power transmission takes place in one direction only such as screw press. with zero radial component. ACME Thread It is a modified form of square thread. This enables the nut to transmit very high pressures. etc. with the strength of the V-thread. acts parallel to the axis.

122 BIS recommends two thread series: coarse series and fine series. Table 2. called the coarse pitch and the rest are designated as fine pitches.Thread Designation .4. However. For any particular diameter. based on the relative values of the pitches.1 gives the nominal diameter and pitch combinations for coarse and fine series of ISO metric screw threads.1 Diameter-pitch combination for ISO metric threads 2. there is only one largest pitch. Table 2. it must be noted that the concept of quality is not associated with these terms.

multi-start threads are recommended. For a double start thread.3 Single and multi-start threads In multi-start threads. For example. continuous helical groove for which the lead is equal to the pitch. As the depth of the thread depends on the pitch.123 The diameter-pitch combination of an ISO metric screw thread is designated by the letter ‗M‘ followed by the value of the nominal diameter and pitch.5 mm. For example. In triple start threads. . depending on the shape of the thread profile: SQ 40 × 10 – SQUARE thread of nominal diameter 40 mm and pitch 10 mm ACME 40 × 8 – ACME thread of nominal diameter 40 mm and pitch 8 mm WORM 40 × 10 – WORM thread of nominal diameter 40 mm and pitch 10 mm Multi-Start Threads A single-start thread consists of a single. diametrically opposite to each other. starting at points. If there is no indication of pitch in the designation. the two values being separated by the sign ‗ב. lead may be increased by increasing the number of starts. lead is equal to twice the pitch and for a triple start thread. Figure 2. Fig. the starting points are 120° apart on the circumference of the screws. a diameter pitch combination of nominal diameter 10 mm and pitch 1. greater will be the pitch and hence smaller will be the core diameter.25. To overcome this drawback. reducing the strength of the fastener. without increasing the pitch. 2. it shall mean the coarse pitch.25mm is designated as M10 × 1. Following are the other designations. greater the lead desired. In double start threads. M 10 means that the nominal diameter of the thread is 10 mm and pitch is 1. two threads are cut separately.3 shows single and double-start threads of V-and square profiles. lead is equal to thrice the pitch.

2. a thread should be considered as a right hand one. .5b shows a coupler used for railway coaches. depending on the direction of the helix. The length of a tie rod. out of the two rods operating inside the nut (a long double nut). etc. with a clearance provided at the centre. or away from each other. They are also used for fixing guy wires. 2. Unless otherwise stated. arbor press spindles. Figure 2.124 Multi-start threads are also used wherever quick action is desired. etc. as in fountain pens.5. one will have a right hand thread at its end and the other. when turned in a clockwise direction and a lefthand thread is one which advances into the nut when turned in a counter clockwise direction. A righthand thread is one which advances into the nut. the two rods in it may move either closer together. Figure 2. hydraulic valve spindles.4: Right hand and left hand threads Coupler-Nut A coupler-nut or turnbuckle is an example of a machine element. Referring the Fig. An abbreviation LH is used to indicate a left hand thread. automobile starters.Right Hand and Left Hand Thread Screw threads may be right hand or left hand.4 illustrates both right and left hand thread forms. By turning the nut. may be adjusted by this device. in which both right hand and left hand thread forms are used. Figure 2. The nut is usually hexagonal at its outer surface. a left hand one.5a .

depending on its visibility. by a continuous thin line. used for the purpose is shown in Fig. Hence it is the usual practice to follow some conventional methods to represent screw threads. Figure 2. hatching should be extended to the line defining the crest of the thread. that the crests of threads are indicated by a continuous thick line and the roots.e. of length approximately three-quarters of the circumference. i. The schematic representation. For threaded parts in section.6. The length up to which the incomplete threads are formed beyond the useful limit. The simplified representation. the crests and roots are indicated by dotted lines.1 shows the true projection of a screw thread.6. It is represented by two inclined lines. drawn with a continuous thin line.125 Figure 2. it may be observed that the crest diameters. 2. for external threads and internal threads in section.5 The true projection of a threaded portion of a part consists of a series of helices and it takes considerable time to draw them. 2. is known as a run-out. the threaded roots are represented by a portion of a circle. 2. though it saves time.7. In the view from side.7. is not an effective method to convey thread forms.. For hidden screw threads. From the Fig. both in . the schematic representation is followed for only visible threads. It may be noted from Fig. 2. In practice. The limit of useful length of screw threads is represented by a continuous thick line or a dotted line. whereas the conventional representation of external and internal threads as recommended by BIS is shown in Fig.

these lines being drawn inclined with a slope equal to half the pitch.126 external and internal threads. 2.6 Conventional representation of threads Fig. Figure 2. extending up to the minor diameter. . the crests are represented by thin lines. Further. extending up to the major diameter and the roots by thick lines.8 illustrates the schematic representation of square threads. are drawn by thick lines.

however.127 Figure 2.8Schematic representation of threads parts-Square threads 2. the external threaded one is shown un sectioned.9b and c. In Figs.6. the . 2.7 Schematic representation of threaded parts-V-threads Figure 2.9b and c.9 a shows the schematic representation and Figs. Figure 2. the conventional representation of threads in engagement. 2.Representation of Threaded Parts in Assembly Figure 2.9 a represents the internal threaded part in section.

The body of the bolt. Screw threads are cut on the other end of the shank.7. with only one-sixth of a turn. is formed by forging.9 External and internal threads in engagement 2.128 external threaded parts are shown covering the internal threaded parts and should not be shown as hidden by them. square nuts are used when frequent loosening and tightening is required. for example on job holding devices like vices. This is because. For nuts. the head. the spanner can be re-introduced in the same position. . square or hexagonal in shape. called shank is cylindrical in form. 2. The nuts with internal threads engage with the corresponding size of the external threads of the bolt. as it is easy to tighten even in a limited space. hexagonal shape is preferred to the square one. Nuts in general are square or hexagonal in shape. Figure 2.10) is a fastening device used to hold two parts together.Bolted Joint A bolt and nut in combination (Fig. tool posts in machines. there are other forms of nuts used to suit specific requirements. However. etc. However. The sharp corners on the head of bolts and nuts are removed by chamfering.

as standard bolts and nuts are used. W = 1.5D . it is not necessary to draw them accurately. Width of nut across flat surfaces. Moreover. R = 1.10 Bolted Joint 2. 2.8.5D + 3 mm. to the exact dimensions is labourious and time consuming. Radius of chamfer.Methods of Drawing Hexagonal (Bolt Head) Nut Drawing hexagonal bolt head or nut.11) Empirical relations: Major or nominal diameter of bolt = D.129 Figure 2. Thickness of nut. The following approximate methods are used to save the draughting time: Method 1 (Fig. T = D.

12. Project the view from the side and locate points 10. 9. where only two faces are seen. the corners appear .9 on the top surface. 13. Locate points 6 and 7. by projecting from the view from above. 14. W and describe a regular hexagon on it. Draw the chamfers 4–8 and 5–9.11 Method of drawing views of a hexagonal nut (Method I) Procedure 1. Draw the view from above by drawing a circle of diameter. lying at the middle of the outer two faces. 10. 6. 3.130 Figure 2. Mark points 4 and 5. 11. lying in-line with 2 and 3. 7. draw the chamfer arc 2-1-3 passing through the point 1 in the front face. 7. and the view from side. Locate points 8. With radius R. In the view from the side. 11 and 11. and mark the height equal to D. 2. Mark points 13 and 14. horizontal. 6. Project the view from the front. after determining the radius R2 geometrically. by keeping any two parallel sides of the hexagon. 2 and 3. 4. Draw circular arcs passing through the points 4. 8. Draw circular arcs passing through the points 10. 11 and 12. 5. after determining the radius R1 geometrically. It may be noted that in the view from the front. lying at the middle of the two faces (view from the side). the upper outer corners appear chamfered. 5.

. Thickness of nut.5 D + 3 mm. Method 2 (Fig. T = D. Thickness of nut.131 square.Methods of Drawing Square (Bolt Head) Nut A square bolt head and nut may be drawn.13 illustrates the stages of drawing different views of a hexagonal nut.13 illustrates the method of drawing views of a square nut. Width of the nut across corners = 2 D. Radius of chamfer arc. in two orientations. W = 1. Figure 2.12) Empirical relations: Major or nominal diameter of bolt = D. T = D. Following relations may be adopted for the purpose: Major or nominal diameter of bolt = D. showing either across flats or corners.12 Method of drawing views of a hexagonal nut (Method II) The above method may be followed in routine drawing work.9. R = 2 D Figure 2. as it helps in drawing the views quickly. 2. Width of the nut across flats. Radius of chamfer arc. following the above relations. R = 1. which are self-explanatory.5 D Figure 5. 2.

Hexagonal and Square Headed Bolts Figure 2. with the proportions marked.10. .14 Washers A washer is a cylindrical piece of metal with a hole to receive the bolt. Figure 2.16 illustrates the views of a hexagonal headed bolt with a nut and a washer in position.132 Figure 2.15 shows a washer. Figure 2. It is used to give a perfect seating for the nut and to distribute the tightening force uniformly to the parts under the joint.13 Method of drawing the views of a square nut 2. Figure 2.14 shows the two views of a hexagonal headed bolt and square headed bolt. It also prevents the nut from damaging the metal surface under the joint. with the proportions marked.

16 A hexagonal headed bolt with a nut and a washer in position 2.11.15 Washer Figure 2.133 Figure 5. Summary In this unit we have studied  Other Threads Profiles  Thread Designation  Right Hand and Left Hand Thread  Representation of Threaded Parts in Assembly  Bolted Joint  Methods of Drawing Hexagonal (Bolt Head) Nut  Methods of Drawing Square (Bolt Head) Nut  Hexagonal and Square Headed Bolts .

Define the following terms with respect to screw threads : (a) pitch (b) pitch diameter. Where are multi-start threads used and why ? 7. (c) left hand and right hand threads and (d) pitch and lead of a thread. What type of thread is used for the screw jack and lathe lead screw and why ? 9. . (d) ACME thread and (e) worm thread. (d) minor diameter. Exercise 1. 4. What is the pitch and lead in the case of a double start thread ? 8. (b) metric thread with fine pitch.134 2.12. (c) major diameter. (e) lead.13. (g) root and (h) thread angle. 5. (b) square and ACME threads. Distinguish between the following : (a) metric and BSW threads. How are the following threads designated as per BIS : (a) metric thread with coarse pitch. What is a fastener and what is meant by fastening ? 2. What are the various applications of screwed fasteners ? 3. (c) square thread. What is a multi-start thread and how it differs from a single start thread ? 6. Keywords V-Thread(Sharp) Buttress Thread Square Thread ACME Thread Worm Thread Thread Series Coupler-Nut Bolted Joint Washers 2. (f) crest.

2. maintainability.Locking Arrangements for Nuts 3. nuts and bolts. machineries. and parts that hold the individual components together to its intended function and use.5.12. Locking By Spring Washer 3.Objectives 3.1.3.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand .Other Forms of Nut 3.6. availability and cost and proper selection of fastener with respect to applied design functions. generally called Fasteners are the basic and essential components in any mechanical assembly.11. Summary 3.Locking by Split Pin 3.1.9. application and environment versus corrosion.8.4.2.Introduction 3.Wile‘s Lock nut 3.Cap Screws and Machine Screws 3.10.T-Headed Bolt with Square Neck 3. Critical to this application includes material of the fastener with respect to the application.Introduction Screws.Square Headed Bolt With Square Neck 3.7. Exercise 3. 3. Keywords 3.135 Unit 3 Types of Bolts and Nuts Structure 3.13. load capacity in tensile strength and torque.

prevents the rotation of the bolt.3. to the machine table having T-slots (Fig. 3. Figure 3. etc. This type of bolt is used for fixing vices. a square neck provided below the head. work pieces.T-Headed Bolt with Square Neck In this. . 3..136  Square Headed Bolt With Square Neck  T-Headed Bolt with Square Neck  Other Forms of Nut  Cap Screws and Machine Screws  Locking Arrangements for Nuts  Locking by Split Pin  Wile‘s Lock nut  Locking By Spring Washer 3.1 Square headed bolt with square neck 3.4.1). preventing the rotation of the bolt (Fig.Square Headed Bolt With Square Neck It is provided with a square neck.2). which fits into a corresponding square hole in the adjacent part.

like electric generators. turbines. motors. a tapped hole is provided. above the centre of gravity of the machine (Fig. 3. eye bolts are screwed on to their top surfaces. For fitting an eye bolt. The square neck prevents the rotation of the bolt (Fig.  Eye Bolt In order to facilitate lifting of heavy machinery.. while the other part is gripped by the hook shaped bolt head.3 Hook bolt This bolt passes through a hole in one part only.2 T-headed bolt  Hook Bolt Figure 3. 3.137 Figure 3.5a). etc.4  Stud Bolt Or Stud It consists of cylindrical shank with threads cut on both the ends (Fig.3). 3. Figure 3. It is used where there is no space for making a bolt hole in one of the parts.4). It is used where .

provided integral with it. a hole which is slightly larger than the stud nominal diameter. The stud is first screwed into one of the two parts to be joined. a nut is screwed-on over the nut end.6a).Other Forms of Nut  Flanged Nut b)-Stud joint This is a hexagonal nut with a collar or flange. in the form of a thick hexagonal nut with a blind threaded hole is used for the purpose. It is usual to provide in the second part.5 a)-stud. 3. with holes drilled laterally in the curved surface. usually the thicker one.5. 3.  Cap Nut It is a hexagonal nut with a cylindrical cap at the top. After placing the second part over the stud.6c).5b shows a stud joint.138 there is no place for accommodating the bolt head or when one of the parts to be joined is too thick to use an ordinary bolt. A stud driver. Cap nuts are used in smoke boxes or locomotive and steam pipe connections (Fig. This design protects the end of the bolt from corrosion and also prevents leakage through the threads.6b). 3. having a spherical dome at the top (Fig. 3. This permits the use of a bolt in a comparatively large size hole (Fig.  Capstan Nut This nut is cylindrical in shape. A tommy bar . Figure 3.  Dome Nut It is another form of a cap nut. Figure 3.

Holes may also be drilled in the upper flat face of the nut. . etc. Figure 3. 3.139 may be used in the holes for turning the nut (Fig. 3.6e). such as inspection covers.6d). running parallel to the axis.6 Other forms of nuts  Slotted Or Ring Nut This nut is in the form of a ring. with slots in the curved surface. It is operated by the thumb (Fig. 3.  Wing Nut This nut is used when frequent removal is required. A special C-spanner is used to operate the nut. These nuts are used on large screws.6f). lids. where the use of ordinary spanner is inconvenient (Fig.

They are particularly adopted for screwing into thin materials and the smaller ones are threaded throughout the length. differing only in their relative sizes.6.7 Types of machine and cap screws Cap screws are produced in finish form and are used on machines where accuracy and appearance are important. fixture and dies.Cap Screws and Machine Screws Cap screws and machine screws are similar in shape.140 3. up to a maximum of 100 mm and lengths 250 mm. Machine screws are usually smaller in size. one with clearance hole and the other with tapped hole. Figure 3. They are produced in different diameters up to a maximum of 20 mm and lengths up to 50 mm. These are used for fastening two parts. jigs. As cap screws are inferior to studs. with proportions marked. They are used in fire-arms. Machine screws are produced with a naturally bright finish and are not heat treated. These are produced in different diameters. . Figure 3. they are used only on machines requiring few adjustments and are not suitable where frequent removal is necessary. compared to cap screws. The clearance of the unthreaded hole need not be shown on the drawing as its presence is obvious.7 shows different types of cap and machine screws.

the locknut is then screwed back on the standard nut. leading to serious breakdown. For this. Figure 3. of their own accord. The fastening action is by friction between the screw and the shaft.26 shows different forms of set screws.8 3. To make the joint.7. This may slacken the joint. Set screws are not efficient and so are used only for transmitting very light loads. The threads of the two nuts become wedged . such as the movement of pulley on shaft. Further. The thickness of a lock nut is usually two-thirds D. different arrangements. eliminating any slipping tendency. the joints used in the moving parts of machinery. 3. may be subjected to vibrations.Locking Arrangements for Nuts The bolted joints. for better results. set screws are made of steel and case hardened. are required to stay firm without becoming loose. the lock nut is first screwed tightly and then the standard nut is tightened till it touches the lock nut. a second nut. which is held by a spanner. For longer life. In this arrangement. To eliminate the slackening tendency. though removable in nature. where D is the major diameter of the bolt. Afterwards. known as lock nut is used in combination with a standard nut (Fig. are used to lock the nuts:  Lock Nut This is the most commonly used locking device. However.8).141  Set Screws These are used to prevent relative motion between two rotating parts. Figure 5. a set screw is screwed into the pulley hub so that its end-point bears firmly against the shaft (Fig. as discussed further. 3.10a). the shaft surface is suitably machined for providing more grip. The lock nut is usually placed below the standard nut.

.10c shows the condition between the flanks of the nuts and the bolt.10 Lock nut When the lock nut is first screwed into its position. when the second nut is locked in position.142 between the threads of the bolt.10b). press against the bottom flanks of the bolt. the top flanks of it press against the bottom flanks of the bolt (Fig. whereas. the bottom flanks of the lock nut press against the top flanks of the bolt.9 Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 3. 3. the top flanks of the top nut. It may be observed that in this position.

Locking by Split Pin A split pin.8.11 Locking by split pin Figure 3. Figure 3.12). In this arrangement. the split pin is inserted through a hole in the bolt body and touching just the top surface of the nut. 3. Threads are cut in the nut portion only and six rectangular slots are cut through the collar. 3. the ends of the pin are split open to prevent it from coming out while in use (Fig.11). Then.12 Castle nut .143 3.  Locking by Castle Nut A castle nut is a hexagonal nut with a cylindrical collar turned on one end. A split pin is inserted through a hole in the bolt body after adjusting the nut such that the hole in the bolt body comes in-line with slots. made of steel wire of semi-circular cross-section is used for locking the nut. This arrangement is used in automobile works (Fig.

The arrangement prevents the loosening tendency of the nut (Fig. after the nut is tightened. Figure 3.Wile’s Lock nut It is a hexagonal nut with a slot. the upper portion of the nut should have a clearance hole and the lower portion tapped (Fig. after tightening the nut. cut half-way across it. integrally provided at the lower end of the nut. Locking by Set Screw In this arrangement. 3. compressing the two parts. adjoining the nut. After tightening the nut in the usual manner.9.14). For this purpose.13). This collar fits into a corresponding recess in the adjoining part.13 Wile‘s lock nut  Grooved Nut Figure 3. so that it touches one of the flat faces of the nut. a set screw is used from the top of the nut.144 3. 3. a set screw in fitted in the part.14 Locking by set screw It has a cylindrical grooved collar. In this arrangement. so that the end of the set screw enters the . a set screw is inserted from one end of the upper part.

Figure 3.145 groove. by means of a machine screw.15 Grooved nut  Locking By Plate Figure 3. at intervals of 30° of rotation.16 Locking by screw A locking plate is grooved such that it fits a hexagonal nut in any position. It is fixed around the nut. 3. preventing the loosening tendency of the nut (Fig. This type of arrangement is used for fitting the propeller blades on turbine shafts. A corresponding tapped hole at the top end of the bolt is also required for the purpose. 3.15).17. when the pitches of the main nut and the set screw are different (Fig. is used. 3. In this arrangement. . as shown in Fig. prevents the loosening tendency of the nut.  Locking By Screw In this.16). a set screw fitted through the cap and through the bolt end. a cap nut with an integral washer and with a threaded hole in the cylindrical cap.

Once the concrete sets. Figure 3. For setting the bolts in position.  Eye Foundation Bolt This is the simplest form of all foundation bolts. . In this.18). cement concrete is filled in the space around in the bolts. This force makes the threads in the nut jammed on the bolt threads. The bolt size depends upon the size of the machine and the magnitude of the forces that act on them when the machine is in operation. Afterwards.17 Locking by plate  Foundation bolts Figure 3. 3. The spring force of the washer will be acting upwards on the nut. the bolts are firmly secured to the ground. Figure 3.146 3. Foundation bolts are made by forging from mild steel or wrought iron rods.18 Locking by spring washer Foundation bolts are used for fixing machines to their foundations. thus preventing the nut from loosening (Fig.10. their positions are marked and then suspended in the holes made in the ground.19 shows an eye foundation bolt that is set in concrete. Locking By Spring Washer In this arrangement. a spring washer of either single or double coil is placed under the nut and tightened. one end of the bolt is forged into an eye and a cross piece is fixed in it.

21 shows a rag foundation bolt that is set first in lead and then in cement concrete.21 Rag foundation bolt  Lewis Foundation Bolt This is a removable foundation bolt. Figure 3. resulting in a firm and stable bolt. When machines are to be placed on stone beds.  Rag Foundation Bolt This bolt consists of a tapered body.147  Bent Foundation Bolt As the name implies.20 shows a bent foundation bolt that is set first in lead and then in cement concrete. Figure 3. the bolts are set in lead. Once the concrete .20 Bent foundation bolt Figure 3. this bolt is forged in bent form and set in cement concrete. a pit is produced in cement concrete. To use this bolt.19 Eye foundation bolt Figure 3. by using a (foundation) block. Figure 3. the tapered edges being grooved. The body of the bolt is tapered in width on one side. square or rectangular in cross-section.

For putting the bolts in position. A key is then inserted.22 Lewis foundation bolt This type of foundation bolt is not commonly used for fixing machines. The top end of the bolt may be forged into an eye and used for lifting purposes. provides bearing surface for the cotter (C). 3. It has a rectangular slot at its bottom end. For this. Figure 3. the principle is advantageously used for lifting huge stones. bears against the tapered face of the pit. the bolt is placed in it so that the tapered bolt surface. . the foundation bed is first made. the bolt may be removed by withdrawing the key (Fig. However. A cast iron washer (W) placed as shown. similar to the pit is chiselled in the stone and the bolt is fitted in. This arrangement makes the bolt firm in the bed. bearing against the straight surfaces of the pit and the bolt.  Cotter Foundation Bolt It is used for fixing heavy machines. a groove. providing holes for inserting cotters.23 shows a cotter foundation bolt in position.22). Figure 3. to receive a cotter.148 sets-in. However.

23 Cotter foundation bolt 3.149 Figure 3. Keywords  Hook Bolt  Eye Bolt  Stud Bolt Or Stud  Flanged Nut  Cap Nut  Dome Nut  Capstan Nut . Summary In this unit we have studied  Square Headed Bolt With Square Neck  T-Headed Bolt with Square Neck  Other Forms of Nut  Cap Screws and Machine Screws  Locking Arrangements for Nuts  Locking by Split Pin  Wile‘s Lock nut  Locking By Spring Washer 3.11.12.

7. What is a stud bolt and where is it used ? 6. Differentiate between the following: (a) Bolt and screw. (b) machine screw and set screw.13. Exercise 1.150  Slotted Or Ring Nut  Wing Nut  Set Screws  Lock Nut  Grooved Nut  Locking By Plate  Eye Foundation Bolt  Rag Foundation Bolt  Lewis Foundation Bolt  Cotter Foundation Bolt 3. What is a T-bolt and where is it used ? 4. What is a set screw ? What is its function ? . Why are washers used in bolted joints ? 3. What is an eye-bolt and for what purpose is it used ? 5. Why hexagonal shape is preferred to square one for nuts? 2. and (c) cap screw and machine screw.

2.1.151 Unit 4 Types of Rivets Structure 4. Introduction Riveted joints are permanent fastenings and riveting is one of the commonly used method of producing rigid and permanent joints. such as bridge and roof trusses.. storage tanks. 4. 4. Manufacture of boilers. 4. etc. 4. involve joining of steel sheets.1. These joints are also used to fasten rolled steel sections in structural works. Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Rivets and Riveting  Rivet Heads  Margin  Classification of Riveted Joints . 4.3. 4. 4.9.4. Introduction Objectives Rivets and Riveting Rivet Heads Margin Classification of Riveted Joints Summary Keywords Exercise 4. 4. by means of riveted joints.6.

1 (a)). Then the shank end is made into a rivet head by applying pressure. either by direct hammering or through hydraulic or pneumatic means.. viz. the contraction in the shank length tends to pull the parts together.1 (b)). when it is either in cold or hot condition. wrought iron. Rivets and Riveting Figure 4.152 4. Hence. after hot riveting.1 a)Rivet b) Riveting Pressure may be applied to form the second rivet head. For this. copper and aluminium alloys are some of the metals commonly used for rivets. Rivet A rivet is a round rod of circular cross-section. 4. making a tight joint. 4. It consists of two parts. Hot riveting produces better results when compared to cold riveting.3. the shank will bulge uniformly. a certain amount of clearance between the hole and shank must be provided before riveting (Fig. Caulking and Fullering Riveted joints must be made air tight in applications such as boilers and other pressure vessels. This is because. . The choice of a particular metal will depend upon the place of application. Riveting Riveting is the process of forming a riveted joint. While forming the rivet head. Mild steel. head and shank (Fig. a rivet is first placed in the hole drilled through the two parts to be joined.

these bevelled edges of the plates are caulked. fullering is also used to produce air tight joints. To produce air tight riveted joints. Caulking The outer edges of the plates used in boiler and other pressure vessels are bevelled. Definitions The definitions of the terms. . 4. The caulking tool is in the form of a blunt edged chisel (Fig.2a). It is denoted by ‗p‘ and usually taken as 3d. associated with riveted joints are given below. The standard proportions are also indicated in the figure. the width of the fullering tool is equal to the width of the bevelled edges of the plates (Fig. Rivet Heads Various forms of rivet heads. Unlike the caulking tool.2 a) Caulking b) Fullering 4. 4. Fullering Similar to caulking. 4.4. are shown in Fig. Caulking and fullering operations are carried out effectively by applying pneumatic pressure. where d is the rivet diameter. Figure 4. Pitch It is the distance between the centres of the adjacent rivets in the same row. Caulking is an operation in which the outer bevelled edges of the plates are hammered and driven-in by a caulking tool. used in general engineering works and boiler construction and as recommended by Bureau of Indian Standards.3.2 (b)).153 Caulking or fullering is done to make the riveted joints air tight.

 Row Pitch It is the distance between two adjacent rows of rivets.6p. where d is the rivet diameter. Margin It is the distance from the edge of the plate to the centre of the nearest rivet. It is denoted by ‗pr‘ and is given by.3 Types of rivet heads 4. for zig-zag riveting. it is known as zig-zag riveting .154 Figure 4.  Zig-Zag Riveting In a multi-row riveting.5. if the rivets in the adjacent rows are staggered and are placed in between those of the previous row.5d.  Diagonal Pitch This term is usually associated with zig-zag riveting and is denoted by ‗pd‘. for chain riveting pr = 0. it is known as chain riveting.  Chain Riveting If the rivets are used along a number of rows such that the rivets in the adjacent rows are placed directly opposite to each other. It is usually taken as 1. It is the distance .8p. It is denoted by ‗m‘. pr = 0.

In both the figures. Figure 4. 4.6.e. as shown in Fig. Structural Joints Structural steel frames are made by using rolled steel plates and sections of standard shapes.5 Angle joint . a column and a beam connected to each other through riveted joints. Figure 4. by a single row of rivets.7 illustrates one design of a builtup girder. proportions of the joints are also indicated. Figure 4..4.155 between the centre of a rivet in a row to the next rivet in the adjacent row. an (equal) angle is used to connect the plates.5 also shows the position of the rivets and other proportions of the joint. Figure 4. also made of rolled steel sections. Classification of Riveted Joints Riveted joints may be broadly classified into structural joints and pressure vessel joints. Figure 4. 4. Here. i.4 Structural rolled steel sections Figure 4.6 shows rolled steel sections.5 shows an angle joint used to connect two plates at right angle.

6 Column and beam .156 Figure 4. .

As the name implies. as the above vessels are required to retain fluids and withstand internal fluid pressure as well. The joint is generally used to connect tie bars in bridge structures and roof trusses. Depending upon the number of rows of rivets used in the joint. For manufacturing boilers. Figure 4. overlap each other. lap joints are further classified as single riveted lap joint. the edges of the plates to be joined (in case of lap joints only) are first bevelled. double riveted lap joint and so on. Boiler Joints These joints are used mainly for joining metal sheets used in the construction of boilers. Boiler joints are classified as: lap joints. The plates are then rolled to the required curvature of the shell. the plates to be riveted.8 shows a double strap diamond butt joint. the rivets in this joint are arranged in a diamond shape.9).157 Figure 4. Lozenze or Diamond Butt Joint This is one kind of butt joint made either with a single or double strap. The plates to be joined are first bevelled at the edges. Obviously. to an angle of about 80° (Fig. Lap Joints In a lap joint. it should be noted that the length of the joint is decided by the load to be resisted by the joint.8 Double strap diamond butt joint . Holding the plates together. butt joints and combination of lap and butt joints. holes are then drilled and riveting is followed. water tanks and pressure vessels.7 Built-up girder However. water tanks and pressure vessels. Figure 4. 4. these joints must be made air-tight.

lap joint and double riveted zig-zag lap joint respectively.10 and 4.158 Figure 4.10 Double riveted chain lap joint . The size of the rivet.9 shows a single riveted lap joint. as shown in Figs. Figure 4. d is taken as. d = 6 t mm where ‗t‘ is the thickness of the plates to be joined in millimetres. rows may be arranged either in chain or zig-zag.11.9 Single riveted lap joint In multi-row riveted joints.10 and 4. 4. Figure 4.11 show double riveted chain. Figures 4.

butt against each other. t2 = 0. butt joints respectively In a single strap butt joint. In this joint. the plates to be joined.125t If two straps are used. the butting edges of the plates to be joined are square and the outer edges of the cover plate(s) is(are) bevelled. and are much stronger than lap joints. Figures 4. These joints are generally used for joining thick plates. the thickness of each cover plate is given by. either on one or both sides of the plates.12 and 4. single strap butt joint .11 Double riveted zig-zag lap joint Butt Joints In a butt joint.75t Figure 4.159 Figure 4. t1 = 1. the thickness of the strap (cover plate) is given by.13 show single riveted single strap and a single riveted double strap. the latter one being preferred.12 Single riveted. with a cover plate or strap.

13 Single riveted. double strap butt joint .160 Figure 4.

double strap zig-zag butt joint.14 and 4. .14 Double riveted. double strap chain butt joint Figures 4.161 Figure 4.15 show double riveted. butt joint and double riveted. double strap chain.

double strap zig-zag butt joint 4.7.162 Figure 4. Pitch Keywords Chain Riveting Zig-Zag Riveting Row Pitch Diagonal Pitch Boiler Joints Lap Joints .8.15 Double riveted. Summary In this unit we have studied  Rivets and Riveting  Rivet Heads  Margin  Classification of Riveted Joints 4.

Theory Questions 1. indicating proportionate dimensions. How are riveted joints made air-tight? 4. How are boiler joints classified? 7. double strap butt joint (vi) double riveted. Name the different types of rivet heads as recommended by BIS : SP-46 : 1988. (ii) double riveted chain lap joint. 5. Exercise 1. 2. (b) chain riveting and zig-zag riveting 8. 2. choosing the rivet diameter as 10 mm. to join plates of thickness 10 mm: (i) single riveted lap joint. zig-zag butt joint. chain butt joint and (vii) double riveted. (c) diagonal pitch and (d) margin. (v) single riveted. Name the commonly used materials for rivets. Differentiate between : (a) lap joint and butt joint. single strap butt joint. Sketch the internal and external ISO metric thread profile of nominal size of 25 mm and pitch of 3 mm.9. 3. double strap. What are foundation bolts and where are they used? Drawing Exercises 1. Sketch any two types of structural riveted joints. double strap. (iii) double riveted zig-zag lap joint. 4. 3. Define the following : (a) pitch. Giving proportionate dimensions. Draw (a) sectional view from the front and (b) view from above.163 Butt Joints 4. (b) row pitch. What is a structural joint? 6. Through sketches. (iv) single riveted. What are locking devices? Where and why are they used? 2. illustrate the caulking and fullering operations. Sketch the following thread profiles for a nominal diameter of 25 mm and pitch 3 mm and give their applications: . What is the function of a cover plate in riveted joints? Drawing Exercise 1. sketch any four forms of commonly used rivet heads. of the following riveted joints. 2.

in terms of the nominal diameter of the bolt. (b) locking by castle nut. 6. Sketch the following forms of nuts. (c) thread in section and (d) assembled threads in section. and (d) locking by a set screw. Sketch any three types of cap screws of 25 mm diameter. (e) wing nut and (f) ring nut. (d) ACME thread and (e) Worm thread. mentioning their applications. Sketch any two types of bolts. Sketch the two views of a castle nut. 5. 8. (c) dome nut. (d) Capstan nut. and (b) Lewis foundation bolt. Sketch neatly. (b) internal threads. with proportions marked. the following foundation bolts of diameter 25 mm: (a) eye foundation bolt. Sketch the following locking devices in position. (b) Buttress thread (c) Square thread.164 (a) BSW thread. Sketch the conventional representation of the following: (a) external threads. Give the proportions of a hexagonal nut. 11. 14. (c) locking by a nut. giving proportionate dimensions. 15. with proportions marked: (a) Flanged nut. . with proportions marked. (b) cap nut. Sketch any three types of machine screws of 10 mm diameter. taking the bolt diameter as 25 mm: (a) Locking with pin. 10. Sketch a double start square thread of pitch 5 mm and nominal diameter 50 mm. Draw the three views of a hexagonal headed bolt of nominal diameter 25 mm and length 100 mm. with a hexagonal nut and washer. each of 25 mm diameter. 3. Sketch the half sectional view of a coupler. 13. 4. connecting two rods. Answer with respect to the various methods followed in practice. Sketch the various forms of set screw ends of size 16 mm diameter. 9. 7. 12.

and text overlays. It is built to help people design buildings. AutoCAD streamlined its operating and optimized it for the IBM PC.Summary 1. and offered a personal solution to software that was before then released only for larger workstations.165 Unit 1 AutoCAD Theory Structure 1. While CAD programs prior to AutoCAD required massive amounts of computing power in the form of gigantic computers. or public spaces. and can .Keywords 1. It has set the standard for operability in terms of Advanced Programming Interfaces in CAD.5.Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand the theory of AutoCAD Through the 1980s.6.. It was released in 1982 by Autodesk. And starting in 2007 AutoCAD has had much more advanced 3D tools that allow for greater 3D modeling and exploration of models. to set up custom objects.Objectives 1.3. without having to draw up plans by hand. with high-quality. 1. Beginning in the 1990s. fast-moving rendering. built with an Advanced Programming Interface using C++. The modern version of AutoCAD allows for much more than simply C++ programming. AutoCAD began utilizing more robust custom object features.Introduction 1.2. allowing people to work from home or on their own work computers.2. AutoCAD functioned mostly by using simple lines and circles.4.AutoCAD theory 1. Inc.1.Introduction AutoCAD was one of the first Computer Aided Design programs to be made available on personal computers.Exercise 1. products.1.

3.Exercise 1. has become a standard for all CAD work. AutoCAD remains the industry leader and sets a number of standards in the CAD community. but generally places the number at quite a bit more than one billion. This robust programming set has allowed for great extensibility for AutoCAD. Although a number of other CAD programs exist at this point. Autodesk shifts its estimates of how many DWG files are in operation in the world. AutoLISP.5. including AutoCAD Electrical. including programs for Mac OSX and NIX systems. and AutoCAD Architecture. What is the full form of CAD? . AutoCAD Civil 3D.Summary In this unit we have studied about AutoCAD 1. the DWG format.NET. What is the file format of AutoCAD? 2. . as well as the C++ based ObjectARX. and there are a number of more specific AutoCAD programs. and Visual LISP.166 use VBA. The file format that AutoCAD uses.4.Keywords AutoCAD 1. 1.

5. 2. 2. resulting in the joint. Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Cotter Joint with Socket And Spigot Ends  Cotter Joint with A Gib 2.3. Cotter Joint with Socket And Spigot Ends This joint is also used to fasten two circular rods.6. After aligning the slots properly. a sleeve with slots is placed over them.167 Unit 2 Sleeve and Cotter Joint Structure 2. that when a cotter is driven into its position. the rod ends are modified instead ofusing a sleeve.7. Introduction Objectives Cotter Joint with Socket And Spigot Ends Cotter Joint with A Gib Summary Keywords Exercise 2.1. To make the joint. The rod ends are enlarged to takecare of the weakening effect caused by the slots. 2. 2. 2. two cotters aredriven-in through the slots.4.1)and slots are cut. used for fastening two circular rods. After aligning the socket and spigot ends.1. One end of the rod is formed into a socket and the other into a spigot (Fig. 2. Introduction Cotter Joint with Sleeve This is the simplest of all cotter joints.the rods are enlarged at their ends and slots are cut.2.The slots in the rods and sleeve are made slightly wider than the width of cotter. 2. 2. After keeping the rods butt against eachother. a cotter is driven-in through . it permitswedging action and pulls the rod into the sleeve.2. In this.3. Therelative positions of the slots are such.

.When a cotter is driven-in. A gib is also a wedge shaped piece of rectangular cross-section with two rectangularprojections called lugs. To makethe joint. Figure 2. the end of the other rod fits in. the lugs bearing against the outersurfaces of the fork.4. into which. the friction between the cotter and straps of the U-fork. causes thestraps to open. one end of the rod is formed into a U-fork. The tapered side of the gib bears against the tapered side of the cotter such that. prevents the opening tendency of the straps. first the gib is placed in position and then the cotter is driven-in. For making the joint. This is prevented by the use of a gib. unlike thetapered edges in case of ordinary cotter joint. This facilitates making of slots with parallel edges.2 shows a cotter joint with a gib.1 : Cotter joint with socket and spigot ends 2. One side of the gib is tapered and the other straight. the outer edges of the cotter and gib as a unit are parallel. Cotter Joint with a Gib This joint is generally used to connect two rods of square or rectangular cross-section.forming the joint. Figure 2.168 theslots. Further.

Summary In this unit we have studied  Cotter Joint with Socket And Spigot Ends  Cotter Joint with a Gib 2.169 Figure 2. Keywords Cotter joint Gib 2.2 Cotter joint with a gib 2. Exercise 1.5. .6.7. Explain Cotter Joint And Spigot Ends.

Creation of 3D Primitives 3.16.2. Edit Commands 3. 3. Object Selection 3.1.Drawing Entity-CIRCLE 3.Drawing Entity-ELLIPSE 3.9.Introduction The details of a plain machine vice are shown in Fig.18. 2D Wire Frame 3.3.17. Exercise 3.5.14. Keywords 3.Starting AutoCAD 3. It consists of the base 1 which is .21. View Point 3.Introduction 3.1. Basic Dimensioning 3D Wire Frame 3. View Ports Unit 3 Machine Vice Structure Entity-RECTANGLE 3. Creation of Composite Solids 3. Summary 3.Planning for a Drawing 3.1.19.Drawing Entity-ARC 3.Objectives 3.15.Basic Geometric Commands 3.4.

Objectives After studying this unit we are able to understand  Starting AutoCAD  Planning for a Drawing  Basic Geometric Commands  Drawing Entity-ELLIPSE  Drawing Entity-RECTANGLE  Drawing Entity-CIRCLE . One of the serrated plates 5 is fixed to the jaw of the base by means of screws 6 andthe other to the movable jaw by the screws 7. The movable jaw 2 is fixed to the sliding block with fourscrews 8 and 7. The movable jaw is operated by means ofa handle (not shown) which fits onto the square end of the guide screw. Figure 3. The sliding block 3 is fixed in the centre slot ofthe base by means of the guide screw 4. One end of the guide screw is fixed to the base bymeans of the washer 9 and nut 10 (not shown in figure).1 Machine vice 3.171 clamped to the machine table using two T-bolts.2.

Command Window At the bottom of the drawings area. standard windows buttonsare also available. On the lower left corner. 4.172  Drawing Entity-ARC  Object Selection  Edit Commands  2D Wire Frame  3D Wire Frame  View Point  View Ports  Creation of 3D Primitives  Creation of Composite Solids  Basic Dimensioning 3. On the top right corner. 5. Various application icons appear on the windows screen. one can start using the facility.3. Drawing Area The drawing area covers a major portion of the screen. Standard Tool Bar Standard tool bar displays coordinates and they will change onlywhen a point is specified. 3.2 consisting of : 1. acoordinate system icon is present. 2. status bar is displayed. AutoCAD canbe started by double-clicking on the AutoCAD icon available on the desktop of the computer. Various objectscan be drawn in this region by the use of AutoCAD commands. Status Bar At the bottom of the screen. Soon the computer is turned on. The absolute coordinates of the cursor will be specified withrespect to the origin. which will make it easyto change the status of some AutoCAD functions by proper selection. 3. The position of thepointing device is represented on the screen by the cursor. .1 and Fig.Starting AutoCAD Once AutoCAD 2004/05 software is located on to the computer and the operating system isavailable. the operating systemis automatically loaded. The various components of the initial AutoCAD screen are as shown in Fig. command window is presentand commands can be entered by keyboard. 3. Snap Snap mode allows the cursor to be moved in specified/fixed increments.

the corresponding menu is displayeddirectly under the title.commands must be invoked. grid lines are displayed on the screen and can be used asreference lines to draw AutoCAD objects. One can use either polar mode or orthomode only at a particular time. command name can be typed at the command prompt andby pressing ENTER or SPACE BAR.MenuThe menu bar is at the top of the screen which displays the menu bar titles. 3. Grid By choosing this button.By default. 1.3a).a desired item can be chosen. AutoCAD displays the tool palettes on the right of the drawing area. Asthe cursor is moved over this. 7. 4. Interactive Techniques . 3. A command can be invoked by picking from this (Fig. 3. lines can be drawn only at right angles on the screen. This isdisplayed on the left extreme of the initial AutoCAD screen (Fig. 2. various titles are highlighted and by means of pick button.2). Only important functionsdefined by AutoCAD 2004 are given below: Invoking AutoCAD Commands After starting AutoCAD and when the cursor is in the drawing area. Aneasy and convenient way of placing blocks/patterns of hatching in the present drawing. 3. the command can be invoked. Draw ToolbarThis is an easy and convenient way to invoke a command. One can also use function keys for quick access to certain commands. 8. Polar The movement of the cursor is restricted along a path based on the angle set asthe polar angle.3b) and very easy tochoose by picking.173 6. to perform an operation. Tool PalettesThese are shown on the right side of the monitor screen (Fig. Keyboard Using keyboard. Ortho By selecting the orthomode. Once it is selected. The following methods are provided to invoke the commands. Varioushatching patterns also can be selected from this.

1 . view ports. editing the drawingand many more. plan view and 3D views. The popular interactive techniques are layers. Figure 3. resolution. objectsnap.174 Developing a drawing by AutoCAD is done by interactive technique. zooming. so that it is easy to follow andachieve the results. panning. drawing insertion.

175 Figure 3.2 .

a drawing can be stored in a drawing file and this maybe inserted in subsequent drawings for any number of copies. This resolution canbe changed at any time. Whereas. In drawing insertion. The editing facilities of AutoCAD make it easy to correct or revise adrawing. the object snap may be used. In plan view. The drawingmay also be viewed from any point in space (even from inside an object). Multiple copies of an object. To refer to geometric features ofexisting objects when entering points. the construction plane of the current user co-ordinate system is parallel to the screen.Physical resolution refers to the amount of detail that can be represented. . arranged in rectangular or circular patterns are easy to create. without changing the magnification. The graphics area ofthe screen can be divided into several view ports. This allows the user to view and plot-related aspects of a drawing separately or inany combination.3. a) Invoking the ELLIPSE Figure 3. each displaying a different view of the drawing.3 b) The Draw toolbar The layering concept is similar to the transparent overlays used in many draughting applications.176 Figure 3. panning allows viewingdifferent portions of the drawing. The visual image of thedrawing on the screen may be magnified or shrunk by zooming.

This establishes the size of the drawing. rectangle. The co-ordinates can be input into the system by: (i) The direct input of co-ordinate values in the respective order of x. It is generally necessary to specify the limits of the drawing with the help of the commandLIMITS. y and z. The positive direction of these axes follows the right handrule. If z coordinateis not mentioned.The value shown in the angle brackets is the most recently set value. then the values are assumed to be at a single given level.177 3. one can make simple drawings. line. To have the same value.4.Basic Geometric Commands By way of choosing the basic commands in AutoCAD. Generally AutoCAD provides a default option as <> in each of the command response.viz. x. where the user will be asked to specify the lower left corner and upper right corner ofthe drawing sheet size. 3. y and z. circle.Planning for a Drawing While planning a drawing in Auto CAD. Co-Ordinate System The system used by all the CAD packages is generally the rectangular cartesian co-ordinate system designated as x.. Thevarious entities that can be used for making an AutoCAD drawing in 2D are: point. arc. y and z axes. one has to organize some of the information such aschoosing the units. The incremental values apply to all the ordinates. (iii) Point co-ordinates may also be specified using the polar co-ordinate format. The various options available for each command areshown in the . co-ordinates. the cursor may be taken to the required position and thebutton is clicked.polygon. The distance is specified by using @ parameter before theactual values. It canalso be an extension of the incremental format. etc. (ii) Specifying the co-ordinates in an incremental format from the current cursor positionin the drawing area. ellipse. (iv) Using the mouse button.one has to simply press the <Enter> key. etc. Any point in space can therefore be designated by the co-ordinate values of these 3 axes.5.

Drawing Entity-POINT The point command locates a point in the drawing. F8 and F9 act astoggle keys for turning ON or OFF of GRID. which makes the AutoCAD choose the right option. The grid dots do not become part of the drawing. The cursor movement can be effectively controlled using the SNAP command.5 (default) Function keys may create drawing aids/tools also. The command enables to draw dotted lines on the screen at pre-defined spacing. SAVE Command—AutoCAD provides the following commands to save the work/drawingon the . the cursor jumps from point to point only. The function keys F7. 45 location of the point. ORTHO Command—this is orthogonal drawing mode. HELP Command—AutoCAD provides with complete help at any point of working in theprogram. The grid spacing can be changed at will. the following drawing aids/tools may be used tolocate specific points on the screen (electronic drawing sheet). If the screen is on SNAP mode.178 command window. This command constrains the lines drawn in horizontal and vertical direction only. HELP can be obtained for any of the individual commands. 45). Command: POINT (one has to give the location) POINT: 25. Thus. ORTHO and SNAP tools respectively. Command: SNAP Snap spacing or ON/OFF/Aspect/Locate/Style <current>: 0. But the user need to respond by choosing one letter in mostcases. After setting the limits of the drawing. a point is placed at the given location (25. This is useful for inputting the data through digitizer/mouse.1 (default) GRID Command-working on a plain drawing area is difficult since there is no means for the user to understand or correlate the relative positions or straightness of the various objects made in the drawing. These lines will act as graph for reference lines in the drawing. Command: GRID Grid spacing or ON/OFF/Snap/Aspect <0>: 0. Most of the informationrequired by the user is generally provided by the help which is always instantaneous. Command: ORTHO ON/OFF<current>: SNAP Command—this command is used to set increments for cursor movement.

0 ↵ To point: @ – 20. 30 ↵ To point: ↵ . 20 ↵ To point: 40. It is also possible to specify the co-ordinates inthe incremental format as the distances from thecurrent cursor position in the drawing area. Lines can be drawn using co-ordinate system(rectangular cartesian co-ordinates).4 2. To draw arectangle (Fig. 20 ↵ To point: @ 40. To construct a triangleof given altitude (30) and base (40) (Fig.179 hard disk/ floppy diskette: SAVE SAVEAS QSAVE Command: SAVE Save drawing as <current name>: KLNI Drawing Entity-LINE Lines can be constrained to horizontal/ vertical by the ORTHOcommands. 3. CLOSE option uses the starting point of the firstline segment in the current LINE command as the next point.4b): Command: LINE From Point: 10. Thedistance is specified by using the @ parameterbefore the actual value. 3. 60 ↵ To point: 10.4a): Command: LINE From point: 10. 20 ↵ To point: 40. 1. 60 ↵ To point: ↵ Figure 3.

6. From Release 13 . It is also possible to specify the point co-ordinate using the polar co-ordinate format.4c) of side 30: Command: LINE From point: 10.180 Figure 3.4 3. 20 ↵ (A) To point: @ 30<0 ↵ (B) To point: @ 30<60 ↵ (C) To point: @ 30<120 ↵ (D) To point: @ 30<180 ↵ (E) To point: @ 30<240 ↵ (F) To point: close Figure 3.4 3.Drawing Entity-ELLIPSE This command allows one to draw ellipses or egg shaped objects. 3. To construct ahexagon (Fig.

3. b) Figure 3. axis end points (Fig. By means of axis end points: (Fig. 200 ↵ Inscribed / circumscribed about a circle (I/C): I or C ↵ Radius of circle: 80 2.6 Command: POLYGON Number of sides: 8 Edge/ <centre of polygon>: 100.5 <other axis distance>/ Rotation: Now. AutoCAD interprets it as half the length of the other axis.181 onwards. With edge option.5a) Command: ELLIPSE <axis end point 1>/ center: point ↵Axis end point 2: (point) Figure 3. if the distance is entered. 2. specifying the size of the edge andorientation: (Fig. 3.5b) Command: ELLIPSE <axis end point 1>/ centre: C ↵ Centre point and one end point of each axis should be provided for the response of theAutoCAD. The methods available for making ellipses are: 1. 3.6a.7) Command: POLYGON . 3. Drawing Entity-POLYGON This option permits to make/draw polygons from 3 to 24 sides in a number of ways: 1. For making inscribed/circumscribed polygon with a side parallel to x-axis: (Fig.ellipse is treated as a separate entity. By means of centre.

known as diagonal points (Fig. the pointing device can drag the rectangle and therectangle can be completed. 15 ↵ Second corner: 60. Figure 3.7. Figure 3. Command: RECTANGLE First corner: 10. 50 ↵ Or from the tool bar menu icon.Drawing Entity-RECTANGLE A rectangle is a polygon based on two opposite cornerpoints. 8). 30 ↵ The above and various other entities that can be usedfor making an AutoCAD drawing may also be selectedfrom the tool bar. 3.182 Number of sides: 7 Edge/<center of polygon>: E ↵ First end point of edge: 15.8 . 15 ↵ Second end point of edge: 15.7 3.

183 3.Drawing Entity-CIRCLE Circle command offers several methods for drawing circles.The tangent points can be on lines. 3P/ 2P/ TTR/ <centre point>:Pick a centre point or enter an option 2. 5.8. 9). The circle willbe drawn to pass through these points. Figure 3. 3P (3 point) option: one is prompted for a first. . Diameter/ <Radius><current default>: select D or R 3. second and third point. 4. 3. arcs or circles. 2p (2 point) option: one is prompted for the selection of two points which form theopposite ends of the diameter.9 Command: CIRCLE 1. TTR option: allows one to define a circle based on two tangent points and a radius. the default being to choose a centrepoint and enter or pick a diameter or radius (Fig.

enter a length or dragand pick a length with cursor. 10. 2. 2. which lie only partially inside the boundaries of window.9. Command: ARC 1. Direction — enter a tangent direction from the starting point of an arc. by pressing the button again. For the purpose of editing an object. 3. the object can beselected for editing. pick the end point of the arc.pick a point with cursor.10. End — at this prompt. called pick box. Centre/ <start point>: pick a start point using mouse or select C for more options. using a variety of methods. Window option—a single or group entities can be selected by bringing them fully insidea rectangular window. Length — enter the length of a arc‘s chord. Angle/length of chord/end point: pick end point of the arc. enter a radius value. Selection of the object is complete. At this prompt. Angle/Direction/Radius/ <centre point>: pick end point of the arc or specify the option.Drawing Entity-ARC Arc command permits to draw an arc. Options (Fig. Start point — enter the beginning point of an arc. There are various options available for the selection of an object: 1. Radius — at the prompt ―radius‖.) Angle — ―included angle‖ prompt appears. At this prompt. . By pressingthe left button of the mouse when the pick box touches an entity. if option is C. Object Selection Editing capabilities are the most useful part of AutoCAD system. bypressing the left button and then moving the mouse to the desired position of diagonallyopposite corner.will not be selected. 4. Entities. Centre/End/ <second point>: pick a second point of the arc or select C. if option is E. by making use of the alreadyexisting drawing. 3. Rectangular window may be created by picking the first corner. Centre — enter the location of an arc‘s centre point-at the prompt centre-pick apoint. 3.184 3. Pick box—the cursor is converted to a small box/square. it is necessary to make selection of theobjects in the drawing. to enter the value.

Whenever ERASE command is used.The command format is Command: ERASE Select objects: (desired objects) once it is entered.the objects may be erased.rotated. OOPS Command—this restores the entities that have been inadvertently ERASED.185 Figure 3. enlarged.10 3. Using these commands. part of a drawing may be moved and the above effects canalso be reversed (undo). Command :OOPS . retrieved. made into multiple copies.11. moved to another location. a list of entities erased is retrieved by this command. mirror imaged. the objects/portion of the object is erased/deleted. ERASE Command—this lets the entities to be permanently removed from the drawing. Edit Commands The commands used for modifying the drawings fall under this category.

REDO Command—if REDO is entered immediately after a command that undoessomething.This can be used to magnify part of the drawing to any higher scale.Once another ERASE is done. It is used to change the scale of the display. from the pull down menu bar. then the UNDO cannot do anything before that. MOVE Command—the move command is used to move one/more existing drawing entitiesfrom one location in the drawing to another. Command: REDO An UNDO after REDO will redo the original UNDO. more details are visible but only a part of the drawing is seen. whereas if zoom out. This is often quite useful during the construction stage. Thiscommand is used for correcting any errors made in the editing process. it restores all the entities erased by the recent ERASE command. AutoCAD allows backup step by step to an earlier point in an editing session.larger portion of the drawing is seen but less details are visible. Command: UNDO If the response contains a number. from screen menu or from the commandarea by entering zoom. the list of entities erased by the previous ERASE command isdiscarded. Command: ZOOM . usingthe UNDO command. This command can be invokedfrom standard tool bar. UNDO Command—this command allows to undo several commands at once. Theoriginal objects can be deleted (like a move)/retained (like a copy).186 Once it is entered. ZOOM Command This command acts like a Zoom lens on a camera. it will undo the UNDO. MIRROR Command—this allows to mirror the selected entities in the drawing. COPY Command—this is used to duplicate one or more existing drawing elements atanother location without erasing the original. OOPS cannot be used to restore them. OFFSET Command—this constructs an entity parallel to another entity at either aspecified distance or through a specified point. This stores all the sequences made by the user in the current drawingsession. that many number of preceding operations will beundone. If zoomcloser. When a SAVE option isused. for looking closely at somefine detail in the drawing.

by selecting appropriate choice in response to HATCH command. 3. The pattern filling is illustrated in Fig. The pattern can help differentiatebetween components. earlier. Previous — the previous display extents are restored to the monitor. By choosing style (Fig. AutoCAD normally groups these lines into a general block. spacing between the lines and double hatcharea may be specified. Command: HATCH Pattern (? Name/ u. the angle. Window — by entering two opposite corners of a window. even though a part of thedrawing lies outside the limits. but the erasedobjects do not reappear. Centre — this option permits to specify the desired centre point. Generally selectsany portion of the drawing. the area inside the windowis enlarged /reduced. Extents — all the objects in the drawing are magnified to the largest extent possiblein display. Cross-hatching and Pattern Filling It is common practice to fill an area with a pattern of some sort. the magnification can be increased/decreased. Hatching generates line entities for the chosen pattern and adds them tothe drawing. style) <default>: Pattern name may be entered by choosing various available patterns which will bedisplayed by choosing u.187 All /Centre/Dynamic/Left /Previous/Vmax/Window/ <scale>:By choosing the option: All — complete drawing is seen in the drawing limits. Dynamic — this displays the portion of the drawing specified already.11). HATCH Command—performs hatching. by interaction. or it can signify the material composition of an object. 3. By specifying theheight of window. pattern filling may be achieved.11. This is accomplished by HATCH command. Left — it permits to specify the lower left corner of the display window instead ofthe centre. .

without exiting the drawing editor. etc. Command: TEXT Start point or Align/Centre/Fit/Middle/Right/Style: By choosing: Start point — Left justifies the text base line at the designated point. The AutoCAD checks up with the user for one more confirmation to avoid theaccidental quitting since all the editing work done would be lost. editingerrors. . compressed or drawn in a verticalcolumn by applying a style to the font. However. It protects the work from possible power failures. if thechanges are to be periodically saved.Text entities can be drawn with a variety of character patterns orfonts and can be stretched.188 Figure 3. SAVE Command — this command saves the new/modified drawing and returns to themain menu. it is desirable to use thiscommand. TEXT Command — text may be added to a drawing by means of the TEXT command.11 Utility Commands END Command — this command exits the drawing editor and returns to the mainmenu and updates the drawing file. Command Save File name <current>: return to save the current file QUIT Command — this exits the drawing editor without saving the updated versionof the current drawing and returns to the main menu. A (Align) — prompts for two end points of the base line and adjusts overall charactersize so that text just fits between these points.

3D Wire Frame This is similar to its 2D counter-part. this is the easiest and most popular way to modelsimple parts. Figure 3. They are: 3. It is difficult to understand the outside of the solid.13). They are easy to understand.189 C (Centre) — asks for a point and centers the text base line at that point.13. Null reply — places the new text directly below the highlighted text. . in manysoftware packages.12). except that it is drawn in 3 dimensions. TYPES OF MODELLING Geometric modelling provides means ofrepresenting part geometry in graphicalrepresentation. 3. There are a variety of modelling methods available in the industryfor the variety of functions. Thus. 3. 2D Wire Frame This method consists of a range of 2D shapeswhich can be used to develop basically theoutline of a part. F (Fit) — similar to ‗align‘. but centers the text both horizontally and vertically at thedesignated middle point. The complete object is representedby a number of lines with their end point co-ordinates (x. which in most of the casesis composed of lines and circles (Fig.represented by the wire frame model. the wire frame model is inadequatefor representing the more complex solids (Fig.12.This is used in low cost designing systems. M (Middle) — like ‗centre‘. This constitutes the mostimportant and complex part. but uses a specified fixed height. S (Style) — asks for a new text style.12 3. y. R (Right) — right justifies the text base line at that point. z) and theirconnectivity relationships.

In this.the primitives. View Point One can view a drawing from any point in space. Each body is represented as a single object and not as a complex collectionof surfaces. From these solid primitives. A solid is a model that clearly identifies any point in space at either inside oroutside of the model.  Solid Modelling The best method for three dimensional solid construction is the solid modeling technique.14. No informationregarding the interior of the solid model could be available. the complex objects may be created by adding or subtracting 3.190 Figure 3.13  Surface Modelling It is constructed essentially from surfaces such as planes. projecting the entitiesso that they appear as one would see them from that point in space. a number of 3 dimensional solids are provided asprimitives. By choosing . Command: VPOINT . The VPOINT command permits to set theviewing point for the current view port. These models are capable ofrepresenting the solid.Rotate/<view point><current>. oftencalled constructive solid geometry. rotated curvedsurfaces and even very complex surfaces. AutoCAD generates the drawing. from the manufacturing point of view.

View Ports . 1) top. <view point>: one can enter x.191 Rotate: specify the view point in terms of two angles. Figure 3. front view. front views appear as shown in Fig. EXAMPLE: An upright cylinder at zero elevation with a radius 10 units and a height of40 units and enclosed in a square box (at zero elevation with a thickness of 15 units) can beproduced with the following sequence of commands: Command: ELEV New current elevation <0>: ↵ New current thickness <0>: ↵ Command: CIRCLE (draw a circle with 10 units of radius) Command: ELEV New current elevation <0>: ↵ New current thickness <40>: 15 ↵ Command: LINE (draw a square around circle) In the normal 2D (top) view.15. -1. right side. Witha view point (1. A specification of ―1. To generate perspectiveviews. -1. right.14 V-point Co-ordinates Views(s) Displayed 3. 1‖ would produce top.14a.14b. one has to use DVIEW command. y and z components of the desired view point (separated bycommas). 3. one with respect to the x-axis (in x-yplane) and another from x-z plane. 3. this would appear on the screen as shown in Fig.

15 By choosing: Save option — the active view port can be saved by giving a name upto 31 characters and may be recalled at any time. Each viewport can display a different view of the drawing. View ports are useful for checking the correctness of a design. front view. Onecan edit the drawing in one view port and immediately see the results in all the view ports. has to be supplied. However. One can have upto 4 view ports on screen at once (Fig. known as current view port. The cursor will be in the form of cross hairs when it is inside the current port andwill be an arrow outside it. side view. Panning and zooming can be performed in eachview port independently.AutoCAD Release 13 can display 16 view ports maximum on the computer monitor. etc. one can work in only one of theview ports at a given time. such as: 3Dview. name ofthe configuration to restore.15). Restore option — this restores any saved view port configuration. Various views may be displayed in these view ports. 3. The screen may be divided into multiple view ports and individual controls can beexercised on each view port.Though several view ports can be displayed on the screen. Command: VIEW PORTS Save/restore/delete/join/single/?/2/ <3>/4: Figure 3.192 The rectangular portion of the graphics screen in which a drawing is displayed is called theview port. This active view port is recognized by aheavy border. Delete option — it deletes a saved view port configuration by supplying the particularname of . top view.

16.16. 4 option — it creates 4 windows of equal size. A few such simple solids areshown in Fig. Centre of other end / <height>: pick a point or enter a value . eitherhorizontally or vertically. Join option — it allows two adjacent view ports into a single view port by selectingfirst the dominant view port and then selecting the other view port. displaying the activeconfiguration. 0>: ↵ or pick a centre point 2. 3.16  To Draw A Cylinder Cylinder offers several methods of drawing a 3D solid cylinder. The default is to choose a centrepoint.The dominant view port will inherit the second view port by mergingboth.193 the view port to be deleted. ? option — it displays the number and co-ordinates of the current view portand the identification number and screen positions along with thenames and screen positions of the saved view port configurations. then pick or enter the diameter/radius and height. 3 option — it permits the division of the current view port into three ports. Diameter / <radius>: provide a diameter or radius by picking or entering 3. 3. Figure 3. Command: CYLINDER 1. based on the choice. Single option — this allows to display a single view port. 0. Creation of 3D Primitives From the basic 3D primitives more complex solids can be built. Elliptical / <centre point><0. 2 option — it allows the division of the current view port into equal parts.

Height — allows to specify the height of the cylinder. 2. Elliptical — allows to create a cone with an elliptical base. <Height>: provide the box height by picking two points or entering a value Options: Centre — allows to create a 3D box using a specified centre point. To Draw a Box The box command creates a 3D solid box. Centre of other end — allows to specify top end of the cone. Length — allows to enter values for length. Elliptical /<centre point><0. 0>: pick up the first corner point for the box 2. Cube — allows to create a 3D box with all sides equal. Boolean .194 Options: Centre — allows to create a cylinder with a circular base. width and height 3.  To Draw Cone Cone offers several methods for drawing a 3D solid cone. Cube/length/ <other corner>: pick up a second corner point or enter a value 3. 0): pick a centre point or enter E 2.then pick or enter the diameter/radius and apex.17. Centre of other end — allows to specify top end of the cylinder. Command: BOX 1. Centre/ <corner of box><0. Height — allows to specify the height of the cone. Apex /<height>: provide the apex or height Options: Centre — allows to create a cone with a circular base. 0. 0. Diameter / <radius>: provide a diameter or radius 3.8. Command: CONE 1. Elliptical — allows to create a cylinder with an elliptical base. Creation of Composite Solids Complex solids can be created from both solid primitives and swept solids. The default is to choose a centre point.

10. circles and ellipses. 3. Figure 3. Region models are twodimensional closed areas consisting of lines.9. Select objects: select the regions to be combined into a composite region 2. arcs. Press ↵ to end the command Objects may be selected in any order to unite them with the union command and when itis required to subtract one region from the other. combining or finding the intersectionof regions. Press: ↵ A composite region may be created by subtracting.195 operationscan be used to create composite solids from two or more solids.17a.mass properties and surface areas can be assessed. which provides for region and solid modelling. To Create Regions Command: REGION 1. Solid Modeling . From these. earlier to the operations. Solid modelling is a built-in facility with AutoCAD 14. first select the region from which it is requiredto subtract. b): Command: Union. Solid models are true shape 3D objects. Select objects: select objects to be combined into a region 2. 2. Subtract and Intersect 1. polylines. The region command allows creating 2D enclosed areas from existing overlapping closedshapes (loops). To create composite regions (Fig. Condition: these regions exist overlapping.17 2.

This will display all the propertiesof the object(s) on the screen 2.196 A composite solid can be created from both solid primitives and swept solids or by extruding a 2D object. Mass Property Mass prop calculates and displays the mass properties of 2D and 3D objects. it providesvolumetric information such as mass. Subtract — allows to remove the common area shared by two sets of solids. It is possible to change the hatching lines. centre of gravity.One may use full section. Select objects: pick the solid model (s) to be analysed. Sectional View When a section plane cuts a part of the solid and the remaining part of the solid is projected. volume. SOL VIEW uses orthographic projections with floating paper space view ports to layoutmultiand sectional view drawings of 3D solids. Command: SOLVIEW UCS/ ORTHO/ AUXILIARY / SECTION/ <EXIT>: By choosing the option section-use the original view port and specify two points at theprompts to define the section plane. One mustfirst select the solid from which to subtract and then the solid (s) whichare to be subtracted. type Y and providea file name. moment of inertia. the mass properties displayed are area. principal axes and moments ofinertia. For solids. Boolean operations can be used. Write to a file <N>: if one wants the information written to a file. perimeter. Then define the viewing side by specifying a point on oneside of the . Options: Union — allows combining the volume of two or more solids into one. Intersect — allows creating a composite solid that contains only the common volumeof two or more overlapping solids.that view is known as sectional view.product of inertia and radius of gyration. half section or off-set section to reveal the hidden details of the objectand the sectioned zone in any view is shown by cross-hatchedlines. centroid. Sectional views are chosen to reveal the inner details (hidden). Select theobjects to join and AutoCAD creates a single composite object.For regions. Thin lines represent the cross-hatched lines. Command: MASS PROP 1.

DIM and DIMI Commands—DIMI command allows executing one dimensioning commandand then returns to the normal command mode. Basic Dimensioning In many applications.18): Command: isoplane-by choosing top. To draw the cube in isometric view(Fig.197 cutting plane. Figure 3. Setting Isometric Grid and Snap Use snap command for choosing between thestandard orthogonal snap style and isometric snapstyle-by selecting style. top andright isometric planes when the snap mode is set to the isometric style.angular.18. a drawing should contain annotations showing lengths or distances orangles between objects to convey the desired information. Command: ISOPLANE Left /top/ right/ <toggle>: enter the choice to move to right. diameter and radius. 3. the squares are drawn tocomplete the cube. The distance betweenthe grid lines is determined by the vertical spacing. left andright planes. the normal set of AutoCAD commandsis replaced by a special set of dimensioning commands. linear. This is possible when isometric snap is on.By pressing ctrl and E keys simultaneously. toggle takes place between the isometric planes. Dimensioning is the process of addingthese annotations to a drawing. Isometric Drawing The command ―isoplane‖ permits to switch the cursor orientation between the left. one at a time. 90° and 150° lines. AutoCAD provides four basic types of dimensioning. The grid points are arrangedalong 30°.18 3. Isometric circles are drawn usingthe command ellipse and selecting isocircles option. If several dimensioning commands are to beexecuted. for the next prompt. In this mode. DIM command should be used. To end the process of . isoplane left or isoplane top.

EXIT command has to be used. except that only aradius line is drawn. angular. Angular — is used to dimension angles.tolerance specifications. aligned and rotated command.. Radius — it is almost identical to diameter dimensioning. The dimensioning commands can be grouped into six categories: 1. radial and aligned. 5. etc. arrow styles and sizes. 4.19 2. Here.However. . A number of variables such as extension lines. actually control the way in which thedimensions may appear in the drawings.diametric. AutoCAD generally uses same type of dimensions and dimension label components as standard draughting.198 dimensioning. 3. all starting at thesame extension line. that measure successive linear distances. (ii) Continuing dimension— aseries of dimension lines that follow one another along successive linear distances. the following arespecific for AutoCAD: (i) Base line dimension-a series of dimension lines. this command isused. text location. This line has only one arrow. 6. However. Linear — is done with a horizontal. one has to select two non-parallellines to introduce the angular dimension. rotated command requires specifying the dimension lineangle explicitly. Figure 3. Dimensioning Fundamentals The student is already exposed to some definitions of fundamentals. Associative — used to make various changes to associative dimension entities. Dimensioning utility commands— to draw a centre line or centre mark for a circle/arc. Diameter — this can be invoked for dimensioning arcs and circles. Figure 3.19 gives examples of types of dimensions possible: linear. vertical.

AutoCAD proceeds directly to the . 3. They are. The base line and continue commands are provided to simplifythese operations. other times one long dimension is broken into shorter segments that add upto the total measurement. Identify what to measure–pick the end points. all starting at thesame extension line. Specify where the dimension line and text are to be located. vertical. Draw the first dimension. Set-up the basic parameters for dimensioning. 3. arc. Linear Dimensions Command: DIM Dim: hor/ver/ali/cont/ang/diam/rad/leader Chose any one based on the requirement (Fig. Then enter base line or continue. that measure successive linear distances. and (d) placement of dimension text. 4.199 Dimensioning Fundamentals The student is already exposed to some definitions of fundamentals. or circle: pick Dimension line location: pick Dimension text <value>: ↵ Dim: exit Counting Linear Dimension Often a series of related dimensions must be drawn. sometimes several dimensions are measuredfrom the same base line. Approve AutoCAD‘s measurements or can type one‘s own text.19) First extension line origin or return to select: ↵ Select line. 2. (b) arrow head type. the following arespecific for AutoCAD: (i) Base line dimension-a series of dimension lines. arcs or circles or other points ofexisting drawing entities using OSNAP if necessary. lines. However. (c) extension line offset. (a) arrow head size. using horizontal. aligned or rotatedcommands. (ii) Continuing dimension— aseries of dimension lines that follow one another along successive linear distances. Dimensioning Methods The procedure to be followed for dimensioning in AutoCAD is as follows: 1.

dimensions are drawn using continue command and the vertical dimensions are drawn usingbase line command. 3. Command: dim linear First extension line origin or return to select:—int of . Example for Dimensioning For the example considered. AutoCAD offsets each new dimension line by anamount to avoid overlaying the previous dimension line. and then asks for the dimension text. Command: dim linear First extension line origin or return to select:—int of Second extension line origin:—cen of Dimension line location (text/angle/horizontal/vertical/rotated): pick Dimension text <130>: 2.20. Dimension line off-setting can also occur with the continue command if either thenew or previous dimension has its arrows outside the extension lines. 3. in the same serial order: 1. Figure 3.200 ―second extensionline origin‖ prompt. the method of dimensioning with the associated dialoguewith AutoCAD is given below. The first dimension line is extendedaccordingly.21). the horizontal. Dim: base Second extension line origin: — cen of dimension text <260>: 3. In Fig. The dimension line is placed at thesame angle as the previous dimension. (Fig.20 When the base line command is used.

Dim: Horizontal First extension line origin or return to select: pick Second extension line origin: pick Dimension line location (text/angle/horizontal/vertical/rotated): pick Dimension text <120>: 8. Dim: Vertical First extension line origin or return to select: pick Second extension line origin: pick Dimension line location (text/angle/horizontal/vertical/rotated): pick Dimension text <80>: .201 Second extension line origin: — cen of Dimension line location (text/angle/horizontal/vertical/rotated): pick Dimension text <25>: 4. Dim: vertical First extension line origin or return to select: — int of Second extension line origin: —cen of Dimension line location (text/angle/horizontal/vertical/rotated): pick Dimension text <20>: 5. Dim: base Second extension line origin: — cen of Dimension text <75>: 6. Dim: base Second extension line origin: — int of Dimension text <150>: 7.


Figure 3.21 9. Dim: leader Leader start: pick To point: pick To point: ↵ Dimension text <20>: υ20 Dim: exit 10. Command: Dim Select arc or circle: pick Select arc or circle; pick Select arc or circle: pick Select arc or circle: ↵ 11. Dim: diameter Select arc or circle: pick Dimension text <60>: υ60 POLYLINE (PLINE) Polyline is basically a composite curve which is a combination of linear and arc segments

203 inAutoCAD. The other property that can be varied is the thickness of the line drawn. Specialproperties of the polyline are: (a) All the connected segments are treated as single entity. (b) Width of line of any or all segments can be varied. (c) It can also be a closed curve. (d) Line type can be varied as required along various segments of the line. Command: PLINE Front point: 15, 25 (starting point). Once the starting point is selected, the computer willindicate current line width; 0,0 (default value) When entered, the prompt responds: Arc/Close/Half width/Length/Undo/Widt/<end point of line>: By choosing (Fig. 3.22):

Figure 3.22 Arc — one can draw an arc with proper choice or selection Close — from the present position, the line joins with the starting point Half width — in case the starting width is chosen earlier; from this point, the widthof the line will be half of it Length — length of the line may be given or co-ordinates may be given to drawthe line Undo — the previous operation is reversed Width — one can specify the width at this point and also have a tapered linedrawn by suitably instructing both starting width and ending width <End of line> — (default) by just entering, PLINE stops at the above point

204 NOTE PLINE may be used similar to LINE command with added advantages.

OFFSET Features: 1. Creates an object parallel to and at a specified distance 2. Draw parallel lines, concentric circles, arcs, etc (Fig. 3.23). The response of the computer to the command: Command: OFFSET Offset distance or through <current>: By choosing the option offset distance. 1. Offset distance: a value is to be given 2. Select the object: select by mouse 3. Side to offset: select the side on which one needs the offset 4. Select the object: enter to stop the selection process By choosing through option, 1. Enter T 2. Select object : pick the object 3. Through point: pick the point 4. Select object: enter to stop the selection process

Figure 3.23 Observations: 1. Multiple creations of objects are made easy by selecting the offset distance orthrough point 2. Mirror images also are possible Elevation and Thickness

205 Features: 1. The command is used to create different objects. 2. By suitably selecting a view point, 3D drawings can be created in AutoCAD (Fig. 3.24). Command: ELEV New current elevation<current>: 0 or any value may be entered

Figure 3.24 New current thickness <current>: 20. This is the value available and it can be changed.Create an object (top view) say, circle, using circle command and change thickness/elevation orboth for the next object. Command: ELEV New current elevation<0>: 10 enter New current thickness<20>: 40 enter Now, draw a rectangle using RECTANG command and use view points suitable to create3D shapes of the objects, eg., a cylinder at 0 elevation having thickness 20 units and a rectangularprism at 10 units of elevation and 40 units thickness. CHANGE PROP Features: 1. Changes length, colour or type of a line, 2. Changes the layer in which the entity isdrawn, 3. Changes the elevation of component, and 4. Both properties and change point options areavailable. Command: CHANGE (Fig. 3.25) Select objects: pick the objects Select objects: enter to stop the selection process Properties: <change point>

etc. circle growing into a cylinder or a polygon grows as a prism. EXTRUSION Features: A plane surface is extruded or converted to 3D drawing by applying thickness to it.. select a suitable view point for 3D images of the chosen objects. NOTE: A 3D drawing may also be created by choosing the command. ELEV: and choosing a suitable view point.eg. Straight/parallel extrusionsor extrusions with taper are also possible. Figure 3. Colour — Newcolour by layer: choose any colour Elev — the elevation of the object chosen can be changed Layer — Layer of the object can be changed Thickness — New thickness values may be assigned L type — line type of the objects chosen can be changed By choosing point option: The end point of a line or size of the circle can be changed. The response of the computer to this command is given below: Command: EXTRUDE (Fig. 3.26) Select objects: make selection Select objects: enter to stop the process of selection Path/ height of extrusion <0>: 15 choose a value Extrusion taper angle <0>: by default or choose a valueNow.26 .206 By choosing properties option: P— enter Change what property ? (Colour/Elev/Layer/L type/Its scale/Thickness): By choosing.

Summary In this unit we have studied about AutoCAD drawings and commands. 10. 11. What are they ? 5. What is layering concept? 13. Two example of single user operating systems are _________ and _________. How do you begin a new drawing? . What do you understand by drawing limits and extents? 12. 3. 8. Keywords  Drawing Entity-POINT  Drawing Entity-LINE  Drawing Entity-ELLIPSE  Drawing Entity-POLYGON  Drawing Entity-RECTANGLE  Drawing Entity-CIRCLE  Drawing Entity-ARC  2D Wire Frame  3D Wire Frame  View Ports  Isometric Drawing  Polyline 3. What is CAD? 2. Computer aided graphics systems have 3 major components.20.207 3. What are the applications of locators and selectors? 7.21. 9. DOS is used on _________ computers. Two types of DOS commands are_________ and _________. Graphics can be converted into hard copy with a _________ 3. Exercise 1. Two examples of multi-user operating systems are _________ and _________.19. What is Graphic's package? 4. What is digitizer? 6.

208 14. How do you select an existing drawing for editing? 15. How to exit from AutoCAD? 16. Zooming shrinks the drawing. (True / False) 17. Panning changes the magnification of the drawing.(True / False) 18. Use of editing facilities of AutoCAD:_________ ____________________ _______ 19. AutoCAD editor screen has_________ areas. What are they? 20. What is a status line? 21. In AutoCAD 14 _________ _________ helps to set-up a drawing. 22. In release 14,_________ provide introduction to the methods for starting a new drawing. 23. ________command constrains the lines drawn horizontal and vertical directions only. 24. _________command sets increments for cursor movements. 25. Grid command helps the user by _________ _________ _________. 26. Help can be obtained by —————— command. 27. _________ command saves the work. 28. List 4 important options of zoom command. 29. Object selection is achieved by _________ and_________ 30. List 5 important edit commands and mention their applications. 31. List the utility commands. 32. Differentiate between DIM and DIMI commands. 33. List the categories of dimensioning commands. 34. Distinguish between Normal, Outer-most and Ignore styles of hatch command. 35. When do you use PLOT and PRPLOT commands? 36. Explain how a line can be drawn by (i) Cartesian coordinate method. (ii) Incrementalform and (iii) Polar coordinate form. 37. How to draw an ellipse? Explain. 38. Give the procedure for describing a polygon of 7 sides of side 30 mm. 39. What are the various modelling techniques on ACAD? 40. What do you understand by VPOINT command? 41. What is VIEW PORTS? 42. What are the options available on VIEWPORTS command? 43. Which option is chosen to know the number and co-ordinates of current view port?

209 44. How do you draw a cylinder, cone and box? 45. What are the applications of primitives? 46. When do you choose the command PLINE? 47. What is the response of a computer for the command OFFSET? 48. What are the features of the command Elev and thickness? 49. Explain the features of CHANGE PROP command. 50. What do you achieve by EXTRUSION command? 51. List the various options available to draw an arc. 52. What are the options available to draw a circle? 53. Distinguish between 2 point and 3 point option of drawing a circle. 54. List the various Boolean operations that may be performed on a computer. 55. _________ operations can be used to create composite solids. 56. Region command allows _________ _________ ___________ _________ 57. _________ allows to combine the volume of two or more solids into one. 58. _________ allows to remove common area shared by two sets of solids. 59. Intersect allows to create a composite solid that contains only ______ ______ 60. Mass prop provides ______ ______ for solid. 61. Mass prop displays ______ ______ for regions. 62. Solview command provides ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______ 63. Explain the functions of the command Isoplane. 64. Explain the various dimensioning methods of AutoCAD. 65. Distinguish between base line and continue commands. 66. List the various options available for the command DIM. 67. Describe how do you make centre lines for an arc or circle. 68. Solid modelling can be created by _________ a 2D object. 69. _________ models are true shape 3D objects. 70. Describe the responses of a computer for the command RECTANG. ANSWER 2. Plotter/printer 4. (a) draughter, (b) hardware and (c) software 7. MS-DOS, MS-Windows 95

210 8. UNIX, LINUX 9. personal 10. internal, external 16. True 17. False 19. four 21. Use Wizard 22. instructions 23. ORTHO 24. SNAP 25. creating reference lines 26. HELP 27. SAVE 29. Pick box, Window option 55. Boolean 56. to create 2D enclosed areas 57. Union 58. Subtract 59. common volume of two or more overlapping solids. 60. volumetric information 61. area properties 62. multi and sectional view drawings 68. extruding 69. Solid


Unit 4 Screw Jack
Structure 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.4. 4.5. 4.6. 4.7. 4.8. Introduction Objectives Mechanical Advantage Screw Jack Power Screws Summary Keywords Exercise



A screw jack is a simple machine. It is used to lift cars or heavy automobiles. It consists of a long screw rod which passes through a threaded block B and a handle . The distance between two consecutive thread is known as pitch of screw.


3 shows the details of one type of screw jack. = 2pd/h M. the mechanical advantage is given by: M. the screw will move up or down. The tommy bar 7 is inserted into a hole through the enlarged head of the screw and when this is turned. so the mechanical advantage should be very large.A. Figure 2. Mechanical Advantage When an effort is applied to the handle . Due to frictional force between the different parts of screw jack. thereby raising or lowering the load. the screw 3 works in the nut 2 which is press fitted into the main body 1.A. it would unwind at once when applied force is removed. . It should be remembered that in case of screw jack friction is a necessary part of operation.2. Screw Jack Screw jacks are used for raising heavy loads through very small heights.3.212 4.4. the efficiency is less than one. Hence. If the handle is turned through one complete revolution in a circle of radius “d” the effort moves through a distance 2pd and consequently the load is raised through a height h. It is due to the reason that a lot heat energy is used for overcoming the frictional forces. In this. the effort moves in a circle of radius ―d‖ while “d” is the length of the rod and the block ―B‖ moves up equal to the pitch of the screw jack. because in the absence of friction. Objectives  Mechanical Advantage  Screw Jack  Power Screws After studying this unit we are able to understand 4. = Distance through which the effort is moved/height through which the load is raised We know that the pitch of the screw is very small as compared to the length of the rod. 4.

which is termed a right-hand thread. vises. A screw thread is formed by cutting a continuous helical groove around the cylinder. plastic. alloy steel. They find use in machines such as universal tensile testing machines. trench braces. Screws with left-hand threads are used in exceptional cases. Power Screws Power screws are used to convert rotary motion in to translational motion. The majority of screws are tightened by clockwise rotation. micrometers. and C-clamps. or steel mating nuts.213 Figure 2. adjustable floor posts.5. Bronze and plastic nuts are popular for higher duty applications and they . automotive jacks. There are two kinds of power screws. hydraulic and mechanical power screws. linear actuators.3 Screw jack 4. machine tools. anticlockwise forces are applied to the screw (which would work to undo a right-hand thread). or stainless steel and they are usually used with bronze. A special case is screw jack which raises or lowers the load by applying a small force in the horizontal plane. For example. a left-hand-threaded screw would be an appropriate choice. aircraft flap extenders. Power screws are typically made from carbon steel. These grooves are cut either left hand or right hand. It is also called translational screw.

and etc. lead is equal to pitch 3.214 provide low coefficients of friction for minimizing drive torques. Helix Angle: is related to the lead and the mean radius by the equation below. There are important terms and figures that need to be understood before designing power screws: 1. measured parallel to the axial plane. Screw Jack Design Procedure Design Objective • State the problem and clarify what is expected from the design • Specify design considerations such as factor of safety. 2. Pitch: is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding thread on the next adjacent thread. 2. For single thread screw. Lead: is the distance the screw would advance relative to the nut in one rotation. material selection criteria. • To study effects of stresses on the power screw parts Direct tensile or compressive stress due to axial load Torsional shear stress in the minimum cross section of the screw by the twisting moment Shear stress at the threads of the screw at the room diameter and at the threads of the nut at the outside diameter due to axial loading Bearing pressure at the thread surfaces of the screw and nut • To determine the torque required to raise or lower the given load • To determine the efficiency of the power screw • To determine the dimensions of the different parts of the screw Problem Statement .

τ =240 MPa. There are common materials used in the design of screw jacks like steel for the screw and cast iron. τ =80MPa ) c. Cup and frame are made of Grey cast iron which is cheap and has good mach inability. Different parts of the assembly such as the screw. σ yield (tension)=100 MPa. Design Considerations 1. σ yield (compression) = 90 MPa. bronze or plastic for the nuts. Screw Jack Handle Plane carbon steel (30C8 – IS: 1570-1978) is selected for the handle of the jack because of the high strength it offers. Actually the factor of safety is taken 1. This steel is also used for the handle of the screw jack. ( σ yield = 400 MPa. ( yield = 400 MPa.5 to 2 in static loading of ductile material.670 KN of load is intended to be designed. =240 MPa. Nut: In order to reduce the friction resistance between the screw and nut a softer material is selected for the nut. Phosphor Bronze (Grade 1-IS: 28-1975) is a proper material for nut construction because it acts very well against wear resistance and reduces torque to overcome friction.215 A mechanical power screw that can raise or lower 7 tons or 68. the nut and the handle will be designed in an efficient and cost effective manner. 2. (σ ultimate = 190 MPa. A higher factor of safety is considered due to the consequences of the failure. Mild steel or hard steel is considered for different screw designs. E=207GPa) b. Material is selected as following: a. Screw: Plane carbon steel (30C8 – IS: 1570-1978) is selected because screw is always under Torsional. Carbon steel is chosen due to the strength issues. E=207GPa) . Factor of safety for the assembly is taken 5 due to the nature of the design. bending and axial load. In order to prevent friction cast iron or bronze is preferred for the design of the nut. Selection of Material for the screw and nut is of great importance.

3 and draw the following views: (i) Half sectional view from the front.6. But for this specific design.216 d. and (ii) View from above.05MPa According to agronomists the force of the hand is about 150 to 200 N. Keywords Screw Jack Power Screws 4. it is taken 0.5m (500 mm). shown in Fig. 2. Exercise Assemble all parts of the screw jack. Summary In this we have studied about Screw Jack . 4. Average coefficient of friction between the material soft steel and cast iron is taken 0. The effective lifting height is chosen to be 0. Power screws 4.7. . In this design we assume that is the handle is rotated by two hands which give 400 N hand forces for the design of the handle.8.10 when it is lubricated.18 assuming it dry for safe operations. Limiting values for bearing pressure between steel and cast iron is taken 15. Frame Grey cast iron is used which is cheap and has good mach inability.

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