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1300 Math Formulas

# 1300 Math Formulas

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11/12/2012

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## Sections

• 1.1 Set Identities
• 1.2 Sets of Numbers
• 1.3 Basic Identities
• 1.4 Complex Numbers
• 2.1 Factoring Formulas
• 2.2 Product Formulas
• 2.3 Powers
• 2.4 Roots
• 2.5 Logarithms
• 2.6 Equations
• 2.7 Inequalities
• 2.8 Compound Interest Formulas
• 3.1 Right Triangle
• 3.2 Isosceles Triangle
• 3.3 Equilateral Triangle
• 3.4 Scalene Triangle
• 3.5 Square
• 3.6 Rectangle
• 3.7 Parallelogram
• 3.8 Rhombus
• 3.9 Trapezoid
• 3.10 Isosceles Trapezoid
• 3.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle
• 3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle
• 3.13 Kite
• 3.17 Regular Hexagon
• 3.18 Regular Polygon
• 3.19 Circle
• 3.20 Sector of a Circle
• 3.21 Segment of a Circle
• 3.22 Cube
• 3.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped
• 3.24 Prism
• 3.25 Regular Tetrahedron
• 3.26 Regular Pyramid
• 3.27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid
• 3.28 Rectangular Right Wedge
• 3.29 Platonic Solids
• 3.30 Right Circular Cylinder
• 3.31 Right Circular Cylinder with an Oblique Plane Face
• 3.32 Right Circular Cone
• 3.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone
• 3.34 Sphere
• 3.35 Spherical Cap
• 3.36 Spherical Sector
• 3.37 Spherical Segment
• 3.38 Spherical Wedge
• 3.39 Ellipsoid
• 3.40 Circular Torus
• 4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles
• 4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
• 4.3. Signs of Trigonometric Functions
• 4.4 Trigonometric Functions of Common Angles
• 4.5 Most Important Formulas
• 4.6 Reduction Formulas
• 4.7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions
• 4.8 Relations between Trigonometric Functions
• 4.9 Addition and Subtraction Formulas
• 4.10 Double Angle Formulas
• 4.11 Multiple Angle Formulas
• 4.12 Half Angle Formulas
• 4.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities
• 4.14 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Product
• 4.15 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Sum
• 4.16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions
• 4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
• 4.18 Principal Values of Inverse Trigonometric Functions
• 4.19 Relations between Inverse Trigonometric Functions
• 4.20 Trigonometric Equations
• 4.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions
• 5.1 Determinants
• 5.2 Properties of Determinants
• 5.3 Matrices
• 5.4 Operations with Matrices
• 5.5 Systems of Linear Equations
• 6.1 Vector Coordinates
• 6.3 Vector Subtraction
• 6.4 Scaling Vectors
• 6.5 Scalar Product
• 6.6 Vector Product
• 6.7 Triple Product
• 7.1 One-Dimensional Coordinate System
• 7.2 Two-Dimensional Coordinate System
• 7.3 Straight Line in Plane
• 7.4 Circle
• 7.5 Ellipse
• 7.6 Hyperbola
• 7.7 Parabola
• 7.8 Three-Dimensional Coordinate System
• 7.9 Plane
• 7.10 Straight Line in Space
• 7.12 Sphere
• 8.1 Functions and Their Graphs
• 8.2 Limits of Functions
• 8.3 Definition and Properties of the Derivative
• 8.4 Table of Derivatives
• 8.5 Higher Order Derivatives
• 8.6 Applications of Derivative
• 8.7 Differential
• 8.8 Multivariable Functions
• 8.9 Differential Operators
• 9.1 Indefinite Integral
• 9.2 Integrals of Rational Functions
• 9.3 Integrals of Irrational Functions
• 9.4 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions
• 9.5 Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions
• 9.6 Integrals of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
• 9.7 Reduction Formulas
• 9.8 Definite Integral
• 9.9 Improper Integral
• 9.10 Double Integral
• 9.11 Triple Integral
• 9.12 Line Integral
• 9.13 Surface Integral
• 10.1 First Order Ordinary Differential Equations
• 10.2 Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations
• 10.3. Some Partial Differential Equations
• 11.1 Arithmetic Series
• 11.2 Geometric Series
• 11.3 Some Finite Series
• 11.4 Infinite Series
• 11.5 Properties of Convergent Series
• 11.6 Convergence Tests
• 11.7 Alternating Series
• 11.8 Power Series
• 11.9 Differentiation and Integration of Power Series
• 11.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series
• 11.11 Power Series Expansions for Some Functions
• 11.12 Binomial Series
• 11.13 Fourier Series
• 12.1 Permutations and Combinations
• 12.2 Probability Formulas

# 1300 Math Formulas

ISBN 9949107741

i

ii
Preface
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iii
Contents

1 NUMBER SETS
1.1 Set Identities 1
1.2 Sets of Numbers 5
1.3 Basic Identities 7
1.4 Complex Numbers 8

2 AIGEBRA
2.1 Factoring Formulas 12
2.2 Product Formulas 13
2.3 Powers 14
2.4 Roots 15
2.3 Iogarithms 16
2.6 Equations 18
2.7 Inequalities 19
2.8 Compound Interest Formulas 22

3 GEOMETRY
3.1 Right Triangle 24
3.2 Isosceles Triangle 27
3.3 Equilateral Triangle 28
3.4 Scalene Triangle 29
3.3 Square 33
3.6 Rectangle 34
3.7 Parallelogram 35
3.8 Rhombus 36
3.9 Trapezoid 37
3.10 Isosceles Trapezoid 38
3.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle 40
3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle 41

iv
3.13 Kite 42
3.17 Regular Hexagon 47
3.18 Regular Polygon 48
3.19 Circle 50
3.20 Sector of a Circle 53
3.21 Segment of a Circle 54
3.22 Cube 55
3.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped 56
3.24 Prism 57
3.23 Regular Tetrahedron 58
3.26 Regular Pyramid 59
3.27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid 61
3.28 Rectangular Right Wedge 62
3.29 Platonic Solids 63
3.30 Right Circular Cylinder 66
3.31 Right Circular Cylinder with an Oblique Plane Face 68
3.32 Right Circular Cone 69
3.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone 70
3.34 Sphere 72
3.33 Spherical Cap 72
3.36 Spherical Sector 73
3.37 Spherical Segment 74
3.38 Spherical Wedge 75
3.39 Ellipsoid 76
3.40 Circular Torus 78

4 TRIGONOMETRY
4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles 80
4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric Functions 81
4.3 Signs of Trigonometric Functions 86
4.4 Trigonometric Functions of Common Angles 87
4.3 Most Important Formulas 88

v
4.6 Reduction Formulas 89
4.7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions 90
4.8 Relations between Trigonometric Functions 90
4.9 Addition and Subtraction Formulas 91
4.10 Double Angle Formulas 92
4.11 Multiple Angle Formulas 93
4.12 Half Angle Formulas 94
4.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities 94
4.14 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Product 95
4.13 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Sum 97
4.16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions 98
4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 99
4.18 Principal Values of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 102
4.19 Relations between Inverse Trigonometric Functions 103
4.20 Trigonometric Equations 106
4.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions 106

5 MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
3.1 Determinants 107
3.2 Properties of Determinants 109
3.3 Matrices 110
3.4 Operations with Matrices 111
3.3 Systems of Iinear Equations 114

6 VECTORS
6.1 Vector Coordinates 118
6.3 Vector Subtraction 122
6.4 Scaling Vectors 122
6.3 Scalar Product 123
6.6 Vector Product 125
6.7 Triple Product 127

7 ANAIYTIC GEOMETRY
7.1 One -Dimensional Coordinate System 130

vi
7.2 Two -Dimensional Coordinate System 131
7.3 Straight Iine in Plane 139
7.4 Circle 149
7.3 Ellipse 152
7.6 Hyperbola 154
7.7 Parabola 158
7.8 Three -Dimensional Coordinate System 161
7.9 Plane 165
7.10 Straight Iine in Space 175
7.12 Sphere 189

8 DIFFERENTIAI CAICUIUS
8.1 Functions and Their Graphs 191
8.2 Iimits of Functions 208
8.3 Definition and Properties of the Derivative 209
8.4 Table of Derivatives 211
8.3 Higher Order Derivatives 215
8.6 Applications of Derivative 217
8.7 Differential 221
8.8 Multivariable Functions 222
8.9 Differential Operators 225

9 INTEGRAI CAICUIUS
9.1 Indefinite Integral 227
9.2 Integrals of Rational Functions 228
9.3 Integrals of Irrational Functions 231
9.4 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions 237
9.3 Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions 241
9.6 Integrals of Exponential and Iogarithmic Functions 242
9.7 Reduction Formulas 243
9.8 Definite Integral 247
9.9 Improper Integral 253
9.10 Double Integral 257
9.11 Triple Integral 269

vii
9.12 Iine Integral 275
9.13 Surface Integral 285

10 DIFFERENTIAI EQUATIONS
10.1 First Order Ordinary Differential Equations 295
10.2 Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations 298
10.3 Some Partial Differential Equations 302

11 SERIES
11.1 Arithmetic Series 304
11.2 Geometric Series 305
11.3 Some Finite Series 305
11.4 Infinite Series 307
11.3 Properties of Convergent Series 307
11.6 Convergence Tests 308
11.7 Alternating Series 310
11.8 Power Series 311
11.9 Differentiation and Integration of Power Series 312
11.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series 313
11.11 Power Series Expansions for Some Functions 314
11.12 Binomial Series 316
11.13 Fourier Series 316

12 PROBABIIITY
12.1 Permutations and Combinations 318
12.2 Probability Formulas 319

viii

1
Chapt er 1
Number Sets

1.1 Set Identities

Sets: A, B, C
Universal set: I
Complement : A

Proper subset: B A⊂
Empty set: ∅
Union of sets: B A∪
Intersection of sets: B A∩
Difference of sets: B \ A

1. I A⊂

2. A A⊂

3. B A = if B A⊂ and A B⊂ .

4. Empty Set
A ⊂ ∅

5. Union of Sets
{ } B x or A x | x B A C ∈ ∈ = ∪ =

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
2

Figure 1.

6. Commutativity
A B B A ∪ = ∪

7. Associativity
( ) ( ) C B A C B A ∪ ∪ = ∪ ∪

8. Intersection of Sets
{ } B x and A x | x B A C ∈ ∈ = ∪ =

Figure 2.

9. Commutativity
A B B A ∩ = ∩

10. Associativity
( ) ( ) C B A C B A ∩ ∩ = ∩ ∩

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
3
11. Distributivity
( ) ( ) ( ) C A B A C B A ∪ ∩ ∪ = ∩ ∪ ,
( ) ( ) ( ) C A B A C B A ∩ ∪ ∩ = ∪ ∩ .

12. Idempotency
A A A = ∩ ,
A A A = ∪

13. Domination
∅ = ∅ ∩ A ,
I I A = ∪

14. Identity
A A = ∅ ∪ ,
A I A = ∩

15. Complement
{ } A x | I x A ∉ ∈ = ′

16. Complement of Intersection and Union
I A A =

∪ ,
∅ = ′ ∩A A

17. De Morgan∞s Iaws
( ) B A B A ′ ∩ ′ =

∪ ,
( ) B A B A

=

18. Difference of Sets
{ } A x and B x | x A \ B C ∉ ∈ = =

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
4

Figure 3.

19. ( ) B A \ B A \ B ∩ =

20. A B A \ B ′ ∩ =

21. ∅ = A \ A

22. A B \ A = if ∅ = ∩B A .

Figure 4.

23. ( ) ( ) ( ) C B \ C A C B \ A ∩ ∩ = ∩

24. A \ I A = ′

25. Cartesian Product
( ) { } B y and A x | y , x B A C ∈ ∈ = × =

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
5
1.2 Sets of Numbers

Natural numbers: N
Whole numbers:
0
N
Integers: Z
Positive integers:
+
Z
Negative integers:

Z
Rational numbers: Q
Real numbers: R
Complex numbers: C

26. Natural Numbers
Counting numbers: { } K , 3 , 2 , 1 N= .

27. Whole Numbers
Counting numbers and zero: { } K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 N
0
= .

28. Integers
Whole numbers and their opposites and zero:
{ } K , 3 , 2 , 1 N Z = =
+
,
{ } 1 , 2 , 3 , Z − − − =

K ,
{ } { } K K , 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 , Z 0 Z Z − − − = ∪ ∪ =
+ −
.

29. Rational Numbers
Repeating or terminating decimals:
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
≠ ∈ ∈ = = 0 b and Z b and Z a and
b
a
x | x Q .

30. Irrational Numbers
Nonrepeating and nonterminating decimals.

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
6
31. Real Numbers
Union of rational and irrational numbers: R.

32. Complex Numbers
{ } R y and R x | iy x C ∈ ∈ + = ,
where i is the imaginary unit.

33. C R Q Z N ⊂ ⊂ ⊂ ⊂

Figure 5.

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
7
1.3 Basic Identities

Real numbers: a, b, c

a 0 a = +

( ) 0 a a = − +

a b b a + = +

( ) ( ) c b a c b a + + = + +

38. Definition of Subtraction
( ) b a b a − + = −

39. Multiplicative Identity
a 1 a = ⋅

40. Multiplicative Inverse
1
a
1
a = ⋅ , 0 a ≠

41. Multiplication Times 0
0 0 a = ⋅

42. Commutative of Multiplication
a b b a ⋅ = ⋅

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
8
43. Associative of Multiplication
( ) ( ) c b a c b a ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ ⋅

44. Distributive Iaw
( ) ac ab c b a + = +

45. Definition of Division
b
1
a
b
a
⋅ =

1.4 Complex Numbers

Natural number: n
Imaginary unit: i
Complex number: z
Real part: a, c
Imaginary part: bi, di
Modulus of a complex number: r,
1
r ,
2
r
Argument of a complex number: ϕ,
1
ϕ ,
2
ϕ

i i
1
= i i
3
= i i
1 n 4
=
+

1 i
2
− = 1 i
6
− = 1 i
2 n 4
− =
+

i i
3
− = i i
7
− = i i
3 n 4
− =
+

46.
1 i
4
= 1 i
8
= 1 i
n 4
=

47. bi a z + =

48. Complex Plane

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
9

Figure 6.

49. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )i d b c a di c bi a + + + = + + +

50. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )i d b c a di c bi a − + − = + − +

51. ( )( ) ( ) ( )i bc ad bd ac di c bi a + + − = + +

52. i
d c
d c
bd ac
di c
bi a
2 2 2 2

+

+
+
+
=
+
+

53. Conjugate Complex Numbers
bi a bi a
_______
− = +

54. ϕ = cos r a , ϕ = sin r b

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
10

Figure 7.

55. Polar Presentation of Complex Numbers
( ) ϕ + ϕ = + sin i cos r bi a

56. Modulus and Argument of a Complex Number
If bi a + is a complex number, then
2 2
b a r + = (modulus),
a
b
arctan = ϕ (argument).

57. Product in Polar Representation
( ) ( )
2 2 2 1 1 1 2 1
sin i cos r sin i cos r z z ϕ + ϕ ⋅ ϕ + ϕ = ⋅
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1 2 1
sin i cos r r ϕ + ϕ + ϕ + ϕ =

58. Conjugate Numbers in Polar Representation
( ) ( ) ( ) | | ϕ − + ϕ − = ϕ + ϕ sin i cos r sin i cos r
_ __________ __________

59. Inverse of a Complex Number in Polar Representation
( )
( ) ( ) | | ϕ − + ϕ − =
ϕ + ϕ
sin i cos
r
1
sin i cos r
1

CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS
11
60. Quotient in Polar Representation
( )
( )
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1
2
1
2 2 2
1 1 1
2
1
sin i cos
r
r
sin i cos r
sin i cos r
z
z
ϕ − ϕ + ϕ − ϕ =
ϕ + ϕ
ϕ + ϕ
=

61. Power of a Complex Number
( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | ϕ + ϕ = ϕ + ϕ = n sin i n cos r sin i cos r z
n
n
n

62. Formula °De Moivre≤
( ) ( ) ( ) ϕ + ϕ = ϕ + ϕ n sin i n cos sin i cos
n

63. Nth Root of a Complex Number
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π + ϕ
+
π + ϕ
= ϕ + ϕ =
n
k 2
sin i
n
k 2
cos r sin i cos r z
n
n
n
,
where
1 n , , 2 , 1 , 0 k − = K .

64. Euler∞s Formula
x sin i x cos e
ix
+ =

12
Chapt er 2
Algebra

2.1 Factoring Formulas

Real numbers: a, b, c
Natural number: n

65. ( )( ) b a b a b a
2 2
− + = −

66. ( )( )
2 2 3 3
b ab a b a b a + + − = −

67. ( )( )
2 2 3 3
b ab a b a b a + − + = +

68. ( )( ) ( )( )( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4
b a b a b a b a b a b a + + − = + − = −

69. ( )( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 3 3
b ab b a b a a b a b a + + + + − = −

70. ( )( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 3 3
b ab b a b a a b a b a + − + − + = +

71. If n is odd, then
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
+ − − + − + = + K .

72. If n is even, then
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
+ + + + + − = − K ,
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
13
( )( )
1 n 2 n 2 3 n 2 n 1 n n n
b ab b a b a a b a b a
− − − − −
− + − + − + = + K .

2.2 Product Formulas
Real numbers: a, b, c
Whole numbers: n, k

73. ( )
2 2 2
b ab 2 a b a + − = −

74. ( )
2 2 2
b ab 2 a b a + + = +

75. ( )
3 2 2 3 3
b ab 3 b a 3 a b a − + − = −

76. ( )
3 2 2 3 3
b ab 3 b a 3 a b a + + + = +

77. ( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 4
b ab 4 b a 6 b a 4 a b a + − + − = −

78. ( )
4 3 2 2 3 4 4
b ab 4 b a 6 b a 4 a b a + + + + = +

79. Binomial Formula
( ) , b C ab C b a C b a C a C b a
n
n
n 1 n
1 n
n 2 2 n
2
n 1 n
1
n n
0
n
n
+ + + + + = +

− −
K
where
( )! k n ! k
! n
C
k
n

= are the binomial coefficients.

80. ( ) bc 2 ac 2 ab 2 c b a c b a
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = + +

81. ( ) + + + + + + = + + + + +
2 2 2 2 2 2
v u c b a v u c b a K K
( ) uv bv bu bc av au ac ab 2 + + + + + + + + + + + K K K
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
14
2.3 Powers

Bases (positive real numbers): a, b
Powers (rational numbers): n, m

82.
n m n m
a a a
+
=

83.
n m
n
m
a
a
a

=

84. ( )
m m
m
b a ab =

85.
m
m
m
b
a
b
a
=
|
.
|

\
|

86. ( )
mn
n
m
a a =

87. 1 a
0
= , 0 a ≠

88. 1 a
1
=

89.
m
m
a
1
a =

90.
n m
n
m
a a =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
15
2.4 Roots

Bases: a, b
Powers (rational numbers): n, m
0 b , a ≥ for even roots ( k 2 n = , N k∈ )

91.
n n n
b a ab =

92.
nm n m
m n
b a b a =

93.
n
n
n
b
a
b
a
= , 0 b ≠

94.
nm
n
m
nm n
nm m
m
n
b
a
b
a
b
a
= = , 0 b ≠ .

95. ( )
n mp
p
n m
a a =

96. ( ) a a
n
n
=

97.
np
mp n m
a a =

98.
n
m
n m
a a =

99.
mn m n
a a =

100. ( )
n m
m
n
a a =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
16
101.
a
a
a
1
n 1 n
n

= , 0 a ≠ .

102.
2
b a a
2
b a a
b a
2 2
− −
±
− +
= ±

103.
b a
b a
b a
1

=
±
m

2.5 Logarithms

Positive real numbers: x, y, a, c, k
Natural number: n

104. Definition of Iogarithm
x log y
a
= if and only if
y
a x = , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

105. 0 1 log
a
=

106. 1 a log
a
=

107.
¹
´
¦
< ∞ +
> ∞ −
=
1 a if
1 a if
0 log
a

108. ( ) y log x log xy log
a a a
+ =

109. y log x log
y
x
log
a a a
− =
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
17
110. ( ) x log n x log
a
n
a
=

111. x log
n
1
x log
a
n
a
=

112. c log x log
a log
x log
x log
a c
c
c
a
⋅ = = , 0 c > , 1 c ≠ .

113.
a log
1
c log
c
a
=

114.
x log
a
a x =

115. Iogarithm to Base 10
x log x log
10
=

116. Natural Iogarithm
x ln x log
e
= ,
where K 718281828 . 2
k
1
1 lim e
k
k
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
∞ →

117. x ln 434294 . 0 x ln
10 ln
1
x log = =

118. x log 302383 . 2 x log
e log
1
x ln = =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
18
2.6 Equations

Real numbers: a, b, c, p, q, u, v
Solutions:
1
x ,
2
x ,
1
y ,
2
y ,
3
y

119. Iinear Equation in One Variable
0 b ax = + ,
a
b
x − = .

0 c bx ax
2
= + + ,
a 2
ac 4 b b
x
2
2 , 1
− ± −
= .

121. Discriminant
ac 4 b D
2
− =

122. Viete∞s Formulas
If 0 q px x
2
= + + , then
¹
´
¦
=
− = +
q x x
p x x
2 1
2 1
.

123. 0 bx ax
2
= + , 0 x
1
= ,
a
b
x
2
− = .

124. 0 c ax
2
= + ,
a
c
x
2 , 1
− ± = .

125. Cubic Equation. Cardano∞s Formula.
0 q py y
3
= + + ,
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
19
v u y
1
+ = , ( ) ( ) i v u
2
3
v u
2
1
y
3 , 2
+ ± + − = ,
where
3
2 2
3
p
2
q
2
q
u
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ − = ,
3
2 2
3
p
2
q
2
q
v
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
− − = .

2.7 Inequalities
Variables: x, y, z
Real numbers:
¹
´
¦
n 3 2 1
a , , a , a , a
d , c , b , a
K
, m, n
Determinants: D,
x
D ,
y
D ,
z
D

126. Inequalities, Interval Notations and Graphs

Inequality Interval Notation Graph
b x a ≤ ≤ | | b , a

b x a ≤ < ( | b , a

b x a < ≤ | ) b , a

b x a < < ( ) b , a

b x ≤ < ∞ − ,
b x ≤
( | b , ∞ −

b x < < ∞ − ,
b x <
( ) b , ∞ −

∞ < ≤ x a ,
a x ≥
| ) ∞ , a

∞ < < x a ,
a x >
( ) ∞ , a

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
20
127. If b a > , then a b < .

128. If b a > , then 0 b a > − or 0 a b < − .

129. If b a > , then c b c a + > + .

130. If b a > , then c b c a − > − .

131. If b a > and d c > , then d b c a + > + .

132. If b a > and d c > , then c b d a − > − .

133. If b a > and 0 m > , then mb ma > .

134. If b a > and 0 m > , then
m
b
m
a
> .

135. If b a > and 0 m< , then mb ma < .

136. If b a > and 0 m< , then
m
b
m
a
< .

137. If b a 0 < < and 0 n > , then
n n
b a < .

138. If b a 0 < < and 0 n < , then
n n
b a > .

139. If b a 0 < < , then
n n
b a < .

140.
2
b a
ab
+
≤ ,
where 0 a > , 0 b > ; an equality is valid only if b a = .

141. 2
a
1
a ≥ + , where 0 a > ; an equality takes place only at 1 a = .
CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
21
142.
n
a a a
a a a
n 2 1
n
n 2 1
+ + +

K
K , where 0 a , , a , a
n 2 1
> K .

143. If 0 b ax > + and 0 a > , then
a
b
x − > .

144. If 0 b ax > + and 0 a < , then
a
b
x − < .

145. 0 c bx ax
2
> + +

0 a > 0 a <

0 D>

1
x x < ,
2
x x >

2 1
x x x < <

0 D=

x x
1
< ,
1
x x >

∅ ∈ x

0 D<

∞ < < ∞ − x

∅ ∈ x

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
22
146. b a b a + ≤ +

147. If a x < , then a x a < < − , where 0 a > .

148. If a x > , then a x − < and a x > , where 0 a > .

149. If a x
2
< , then a x < , where 0 a > .

150. If a x
2
> , then a x > , where 0 a > .

151. If
( )
( )
0
x g
x f
> , then
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦

> ⋅
0 x g
0 x g x f
.

152.
( )
( )
0
x g
x f
< , then
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦

< ⋅
0 x g
0 x g x f
.

2.8 Compound Interest Formulas

Future value: A
Initial deposit: C
Annual rate of interest: r
Number of years invested: t
Number of times compounded per year: n

153. General Compound Interest Formula
nt
n
r
1 C A
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA
23
154. Simplified Compound Interest Formula
If interest is compounded once per year, then the previous
formula simplifies to:
( )
t
r 1 C A + = .

155. Continuous Compound Interest
If interest is compounded continually ( ∞ → n ), then
rt
Ce A = .

24
Chapt er 3
Geometry

3.1 Right Triangle

Iegs of a right triangle: a, b
Hypotenuse: c
Altitude: h
Medians:
a
m ,
b
m ,
c
m
Angles: α, β
Area: S

Figure 8.

156. ° = β + α 90

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
25
157. β = = α cos
c
a
sin

158. β = = α sin
c
b
cos

159. β = = α cot
b
a
tan

160. β = = α tan
a
b
cot

161. β = = α ec cos
b
c
sec

162. β = = α sec
a
c
ec cos

163. Pythagorean Theorem
2 2 2
c b a = +

164. fc a
2
= , gc b
2
= ,
where f and c are projections of the legs a and b, respec-
tively, onto the hypotenuse c.

Figure 9.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
26
165. fg h
2
= ,
where h is the altitude from the right angle.

166.
4
a
b m
2
2 2
a
− = ,
4
b
a m
2
2 2
b
− = ,
where
a
m and
b
m are the medians to the legs a and b.

Figure 10.

167.
2
c
m
c
= ,
where
c
m is the median to the hypotenuse c.

168.
c
m
2
c
R = =

169.
c b a
ab
2
c b a
r
+ +
=
− +
=

170. ch ab =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
27
171.
2
ch
2
ab
S = =

3.2 Isosceles Triangle

Base: a
Iegs: b
Base angle: β
Vertex angle: α
Altitude to the base: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 11.

172.
2
90
α
− ° = β

173.
4
a
b h
2
2 2
− =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
28
174. b 2 a I + =

175. α = = sin
2
b
2
ah
S
2

3.3 Equilateral Triangle

Side of a equilateral triangle: a
Altitude: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 12.

176.
2
3 a
h =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
29
177.
3
3 a
h
3
2
R = =

178.
2
R
6
3 a
h
3
1
r = = =

179. a 3 I =

180.
4
3 a
2
ah
S
2
= =

3.4 Scalene Triangle
(A triangle with no two sides equal)

Sides of a triangle: a, b, c
Semiperimeter:
2
c b a
p
+ +
=
Angles of a triangle: γ β α , ,
Altitudes to the sides a, b, c:
c b a
h , h , h
Medians to the sides a, b, c:
c b a
m , m , m
Bisectors of the angles γ β α , , :
c b a
t , t , t
Area: S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
30

Figure 13.

181. ° = γ + β + α 180

182. c b a > + ,
a c b > + ,
b c a > + .

183. c b a < − ,
a c b < − ,
b c a < − .

184. Midline
2
a
q = , a || q .

Figure 14.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
31
185. Iaw of Cosines
α − + = cos bc 2 c b a
2 2 2
,
β − + = cos ac 2 c a b
2 2 2
,
γ − + = cos ab 2 b a c
2 2 2
.

186. Iaw of Sines
R 2
sin
c
sin
b
sin
a
=
γ
=
β
=
α
,
where R is the radius of the circumscribed circle.

187.
S 4
abc
h 2
ab
h 2
ac
h 2
bc
sin 2
c
sin 2
b
sin 2
a
R
c b a
= = = =
γ
=
β
=
α
=

188.
( )( )( )
p
c p b p a p
r
2
− − −
= ,
c b a
h
1
h
1
h
1
r
1
+ + = .

189.
( )( )
bc
c p b p
2
sin
− −
=
α
,
( )
bc
a p p
2
cos

=
α
,
( )( )
( ) a p p
c p b p
2
tan

− −
=
α
.

190. ( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
a
2
h
a
− − − = ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
b
2
h
b
− − − = ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p
c
2
h
c
− − − = .
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
32
191. β = γ = sin c sin b h
a
,
α = γ = sin c sin a h
b
,
α = β = sin b sin a h
c
.

192.
4
a
2
c b
m
2 2 2
2
a

+
= ,
4
b
2
c a
m
2 2 2
2
b

+
= ,
4
c
2
b a
m
2 2 2
2
c

+
= .

Figure 15.

193.
a
m
3
2
AM= ,
b
m
3
2
BM= ,
c
m
3
2
CM= (Fig.13).

194.
( )
( )
2
2
a
c b
a p bcp 4
t
+

= ,
( )
( )
2
2
b
c a
b p acp 4
t
+

= ,
( )
( )
2
2
c
b a
c p abp 4
t
+

= .

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
33
195.
2
ch
2
bh
2
ah
S
c b a
= = = ,
2
sin bc
2
sin ac
2
sin ab
S
α
=
β
=
γ
= ,
( )( )( ) c p b p a p p S − − − = (Heron∞s Formula),
pr S = ,
R 4
abc
S = ,
γ β α = sin sin sin R 2 S
2
,
2
tan
2
tan
2
tan p S
2
γ β α
= .

3.5 Square
Side of a square: a
Diagonal: d
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 16.
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
34
196. 2 a d =

197.
2
2 a
2
d
R = =

198.
2
a
r =

199. a 4 I =

200.
2
a S =

3.6 Rectangle

Sides of a rectangle: a, b
Diagonal: d
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 17.

201.
2 2
b a d + =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
35
202.
2
d
R =

203. ( ) b a 2 I + =

204. ab S =

3.7 Parallelogram

Sides of a parallelogram: a, b
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Consecutive angles: β α,
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Altitude: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 18.

205. ° = β + α 180

206. ( )
2 2 2
2
2
1
b a 2 d d + = +

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
36
207. β = α = sin b sin b h

208. ( ) b a 2 I + =

209. α = = sin ab ah S ,
ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
.

3.8 Rhombus

Side of a rhombus: a
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Consecutive angles: β α,
Altitude: H
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 19.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
37
210. ° = β + α 180

211.
2 2
2
2
1
a 4 d d = +

212.
a 2
d d
sin a h
2 1
= α =

213.
2
sin a
a 4
d d
2
h
r
2 1
α
= = =

214. a 4 I =

215. α = = sin a ah S
2
,
2 1
d d
2
1
S = .

3.9 Trapezoid

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Area: S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
38

Figure 20.

216.
2
b a
q
+
=

217. qh h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
=

3.10 Isosceles Trapezoid

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Ieg: c
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Diagonal: d
Area: S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
39

Figure 21.

218.
2
b a
q
+
=

219.
2
c ab d + =

220. ( )
2 2
a b
4
1
c h − − =

221.
( )( ) b a c 2 b a c 2
c ab c
R
2
− + + −
+
=

222. qh h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
=

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
40
3.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with
Inscribed Circle

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Ieg: c
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Diagonal: d
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 22.

223. c 2 b a = +

224. c
2
b a
q =
+
=

225.
2 2 2
c h d + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
41
226.
2
ab
2
h
r = =

227.
a
b
6
b
a
8
b a
c h
h 2
c
ab
c
1
2
c
r 4
cd
h 2
cd
R
2 2
2
+ +
+
= + = + = = =

228. ( ) c 4 b a 2 I = + =

229.
( )
2
Ir
ch qh
2
ab b a
h
2
b a
S = = =
+
= ⋅
+
=

3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle

Bases of a trapezoid: a, b
Iateral sides: c, d
Midline: q
Altitude: h
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Perimeter: I
Area: S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
42

Figure 23.

230. d c b a + = +

231.
2
d c
2
b a
q
+
=
+
=

232. ( ) ( ) d c 2 b a 2 I + = + =

233. qh h
2
d c
h
2
b a
S = ⋅
+
= ⋅
+
= ,
ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
.

3.13 Kite

Sides of a kite: a, b
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angles: γ β α , ,
Perimeter: I
Area: S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
43

Figure 24.

234. ° = γ + β + α 360 2

235. ( ) b a 2 I + =

236.
2
d d
S
2 1
=

Sides of a quadrilateral: a, b, c, d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Internal angles: δ γ β α , , ,
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
44

Figure 25.

237. ° = δ + β = γ + α 180

238. Ptolemy∞s Theorem
2 1
d d bd ac = +

239. d c b a I + + + =

240.
( )( )( )
( )( )( )( ) d p c p b p a p
cd ab bc ad bd ac
4
1
R
− − − −
+ + +
= ,
where
2
I
p = .

241. ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1
,
( )( )( )( ) d p c p b p a p S − − − − = ,
where
2
I
p = .

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
45

Sides of a quadrilateral: a, b, c, d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S

Figure 26.

242. d b c a + = +

243. ( ) ( ) d b 2 c a 2 d c b a I + = + = + + + =

244.
( ) ( )
p 2
p b a b a d d
r
2 2 2
2
2
1
− + − −
= ,
where
2
I
p = .

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
46
245. ϕ = = sin d d
2
1
pr S
2 1

Sides of a quadrilateral: a, b, c, d
Diagonals:
2 1
d , d
Angle between the diagonals: ϕ
Internal angles: δ γ β α , , ,
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 27.

246. ° = δ + γ + β + α 360

247. d c b a I + + + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
47
248. ϕ = sin d d
2
1
S
2 1

3.17 Regular Hexagon

Side: a
Internal angle: α
Slant height: m
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S

Figure 28.

249. ° = α 120

250.
2
3 a
m r = =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
48
251. a R =

252. a 6 I =

253.
2
3 3 a
pr S
2
= = ,
where
2
I
p = .

3.18 Regular Polygon

Side: a
Number of sides: n
Internal angle: α
Slant height: m
Perimeter: I
Semiperimeter: p
Area: S

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
49

Figure 29.

254. ° ⋅

= α 180
2
2 n

255. ° ⋅

= α 180
2
2 n

256.
n
sin 2
a
R
π
=

257.
4
a
R
n
tan 2
a
m r
2
2
− =
π
= =

258. na I =

259.
n
2
sin
2
nR
S
2
π
= ,
4
a
R p pr S
2
2
− = = ,
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
50
where
2
I
p = .

3.19 Circle

Diameter: d
Chord: a
Secant segments: e, f
Tangent segment: g
Central angle: α
Inscribed angle: β
Perimeter: I
Area: S

260.
2
sin R 2 a
α
=

Figure 30.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
51
261.
2 1 2 1
b b a a =

Figure 31.

262.
1 1
ff ee =

Figure 32.

263.
1
2
ff g =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
52

Figure 33.

264.
2
α
= β

Figure 34.

265. d R 2 I π = π =

266.
2
IR
4
d
R S
2
2
=
π
= π =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
53
3.20 Sector of a Circle

Arc length: s
Central angle (in degrees): α
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 35.

267. Rx s =

268.
°
α π
=
180
R
s

269. R 2 s I + =

270.
°
α π
= = =
360
R
2
x R
2
Rs
S
2 2

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
54
3.21 Segment of a Circle

Arc length: s
Chord: a
Central angle (in degrees): α
Height of the segment: h
Perimeter: I
Area: S

Figure 36.

271.
2
h hR 2 2 a − =

272.
2 2
a R 4
2
1
R h − − = , R h <

273. a s I + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
55
274. ( ) | | ( ) x sin x
2
R
sin
180 2
R
h R a sR
2
1
S
2 2
− =
|
.
|

\
|
α −
°
απ
= − − = ,
ha
3
2
S ≈ .

3.22 Cube

Edge: a
Diagonal: d
Surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 37.

275. 3 a d =

276.
2
a
r =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
56
277.
2
3 a
R =

278.
2
a 6 S =

279.
3
a V =

3.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped

Edges: a, b, c
Diagonal: d
Surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 38.

280.
2 2 2
c b a d + + =

281. ( ) bc ac ab 2 S + + =

282. abc V =
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
57
3.24 Prism

Iateral edge: l
Height: h
Iateral area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 39.

283.
B I
S 2 S S + = .

284. Iateral Area of a Right Prism
( )l a a a a S
n 3 2 1 I
+ + + + = K

285. Iateral Area of an Oblique Prism
pl S
I
= ,
where p is the perimeter of the cross section.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
58
286. h S V
B
=

287. Cavalieri's Principle
Given two solids included between parallel planes. If every
plane cross section parallel to the given planes has the same
area in both solids, then the volumes of the solids are equal.

3.25 Regular Tetrahedron

Triangle side length: a
Height: h
Area of base:
B
S
Surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 40.

288. a
3
2
h =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
59
289.
4
a 3
S
2
B
=

290.
2
a 3 S =

291.
2 6
a
h S
3
1
V
3
B
= = .

3.26 Regular Pyramid

Side of base: a
Iateral edge: b
Height: h
Slant height: m
Number of sides: n
Semiperimeter of base: p
Radius of inscribed sphere of base: r
Area of base:
B
S
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
60

Figure 41.

292.
4
a
b m
2
2
− =

293.
n
sin 2
a
n
sin b 4
h
2 2 2
π

π
=

294. pm a b 4 na
4
1
nam
2
1
S
2 2
I
= − = =

295. pr S
B
=

296.
I B
S S S + =

297. prh
3
1
h S
3
1
V
B
= =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
61
3.27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid

Base and top side lengths:
¹
´
¦
n 3 2 1
n 3 2 1
b , , b , b , b
a , , a , a , a
K
K

Height: h
Slant height: m
Area of bases:
1
S ,
2
S
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Perimeter of bases:
1
P ,
2
P
Scale factor: k
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 42.

298. k
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
n
n
3
3
2
2
1
1
= = = = = = K

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
62
299.
2
1
2
k
S
S
=

300.
( )
2
P P m
S
2 1
I
+
=

301.
2 1 I
S S S S + + =

302. ( )
2 2 1 1
S S S S
3
h
V + + =

303. | |
2
1
2
1
k k 1
3
hS
a
b
a
b
1
3
hS
V + + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

3.28 Rectangular Right Wedge

Sides of base: a, b
Top edge: c
Height: h
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
63

Figure 43.

304. ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
I
c a h b b h 4 c a
2
1
S − + + + + =

305. ab S
B
=

306.
I B
S S S + =

307. ( ) c a 2
6
bh
V + =

3.29 Platonic Solids

Edge: a
Surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
64
308. Five Platonic Solids
The platonic solids are convex polyhedra with equivalent
faces composed of congruent convex regular polygons.

Solid Number
of Vertices
Number
of Edges
Number
of Faces
Section
Tetrahedron 4 6 4 3.23
Cube 8 12 6 3.22
Octahedron 6 12 8 3.27
Icosahedron 12 30 20 3.27
Dodecahedron 20 30 12 3.27

Octahedron

Figure 44.

309.
6
6 a
r =

310.
2
2 a
R =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
65
311. 3 a 2 S
2
=

312.
3
2 a
V
3
=

Icosahedron

Figure 45.

313.
( )
12
3 3 3 a
r
+
=

314. ( ) 3 3 2
4
a
R + =

315. 3 a 3 S
2
=

316.
( )
12
3 3 a 3
V
3
+
=

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
66
Dodecahedron

Figure 46.

317.
( )
2
3 11 23 10 a
r
+
=

318.
( )
4
3 1 3 a
R
+
=

319. ( ) 3 2 3 3 a 3 S
2
+ =

320.
( )
4
3 7 13 a
V
3
+
=

3.30 Right Circular Cylinder

Diameter of base: d
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
67
Height: H
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 47.

321. RH 2 S
I
π =

322. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ π = + π = + =
2
d
H d R H R 2 S 2 S S
B I

323. H R H S V
2
B
π = =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
68
3.31 Right Circular Cylinder with
an Oblique Plane Face

The greatest height of a side:
1
h
The shortest height of a side:
2
h
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of plane end faces:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 48.

324. ( )
2 1 I
h h R S + π =

325.
2
2 1
2 2
B
2
h h
R R R S
|
.
|

\
|

+ π + π =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
69
326.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|

+ + + + π = + =
2
2 1
2
2 1 B I
2
h h
R R h h R S S S

327. ( )
2 1
2
h h
2
R
V +
π
=

3.32 Right Circular Cone
Diameter of base: d
Height: H
Slant height: m
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Area of base:
B
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 49.
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
70
328.
2 2
R m H − =

329.
2
md
Rm S
I
π
= π =

330.
2
B
R S π =

331. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
+ π = + π = + =
2
d
m d
2
1
R m R S S S
B I

332. H R
3
1
H S
3
1
V
2
B
π = =

3.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone

Height: H
Slant height: m
Scale factor: k
Area of bases:
1
S ,
2
S
Iateral surface area:
I
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
71

Figure 50.

333. ( )
2 2
r R m H − − =

334. k
r
R
=

335.
2
2
2
1
2
k
r
R
S
S
= =

336. ( ) r R m S
I
+ π =

337. ( ) | | r R m r R S S S S
2 2
I 2 1
+ + + π = + + =

338. ( )
2 2 1 1
S S S S
3
h
V + + =

339. | |
2
1
2
1
k k 1
3
hS
r
R
r
R
1
3
hS
V + + =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
72
3.34 Sphere

Diameter: d
Surface area: S
Volume: V

Figure 51.

340.
2
R 4 S π =

341. SR
3
1
d
6
1
H R
3
4
V
3 3
= π = π =

3.35 Spherical Cap
Height: h
Area of plane face:
B
S
Area of spherical cap:
C
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
73

Figure 52.

342.
h 2
h r
R
2 2
+
=

343.
2
B
r S π =

344. ( )
2 2
C
r h S + π =

345. ( ) ( )
2 2 2
C B
r Rh 2 r 2 h S S S + π = + π = + =

346. ( ) ( )
2 2 2
h r 3 h
6
h R 3 h
6
V +
π
= −
π
=

3.36 Spherical Sector

Radius of base of spherical cap: r
Height: h
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
74

Figure 53.

347. ( ) r h 2 R S + π =

348. h R
3
2
V
2
π =

Note: The given formulas are correct both for °open≤ and
°closed≤ spherical sector.

3.37 Spherical Segment

1
r ,
2
r
Height: h
Area of spherical surface:
S
S
Area of plane end faces:
1
S ,
2
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
75

Figure 54.

349. Rh 2 S
S
π =

350. ( )
2
2
2
1 2 1 S
r r Rh 2 S S S S + + π = + + =

351. ( )
2 2
2
2
1
h r 3 r 3 h
6
1
V + + π =

3.38 Spherical Wedge

Dihedral angle in degrees: x
Area of spherical lune:
I
S
Total surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
76

Figure 55.

352. x R 2
90
R
S
2
2
I
= α
π
=

353. x R 2 R
90
R
R S
2 2
2
2
+ π = α
π
+ π =

354. x R
3
2
270
R
V
3
3
= α
π
=

3.39 Ellipsoid

Semi-axes: a, b, c
Volume: V
CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
77

Figure 56.

355. abc
3
4
V π =

Prolate Spheroid

Semi-axes: a, b, b ( b a > )
Surface area: S
Volume: V

356.
|
.
|

\
|
+ π =
e
e arcsin a
b b 2 S ,
where
a
b a
e
2 2

= .

357. a b
3
4
V
2
π =

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
78
Oblate Spheroid

Semi-axes: a, b, b ( b a < )
Surface area: S
Volume: V

358.
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ π =
a / be
a
be
arcsinh a
b b 2 S ,
where
b
a b
e
2 2

= .

359. a b
3
4
V
2
π =

3.40 Circular Torus

Surface area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY
79

Picture 57.

360. Rr 4 S
2
π =

361.
2 2
Rr 2 V π =

80
Chapt er 4
Trigonometry

Angles: α, β
Real numbers (coordinates of a point): x, y
Whole number: k

4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles

362. " 43 ' 17 37
180
π
°
=

180
1 ≈
π
= °

60 180
' 1 ≈

π
=

3600 180
" 1 ≈

π
=

366.

Angle
(degrees)
0 30 43 60 90 180 270 360
Angle
0
6
π

4
π

3
π

2
π
π
2

π 2

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
81
4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric
Functions

Figure 58.

367.
r
y
sin = α

368.
r
x
cos = α

369.
x
y
tan = α

370.
y
x
cot = α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
82
371.
x
r
sec = α

372.
y
r
cosec = α

373. Sine Function
x sin y = , 1 x sin 1 ≤ ≤ − .

Figure 59.

374. Cosine Function
x cos y = , 1 x cos 1 ≤ ≤ − .
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
83

Figure 60.

375. Tangent Function
x tan y = , ( )
2
1 k 2 x
π
+ ≠ , . x tan ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ −

Figure 61.

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
84
376. Cotangent Function
x cot y = , π ≠ k x , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x cot .

Figure 62.

377. Secant Function
x sec y = , ( )
2
1 k 2 x
π
+ ≠ .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
85

Figure 63.

378. Cosecant Function
x ec cos y = , π ≠ k x .

Figure 64.
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
86
4.3. Signs of Trigonometric Functions

379.

Sin
α
Cos
α
Tan
α
Cot
α
Sec
α
Cosec
α
I + + + + + +
II + +
III + +
IV + +

380.

Figure 65.

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
87
4.4 Trigonometric Functions of Common
Angles
381.
° α
α cos α tan α cot α sec α cosec
0 0 0 1 0

1

30
6
π

2
1

2
3

3
1

3
3
2

2
43
4
π

2
2

2
2

1 1
2 2
60
3
π

2
3

2
1

3
3
1

2
3
2

90
2
π
1 0

0

1
120
3

2
3

2
1

3 −
3
1

2 −
3
2

180 π 0
1 −
0
∞ 1 − ∞
270
2

1 −
0

0
∞ 1 −
360 π 2 0 1 0

1

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
88
382.
° α
α cos α tan α cot
13
12
π

4
2 6 −

4
2 6 +
3 2− 3 2+
18
10
π

4
1 3 −

4
3 2 10 +
3
3 2 3−
3 2 3+
36
3
π

4
3 2 10 −
4
1 3 +

1 3
3 2 10
+

3 2 10
1 3

+

34
10

4
1 3 +

4
3 2 10 −
3 2 10
1 3

+
1 3
3 2 10
+

72
3

4
3 2 10 +
4
1 3 −
3 2 3+
3
3 2 3−

73
12

4
2 6 +

4
2 6 −
3 2+ 3 2−

4.5 Most Important Formulas

383. 1 cos sin
2 2
= α + α

384. 1 tan sec
2 2
= α − α

385. 1 cot csc
2 2
= α − α

386.
α
α
= α
cos
sin
tan
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
89
387.
α
α
= α
sin
cos
cot

388. 1 cot tan = α ⋅ α

389.
α
= α
cos
1
sec

390.
α
= α
sin
1
cosec

4.6 Reduction Formulas

391.

β β sin β cos β tan β cot
α −
α −sin
α + cos α − tan α −cot
α − ° 90
α + cos
α + sin
α + cot α + tan
α + ° 90
α + cos
α −sin
α −cot α − tan
α − ° 180
α + sin
α −cos α − tan α −cot
α + ° 180
α −sin
α −cos α + tan α + cot
α − ° 270
α −cos
α −sin
α + cot α + tan
α + ° 270
α −cos
α + sin
α −cot α − tan
α − ° 360
α −sin
α + cos α − tan α −cot
α + ° 360
α + sin
α + cos α + tan α + cot

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
90
4.7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions

392. ( ) α = π ± α sin n 2 sin , period π 2 or ° 360 .

393. ( ) α = π ± α cos n 2 cos , period π 2 or ° 360 .

394. ( ) α = π ± α tan n tan , period π or ° 180 .

395. ( ) α = π ± α cot n cot , period π or ° 180 .

4.8 Relations between Trigonometric
Functions

396. ( ) 1
4 2
cos 2 2 cos 1
2
1
cos 1 sin
2 2

|
.
|

\
|
π

α
= α − ± = α − ± = α

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2
α
+
α
=

397. ( ) 1
2
cos 2 2 cos 1
2
1
sin 1 cos
2 2

α
= α + ± = α − ± = α

2
tan 1
2
tan 1
2
2
α
+
α

=

398.
α
α −
=
α +
α
= − α ± =
α
α
= α
2 sin
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2 sin
1 sec
cos
sin
tan
2

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
91

2
tan 1
2
tan 2
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2
α
+
α
=
α +
α −
± =

399.
α −
α
=
α
α +
= − α ± =
α
α
= α
2 cos 1
2 sin
2 sin
2 cos 1
1 csc
sin
cos
cot
2

2
tan 2
2
tan 1
2 cos 1
2 cos 1
2
α
α

=
α −
α +
± =

400.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
tan 1
cos
1
sec
2
2
2
α

α
+
= α + ± =
α
= α

401.
2
tan 2
2
tan 1
cot 1
sin
1
csc
2
2
α
α
+
= α + ± =
α
= α

402. ( ) α β + β α = β + α cos sin cos sin sin

403. ( ) α β − β α = − α cos sin cos sin y sin

404. ( ) β α − β α = β + α sin sin cos cos cos

405. ( ) β α + β α = β − α sin sin cos cos cos
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
92
406. ( )
β α −
β + α
= β + α
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

407. ( )
β α +
β − α
= β − α
tan tan 1
tan tan
tan

408. ( )
β + α
β α −
= β + α
tan tan
tan tan 1
cot

409. ( )
β − α
β α +
= β − α
tan tan
tan tan 1
cot

4.10 Double Angle Formulas

410. α ⋅ α = α cos sin 2 2 sin

411. 1 cos 2 sin 2 1 sin cos 2 cos
2 2 2 2
− α = α − = α − α = α

412.
α − α
=
α −
α
= α
tan cot
2
tan 1
tan 2
2 tan
2

413.
2
tan cot
cot 2
1 cot
2 cot
2
α − α
=
α
− α
= α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
93
4.11 Multiple Angle Formulas

414. α − α ⋅ α = α − α = α
3 2 3
sin sin cos 3 sin 4 sin 3 3 sin

415. α ⋅ α − α ⋅ α = α cos sin 8 cos sin 4 4 sin
3

416. α + α − α = α
3 3
sin 16 sin 20 sin 3 3 sin

417. α ⋅ α − α = α − α = α
2 3 3
sin cos 3 cos cos 3 cos 4 3 cos

418. 1 cos 8 cos 8 4 cos
2 4
+ α − α = α

419. α + α − α = α cos 3 cos 20 cos 16 3 cos
3 3

420.
α −
α − α
= α
2
3
tan 3 1
tan tan 3
3 tan

421.
α + α −
α − α
= α
4 2
3
tan tan 6 1
tan 4 tan 4
4 tan

422.
α + α −
α + α − α
= α
4 2
3 3
tan 3 tan 10 1
tan 3 tan 10 tan
3 tan

423.
1 cot 3
cot 3 cot
3 cot
2
3
− α
α − α
= α

424.
α − α
α + α −
= α
3
4 2
tan 4 tan 4
tan tan 6 1
4 cot

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
94
425.
α + α − α
α + α −
= α
tan 3 tan 10 tan
tan 3 tan 10 1
3 cot
3 3
4 2

4.12 Half Angle Formulas

426.
2
cos 1
2
sin
α −
± =
α

427.
2
cos 1
2
cos
α +
± =
α

428. α − α =
α
α −
=
α +
α
=
α +
α −
± =
α
cot csc
sin
cos 1
cos 1
sin
cos 1
cos 1
2
tan

429. α + α =
α
α +
=
α −
α
=
α −
α +
± =
α
cot csc
sin
cos 1
cos 1
sin
cos 1
cos 1
2
cot

4.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities

430.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
sin
2
α
+
α
= α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
95
431.
2
tan 1
2
tan 1
cos
2
2
α
+
α

= α

432.
2
tan 1
2
tan 2
tan
2
α

α
= α

433.
2
tan 2
2
tan 1
cot
2
α
α

= α

4.14 Transforming of Trigonometric
Expressions to Product

434.
2
cos
2
sin 2 sin sin
β − α β + α
= β + α

435.
2
sin
2
cos 2 sin sin
β − α β + α
= β − α

436.
2
cos
2
cos 2 cos cos
β − α β + α
= β + α

437.
2
sin
2
sin 2 cos cos
β − α β + α
− = β − α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
96
438.
( )
β ⋅ α
β + α
= β + α
cos cos
sin
tan tan

439.
( )
β ⋅ α
β − α
= β − α
cos cos
sin
tan tan

440.
( )
β ⋅ α
α + β
= β + α
sin sin
sin
cot cot

441.
( )
β ⋅ α
α − β
= β − α
sin sin
sin
cot cot

442.
|
.
|

\
|
α +
π
=
|
.
|

\
|
α −
π
= α + α
4
sin 2
4
cos 2 sin cos

443.
|
.
|

\
|
α +
π
=
|
.
|

\
|
α −
π
= α − α
4
cos 2
4
sin 2 sin cos

444.
( )
β ⋅ α
β − α
= β + α
sin cos
cos
cot tan

445.
( )
β ⋅ α
β + α
− = β − α
sin cos
cos
cot tan

446.
2
cos 2 cos 1
2
α
= α +

447.
2
sin 2 cos 1
2
α
= α −

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
97
448.
|
.
|

\
|
α

π
= α +
2 4
cos 2 sin 1
2

449.
|
.
|

\
|
α

π
= α −
2 4
sin 2 sin 1
2

4.15 Transforming of Trigonometric
Expressions to Sum

450.
( ) ( )
2
cos cos
sin sin
β + α − β − α
= β ⋅ α

451.
( ) ( )
2
cos cos
cos cos
β + α + β − α
= β ⋅ α

452.
( ) ( )
2
sin sin
cos sin
β + α + β − α
= β ⋅ α

453.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
cot cot
tan tan
tan tan

454.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
tan tan
cot cot
cot cot

455.
β + α
β + α
= β ⋅ α
tan cot
cot tan
cot tan

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
98
4.16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions

456.
2
2 cos 1
sin
2
α −
= α

457.
4
3 sin sin 3
sin
3
α − α
= α

458.
8
3 2 cos 4 4 cos
sin
4
+ α − α
= α

459.
16
3 sin 3 sin 3 sin 10
sin
3
α + α − α
= α

460.
32
6 cos 4 cos 6 2 cos 13 10
sin
6
α − α + α −
= α

461.
2
2 cos 1
cos
2
α +
= α

462.
4
3 cos cos 3
cos
3
α + α
= α

463.
8
3 2 cos 4 4 cos
cos
4
+ α + α
= α

464.
16
3 cos 3 sin 3 cos 10
cos
3
α + α + α
= α

465.
32
6 cos 4 cos 6 2 cos 13 10
cos
6
α + α + α +
= α

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
99
4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric
Functions

466. Inverse Sine Function
x arcsin y = , 1 x 1 ≤ ≤ − ,
2
x arcsin
2
π
≤ ≤
π
− .

Figure 66.

467. Inverse Cosine Function
x arccos y = , 1 x 1 ≤ ≤ − , π ≤ ≤ x arccos 0 .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
100

Figure 67.

468. Inverse Tangent Function
x arctan y = , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x ,
2
x arctan
2
π
< <
π
− .

Figure 68.
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
101
469. Inverse Cotangent Function
x cot arc y = , ∞ ≤ ≤ ∞ − x , π < < x cot arc 0 .

Figure 69.

470. Inverse Secant Function
( | | ) . ,
2 2
, 0 x sec arc , , 1 1 , x , x arcsec y
(
¸
(

\
|
π
π

|
.
|

¸

π
∈ ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ =

Figure 70.
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
102
471. Inverse Cosecant Function
( | | ) .
2
, 0 0 ,
2
x csc arc , , 1 1 , x , x arccsc y
(
¸
(

\
|
π

|
.
|

¸

π
− ∈ ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ =

Figure 71.

4.18 Principal Values of Inverse
Trigonometric Functions
472.

x

0
2
1

2
2

2
3
1
x arcsin ° 0 ° 30 ° 43 ° 60 ° 90
x arccos ° 90 ° 60 ° 43 ° 30 ° 0
x

2
1

2
2

2
3
− 1 −

x arcsin
° −30

° −43 ° −60
° −90

x arccos
° 120

° 133 ° 130
° 180

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
103
473.

x

0
3
3
1
3
3
3
− 1 − 3 −
x arctan ° 0 ° 30 ° 43 ° 60 ° −30
° −43

° −60
x cot arc ° 90 ° 60 ° 43 ° 30 ° 120
° 133

° 130

4.19 Relations between Inverse
Trigonometric Functions

474. ( ) x arcsin x arcsin − = −

475. x arccos
2
x arcsin −
π
=

476.
2
x 1 arccos x arcsin − = , 1 x 0 ≤ ≤ .

477.
2
x 1 arccos x arcsin − − = , 0 x 1 ≤ ≤ − .

478.
2
x 1
x
arctan x arcsin

= ,
1 x
2
<
.

479.
x
x 1
cot arc x arcsin
2

= , 1 x 0 ≤ < .

480. π −

=
x
x 1
cot arc x arcsin
2
, 0 x 1 < ≤ − .

481. ( ) x arccos x arccos − π = −
CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
104
482. x arcsin
2
x arccos −
π
=

483.
2
x 1 arcsin x arccos − = , 1 x 0 ≤ ≤ .

484.
2
x 1 arcsin x arccos − − π = , 0 x 1 ≤ ≤ − .

485.
x
x 1
arctan x arccos
2

= , 1 x 0 ≤ < .

486.
x
x 1
arctan x arccos
2

+ π = , 0 x 1 < ≤ − .

487.
2
x 1
x
cot arc x arccos

= ,
1 x 1 ≤ ≤ −
.

488. ( ) x arctan x arctan − = −

489. x cot arc
2
x arctan −
π
=

490.
2
x 1
x
arcsin x arctan
+
=

491.
2
x 1
1
arccos x arctan
+
= , 0 x ≥ .

492.
2
x 1
1
arccos x arctan
+
− = , 0 x ≤ .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
105
493.
x
1
arctan
2
x arctan −
π
= , 0 x > .

494.
x
1
arctan
2
x arctan −
π
− = , 0 x < .

495.
x
1
cot arc x arctan = , 0 x > .

496. π − =
x
1
cot arc x arctan , 0 x < .

497. ( ) x cot arc x cot arc − π = −

498. x arctan
2
x cot arc −
π
=

499.
2
x 1
1
arcsin x cot arc
+
= , 0 x > .

500.
2
x 1
1
arcsin x cot arc
+
− π = , 0 x < .

501.
2
x 1
x
arccos x cot arc
+
=

502.
x
1
arctan x cot arc = , 0 x > .

503.
x
1
arctan x cot arc + π = , 0 x < .

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY
106
4.20 Trigonometric Equations

Whole number: n

504. a x sin = , ( ) n a arcsin 1 x
n
π + − =

505. a x cos = , n 2 a arccos x π + ± =

506. a x tan = , n a arctan x π + =

507. a x cot = , n a cot arc x π + =

4.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions

Imaginary unit: i

508. ( ) x sinh i ix sin =

509. ( ) x tanh i ix tan =

510. ( ) x coth i ix cot − =

511. ( ) x sech ix sec =

512. ( ) x csch i ix csc − =

107
Chapt er 5
Matrices and Determinants

Matrices: A, B, C
Elements of a matrix:
i
a ,
i
b ,
ij
a ,
ij
b ,
ij
c
Determinant of a matrix: A det
Minor of an element
ij
a :
ij
M
Cofactor of an element
ij
a :
ij
C
Transpose of a matrix:
T
A , A
-

Trace of a matrix: A tr
Inverse of a matrix:
1
A

Real number: k
Real variables:
i
x
Natural numbers: m, n

5.1 Determinants

513. Second Order Determinant
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
b a b a
b a
b a
A det − = =

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
108
514. Third Order Determinant
− + + = =
32 21 13 31 23 12 33 22 11
33 32 31
23 22 21
13 12 11
a a a a a a a a a
a a a
a a a
a a a
A det
31 22 13 33 21 12 32 23 11
a a a a a a a a a − − −

515. Sarrus Rule (Arrow Rule)

Figure 72.

516. N-th Order Determinant
nn nj 2 n 1 n
in ij 2 i 1 i
n 2 j 2 22 21
n 1 j 1 12 11
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
a a a a
A det
K K
K K K K K K
K K
K K K K K K
K K
K K
=

517. Minor
The minor
ij
M associated with the element
ij
a of n-th order
matrix A is the ( ) 1 n− -th order determinant derived from
the matrix A by deletion of its i-th row and j-th column.

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
109
518. Cofactor
( )
ij
j i
ij
M 1 C
+
− =

519. Iaplace Expansion of n-th Order Determinant
Iaplace expansion by elements of the i-th row

=
=
n
1 j
ij ij
C a A det , n , , 2 , 1 i K = .
Iaplace expansion by elements of the j-th column

=
=
n
1 i
ij ij
C a A det , n , , 2 , 1 j K = .

5.2 Properties of Determinants

520. The value of a determinant remains unchanged if rows are
changed to columns and columns to rows.

2 2
1 1
2 1
2 1
b a
b a
b b
a a
=

521. If two rows (or two columns) are interchanged, the sign of
the determinant is changed.
1 1
2 2
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
b a
b a
− =

522. If two rows (or two columns) are identical, the value of the
determinant is zero.
0
a a
a a
2 2
1 1
=

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
110
523. If the elements of any row (or column) are multiplied by
a common factor, the determinant is multiplied by that
factor.
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
b a
b a
k
b a
kb ka
=

524. If the elements of any row (or column) are increased (or
decreased)by equal multiples of the corresponding elements
of any other row (or column), the value of the determinant
is unchanged.
2 2
1 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
b a
b a
b kb a
b kb a
=
+
+

5.3 Matrices

525. Definition
An n m× matrix A is a rectangular array of elements (num-
bers or functions) with m rows and n columns.
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K

526. Square matrix is a matrix of order n n× .

527. A square matrix | |
ij
a is symmetric if
ji ij
a a = , i.e. it is

528. A square matrix | |
ij
a is skew-symmetric if
ji ij
a a − = .

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
111
529. Diagonal matrix is a square matrix with all elements zero
except those on the leading diagonal.

530. Unit matrix is a diagonal matrix in which the elements on
the leading diagonal are all unity. The unit matrix is
denoted by I.

531. A null matrix is one whose elements are all zero.

5.4 Operations with Matrices

532. Two matrices A and B are equal if, and only if, they are both
of the same shape n m× and corresponding elements are
equal.

533. Two matrices A and B can be added (or subtracted) of, and
only if, they have the same shape n m× . If
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K
,
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
b b b
b b b
b b b
b B
K
M M M
K
K
,

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
112
then
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
+ + +
+ + +
= +
mn mn 2 m 2 m 1 m 1 m
n 2 n 2 22 22 21 21
n 1 n 1 12 12 11 11
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
B A
K
M M M
K
K
.

534. If k is a scalar, and | |
ij
a A = is a matrix, then
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
ka ka ka
ka ka ka
ka ka ka
ka kA
K
M M M
K
K
.

535. Multiplication of Two Matrices
Two matrices can be multiplied together only when the
number of columns in the first is equal to the number of
rows in the second.

If
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mn 2 m 1 m
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a a a
a A
K
M M M
K
K
,
| |
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
nk 2 n 1 n
k 2 22 21
k 1 12 11
ij
b b b
b b b
b b b
b B
K
M M M
K
K
,

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
113
then
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
mk 2 m 1 m
k 2 22 21
k 1 12 11
c c b
c c c
c c c
C AB
K
M M M
K
K
,
where

= λ
λ λ
= + + + =
n
1
j i nj in j 2 2 i j 1 1 i ij
b a b a b a b a c K
( m , , 2 , 1 i K = ; k , , 2 , 1 j K = ).

Thus if
| |
(
¸
(

¸

= =
23 22 21
13 12 11
ij
a a a
a a a
a A , | |
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =
3
2
1
i
b
b
b
b B ,
then
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

=
3 23 2 22 1 21
3 13 2 12 1 11
3
2
1
23 22 21
13 12 11
b a b a b a
b a b a b a
b
b
b
a a a
a a a
AB .

536. Transpose of a Matrix
If the rows and columns of a matrix are interchanged, then
the new matrix is called the transpose of the original matrix.
If A is the original matrix, its transpose is denoted
T
A or
A
-
.

537. The matrix A is orthogonal if I AA
T
= .

538. If the matrix product AB is defined, then
( )
T T T
A B AB = .

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
114
If A is a square n n× matrix, its adjoint, denoted by A adj ,
is the transpose of the matrix of cofactors
ij
C of A:
| |
T
ij

540. Trace of a Matrix
If A is a square n n× matrix, its trace, denoted by A tr , is
defined to be the sum of the terms on the leading diagonal:
nn 22 11
a a a A tr + + + = K .

541. Inverse of a Matrix
If A is a square n n× matrix with a nonsingular determinant
A det , then its inverse
1
A

is given by
A det
A
1
=

.

542. If the matrix product AB is defined, then
( )
1 1 1
A B AB
− − −
= .

543. If A is a square n n× matrix, the eigenvectors X satisfy
the equation
X AX λ = ,
while the eigenvalues λ satisfy the characteristic equation
0 I A = λ − .

5.5 Systems of Linear Equations

Variables: x, y, z,
1
x , K , x
2

Real numbers: K , a , a , b , a , a , a
12 11 1 3 2 1

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
115
Determinants: D,
x
D ,
y
D ,
z
D
Matrices: A, B, X

544.
¹
´
¦
= +
= +
2 2 2
1 1 1
d y b x a
d y b x a
,
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= (Cramer∞s rule),
where
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
b a b a
b a
b a
D − = = ,
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
x
b d b d
b d
b d
D − = = ,
1 2 2 1
2 2
1 1
y
d a d a
d a
d a
D − = = .

545. If 0 D≠ , then the system has a single solution:
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= .
If 0 D= and 0 D
x
≠ (or 0 D
y
≠ ), then the system has no
solution.
If 0 D D D
y x
= = = , then the system has infinitely many
solutions.

546.
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= + +
= + +
= + +
3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
d z c y b x a
d z c y b x a
d z c y b x a
,
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= ,
D
D
z
z
= (Cramer∞s rule),

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
116
where
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
c b a
c b a
c b a
D= ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
x
c b d
c b d
c b d
D = ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
y
c d a
c d a
c d a
D = ,
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
z
d b a
d b a
d b a
D = .

547. If 0 D≠ , then the system has a single solution:
D
D
x
x
= ,
D
D
y
y
= ,
D
D
z
z
= .
If 0 D= and 0 D
x
≠ (or 0 D
y
≠ or 0 D
z
≠ ), then the system
has no solution.
If 0 D D D D
z y x
= = = = , then the system has infinitely
many solutions.

548. Matrix Form of a System of n Iinear Equations in
n Unknowns
The set of linear equations
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
= + + +
= + + +
= + + +
n n nn 2 2 n 1 1 n
2 n n 2 2 22 1 21
1 n n 1 2 12 1 11
b x a x a x a
b x a x a x a
b x a x a x a
K
K K K K K K K K K K K K
K
K

can be written in matrix form
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
n
2
1
n
2
1
nn 2 n 1 n
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
b
b
b
x
x
x
a a a
a a a
a a a
M M
K
M M M
K
K
,
i.e.
B X A = ⋅ ,
CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
117
where
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
nn 2 n 1 n
n 2 22 21
n 1 12 11
a a a
a a a
a a a
A
K
M M M
K
K
,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
2
1
x
x
x
X
M
,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
n
2
1
b
b
b
B
M
.

549. Solution of a Set of Iinear Equations n n×
B A X
1
⋅ =

,
where
1
A

is the inverse of A.

118
Chapt er 6
Vectors

Vectors: u
r
, v
r
, w
r
, r
r
,

AB, .
Vector length: u
r
, v
r
, .
Unit vectors: i
r
, j
r
, k
r

Null vector: 0
r

Coordinates of vector u
r
:
1 1 1
Z , Y , X
Coordinates of vector v
r
:
2 2 2
Z , Y , X
Scalars: λ, µ
Direction cosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Angle between two vectors: θ

6.1 Vector Coordinates

550. Unit Vectors
( ) 0 , 0 , 1 i =
r
,
( ) 0 , 1 , 0 j =
r
,
( ) 1 , 0 , 0 k =
r
,
1 k j i = = =
r r r
.

551. ( ) ( ) ( ) k z z j y y i x x AB r
0 1 0 1 0 1
r r r
r
− + − + − = =

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
119

Figure 73.

552. ( ) ( ) ( )
2
0 1
2
0 1
2
0 1
z z y y x x AB r − + − + − = =

r

553. If r AB
r
=

, then r BA
r
− =

.

Figure 74.

554. α = cos r X
r
,
β = cos r Y
r
,
γ = cos r Z
r
.
CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
120

Figure 75.

555. If ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
Z , Y , X r Z , Y , X r
r r
= , then
1
X X = ,
1
Y Y = ,
1
Z Z = .

556. v u w
r r r
+ =

Figure 76.
CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
121

Figure 77.

557.
n 3 2 1
u u u u w
r
K
r r r r
+ + + + =

Figure 78.

558. Commutative Iaw
u v v u
r r r r
+ = +

559. Associative Iaw
( ) ( ) w v u w v u
r r r r r r
+ + = + +

560. ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z , Y Y , X X v u + + + = +
r r

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
122
6.3 Vector Subtraction

561. v u w
r r r
− = if u w v
r r r
= + .

Figure 79.

Figure 80.

562. ( ) v u v u
r r r r
− + = −

563. ( ) 0 , 0 , 0 0 u u = = −
r
r r

564. 0 0 =
r

565. ( )
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z , Y Y , X X v u − − − = −
r r
,

6.4 Scaling Vectors

566. u w
r r
λ =
CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
123

Figure 81.

567. u w
r r
⋅ λ =

568. ( ) Z , Y , X u λ λ λ = λ
r

569. λ = λ u u
r r

570. ( ) u u u
r r r
µ + λ = µ + λ

571. ( ) ( ) ( )u u u
r r r
λµ = λ µ = µ λ

572. ( ) v u v u
r r r r
λ + λ = + λ

6.5 Scalar Product

573. Scalar Product of Vectors u
r
and v
r

θ ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ cos v u v u
r r r r
,
where θ is the angle between vectors u
r
and v
r
.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
124

Figure 82.

574. Scalar Product in Coordinate Form
If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, then
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Z Y Y X X v u + + = ⋅
r r
.

575. Angle Between Two Vectors
If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, then
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
Z Y X Z Y X
Z Z Y Y X X
cos
+ + + +
+ +
= θ .

576. Commutative Property
u v v u
r r r r
⋅ = ⋅

577. Associative Property
( ) ( ) v u v u
r r r r
⋅ λµ = µ ⋅ λ

578. Distributive Property
( ) w u v u w v u
r r r r r r r
⋅ + ⋅ = + ⋅

579. 0 v u = ⋅
r r
if u
r
, v
r
are orthogonal (
2
π
= θ ).

580. 0 v u > ⋅
r r
if
2
0
π
< θ < .

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
125
581. 0 v u < ⋅
r r
if π < θ <
π
2
.

582. v u v u
r r r r
⋅ ≤ ⋅

583. v u v u
r r r r
⋅ = ⋅ if u
r
, v
r
are parallel ( 0 = θ ).

584. If ( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, then
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
Z Y X u u u u + + = = = ⋅
r r r r
.

585. 1 k k j j i i = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅
r r r r r r

586. 0 i k k j j i = ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅
r r r r r r

6.6 Vector Product

587. Vector Product of Vectors u
r
and v
r

w v u
r r r
= × , where
• θ ⋅ ⋅ = sin v u w
r r r
, where
2
0
π
≤ θ ≤ ;
• u w
r r
⊥ and v w
r r
⊥ ;
• Vectors u
r
, v
r
, w
r
form a right-handed screw.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
126

Figure 83.

588.
2 2 2
1 1 1
Z Y X
Z Y X
k j i
v u w
r r r
r r r
= × =

589.
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = × =
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
Y X
Y X
,
Z X
Z X
,
Z Y
Z Y
v u w
r r r

590. θ ⋅ ⋅ = × = sin v u v u S
r r r r
(Fig.83)

591. Angle Between Two Vectors (Fig.83)
v u
v u
sin
r r
r r

×
= θ

592. Noncommutative Property
( ) u v v u
r r r r
× − = ×

593. Associative Property
( ) ( ) v u v u
r r r r
× λµ = µ × λ

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
127
594. Distributive Property
( ) w u v u w v u
r r r r r r r
× + × = + ×

595. 0 v u
r
r r
= × if u
r
and v
r
are parallel ( 0 = θ ).

596. 0 k k j j i i
r
r r r r r r
= × = × = ×

597. k j i
r r r
= × , i k j
r r r
= × , j i k
r r r
= ×

6.7 Triple Product

598. Scalar Triple Product
| | ( ) ( ) ( ) v u w u w v w v u w v u
r r r r r r r r r r r r
× ⋅ = × ⋅ = × ⋅ =

599. | | | | | | | | | | | | v w u u v w w u v u w v v u w w v u
r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r
− = − = − = = =

600. ( ) | | w v u k w v u k
r r r r r r
= × ⋅

601. Scalar Triple Product in Coordinate Form
( )
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
Z Y X
Z Y X
Z Y X
w v u = × ⋅
r r r
,
where
( )
1 1 1
Z , Y , X u =
r
, ( )
2 2 2
Z , Y , X v =
r
, ( )
3 3 3
Z , Y , X w =
r
.

602. Volume of Parallelepiped
( ) w v u V
r r r
× ⋅ =

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
128

Figure 84.

603. Volume of Pyramid
( ) w v u
6
1
V
r r r
× ⋅ =

Figure 85.

604. If ( ) 0 w v u = × ⋅
r r r
, then the vectors u
r
, v
r
, and w
r
are linearly
dependent , so v u w
r r r
µ + λ = for some scalars λ and µ.

605. If ( ) 0 w v u ≠ × ⋅
r r r
, then the vectors u
r
, v
r
, and w
r
are linearly
independent.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS
129
606. Vector Triple Product
( ) ( ) ( )w v u v w u w v u
r r r r r r r r r
⋅ − ⋅ = × ×

130

Chapt er 7
Analytic Geometry

7.1 One-Dimensional Coordinate System

Point coordinates:
0
x ,
1
x ,
2
x ,
0
y ,
1
y ,
2
y
Real number: λ
Distance between two points: d

607. Distance Between Two Points
2 1 1 2
x x x x AB d − = − = =

Figure 86.

608. Dividing a Iine Segment in the Ratio λ
λ +
λ +
=
1
x x
x
2 1
0
,
CB
AC
= λ , 1 − ≠ λ .

Figure 87.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
131

609. Midpoint of a Iine Segment
2
x x
x
2 1
0
+
= , 1 = λ .

7.2 Two-Dimensional Coordinate System

Point coordinates:
0
x ,
1
x ,
2
x ,
0
y ,
1
y ,
2
y
Polar coordinates: ϕ , r
Real number: λ
Positive real numbers: a, b, c,
Distance between two points: d
Area: S

610. Distance Between Two Points
( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
y y x x AB d − + − = =

Figure 88.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
132

611. Dividing a Iine Segment in the Ratio λ
λ +
λ +
=
1
x x
x
2 1
0
,
λ +
λ +
=
1
y y
y
2 1
0
,
CB
AC
= λ , 1 − ≠ λ .

Figure 89.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
133

Figure 90.

612. Midpoint of a Iine Segment
2
x x
x
2 1
0
+
= ,
2
y y
y
2 1
0
+
= , 1 = λ .

613. Centroid (Intersection of Medians) of a Triangle
3
x x x
x
3 2 1
0
+ +
= ,
3
y y y
y
3 2 1
0
+ +
= ,
where ( )
1 1
y , x A , ( )
2 2
y , x B , and ( )
3 3
y , x C are vertices of
the triangle ABC.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
134

Figure 91.

614. Incenter (Intersection of Angle Bisectors) of a Triangle
c b a
cx bx ax
x
3 2 1
0
+ +
+ +
= ,
c b a
cy by ay
y
3 2 1
0
+ +
+ +
= ,
where BC a = , CA b = , AB c = .

Figure 92.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
135

615. Circumcenter (Intersection of the Side Perpendicular
Bisectors) of a Triangle
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2
1 y y x
1 y y x
1 y y x
x
3 3
2 2
1 1
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
0
+
+
+
= ,
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2
1 y x x
1 y x x
1 y x x
y
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3
2
3 3
2
2
2
2 2
2
1
2
1 1
0
+
+
+
=

Figure 93.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
136

616. Orthocenter (Intersection of Altitudes) of a Triangle
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x x y
1 y x x y
1 y x x y
x
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3 2 1 3
2
2 1 3 2
2
1 3 2 1
0
+
+
+
= ,
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
1 x y y x
1 x y y x
1 x y y x
y
3 3
2 2
1 1
3 2 1
2
3
2 1 3
2
2
1 3 2
2
1
0
+
+
+
=

Figure 94.

617. Area of a Triangle
( ) ( )
1 3 1 3
1 2 1 2
3 3
2 2
1 1
y y x x
y y x x
2
1
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2
1
S
− −
− −
± = ± =

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
137

( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) | + + − + + − ± =
3 2 3 2 2 1 2 1
y y x x y y x x
2
1
S
( )( ) ( )( )|
1 4 1 4 4 3 4 3
y y x x y y x x + − + + − +

Figure 95.

Note: In formulas 617, 618 we choose the sign (+) or (-) so
that to get a positive answer for area.

619. Distance Between Two Points in Polar Coordinates
( )
1 2 2 1
2
2
2
1
cos r r 2 r r AB d ϕ − ϕ − + = =

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
138

Figure 96.

620. Converting Rectangular Coordinates to Polar Coordinates
ϕ = cos r x , ϕ = sin r y .

Figure 97.

621. Converting Polar Coordinates to Rectangular Coordinates
2 2
y x r + = ,
x
y
tan = ϕ .
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
139

7.3 Straight Line in Plane

Point coordinates: X, Y, x,
0
x ,
1
x ,
0
y ,
1
y ,
1
a ,
2
a , .
Real numbers: k, a, b, p, t, A, B, C,
1
A ,
2
A , .
Angles: α, β
Angle between two lines: ϕ
Normal vector: n
r

Position vectors: r
r
, a
r
, b
r

622. General Equation of a Straight Iine
0 C By Ax = + +

623. Normal Vector to a Straight Iine
The vector ( ) B , A n
r
is normal to the line 0 C By Ax = + + .

Figure 98.

624. Explicit Equation of a Straight Iine (Slope-Intercept Form)
b kx y + = .
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
140

The gradient of the line is α = tan k .

Figure 99.

1 2
1 2
x x
y y
tan k

= α =

Figure 100.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
141

626. Equation of a Iine Given a Point and the Gradient
( )
0 0
x x k y y − + = ,
where k is the gradient, ( )
0 0
y , x P is a point on the line.

Figure 101.

627. Equation of a Iine That Passes Through Two Points
1 2
1
1 2
1
x x
x x
y y
y y

=

or
0
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
2 2
1 1
= .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
142

Figure 102.

628. Intercept Form
1
b
y
a
x
= +

Figure 103.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
143

629. Normal Form
0 p sin y cos x = − β + β

Figure 104.

630. Point Direction Form
Y
y y
X
x x
1 1

=

,
where ( ) Y , X is the direction of the line and ( )
1 1 1
y , x P lies
on the line.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
144

Figure 105.

631. Vertical Iine
a x =

632. Horizontal Iine
b y =

633. Vector Equation of a Straight Iine
b t a r
r
r r
+ = ,
where
O is the origin of the coordinates,
X is any variable point on the line,
a
r
is the position vector of a known point A on the line ,
b
r
is a known vector of direction, parallel to the line,
t is a parameter,

= OX r
r
is the position vector of any point X on the line.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
145

Figure 106.

634. Straight Iine in Parametric Form
¹
´
¦
+ =
+ =
2 2
1 1
tb a y
tb a x
,
where
( ) y , x are the coordinates of any unknown point on the line,
( )
2 1
a , a are the coordinates of a known point on the line,
( )
2 1
b , b are the coordinates of a vector parallel to the line,
t is a parameter.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
146

Figure 107.

635. Distance From a Point To a Iine
The distance from the point ( ) b , a P to the line
0 C By Ax = + + is
2 2
B A
C Bb Aa
d
+
+ +
= .

Figure 108.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
147

636. Parallel Iines
Two lines
1 1
b x k y + = and
2 2
b x k y + = are parallel if
2 1
k k = .
Two lines 0 C y B x A
1 1 1
= + + and 0 C y B x A
2 2 2
= + + are
parallel if
2
1
2
1
B
B
A
A
= .

Figure 109.

637. Perpendicular Iines
Two lines
1 1
b x k y + = and
2 2
b x k y + = are perpendicular if
1
2
k
1
k − = or, equivalently, 1 k k
2 1
− = .
Two lines 0 C y B x A
1 1 1
= + + and 0 C y B x A
2 2 2
= + + are
perpendicular if
0 B B A A
2 1 2 1
= + .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
148

Figure 110.

638. Angle Between Two Iines
2 1
1 2
k k 1
k k
tan
+

= ϕ ,
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1
B A B A
B B A A
cos
+ ⋅ +
+
= ϕ .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
149

Figure 111.

639. Intersection of Two Iines
If two lines 0 C y B x A
1 1 1
= + + and 0 C y B x A
2 2 2
= + + inter-
sect, the intersection point has coordinates
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
0
B A B A
B C B C
x

+ −
= ,
1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1
0
B A B A
C A C A
y

+ −
= .

7.4 Circle

Center of circle: ( ) b , a
Point coordinates: x, y,
1
x ,
1
y , .
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, t
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
150

640. Equation of a Circle Centered at the Origin (Standard
Form)
2 2 2
R y x = +

Figure 112.

641. Equation of a Circle Centered at Any Point ( ) b , a
( ) ( )
2
2 2
R b y a x = − + −

Figure 113.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
151

642. Three Point Form
0
1 y x y x
1 y x y x
1 y x y x
1 y x y x
3 3
2
3
2
3
2 2
2
2
2
2
1 1
2
1
2
1
2 2
=
+
+
+
+

Figure 114.

643. Parametric Form
¹
´
¦
=
=
t sin R y
t cos R x
, π ≤ ≤ 2 t 0 .

644. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Ay Ax
2 2
= + + + + (A nonzero, AF 4 E D
2 2
> + ).
The center of the circle has coordinates ( ) b , a , where
A 2
D
a − = ,
A 2
E
b − = .
The radius of the circle is
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
152

A 2
AF 4 E D
R
2 2
− +
= .

7.5 Ellipse

Semimajor axis: a
Semiminor axis: b
Foci: ( ) 0 , c F
1
− , ( ) 0 , c F
2

Distance between the foci: 2c
Eccentricity: e
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, t
Perimeter: I
Area: S

645. Equation of an Ellipse (Standard Form)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +

Figure 115.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
153

646. a 2 r r
2 1
= + ,
where
1
r ,
2
r are distances from any point ( ) y , x P on
the ellipse to the two foci.

Figure 116.

647.
2 2 2
c b a + =

648. Eccentricity
1
a
c
e < =

649. Equations of Directrices
c
a
e
a
x
2
± = ± =

650. Parametric Form
¹
´
¦
=
=
t sin b y
t cos a x
, π ≤ ≤ 2 t 0 .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
154

651. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Cy Bxy Ax
2 2
= + + + + + ,
where 0 AC 4 B
2
< − .

652. General Form with Axes Parallel to the Coordinate Axes
0 F Ey Dx Cy Ax
2 2
= + + + + ,
where 0 AC > .

653. Circumference
( ) e aE 4 I = ,
where the function E is the complete elliptic integral of
the second kind.

654. Approximate Formulas of the Circumference
( ) ( ) ab b a 3 . 1 I − + π = ,
( )
2 2
b a 2 I + π = .

655. ab S π =

7.6 Hyperbola

Transverse axis: a
Conjugate axis: b
Foci: ( ) 0 , c F
1
− , ( ) 0 , c F
2

Distance between the foci: 2c
Eccentricity: e
Asymptotes: s, t
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, t, k

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
155

656. Equation of a Hyperbola (Standard Form)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= −

Figure 117.

657. a 2 r r
2 1
= − ,
where
1
r ,
2
r are distances from any point ( ) y , x P on
the hyperbola to the two foci.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
156

Figure 118.

658. Equations of Asymptotes
x
a
b
y ± =

659.
2 2 2
b a c + =

660. Eccentricity
1
a
c
e > =

661. Equations of Directrices
c
a
e
a
x
2
± = ± =

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
157

662. Parametric Equations of the Right Branch of a Hyperbola
¹
´
¦
=
=
t sinh b y
t cosh a x
, π ≤ ≤ 2 t 0 .

663. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Cy Bxy Ax
2 2
= + + + + + ,
where 0 AC 4 B
2
> − .

664. General Form with Axes Parallel to the Coordinate Axes
0 F Ey Dx Cy Ax
2 2
= + + + + ,
where 0 AC< .

665. Asymptotic Form
4
e
xy
2
= ,
or
x
k
y = , where
4
e
k
2
= .
In this case , the asymptotes have equations 0 x = and
0 y = .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
158

Figure 119.

7.7 Parabola

Focal parameter: p
Focus: F
Vertex: ( )
0 0
y , x M
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, E, F, p, a, b, c

666. Equation of a Parabola (Standard Form)
px 2 y
2
=

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
159

Figure 120.

Equation of the directrix
2
p
x − = ,
Coordinates of the focus
|
.
|

\
|
0 ,
2
p
F ,
Coordinates of the vertex
( ) 0 , 0 M .

667. General Form
0 F Ey Dx Cy Bxy Ax
2 2
= + + + + + ,
where 0 AC 4 B
2
= − .

668.
2
ax y = ,
a 2
1
p = .
Equation of the directrix
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
160

2
p
y − = ,
Coordinates of the focus
|
.
|

\
|
2
p
, 0 F ,
Coordinates of the vertex
( ) 0 , 0 M .

Figure 121.

669. General Form, Axis Parallel to the y-axis
0 F Ey Dx Ax
2
= + + + (A, E nonzero),
c bx ax y
2
+ + = ,
a 2
1
p = .
Equation of the directrix
2
p
y y
0
− = ,
Coordinates of the focus
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
161

|
.
|

\
|
+
2
p
y , x F
0 0
,
Coordinates of the vertex
a 2
b
x
0
− = ,
a 4
b ac 4
c bx ax y
2
0
2
0 0

= + + = .

Figure 122.

7.8 Three-Dimensional Coordinate System

Point coordinates:
0
x ,
0
y ,
0
z ,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Real number: λ
Distance between two points: d
Area: S
Volume: V

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
162

670. Distance Between Two Points
( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
2
1 2
2
1 2
z z y y x x AB d − + − + − = =

Figure 123.

671. Dividing a Iine Segment in the Ratio λ
λ +
λ +
=
1
x x
x
2 1
0
,
λ +
λ +
=
1
y y
y
2 1
0
,
λ +
λ +
=
1
z z
z
2 1
0
,
where
CB
AC
= λ , 1 − ≠ λ .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
163

Figure 124.

Figure 125.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
164

672. Midpoint of a Iine Segment
2
x x
x
2 1
0
+
= ,
2
y y
y
2 1
0
+
= ,
2
z z
z
2 1
0
+
= , 1 = λ .

673. Area of a Triangle
The area of a triangle with vertices ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P ,
( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P , and ( )
3 3 3 3
z , y , x P is given by
2
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3 3
2 2
1 1
2
3 3
2 2
1 1
1 y x
1 y x
1 y x
1 x z
1 x z
1 x z
1 z y
1 z y
1 z y
2
1
S + + = .

674. Volume of a Tetrahedron
The volume of a tetrahedron with vertices ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P ,
( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P , ( )
3 3 3 3
z , y , x P , and ( )
4 4 4 4
z , y , x P is given by
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
6
1
V
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
± = ,
or
4 3 4 3 4 3
4 2 4 2 4 2
4 1 4 1 4 1
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
6
1
V
− − −
− − −
− − −
± = .
Note: We choose the sign (+) or (-) so that to get a positive

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
165

Figure 126.

7.9 Plane

Point coordinates: x, y, z,
0
x ,
0
y ,
0
z ,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Real numbers: A, B, C, D,
1
A ,
2
A , a, b, c,
1
a ,
2
a , λ, p, t, .
Normal vectors: n
r
,
1
n
r
,
2
n
r

Direction cosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Distance from point to plane: d

675. General Equation of a Plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
166

676. Normal Vector to a Plane
The vector ( ) C , B , A n
r
is normal to the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + .

Figure 127.

677. Particular Cases of the Equation of a Plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + +

If 0 A = , the plane is parallel to the x-axis.
If 0 B = , the plane is parallel to the y-axis.
If 0 C = , the plane is parallel to the z-axis.
If 0 D= , the plane lies on the origin.

If 0 B A = = , the plane is parallel to the xy-plane.
If 0 C B = = , the plane is parallel to the yz-plane.
If 0 C A = = , the plane is parallel to the xz-plane.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
167

678. Point Direction Form
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 z z C y y B x x A
0 0 0
= − + − + − ,
where the point ( )
0 0 0
z , y , x P lies in the plane, and the vec-
tor ( ) C , B , A is normal to the plane.

Figure 128.

679. Intercept Form
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
= + +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
168

Figure 129.

680. Three Point Form
0
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
3 2 3 2 3 2
3 1 3 1 3 1
3 3 3
=
− − −
− − −
− − −
,
or
0
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
1 z y x
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
= .

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
169

Figure 130.

681. Normal Form
0 p cos z cos y cos x = − γ + β + α ,
where p is the perpendicular distance from the origin to
the plane , and α cos , β cos , γ cos are the direction cosines
of any line normal to the plane.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
170

Figure 131.

682. Parametric Form
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
t c s c z z
t b s b y y
t a s a x x
2 1 1
2 1 1
2 1 1
,
where ( ) z , y , x are the coordinates of any unknown point on
the line , the point ( )
1 1 1
z , y , x P lies in the plane, the vectors
( )
1 1 1
c , b , a and ( )
2 2 2
c , b , a are parallel to the plane.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
171

Figure 132.

683. Dihedral Angle Between Two Planes
If the planes are given by
0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + ,
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + ,
then the dihedral angle between them is
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
C B A C B A
C C B B A A
n n
n n
cos
+ + ⋅ + +
+ +
=

= ϕ
r r
r r
.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
172

Figure 133.

684. Parallel Planes
Two planes 0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + and
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + are parallel if
2
1
2
1
2
1
C
C
B
B
A
A
= = .

685. Perpendicular Planes
Two planes 0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + and
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + are perpendicular if
0 C C B B A A
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + + .

686. Equation of a Plane Through ( )
1 1 1
z , y , x P and Parallel To
the Vectors ( )
1 1 1
c , b , a and ( )
2 2 2
c , b , a (Fig.132)
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
173

0
c b a
c b a
z z y y x x
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
=
− − −

687. Equation of a Plane Through ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P and ( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P ,
and Parallel To the Vector ( ) c , b , a
0
c b a
z z y y x x
z z y y x x
1 2 1 2 1 2
1 1 1
= − − −
− − −

Figure 134.

688. Distance From a Point To a Plane
The distance from the point ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P to the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + is
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
174

2 2 2
1 1 1
C B A
D Cz By Ax
d
+ +
+ + +
= .

Figure 135.

689. Intersection of Two Planes
If two planes 0 D z C y B x A
1 1 1 1
= + + + and
0 D z C y B x A
2 2 2 2
= + + + intersect, the intersection straight
line is given by
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ =
+ =
+ =
ct z z
bt y y
at x x
1
1
1
,
or
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

,
where
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
175

2 2
1 1
C B
C B
a = ,
2 2
1 1
A C
A C
b = ,
2 2
1 1
B A
B A
c = ,
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
c b a
B D
B D
c
C D
C D
b
x
+ +

= ,
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
c b a
C D
C D
a
A D
A D
c
y
+ +

= ,
2 2 2
2 2
1 1
2 2
1 1
1
c b a
A D
A D
b
B D
B D
a
z
+ +

= .

7.10 Straight Line in Space

Point coordinates: x, y, z,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Direction cosines: α cos , β cos , γ cos
Real numbers: A, B, C, D, a, b, c,
1
a ,
2
a , t, .
Direction vectors of a line: s
r
,
1
s
r
,
2
s
r

Normal vector to a plane: n
r

Angle between two lines: ϕ

690. Point Direction Form of the Equation of a Iine
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

,
where the point ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P lies on the line, and ( ) c , b , a is
the direction vector of the line.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
176

Figure 136.

691. Two Point Form
1 2
1
1 2
1
1 2
1
z z
z z
y y
y y
x x
x x

=

=

Figure 137.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
177

692. Parametric Form
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
γ + =
β + =
α + =
cos t z z
cos t y y
cos t x x
1
1
1
,
where the point ( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P lies on the straight line,
α cos , β cos , γ cos are the direction cosines of the direction
vector of the line, the parameter t is any real number.

Figure 138.

693. Angle Between Two Straight Iines
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
c b a c b a
c c b b a a
s s
s s
cos
+ + ⋅ + +
+ +
=

= ϕ
r r
r r

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
178

Figure 139.

694. Parallel Iines
Two lines are parallel if
2 1
s || s
r r
,
or
2
1
2
1
2
1
c
c
b
b
a
a
= = .

695. Perpendicular Iines
Two lines are parallel if
0 s s
2 1
= ⋅
r r
,
or
0 c c b b a a
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + + .

696. Intersection of Two Iines
Two lines
1
1
1
1
1
1
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x −
=

=

and
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
179

2
2
2
2
2
2
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x −
=

=

intersect if
0
c b a
c b a
z z y y x x
2 2 2
1 1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2
=
− − −
.

697. Parallel Iine and Plane
The straight line
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

and the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + are parallel if
0 s n = ⋅
r r
,
or
0 Cc Bb Aa = + + .

Figure 140.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
180

698. Perpendicular Iine and Plane
The straight line
c
z z
b
y y
a
x x
1 1 1

=

=

and the plane
0 D Cz By Ax = + + + are perpendicular if
s || n
r r
,
or
c
C
b
B
a
A
= = .

Figure 141.

Point coordinates of the quadric surfaces: x, y, z
Real numbers: A, B, C, a, b, c,
3 2 1
k , k , k , .
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
181

0 D Rz 2 Qy 2 Px 2 Hxy 2 Gzx 2 Fyz 2 Cz By Ax
2 2 2
= + + + + + + + + +

Case Rank(e) Rank(E)

k signs Type of Surface
1 3 4
0 <
Same Real Ellipsoid
2 3 4
0 >
Same Imaginary Ellipsoid
3 3 4
0 >
Different Hyperboloid of 1 Sheet
4 3 4
0 <
Different Hyperboloid of 2 Sheets
3 3 3 Different Real Quadric Cone
6 3 3 Same Imaginary Quadric Cone
7 2 4
0 <
Same Elliptic Paraboloid
8 2 4
0 >
Different Hyperbolic Paraboloid
9 2 3 Same Real Elliptic Cylinder
10 2 3 Same Imaginary Elliptic Cylinder
11 2 3 Different Hyperbolic Cylinder
12 2 2 Different Real Intersecting Planes
13 2 2 Same Imaginary Intersecting Planes
14 1 3 Parabolic Cylinder
13 1 2 Real Parallel Planes
16 1 2 Imaginary Parallel Planes
17 1 1 Coincident Planes

Here
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
C F G
F B H
G H A
e ,
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
D R Q P
R C F G
Q F B H
P Q H A
E , ( ) E det = ∆ ,
3 2 1
k , k , k are the roots of the equation,
0
x C F G
F x B H
G H x A
=

.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
182

701. Real Ellipsoid (Case 1)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= + +

Figure 142.

702. Imaginary Ellipsoid (Case 2)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
− = + +

703. Hyperboloid of 1 Sheet (Case 3)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= − +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
183

Figure 143.

704. Hyperboloid of 2 Sheets (Case 4)
1
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
− = − +

Figure 144.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
184

705. Real Quadric Cone (Case 3)
0
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= − +

Figure 145.

706. Imaginary Quadric Cone (Case 6)
0
c
z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
2
2
= + +

707. Elliptic Paraboloid (Case 7)
0 z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= − +

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
185

Figure 146.

708. Hyperbolic Paraboloid (Case 8)
0 z
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= − −

Figure 147.
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
186

709. Real Elliptic Cylinder (Case 9)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +

Figure 148.

710. Imaginary Elliptic Cylinder (Case 10)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
− = +

711. Hyperbolic Cylinder (Case 11)
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= −

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
187

Figure 149.

712. Real Intersecting Planes (Case 12)
0
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= −

713. Imaginary Intersecting Planes (Case 13)
0
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +

714. Parabolic Cylinder (Case 14)
0 y
a
x
2
2
= −

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
188

Figure 150.

715. Real Parallel Planes (Case 13)
1
a
x
2
2
=

716. Imaginary Parallel Planes (Case 16)
1
a
x
2
2
− =

717. Coincident Planes (Case 17)
0 x
2
=

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
189

7.12 Sphere

Point coordinates: x, y, z,
1
x ,
1
y ,
1
z , .
Center of a sphere: ( ) c , b , a
Real numbers: A, D, E, F, M

718. Equation of a Sphere Centered at the Origin (Standard
Form)
2 2 2 2
R z y x = + +

Figure 151.

719. Equation of a Circle Centered at Any Point ( ) c , b , a
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
R c z b y a x = − + − + −

720. Diameter Form
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 0 z z z z y y y y x x x x
2 1 2 1 2 1
= − − + − − + − − ,
CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
190

where
( )
1 1 1 1
z , y , x P , ( )
2 2 2 2
z , y , x P are the ends of a diameter.

721. Four Point Form
0
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x x y x
1 z y x z y x
4 4 4
2
4
2
4
2
4
3 3 3
2
3
2
3
2
3
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2 2 2
=
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +

722. General Form
0 M Fz Ey Dx Az Ay Ax
2 2 2
= + + + + + + (A is nonzero).
The center of the sphere has coordinates ( ) c , b , a , where
A 2
D
a − = ,
A 2
E
b − = ,
A 2
F
c − = .
The radius of the sphere is
A 2
M A 4 F E D
R
2 2 2 2
− + +
= .

191

Chapt er 8
Differential Calculus

Functions: f, g, y, u, v
Argument (independent variable): x
Real numbers: a, b, c, d
Natural number: n
Angle: α
Inverse function:
1
f

8.1 Functions and Their Graphs

723. Even Function
( ) ( ) x f x f = −

724. Odd Function
( ) ( ) x f x f − = −

725. Periodic Function
( ) ( ) x f nT x f = +

726. Inverse Function
( ) x f y = is any function, ( ) y g x = or ( ) x f y
1 −
= is its inverse
function.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
192

Figure 152.

727. Composite Function
( ) u f y = , ( ) x g u = , ( ) ( ) x g f y = is a composite function.

728. Iinear Function
b ax y + = , R x∈ , α = tan a is the slope of the line, b is
the y-intercept.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
193

Figure 153.

2
x y = , R x∈ .

Figure 154.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
194

730. c bx ax y
2
+ + = , R x∈ .

Figure 155.

731. Cubic Function
3
x y = , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
195

Figure 156.

732. d cx bx ax y
2 3
+ + + = , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
196

Figure 157.

733. Power Function
n
x y = , N n∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
197

Figure 158.

Figure 159.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
198

734. Square Root Function
x y = , | ) ∞ ∈ , 0 x .

Figure 160.

735. Exponential Functions
x
a y = , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ ,
x
e y = if e a = , K 6 7182818284 . 2 e =

Figure 161.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
199

736. Iogarithmic Functions
x log y
a
= , ( ) ∞ ∈ , 0 x , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ ,
x ln y = if e a = , 0 x > .

Figure 162.

737. Hyperbolic Sine Function
x sinh y = ,
2
e e
x sinh
x x −

= , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
200

Figure 163.

738. Hyperbolic Cosine Function
x h cos y = ,
2
e e
x h cos
x x −
+
= , R x∈ .

Figure 164.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
201

739. Hyperbolic Tangent Function
x tanh y = ,
x x
x x
e e
e e
x cosh
x sinh
x tanh y

+

= = = , R x∈ .

Figure 165.

740. Hyperbolic Cotangent Function
x h cot y = ,
x x
x x
e e
e e
x sinh
x cosh
x h cot y

+
= = = , R x∈ , 0 x ≠ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
202

Figure 166.

741. Hyperbolic Secant Function
x h sec y = ,
x x
e e
2
x cosh
1
x h sec y

+
= = = , R x∈ .

Figure 167.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
203

742. Hyperbolic Cosecant Function
x csch y = ,
x x
e e
2
x sinh
1
x csch y

= = = , R x∈ , 0 x ≠ .

Figure 168.

743. Inverse Hyperbolic Sine Function
x arcsinh y = , R x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
204

Figure 169.

744. Inverse Hyperbolic Cosine Function
x arccosh y = , | ) ∞ ∈ , 1 x .

Figure 170.

745. Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent Function
x arctanh y = , ( ) 1 , 1 x − ∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
205

Figure 171.

746. Inverse Hyperbolic Cotangent Function
x arccoth y = , ( ) ( ) ∞ ∪ − ∞ − ∈ , 1 1 , x .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
206

Figure 172.

747. Inverse Hyperbolic Secant Function
x arcsech y = , ( | 1 , 0 x∈ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
207

Figure 173.

748. Inverse Hyperbolic Cosecant Function
x arccsch y = , R x∈ , 0 x ≠ .

Figure 174.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
208

8.2 Limits of Functions

Functions: ( ) x f , ( ) x g
Argument: x
Real constants: a, k

749. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) x g lim x f lim x g x f lim
a x a x a x → → →
+ = +

750. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) x g lim x f lim x g x f lim
a x a x a x → → →
− = −

751. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) x g lim x f lim x g x f lim
a x a x a x → → →
⋅ = ⋅

752.
( )
( )
( )
( ) x g lim
x f lim
x g
x f
lim
a x
a x
a x

= , if ( ) 0 x g lim
a x

.

753. ( ) | | ( ) x f lim k x kf lim
a x a x → →
=

754. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x g lim f x g f lim
a x a x → →
=

755. ( ) ( ) a f x f lim
a x
=

, if the function ( ) x f is continuous at a x = .

756. 1
x
x sin
lim
0 x
=

757. 1
x
x tan
lim
0 x
=

758. 1
x
x sin
lim
1
0 x
=

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
209

759. 1
x
x tan
lim
1
0 x
=

760.
( )
1
x
x 1 ln
lim
0 x
=
+

761. e
x
1
1 lim
x
x
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
∞ →

762.
k
x
x
e
x
k
1 lim =
|
.
|

\
|
+
∞ →

763. 1 a lim
x
0 x
=

8.3 Definition and Properties of the Derivative

Functions: f, g, y, u, v
Independent variable: x
Real constant: k
Angle: α

764. ( )
( ) ( )
dx
dy
x
y
lim
x
x f x x f
lim x y
0 x 0 x
=

=

− ∆ +
=

→ ∆ → ∆

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
210

Figure 175.

765. α = tan
dx
dy

766.
( )
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
v u d
+ =
+

767.
( )
dx
dv
dx
du
dx
v u d
− =

768.
( )
dx
du
k
dx
ku d
=

769. Product Rule
( )
dx
dv
u v
dx
du
dx
v u d
⋅ + ⋅ =

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
211

770. Quotient Rule
2
v
dx
dv
u v
dx
du
v
u
dx
d
⋅ − ⋅
=
|
.
|

\
|

771. Chain Rule
( ) ( ) x g f y = , ( ) x g u = ,
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
⋅ = .

772. Derivative of Inverse Function
dy
dx
1
dx
dy
= ,
where ( ) y x is the inverse function of ( ) x y .

773. Reciprocal Rule
2
y
dx
dy
y
1
dx
d
− =
|
|
.
|

\
|

774. Iogarithmic Differentiation
( ) x f y = , ( ) x f ln y ln = ,
( ) ( ) | | x f ln
dx
d
x f
dx
dy
⋅ = .

8.4 Table of Derivatives

Independent variable: x
Real constants: C, a, b, c
Natural number: n
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
212

775. ( ) 0 C
dx
d
=

776. ( ) 1 x
dx
d
=

777. ( ) a b ax
dx
d
= +

778. ( ) b ax c bx ax
dx
d
2
+ = + +

779. ( )
1 n n
nx x
dx
d

=

780. ( )
1 n
n
x
n
x
dx
d
+

− =

781.
2
x
1
x
1
dx
d
− =
|
.
|

\
|

782. ( )
x 2
1
x
dx
d
=

783. ( )
n 1 n
n
x n
1
x
dx
d

=

784. ( )
x
1
x ln
dx
d
=

785. ( )
a ln x
1
x log
dx
d
a
= , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
213

786. ( ) a ln a a
dx
d
x x
= , 0 a > , 1 a ≠ .

787. ( )
x x
e e
dx
d
=

788. ( ) x cos x sin
dx
d
=

789. ( ) x sin x cos
dx
d
− =

790. ( ) x sec
x cos
1
x tan
dx
d
2
2
= =

791. ( ) x csc
x sin
1
x cot
dx
d
2
2
− = − =

792. ( ) x sec x tan x sec
dx
d
⋅ =

793. ( ) x csc x cot x csc
dx
d
⋅ − =

794. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arcsin
dx
d

=

795. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arccos
dx
d

− =

796. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arctan
dx
d
+
=

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
214

797. ( )
2
x 1
1
x cot arc
dx
d
+
− =

798. ( )
1 x x
1
x sec arc
dx
d
2

=

799. ( )
1 x x
1
x csc arc
dx
d
2

− =

800. ( ) x cosh x sinh
dx
d
=

801. ( ) x sinh x cosh
dx
d
=

802. ( ) x sech
x cosh
1
x tanh
dx
d
2
2
= =

803. ( ) x csch
x sinh
1
x coth
dx
d
2
2
− = − =

804. ( ) x tanh x sech x sech
dx
d
⋅ − =

805. ( ) x coth x csch x csch
dx
d
⋅ − =

806. ( )
1 x
1
x arcsinh
dx
d
2
+
=

807. ( )
1 x
1
x arccosh
dx
d
2

=
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
215

808. ( )
2
x 1
1
x arctanh
dx
d

= , 1 x < .

809. ( )
1 x
1
x arccoth
dx
d
2

− = , 1 x > .

810. ( )
dx
dv
u ln u
dx
du
vu u
dx
d
v 1 v v
⋅ + ⋅ =

8.5 Higher Order Derivatives

Functions: f, y, u, v
Independent variable: x
Natural number: n

811. Second derivative
( )
2
2
dx
y d
dx
dy
dx
d
dx
dy
f f =
|
.
|

\
|
=

|
.
|

\
|
=

′ = ′ ′

812. Higher-Order derivative
( ) ( ) ( )
( )

= = =
−1 n n
n
n
n
f y
dx
y d
f

813. ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) n n n
v u v u + = +

814. ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) n n n
v u v u − = −

815. Ieibnitz∞s Formulas
( ) v u v u 2 v u uv
′ ′
+
′ ′
+
′ ′
=
′′

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
216

( ) v u v u 3 v u 3 v u uv
′ ′ ′
+
′ ′ ′
+
′ ′ ′
+
′ ′ ′
=
′′′

( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) n 2 n 1 n n
n
uv v u
2 1
1 n n
v nu v u uv + +
′ ′

+

+ =
− −
K

816. ( )
( )
( )
n m
n
m
x
! n m
! m
x

=

817. ( )
( )
! n x
n
n
=

818. ( )
( )
( ) ( )
a ln x
! 1 n 1
x log
n
1 n
n
a
− −
=

819. ( )
( )
( ) ( )
n
1 n
n
x
! 1 n 1
x ln
− −
=

820. ( )
( )
a ln a a
n x
n
x
=

821. ( )
( )
x
n
x
e e =

822. ( )
( )
a ln a m a
n mx n
n
mx
=

823. ( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ =
2
n
x sin x sin
n

824. ( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ =
2
n
x cos x cos
n

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
217

8.6 Applications of Derivative

Functions: f, g, y
Position of an object: s
Velocity: v
Acceleration: w
Independent variable: x
Time: t
Natural number: n

825. Velocity and Acceleration
( ) t f s = is the position of an object relative to a fixed
coordinate system at a time t,
( ) t f s v

=

= is the instantaneous velocity of the object,
( ) t f s v w ′ ′ = ′ ′ = ′ = is the instantaneous acceleration of
the object.

826. Tangent Iine
( )( )
0 0 0
x x x f y y −

= −

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
218

Figure 176.

827. Normal Iine
( )
( )
0
0
0
x x
x f
1
y y −

− = − (Fig 176)

828. Increasing and Decreasing Functions.
If ( ) 0 x f
0
> ′ , then f(x) is increasing at
0
x . (Fig 177,
1
x x < ,
x x
2
< ),
If ( ) 0 x f
0
< ′ , then f(x) is decreasing at
0
x . (Fig 177,
2 1
x x x < < ),
If ( )
0
x f ′ does not exist or is zero, then the test fails.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
219

Figure 177.

829. Iocal extrema
A function f(x) has a local maximum at
1
x if and only if
there exists some interval containing
1
x such that
( ) ( ) x f x f
1
≥ for all x in the interval (Fig.177).

A function f(x) has a local minimum at
2
x if and only if
there exists some interval containing
2
x such that
( ) ( ) x f x f
2
≤ for all x in the interval (Fig.177).

830. Critical Points
A critical point on f(x) occurs at
0
x if and only if either
( )
0
x f ′ is zero or the derivative doesn∞t exist.

831. First Derivative Test for Iocal Extrema.
If f(x) is increasing ( ( ) 0 x f >

) for all x in some interval
( |
1
x , a and f(x) is decreasing ( ( ) 0 x f < ′
) for all x in some
interval | ) b , x
1
, then f(x) has a local maximum at
1
x
(Fig.177).
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
220

832. If f(x) is decreasing ( ( ) 0 x f <

) for all x in some interval
( |
2
x , a and f(x) is increasing ( ( ) 0 x f > ′ ) for all x in some
interval | ) b , x
2
, then f(x) has a local minimum at
2
x .
(Fig.177).

833. Second Derivative Test for Iocal Extrema.
If ( ) 0 x f
1
=

and ( ) 0 x f
1
<
′ ′
, then f(x) has a local maximum
at
1
x .
If ( ) 0 x f
2
= ′
and ( ) 0 x f
2
> ′ ′
, then f(x) has a local minimum
at
2
x . (Fig.177)

834. Concavity.
f(x) is concave upward at
0
x if and only if ( ) x f ′ is
increasing at
0
x (Fig.177, x x
3
< ).
f(x) is concave downward at
0
x if and only if ( ) x f

is
decreasing at
0
x . (Fig.177,
3
x x < ).

835. Second Derivative Test for Concavity.
If ( ) 0 x f
0
> ′ ′ , then f(x) is concave upward at
0
x .
If ( ) 0 x f
0
< ′ ′ , then f(x) is concave downward at
0
x .
If ( ) x f
′ ′
does not exist or is zero, then the test fails.

836. Inflection Points
If ( )
3
x f ′ exists and ( ) x f
′ ′
changes sign at
3
x x = , then
the point ( ) ( )
3 3
x f , x is an inflection point of the graph of
( ) x f . If ( )
3
x f
′ ′ exists at the inflection point, then ( ) 0 x f
3
=
′ ′
(Fig.177).

837. I∞Hopital∞s Rule
( )
( )
( )
( ) x g
x f
lim
x g
x f
lim
c x c x

=
→ →
if ( ) ( )
¹
´
¦

= =
→ →
0
x g lim x f lim
c x c x
.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
221

8.7 Differential

Functions: f, u, v
Independent variable: x
Derivative of a function: ( ) x y

, ( ) x f

Real constant: C
Differential of function ( ) x f y = : dy
Differential of x: dx
Small change in x: x ∆
Small change in y: y ∆

838. dx y dy

=

839. ( ) ( ) ( ) x x f x f x x f ∆

+ = ∆ +

Figure 178.
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
222

840. Small Change in y
( ) ( ) x f x x f y − ∆ + = ∆

841. ( ) dv du v u d + = +

842. ( ) dv du v u d − = −

843. ( ) Cdu Cu d =

844. ( ) udv vdu uv d + =

845.
2
v
udv vdu
v
u
d

=
|
.
|

\
|

8.8 Multivariable Functions

Functions of two variables: ( ) y , x z , ( ) y , x f , ( ) y , x g , ( ) y , x h
Arguments: x, y, t
Small changes in x, y, z, respectively: x ∆ , y ∆ , z ∆ .

846. First Order Partial Derivatives
The partial derivative with respect to x
x
f
x
f
=

(also
x
z
x
z
=

),
The partial derivative with respect to y
y
f
y
f
=

(also
y
z
y
z
=

).

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
223

847. Second Order Partial Derivatives
xx
2
2
f
x
f
x
f
x
=

=
|
.
|

\
|

,
yy
2
2
f
y
f
y
f
y
=

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

,
xy
2
f
x y
f
x
f
y
=
∂ ∂

=
|
.
|

\
|

,
yx
2
f
y x
f
y
f
x
=
∂ ∂

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

.
If the derivatives are continuous, then
y x
f
x y
f
2 2
∂ ∂

=
∂ ∂

.

848. Chain Rules
If ( ) ( ) ( ) y , x h g y , x f = (g is a function of one variable h), then
( ) ( )
x
h
y , x h g
x
f

=

, ( ) ( )
y
h
y , x h g
y
f

=

.

If ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t y , t x f t h = , then ( )
dt
dy
y
f
dt
dx
x
f
t h

+

=

.

If ( ) ( ) ( ) v , u y , v , u x f z = , then
u
y
y
f
u
x
x
f
u
z

+

=

,
v
y
y
f
v
x
x
f
v
z

+

=

.

849. Small Changes
y
y
f
x
x
f
z ∆

+ ∆

≈ ∆

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
224

850. Iocal Maxima and Minima
( ) y , x f has a local maximum at ( )
0 0
y , x if ( ) ( )
0 0
y , x f y , x f ≤
for all ( ) y , x sufficiently close to ( )
0 0
y , x .

( ) y , x f has a local minimum at ( )
0 0
y , x if ( ) ( )
0 0
y , x f y , x f ≥
for all ( ) y , x sufficiently close to ( )
0 0
y , x .

851. Stationary Points
0
y
f
x
f
=

=

.
Iocal maxima and local minima occur at stationary points.

A stationary point which is neither a local maximum
nor a local minimum

853. Second Derivative Test for Stationary Points
Iet ( )
0 0
y , x be a stationary point ( 0
y
f
x
f
=

=

).
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0 0 yy 0 0 yx
0 0 xy 0 0 xx
y , x f y , x f
y , x f y , x f
D= .

If 0 D> , ( ) 0 y , x f
0 0 xx
> , ( )
0 0
y , x is a point of local minima.
If 0 D> , ( ) 0 y , x f
0 0 xx
< , ( )
0 0
y , x is a point of local maxima.
If 0 D< , ( )
0 0
y , x is a saddle point.
If 0 D= , the test fails.

854. Tangent Plane
The equation of the tangent plane to the surface ( ) y , x f z =
at ( )
0 0 0
z , y , x is
( )( ) ( )( )
0 0 0 y 0 0 0 x 0
y y y , x f x x y , x f z z − + − = − .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
225

855. Normal to Surface
The equation of the normal to the surface ( ) y , x f z = at
( )
0 0 0
z , y , x is
( ) ( ) 1
z z
y , x f
y y
y , x f
x x
0
0 0 y
0
0 0 x
0

=

=

.

8.9 Differential Operators

Unit vectors along the coordinate axes: i
r
, j
r
, k
r

Scalar functions (scalar fields): ( ) z , y , x f , ( )
n 2 1
x , , x , x u K
Directional derivative:
l
f

Vector function (vector field): ( ) R , Q , P F
r

Divergence of a vector field: F div
r
, F
r
⋅ ∇
Curl of a vector field: F curl
r
, F
r
× ∇
Iaplacian operator:
2

856. Gradient of a Scalar Function
|
|
.
|

\
|

= ∇ =
z
f
,
y
f
,
x
f
|
|
.
|

\
|

= ∇ =
n 2 1
x
u
, ,
x
u
,
x
u

857. Directional Derivative
γ

+ β

+ α

=

cos
z
f
cos
y
f
cos
x
f
l
f
,
CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS
226

where the direction is defined by the vector
( ) γ β α cos , cos , cos l
r
, 1 cos cos cos
2 2 2
= γ + β + α .

858. Divergence of a Vector Field
z
R
y
Q
x
P
F F div

+

+

= ⋅ ∇ =
r r

859. Curl of a Vector Field
R Q P
x x x
k j i
F F curl

= × ∇ =
r r r
r r

k
y
P
x
Q
j
x
R
z
P
i
z
Q
y
R
r r r
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

860. Iaplacian Operator
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
f
y
f
x
f
f

+

+

= ∇

861. ( ) ( ) 0 F F curl div ≡ × ∇ ⋅ ∇ =
r r

862. ( ) ( ) 0 f f grad curl ≡ ∇ × ∇ =

863. ( ) ( ) f f f grad div
2
∇ = ∇ ⋅ ∇ =

864. ( ) ( ) ( ) F F F F div grad F curl curl
2 2
r r r r r
∇ − ⋅ ∇ ∇ = ∇ − =

227

Chapt er 9
Integral Calculus

Functions: f, g, u, v
Independent variables: x, t, ξ
Indefinite integral of a function: ( )

dx x f , ( )

dx x g , .
Derivative of a function: ( ) x y

, ( ) x f

, ( ) x F

, .
Real constants: C, a, b, c, d, k
Natural numbers: m, n, i, j

9.1 Indefinite Integral

865. ( ) ( ) C x F dx x f + =

if ( ) ( ) x f x F =

.

866. ( ) ( ) ( ) x f dx x f =

867. ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
= dx x f k dx x kf

868. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+ = + dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

869. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
− = − dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

870. ( ) ( ) C ax F
a
1
dx ax f + =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
228

871. ( ) ( ) C b ax F
a
1
dx b ax f + + = +

872. ( ) ( ) ( ) C x f
2
1
dx x f x f
2
+ =

873.
( )
( )
( ) C x f ln dx
x f
x f
+ =

874. Method of Substitution
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
′ = dt t u t u f dx x f if ( ) t u x = .

875. Integration by Parts
∫ ∫
− = vdu uv udv ,
where ( ) x u , ( ) x v are differentiable functions.

9.2 Integrals of Rational Functions

876. C ax adx + =

877. C
2
x
xdx
2
+ =

878. C
3
x
dx x
3
2
+ =

879. C
1 p
x
dx x
1 p
p
+
+
=
+

, 1 p − ≠ .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
229

880. ( )
( )
( )
C
1 n a
b ax
dx b ax
1 n
n
+
+
+
= +
+

, 1 n − ≠ .

881. C x ln
x
dx
+ =

882. C b ax ln
a
1
b ax
dx
+ + =
+

883. C d cx ln
c
x
c
a
dx
d cx
b ax
2
+ +

+ =
+
+

884.
( )( )
C
a x
b x
ln
b a
1
b x a x
dx
+
+
+

=
+ +

, b a ≠ .

885. ( ) C bx a ln a bx a
b
1
bx a
xdx
2
+ + − + =
+

886. ( ) ( ) C bx a ln a bx a a 2 bx a
2
1
b
1
bx a
dx x
2 2
3
2
+
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + − + =
+

887.
( )
C
x
bx a
ln
a
1
bx a x
dx
+
+
=
+

888.
( )
C
x
bx a
ln
a
b
ax
1
bx a x
dx
2 2
+
+
+ − =
+

889.
( )
C
bx a
a
bx a ln
b
1
bx a
xdx
2 2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ + =
+

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
230

890.
( )
C
bx a
a
bx a ln a 2 bx a
b
1
bx a
dx x
2
3 2
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
− + − + =
+

891.
( ) ( )
C
x
bx a
ln
a
1
bx a a
1
bx a x
dx
2 2
+
+
+
+
=
+

892. C
1 x
1 x
ln
2
1
1 x
dx
2
+
+

=

893. C
x 1
x 1
ln
2
1
x 1
dx
2
+

+
=

894. C
x a
x a
ln
a 2
1
x a
dx
2 2
+

+
=

895. C
a x
a x
ln
a 2
1
a x
dx
2 2
+
+

=

896. C x tan
x 1
dx
1
2
+ =
+

897. C
a
x
tan
a
1
x a
dx
1
2 2
+ =
+

898. ( ) C a x ln
2
1
a x
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ + =
+

899. C
a
b
x arctan
ab
1
bx a
dx
2
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
+

, 0 ab > .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
231

900. C
b
a
x ln
b 2
1
bx a
xdx
2
2
+ + =
+

901.
( )
C
bx a
x
ln
a 2
1
bx a x
dx
2
2
2
+
+
=
+

902. C
bx a
bx a
ln
ab 2
1
x b a
dx
2 2 2
+

+
=

903. C
ac 4 b b ax 2
ac 4 b b ax 2
ln
ac 4 b
1
c bx ax
dx
2
2
2
2
+
− + +
− − +

=
+ +

,
0 ac 4 b
2
> − .

904. C
b ac 4
b ax 2
arctan
b ac 4
2
c bx ax
dx
2 2
2
+

+

=
+ +

,
0 ac 4 b
2
< − .

9.3 Integrals of Irrational Functions

905. C b ax
a
2
b ax
dx
+ + =
+

906. ( ) C b ax
a 3
2
dx b ax
2
3
+ + = +

907.
( )
C b ax
a 3
b 2 ax 2
b ax
xdx
2
+ +

=
+

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
232

908.
( )
( ) C b ax
a 13
b 2 ax 3 2
dx b ax x
2
3
2
+ +

= +

909.
( )
C
ac b b ax
ac b b ax
ln
ac b
1
b ax c x
dx
+
− + +
− − +

=
+ +

,
0 ac b > − .

910.
( )
C
b ac
b ax
arctan
b ac
1
b ax c x
dx
+

+

=
+ +

,
0 ac b < − .

911. ( )( ) − + + =
+
+

d cx b ax
c
1
dx
d cx
b ax

( ) ( ) C b ax c d cx a ln
ac c
+ + + +

− , 0 a > .

912. ( )( ) − + + =
+
+

d cx b ax
c
1
dx
d cx
b ax

( )
( )
C
b ax c
d cx a
arctan
ac c
+
+
+ −
− , ( 0 a < , 0 c > ).

913.
( )
( ) C bx a
b 103
x b 13 abx 12 a 8 2
dx bx a x
3
3
2 2 2
2
+ +
+ −
= +

914.
( )
C bx a
b 13
x b 3 abx 4 a 8 2
bx a
dx x
3
2 2 2 2
+ +
+ −
=
+

915. C
a bx a
a bx a
ln
a
1
bx a x
dx
+
+ +
− +
=
+

, 0 a > .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
233

916. C
a
bx a
arctan
a
2
bx a x
dx
+

+

=
+

, 0 a < .

917. ( )( ) ( ) C
b a
b x
arcsin b a x b x a dx
x b
x a
+
+
+
+ + + − =
+

918. ( )( ) ( ) C
b a
x b
arcsin b a x b x a dx
x b
x a
+
+

+ − − + − =

+

919. C x arcsin x 1 dx
x 1
x 1
2
+ + − − =

+

920.
( )( )
C
a b
a x
arcsin 2
a b a x
dx
+

=
− −

921. + − +

= − +

2 2
cx bx a
c 4
b cx 2
dx cx bx a
C
ac 4 b
b cx 2
arcsin
c 8
ac 4 b
2 3
2
+
+
− −
+

922. ( ) C c bx ax a 2 b ax 2 ln
a
1
c bx ax
dx
2
2
+ + + + + =
+ +

,
0 a > .

923. C ac 4 b
a 4
b ax 2
arcsin
a
1
c bx ax
dx
2
2
+ −
+
− =
+ +

, 0 a < .

924. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
dx a x
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
+ + + + + = +

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
234

925. ( ) C a x
3
1
dx a x x
2
3
2 2 2 2
+ + = +

926. ( ) − + + = +

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
a x a x 2
8
x
dx a x x
C a x x ln
8
a
2 2
4
+ + + −

927. C a x x ln
x
a x
dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
+ + + +
+
− =
+

928. C a x x ln
a x
dx
2 2
2 2
+ + + =
+

929. C
a x a
x
ln a a x dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
2 2
+
+ +
+ + =
+

930. C a x
a x
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ + =
+

931. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
a x
dx x
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
+ + + − + =
+

932. C
a x a
x
ln
a
1
a x x
dx
2 2 2 2
+
+ +
=
+

933. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
dx a x
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
+ − + − − = −

934. ( ) C a x
3
1
dx a x x
2
3
2 2 2 2
+ − = −

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
235

935. C
x
a
arcsin a a x dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
+ + − =

936. C a x x ln
x
a x
dx
x
a x
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
+ − + +

− =

937. C a x x ln
a x
dx
2 2
2 2
+ − + =

938. C a x
a x
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ − =

939. C a x x ln
2
a
a x
2
x
a x
dx x
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
+ − + + − =

940. C
x
a
arcsin
a
1
a x x
dx
2 2
+ − =

941.
( )
C
a x
a x
a
1
a x a x
dx
2 2
+
+

=
− +

942.
( )
C
a x
a x
a
1
a x a x
dx
2 2
+

+
− =
− −

943. C
x a
a x
a x x
dx
2
2 2
2 2 2
+

=

944.
( )
C
a x a
x
a x
dx
2 2 2
2
3
2 2
+

− =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
236

945. ( ) ( ) + − − − = −

2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2
a x a 3 x 2
8
x
dx a x
C a x x ln
8
a 3
2 2
4
+ − + +

946. C
a
x
arcsin
2
a
x a
2
x
dx x a
2
2 2 2 2
+ + − = −

947. ( ) C x a
3
1
dx x a x
2
3
2 2 2 2
+ − − = −

948. ( ) C
a
x
arcsin
8
a
x a a x 2
8
x
dx x a x
4
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+ + − − = −

949. C
x a a
x
ln a x a dx
x
x a
2 2
2 2
2 2
+
− +
+ − =

950. C
a
x
arcsin
x
x a
dx
x
x a
2 2
2
2 2
+ −

− =

951. C x arcsin
x 1
dx
2
+ =

952. C
a
x
sin
x a
dx
2 2
+ =

953. C x a
x a
xdx
2 2
2 2
+ − − =

954. C
a
x
arcsin
2
a
x a
2
x
x a
dx x
2
2 2
2 2
2
+ + − − =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
237

955.
( )
C
x a
x a
2
1
x a a x
dx
2 2
+
+

− =
− +

956.
( )
C
x a
x a
2
1
x a a x
dx
2 2
+

+
− =
− −

957.
( )
( )
C
b x a
a bx
arcsin
a b
1
x a b x
dx
2
2 2 2 2
+
+
+

=
− +

, a b > .

958.
( )
, C
bx a x a b a
b x
ln
b a
1
x a b x
dx
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+
+ + − −
+

=
− +

a b < .

959. C
x a
x a
x a x
dx
2
2 2
2 2 2
+

− =

960. ( ) ( ) C
a
x
arcsin
8
a 3
x a x 2 a 3
8
x
dx x a
4
2 2 2 2
2
3
2 2
+ + − − = −

961.
( )
C
x a a
x
x a
dx
2 2 2
2
3
2 2
+

=

9.4 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions

962. C x cos xdx sin + − =

963. C x sin xdx cos + =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
238

964. C x 2 sin
4
1
2
x
dx x sin
2
+ − =

965. C x 2 sin
4
1
2
x
dx x cos
2
+ + =

966. C x cos
4
3
x 3 cos
12
1
C x cos x cos
3
1
dx x sin
3 3
+ − = + − =

967. C x sin
4
3
x 3 sin
12
1
C x sin
3
1
x sin dx x cos
3 3
+ + = + − =

968. C
2
x
tan ln dx x csc
x sin
dx
+ = =
∫ ∫

969. C
4 2
x
tan ln dx x sec
x cos
dx
+
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ = =
∫ ∫

970. C x cot dx x csc
x sin
dx
2
2
+ − = =
∫ ∫

971. C x tan dx x sec
x cos
dx
2
2
+ = =
∫ ∫

972. C
2
x
tan ln
2
1
x sin 2
x cos
dx x csc
x sin
dx
2
3
3
+ + − = =
∫ ∫

973. C
4 2
x
tan ln
2
1
x cos 2
x sin
dx x sec
x cos
dx
2
3
3
+
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ + = =
∫ ∫

974. C x 2 cos
4
1
dx x cos x sin + − =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
239

975. C x sin
3
1
dx x cos x sin
3 2
+ =

976. C x cos
3
1
dx x cos x sin
3 2
+ − =

977. C x 4 sin
32
1
8
x
dx x cos x sin
2 2
+ − =

978. C x cos ln xdx tan + − =

979. C x sec C
x cos
1
dx
x cos
x sin
2
+ = + =

980. C x sin
4 2
x
tan ln dx
x cos
x sin
2
+ −
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ =

981. C x x tan dx x tan
2
+ − =

982. C x sin ln xdx cot + =

983. C x csc C
x sin
1
dx
x sin
x cos
2
+ − = + − =

984. C x cos
2
x
tan ln dx
x sin
x cos
2
+ + =

985. C x x cot dx x cot
2
+ − − =

986. C x tan ln
x sin x cos
dx
+ =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
240

987. C
4 2
x
tan ln
x sin
1
x cos x sin
dx
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
π
+ + − =

988. C
2
x
tan ln
x cos
1
x cos x sin
dx
2
+ + =

989. C x cot x tan
x cos x sin
dx
2 2
+ − =

990.
( )
( )
( )
( )
C
n m 2
x n m sin
n m 2
x n m sin
dx nx sin mx sin +

+
+
+
− =

,
2 2
n m ≠ .

991.
( )
( )
( )
( )
C
n m 2
x n m cos
n m 2
x n m cos
dx nx cos mx sin +

+
+
− =

,
2 2
n m ≠ .

992.
( )
( )
( )
( )
C
n m 2
x n m sin
n m 2
x n m sin
dx nx cos mx cos +

+
+
+
=

,
2 2
n m ≠ .

993. C x sec xdx tan x sec + =

994. C x csc xdx cot x csc + − =

995. C
1 n
x cos
dx x cos x sin
1 n
n
+
+
− =
+

996. C
1 n
x sin
dx x cos x sin
1 n
n
+
+
=
+

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
241

997. C x 1 x arcsin x dx x arcsin
2
+ − + =

998. C x 1 x arccos x dx x arccos
2
+ − − =

999. ( ) C 1 x ln
2
1
x arctan x dx x arctan
2
+ + − =

1000. ( ) C 1 x ln
2
1
x cot arc x dx x cot arc
2
+ + + =

9.5 Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions

1001. C x cosh xdx sinh + =

1002. C x sinh xdx cosh + =

1003. C x cosh ln dx x tanh + =

1004. C x sinh ln dx x coth + =

1005. C x tanh xdx sech
2
+ =

1006. C x coth xdx csch
2
+ − =

1007. C x sech xdx tanh x sech + − =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
242

1008. C x csch xdx coth x csch + − =

9.6 Integrals of Exponential and Logarithmic
Functions

1009. C e dx e
x x
+ =

1010. C
a ln
a
dx a
x
x
+ =

1011. C
a
e
dx e
ax
ax
+ =

1012. ( ) C 1 ax
a
e
dx xe
2
ax
ax
+ − =

1013. C x x ln x dx x ln + − =

1014. C x ln ln
x ln x
dx
+ =

1015.
( )
C
1 n
1
1 n
x ln
x dx x ln x
2
1 n n
+
(
¸
(

¸

+

+
=
+

1016. C e
b a
bx cos b bx sin a
dx bx sin e
ax
2 2
ax
+
+

=

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
243

1017. C e
b a
bx sin b bx cos a
dx bx cos e
ax
2 2
ax
+
+
+
=

9.7 Reduction Formulas

1018.
∫ ∫

− = dx e x
m
n
e x
m
1
dx e x
mx 1 n mx n mx n

1019.
( )
∫ ∫ − −

+

− = dx
x
e
1 n
m
x 1 n
e
dx
x
e
1 n
mx
1 n
mx
n
mx
, 1 n ≠ .

1020.
∫ ∫
− −

− = xdx sinh
n
1 n
x cosh x sinh
n
1
xdx sinh
2 n 1 n n

1021.
( )
∫ ∫ − −

− =
x sinh
dx
1 n
2 n
x sinh 1 n
x cosh
x sinh
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1022.
∫ ∫
− −

+ = xdx cosh
n
1 n
x cosh x cosh x sinh
n
1
xdx cosh
2 n 1 n n

1023.
( )
∫ ∫ − −

+

− =
x cosh
dx
1 n
2 n
x cosh 1 n
x sinh
x cosh
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1024.
m n
x cosh x sinh
xdx cosh x sinh
1 m 1 n
m n
+
=
− +

+

+ xdx cosh x sinh
m n
1 m
2 m n

1025.
m n
x cosh x sinh
xdx cosh x sinh
1 m 1 n
m n
+
=
+ −

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
244

+

− xdx cosh x sinh
m n
1 n
m 2 n

1026.
∫ ∫
− −
+

− = xdx tanh x tanh
1 n
1
xdx tanh
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1027.
∫ ∫
− −
+

− = xdx coth x coth
1 n
1
xdx coth
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1028.
∫ ∫

+

= xdx sech
1 n
2 n
1 n
x tanh x sech
xdx sech
2 n
2 n
n
, 1 n ≠ .

1029.
∫ ∫
− −

+ − = xdx sin
n
1 n
x cos x sin
n
1
xdx sin
2 n 1 n n

1030.
( )
∫ ∫ − −

+

− =
x sin
dx
1 n
2 n
x sin 1 n
x cos
x sin
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1031.
∫ ∫
− −

+ = xdx cos
n
1 n
x cos x sin
n
1
xdx cos
2 n 1 n n

1032.
( )
∫ ∫ − −

+

=
x cos
dx
1 n
2 n
x cos 1 n
x sin
x cos
dx
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1033.
m n
x cos x sin
xdx cos x sin
1 m 1 n
m n
+
=
− +

+

+ xdx cos x sin
m n
1 m
2 m n

1034.
m n
x cos x sin
xdx cos x sin
1 m 1 n
m n
+
− =
+ −

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
245

+

+ xdx cos x sin
m n
1 n
m 2 n

1035.
∫ ∫
− −

= xdx tan x tan
1 n
1
xdx tan
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1036.
∫ ∫
− −

− = xdx cot x cot
1 n
1
xdx cot
2 n 1 n n
, 1 n ≠ .

1037.
∫ ∫

+

= xdx sec
1 n
2 n
1 n
x tan x sec
xdx sec
2 n
2 n
n
, 1 n ≠ .

1038.
∫ ∫

+

− = xdx csc
1 n
2 n
1 n
x cot x csc
xdx csc
2 n
2 n
n
, 1 n ≠ .

1039.
∫ ∫

+
+

+
= xdx ln x
1 n
m
1 n
x ln x
xdx ln x
1 m n
m 1 n
m n

1040.
( )
∫ ∫

+

− = dx
x
x ln
1 n
m
x 1 n
x ln
dx
x
x ln
n
1 m
1 n
m
n
m
, 1 n ≠ .

1041.
∫ ∫

− = xdx ln n x ln x xdx ln
1 n n n

1042.
∫ ∫

− = xdx cosh x n x cosh x xdx sinh x
1 n n n

1043.
∫ ∫

− = xdx sinh x n x sinh x xdx cosh x
1 n n n

1044.
∫ ∫

+ − = xdx cos x n x cos x xdx sin x
1 n n n

1045.
∫ ∫

− = xdx sin x n x sin x xdx cos x
1 n n n

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
246

1046.
∫ ∫

+

+
=
+

+

dx
x 1
x
1 n
1
x sin
1 n
x
xdx sin x
2
1 n
1
1 n
1 n

1047.
∫ ∫

+
+
+
=
+

+

dx
x 1
x
1 n
1
x cos
1 n
x
xdx cos x
2
1 n
1
1 n
1 n

1048.
∫ ∫
+ +

+
=
+

+

dx
x 1
x
1 n
1
x tan
1 n
x
xdx tan x
2
1 n
1
1 n
1 n

1049.
∫ ∫
+
− =
+ b ax
dx
a
b
a
x
b ax
dx x
n n
n

1050.
( ) ( )( )( )
1 n
2 2
n
2
c bx ax ac 4 b 1 n
b ax 2
c bx ax
dx

+ + − −
− −
=
+ +

( )
( )( )
( )
∫ −
+ +
− −

1 n
2
2
c bx ax
dx
ac 4 b 1 n
a 3 n 2 2
, 1 n ≠ .

1051.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
,
a x
dx
a 1 n 2
3 n 2
a x a 1 n 2
x
a x
dx
1 n
2 2
2 1 n
2 2 2
n
2 2
∫ ∫ − −
+

+
+ −
=
+
1 n ≠ .

1052.
( ) ( ) ( )
1 n
2 2 2
n
2 2
a x a 1 n 2
x
a x
dx

− −
− =

( )
( )
∫ −

1 n
2 2
2
a x
dx
a 1 n 2
3 n 2
, 1 n ≠ .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
247

9.8 Definite Integral

Definite integral of a function: ( )

b
a
dx x f , ( )

b
a
dx x g , .
Riemann sum: ( )

=
∆ ξ
n
1 i
i i
x f
Small changes:
i
x ∆
Antiderivatives: ( ) x F , ( ) x G
Iimits of integrations: a, b, c, d

1053. ( ) ( )

=
→ ∆
∞ →
∆ ξ =
n
1 i
i i
0 x max
n
b
a
x f lim dx x f
i
,
where
1 i i i
x x x

− = ∆ ,
i i 1 i
x x ≤ ξ ≤

.

Figure 179.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
248

1054. a b dx 1
b
a
− =

1055. ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
=
b
a
b
a
dx x f k dx x kf

1056. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+ = +
b
a
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

1057. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
− = −
b
a
b
a
b
a
dx x g dx x f dx x g x f

1058. ( ) 0 dx x f
a
a
=

1059. ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
− =
a
b
b
a
dx x f dx x f

1060. ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
+ =
b
c
c
a
b
a
dx x f dx x f dx x f for b c a < < .

1061. ( ) 0 dx x f
b
a

if ( ) 0 x f ≥ on | | b , a .

1062. ( ) 0 dx x f
b
a

if ( ) 0 x f ≤ on | | b , a .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
249

1063. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a F b F x F dx x f
b
a
b
a
− = =

if ( ) ( ) x f x F =

.

1064. Method of Substitution
If ( ) t g x = , then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫

=
d
c
b
a
dt t g t g f dx x f ,
where
( ) a g c
1 −
= , ( ) b g d
1 −
= .

1065. Integration by Parts
( )
∫ ∫
− =
b
a
b
a
b
a
vdu uv udv

1066. Trapezoidal Rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ +

=

=
1 n
1 i
i n 0
b
a
x f 2 x f x f
n 2
a b
dx x f

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
250

Figure 180.

1067. Simpson∞s Rule
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | + + + +

=

3 2 1 0
b
a
x f 4 x f 2 x f 4 x f
n 3
a b
dx x f
( ) ( ) ( )|
n 1 n 4
x f x f 4 x f 2 + + + +

K ,
where
i
n
a b
a x
i

+ = , n , , 2 , 1 , 0 i K = .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
251

Figure 181.

1068. Area Under a Curve
( ) ( ) ( ) a F b F dx x f S
b
a
− = =

,
where ( ) ( ) x f x F =

.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
252

Figure 182.

1069. Area Between Two Curves
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a G a F b G b F dx x g x f S
b
a
+ − − = − =

,
where ( ) ( ) x f x F =

, ( ) ( ) x g x G =

.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
253

Figure 183.

9.9 Improper Integral

1070. The definite integral ( )

b
a
dx x f is called an improper integral
if
• a or b is infinite,
• ( ) x f has one or more points of discontinuity
in the interval | | b , a .

1071. If ( ) x f is a continuous function on | ) ∞ , a , then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
∞ →

=
n
a
n
a
dx x f lim dx x f .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
254

Figure 184.

1072. If ( ) x f is a continuous function on ( | b , ∞ − , then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
∞ − →
∞ −
=
b
n
n
b
dx x f lim dx x f .

Figure 185.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
255

Note : The improper integrals in 1071, 1072 are convergent
if the limits exist and are finite; otherwise the integrals are
divergent.

1073. ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫

∞ −

∞ −
+ =
c
c
dx x f dx x f dx x f

Figure 186.

If for some real number c, both of the integrals in the right
side are convergent, then the integral ( )

∞ −
dx x f is also
convergent; otherwise it is divergent.

1074. Comparison Theorems
Iet ( ) x f and ( ) x g be continuous functions on the closed
interval | ) ∞ , a . Suppose that ( ) ( ) x f x g 0 ≤ ≤ for all x in
| ) ∞ , a .
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
256

• If ( )

a
dx x f is convergent, then ( )

a
dx x g is also
convergent,
• If ( )

a
dx x g is divergent, then ( )

a
dx x f is also divergent.

1075. Absolute Convergence

If ( )

a
dx x f is convergent, then the integral ( )

a
dx x f is abso-
lutely convergent.

1076. Discontinuous Integrand
Iet ( ) x f be a function which is continuous on the interval
| ) b , a but is discontinuous at b x = . Then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
ε −
+ → ε
=
b
a
0
b
a
dx x f lim dx x f

Figure 187.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
257

1077. Iet ( ) x f be a continuous function for all real numbers x in
the interval | | b , a except for some point c in ( ) b , a . Then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
δ +
+ → δ
ε −
+ → ε
+ =
b
c
0
c
a
0
b
a
dx x f lim dx x f lim dx x f .

Figure 188.

9.10 Double Integral

Functions of two variables: ( ) y , x f , ( ) v , u f , .
Double integrals: ( )
∫∫
R
dxdy y , x f , ( )
∫∫
R
dxdy y , x g , .
Riemann sum: ( )
∑∑
= =
∆ ∆
m
1 i
n
1 j
j i j i
y x v , u f
Small changes:
i
x ∆ ,
j
y ∆
Regions of integration: R, S
Polar coordinates: r , θ
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
258

Area: A
Surface area: S
Volume of a solid: V
Mass of a lamina: m
Density: ( ) y , x ρ
First moments:
x
M ,
y
M
Moments of inertia:
x
I ,
y
I ,
0
I
Charge of a plate: Q
Charge density: ( ) y , x σ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y
Average of a function: µ

1078. Definition of Double Integral
The double integral over a rectangle | | | | d , c b , a × is defined
to be
( )
| | | |
( )
∑∑
∫∫
= =
→ ∆
→ ∆
×
∆ ∆ =
m
1 i
n
1 j
j i j i
0 y max
0 x max
d , c b , a
y x v , u f lim dA y , x f
j
i
,
where ( )
j i
v , u is some point in the rectangle
( ) ( )
j 1 j i 1 i
y , y x , x
− −
× , and
1 i i i
x x x

− = ∆ ,
1 j j j
y y y

− = ∆ .

Figure 189.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
259

The double integral over a general region R is
( ) ( )
| | | |
∫∫ ∫∫
×
=
d , c b , a R
dA y , x g dA y , x f ,
where rectangle | | | | d , c b , a × contains R,
( ) ( ) y , x f y , x g = if ( ) y , x f is in R and ( ) 0 y , x g = otherwise.

Figure 190.

1079. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
+ = +
R R R
dA y , x g dA y , x f dA y , x g y , x f

1080. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
− = −
R R R
dA y , x g dA y , x f dA y , x g y , x f

1081. ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
=
R R
dA y , x f k dA y , x kf ,
where k is a constant.

1082. If ( ) ( ) y , x g y , x f ≤ on R, then ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫

R R
dA y , x g dA y , x f .

1083. If ( ) 0 y , x f ≥ on R and R S ⊂ , then
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
260

( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫

R S
dA y , x f dA y , x f .

Figure 191.

1084. If ( ) 0 y , x f ≥ on R and R and S are non-overlapping
regions, then ( ) ( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
+ =
∪ S R S R
dA y , x f dA y , x f dA y , x f .
Here S R∪ is the union of the regions R and S.

Figure 192.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
261

1085. Iterated Integrals and Fubini∞s Theorem
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
=
b
a
x q
x p R
dydx y , x f dA y , x f
for a region of type I,
( ) ( ) ( ) { } x q y x p , b x a | y , x R ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ = .

Figure 193.

( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
=
d
c
y v
y u R
dxdy y , x f dA y , x f
for a region of type II,
( ) ( ) ( ) { } d y c , y v x y u | y , x R ≤ ≤ ≤ ≤ = .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
262

Figure 194.

1086. Double Integrals over Rectangular Regions

If R is the rectangular region | | | | d , c b , a × , then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
c
b
a
b
a
d
c R
dy dx y , x f dx dy y , x f dxdy y , x f .

In the special case where the integrand ( ) y , x f can be writ-
ten as ( ) ( ) y h x g we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
∫ ∫ ∫∫ ∫∫
d
c
b
a R R
dy y h dx x g dxdy y h x g dxdy y , x f .

1087. Change of Variables
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
dudv
v , u
y , x
v , u y , v , u x f dxdy y , x f
S R

=
∫∫ ∫∫
,
where
( )
( )
0
v
y
u
y
v
x
u
x
v , u
y , x

=

is the jacobian of the trans-
formations ( ) ( ) v , u y , x → , and S is the pullback of R which
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
263

can be computed by ( ) v , u x x = , ( ) v , u y y = into the defini-
tion of R.

1088. Polar Coordinates
θ = cos r x , θ = sin r y .

Figure 195.

1089. Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates

The Differential dxdy for Polar Coordinates is
( )
( )
θ = θ
θ ∂

= rdrd drd
, r
y , x
dxdy .

Iet the region R is determined as follows:
( ) ( ) θ ≤ ≤ θ ≤ h r g 0 , β ≤ θ ≤ α , where π ≤ α − β 2 .
Then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
β
α
θ
θ
θ θ θ =
h
g R
rdrd sin r , cos r f dxdy y , x f .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
264

Figure 196.

If the region R is the polar rectangle given by
b r a 0 ≤ ≤ ≤ , β ≤ θ ≤ α , where π ≤ α − β 2 ,
then
( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
β
α
θ θ θ =
b
a R
rdrd sin r , cos r f dxdy y , x f .

Figure 197.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
265

1090. Area of a Region
( )
( )
∫ ∫
=
b
a
x f
x g
dydx A (for a type I region).

Figure 198.

( )
( )
∫ ∫
=
d
c
y q
y p
dxdy A (for a type II region).

Figure 199.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
266

1091. Volume of a Solid
( )
∫∫
=
R
dA y , x f V .

Figure 200.

If R is a type I region bounded by a x = , b x = , ( ) x h y = ,
( ) x g y = , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
= =
b
a
x g
x h R
dydx y , x f dA y , x f V .

If R is a type II region bounded by c y = , d y = , ( ) y q x = ,
( ) y p x = , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
= =
d
c
y q
y p R
dxdy y , x f dA y , x f V .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
267

If ( ) ( ) y , x g y , x f ≥ over a region R, then the volume of
the solid between ( ) y , x f z
1
= and ( ) y , x g z
2
= over R is
given by
( ) ( ) | |
∫∫
− =
R
dA y , x g y , x f V .

1092. Area and Volume in Polar Coordinates
If S is a region in the xy-plane bounded by α = θ , β = θ ,
( ) θ = h r , ( ) θ = g r ,
then
( )
( )
∫ ∫ ∫∫
β
α
θ
θ
θ = =
g
h S
rdrd dA A ,
( )
∫∫
θ θ =
S
rdrd , r f V .

Figure 201.

1093. Surface Area
dxdy
y
z
x
z
1 S
R
2
2
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
268

1094. Mass of a Iamina
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
dA y , x m ,
where the lamina occupies a region R and its density at
a point (x,y) is ( ) y , x ρ .

1095. Moments
The moment of the lamina about the x-axis is given by for-
mula
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
x
dA y , x y M .

The moment of the lamina about the y-axis is
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
y
dA y , x x M .

The moment of inertia about the x-axis is
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
2
x
dA y , x y I .

The moment of inertia about the y-axis is
( )
∫∫
ρ =
R
2
y
dA y , x x I .

The polar moment of inertia is
( ) ( )
∫∫
ρ + =
R
2 2
0
dA y , x y x I .

1096. Center of Mass
( )
( )
( )
∫∫
∫∫
∫∫
ρ
ρ
= ρ = =
R
R
R
y
dA y , x
dA y , x x
dA y , x x
m
1
m
M
x ,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
269

( )
( )
( )
∫∫
∫∫
∫∫
ρ
ρ
= ρ = =
R
R
R
x
dA y , x
dA y , x y
dA y , x y
m
1
m
M
y .

1097. Charge of a Plate
( )
∫∫
σ =
R
dA y , x Q ,
where electrical charge is distributed over a region R and its
charge density at a point (x,y) is ( ) y , x σ .

1098. Average of a Function
( )
∫∫
= µ
R
dA y , x f
S
1
,
where
∫∫
=
R
dA S .

9.11 Triple Integral

Functions of three variables: ( ) z , y , x f , ( ) z , y , x g , .
Triple integrals: ( )
∫∫∫
G
dV z , y , x f , ( )
∫∫∫
G
dV z , y , x g , .
Riemann sum: ( )
∑∑∑
= = =
∆ ∆ ∆
m
1 i
n
1 j
p
1 k
k j i k j i
z y x w , v , u f
Small changes:
i
x ∆ ,
j
y ∆ ,
k
z ∆
Iimits of integration: a, b, c, d, r, s
Regions of integration: G, T, S
Cylindrical coordinates: r , θ , z
Spherical coordinates: r , θ , ϕ
Volume of a solid: V
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
270

Mass of a solid: m
Density: ( ) z , y , x µ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y , z
First moments:
xy
M ,
yz
M ,
xz
M
Moments of inertia:
xy
I ,
yz
I ,
xz
I ,
x
I ,
y
I ,
z
I ,
0
I

1099. Definition of Triple Integral
The triple integral over a parallelepiped | | | | | | s , r d , c b , a × ×
is defined to be
( )
| | | | | |
( ) , z y x w , v , u f lim dV z , y , x f
m
1 i
n
1 j
p
1 k
k j i k j i
0 z max
0 y max
0 x max
s , r d , c b , a
k
j
i
∑∑∑
∫∫∫
= = =
→ ∆
→ ∆
→ ∆
× ×
∆ ∆ ∆ =
where ( )
k j i
w , v , u is some point in the parallelepiped
( ) ( ) ( )
k 1 k j 1 j i 1 i
z , z y , y x , x
− − −
× × , and
1 i i i
x x x

− = ∆ ,
1 j j j
y y y

− = ∆ ,
1 k k k
z z z

− = ∆ .

1100. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
+ = +
G G G
dV z , y , x g dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x g z , y , x f

1101. ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
− = −
G G G
dV z , y , x g dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x g z , y , x f

1102. ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
=
G G
dV z , y , x f k dV z , y , x kf ,
where k is a constant.

1103. If ( ) 0 z , y , x f ≥ and G and T are nonoverlapping basic
regions, then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
+ =
∪ T G T G
dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x f dV z , y , x f .
Here T G∪ is the union of the regions G and T.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
271

1104. Evaluation of Triple Integrals by Repeated Integrals
If the solid G is the set of points ( ) z , y , x such that
( ) ( ) ( ) y , x z y , x , R y , x
2 1
χ ≤ ≤ χ ∈ , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
dxdy dz z , y , x f dxdydz z , y , x f
R
y , x
y , x G
2
1
∫∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
χ
χ
,
where R is projection of G onto the xy-plane.

If the solid G is the set of points ( ) z , y , x such that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y , x z y , x , x y x , b x a
2 1 2 1
χ ≤ ≤ χ ϕ ≤ ≤ ϕ ≤ ≤ , then
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
dx dy dz z , y , x f dxdydz z , y , x f
b
a
x
x
y , x
y , x G
2
1
2
1
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
ϕ
ϕ
χ
χ

1105. Triple Integrals over Parallelepiped
If G is a parallelepiped | | | | | | s , r d , c b , a × × , then
( ) ( ) dx dy dz z , y , x f dxdydz z , y , x f
b
a
d
c
s
r G
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
= .

In the special case where the integrand ( ) z , y , x f can be
written as ( ) ( ) ( ) z k y h x g we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫∫∫
s
r
d
c
b
a G
dz z k dy y h dx x g dxdydz z , y , x f .

1106. Change of Variables
( ) =
∫∫∫
G
dxdydz z , y , x f
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
, dxdydz
w , v , u
z , y , x
w , v , u z , w , v , u y , w , v , u x f
S
∫∫∫

=
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
272

where
( )
( )
0
w
z
v
z
u
z
w
y
v
y
u
y
w
x
v
x
u
x
w , v , u
z , y , x

=

is the jacobian of
the transformations ( ) ( ) w , v , u z , y , x → , and S is the pull-
back of G which can be computed by ( ) w , v , u x x = ,
( ) w , v , u y y =
( ) w , v , u z z = into the definition of G.

1107. Triple Integrals in Cylindrical Coordinates
The differential dxdydz for cylindrical coordinates is
( )
( )
dz rdrd dz drd
z , , r
z , y , x
dxdydz θ = θ
θ ∂

= .

Iet the solid G is determined as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) y , x z y , x , R y , x
2 1
χ ≤ ≤ χ ∈ ,
where R is projection of G onto the xy-plane. Then
( ) ( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫∫
θ θ θ =
S G
dz rdrd z , sin r , cos r f dxdydz z , y , x f
( )
( )
( )
( )
θ
(
(
¸
(

¸

θ θ =
∫∫ ∫
θ
θ θ χ
θ θ χ
rdrd dz z , sin r , cos r f
, r R
sin r , cos r
sin r , cos r
2
1
.
Here S is the pullback of G in cylindrical coordinates.

1108. Triple Integrals in Spherical Coordinates
The Differential dxdydz for Spherical Coordinates is
( )
( )
ϕ θ θ = ϕ θ
ϕ θ ∂

= d drd sin r d drd
, , r
z , y , x
dxdydz
2

( ) =
∫∫∫
G
dxdydz z , y , x f
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
273

( )
∫∫∫
ϕ θ θ θ ϕ θ ϕ θ =
S
2
d drd sin r cos r , sin sin r , cos sin r f ,
where the solid S is the pullback of G in spherical coordi-
nates. The angle θ ranges from 0 to π 2 , the angle ϕ
ranges from 0 to π.

Figure 202.

1109. Volume of a Solid
∫∫∫
=
G
dxdydz V

1110. Volume in Cylindrical Coordinates
( )
dz rdrd V
z , , r S
∫∫∫
θ
θ =

1111. Volume in Spherical Coordinates
( )
ϕ θ θ =
∫∫∫
ϕ θ
d drd sin r V
, , r S
2

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
274

1112. Mass of a Solid
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
dV z , y , x m ,
where the solid occupies a region G and its density at
a point ( ) z , y , x is ( ) z , y , x µ .

1113. Center of Mass of a Solid
m
M
x
yz
= ,
m
M
y
xz
= ,
m
M
z
xy
= ,
where
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
yz
dV z , y , x x M ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
xz
dV z , y , x y M ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
xy
dV z , y , x z M
are the first moments about the coordinate planes 0 x = ,
0 y = , 0 z = , respectively, ( ) z , y , x µ is the density function.

1114. Moments of Inertia about the xy-plane (or 0 z = ), yz-plane
( 0 x = ), and xz-plane ( 0 y = )
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
2
xy
dV z , y , x z I ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
2
yz
dV z , y , x x I ,
( )
∫∫∫
µ =
G
2
xz
dV z , y , x y I .

1115. Moments of Inertia about the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + = + =
G
2 2
xz xy x
dV z , y , x y z I I I ,
( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + = + =
G
2 2
yz xy y
dV z , y , x x z I I I ,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
275

( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + = + =
G
2 2
yz xz z
dV z , y , x x y I I I .

1116. Polar Moment of Inertia
( ) ( )
∫∫∫
µ + + = + + =
G
2 2 2
xz yz xy 0
dV z , y , x z y x I I I I

9.12 Line Integral

Scalar functions: ( ) z , y , x F , ( ) y , x F , ( ) x f
Scalar potential: ( ) z , y , x u
Curves: C,
1
C ,
2
C
Iimits of integrations: a, b, α, β
Parameters: t, s
Polar coordinates: r , θ
Vector field: ( ) R , Q , P F
r

Position vector: ( ) s r
r

Unit vectors: i
r
, j
r
, k
r
, τ
r

Area of region: S
Iength of a curve: I
Mass of a wire: m
Density: ( ) z , y , x ρ , ( ) y , x ρ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y , z
First moments:
xy
M ,
yz
M ,
xz
M
Moments of inertia:
x
I ,
y
I ,
z
I
Volume of a solid: V
Work: W
Magnetic field: B
r

Current: I
Electromotive force: ε
Magnetic flux: ψ
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
276

1117. Iine Integral of a Scalar Function
Iet a curve C be given by the vector function ( ) s r r
r r
= ,
S s 0 ≤ ≤ , and a scalar function F is defined over the curve C.
Then
( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
= =
C C
S
0
Fds ds z , y , x F ds s r F
r
,
where ds is the arc length differential.

1118.
∫ ∫ ∫
+ =

2 1 2 1
C C C C
ds F ds F ds F

Figure 203.

1119. If the smooth curve C is parametrized by ( ) t r r
r r
= ,
β ≤ ≤ α t , then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
β
α

+

+

= dt t z t y t x t z , t y , t x F ds z , y , x F
2 2 2
C
.

1120. If C is a smooth curve in the xy-plane given by the equation
( ) x f y = , b x a ≤ ≤ , then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫

+ =
b
a
2
C
dx x f 1 x f , x F ds y , x F .

1121. Iine Integral of Scalar Function in Polar Coordinates
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
277

( ) ( )
∫ ∫
β
α
θ
|
.
|

\
|
θ
+ θ θ = d
d
dr
r sin r , cos r F ds y , x F
2
2
C
,
where the curve C is defined by the polar function ) ( r θ .

1122. Iine Integral of Vector Field
Iet a curve C be defined by the vector function ( ) s r r
r r
= ,
S s 0 ≤ ≤ . Then
( ) γ β α = τ = cos , cos , cos
ds
r d r
r

is the unit vector of the tangent line to this curve.

Figure 204.

Iet a vector field ( ) R , Q , P F
r
is defined over the curve C.
Then the line integral of the vector field F
r
along the curve
C is
( )
∫ ∫
γ + β + α = + +
S
0 C
ds cos R cos Q cos P Rdz Qdy Pdx .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
278

1123. Properties of Iine Integrals of Vector Fields
( ) ( )
∫ ∫
⋅ − = ⋅
− C C
r d F r d F
r
r
r
r
,
where -C denote the curve with the opposite orientation.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
⋅ + ⋅ = ⋅ = ⋅

2 1 2 1
C C C C C
r d F r d F r d F r d F
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
,
where C is the union of the curves
1
C and
2
C .

1124. If the curve C is parameterized by ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t z , t y , t x t r =
r
,
β ≤ ≤ α t , then
= + +

C
Rdz Qdy Pdx
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = dt
dt
dz
t z , t y , t x R
dt
dy
t z , t y , t x Q
dt
dx
t z , t y , t x P

1125. If C lies in the xy-plane and given by the equation ( ) x f y = ,
then
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫
|
.
|

\
|
+ = +
b
a C
dx
dx
df
x f , x Q x f , x P Qdy Pdx .

1126. Green∞s Theorem
∫ ∫∫
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

C R
Qdy Pdx dxdy
y
P
x
Q
,
where ( ) ( )j y , x Q i y , x P F
r r r
+ = is a continuous vector func-
tion with continuous first partial derivatives
y
P

,
x
Q

in a
some domain R, which is bounded by a closed, piecewise
smooth curve C.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
279

1127. Area of a Region R Bounded by the Curve C
∫ ∫∫
− = =
C R
ydx xdy
2
1
dxdy S

1128. Path Independence of Iine Integrals
The line integral of a vector function k R j Q i P F
r r r r
+ + = is
said to be path independent, if and only if P, Q, and R are
continuous in a domain D, and if there exists some scalar
function ( ) z , y , x u u = (a scalar potential) in D such that
r
, or P
x
u
=

, Q
y
u
=

, R
z
u
=

.
Then
( ) ( ) ( ) A u B u Rdz Qdy Pdx r d r F
C C
− = + + = ⋅
∫ ∫
r r
r
.

1129. Test for a Conservative Field
A vector field of the form u grad F =
r
is called a conservative
field. The line integral of a vector function k R j Q i P F
r r r r
+ + =
is path independent if and only if
0
R Q P
z y x
k j i
F curl
r
r r r
r
=

= .

If the line integral is taken in xy-plane so that
( ) ( ) A u B u Qdy Pdx
C
− = +

,
then the test for determining if a vector field is conservative
can be written in the form
x
Q
y
P

=

.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
280

1130. Iength of a Curve
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
β
α
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= = = dt
dt
dz
dt
dy
dt
dx
dt t
dt
r d
ds I
2 2 2
C
r
,
where C ia a piecewise smooth curve described by the posi-
tion vector ( ) t r
r
, β ≤ ≤ α t .

If the curve C is two-dimensional, then
( )
∫ ∫ ∫
β
α
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
= = = dt
dt
dy
dt
dx
dt t
dt
r d
ds I
2 2
C
r
.

If the curve C is the graph of a function ( ) x f y = in the xy-
plane ( ) b x a ≤ ≤ , then

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
b
a
2
dx
dx
dy
1 I .

1131. Iength of a Curve in Polar Coordinates

β
α
θ +
|
.
|

\
|
θ
= d r
d
dr
I
2
2
,
where the curve C is given by the equation ( ) θ = r r ,
β ≤ θ ≤ α in polar coordinates.

1132. Mass of a Wire
( )

ρ =
C
ds z , y , x m ,
where ( ) z , y , x ρ is the mass per unit length of the wire.

If C is a curve parametrized by the vector function
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t z , t y , t x t r =
r
, then the mass can be computed by
the formula
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
281

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
ρ = dt
dt
dz
dt
dy
dt
dx
t z , t y , t x m
2 2 2
.

If C is a curve in xy-plane, then the mass of the wire is given
by
( )

ρ =
C
ds y , x m ,
or
( ) ( ) ( )

β
α
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
ρ = dt
dt
dy
dt
dx
t y , t x m
2 2
(in parametric form).

1133. Center of Mass of a Wire
m
M
x
yz
= ,
m
M
y
xz
= ,
m
M
z
xy
= ,
where
( )

ρ =
C
yz
ds z , y , x x M ,
( )

ρ =
C
xz
ds z , y , x y M ,
( )

ρ =
C
xy
ds z , y , x z M .

1134. Moments of Inertia
The moments of inertia about the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
are given by the formulas
( ) ( )

ρ + =
C
2 2
x
ds z , y , x z y I ,
( ) ( )

ρ + =
C
2 2
y
ds z , y , x z x I ,
( ) ( )

ρ + =
C
2 2
z
ds z , y , x y x I .

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
282

1135. Area of a Region Bounded by a Closed Curve
∫ ∫ ∫
− = − = =
C C C
ydx xdy
2
1
ydx xdy S .

Figure 205.

If the closed curve C is given in parametric form
( ) ( ) ( ) t y , t x t r =
r
, then the area can be calculated by the for-
mula
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
∫ ∫ ∫
β
α
β
α
β
α
|
.
|

\
|
− = − = = dt
dt
dx
t y
dt
dy
t x
2
1
dt
dt
dx
t y dt
dt
dy
t x S .

1136. Volume of a Solid Formed by Rotating a Closed Curve
∫ ∫ ∫
+
π
− = π − = π − =
C
2
C C
2
dx y xydy 2
2
xydy 2 dx y V

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
283

Figure 206.

1137. Work
Work done by a force F
r
on an object moving along a curve
C is given by the line integral

⋅ =
C
r d F W
r
r
,
where F
r
is the vector force field acting on the object, r d
r
is
the unit tangent vector.

Figure 207.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
284

If the object is moved along a curve C in the xy-plane, then
∫ ∫
+ = ⋅ =
C C
Qdy Pdx r d F W
r
r
,

If a path C is specified by a parameter t (t often means
time), the formula for calculating work becomes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , dt
dt
dz
t z , t y , t x R
dt
dy
t z , t y , t x Q
dt
dx
t z , t y , t x P W

β
α
(
¸
(

¸

+ + =
where t goes from α to β .

If a vector field F
r
is conservative and ( ) z , y , x u is a scalar
potential of the field, then the work on an object moving
from A to B can be found by the formula
( ) ( ) A u B u W − = .

1138. Ampere∞s Iaw
I r d B
0
C
µ = ⋅

r
r
.
The line integral of a magnetic field B
r
around a closed path
C is equal to the total current I flowing through the area
bounded by the path.

Figure 208.
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
285

dt
d
r d E
C
ψ
− = ⋅ = ε

r
r

The electromotive force (emf) ε induced around a closed
loop C is equal to the rate of the change of magnetic flux ψ
passing through the loop.

Figure 209.

9.13 Surface Integral

Scalar functions: ( ) z , y , x f , ( ) y , x z
Position vectors: ( ) v , u r
r
, ( ) z , y , x r
r

Unit vectors: i
r
, j
r
, k
r

Surface: S
Vector field: ( ) R , Q , P F
r

Divergence of a vector field: F F div
r r
⋅ ∇ =
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
286

Curl of a vector field: F F curl
r r
× ∇ =
Vector element of a surface: S d
r

Normal to surface: n
r

Surface area: A
Mass of a surface: m
Density: ( ) z , y , x µ
Coordinates of center of mass: x , y , z
First moments:
xy
M ,
yz
M ,
xz
M
Moments of inertia:
xy
I ,
yz
I ,
xz
I ,
x
I ,
y
I ,
z
I
Volume of a solid: V
Force: F
r

Gravitational constant: G
Fluid velocity: ( ) r v
r r

Fluid density: ρ
Pressure: ( ) r p
r

Mass flux, electric flux: Φ
Surface charge: Q
Charge density: ( ) y , x σ
Magnitude of the electric field: E
r

1140. Surface Integral of a Scalar Function
Iet a surface S be given by the position vector
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )k v , u z j v , u y i v , u x v , u r
r r r
r
+ + = ,
where ( ) v , u ranges over some domain ( ) v , u D of the uv-
plane.
The surface integral of a scalar function ( ) z , y , x f over
the surface S is defined as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫ ∫∫

×

=
v , u D S
dudv
v
r
u
r
v , u z , v , u y , v , u x f dS z , y , x f
r r
,
where the partial derivatives
u
r

r
and
v
r

r
are given by
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
287

( ) ( ) ( )k v , u
u
z
j v , u
u
y
i v , u
u
x
u
r
r r r
r

+

+

=

,
( ) ( ) ( )k v , u
v
z
j v , u
v
y
i v , u
v
x
v
r
r r r
r

+

+

=

and
v
r
u
r

×

r r
is the cross product.

1141. If the surface S is given by the equation ( ) y , x z z = where
( ) y , x z is a differentiable function in the domain ( ) y , x D ,
then
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫ ∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
y , x D
2
2
S
dxdy
y
z
x
z
1 y , x z , y , x f dS z , y , x f .

1142. Surface Integral of the Vector Field F
r
over the Surface S
• If S is oriented outward, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫
(
¸
(

¸

×

⋅ =
v , u D
dudv
v
r
u
r
v , u z , v , u y , v , u x F
r r
r
.

• If S is oriented inward, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
∫∫
(
¸
(

¸

×

⋅ =
v , u D
dudv
u
r
v
r
v , u z , v , u y , v , u x F
r r
r
.

dS n S d
r
r
= is called the vector element of the surface. Dot
means the scalar product of the appropriate vectors.
The partial derivatives
u
r

r
and
v
r

r
are given by
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
288

( ) ( ) ( ) k v , u
u
z
j v , u
u
y
i v , u
u
x
u
r
r r r
r

+ ⋅

+ ⋅

=

,
( ) ( ) ( ) k v , u
v
z
j v , u
v
y
i v , u
v
x
v
r
r r r
r

+ ⋅

+ ⋅

=

.

1143. If the surface S is given by the equation ( ) y , x z z = , where
( ) y , x z is a differentiable function in the domain ( ) y , x D ,
then
• If S is oriented upward, i.e. the k-th component of the
normal vector is positive, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( )
( )
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|
+

− ⋅ =
y , x D
dxdy k j
y
z
i
x
z
z , y , x F
r r r r
,

• If S is oriented downward, i.e. the k-th component of the
normal vector is negative, then
( ) ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ = ⋅
S S
dS n z , y , x F S d z , y , x F
r
r r r

( )
( )
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|

+

⋅ =
y , x D
dxdy k j
y
z
i
x
z
z , y , x F
r r r r
.

1144. ( )
∫∫ ∫∫
+ + = ⋅
S S
Rdxdy Qdzdx Pdydz dS n F
r
r

( )
∫∫
γ + β + α =
S
dS cos R cos Q cos P ,
where ( ) z , y , x P , ( ) z , y , x Q , ( ) z , y , x R are the components of
the vector field F
r
.
α cos , β cos , γ cos are the angles between the outer unit
normal vector n
r
and the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis, respect-
ively.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
289

1145. If the surface S is given in parametric form by the vector
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) v , u z , v , u y , v , u x r
r
, then the latter formula can be
written as
( )
( )
, dudv
v
z
v
y
v
x
u
z
u
y
u
x
R Q P
Rdxdy Qdzdx Pdydz dS n F
v , u D S S
∫∫ ∫∫ ∫∫

= + + = ⋅
r
r
where ( ) v , u ranges over some domain ( ) v , u D of the uv-
plane.

1146. Divergence Theorem
( )
∫∫∫ ∫∫
⋅ ∇ = ⋅
G S
dV F S d F
r r r
,
where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z , y , x R , z , y , x Q , z , y , x P z , y , x F =
r

is a vector field whose components P, Q, and R have
continuous partial derivatives,
z
R
y
Q
x
P
F

+

+

= ⋅ ∇
r

is the divergence of F
r
, also denoted F div
r
. The symbol
∫∫
indicates that the surface integral is taken over a closed
surface.

1147. Divergence Theorem in Coordinate Form
∫∫∫ ∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|

+

+

= + +
G S
dxdydz
z
R
y
Q
x
P
Rdxdy Qdxdz Pdydz .

1148. Stoke∞s Theorem
( )
∫∫ ∫
⋅ × ∇ = ⋅
S C
S d F r d F
r r
r
r
,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
290

where
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) z , y , x R , z , y , x Q , z , y , x P z , y , x F =
r

is a vector field whose components P, Q, and R have
continuous partial derivatives,
k
y
P
x
Q
j
x
R
z
P
i
z
Q
y
R
R Q P
x x x
k j i
F
r r r
r r r
r
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=

= × ∇
is the curl of F
r
, also denoted F curl
r
.
The symbol

indicates that the line integral is taken over
a closed curve.

1149. Stoke∞s Theorem in Coordinate Form

+ +
C
Rdz Qdy Pdx
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
S
dxdy
y
P
x
Q
dzdx
x
R
z
P
dydz
z
Q
y
R

1150. Surface Area
∫∫
=
S
dS A

1151. If the surface S is parameterized by the vector
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )k v , u z j v , u y i v , u x v , u r
r r r
r
+ + = ,
then the surface area is
( )
∫∫

×

=
v , u D
dudv
v
r
u
r
A
r r
,
where ( ) v , u D is the domain where the surface ( ) v , u r
r
is
defined.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
291

1152. If S is given explicitly by the function ( ) y , x z , then the sur-
face area is
( )
∫∫ |
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
y , x D
2
2
dxdy
y
z
x
z
1 A ,
where ( ) y , x D is the projection of the surface S onto the xy-
plane.

1153. Mass of a Surface
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
dS z , y , x m ,
where ( ) z , y , x µ is the mass per unit area (density func-
tion).

1154. Center of Mass of a Shell
m
M
x
yz
= ,
m
M
y
xz
= ,
m
M
z
xy
= ,
where
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
yz
dS z , y , x x M ,
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
xz
dS z , y , x y M ,
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
xy
dS z , y , x z M
are the first moments about the coordinate planes 0 x = ,
0 y = , 0 z = , respectively. ( ) z , y , x µ is the density function.

1155. Moments of Inertia about the xy-plane (or 0 z = ), yz-plane
( 0 x = ), and xz-plane ( 0 y = )
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
2
xy
dS z , y , x z I ,
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
2
yz
dS z , y , x x I ,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
292

( )
∫∫
µ =
S
2
xz
dS z , y , x y I .

1156. Moments of Inertia about the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis
( ) ( )
∫∫
µ + =
S
2 2
x
dS z , y , x z y I ,
( ) ( )
∫∫
µ + =
S
2 2
y
dS z , y , x z x I ,
( ) ( )
∫∫
µ + =
S
2 2
z
dS z , y , x y x I .

1157. Volume of a Solid Bounded by a Closed Surface
∫∫
+ + =
S
zdxdy ydxdz xdydz
3
1
V

1158. Gravitational Force
( )
∫∫
µ =
S
3
dS
r
r
z , y , x Gm F
r
r
,
where m is a mass at a point
0 0 0
z , y , x outside the surface,
0 0 0
z z , y y , x x r − − − =
r
,
( ) z , y , x µ is the density function,
and G is gravitational constant.

1159. Pressure Force
( )
∫∫
=
S
S d r p F
r
r
r
,
where the pressure ( ) r p
r
acts on the surface S given by
the position vector r
r
.

1160. Fluid Flux (across the surface S)
( )
∫∫
⋅ = Φ
S
S d r v
r
r r
,
CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS
293

where ( ) r v
r r
is the fluid velocity.

1161. Mass Flux (across the surface S)
( )
∫∫
⋅ ρ = Φ
S
S d r v
r
r r
,
where v F
r
r
ρ = is the vector field, ρ is the fluid density.

1162. Surface Charge
( )
∫∫
σ =
S
dS y , x Q ,
where ( ) y , x σ is the surface charge density.

1163. Gauss∞ Iaw
The electric flux through any closed surface is proportional
to the charge Q enclosed by the surface
0 S
Q
S d E
ε
= ⋅ = Φ
∫∫
r r
,
where
Φ is the electric flux,
E
r
is the magnitude of the electric field strength,
m
F
10 83 , 8
12
0

× = ε is permittivity of free space.

294

Chapt er 10
Differential Equations

Functions of one variable: y, p, q, u, g, h, G, H, r, z
Arguments (independent variables): x, y
Functions of two variables: ( ) y , x f , ( ) y , x M , ( ) y , x N
First order derivative: y

, u′
, y& ,
dt
dy
, .
Second order derivatives: y
′ ′
, y& & ,
2
2
dt
I d
, .
Partial derivatives:
t
u

,
2
2
x
u

, .
Natural number: n
Particular solutions:
1
y ,
p
y
Real numbers: k, t, C,
1
C ,
2
C , p, q, α, β
Roots of the characteristic equations:
1
λ ,
2
λ
Time: t
Temperature: T, S
Population function: ( ) t P
Mass of an object: m
Stiffness of a spring: k
Displacement of the mass from equilibrium: y
Amplitude of the displacement: A
Frequency: ω
Damping coefficient: γ
Phase angle of the displacement: δ
Angular displacement: θ
Pendulum length: I
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
295

Acceleration of gravity: g
Current: I
Resistance: R
Inductance: I
Capacitance: C

10.1 First Order Ordinary Differential
Equations

1164. Iinear Equations
( ) ( ) x q y x p
dx
dy
= + .

The general solution is
( ) ( )
( ) x u
C dx x q x u
y
+
=

,
where
( ) ( ) ( )

= dx x p exp x u .

1165. Separable Equations
( ) ( ) ( ) y h x g y , x f
dx
dy
= =

The general solution is given by
( )
( ) C dx x g
y h
dy
+ =
∫ ∫
,
or
( ) ( ) C x G y H + = .

CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
296

1166. Homogeneous Equations
The differential equation ( ) y , x f
dx
dy
= is homogeneous, if
the function ( ) y , x f is homogeneous, that is
( ) ( ) y , x f ty , tx f = .

The substitution
x
y
z = (then zx y = ) leads to the separable
equation
( ) z , 1 f z
dx
dz
x = + .

1167. Bernoulli Equation
( ) ( )
n
y x q y x p
dx
dy
= + .

The substitution
n 1
y z

= leads to the linear equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x q n 1 z x p n 1
dx
dz
− = − + .

1168. Riccati Equation
( ) ( ) ( )
2
y x r y x q x p
dx
dy
+ + =

If a particular solution
1
y is known, then the general solu-
tion can be obtained with the help of substitution
1
y y
1
z

= , which leads to the first order linear equation
( ) ( ) | | ( ) x r z x r y 2 x q
dx
dz
1
− + − = .

CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
297

1169. Exact and Nonexact Equations
The equation
( ) ( ) 0 dy y , x N dx y , x M = +
is called exact if
x
N
y
M

=

,
and nonexact otherwise.

The general solution is
( ) ( ) C dy y , x N dx y , x M = +
∫ ∫
.

ky
dt
dy
− = ,
where ( ) t y is the amount of radioactive element at time t, k
is the rate of decay.

The solution is
( )
kt
0
e y t y

= , where ( ) 0 y y
0
= is the initial amount.

1171. Newton∞s Iaw of Cooling
( ) S T k
dt
dT
− − = ,
where ( ) t T is the temperature of an object at time t, S is the
temperature of the surrounding environment, k is a posi-
tive constant.

The solution is
( ) ( )
kt
0
e S T S t T

− + = ,
where ( ) 0 T T
0
= is the initial temperature of the object at
time 0 t = .

CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
298

1172. Population Dynamics (Iogistic Model)
|
.
|

\
|
− =
M
P
1 kP
dt
dP
,
where ( ) t P is population at time t, k is a positive constant,
M is a limiting size for the population.

The solution of the differential equation is
( )
( )
kt
0 0
0
e P M P
MP
t P

− +
= , where ( ) 0 P P
0
= is the initial popu-
lation at time 0 t = .

10.2 Second Order Ordinary Differential
Equations

1173. Homogeneous Iinear Equations with Constant Coefficients
0 qy y p y = + ′ + ′ ′
.
The characteristic equation is
0 q p
2
= + λ + λ .

If
1
λ and
2
λ are distinct real roots of the characteristic
equation, then the general solution is
x
2
x
1
2 1
e C e C y
λ λ
+ = , where
1
C and
2
C are integration constants.

If
2
p
2 1
− = λ = λ , then the general solution is
( )
x
2
p
2 1
e x C C y

+ = .

If
1
λ and
2
λ are complex numbers:
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
299

i
1
β + α = λ , i
2
β − α = λ , where
2
p
− = α ,
2
p q 4
2

= β ,
then the general solution is
( ) x sin C x cos C e y
2 1
x
β + β =
α
.

1174. Inhomogeneous Iinear Equations with Constant
Coefficients
( ) x f qy y p y = +

+
′ ′
.

The general solution is given by
h p
y y y + = , where
p
y is a particular solution of the inhomogeneous equation
and
h
y is the general solution of the associated homogene-
ous equation (see the previous topic 1173).

If the right side has the form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) x sin x P x cos x P e x f
1 1
x
β + β =
α
,
then the particular solution
p
y is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) x sin x R x cos x R e x y
2 1
x k
p
β + β =
α
,
where the polynomials ( ) x R
1
and ( ) x R
2
have to be found
by using the method of undetermined coefficients.
• If i β + α is not a root of the characteristic equation, then
the power 0 k = ,
• If i β + α is a simple root, then 1 k = ,
• If i β + α is a double root, then 2 k = .

1175. Differential Equations with y Missing
( ) y , x f y ′ = ′ ′ .
Set y u

= . Then the new equation satisfied by v is
( ) u , x f u =

,
which is a first order differential equation.
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
300

1176. Differential Equations with x Missing
( ) y , y f y ′ = ′ ′
.
Set y u

= . Since
dy
du
u
dx
dy
dy
du
dx
du
y = = = ′ ′ ,
we have
( ) u , y f
dy
du
u = ,
which is a first order differential equation.

1177. Free Undamped Vibrations
The motion of a Mass on a Spring is described by the equa-
tion
0 ky y m = + & & ,
where
m is the mass of the object,
k is the stiffness of the spring,
y is displacement of the mass from equilibrium.

The general solution is
( ) δ − ω = t cos A y
0
,
where
A is the amplitude of the displacement,
0
ω is the fundamental frequency, the period is
0
2
T
ω
π
= ,
δ is phase angle of the displacement.
This is an example of simple harmonic motion.

1178. Free Damped Vibrations
0 ky y y m = + γ + & & & , where
γ is the damping coefficient.
There are 3 cases for the general solution:

CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
301

Case 1. km 4
2
> γ (overdamped)
( )
t t
2 1
Be Ae t y
λ λ
+ = ,
where
m 2
km 4
2
1
− γ − γ −
= λ ,
m 2
km 4
2
2
− γ + γ −
= λ .

Case 2. km 4
2
= γ (critically damped)
( ) ( )
t
e Bt A t y
λ
+ = ,
where
m 2
γ
− = λ .

Case 3. km 4
2
< γ (underdamped)
( ) ( ) δ − ω =
γ

t cos A e t y
t
m 2
, where
2
km 4 γ − = ω .

1179. Simple Pendulum
0
I
g
dt
d
2
2
= θ +
θ
,
where θ is the angular displacement, I is the pendulum
length, g is the acceleration of gravity.

The general solution for small angles θ is
( ) t
I
g
sin t
max
θ = θ , the period is
g
I
2 T π = .

1180. RIC Circuit
( ) ( ) t cos E t V I
C
1
dt
dI
R
dt
I d
I
0
2
2
ω ω = ′ = + + ,
CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
302

where I is the current in an RIC circuit with an ac voltage
source ( ) ( ) t sin E t V
0
ω = .

The general solution is
( ) ( ) ϕ − ω + + = t sin A e C e C t I
t r
2
t r
1
2 1
,
where
I 2
C
I 4
R R
r
2
2 , 1
− ± −
= ,
2 2
2
2
0
R
C
1
I
E
A
ω +
|
.
|

\
|
− ω
ω
= ,
|
.
|

\
|
ω

ω
= ϕ
RC
1
R
I
arctan ,
1
C ,
2
C are constants depending on initial conditions.

10.3. Some Partial Differential Equations

1181. The Iaplace Equation
0
y
u
x
u
2
2
2
2
=

+

applies to potential energy function ( ) y , x u for a conser-
vative force field in the xy-plane. Partial differential equa-
tions of this type are called elliptic.

1182. The Heat Equation
t
u
y
u
x
u
2
2
2
2

=

+

CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
303

applies to the temperature distribution ( ) y , x u in the xy-
plane when heat is allowed to flow from warm areas to cool
ones. The equations of this type are called parabolic.

1183. The Wave Equation
2
2
2
2
2
2
t
u
y
u
x
u

=

+

applies to the displacement ( ) y , x u of vibrating membranes
and other wave functions. The equations of this type are
called hyperbolic.

304

Chapt er 11
Series

11.1 Arithmetic Series

Initial term:
1
a
Nth term:
n
a
Difference between successive terms: d
Number of terms in the series: n
Sum of the first n terms:
n
S

1184. ( )d 1 n a d 2 a d a a
1 2 n 1 n n
− + = = + = + =
− −
K

1185.
i 1 n i 1 n 2 n 1
a a a a a a
− + −
+ = = + = + K

1186.
2
a a
a
1 i 1 i
i
+ −
+
=

1187.
( )
n
2
d 1 n a 2
n
2
a a
S
1 n 1
n

− +
= ⋅
+
=

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
305

11.2 Geometric Series

Initial term:
1
a
Nth term:
n
a
Common ratio: q
Number of terms in the series: n
Sum of the first n terms:
n
S
Sum to infinity: S

1188.
1 n
1 1 n n
q a qa a

= =

1189.
i 1 n i 1 n 2 n 1
a a a a a a
− + −
⋅ = = ⋅ = ⋅ K

1190.
1 i 1 i i
a a a
+ −
⋅ =

1191.
( )
1 q
1 q a
1 q
a q a
S
n
1 1 n
n

=

=

1192.
q 1
a
S lim S
1
n
n

= =
∞ →

For 1 q < , the sum S converges as ∞ → n .

11.3 Some Finite Series

Number of terms in the series: n

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
306

1193.
( )
2
1 n n
n 3 2 1
+
= + + + + K

1194. ( ) 1 n n n 2 6 4 2 + = + + + + K

1195. ( )
2
n 1 n 2 3 3 1 = − + + + + K

1196. ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
1 n k 2 n
1 n k 2 k 1 k k
− +
= − + + + + + + + K

1197.
( )( )
6
1 n 2 1 n n
n 3 2 1
2 2 2 2
+ +
= + + + + K

1198.
( )
2
3 3 3 3
2
1 n n
n 3 2 1
(
¸
(

¸

+
= + + + + K

1199. ( )
( )
3
1 n 4 n
1 n 2 3 3 1
2
2 2 2 2

= − + + + + K

1200. ( ) ( ) 1 n 2 n 1 n 2 3 3 1
2 2
3
3 3 3
− = − + + + + K

1201. 2
2
1
8
1
4
1
2
1
1
n
= + + + + + + K K

1202.
( )
1
1 n n
1
4 3
1
3 2
1
2 1
1
= +
+
+ +

+

+

K K

1203.
( )
e
! 1 n
1
! 3
1
! 2
1
! 1
1
1 = +

+ + + + + K K

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
307

11.4 Infinite Series

Sequence: { }
n
a
First term:
1
a
Nth term:
n
a

1204. Infinite Series
K K + + + + =

=
n 2 1
1 n
n
a a a a

1205. Nth Partial Sum
n 2 1
n
1 n
n n
a a a a S + + + = =

=
K

1206. Convergence of Infinite Series
I a
1 n
n
=

=
, if I S lim
n
n
=
∞ →

1207. Nth Term Test
• If the series

=1 n
n
a is convergent, then 0 a lim
n
n
=
∞ →
.
• If 0 a lim
n
n

∞ →
, then the series is divergent.

11.5 Properties of Convergent Series

Convergent Series: A a
1 n
n
=

=
, B b
1 n
n
=

=

Real number: c
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
308

1208. ( ) B A b a b a
1 n
n
1 n
n
1 n
n n
+ = + = +
∑ ∑ ∑

=

=

=

1209. cA a c ca
1 n
n
1 n
n
= =
∑ ∑

=

=
.

11.6 Convergence Tests

1210. The Comparison Test
Iet

=1 n
n
a and

=1 n
n
b be series such that
n n
b a 0 ≤ < for all n.
• If

=1 n
n
b is convergent then

=1 n
n
a is also convergent.
• If

=1 n
n
a is divergent then

=1 n
n
b is also divergent.

1211. The Iimit Comparison Test
Iet

=1 n
n
a and

=1 n
n
b be series such that
n
a and
n
b are posi-
tive for all n.
• If ∞ < <
∞ →
n
n
n
b
a
lim 0 then

=1 n
n
a and

=1 n
n
b are either both
convergent or both divergent.
• If 0
b
a
lim
n
n
n
=
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
b convergent implies that

=1 n
n
a is
also convergent.
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
309

• If ∞ =
∞ →
n
n
n
b
a
lim then

=1 n
n
b divergent implies that

=1 n
n
a is
also divergent.

1212. p-series
p-series

=1 n
p
n
1
converges for 1 p > and diverges for
1 p 0 ≤ < .

1213. The Integral Test
Iet ( ) x f be a function which is continuous, positive, and
decreasing for all 1 x ≥ . The series
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) K K + + + + + =

=
n f 3 f 2 f 1 f n f
1 n

converges if ( )

1
dx x f converges, and diverges if
( ) ∞ →

n
1
dx x f as ∞ → n .

1214. The Ratio Test
Iet

=1 n
n
a be a series with positive terms.
• If 1
a
a
lim
n
1 n
n
<
+
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
a is convergent.
• If 1
a
a
lim
n
1 n
n
>
+
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
a is divergent.
• If 1
a
a
lim
n
1 n
n
=
+
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
a may converge or diverge and
the ratio test is inconclusive; some other tests must be
used.

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
310

1215. The Root Test
Iet

=1 n
n
a be a series with positive terms.
• If 1 a lim
n
n
n
<
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
a is convergent.
• If 1 a lim
n
n
n
>
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
a is divergent.
• If 1 a lim
n
n
n
=
∞ →
then

=1 n
n
a may converge or diverge, but
no conclusion can be drawn from this test.

11.7 Alternating Series

1216. The Alternating Series Test (Ieibniz∞s Theorem)

Iet { }
n
a be a sequence of positive numbers such that
n 1 n
a a <
+
for all n.
0 a lim
n
n
=
∞ →
.
Then the alternating series ( )

=

1 n
n
n
a 1 and ( )

=

1 n
n
1 n
a 1
both converge.

1217. Absolute Convergence
• A series

=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent if the series

=1 n
n
a is convergent.
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
311

• If the series

=1 n
n
a is absolutely convergent then it is con-
vergent.

1218. Conditional Convergence
A series

=1 n
n
a is conditionally convergent if the series is
convergent but is not absolutely convergent.

11.8 Power Series

Real numbers: x,
0
x
Power series:

=0 n
n
n
x a , ( )

=

0 n
n
0 n
x x a
Whole number: n

1219. Power Series in x
K K + + + + + =

=
n
n
2
2 1 0
0 n
n
n
x a x a x a a x a

1220. Power Series in ( )
0
x x −
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) K K + − + + − + − + = −

=
n
0 n
2
0 2 0 1 0
0 n
n
0 n
x x a x x a x x a a x x a

1221. Interval of Convergence
The set of those values of x for which the function
( ) ( )

=
− =
0 n
n
0 n
x x a x f is convergent is called the interval of
convergence.
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
312

If the interval of convergence is ( ) R x , R x
0 0
+ − for some
0 R≥ , the R is called the radius of convergence. It is given
as
n
n
n
a
1
lim R
∞ →
= or
1 n
n
n
a
a
lim R
+
∞ →
= .

11.9 Differentiation and Integration of Power
Series

Continuous function: ( ) x f
Power series:

=0 n
n
n
x a
Whole number: n

1223. Differentiation of Power Series
Iet ( ) K + + + = =

=
2
2 1 0
0 n
n
n
x a x a a x a x f for R x < .
Then, for R x < , ( ) x f is continuous, the derivative ( ) x f ′

exists and
( ) K + + + =

2
2 1 0
x a
dx
d
x a
dx
d
a
dx
d
x f

=

= + + + =
1 n
1 n
n
2
3 2 1
x na x a 3 x a 2 a K .

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
313

1224. Integration of Power Series
Iet ( ) K + + + = =

=
2
2 1 0
0 n
n
n
x a x a a x a x f for R x < .
Then, for R x < , the indefinite integral ( )

dx x f exists and
( ) K + + + =
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫
dx x a xdx a dx a dx x f
2
2 1 0

C
1 n
x
a
3
x
a
2
x
a x a
0 n
1 n
n
3
2
2
1 0
+
+
= + + + =

=
+
K .

11.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series

Whole number: n
Differentiable function: ( ) x f
Remainder term:
n
R

1225. Taylor Series
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
K +

′ ′
+ −

+ =

=

=
! 2
a x a f
a x a f a f
! n
a x
a f x f
2
0 n
n
n

( )
( )( )
n
n n
R
! n
a x a f
+

+ .

1226. The Remainder After n+1 Terms is given by
( )
( )( )
( )! 1 n
a x f
R
1 n 1 n
n
+
− ξ
=
+ +
, x a < ξ < .

1227. Maclaurin Series
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
314

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
n
n n 2
0 n
n
n
R
! n
x 0 f
! 2
x 0 f
x 0 f 0 f
! n
x
0 f x f + + +
′ ′
+

+ = =

=
K

11.11 Power Series Expansions for Some
Functions

Whole number: n
Real number: x

1228. K K + + + + + + =
! n
x
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1 e
n 3 2
x

1229.
( ) ( ) ( )
K K + + + + + + =
! n
a ln x
! 3
a ln x
! 2
a ln x
! 1
a ln x
1 a
n 3 2
x

1230. ( )
( )
K K ±
+

+ + − + − = +
+
1 n
x 1
4
x
3
x
2
x
x x 1 ln
1 n n 4 3 2
, 1 x 1 ≤ < − .

1231.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + =

+
K
7
x
3
x
3
x
x 2
x 1
x 1
ln
7 3 3
, 1 x < .

1232.
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+

+
|
.
|

\
|
+

+
+

= K
3 3
1 x
1 x
3
1
1 x
1 x
3
1
1 x
1 x
2 x ln , 0 x > .

1233.
( )
( )
K K ±

+ + − + − =
! n 2
x 1
! 6
x
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 x cos
n 2 n 6 4 2

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
315

1234.
( )
( )
K K ±
+

+ + − + − =
+
! 1 n 2
x 1
! 7
x
! 3
x
! 3
x
x x sin
1 n 2 n 7 3 3

1235. K + + + + + =
2833
x 62
313
x 17
13
x 2
3
x
x x tan
9 7 3 3
,
2
x
π
< .

1236.
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + + − = K
4723
x 2
943
x 2
43
x
3
x
x
1
x cot
7 3 3
, π < x .

1237.
( )
( )( )
K
K
K
K +
+ ⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
+ +
⋅ ⋅

+

+ =
+
1 n 2 n 2 6 4 2
x 1 n 2 3 3 1
3 4 2
x 3 1
3 2
x
x x arcsin
1 n 2 3 3
,
1 x < .

1238.
( )
( )( )
,
1 n 2 n 2 6 4 2
x 1 n 2 3 3 1
3 4 2
x 3 1
3 2
x
x
2
x arccos
1 n 2 3 3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ ⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅
+ +
⋅ ⋅

+

+ −
π
=
+
K
K
K
K
1 x < .

1239.
( )
K K ±
+

+ + − + − =
+
1 n 2
x 1
7
x
3
x
3
x
x x arctan
1 n 2 n 7 3 3
, 1 x ≤ .

1240.
( )
K K + + + + + + =
! n 2
x
! 6
x
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 x cosh
n 2 6 4 2

1241.
( )
K K +
+
+ + + + + =
+
! 1 n 2
x
! 7
x
! 3
x
! 3
x
x x sinh
1 n 2 7 3 3

CHAPTER 11. SERIES
316

11.12 Binomial Series

Whole numbers: n, m
Real number: x
Combinations:
m
n
C

1242. ( )
n m
n
m 2
2
n
1
n
n
x x C x C x C 1 x 1 + + + + + + = + K K

1243.
( ) ( ) | |
! m
1 m n 1 n n
C
m
n
− − −
=
K
, 1 x < .

1244. K + − + − =
+
3 2
x x x 1
x 1
1
, 1 x < .

1245. K + + + + =

3 2
x x x 1
x 1
1
, 1 x < .

1246. K +
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅

+

− + = +
8 6 4 2
x 3 3 1
6 4 2
x 3 1
4 2
x
2
x
1 x 1
4 3 2
, 1 x ≤ .

1247. K +
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅

⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
+

− + = +
12 9 6 3
x 8 3 2 1
9 6 3
x 3 2 1
6 3
x 2 1
3
x
1 x 1
4 3 2
3
, 1 x ≤ .

11.13 Fourier Series

Integrable function: ( ) x f
Fourier coefficients:
0
a ,
n
a ,
n
b
Whole number: n
CHAPTER 11. SERIES
317

1248. ( ) ( )

=
+ + =
1 n
n n
0
nx sin b nx cos a
2
a
x f

1249. ( )

π
π −
π
= dx nx cos x f
1
a
n

1250. ( )

π
π −
π
= dx nx sin x f
1
b
n

318

Chapt er 12
Probability
=
=
=
=
12.1 Permutations and Combinations
=
mÉêãìí~íáçåëW=
ã
å
m =
`çãÄáå~íáçåëW=
ã
å
` =
tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêëW=åI=ã=
=
=
1251. c~Åíçêá~ä=
( )( )å N å O å P O N > å − − ⋅ ⋅ = K =
N > M = =
=
1252. > å m
å
å
= =
=
1253.
( )> ã å
> å
m
ã
å

= =
=
1254. _áåçãá~ä=`çÉÑÑáÅáÉåí=
( )> ã å > ã
> å
ã
å
`
ã
å

=

= =
=
1255.
ã å
å
ã
å
` `

= =
=
1256.
N ã
N å
N ã
å
ã
å
` ` `
+
+
+
= + =
=
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
319

1257.
n
n
n
2
n
1
n
0
n
2 C C C C = + + + + K

1258. Pascal∞s Triangle

Row 0 1
Row 1 1 1
Row 2 1 2 1
Row 3 1 3 3 1
Row 4 1 4 6 4 1
Row 3 1 3 10 10 3 1
Row 6 1 6 13 20 13 6 1

12.2 Probability Formulas

Events: A, B
Probability: P
Random variables: X, Y, Z
Values of random variables: x, y, z
Expected value of X: µ
Any positive real number: ε
Standard deviation: σ
Variance:
2
σ
Density functions: ( ) x f , ( ) t f

1259. Probability of an Event
( )
n
m
A P = ,
where
m is the number of possible positive outcomes,
n is the total number of possible outcomes.

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
320

1260. Range of Probability Values
( ) 1 A P 0 ≤ ≤

1261. Certain Event
( ) 1 A P =

1262. Impossible Event
( ) 0 A P =

1263. Complement
( ) ( ) A P 1 A P − =

1264. Independent Events
( ) ( ) A P B / A P = ,
( ) ( ) B P A / B P =

1265. Addition Rule for Independent Events
( ) ( ) ( ) B P A P B A P + = ∪

1266. Multiplication Rule for Independent Events
( ) ( ) ( ) B P A P B A P ⋅ = ∩

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) B A P B P A P B A P ∩ − + = ∪ ,
where
B A∪ is the union of events A and B,
B A∩ is the intersection of events A and B.

1268. Conditional Probability
( )
( )
( ) B P
B A P
B / A P

=

1269. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) A / B P A P B / A P B P B A P ⋅ = ⋅ = ∩
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
321

1270. Iaw of Total Probability
( ) ( ) ( )

=
=
m
1 i
i i
B / A P B P A P ,
where
i
B is a sequence of mutually exclusive events.

1271. Bayes∞ Theorem
( )
( ) ( )
( ) A P
B P B / A P
A / B P

=

1272. Bayes∞ Formula
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

=

=
m
1 k
i i
i i
i
B / A P B P
B / A P B P
A / B P ,
where
i
B is a set of mutually exclusive events (hypotheses),
A is the final event,
( )
i
B P are the prior probabilities,
( ) A / B P
i
are the posterior probabilities.

1273. Iaw of Iarge Numbers
0
n
S
P
n
→ |
.
|

\
|
ε ≥ µ − as ∞ → n ,
1
n
S
P
n
→ |
.
|

\
|
ε < µ − as ∞ → n ,
where
n
S is the sum of random variables,
n is the number of possible outcomes.

1274. Chebyshev Inequality
( )
( )
2
X V
X P
ε
≤ ε ≥ µ − ,
where ( ) X V is the variance of X.
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
322

1275. Normal Density Function
( )
( )
2
2
2
x
e
2
1
x
σ
µ −

π σ
= ϕ ,
where x is a particular outcome.

1276. Standard Normal Density Function
( )
2
z
2
e
2
1
z

π
= ϕ
Average value 0 = µ , deviation 1 = σ .

Figure 210.

1277. Standard Z Value
σ
µ −
=
X
Z

1278. Cumulative Normal Distribution Function
( )
( )

∞ −
σ
µ −

π σ
=
x
2
t
dt e
2
1
x F
2
2
,
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
323

where
x is a particular outcome,
t is a variable of integration.

1279. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
σ
µ − β

|
.
|

\
|
σ
µ − α
= β < < α F F X P ,
where
X is normally distributed random variable,
F is cumulative normal distribution function,
( ) β < < α X P is interval probability.

1280. ( )
|
.
|

\
|
σ
ε
= ε < µ − F 2 X P ,
where
X is normally distributed random variable,
F is cumulative normal distribution function.

1281. Cumulative Distribution Function
( ) ( ) ( )

∞ −
= < =
x
dt t f x X P x F ,
where t is a variable of integration.

1282. Bernoulli Trials Process
np = µ , npq
2
= σ ,
where
n is a sequence of experiments,
p is the probability of success of each experiments,
q is the probability of failure, p 1 q − = .

1283. Binomial Distribution Function
( )
k n k
q p
k
n
q , p , n b

|
|
.
|

\
|
= ,
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
324

np = µ , npq
2
= σ ,
( ) ( )
n
x
pe q x f + = ,
where
n is the number of trials of selections,
p is the probability of success,
q is the probability of failure, p 1 q − = .

1284. Geometric Distribution
( ) p q j T P
1 j−
= = ,
p
1
= µ ,
2
2
p
q
= σ ,
where
T is the first successful event is the series,
j is the event number,
p is the probability that any one event is successful,
q is the probability of failure, p 1 q − = .

1285. Poisson Distribution
( )
λ −
λ
≈ = e
! k
k X P
k
, np = λ ,
λ = µ , λ = σ
2
,
where
λ is the rate of occurrence,
k is the number of positive outcomes.

1286. Density Function
( ) ( )

= ≤ ≤
b
a
dx x f b X a P

1287. Continuous Uniform Density
a b
1
f

= ,
2
b a +
= µ ,
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
325

where f is the density function.

1288. Exponential Density Function
( )
t
e t f
λ −
λ = , λ = µ ,
2 2
λ = σ
where t is time, λ is the failure rate.

1289. Exponential Distribution Function
( )
t
e 1 t F
λ −
− = ,
where t is time, λ is the failure rate.

1290. Expected Value of Discrete Random Variables
( )

=
= = µ
n
1 i
i i
p x X E ,
where
i
x is a particular outcome,
i
p is its probability.

1291. Expected Value of Continuous Random Variables
( ) ( )

∞ −
= = µ dx x xf X E

1292. Properties of Expectations
( ) ( ) ( ) Y E X E Y X E + = + ,
( ) ( ) ( ) Y E X E Y X E − = − ,
( ) ( ) X cE cX E = ,
( ) ( ) ( ) Y E X E XY E ⋅ = ,
where c is a constant.

1293. ( ) ( )
2 2
X V X E µ + = ,
where
( ) X E = µ is the expected value,
( ) X V is the variance.

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
326

1294. Markov Inequality
( )
( )
k
X E
k X P ≤ > ,
where k is some constant.

1295. Variance of Discrete Random Variables
( ) ( ) | | ( )

=
µ − = µ − = = σ
n
1 i
i
2
i
2
2
p x X E X V ,
where
i
x is a particular outcome,
i
p is its probability.

1296. Variance of Continuous Random Variables
( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( )

∞ −
µ − = µ − = = σ dx x f x X E X V
2 2 2

1297. Properties of Variance
( ) ( ) ( ) Y V X V Y X V + = + ,
( ) ( ) ( ) Y V X V Y X V + = − ,
( ) ( ) X V c X V = + ,
( ) ( ) X V c cX V
2
= ,
where c is a constant.

1298. Standard Deviation
( ) ( ) ( ) | |
2
X E X V X D µ − = =

1299. Covariance
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) Y X XY E Y Y X X E Y , X cov µ µ − = µ − µ − = ,
where
X is random variable,
( ) X V is the variance of X,
µ is the expected value of X or Y.
CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY
327

1300. Correlation
( )
( )
( ) ( ) Y V X V
Y , X cov
Y , X = ρ ,
where
( ) X V is the variance of X,
( ) Y V is the variance of Y.

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ii

Contents
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iii

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iv

QKS= oÉÇìÅíáçå=cçêãìä~ë==89= QKT= mÉêáçÇáÅáíó=çÑ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==90= QKU= oÉä~íáçåë=ÄÉíïÉÉå=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==90= QKV= ^ÇÇáíáçå=~åÇ=pìÄíê~Åíáçå=cçêãìä~ë==91= QKNM= açìÄäÉ=^åÖäÉ=cçêãìä~ë==92= QKNN= jìäíáéäÉ=^åÖäÉ=cçêãìä~ë==93= QKNO= e~äÑ=^åÖäÉ=cçêãìä~ë==94= QKNP= e~äÑ=^åÖäÉ=q~åÖÉåí=fÇÉåíáíáÉë==94= QKNQ= qê~åëÑçêãáåÖ=çÑ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=bñéêÉëëáçåë=íç=mêçÇìÅí==95= QKNR= qê~åëÑçêãáåÖ=çÑ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=bñéêÉëëáçåë=íç=pìã==97=== QKNS= mçïÉêë=çÑ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==98= QKNT= dê~éÜë=çÑ=fåîÉêëÉ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==99= QKNU= mêáåÅáé~ä=s~äìÉë=çÑ=fåîÉêëÉ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==102= QKNV= oÉä~íáçåë=ÄÉíïÉÉå=fåîÉêëÉ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==103= QKOM= qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=bèì~íáçåë==106= QKON= oÉä~íáçåë=íç=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==106= = = 5 j^qof`bp=^ka=abqbojfk^kqp= RKN= aÉíÉêãáå~åíë==107= RKO= mêçéÉêíáÉë=çÑ=aÉíÉêãáå~åíë==109= RKP= j~íêáÅÉë==110= RKQ= léÉê~íáçåë=ïáíÜ=j~íêáÅÉë==111= RKR= póëíÉãë=çÑ=iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçåë==114= = = 6 sb`qlop= SKN= sÉÅíçê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë==118= SKO= sÉÅíçê=^ÇÇáíáçå==120= SKP= sÉÅíçê=pìÄíê~Åíáçå==122= SKQ= pÅ~äáåÖ=sÉÅíçêë==122= SKR= pÅ~ä~ê=mêçÇìÅí==123= SKS= sÉÅíçê=mêçÇìÅí==125= SKT= qêáéäÉ=mêçÇìÅí=127= = = 7 ^k^ivqf`=dbljbqov= TKN= låÉ=-aáãÉåëáçå~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=póëíÉã==130= v .

TKO= qïç=-aáãÉåëáçå~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=póëíÉã==131= TKP= píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=áå=mä~åÉ==139= TKQ= `áêÅäÉ==149= TKR= bääáéëÉ==152= TKS= eóéÉêÄçä~==154= TKT= m~ê~Äçä~==158= TKU= qÜêÉÉ=-aáãÉåëáçå~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=póëíÉã==161= TKV= mä~åÉ==165= TKNM= píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=áå=pé~ÅÉ==175= TKNN= nì~ÇêáÅ=pìêÑ~ÅÉë==180= TKNO= péÜÉêÉ==189= = = 8 afccbobkqf^i=`^i`rirp= UKN= cìåÅíáçåë=~åÇ=qÜÉáê=dê~éÜë==191= UKO= iáãáíë=çÑ=cìåÅíáçåë==208= UKP= aÉÑáåáíáçå=~åÇ=mêçéÉêíáÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=aÉêáî~íáîÉ==209= UKQ= q~ÄäÉ=çÑ=aÉêáî~íáîÉë==211= UKR= eáÖÜÉê=lêÇÉê=aÉêáî~íáîÉë==215= UKS= ^ééäáÅ~íáçåë=çÑ=aÉêáî~íáîÉ==217= UKT= aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä==221= UKU= jìäíáî~êá~ÄäÉ=cìåÅíáçåë==222= UKV= aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=léÉê~íçêë==225= = = 9 fkqbdo^i=`^i`rirp= VKN= fåÇÉÑáåáíÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä==227= VKO= fåíÉÖê~äë=çÑ=o~íáçå~ä=cìåÅíáçåë==228= VKP= fåíÉÖê~äë=çÑ=fêê~íáçå~ä=cìåÅíáçåë==231= VKQ= fåíÉÖê~äë=çÑ=qêáÖçåçãÉíêáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==237= VKR= fåíÉÖê~äë=çÑ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==241= VKS= fåíÉÖê~äë=çÑ=bñéçåÉåíá~ä=~åÇ=içÖ~êáíÜãáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë==242= VKT= oÉÇìÅíáçå=cçêãìä~ë==243= VKU= aÉÑáåáíÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä==247= VKV= fãéêçéÉê=fåíÉÖê~ä==253= VKNM= açìÄäÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä==257= VKNN= qêáéäÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä==269= vi .

VKNO= iáåÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä==275= VKNP= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä==285= = = 10 afccbobkqf^i=bnr^qflkp= NMKN= cáêëí=lêÇÉê=lêÇáå~êó=aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=bèì~íáçåë==295= NMKO= pÉÅçåÇ=lêÇÉê=lêÇáå~êó=aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=bèì~íáçåë==298= NMKP= pçãÉ=m~êíá~ä=aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=bèì~íáçåë==302= = = 11 pbofbp= NNKN= ^êáíÜãÉíáÅ=pÉêáÉë==304= NNKO= dÉçãÉíêáÅ=pÉêáÉë==305= NNKP= pçãÉ=cáåáíÉ=pÉêáÉë==305= NNKQ= fåÑáåáíÉ=pÉêáÉë==307= NNKR= mêçéÉêíáÉë=çÑ=`çåîÉêÖÉåí=pÉêáÉë==307= NNKS= `çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=qÉëíë==308= NNKT= ^äíÉêå~íáåÖ=pÉêáÉë==310= NNKU= mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë==311= NNKV= aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~íáçå=~åÇ=fåíÉÖê~íáçå=çÑ=mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë==312= NNKNM= q~óäçê=~åÇ=j~Åä~ìêáå=pÉêáÉë==313= NNKNN= mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë=bñé~åëáçåë=Ñçê=pçãÉ=cìåÅíáçåë==314= NNKNO= _áåçãá~ä=pÉêáÉë==316= NNKNP= cçìêáÉê=pÉêáÉë==316= = = 12 mol_^_fifqv= NOKN= mÉêãìí~íáçåë=~åÇ=`çãÄáå~íáçåë==318= NOKO= mêçÄ~Äáäáíó=cçêãìä~ë==319= = = = = = vii .

= qÜáë=é~ÖÉ=áë=áåíÉåíáçå~ääó=äÉÑí=Ää~åâK= = viii .

Chapter 1 Number Sets = = = = 1. 4. ^ = _ =áÑ= ^ ⊂ _ =~åÇ= _ ⊂ ^ .1 Set Identities = pÉíëW=^I=_I=`= råáîÉêë~ä=ëÉíW=f= `çãéäÉãÉåí=W= ^′ = mêçéÉê=ëìÄëÉíW= ^ ⊂ _ == bãéíó=ëÉíW= ∅ = råáçå=çÑ=ëÉíëW= ^ ∪ _ = fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=ëÉíëW= ^ ∩ _ = aáÑÑÉêÉåÅÉ=çÑ=ëÉíëW= ^ y _ = = = 1. ^ ⊂ f= ^ ⊂ ^= = 2.= = bãéíó=pÉí= ∅⊂^= = råáçå=çÑ=pÉíë== ` = ^ ∪ _ = {ñ ö ñ ∈ ^ çê ñ ∈ _}= = 1 . = 3. 5.

= = `çããìí~íáîáíó= ^∩_ = _∩^= ^ëëçÅá~íáîáíó= ^ ∩ (_ ∩ ` ) = (^ ∩ _ ) ∩ ` = = 10. = 8. = = 9. = = `çããìí~íáîáíó= ^∪_ = _∪^= ^ëëçÅá~íáîáíó= ^ ∪ (_ ∪ ` ) = (^ ∪ _ ) ∪ ` = fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=pÉíë= ` = ^ ∪ _ = {ñ ö ñ ∈ ^ ~åÇ ñ ∈ _} = = = 7. = 2 . ===== Figure 1.CHAPTER 1. NUMBER SETS = 6. ===== Figure 2.

15. NUMBER SETS 11. 17. = 14. = 13. 3 . 16.CHAPTER 1. aáëíêáÄìíáîáíó= ^ ∪ (_ ∩ ` ) = (^ ∪ _ ) ∩ (^ ∪ ` ) I= ^ ∩ (_ ∪ ` ) = (^ ∩ _ ) ∪ (^ ∩ ` ) K= fÇÉãéçíÉåÅó= ^ ∩ ^ = ^ I== ^∪^ = ^= açãáå~íáçå= ^ ∩ ∅ = ∅ I= ^∪f= f= fÇÉåíáíó= ^ ∪ ∅ = ^ I== ^∩f= ^ = `çãéäÉãÉåí= ^′ = {ñ ∈ f ö ñ ∉ ^} = `çãéäÉãÉåí=çÑ=fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=~åÇ=råáçå ^ ∪ ^′ = f I== ^ ∩ ^′ = ∅ = = aÉ=jçêÖ~å∞ë=i~ïë (^ ∪ _ )′ = ^′ ∩ _′ I== (^ ∩ _ )′ = ^′ ∪ _′ = = aáÑÑÉêÉåÅÉ=çÑ=pÉíë ` = _ y ^ = {ñ ö ñ ∈ _ ~åÇ ñ ∉ ^} = = = 12. 18.

= = = = ===== = 23. = Figure 4. 24. 22. NUMBER SETS = = 19. 25. ===== Figure 3.CHAPTER 1. = (^ y _) ∩ ` = (^ ∩ `) y (_ ∩ `) ^′ = f y ^ `~êíÉëá~å=mêçÇìÅí ` = ^ × _ = {(ñ I ó ) ö ñ ∈ ^ ~åÇ ó ∈ _} = = 4 . 21. = _ y ^ = _ y (^ ∩ _ ) _ y ^ = _ ∩ ^′ ^y^=∅ ^ y _ = ^ =áÑ= ^ ∩ _ = ∅ . 20.

= fêê~íáçå~ä=kìãÄÉêë kçåêÉéÉ~íáåÖ=~åÇ=åçåíÉêãáå~íáåÖ=ÇÉÅáã~äëK 5 . = 28.CHAPTER 1.2 Sets of Numbers = k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=k= tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêëW= kM = fåíÉÖÉêëW=w= mçëáíáîÉ=áåíÉÖÉêëW= w + = kÉÖ~íáîÉ=áåíÉÖÉêëW= w − = o~íáçå~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=n= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=o== `çãéäÉñ=åìãÄÉêëW=`== = = k~íìê~ä=kìãÄÉêë `çìåíáåÖ=åìãÄÉêëW k = {NI OI PI K} K= tÜçäÉ=kìãÄÉêë `çìåíáåÖ=åìãÄÉêë=~åÇ=òÉêçW= k M = {MI NI OI PI K} K= fåíÉÖÉêë tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêë=~åÇ=íÜÉáê=çééçëáíÉë=~åÇ=òÉêçW= w + = k = {NI OI PI K}I= w − = {KI − PI − OI − N} I= w = w − ∪ {M} ∪ w + = {KI − PI − OI − NI MI NI OI PI K} K= o~íáçå~ä=kìãÄÉêë oÉéÉ~íáåÖ=çê=íÉêãáå~íáåÖ=ÇÉÅáã~äëW== ~   n = ñ ö ñ = ~åÇ ~ ∈ w ~åÇ Ä ∈ w ~åÇ Ä ≠ M K= Ä   26. = 30. = 29. 27. NUMBER SETS 1.

NUMBER SETS 31. oÉ~ä=kìãÄÉêë== råáçå=çÑ=ê~íáçå~ä=~åÇ=áêê~íáçå~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=oK= `çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉêë ` = {ñ + áó ö ñ ∈ o ~åÇ ó ∈ o}I== ïÜÉêÉ=á=áë=íÜÉ=áã~Öáå~êó=ìåáíK k⊂ w⊂n⊂ o ⊂ `= = = 32. = = = = = = = 6 . = 33. === = Figure 5.CHAPTER 1.

CHAPTER 1. 35. 37. 7 .3 Basic Identities = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=Å= = = 34. ^ÇÇáíáîÉ=fÇÉåíáíó= ~+M=~ = = ^ÇÇáíáîÉ=fåîÉêëÉ= ~ + (− ~ ) = M = = `çããìí~íáîÉ=çÑ=^ÇÇáíáçå= ~ +Ä= Ä+~ = = ^ëëçÅá~íáîÉ=çÑ=^ÇÇáíáçå= (~ + Ä) + Å = ~ + (Ä + Å ) = aÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=pìÄíê~Åíáçå= ~ − Ä = ~ + (− Ä) = = jìäíáéäáÅ~íáîÉ=fÇÉåíáíó= ~ ⋅N = ~ = jìäíáéäáÅ~íáîÉ=fåîÉêëÉ= N ~ ⋅ = N I= ~ ≠ M ~ = jìäíáéäáÅ~íáçå=qáãÉë=M ~ ⋅M = M = `çããìí~íáîÉ=çÑ=jìäíáéäáÅ~íáçå= ~ ⋅Ä = Ä⋅~ = = 36. NUMBER SETS 1. = 40. 39. 41. 42. = 38.

áN = á = á O = −N = á P = −á = áQ = N= ò = ~ + Äá = áR = á = á S = −N = á T = −á = áU = N = á Q å +N = á = á Q å+ O = −N = á Q å + P = −á = á Qå = N = = 47. NUMBER SETS 43. = 48.CHAPTER 1. `çãéäÉñ=mä~åÉ= = 8 . 44. ^ëëçÅá~íáîÉ=çÑ=jìäíáéäáÅ~íáçå= (~ ⋅ Ä)⋅ Å = ~ ⋅ (Ä ⋅ Å ) = aáëíêáÄìíáîÉ=i~ï= ~ (Ä + Å ) = ~Ä + ~Å = aÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=aáîáëáçå= ~ N = ~⋅ = Ä Ä = = = = k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= fã~Öáå~êó=ìåáíW=á= `çãéäÉñ=åìãÄÉêW=ò= oÉ~ä=é~êíW=~I=Å= fã~Öáå~êó=é~êíW=ÄáI=Çá= jçÇìäìë=çÑ=~=ÅçãéäÉñ=åìãÄÉêW=êI= êN I= êO = ^êÖìãÉåí=çÑ=~=ÅçãéäÉñ=åìãÄÉêW= ϕ I= ϕN I= ϕO = = = = 45. 1.4 Complex Numbers 46.

= 50. NUMBER SETS = = 49. = 51. = (~ + Äá ) + (Å + Çá ) = (~ + Å ) + (Ä + Ç )á = (~ + Äá ) − (Å + Çá ) = (~ − Å ) + (Ä − Ç)á = (~ + Äá )(Å + Çá ) = (~Å − ÄÇ ) + (~Ç + ÄÅ )á = ~ + Äá ~Å + ÄÇ ÄÅ − ~Ç = + ⋅á = Å + Çá Å O + Ç O Å O + Ç O = 53. ===== Figure 6.CHAPTER 1. `çåàìÖ~íÉ=`çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉêë= ~ + Äá = ~ − Äá = ||||||| ~ = ê Åçë ϕ I= Ä = ê ëáå ϕ == = 9 . = 52. = 54.

= 57. NUMBER SETS = Figure 7. = mçä~ê=mêÉëÉåí~íáçå=çÑ=`çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉêë= ~ + Äá = ê(Åçë ϕ + á ëáå ϕ) = jçÇìäìë=~åÇ=^êÖìãÉåí=çÑ=~=`çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉê= fÑ= ~ + Äá =áë=~=ÅçãéäÉñ=åìãÄÉêI=íÜÉå= ê = ~ O + ÄO =EãçÇìäìëFI== Ä ϕ = ~êÅí~å =E~êÖìãÉåíFK= ~ = 56.CHAPTER 1. mêçÇìÅí=áå=mçä~ê=oÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçå= ò N ⋅ ò O = êN (Åçë ϕN + á ëáå ϕN ) ⋅ êO (Åçë ϕO + á ëáå ϕO ) = = êNêO [Åçë(ϕN + ϕO ) + á ëáå(ϕN + ϕO )] = `çåàìÖ~íÉ=kìãÄÉêë=áå=mçä~ê=oÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçå= ê(Åçë ϕ + á ëáå ϕ) = ê[Åçë(− ϕ) + á ëáå(− ϕ)] = ||||||||||||||||||||| = 58. = 59. fåîÉêëÉ=çÑ=~=`çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉê=áå=mçä~ê=oÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçå= N N = [Åçë(− ϕ) + á ëáå(− ϕ)] = ê(Åçë ϕ + á ëáå ϕ) ê 10 . = 55.

= 64. 11 . nìçíáÉåí=áå=mçä~ê=oÉéêÉëÉåí~íáçå= ò N êN (Åçë ϕN + á ëáå ϕN ) êN = [Åçë(ϕN − ϕO ) + á ëáå(ϕN − ϕO )] = = ò O êO (Åçë ϕO + á ëáå ϕO ) êO mçïÉê=çÑ=~=`çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉê= å ò å = [ê(Åçë ϕ + á ëáå ϕ)] = ê å [Åçë(åϕ) + á ëáå(åϕ)] = cçêãìä~=±aÉ=jçáîêÉ≤= (Åçë ϕ + á ëáå ϕ)å = Åçë(åϕ) + á ëáå(åϕ) = kíÜ=oççí=çÑ=~=`çãéäÉñ=kìãÄÉê= ϕ + Oπâ ϕ + Oπâ   å ò = å ê(Åçë ϕ + á ëáå ϕ) = å ê  Åçë + á ëáå  I== å å   ïÜÉêÉ== â = MI NI OI KI å − N K== bìäÉê∞ë=cçêãìä~= É áñ = Åçë ñ + á ëáå ñ = = = = 61.CHAPTER 1. = 62. = 63. NUMBER SETS 60.

12 . = 67.1 Factoring Formulas = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=Å== k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= = = 65. = 71. = 70. = 66. = 69. ~ O − ÄO = (~ + Ä)(~ − Ä) = ~ P − ÄP = (~ − Ä)(~ O + ~Ä + ÄO ) = ~ P + ÄP = (~ + Ä)(~ O − ~Ä + ÄO ) = ~ Q − ÄQ = (~ O − ÄO )(~ O + ÄO ) = (~ − Ä)(~ + Ä)(~ O + ÄO ) = ~ R − ÄR = (~ − Ä)(~ Q + ~ P Ä + ~ O ÄO + ~ÄP + ÄQ ) = ~ R + ÄR = (~ + Ä)(~ Q − ~ P Ä + ~ O ÄO − ~ÄP + ÄQ ) = fÑ=å=áë=çÇÇI=íÜÉå= ~ å + Äå = (~ + Ä)(~ å−N − ~ å −O Ä + ~ å −P ÄO − K − ~Äå −O + Äå −N ) K== fÑ=å=áë=ÉîÉåI=íÜÉå== ~ å − Äå = (~ − Ä)(~ å −N + ~ å −O Ä + ~ å −P ÄO + K + ~Äå−O + Äå −N ) I== = 72.Chapter 2 Algebra = = = = 2. = 68.

(~ + Ä + Å )O = ~ O + ÄO + Å O + O~Ä + O~Å + OÄÅ = (~ + Ä + Å + K + ì + î )O = ~ O + ÄO + Å O + K + ì O + î O + = + O(~Ä + ~Å + K + ~ì + ~î + ÄÅ + K + Äì + Äî + K + ìî ) = 13 . = 75. = 79. (~ + Ä)O = ~ O + O~Ä + ÄO = (~ − Ä)P = ~ P − P~ O Ä + P~ÄO − ÄP = (~ + Ä)P = ~ P + P~ OÄ + P~ÄO + ÄP = (~ − Ä)Q = ~ Q − Q~ P Ä + S~ O ÄO − Q~ÄP + ÄQ = (~ + Ä)Q = ~ Q + Q~ P Ä + S~ OÄO + Q~ÄP + ÄQ = _áåçãá~ä=cçêãìä~= (~ + Ä)å = å` M~ å + å`N~ å−NÄ + å` O~ å−OÄO + K + å` å−N~Äå−N + å` å Äå I å> ïÜÉêÉ= å ` â = =~êÉ=íÜÉ=Äáåçãá~ä=ÅçÉÑÑáÅáÉåíëK= â> (å − â )> = 80. = 78. = 74. = 77.2 Product Formulas oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=Å== tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêëW=åI=â= = = (~ − Ä)O = ~ O − O~Ä + ÄO = 73. = 81. = 76.CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA ~ å + Äå = (~ + Ä)(~ å−N − ~ å −O Ä + ~ å −P ÄO − K + ~Äå−O − Äå −N ) K= = = = 2.

ALGEBRA 2. ~ = å ~ã = = = = = = 14 . ~ ã ~ å = ~ ã+å = ~ã = ~ ã −å = å ~ = 84.3 Powers = _~ëÉë=EéçëáíáîÉ=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëFW=~I=Ä== mçïÉêë=Eê~íáçå~ä=åìãÄÉêëFW=åI=ã= = = 82. = 87. = 88. (~ ) ã å = ~ ãå = ~ M = N I= ~ ≠ M = ~N = N = ~ −ã = ã å N = ~ã = 90.CHAPTER 2. = 83. = 89. = 85. (~Ä)ã = ~ ã Äã = ~ã ~   = ã = Ä  Ä ã = 86.

= 99. ~ åã ~ ã åã ~ ã I= Ä ≠ M K= = = ã Äå Ä åã Äå å = 95. = 98. = 96. = 100.4 Roots = _~ëÉëW=~I=Ä== mçïÉêë=Eê~íáçå~ä=åìãÄÉêëFW=åI=ã= ~ I Ä ≥ M =Ñçê=ÉîÉå=êççíë=E å = Oâ I= â ∈ k F= = = å ~Ä = å ~ å Ä = å 91.CHAPTER 2. = (~ ) å ã é = å ~ ãé = ( ~) å å å =~= åé ~ã = ã ~ ãé = å ~ =~ = ã å ã å ~ = ãå ~ = ã ( ~) å = å ~ã = 15 . = 97. = 93. ~ ã Ä = åã ~ ã Äå = ~ å~ = I= Ä ≠ M = Ä åÄ å = 94. = 92. ALGEBRA 2.

107. N ~m Ä = = ~−Ä ~± Ä = = = 2. 108.CHAPTER 2. 105. = 103. 109. 106. ALGEBRA 101. 16 .5 Logarithms = mçëáíáîÉ=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=ñI=óI=~I=ÅI=â= k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å== = = aÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=içÖ~êáíÜã= ó = äçÖ ~ ñ =áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ= ñ = ~ ó I= ~ > M I= ~ ≠ N K= = äçÖ ~ N = M = = äçÖ ~ ~ = N = = − ∞ áÑ ~ > N äçÖ ~ M =  = + ∞ áÑ ~ < N = äçÖ ~ (ñó ) = äçÖ ~ ñ + äçÖ ~ ó = = ñ äçÖ ~ = äçÖ ~ ñ − äçÖ ~ ó = ó 104. N å ~ å −N = I= ~ ≠ M K= å ~ ~ ~± Ä = ~ + ~O − Ä ~ − ~O − Ä ± = O O = 102.

äå ñ = äçÖ ñ = OKPMORUR äçÖ ñ = äçÖ É = = = = = â 17 . äçÖ ~ (ñ å ) = å äçÖ ~ ñ = = N 111.CHAPTER 2. k~íìê~ä=içÖ~êáíÜã= äçÖ É ñ = äå ñ I==  N ïÜÉêÉ= É = äáã N +  = OKTNUOUNUOUK = â →∞  â = N 117. äçÖ ~ ñ = = äçÖ Å ñ ⋅ äçÖ ~ Å I= Å > M I= Å ≠ N K= äçÖ Å ~ = N 113. ñ = ~ äçÖ ~ ñ = = 115. äçÖ ~ Å = = äçÖ Å ~ = 114. äçÖ ~ å ñ = äçÖ ~ ñ = å = äçÖ Å ñ 112. ALGEBRA 110. içÖ~êáíÜã=íç=_~ëÉ=NM= äçÖ NM ñ = äçÖ ñ = = 116. äçÖ ñ = äå ñ = MKQPQOVQ äå ñ = äå NM = N 118.

nì~Çê~íáÅ=bèì~íáçå= − Ä ± ÄO − Q~Å ~ñ + Äñ + Å = M I= ñ NI O = K= O~ = 121. aáëÅêáãáå~åí= a = ÄO − Q~Å = = 122. iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçå=áå=låÉ=s~êá~ÄäÉ= Ä ~ñ + Ä = M I= ñ = − K== ~ = 120. `ìÄáÅ=bèì~íáçåK=`~êÇ~åç∞ë=cçêãìä~K== ó P + éó + è = M I== O 18 . ~ñ O + Å = M I= ñ NI O = ± − K= ~ = 125. ALGEBRA 2.CHAPTER 2.6 Equations = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=éI=èI=ìI=î= pçäìíáçåëW= ñ N I= ñ O I= ó N I= ó O I= ó P = = = 119. ~ñ O + Äñ = M I= ñ N = M I= ñ O = − K= ~ = Å 124. sáÉíÉ∞ë=cçêãìä~ë= fÑ= ñ O + éñ + è = M I=íÜÉå== ñ N + ñ O = −é K=  ñ Nñ O = è  = Ä 123.

7 Inequalities s~êá~ÄäÉëW=ñI=óI=ò= ~ I ÄI ÅI Ç oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=  I=ãI=å= ~N I ~ O I ~ P I KI ~ å aÉíÉêãáå~åíëW=aI= añ I= aó I= aò == = = 126.CHAPTER 2. ALGEBRA ó N = ì + î I= ó OI P = − ïÜÉêÉ== ì=P − O N (ì + î ) ± P (ì + î ) á I== O O O O O è è è  é  è  é +   +   I= î = P − −   +   K== O O  O P  O P = = 2. fåÉèì~äáíáÉëI=fåíÉêî~ä=kçí~íáçåë=~åÇ=dê~éÜë== = fåÉèì~äáíó= fåíÉêî~ä=kçí~íáçå= dê~éÜ= [~I Ä]= ~ ≤ ñ ≤ Ä= ~ < ñ ≤ Ä= ~ ≤ ñ < Ä= ~ < ñ < Ä= (~I Ä] = = = = = = = = = [~I Ä) = (~I Ä) = (− ∞I Ä] = (− ∞I Ä) = − ∞ < ñ ≤ Ä I= ñ≤Ä= − ∞ < ñ < Ä I= ñ<Ä= ~ ≤ ñ < ∞ I= ñ≥~= ~ < ñ < ∞ I= ñ >~= [~I ∞ ) = (~I ∞ ) = 19 .

fÑ= ~ > Ä =~åÇ= ã < M I=íÜÉå= ã~ < ãÄ K= = ~ Ä 136. fÑ= M < ~ < Ä =~åÇ= å < M I=íÜÉå= ~ å > Äå K= = 139. fÑ= ~ > Ä =~åÇ= ã > M I=íÜÉå= = 135. = 128. ALGEBRA 127. fÑ= M < ~ < Ä I=íÜÉå= å ~ < å Ä K= = ~+Ä I== 140. = 129. fÑ= M < ~ < Ä =~åÇ= å > M I=íÜÉå= ~ å < Äå K= = 138. ~Ä ≤ O ïÜÉêÉ= ~ > M =I= Ä > M X=~å=Éèì~äáíó=áë=î~äáÇ=çåäó=áÑ= ~ = Ä K== = N 141. = 131. ~ + ≥ O I=ïÜÉêÉ= ~ > M X=~å=Éèì~äáíó=í~âÉë=éä~ÅÉ=çåäó=~í= ~ = N K= ~ 20 . = 132. fÑ= ~ > Ä =~åÇ= ã < M I=íÜÉå= < K= ã ã = 137. = 133. = fÑ= ~ > Ä I=íÜÉå= Ä < ~ K= fÑ= ~ > Ä I=íÜÉå= ~ − Ä > M =çê= Ä − ~ < M K= fÑ= ~ > Ä I=íÜÉå= ~ + Å > Ä + Å K= fÑ= ~ > Ä I=íÜÉå= ~ − Å > Ä − Å K= fÑ= ~ > Ä =~åÇ= Å > Ç I=íÜÉå= ~ + Å > Ä + Ç K= fÑ= ~ > Ä =~åÇ= Å > Ç I=íÜÉå= ~ − Ç > Ä − Å K= fÑ= ~ > Ä =~åÇ= ã > M I=íÜÉå= ã~ > ãÄ K= ~ Ä > K= ã ã 134. = 130.CHAPTER 2.

å ~N~ O K~ å ≤ ~N + ~ O + K + ~ å I=ïÜÉêÉ= ~N I ~ O I KI ~ å > M K= å = Ä 143. fÑ= ~ñ + Ä > M =~åÇ= ~ < M I=íÜÉå= ñ < − K== ~ = 145. ~ñ O + Äñ + Å > M = = = ~ > M= = = = = a>M= = ñ < ñ N I= ñ > ñ O = = ~ <M= = = ñN < ñ < ñ O = = = = = a=M= = = = a<M= ñ N < ñ I= ñ > ñ N = = = ñ ∈∅ = = = −∞< ñ <∞= = = = ñ ∈∅ = = 21 . fÑ= ~ñ + Ä > M =~åÇ= ~ > M I=íÜÉå= ñ > − K= ~ = Ä 144. ALGEBRA 142.CHAPTER 2.

8 Compound Interest Formulas = cìíìêÉ=î~äìÉW=^= fåáíá~ä=ÇÉéçëáíW=`= ^ååì~ä=ê~íÉ=çÑ=áåíÉêÉëíW=ê= kìãÄÉê=çÑ=óÉ~êë=áåîÉëíÉÇW=í= kìãÄÉê=çÑ=íáãÉë=ÅçãéçìåÇÉÇ=éÉê=óÉ~êW=å= = = 153. dÉåÉê~ä=`çãéçìåÇ=fåíÉêÉëí=cçêãìä~= åí  ê ^ = ` N +  =  å = 22 . ALGEBRA 146. = 148. fÑ= = 152. = ~+Ä ≤ ~ + Ä = fÑ= ñ < ~ I=íÜÉå= − ~ < ñ < ~ I=ïÜÉêÉ= ~ > M K= fÑ= ñ > ~ I=íÜÉå= ñ < −~ =~åÇ= ñ > ~ I=ïÜÉêÉ= ~ > M K= fÑ= ñ O < ~ I=íÜÉå= ñ < ~ I=ïÜÉêÉ= ~ > M K= fÑ= ñ O > ~ I=íÜÉå= ñ > ~ I=ïÜÉêÉ= ~ > M K= Ñ (ñ ) ⋅ Ö (ñ ) > M Ñ (ñ ) > M I=íÜÉå=  K= Ö (ñ ) Ö (ñ ) ≠ M 151. = 147.CHAPTER 2. = 150. Ñ (ñ ) ⋅ Ö (ñ ) < M Ñ (ñ ) < M I=íÜÉå=  K= Ö (ñ ) Ö (ñ ) ≠ M = = = 2. = 149.

CHAPTER 2. páãéäáÑáÉÇ=`çãéçìåÇ=fåíÉêÉëí=cçêãìä~= fÑ=áåíÉêÉëí=áë=ÅçãéçìåÇÉÇ=çåÅÉ=éÉê=óÉ~êI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=éêÉîáçìë= Ñçêãìä~=ëáãéäáÑáÉë=íçW= í ^ = `(N + ê ) K= = 155. ALGEBRA 154. `çåíáåìçìë=`çãéçìåÇ=fåíÉêÉëí= fÑ=áåíÉêÉëí=áë=ÅçãéçìåÇÉÇ=Åçåíáåì~ääó=E å → ∞ FI=íÜÉå== ^ = `É êí K= = = 23 .

α + β = VM° = = 24 . = = 156.1 Right Triangle = iÉÖë=çÑ=~=êáÖÜí=íêá~åÖäÉW=~I=Ä= eóéçíÉåìëÉW=Å= ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü= jÉÇá~åëW= ã ~ I= ã Ä I= ã Å = ^åÖäÉëW= α I β = o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 8.Chapter 3 Geometry = = = = 3.

ëÉÅ α = = Åçë ÉÅ β = Ä = 162. Åçë α = 159. ~ = ÑÅ I= Ä = ÖÅ I== ïÜÉêÉ= Ñ= ~åÇ= Å= ~êÉ= éêçàÉÅíáçåë= çÑ= íÜÉ= äÉÖë= ~= ~åÇ= ÄI= êÉëéÉÅíáîÉäóI=çåíç=íÜÉ=ÜóéçíÉåìëÉ=ÅK= = O O = = ===== Figure 9. GEOMETRY 157.CHAPTER 3. móíÜ~ÖçêÉ~å=qÜÉçêÉã= ~ O + ÄO = Å O = = 164. = 25 . Åçë ÉÅ α = Å = ëÉÅ β = ~ = 163. í~å α = Ä 160. Åçí α = = í~å β = ~ = Å 161. ëáå α = ~ = Åçë β = Å Ä = ëáå β = Å = ~ = Åçí β = Ä = = 158.

Ü O = ÑÖ I=== ïÜÉêÉ=Ü=áë=íÜÉ=~äíáíìÇÉ=Ñêçã=íÜÉ=êáÖÜí=~åÖäÉK== = O O ~ Ä 166. o = = ã Å = O = ~ +Ä−Å ~Ä = = 169. ~Ä = ÅÜ = = = 26 . ã O = ÄO − I= ã O = ~ O − I=== ~ Ä Q Q ïÜÉêÉ= ã ~ =~åÇ= ã Ä =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ãÉÇá~åë=íç=íÜÉ=äÉÖë=~=~åÇ=ÄK== = = Figure 10. ã Å = I== O ïÜÉêÉ= ã Å =áë=íÜÉ=ãÉÇá~å=íç=íÜÉ=ÜóéçíÉåìëÉ=ÅK= = Å 168. = = Å 167.CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY 165. ê = O ~ +Ä+Å = 170.

= = 172. Ü O = ÄO − 27 . β = VM° − α = O = ~ = Q O 173.CHAPTER 3.2 Isosceles Triangle = _~ëÉW=~= iÉÖëW=Ä= _~ëÉ=~åÖäÉW= β = sÉêíÉñ=~åÖäÉW= α = ^äíáíìÇÉ=íç=íÜÉ=Ä~ëÉW=Ü= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 11. p = ~Ä ÅÜ = = O O = = = 3. GEOMETRY 171.

Ü = ~ P = O = 28 . GEOMETRY 174. = = 176.3 Equilateral Triangle = páÇÉ=çÑ=~=Éèìáä~íÉê~ä=íêá~åÖäÉW=~= ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 12. p = ~Ü Ä = ëáå α = O O O = = = 3.CHAPTER 3. i = ~ + OÄ = = 175.

CHAPTER 3. i = P~ = 180. GEOMETRY O ~ P = 177. ê = Ü = P S O 179. o = Ü = P P = N ~ P o = = 178.4 Scalene Triangle E^=íêá~åÖäÉ=ïáíÜ=åç=íïç=ëáÇÉë=Éèì~äF= = = páÇÉë=çÑ=~=íêá~åÖäÉW=~I=ÄI=Å= ~ +Ä+Å == pÉãáéÉêáãÉíÉêW= é = O ^åÖäÉë=çÑ=~=íêá~åÖäÉW= αI βI γ = ^äíáíìÇÉë=íç=íÜÉ=ëáÇÉë=~I=ÄI=ÅW= Ü ~ I Ü Ä I Ü Å = jÉÇá~åë=íç=íÜÉ=ëáÇÉë=~I=ÄI=ÅW= ã ~ I ã Ä I ã Å = _áëÉÅíçêë=çÑ=íÜÉ=~åÖäÉë= αI βI γ W= í ~ I í Ä I í Å = o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= ^êÉ~W=p= = = 29 . p = = = ~Ü ~ P = = O Q O = = = 3.

~ + Ä > Å I== Ä + Å > ~ I== ~ + Å > Ä K= = 183.CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 13. = = 181. jáÇäáåÉ= ~ è = I= è öö ~ K= O = = = = = ===== Figure 14. α + β + γ = NUM° = 182. ~ − Ä < Å I== Ä − Å < ~ I== ~ − Å < Ä K= 184. = 30 .

Ü ~ = é(é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å ) I= ~ O é(é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å ) I= ÜÄ = Ä O ÜÅ = é(é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å ) K= Å 31 . ê O = é N N N N = + + K= ê Ü~ ÜÄ ÜÅ = (é − Ä)(é − Å ) I= α 189.CHAPTER 3. o = = O ëáå α O ëáå β O ëáå γ OÜ ~ OÜ Ä OÜ Å Qp = (é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å ) I== 188. i~ï=çÑ=páåÉë= ~ Ä Å = = = Oo I== ëáå α ëáå β ëáå γ ïÜÉêÉ=o=áë=íÜÉ=ê~Çáìë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉK== = ~ Ä Å ÄÅ ~Å ~Ä ~ÄÅ = = = = = = 187. i~ï=çÑ=`çëáåÉë= ~ O = ÄO + Å O − OÄÅ Åçë α I= ÄO = ~ O + Å O − O~Å Åçë β I= Å O = ~ O + ÄO − O~Ä Åçë γ K= = 186. GEOMETRY 185. ëáå = O ÄÅ Åçë α é(é − ~ ) I= = O ÄÅ í~å α = O (é − Ä)(é − Å ) K= é(é − ~ ) = O 190.

CHAPTER 3. ^j = ã ~ I= _j = ã Ä I= `j = ã Å =EcáÖKNRFK= P P P = QÄÅé(é − ~ ) 194. = O O O 193. Ü ~ = Ä ëáå γ = Å ëáå β I= Ü Ä = ~ ëáå γ = Å ëáå α I= Ü Å = ~ ëáå β = Ä ëáå α K= = 192. GEOMETRY 191. í O = I== ~ (Ä + Å )O Q~Åé(é − Ä) íO = I== Ä (~ + Å )O Q~Äé(é − Å ) íO = K= Å (~ + Ä)O = 32 . ã O = ~ Ä +Å ~ − I== O Q O O ~ + Å ÄO ãO = − I== Ä O Q O O ~ + Ä ÅO O ãÅ = − K= O Q O O O = = = ===== Figure 15.

CHAPTER 3.5 Square páÇÉ=çÑ=~=ëèì~êÉW=~= aá~Öçå~äW=Ç= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = Figure 16. p = ~Ü ~ ÄÜ Ä ÅÜ Å = = I== O O O ~Ä ëáå γ ~Å ëáå β ÄÅ ëáå α I== p= = = O O O p = é(é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å ) =EeÉêçå∞ë=cçêãìä~FI= p = éê I== ~ÄÅ p= I= Qo p = Oo O ëáå α ëáå β ëáå γ I= α β γ p = éO í~å í~å í~å K= O O O = = = 3. GEOMETRY 195. = 33 .

ê = = O 199. Ç = ~ O == = 197. o = Ç ~ O = = O O = ~ 198.CHAPTER 3. Ç = ~ O + ÄO == 34 .6 Rectangle = páÇÉë=çÑ=~=êÉÅí~åÖäÉW=~I=Ä= aá~Öçå~äW=Ç= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 17. p = ~ = = = = O = = 3. = = 201. i = Q~ = 200. GEOMETRY 196.

α + β = NUM° = 206. o = Ç = O = = 203. p = ~Ä = = = = 3.CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY 202. = = 205. i = O(~ + Ä) = 204.7 Parallelogram = páÇÉë=çÑ=~=é~ê~ääÉäçÖê~ãW=~I=Ä= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = `çåëÉÅìíáîÉ=~åÖäÉëW= αI β = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=Çá~Öçå~äëW= ϕ = ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü== mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = ===== Figure 18. Ç + Ç = O(~ + Ä ) = O N O O O O = = 35 .

CHAPTER 3. = 36 . GEOMETRY 207. Ü = Ä ëáå α = Ä ëáå β = 208. p = ~Ü = ~Ä ëáå α I== N p = ÇNÇ O ëáå ϕ K= O = = = = = 3. i = O(~ + Ä) = 209.8 Rhombus = páÇÉ=çÑ=~=êÜçãÄìëW=~= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = `çåëÉÅìíáîÉ=~åÖäÉëW= αI β = ^äíáíìÇÉW=e= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = = ===== Figure 19.

CHAPTER 3.9 Trapezoid = _~ëÉë=çÑ=~=íê~éÉòçáÇW=~I=Ä= jáÇäáåÉW=è= ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü= ^êÉ~W=p= = = 37 . p = ~Ü = ~ ëáå α I== N p = ÇNÇ O K= O = = = O = = 3. ê = = N O = = O Q~ O 214. i = Q~ = 215. α + β = NUM° = = 211. Ç + Ç = Q~ = O N O O O = 212. Ü = ~ ëáå α = ÇNÇ O = O~ = Ü ÇÇ ~ ëáå α 213. GEOMETRY 210.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY = Figure 20.10 Isosceles Trapezoid = _~ëÉë=çÑ=~=íê~éÉòçáÇW=~I=Ä= iÉÖW=Å= jáÇäáåÉW=è= ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü= aá~Öçå~äW=Ç= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= ^êÉ~W=p= = = 38 . è = 217. p = ~+Ä = O ~+Ä ⋅ Ü = èÜ = O = = = = 3. = = 216.

o = 39 . Ü = Å O − (Ä − ~ ) = Q = Å ~Ä + Å O = (OÅ − ~ + Ä)(OÅ + ~ − Ä) = ~+Ä 222. p = ⋅ Ü = èÜ = O = = = = = = 221. Ç = ~Ä + Å = = N O 220.CHAPTER 3. = = 218. è = ~+Ä = O = O 219. GEOMETRY = Figure 21.

Ç = Ü + Å = O O O = 40 . è = =Å= O = 225. GEOMETRY 3. ~ + Ä = OÅ = = ~+Ä 224. = = 223.11 Isosceles Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle = _~ëÉë=çÑ=~=íê~éÉòçáÇW=~I=Ä= iÉÖW=Å= jáÇäáåÉW=è= ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü= aá~Öçå~äW=Ç= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 22.CHAPTER 3.

i = O(~ + Ä) = QÅ = = (~ + Ä) ~Ä = èÜ = ÅÜ = iê == ~+Ä ⋅Ü = 229.CHAPTER 3.12 Trapezoid with Inscribed Circle = _~ëÉë=çÑ=~=íê~éÉòçáÇW=~I=Ä= i~íÉê~ä=ëáÇÉëW=ÅI=Ç= jáÇäáåÉW=è= ^äíáíìÇÉW=Ü= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=Çá~Öçå~äëW= ϕ = o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = 41 . GEOMETRY 226. o = 3. p = O O O = = = 227. ê = Ü ~Ä = = O O = O Ä ÅÇ ÅÇ Å Å Å ~+Ä ~ N+ ÜO + Å O = = = = +S+ = OÜ Qê O ~Ä OÜ U Ä ~ = 228.

p = = = = ~+Ä Å+Ç ⋅Ü = ⋅ Ü = èÜ I== O O N p = ÇNÇ O ëáå ϕ K= O = = = 3. = = 230.CHAPTER 3.13 Kite = páÇÉë=çÑ=~=âáíÉW=~I=Ä= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = ^åÖäÉëW= αI βI γ = mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = 42 . i = O(~ + Ä) = O(Å + Ç ) = 233. è = O O 232. GEOMETRY = Figure 23. ~ + Ä = Å + Ç = ~+Ä Å+Ç = = 231.

GEOMETRY = Figure 24. i = O(~ + Ä) = 236.CHAPTER 3. = 234.14 Cyclic Quadrilateral páÇÉë=çÑ=~=èì~Çêáä~íÉê~äW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=Ç= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=Çá~Öçå~äëW= ϕ = fåíÉêå~ä=~åÖäÉëW= αI βI γ I δ = o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= pÉãáéÉêáãÉíÉêW=é== ^êÉ~W=p= 43 . α + β + Oγ = PSM° = 235. p = = = = ÇNÇ O = O = = = 3.

p = ÇNÇ O ëáå ϕ I== O p = (é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å )(é − Ç ) I== i ïÜÉêÉ= é = K= O = = = 44 . α + γ = β + δ = NUM° = = = 238. GEOMETRY = Figure 25. i = ~ + Ä + Å + Ç = = = N (~Å + ÄÇ )(~Ç + ÄÅ )(~Ä + ÅÇ ) I== 240. o = Q (é − ~ )(é − Ä)(é − Å )(é − Ç ) i ïÜÉêÉ= é = K= O = N 241. = 237. míçäÉãó∞ë=qÜÉçêÉã= ~Å + ÄÇ = ÇNÇ O = 239.CHAPTER 3.

GEOMETRY 3. i = ~ + Ä + Å + Ç = O(~ + Å ) = O(Ä + Ç ) = = 244.CHAPTER 3.15 Tangential Quadrilateral = páÇÉë=çÑ=~=èì~Çêáä~íÉê~äW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=Ç= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=Çá~Öçå~äëW= ϕ = o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= pÉãáéÉêáãÉíÉêW=é== ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 26. = = 242. ê = O ÇN Ç O − (~ − Ä) (~ + Ä − é ) O I== Oé i ïÜÉêÉ= é = K== O = O O 45 . ~ + Å = Ä + Ç = = 243.

p = éê = ÇNÇ O ëáå ϕ = O = = = 3. i = ~ + Ä + Å + Ç = = = 46 . α + β + γ + δ = PSM° = 247. = 246. GEOMETRY N 245.16 General Quadrilateral = páÇÉë=çÑ=~=èì~Çêáä~íÉê~äW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=Ç= aá~Öçå~äëW= ÇN I Ç O = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=Çá~Öçå~äëW= ϕ = fåíÉêå~ä=~åÖäÉëW= αI βI γ I δ = mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = = ======= Figure 27.CHAPTER 3.

= = 249.CHAPTER 3. α = NOM° = = 250.17 Regular Hexagon = páÇÉW=~= fåíÉêå~ä=~åÖäÉW= α = pä~åí=ÜÉáÖÜíW=ã= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= pÉãáéÉêáãÉíÉêW=é== ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 28. ê = ã = ~ P = O 47 . p = ÇNÇ O ëáå ϕ = O = = = 3. GEOMETRY N 248.

p = éê = = = ~ P P I== O i ïÜÉêÉ= é = K= O = = = = páÇÉW=~= kìãÄÉê=çÑ=ëáÇÉëW=å= fåíÉêå~ä=~åÖäÉW= α = pä~åí=ÜÉáÖÜíW=ã= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= pÉãáéÉêáãÉíÉêW=é== ^êÉ~W=p= = = O 3. o = ~ = 252.18 Regular Polygon 48 . GEOMETRY 251. i = S~ = 253.CHAPTER 3.

= = 254. α = = 256. i = å~ = 259. o = 257. ê = ã = ~ O í~å π å = oO − ~O = Q 258. α = å−O ⋅ NUM° = O å−O ⋅ NUM° = O π O ëáå å ~ = = = 255.CHAPTER 3. p = = = åo Oπ ëáå I== O å O p = éê = é o O − ~O I== Q 49 . GEOMETRY = Figure 29.

CHAPTER 3. = = 50 .19 Circle = o~ÇáìëW=o= aá~ãÉíÉêW=Ç= `ÜçêÇW=~= pÉÅ~åí=ëÉÖãÉåíëW=ÉI=Ñ= q~åÖÉåí=ëÉÖãÉåíW=Ö= `Éåíê~ä=~åÖäÉW= α = fåëÅêáÄÉÇ=~åÖäÉW= β = mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = α 260. GEOMETRY ïÜÉêÉ= é = = = = i K== O 3. ~ = Oo ëáå = O = = Figure 30.

GEOMETRY 261. = 262. ÉÉN = ÑÑN = = = = = ===== Figure 32.CHAPTER 3. = 263. Ö O = ÑÑN = = 51 . ~N~ O = ÄNÄO = = = Figure 31.

CHAPTER 3. p = πo O = io πÇ = == Q O O = 52 . = 264. i = Oπo = πÇ = = 266. = = 265. GEOMETRY = = ===== Figure 33. β = α = O = = Figure 34.

20 Sector of a Circle = o~Çáìë=çÑ=~=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= ^êÅ=äÉåÖíÜW=ë= `Éåíê~ä=~åÖäÉ=Eáå=ê~Çá~åëFW=ñ= `Éåíê~ä=~åÖäÉ=Eáå=ÇÉÖêÉÉëFW= α = mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 35. ë = oñ = 268. = 267. GEOMETRY 3. ë = = πoα = NUM° = 269. p = = = oë o ñ πo α = = == O O PSM° O O = = 53 .CHAPTER 3. i = ë + Oo = 270.

CHAPTER 3. i = ë + ~ = = 54 . GEOMETRY 3. Ü = o − Qo O − ~ O I= Ü < o = O = 273.21 Segment of a Circle = o~Çáìë=çÑ=~=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= ^êÅ=äÉåÖíÜW=ë= `ÜçêÇW=~= `Éåíê~ä=~åÖäÉ=Eáå=ê~Çá~åëFW=ñ= `Éåíê~ä=~åÖäÉ=Eáå=ÇÉÖêÉÉëFW= α = eÉáÖÜí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëÉÖãÉåíW=Ü= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = = Figure 36. = = 271. ~ = O OÜo − Ü O = = N 272.

GEOMETRY 274.CHAPTER 3. = = ~ 276. Ç = ~ P = === Figure 37.22 Cube = bÇÖÉW=~== aá~Öçå~äW=Ç= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ëéÜÉêÉW=ê= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ëéÜÉêÉW=ê= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = = 275. ê = = O = 55 . p = O O N [ëo − ~(o − Ü )] = o  απ − ëáå α  = o (ñ − ëáå ñ ) I==   O O  NUM°  O O p ≈ Ü~ K= P = = = 3.

p = S~ = = 279. p = O(~Ä + ~Å + ÄÅ ) = 282. = 280. o = ~ P = O = O 278. s = ~ == = = = P 3.CHAPTER 3. s = ~ÄÅ == = = 56 . Ç = ~ O + ÄO + Å O = 281. GEOMETRY 277.23 Rectangular Parallelepiped = bÇÖÉëW=~I=ÄI=Å== aá~Öçå~äW=Ç= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = = ===== Figure 38.

CHAPTER 3. i~íÉê~ä=^êÉ~=çÑ=~=oáÖÜí=mêáëã= p i = (~ N + ~ O + ~ P + K + ~ å )ä = = 285. p = p i + Op_ K== = 284. GEOMETRY 3.24 Prism = i~íÉê~ä=ÉÇÖÉW=ä= eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= i~íÉê~ä=~êÉ~W= p i = ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW= p_ = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = ===== Figure 39. = = 283. i~íÉê~ä=^êÉ~=çÑ=~å=lÄäáèìÉ=mêáëã= p i = éä I== ïÜÉêÉ=é=áë=íÜÉ=éÉêáãÉíÉê=çÑ=íÜÉ=Åêçëë=ëÉÅíáçåK= = 57 .

Ü = O ~= P = 58 . GEOMETRY 286. `~î~äáÉêáDë=mêáåÅáéäÉ== dáîÉå=íïç=ëçäáÇë=áåÅäìÇÉÇ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=é~ê~ääÉä=éä~åÉëK=fÑ=ÉîÉêó= éä~åÉ=Åêçëë=ëÉÅíáçå=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ÖáîÉå=éä~åÉë=Ü~ë=íÜÉ=ë~ãÉ= ~êÉ~=áå=ÄçíÜ=ëçäáÇëI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=îçäìãÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëçäáÇë=~êÉ=Éèì~äK= = = = 3.25 Regular Tetrahedron = qêá~åÖäÉ=ëáÇÉ=äÉåÖíÜW=~= eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW= p_ = pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = Figure 40. s = p_ Ü = = 287.CHAPTER 3. = = 288.

CHAPTER 3. p = P~ = = N ~P 291. p_ = P~ O = Q = O 290.26 Regular Pyramid = páÇÉ=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=~= i~íÉê~ä=ÉÇÖÉW=Ä= eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= pä~åí=ÜÉáÖÜíW=ã== kìãÄÉê=çÑ=ëáÇÉëW=å== pÉãáéÉêáãÉíÉê=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=é= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ëéÜÉêÉ=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=ê= ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW= p_ = i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= pi = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = 59 . GEOMETRY 289. s = p_ Ü = K== P S O = = = 3.

= = 292. GEOMETRY = Figure 41. p i = å~ã = å~ QÄO − ~ O = éã = O Q = 295. p_ = éê = = 296. Ü = QÄO ëáå O π O −~ å = π O ëáå å = N N 294.CHAPTER 3. s = p_ Ü = éêÜ == P P = = = 60 . ã = ÄO − ~O = Q = 293. p = p_ + p i = = N N 297.

CHAPTER 3. ÄN ÄO ÄP Ä Ä = = =K= å = = â = ~N ~ O ~ P ~å ~ = 61 .27 Frustum of a Regular Pyramid = ~N I ~ O I ~ P IKI ~ å = _~ëÉ=~åÇ=íçé=ëáÇÉ=äÉåÖíÜëW=  ÄN I ÄO I ÄP IKI Äå eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= pä~åí=ÜÉáÖÜíW=ã== ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉëW= pN I= pO = i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= p i = mÉêáãÉíÉê=çÑ=Ä~ëÉëW= mN I= mO = pÅ~äÉ=Ñ~ÅíçêW=â= qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = Figure 42. GEOMETRY 3. = = 298.

p i = O 301.28 Rectangular Right Wedge = páÇÉë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=~I=Ä= qçé=ÉÇÖÉW=Å= eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= p i = ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW= p_ = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = 62 . pO = âO = pN = ã(mN + mO ) = 300. s = N N + +    = N N + â + â O = P  ~ ~  P   = = = ( ) [ ] 3.CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY 299. p = p i + pN + pO = = = Ü 302. s = pN + pNpO + pO = P = O Üp  Ä  Ä   Üp 303.

p = p_ + p i = = ÄÜ (O~ + Å ) = 307. = = N (~ + Å ) QÜO + ÄO + Ä ÜO + (~ − Å )O = O = 305.29 Platonic Solids = bÇÖÉW=~= o~Çáìë=çÑ=áåëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=ê= o~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅáêÅìãëÅêáÄÉÇ=ÅáêÅäÉW=o= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = 63 .CHAPTER 3. s = S = = = 304. p_ = ~Ä = = 306. GEOMETRY = Figure 43. p i = 3.

o = = 64 . GEOMETRY 308. = = 309.CHAPTER 3. cáîÉ=mä~íçåáÅ=pçäáÇë= qÜÉ= éä~íçåáÅ= ëçäáÇë= ~êÉ= ÅçåîÉñ= éçäóÜÉÇê~= ïáíÜ= Éèìáî~äÉåí= Ñ~ÅÉë=ÅçãéçëÉÇ=çÑ=ÅçåÖêìÉåí=ÅçåîÉñ=êÉÖìä~ê=éçäóÖçåëK== = pçäáÇ= kìãÄÉê= kìãÄÉê= kìãÄÉê= pÉÅíáçå= çÑ=sÉêíáÅÉë çÑ=bÇÖÉë= çÑ=c~ÅÉë= qÉíê~ÜÉÇêçå== Q= S= Q= PKOR= `ìÄÉ= U= NO= S= PKOO= lÅí~ÜÉÇêçå= S= NO= U= PKOT= fÅçë~ÜÉÇêçå= NO= PM= OM= PKOT= açÇÉÅ~ÜÉÇêçå= OM= PM= NO= PKOT= = = Octahedron = = Figure 44. ê = ~ S = S ~ O = O = 310.

p = O~ O P = = ~P O 312. ê = ~ P P+ R = NO ~ O R+ R = Q ( ) = 314.CHAPTER 3. s = = NO = = ( ) 65 . p = R~ O P = = R~ P P + R 316. s = = P = = Icosahedron = = Figure 45. = = 313. o = ( ) = 315. GEOMETRY 311.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY Dodecahedron = = Figure 46.30 Right Circular Cylinder = o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=o= aá~ãÉíÉê=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=Ç= 66 . ê = ~ NM OR + NN R = O ~ P N+ R = Q ( ) = 318. = = 317. s = = Q = = = ( ) ( ) 3. p = P~ O R R + O R = = ~ P NR + T R 320. o = ( ) = 319.

CHAPTER 3. s = p_ e = πo O e = = = = 67 . GEOMETRY eÉáÖÜíW=e= i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= p i = ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW= p_ = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = ===== Figure 47. p i = Oπoe = = Ç  322. = = 321. p = p i + Op_ = Oπo(e + o ) = πÇ e +  = O  = 323.

GEOMETRY 3. p i = πo(ÜN + Ü O ) = = =  Ü − ÜO  325.CHAPTER 3. p_ = πo + πo o +  N  =  O  = O O O 68 .31 Right Circular Cylinder with an Oblique Plane Face = o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=o= qÜÉ=ÖêÉ~íÉëí=ÜÉáÖÜí=çÑ=~=ëáÇÉW= ÜN = qÜÉ=ëÜçêíÉëí=ÜÉáÖÜí=çÑ=~=ëáÇÉW= Ü O = i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= p i = ^êÉ~=çÑ=éä~åÉ=ÉåÇ=Ñ~ÅÉëW= p_ = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = Figure 48. = 324.

CHAPTER 3. s = O = = = 3. = 69 . GEOMETRY O   ÜN − Ü O   O 326.32 Right Circular Cone o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=o= aá~ãÉíÉê=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=Ç= eÉáÖÜíW=e= pä~åí=ÜÉáÖÜíW=ã= i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= pi = ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW= p_ = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = = Figure 49. p = p i + p_ = πo ÜN + Ü O + o + o +   =  O      = πo O (ÜN + ÜO ) = 327.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY 328. e = ã O − o O = = πãÇ 329. p_ = πo O = = N  Ç 331. s = p_ e = πo O e = P P = = = 3. p i = πoã = = O = 330.33 Frustum of a Right Circular Cone = o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉëW=oI=ê= eÉáÖÜíW=e= pä~åí=ÜÉáÖÜíW=ã= pÅ~äÉ=Ñ~ÅíçêW=â= ^êÉ~=çÑ=Ä~ëÉëW= pN I= pO = i~íÉê~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W= p i = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = 70 . p = p i + p_ = πo (ã + o ) = πÇ ã +  = O  O = N N 332.

s = pN + pNpO + pO = P = O ÜpN  o  o   ÜpN 339. p = pN + pO + p i = π o O + ê O + ã(o + ê ) = = Ü 338. = = 333.CHAPTER 3. p i = πã(o + ê ) = = 337. e = ã O − (o − ê ) = = o 334. =â= ê = p oO 335. GEOMETRY = Figure 50. O = O = â O = pN ê = 336. s = N+ â + âO = N + +    = P  ê ê  P   = = = O [ ] ( ) [ ] 71 .

CHAPTER 3. = = 340. GEOMETRY 3. p = Qπo O = = Q N N 341.34 Sphere = o~ÇáìëW=o= aá~ãÉíÉêW=Ç= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = Figure 51. s = πo P e = πÇ P = po = P S P = = = 3.35 Spherical Cap o~Çáìë=çÑ=ëéÜÉêÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉW=ê= eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= ^êÉ~=çÑ=éä~åÉ=Ñ~ÅÉW= p_ = ^êÉ~=çÑ=ëéÜÉêáÅ~ä=Å~éW= p` = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= 72 .

p = p_ + p` = π(Ü O + Oê O ) = π(OoÜ + ê O ) = = π π 346. s = Ü O (Po − Ü ) = Ü(Pê O + Ü O ) = S S = = = 3. p` = π(Ü O + ê O )= = 345. = = 342.36 Spherical Sector = o~Çáìë=çÑ=ëéÜÉêÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉ=çÑ=ëéÜÉêáÅ~ä=Å~éW=ê= eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = 73 .CHAPTER 3. o = ê O + ÜO = OÜ = 343. p_ = πê O = = 344. GEOMETRY = Figure 52.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY ====== = === Figure 53. p = πo(OÜ + ê ) = = O 348.37 Spherical Segment = o~Çáìë=çÑ=ëéÜÉêÉW=o= o~Çáìë=çÑ=Ä~ëÉëW= êN I= êO = eÉáÖÜíW=Ü= ^êÉ~=çÑ=ëéÜÉêáÅ~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉW= pp = ^êÉ~=çÑ=éä~åÉ=ÉåÇ=Ñ~ÅÉëW= pN I= pO = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = 74 . = = 347. s = πo O Ü = P = kçíÉW= qÜÉ= ÖáîÉå= Ñçêãìä~ë= ~êÉ= ÅçêêÉÅí= ÄçíÜ= Ñçê= ±çéÉå≤= ~åÇ= ±ÅäçëÉÇ≤=ëéÜÉêáÅ~ä=ëÉÅíçêK= = = = 3.

p = pp + pN + pO = π(OoÜ + êNO + êOO ) = = N 351.CHAPTER 3. = = 349. GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 54. pp = OπoÜ = = 350.38 Spherical Wedge = o~ÇáìëW=o= aáÜÉÇê~ä=~åÖäÉ=áå=ÇÉÖêÉÉëW=ñ= aáÜÉÇê~ä=~åÖäÉ=áå=ê~Çá~åëW= α = ^êÉ~=çÑ=ëéÜÉêáÅ~ä=äìåÉW= p i = qçí~ä=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = 75 . s = πÜ(PêNO + PêOO + Ü O )= S = = = 3.

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY

=
Figure 55.

=

=
352. p i =

πo O α = Oo O ñ = VM πo O α = πo O + Oo O ñ = VM

=
353. p = πo O +

=
354. s =

πoP O α = oP ñ = OTM P

= = =

3.39 Ellipsoid
= pÉãá-~ñÉëW=~I=ÄI=Å= sçäìãÉW=s=

76

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY

= =

=======
Figure 56.

=

Q 355. s = π~ÄÅ = P = = =

Prolate Spheroid
= pÉãá-~ñÉëW=~I=ÄI=Ä=E ~ > Ä F= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = = ~ ~êÅëáå É   356. p = OπÄ Ä +  I== É   ïÜÉêÉ= É = = Q 357. s = πÄO~ = P =
~ O − ÄO K= ~

77

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY

Oblate Spheroid
= pÉãá-~ñÉëW=~I=ÄI=Ä=E ~ < Ä F= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = =   ÄÉ   ~ ~êÅëáåÜ      ~   I== 358. p = OπÄ Ä +   ÄÉ L ~     ïÜÉêÉ= É = = Q 359. s = πÄO~ = P = = =
ÄO − ~ O K= Ä

3.40 Circular Torus
= j~àçê=ê~ÇáìëW=o= jáåçê=ê~ÇáìëW=ê= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= =

78

CHAPTER 3. GEOMETRY

== =
360. p = QπOoê = = 361. s = OπOoê O = = =

Picture 57.

=

79

Chapter 4

Trigonometry
= = = = ^åÖäÉëW= α I= β = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêë=EÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~=éçáåíFW=ñI=ó== tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=â= = =

4.1 Radian and Degree Measures of Angles
=
362. N ê~Ç =

NUM° ≈ RT°NT DQR? = π

=
363. N° =

π ê~Ç ≈ MKMNTQRP ê~Ç = NUM π ê~Ç ≈ MKMMMOVN ê~Ç = NUM ⋅ SM π ê~Ç ≈ MKMMMMMR ê~Ç = NUM ⋅ PSMM ^åÖäÉ= EÇÉÖêÉÉëF= ^åÖäÉ= Eê~Çá~åëF= M= M= PM= QR= SM= VM= NUM= OTM= PSM= π = S π = Q π = P π = O
π=

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364. N D =

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365. N ? =

= 366. = = =

Pπ = O

Oπ =

= =

80

CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY

4.2 Definitions and Graphs of Trigonometric Functions
=

= =

=
Figure 58.

=

367. ëáå α =

ó = ê ñ = ê ó = ñ ñ = ó

=
368. Åçë α =

=
369. í~å α =

=
370. Åçí α =

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81

CHAPTER 4. = 374. TRIGONOMETRY 371. `çëáåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = Åçë ñ I= − N ≤ Åçë ñ ≤ N K= 82 . ÅçëÉÅ α = 373. ëÉÅ α = ê = ñ ê = ó = = 372. páåÉ=cìåÅíáçå= ó = ëáå ñ I= − N ≤ ëáå ñ ≤ N K= = = Figure 59.

TRIGONOMETRY = Figure 60.CHAPTER 4. = = 375. q~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå= π ó = í~å ñ I= ñ ≠ (Oâ + N) I= − ∞ ≤ í~å ñ ≤ ∞K = O = = Figure 61. = = 83 .

= = 377. pÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå= π ó = ëÉÅ ñ I= ñ ≠ (Oâ + N) K= O == 84 .CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY 376. `çí~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = Åçí ñ I= ñ ≠ âπ I== − ∞ ≤ Åçí ñ ≤ ∞ K= = = Figure 62.

`çëÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = Åçë ÉÅ ñ I= ñ ≠ âπ K= = Figure 64. 85 .CHAPTER 4. = = 378. TRIGONOMETRY = Figure 63.

3. Signs of Trigonometric Functions 379. = = nì~Çê~åí= f= ff= fff= fs= = = 380.CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY 4. = = = = = = = = = = 86 . = = páå α= H= H= = = `çë α= H= = = H= q~å α= H= = H= = `çí α= H= = H= = pÉÅ α= H= = = H= `çëÉÅ= α= H= H= = = = = Figure 65.

TRIGONOMETRY 4.CHAPTER 4. = α° = α ê~Ç = M= M= π = PM= S π = QR= Q π = SM= P π = VM= O Oπ = NOM= P NUM= π= Pπ = OTM= O PSM= Oπ = = = = = = = = = = = = = = ëáå α = M= N = O O = O P = O N= P = O M= − N= M= Åçë α = N= P = O O = O N = O M= N − = O − N= M= N= í~å α = Åçí α M= ∞= N = P= P ëÉÅ α = N= O = P O= ÅçëÉÅ α = ∞= O= O= N= P= ∞= − P= M= − N= N = P M= N P ∞= M= ∞= O= ∞= −O= − N= O = P N= O = P ∞= − N= ∞= ∞= M= ∞= N= 87 .4 Trigonometric Functions of Common Angles 381.

5 Most Important Formulas = 383. = α° = α ê~Ç = π = NR= NO ëáå α = S− O = Q R −N = Q NM − O R Q R +N = Q NM + O R Q Åçë α = S+ O = Q NM + O R Q R +N = Q NM − O R Q R −N = Q í~å α = Åçí α = O− P = R−O R = R NM − O R R +N O+ P = R+O R = R +N NM − O R = NM − O R R +N = NU= π = NM π = R Pπ = NM Oπ = R PS= RQ= R +N NM − O R R+O R = TO= R−O R R = O− P = TR= = = = Rπ = NO S+ O = Q S− O = Q O+ P = 4. ÅëÅ O α − Åçí O α = N = = ëáå α = 386. í~å α = Åçë α 88 .CHAPTER 4. ëáå O α + Åçë O α = N = = 384. ëÉÅ O α − í~å O α = N = = 385. TRIGONOMETRY 382.

CHAPTER 4.6 Reduction Formulas = 391. = = = = = = = β= −α= VM° − α = VM° + α = NUM° − α NUM° + α OTM° − α OTM° + α PSM° − α = PSM° + α ëáå β = − ëáå α = + Åçë α = + Åçë α = + ëáå α = − ëáå α = − Åçë α = − Åçë α = − ëáå α = + ëáå α = Åçë β = + Åçë α = + ëáå α = − ëáå α = − Åçë α = − Åçë α = − ëáå α = + ëáå α = + Åçë α = + Åçë α = í~å β = − í~å α = + Åçí α = − Åçí α = − í~å α = + í~å α = + Åçí α = − Åçí α = − í~å α = + í~å α = Åçí β = − Åçí α = + í~å α = − í~å α = − Åçí α = + Åçí α = + í~å α = − í~å α = − Åçí α = + Åçí α = 89 . ÅçëÉÅ α = = ëáå α = = = 4. í~å α ⋅ Åçí α = N = = N 389. Åçí α = Åçë α = ëáå α = 388. ëÉÅ α = = Åçë α = N 390. TRIGONOMETRY 387.

Åçí(α ± πå ) = Åçí α I=éÉêáçÇ= π =çê= NUM° K= = = = = 4. Åçë α = ± N − ëáå O α = ± = = 398.8 Relations between Trigonometric Functions = 396. ëáå α = ± N − Åçë O α = ± = = α O = = α N + í~å O O O í~å N (N − Åçë Oα ) = O Åçë O  α − π  − N =   O  O Q 397. í~å(α ± πå ) = í~å α I=éÉêáçÇ= π =çê= NUM° K= = 395. TRIGONOMETRY 4.CHAPTER 4. í~å α = α O= = α N + í~å O O N − í~å O N (N + Åçë Oα ) = O Åçë O α − N = O O ëáå α ëáå Oα N − Åçë Oα = ± ëÉÅ O α − N = = = Åçë α N + Åçë Oα ëáå Oα 90 .7 Periodicity of Trigonometric Functions 392. ëáå(α ± Oπå ) = ëáå α I=éÉêáçÇ= Oπ =çê= PSM° K= = 393. Åçë(α ± Oπå ) = Åçë α I=éÉêáçÇ= Oπ =çê= PSM° K= = 394.

Åçë(α − β ) = Åçë α Åçë β + ëáå α ëáå β = 91 . ëáå(α − ó ) = ëáå α Åçë β − ëáå β Åçë α = = 404. ëÉÅ α = = ± N + í~å O α = α Åçë α N − í~å O O = α N + í~å O N O= 401.CHAPTER 4. ÅëÅ α = = ± N + Åçí O α = α ëáå α O í~å O = = = = 4. ëáå(α + β) = ëáå α Åçë β + ëáå β Åçë α = = 403. Åçí α = Åçë α N + Åçë Oα ëáå Oα = ± ÅëÅ O α − N = = = ëáå α ëáå Oα N − Åçë Oα α N − í~å O N + Åçë Oα O= = = =± α N − Åçë Oα O í~å O N + í~å O α N O= 400. Åçë(α + β ) = Åçë α Åçë β − ëáå α ëáå β = = 405. TRIGONOMETRY = = α N − Åçë Oα O = =± = N + Åçë Oα O α N + í~å O O í~å 399.9 Addition and Subtraction Formulas = 402.

í~å(α − β ) = = 408. í~å(α + β ) = í~å α + í~å β = N − í~å α í~å β í~å α − í~å β = N + í~å α í~å β N − í~å α í~å β = í~å α + í~å β N + í~å α í~å β = í~å α − í~å β = 407. ëáå Oα = O ëáå α ⋅ Åçë α = = 411. Åçí(α − β) = = = = 4.10 Double Angle Formulas 410. Åçí(α + β) = = 409. TRIGONOMETRY 406. í~å Oα = = = O N − í~å α Åçí α − í~å α = Åçí O α − N Åçí α − í~å α = = 413.CHAPTER 4. Åçë Oα = Åçë O α − ëáå O α = N − O ëáå O α = O Åçë O α − N = = O í~å α O 412. Åçí Oα = O Åçí α O = = = = = = = 92 .

Åçë Pα = Q ÅçëP α − P Åçë α = Åçë P α − P Åçë α ⋅ ëáå O α = = 418. í~å Qα = N − S í~å O α + í~å Q α = í~å R α − NM í~å P α + R í~å α = 422.11 Multiple Angle Formulas = 414. ëáå Qα = Q ëáå α ⋅ Åçë α − U ëáå P α ⋅ Åçë α = = 416. í~å Rα = N − NM í~å O α + R í~å Q α = Åçí P α − P Åçí α 423. Åçë Rα = NS Åçë R α − OM Åçë P α + R Åçë α = = P í~å α − í~å P α 420. Åçí Qα = Q í~å α − Q í~å P α = 93 .CHAPTER 4. TRIGONOMETRY 4. í~å Pα = = N − P í~å O α = Q í~å α − Q í~å P α = 421. Åçí Pα = = P Åçí O α − N = N − S í~å O α + í~å Q α == 424. ëáå Rα = R ëáå α − OM ëáå P α + NS ëáå R α = = 417. Åçë Qα = U Åçë Q α − U Åçë O α + N = = 419. ëáå Pα = P ëáå α − Q ëáå P α = P Åçë O α ⋅ ëáå α − ëáåP α = = 415.

í~å = 429. Åçí Rα = N − NM í~å O α + R í~å Q α = í~å R α − NM í~å P α + R í~å α = = = 4. ëáå α = α N + í~å O O = O í~å = 94 . ëáå α N − Åçë α = =± O O α N + Åçë α = =± O O α N − Åçë α ëáå α N − Åçë α =± = = = ÅëÅ α − Åçí α = O N + Åçë α N + Åçë α ëáå α α N + Åçë α ëáå α N + Åçë α =± = = = ÅëÅ α + Åçí α = O N − Åçë α N − Åçë α ëáå α = 427.CHAPTER 4. Åçë = 428.13 Half Angle Tangent Identities α O = 430. Åçí = = = 4. TRIGONOMETRY 425.12 Half Angle Formulas = 426.

ëáå α + ëáå β = O ëáå α+β α −β = Åçë O O α +β α −β = ëáå O O α+β α −β = Åçë O O α +β α −β = ëáå O O = 435. Åçë α + Åçë β = O Åçë = 437.CHAPTER 4. Åçë α = O α N + í~å O = α O í~å O = 432. ëáå α − ëáå β = O Åçë = 436. Åçë α − Åçë β = −O ëáå = 95 . Åçí α = α O í~å O = = = N − í~å O 4. í~å α = α N − í~å O O = α N − í~å O O= 433.14 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Product = 434. TRIGONOMETRY α O= 431.

Åçí α + Åçí β = = 441. N − Åçë α = O ëáå O = O = 96 . Åçë α − ëáå α = O ëáå − α  = O Åçë + α  = Q  Q  = Åçë(α − β) = 444. Åçí α − Åçí β = = π  π  442. Åçë α + ëáå α = O Åçë − α  = O ëáå + α  = Q  Q  = π  π  443. í~å α − Åçí β = − Åçë α ⋅ ëáå β = α 446. N + Åçë α = O Åçë O = O = α 447. í~å α + Åçí β = Åçë α ⋅ ëáå β = Åçë(α + β ) = 445. TRIGONOMETRY 438.CHAPTER 4. í~å α + í~å β = ëáå(α + β ) = Åçë α ⋅ Åçë β ëáå(α − β ) = Åçë α ⋅ Åçë β ëáå(β + α ) = ëáå α ⋅ ëáå β ëáå(β − α ) = ëáå α ⋅ ëáå β = 439. í~å α − í~å β = = 440.

N − ëáå α = O ëáå O  −  = Q O = = = 4.15 Transforming of Trigonometric Expressions to Sum = 450. TRIGONOMETRY π α 448. N + ëáå α = O Åçë O  −  = Q O = π α 449. í~å α ⋅ Åçí β = = = = 97 . Åçë α ⋅ Åçë β = = 452. í~å α ⋅ í~å β = = 454.CHAPTER 4. Åçí α ⋅ Åçí β = = 455. ëáå α ⋅ ëáå β = Åçë(α − β) − Åçë(α + β ) = O Åçë(α − β ) + Åçë(α + β ) = O ëáå(α − β ) + ëáå(α + β ) = O í~å α + í~å β = Åçí α + Åçí β Åçí α + Åçí β = í~å α + í~å β í~å α + Åçí β = Åçí α + í~å β = 451. ëáå α ⋅ Åçë β = = 453.

Åçë R α = = 465. Åçë S α = = 98 .16 Powers of Trigonometric Functions = 456. ëáå Q α = = 459. TRIGONOMETRY 4. ëáå P α = = 458. Åçë P α = = 463. Åçë Q α = = 464. ëáå S α = = 461. ëáå R α = = 460. Åçë O α = = 462.CHAPTER 4. ëáå O α = N − Åçë Oα = O P ëáå α − ëáå Pα = Q Åçë Qα − Q Åçë Oα + P = U NM ëáå α − R ëáå Pα + ëáå Rα = NS NM − NR Åçë Oα + S Åçë Qα − Åçë Sα = PO N + Åçë Oα = O P Åçë α + Åçë Pα = Q Åçë Qα + Q Åçë Oα + P = U NM Åçë α + R ëáå Pα + Åçë Rα = NS NM + NR Åçë Oα + S Åçë Qα + Åçë Sα = PO = 457.

CHAPTER 4.17 Graphs of Inverse Trigonometric Functions = 466. = = 467. TRIGONOMETRY 4. fåîÉêëÉ=`çëáåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅÅçë ñ I= − N ≤ ñ ≤ N I= M ≤ ~êÅÅçë ñ ≤ π K= = 99 . fåîÉêëÉ=páåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅëáå ñ I= − N ≤ ñ ≤ N I= − = π π ≤ ~êÅëáå ñ ≤ K= O O = Figure 66.

= = 468. TRIGONOMETRY = Figure 67. = 100 . fåîÉêëÉ=q~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅí~å ñ I= − ∞ ≤ ñ ≤ ∞ I= − π π < ~êÅí~å ñ < K= O O = = ===== Figure 68.CHAPTER 4.

TRIGONOMETRY 469. = = 470. fåîÉêëÉ=pÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå==  π  π  ó = ~êÅëÉÅ=ñ I ñ ∈ (− ∞I − N] ∪ [NI ∞ )I ~êÅ ëÉÅ ñ ∈ MI  ∪  I πK  O  O  = Figure 70. fåîÉêëÉ=`çí~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅ Åçí ñ I= − ∞ ≤ ñ ≤ ∞ I= M < ~êÅ Åçí ñ < π K= ===== Figure 69. 101 .CHAPTER 4.

fåîÉêëÉ=`çëÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå==  π   π ó = ~êÅÅëÅ ñ I ñ ∈ (− ∞I − N] ∪ [NI ∞ )I ~êÅ ÅëÅ ñ ∈ − I M  ∪  MI K  O   O = Figure 71. ñ= M= ~êÅëáå ñ = M° = ~êÅÅçë ñ = VM° N − ñ= O − PM° ~êÅëáå ñ = − QR° = NOM° ~êÅÅçë ñ = NPR° = = N = O PM° = SM° = O − O O = O QR° = QR° = P − O P O SM° PM° − N= N= VM° M° = = = = − SM° − VM° = NUM° NRM° = = 102 . TRIGONOMETRY 471.CHAPTER 4.18 Principal Values of Inverse Trigonometric Functions 472. = = = 4.

ñ= ~êÅí~å ñ = M= M° = P P PM° SM° N= QR° QR° P= − SM° PM° − PM° ~êÅ Åçí ñ = VM° = = = − QR° − SM° = = NPR° NOM° = NRM° = = P P − N= − P= 4. ~êÅëáå ñ = − ~êÅÅçë N − ñ O I= − N ≤ ñ ≤ M K= = ñ O I= ñ < N K= 478. TRIGONOMETRY 473. ~êÅëáå ñ = ~êÅ Åçí = 481.CHAPTER 4. ~êÅëáå ñ = ~êÅí~å O N− ñ = 479.19 Relations between Inverse Trigonometric Functions 474. ~êÅÅçë(− ñ ) = π − ~êÅÅçë ñ = 103 . ~êÅëáå ñ = − ~êÅÅçë ñ = O = 476. ~êÅëáå(− ñ ) = − ~êÅëáå ñ = = π 475. ~êÅëáå ñ = ~êÅÅçë N − ñ O I= M ≤ ñ ≤ N K= = 477. ~êÅëáå ñ = ~êÅ Åçí N− ñO I= M < ñ ≤ N K= ñ N− ñO − π I= − N ≤ ñ < M K= ñ = = 480.

~êÅÅçë ñ = ~êÅëáå N − ñ O I= M ≤ ñ ≤ N K= = 484. ~êÅí~å(− ñ ) = − ~êÅí~å ñ = = π 489. ~êÅí~å ñ = − ~êÅÅçë N+ ñO = = 104 . ~êÅÅçë ñ = ~êÅí~å N− ñO I= M < ñ ≤ N K= ñ N− ñO I= − N ≤ ñ < M K= ñ = 486. ~êÅí~å ñ = ~êÅëáå N+ ñO = N I= ñ ≥ M K= 491.CHAPTER 4. ~êÅí~å ñ = ~êÅÅçë N+ ñO = N I= ñ ≤ M K= 492. ~êÅÅçë ñ = ~êÅ Åçí ñ N− ñO I= − N ≤ ñ ≤ N K= 488. ~êÅí~å ñ = − ~êÅ Åçí ñ = O = ñ = 490. ~êÅÅçë ñ = π − ~êÅëáå N − ñ O I= − N ≤ ñ ≤ M K= = 485. ~êÅÅçë ñ = π − ~êÅëáå ñ = O = 483. TRIGONOMETRY 482. ~êÅÅçë ñ = π + ~êÅí~å = 487.

~êÅ Åçí ñ = ~êÅëáå N+ ñO = N I= ñ < M K= 500. ~êÅí~å ñ = ~êÅ Åçí I= ñ > M K= ñ = N 496. ~êÅ Åçí ñ = ~êÅÅçë N+ ñO = N 502. TRIGONOMETRY 493. ~êÅí~å ñ = − − ~êÅí~å I= ñ < M K= O ñ = N 495. ~êÅ Åçí(− ñ ) = π − ~êÅ Åçí ñ = = π 498. ~êÅ Åçí ñ = π + ~êÅí~å I= ñ < M K= ñ = = = 105 . ~êÅí~å ñ = ~êÅ Åçí − π I= ñ < M K= ñ = 497.CHAPTER 4. ~êÅí~å ñ = π N − ~êÅí~å I= ñ > M K= O ñ π N 494. ~êÅ Åçí ñ = − ~êÅí~å ñ = O = N I= ñ > M K= 499. ~êÅ Åçí ñ = π − ~êÅëáå N+ ñO = ñ = 501. ~êÅ Åçí ñ = ~êÅí~å I= ñ > M K= ñ = N 503.

106 . 510. 4.CHAPTER 4. 507.21 Relations to Hyperbolic Functions 508. 506.20 Trigonometric Equations = tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=å= = = å ëáå ñ = ~ I= ñ = (− N) ~êÅëáå ~ + πå = = Åçë ñ = ~ I= ñ = ± ~êÅÅçë ~ + Oπå = = í~å ñ = ~ I= ñ = ~êÅí~å ~ + πå = = Åçí ñ = ~ I= ñ = ~êÅ Åçí ~ + πå = = = = = fã~Öáå~êó=ìåáíW=á= = = ëáå(áñ ) = á ëáåÜ ñ = = í~å(áñ ) = á í~åÜ ñ = = Åçí(áñ ) = −á ÅçíÜ ñ = = ëÉÅ(áñ ) = ëÉÅÜ ñ = = ÅëÅ(áñ ) = −á ÅëÅÜ ñ = = = = 504. 505. 509. 512. 511. TRIGONOMETRY 4.

pÉÅçåÇ=lêÇÉê=aÉíÉêãáå~åí= ~ ÄN ÇÉí ^ = N = ~ N Ä O − ~ O ÄN = ~ O ÄO = = = = = 107 .1 Determinants = 513.Chapter 5 Matrices and Determinants = = = = j~íêáÅÉëW=^I=_I=`= bäÉãÉåíë=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñW= ~ á I= Äá I= ~ áà I= Äáà I= Å áà = aÉíÉêãáå~åí=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñW= ÇÉí ^ = jáåçê=çÑ=~å=ÉäÉãÉåí= ~ áà W= j áà = `çÑ~Åíçê=çÑ=~å=ÉäÉãÉåí= ~ áà W= ` áà = ú qê~åëéçëÉ=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñW= ^ q I= ^ = ^Çàçáåí=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñW= ~Çà ^ = qê~ÅÉ=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñW= íê ^ = fåîÉêëÉ=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñW= ^ −N = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW=â= oÉ~ä=î~êá~ÄäÉëW= ñ á = k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=ãI=å=== = = 5.

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 514. qÜáêÇ=lêÇÉê=aÉíÉêãáå~åí= ~NN ~NO ~NP ÇÉí ^ = ~ ON ~ OO ~ OP = ~NN~ OO~ PP + ~NO~ OP~ PN + ~ NP~ ON~ PO − = ~ PN ~ PO ~ PP − ~NN~ OP~ PO − ~NO~ ON~ PP − ~ NP~ OO~ PN = = 515. = = 516. k-íÜ=lêÇÉê=aÉíÉêãáå~åí= ~NN ~NO K ~Nà ~ ON ~ OO K ~ O à K K K K ÇÉí ^ = ~ áN ~ á O K ~ áà K K K K ~ åN ~ å O K ~ åà K ~Nå K ~ Oå K K K ~ áå K K K ~ åå = = 517.CHAPTER 5. p~êêìë=oìäÉ=E^êêçï=oìäÉF= = Figure 72. jáåçê= qÜÉ=ãáåçê= j áà =~ëëçÅá~íÉÇ=ïáíÜ=íÜÉ=ÉäÉãÉåí= ~ áà =çÑ=å-íÜ=çêÇÉê= ã~íêáñ= ^= áë= íÜÉ= (å − N) -íÜ= çêÇÉê= ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí= ÇÉêáîÉÇ= Ñêçã= íÜÉ=ã~íêáñ=^=Äó=ÇÉäÉíáçå=çÑ=áíë=á-íÜ=êçï=~åÇ=à-íÜ=ÅçäìãåK=== = 108 .

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 518. i~éä~ÅÉ=bñé~åëáçå=çÑ=å-íÜ=lêÇÉê=aÉíÉêãáå~åí= i~éä~ÅÉ=Éñé~åëáçå=Äó=ÉäÉãÉåíë=çÑ=íÜÉ=á-íÜ=êçï= ÇÉí ^ = ∑ ~ áà` áà I= á = NI OI KI å K= à=N å i~éä~ÅÉ=Éñé~åëáçå=Äó=ÉäÉãÉåíë=çÑ=íÜÉ=à-íÜ=Åçäìãå= ÇÉí ^ = ∑ ~ áà` áà I= à = NI OI KI å K== á =N å = = = 5. fÑ=íïç=êçïë==Eçê=íïç=ÅçäìãåëF=~êÉ==áÇÉåíáÅ~äI=íÜÉ=î~äìÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ= ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí=áë=òÉêçK= ~N ~N = M= ~O ~O = 109 . `çÑ~Åíçê= á +à ` áà = (− N) j áà = = 519.CHAPTER 5.2 Properties of Determinants = 520. fÑ=íïç==êçïë==Eçê=íïç=ÅçäìãåëF=~êÉ==áåíÉêÅÜ~åÖÉÇI=íÜÉ=ëáÖå=çÑ= íÜÉ=ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí=áë=ÅÜ~åÖÉÇK= ~N ÄN ~ ÄO =− O = ~ O ÄO ~N ÄN = 522. qÜÉ==î~äìÉ==çÑ=~=ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí=êÉã~áåë==ìåÅÜ~åÖÉÇ=áÑ=êçïë=~êÉ= ÅÜ~åÖÉÇ=íç=Åçäìãåë=~åÇ=Åçäìãåë=íç=êçïëK= ~ ~ O ~N ÄN = == = N ÄN ÄO ~ O ÄO = 521.

^=ëèì~êÉ=ã~íêáñ= ~ áà =áë=ëâÉï-ëóããÉíêáÅ=áÑ= ~ áà = −~ àá K== = [ ] 110 . ^=ëèì~êÉ=ã~íêáñ== ~ áà ==áë==ëóããÉíêáÅ==áÑ== ~ áà = ~ àá I==áKÉK==áí==áë= [ ] [ ] ëóããÉíêáÅ=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=äÉ~ÇáåÖ=Çá~Öçå~äK== = 528. aÉÑáåáíáçå= ^å= ã × å =ã~íêáñ=^=áë=~=êÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=~êê~ó=çÑ=ÉäÉãÉåíë=EåìãÄÉêë=çê=ÑìåÅíáçåëF=ïáíÜ=ã=êçïë=~åÇ=å=ÅçäìãåëK==  ~ NN ~ NO K ~ Nå  ~ ~ OO K ~ Oå   ==  ON ^ = ~ áà =  M M M    ~ ãN ~ ã O K ~ ãå  = 526.3 Matrices = 525. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 523.CHAPTER 5. fÑ==íÜÉ===ÉäÉãÉåíë==çÑ==~åó=êçï==Eçê=ÅçäìãåF=~êÉ=ãìäíáéäáÉÇ=Äó===== ~==Åçããçå==Ñ~ÅíçêI==íÜÉ==ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí==áë==ãìäíáéäáÉÇ==Äó==íÜ~í= Ñ~ÅíçêK= â~ N âÄN ~ ÄN =â N = ~ O ÄO ~ O ÄO = 524. pèì~êÉ=ã~íêáñ=áë=~=ã~íêáñ=çÑ=çêÇÉê= å× å K== = 527. fÑ==íÜÉ==ÉäÉãÉåíë==çÑ==~åó==êçï==Eçê==ÅçäìãåF=~êÉ=áåÅêÉ~ëÉÇ=Eçê= ÇÉÅêÉ~ëÉÇFÄó=Éèì~ä=ãìäíáéäÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅçêêÉëéçåÇáåÖ=ÉäÉãÉåíë= çÑ=~åó=çíÜÉê=êçï==Eçê=ÅçäìãåFI==íÜÉ=î~äìÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí= áë=ìåÅÜ~åÖÉÇK= ~N + âÄN ÄN ~N ÄN = = ~ O + âÄO ÄO ~ O ÄO = = = 5.

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 529. ^=åìää=ã~íêáñ=áë=çåÉ=ïÜçëÉ=ÉäÉãÉåíë=~êÉ=~ää=òÉêçK= = = = 5.CHAPTER 5. qïç=ã~íêáÅÉë==^=~åÇ=_==Å~å=ÄÉ=~ÇÇÉÇ=Eçê=ëìÄíê~ÅíÉÇF=çÑI=~åÇ= çåäó=áÑI=íÜÉó=Ü~îÉ=íÜÉ=ë~ãÉ=ëÜ~éÉ= ã × å K=fÑ==  ~NN ~NO K ~Nå  ~ ~ OO K ~ Oå   I== ^ = ~ áà =  ON  M M M    ~ ãN ~ ã O K ~ ãå   ÄNN ÄNO K ÄNå  Ä ÄOO K ÄOå   I== _ = Äáà =  ON  M M M    ÄãN Äã O K Äãå  = = = = = [ ] [ ] 111 . aá~Öçå~ä=ã~íêáñ==áë==~=ëèì~êÉ==ã~íêáñ=ïáíÜ=~ää==ÉäÉãÉåíë==òÉêç= ÉñÅÉéí=íÜçëÉ=çå=íÜÉ=äÉ~ÇáåÖ=Çá~Öçå~äK== = 530.4 Operations with Matrices = 532. råáí=ã~íêáñ==áë==~=Çá~Öçå~ä==ã~íêáñ==áå=ïÜáÅÜ=íÜÉ=ÉäÉãÉåíë=çå= íÜÉ=äÉ~ÇáåÖ=Çá~Öçå~ä=~êÉ=~ää=ìåáíóK=qÜÉ=ìåáí=ã~íêáñ=áë=========== ÇÉåçíÉÇ=Äó=fK== = 531. qïç=ã~íêáÅÉë=^=~åÇ=_=~êÉ=Éèì~ä=áÑI=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑI=íÜÉó=~êÉ=ÄçíÜ= çÑ==íÜÉ==ë~ãÉ==ëÜ~éÉ== ã × å ==~åÇ=ÅçêêÉëéçåÇáåÖ=ÉäÉãÉåíë=~êÉ= Éèì~äK= = 533.

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS ~NO + ÄNO K ~Nå + ÄNå   ~NN + ÄNN ~ +Ä ~ OO + ÄOO K ~ Oå + ÄOå   K=  ON ON ^+_=   M M M   ~ ãN + ÄãN ~ ã O + Äã O K ~ ãå + Äãå  = 534. fÑ=â=áë=~=ëÅ~ä~êI=~åÇ= ^ = ~ áà =áë=~=ã~íêáñI=íÜÉå= íÜÉå== [ ]  â~NN â~NO K â~Nå   â~ â~ OO K â~ Oå   K=  ON â^ = â~ áà =  M M M    â~ ãN â~ ã O K â~ ãå  = 535. jìäíáéäáÅ~íáçå=çÑ=qïç=j~íêáÅÉë= qïç= ã~íêáÅÉë= Å~å= ÄÉ= ãìäíáéäáÉÇ= íçÖÉíÜÉê= çåäó= ïÜÉå= íÜÉ= åìãÄÉê= çÑ= Åçäìãåë= áå= íÜÉ= Ñáêëí= áë= Éèì~ä= íç= íÜÉ= åìãÄÉê= çÑ= êçïë=áå=íÜÉ=ëÉÅçåÇK== = fÑ=  ~NN ~NO K ~Nå  ~ ~ OO K ~ Oå   I== ^ = ~ áà =  ON  M M M    ~ ãN ~ ã O K ~ ãå   ÄNN ÄNO K ÄNâ  Ä ÄOO K ÄO â   I= _ = Äáà =  ON  M M M    ÄåN Äå O K Äåâ  = = = = = [ ] [ ] [ ] 112 .

fÑ=íÜÉ=ã~íêáñ=éêçÇìÅí=^_=áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇI=íÜÉå== (^_ )q = _ q ^ q K= = = 113 . qê~åëéçëÉ=çÑ=~=j~íêáñ= fÑ=íÜÉ=êçïë=~åÇ=Åçäìãåë=çÑ=~=ã~íêáñ=~êÉ=áåíÉêÅÜ~åÖÉÇI=íÜÉå= íÜÉ=åÉï=ã~íêáñ=áë=Å~ääÉÇ=íÜÉ=íê~åëéçëÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=çêáÖáå~ä=ã~íêáñK=== fÑ= ^= áë= íÜÉ= çêáÖáå~ä= ã~íêáñI= áíë= íê~åëéçëÉ= áë= ÇÉåçíÉÇ= ^ q = çê= ú ^ K== = 537.CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS íÜÉå==  ÅNN ÅNO K ÅNâ  Å Å OO K Å O â   I==  ON ^_ = ` =  M M M    Ä ãN Å ã O K Å ãâ  ïÜÉêÉ== Å áà = ~ áNÄNà + ~ á O ÄO à + K + ~ áå Äåà = ∑ ~ á λ Äλ à = E á = NI OI KI ã X à = NI OI KI â FK== = qÜìë=áÑ= ~ NN ^ = ~ áà =  ~ ON λ =N å [ ] ~ NO ~ OO  ÄN  ~ NP     I= _ = [Ä á ] = Ä O  I== ~ OP   ÄP    ~ NO Ä O ~ OO Ä O ~ NP ÄP  K== ~ OP ÄP   íÜÉå== ~ NN ~ NO ^_ =  ~ ON ~ OO Ä  ~ NP   N  ~ NNÄN ⋅ Ä = ~ OP   O  ~ ONÄN  Ä    P = 536. qÜÉ=ã~íêáñ=^=áë=çêíÜçÖçå~ä=áÑ= ^^ q = f K== = 538.

5 Systems of Linear Equations = = s~êá~ÄäÉëW=ñI=óI=òI= ñ N I= ñ O I K = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW= ~ N I ~ O I ~ P I ÄN I ~ NN I ~ NO I K = 114 . fåîÉêëÉ=çÑ=~=j~íêáñ= fÑ=^=áë=~=ëèì~êÉ= å× å ã~íêáñ=ïáíÜ=~=åçåëáåÖìä~ê=ÇÉíÉêãáå~åí= ÇÉí ^ I=íÜÉå=áíë=áåîÉêëÉ= ^ −N =áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó= ~Çà ^ ^ −N = K= ÇÉí ^ = 542. fÑ=íÜÉ=ã~íêáñ=éêçÇìÅí=^_=áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇI=íÜÉå== (^_)−N = _ −N^ −N K= = 543. ^Çàçáåí=çÑ=j~íêáñ= fÑ=^=áë=~=ëèì~êÉ= å× å ã~íêáñI=áíë=~ÇàçáåíI=ÇÉåçíÉÇ=Äó= ~Çà ^ I= áë=íÜÉ=íê~åëéçëÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=ã~íêáñ=çÑ=ÅçÑ~Åíçêë= ` áà =çÑ=^W= ~Çà ^ = ` áà K== = 540. fÑ==^==áë=~=ëèì~êÉ=== å × å ==ã~íêáñI==íÜÉ==ÉáÖÉåîÉÅíçêë==u===ë~íáëÑó= íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå= ^u = λu I== ïÜáäÉ=íÜÉ=ÉáÖÉåî~äìÉë= λ =ë~íáëÑó=íÜÉ=ÅÜ~ê~ÅíÉêáëíáÅ=Éèì~íáçå= ^ − λf = M K=== = = = q [ ] 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS 539. qê~ÅÉ=çÑ=~=j~íêáñ= fÑ= ^= áë= ~= ëèì~êÉ= å × å ã~íêáñI= áíë= íê~ÅÉI= ÇÉåçíÉÇ= Äó= íê ^ I= áë= ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=íç=ÄÉ==íÜÉ=ëìã=çÑ==íÜÉ=íÉêãë=çå=íÜÉ=äÉ~ÇáåÖ=Çá~Öçå~äW= íê ^ = ~NN + ~ OO + K + ~ åå K= = 541.CHAPTER 5.

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS aÉíÉêãáå~åíëW=aI= añ I= aó I= aò == j~íêáÅÉëW=^I=_I=u= ~ ñ + ÄNó = ÇN I== 544.  N ~ O ñ + ÄO ó = Ç O aó a =E`ê~ãÉê∞ë=êìäÉFI== ñ = ñ I= ó = a a ïÜÉêÉ== ~ ÄN a= N = ~NÄO − ~ O ÄN I== ~ O ÄO Ç ÄN añ = N = ÇNÄO − Ç O ÄN I== Ç O ÄO ~ ÇN aó = N = ~NÇ O − ~ OÇN K== ~ O ÇO = 545. fÑ= a ≠ M I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ëóëíÉã=Ü~ë=~=ëáåÖäÉ=ëçäìíáçåW== aó a K= ñ = ñ I= ó = a a fÑ= a = M = ~åÇ= añ ≠ M Eçê= aó ≠ M FI= íÜÉå= íÜÉ= ëóëíÉã= Ü~ë= = åç== ëçäìíáçåK= fÑ= a = añ = aó = M I= íÜÉå= íÜÉ= ëóëíÉã= Ü~ë= = áåÑáåáíÉäó= = ã~åó== ëçäìíáçåëK= = ~Nñ + ÄNó + ÅNò = ÇN=  546.CHAPTER 5. ~ O ñ + ÄO ó + Å Oò = Ç O I== ~ ñ + Ä ó + Å ò = Ç P P P  P ñ= = aó añ a I= ó = I= ò = ò =E`ê~ãÉê∞ë=êìäÉFI== a a a = = 115 .

fÑ= a ≠ M I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ëóëíÉã=Ü~ë=~=ëáåÖäÉ=ëçäìíáçåW== aó a a I= ò = ò K= ñ = ñ I= ó = a a a fÑ= a = M =~åÇ= añ ≠ M Eçê= aó ≠ M =çê= aò ≠ M FI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ëóëíÉã= Ü~ë=åç=ëçäìíáçåK= fÑ= a = añ = aó = aò = M I= íÜÉå= íÜÉ= ëóëíÉã= Ü~ë= áåÑáåáíÉäó= ã~åó=ëçäìíáçåëK= = 548. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS ïÜÉêÉ== ~N ÄN a = ~ O ÄO ~ P ÄP ~N aó = ~ O ~P ÇN ÇO ÇP ÅN ÅP ÅN ÇN ÇP ~N ÄN ÄO ÄP ÄN ÄO ÄP ÅN Å O I= ÅP ÇN Ç O K== ÇP Å O I= añ = Ç O Å O I= aò = ~ O ÅP ~P = 547.CHAPTER 5. j~íêáñ=cçêã=çÑ=~=póëíÉã=çÑ=å=iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçåë=áå================= å=råâåçïåë= qÜÉ=ëÉí=çÑ=äáåÉ~ê=Éèì~íáçåë== ~NNñ N + ~ NO ñ O + K + ~ Nå ñ å = ÄN ~ ñ + ~ ñ + K + ~ ñ = Ä  ON N OO O Oå å O =  KKKKKKKKKKKK  ~ åNñ N + ~ å O ñ O + K + ~ åå ñ å = Äå  Å~å=ÄÉ=ïêáííÉå=áå=ã~íêáñ=Ñçêã=  ~ NN ~ NO K ~ Nå   ñ N   ÄN         ~ ON ~ OO K ~ Oå   ñ O   Ä O  I== = ⋅  M M M   M   M             ~  åN ~ å O K ~ åå   ñ å   Ä å  áKÉK== ^ ⋅ u = _ I== 116 .

CHAPTER 5. MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS ïÜÉêÉ==  ~ NN  ~ ^ =  ON M  ~  åN ~ NO K ~ Nå   ñN   ÄN       ~ OO K ~ Oå   ñO  Ä  I= u =   I= _ =  O  K== M M  M M       ñ  Ä  ~ å O K ~ åå   å  å = 549. pçäìíáçå=çÑ=~=pÉí=çÑ=iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçåë= å × å = u = ^ −N ⋅ _ I== ïÜÉêÉ= ^ −N =áë=íÜÉ=áåîÉêëÉ=çÑ=^K= = = 117 .

Chapter 6 Vectors = = = = r r r r → sÉÅíçêëW= ì I= î I= ï I= ê I= ^_ I=£= r r sÉÅíçê=äÉåÖíÜW= ì I= î I=£= r r r råáí=îÉÅíçêëW= á I= à I= â = r kìää=îÉÅíçêW= M = r `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=îÉÅíçê= ì W= uN I vN I wN = r `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=îÉÅíçê= î W= u O I vO I wO = pÅ~ä~êëW= λ I µ = aáêÉÅíáçå=ÅçëáåÉëW= Åçë α I= Åçë β I= Åçë γ = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=îÉÅíçêëW= θ = = = 6. råáí=sÉÅíçêë= r á = (NI MI M) I= r à = (MI NI M) I= r â = (MI MI N) I= r r r á = à = â = N K= r r r r → 551.1 Vector Coordinates = 550. ê = ^_ = (ñ N − ñ M ) á + (ó N − ó M ) à + (ò N − ò M ) â = = = 118 .

→ r ê = ^_ = (ñ N − ñ M )O + (óN − ó M )O + (òN − ò M )O = = → → r r 553. VECTORS ======= = Figure 73. fÑ= ^_ = ê I=íÜÉå= _^ = − ê K= = = Figure 74.CHAPTER 6. = = 552. u = ê Åçë α I= r v = ê Åçë β I= r w = ê Åçë γ K= 119 . = = r 554.

CHAPTER 6.2 Vector Addition r r r 556. = = r r 555. = 120 . fÑ= ê (uI v I w ) = êN (uN I vN I wN ) I=íÜÉå== u = uN I= v = vN I= w = wN K== == = 6. ï = ì + î = = = = == Figure 76. VECTORS = ===== Figure 75.

VECTORS = = == Figure 77.CHAPTER 6. = r r r r r 557. = = 558. `çããìí~íáîÉ=i~ï= r r r r ì+ î =î+ì= = 559. ^ëëçÅá~íáîÉ=i~ï= r r r r r r (ì + î ) + ï = ì + (î + ï ) = = r r 560. ï = ìN + ì O + ìP + K + ì å = = = == Figure 78. ì + î = (uN + u O I vN + vO I wN + wO ) = = = = = = = 121 .

= r r r r 562. ï = ì − î =áÑ= î + ï = ì K= = = = Figure 79.3 Vector Subtraction r r r r r r 561. ì − ì = M = (MI MI M ) = = r 564.CHAPTER 6. ï = λì = 122 .4 Scaling Vectors = r r 566. ì − î = (uN − u O I vN − vO I wN − w O ) I== = = = 6. = = = = == Figure 80. M = M = = r r 565. VECTORS 6. ì − î = ì + (− î ) = = r r r 563.

5 Scalar Product = r r 573. = = 567. λ(µì ) = µ(λì ) = (λµ )ì = = r r r r 572. λì = (λuI λv I λw ) = = r r 569. r r ï = λ⋅ì= r 568. VECTORS = Figure 81. (λ + µ ) ì = λì + µì = = r r r 571.CHAPTER 6. pÅ~ä~ê=mêçÇìÅí=çÑ=sÉÅíçêë= ì =~åÇ î = r r r r ì ⋅ î = ì ⋅ î ⋅ Åçë θ I== r r ïÜÉêÉ= θ =áë=íÜÉ=~åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=îÉÅíçêë= ì =~åÇ î K==== = 123 . λ(ì + î ) = λì + λî = = = = = 6. λì = ìλ = = r r r 570.

= = 574. pÅ~ä~ê=mêçÇìÅí=áå=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=cçêã= r r fÑ= ì = (uN I vN I wN ) I= î = (u O I vO I w O ) I=íÜÉå== r r ì ⋅ î = uNu O + vNvO + wNwO K= = 575. ^åÖäÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=sÉÅíçêë== r r fÑ= ì = (uN I vN I wN ) I= î = (u O I vO I w O ) I=íÜÉå== uNu O + vNvO + wNw O K= Åçë θ = O O O O O O uN + vN + wN u O + vO + w O = 576. VECTORS = = Figure 82. `çããìí~íáîÉ=mêçéÉêíó= r r r r ì⋅î = î ⋅ì= = 577.CHAPTER 6. aáëíêáÄìíáîÉ=mêçéÉêíó= r r r r r r r ì ⋅ (î + ï ) = ì ⋅ î + ì ⋅ ï = = π r r r r 579. ^ëëçÅá~íáîÉ=mêçéÉêíó= r r r r (λì ) ⋅ (µî ) = λµì ⋅ î = = 578. ì ⋅ î > M =áÑ= M < θ < K= O = 124 . ì ⋅ î = M =áÑ= ì I î =~êÉ=çêíÜçÖçå~ä=E θ = FK= O = π r r 580.

6 Vector Product = r r 587.CHAPTER 6. VECTORS π r r 581. sÉÅíçê=mêçÇìÅí=çÑ=sÉÅíçêë= ì =~åÇ î = r r r ì × î = ï I=ïÜÉêÉ== π r r r • ï = ì ⋅ î ⋅ ëáå θ I=ïÜÉêÉ= M ≤ θ ≤ X= O r r r r • ï ⊥ì= ~åÇ= ï ⊥ î X= r r r • =sÉÅíçêë= ì I= î I= ï =Ñçêã=~=êáÖÜí-Ü~åÇÉÇ=ëÅêÉïK= = 125 . ì ⋅ î = ì ⋅ î =áÑ= ì I î =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=E θ = M FK= = r 584. ì ⋅ î < M =áÑ= < θ < π K= O = r r r r 582. á ⋅ à = à ⋅ â = â ⋅ á = M = = = = 6. á ⋅ á = à ⋅ à = â ⋅ â = N = = r r r r r r 586. fÑ= ì = (uN I vN I wN ) I=íÜÉå== r r r rO O O O ì ⋅ ì = ì O = ì = uN + vN + wN K= = r r r r r r 585. ì ⋅ î ≤ ì ⋅ î = = r r r r r r 583.

p = ì × î = ì ⋅ î ⋅ ëáå θ =EcáÖKUPF= = 591. VECTORS = = ======= Figure 83. = r á r r r 588. ï = ì × î = u N uO = r à vN vO r â wN = wO uN wN uN vN  r r r  v wN = 589. kçåÅçããìí~íáîÉ=mêçéÉêíó= r r r r ì × î = −(î × ì ) == = 593.CHAPTER 6. ^ëëçÅá~íáîÉ=mêçéÉêíó= r r r r (λì )× (µî ) = λµì × î = = = 126 . ^åÖäÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=sÉÅíçêë=EcáÖKUPF= r r ì× î ëáå θ = r r = ì⋅î = 592. ï = ì × î =  N I− I v w u O w O u O vO  O O   = r r r r 590.

= pÅ~ä~ê=qêáéäÉ=mêçÇìÅí= rr r r r r r r r r r r [ìîï ] = ì ⋅ (î × ï ) = î ⋅ (ï × ì ) = ï ⋅ (ì × î ) = = rr r r rr rr r rr r r rr rrr [ìîï ] = [ïìî ] = [îïì] = −[îìï ] = −[ïîì] = −[ìïî ] = = r r r rr r âì ⋅ (î × ï ) = â[ìîï ] = = pÅ~ä~ê=qêáéäÉ=mêçÇìÅí=áå=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=cçêã= uN vN wN r r r ì ⋅ (î × ï ) = u O vO w O I== uP vP wP ïÜÉêÉ== r r r ì = (uN I vN I wN ) I= î = (u O I vO I w O ) I= ï = (uP I vP I wP ) K== = 602. 600. 599. 601. á × à = â I= à × â = á I= â × á = à = = = = 6. sçäìãÉ=çÑ=m~ê~ääÉäÉéáéÉÇ= r r r s = ì ⋅ (î × ï ) = = 127 .7 Triple Product 598. aáëíêáÄìíáîÉ=mêçéÉêíó= r r r r r r r ì × (î + ï ) = ì × î + ì × ï = = r r r r r 595. VECTORS 594. á × á = à × à = â × â = M = = r r r r r r r r r 597. ì × î = M =áÑ= ì =~åÇ= î =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=E θ = M FK= = r r r r r r r 596.CHAPTER 6.

VECTORS = ============ Figure 84. = = 603.CHAPTER 6. fÑ== ì ⋅ (î × ï ) ≠ M I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçêë== ì I= î I=~åÇ= ï =~êÉ=äáåÉ~êäó= áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåíK= = 128 . fÑ== ì ⋅ (î × ï ) = M I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçêë== ì I= î I=~åÇ= ï =~êÉ=äáåÉ~êäó= r r r ÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=I=ëç= ï = λì + µî =Ñçê=ëçãÉ=ëÅ~ä~êë= λ =~åÇ= µ K== = r r r r r r 605. sçäìãÉ=çÑ=móê~ãáÇ= Nr r r s = ì ⋅ (î × ï ) = S = = Figure 85. = = r r r r r r 604.

CHAPTER 6. VECTORS 606. sÉÅíçê=qêáéäÉ=mêçÇìÅí= r r r r r r r r r ì × (î × ï ) = (ì ⋅ ï )î − (ì ⋅ î )ï == = = = = = = = = 129 .

aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë= Ç = ^_ = ñ O − ñ N = ñ N − ñ O = = = Figure 86. = = 608. aáîáÇáåÖ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=áå=íÜÉ=o~íáç= λ = ñ + λñ O ^` I= λ = ñM = N I= λ ≠ −N K= N+ λ `_ = = ======== Figure 87. = 130 .1 One-Dimensional Coordinate System = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ñ M I= ñ N I= ñ O I= ó M I= ó N I= ó O = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW= λ == aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=éçáåíëW=Ç= = = 607.Chapter 7 Analytic Geometry = = = = 7.

= 131 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 609.2 Two-Dimensional Coordinate System = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ñ M I= ñ N I= ñ O I= ó M I= ó N I= ó O = mçä~ê=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= êI ϕ = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW= λ == mçëáíáîÉ=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=ÅI== aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=éçáåíëW=Ç= ^êÉ~W=p= = = 610. jáÇéçáåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí= ñ + ñO ñM = N I= λ = N K= O = = = 7. aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë= Ç = ^_ = = (ñ O − ñ N )O + (ó O − óN )O = = Figure 88.CHAPTER 7.

CHAPTER 7. = = = 132 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 611. aáîáÇáåÖ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=áå=íÜÉ=o~íáç= λ = ñ + λñ O ó + λó O ñM = N I= ó M = N I== N+ λ N+ λ ^` λ= I= λ ≠ −N K= `_ = ======= = Figure 89.

jáÇéçáåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí= ñ + ñO ó + óO I= ó M = N I= λ = N K= ñM = N O O = 613. = = 612. `ÉåíêçáÇ=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=jÉÇá~åëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ= ñ + ñ O + ñP ó + óO + óP I= ó M = N ñM = N I== P P ïÜÉêÉ== ^(ñ N I ó N ) I== _(ñ O I ó O ) I==~åÇ== `(ñ P I ó P ) ==~êÉ=îÉêíáÅÉë=çÑ= íÜÉ=íêá~åÖäÉ= ^_` K= = = 133 .CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ======= = Figure 90.

fåÅÉåíÉê=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=^åÖäÉ=_áëÉÅíçêëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ= ~ñ + Äñ O + Åñ P ~ó + Äó O + Åó P I= ó M = N ñM = N I== ~ +Ä+Å ~ +Ä+Å ïÜÉêÉ= ~ = _` I= Ä = `^ I= Å = ^_ K== = ======== = Figure 92. = 134 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ========= = Figure 91.CHAPTER 7. = = 614.

= = = = = = = = 135 . `áêÅìãÅÉåíÉê=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=páÇÉ=mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê====================== _áëÉÅíçêëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ= O O O O ñN + óN óN N ñN ñN + óN N ñO + óO óO N ñO ñO + óO N O O O O O O O O ñP + óP óP N ñP ñP + óP N ñM = I= ó M = = ñN óN N ñN óN N O ñO ñP = óO N óP N O ñO ñP óO N óP N ======== == Figure 93.CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 615.

^êÉ~=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ= ñ N óN N N N ñ O − ñN p = (± ) ñ O ó O N = (± ) O O ñ P − ñN ñP óP N = = = ó O − óN ó P − óN = 136 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 616. = = 617.CHAPTER 7. lêíÜçÅÉåíÉê=EfåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=^äíáíìÇÉëF=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ= O O óN ñ O ñ P + óN N ñN + ó OóP ñN N ó O ñPñN + ó O N ñ O + ó P óN ñ O N O O O O ó P ñ Nñ O + ó P N ñ P + ó Nó O ñ P N I= ó M = = ñM = ñN óN N ñN óN N ñO óO N ñO óO N ñP óP N ñP óP N = ====== = Figure 94.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 618. = = kçíÉW=få=Ñçêãìä~ë=SNTI=SNU=ïÉ=ÅÜççëÉ=íÜÉ=ëáÖå=EHF=çê=E¥F=ëç= íÜ~í=íç=ÖÉí=~=éçëáíáîÉ=~åëïÉê=Ñçê=~êÉ~K== = 619.CHAPTER 7. ^êÉ~=çÑ=~=nì~Çêáä~íÉê~ä= N p = (± ) [(ñ N − ñ O )(ó N + ó O ) + (ñ O − ñ P )(ó O + ó P ) + = O + (ñ P − ñ Q )(ó P + ó Q ) + (ñ Q − ñ N )(ó Q + ó N )] = = === = Figure 95. aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë=áå=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= Ç = ^_ = êNO + êOO − OêNêO Åçë(ϕ O − ϕN ) = = 137 .

= = 621. = = 620. `çåîÉêíáåÖ=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=íç=oÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= ó ê = ñ O + ó O I= í~å ϕ = K= ñ 138 .CHAPTER 7. `çåîÉêíáåÖ=oÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=íç=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= ñ = ê Åçë ϕ I= ó = ê ëáå ϕ K= = = Figure 97. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 96.

dÉåÉê~ä=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ= ^ñ + _ó + ` = M = = 623. kçêã~ä=sÉÅíçê=íç=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ= r qÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= å(^I _ ) =áë=åçêã~ä=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉ= ^ñ + _ó + ` = M K= = = Figure 98. = = 624.3 Straight Line in Plane = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=uI=vI=ñI= ñ M I= ñ N I== ó M I= ó N I= ~N I= ~ O I=£== oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=âI=~I=ÄI=éI=íI=^I=_I=`I= ^N I= ^ O I=£= ^åÖäÉëW= α I= β = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=äáåÉëW= ϕ = r kçêã~ä=îÉÅíçêW= å = r r r mçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçêëW= ê I= ~ I= Ä = = = 622. bñéäáÅáí=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=EpäçéÉ-fåíÉêÅÉéí=cçêãF= ó = âñ + Ä K== 139 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 7.CHAPTER 7.

dê~ÇáÉåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ== ó − óN â = í~å α = O = ñ O − ñN = = Figure 100.CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY qÜÉ=Öê~ÇáÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=áë= â = í~å α K= = = Figure 99. = 140 . = = 625.

bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=qÜ~í=m~ëëÉë=qÜêçìÖÜ=qïç=mçáåíë= ó − óN ñ − ñN = == ó O − óN ñ O − ñN çê= ñ ó N ñ N ó N N = M K= ñO óO N = 141 .CHAPTER 7. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=dáîÉå=~=mçáåí=~åÇ=íÜÉ=dê~ÇáÉåí= ó = ó M + â (ñ − ñ M ) I== ïÜÉêÉ=â=áë=íÜÉ=Öê~ÇáÉåíI= m(ñ M I ó M ) =áë=~=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉK= = = Figure 101. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 626. = = 627.

fåíÉêÅÉéí=cçêã= ñ ó + =N= ~ Ä = = Figure 103.CHAPTER 7. = = 628. = = = 142 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 102.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 629. kçêã~ä=cçêã= ñ Åçë β + ó ëáå β − é = M = = = Figure 104. mçáåí=aáêÉÅíáçå=cçêã= ñ − ñ N ó − óN = I== u v ïÜÉêÉ= (uI v ) = áë= íÜÉ= ÇáêÉÅíáçå= çÑ= íÜÉ= äáåÉ= ~åÇ= mN (ñ N I ó N ) = äáÉë= çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉK= = 143 .CHAPTER 7. = = 630.

eçêáòçåí~ä=iáåÉ= ó=Ä= = 633. sÉÅíçê=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ= r r r ê = ~ + íÄ I== ïÜÉêÉ== l=áë=íÜÉ=çêáÖáå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëI= u=áë=~åó=î~êá~ÄäÉ=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI== r ~ =áë=íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=~=âåçïå=éçáåí=^=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=I= r Ä =áë=~=âåçïå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=ÇáêÉÅíáçåI=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉI== í=áë=~=é~ê~ãÉíÉêI== r → ê = lu =áë=íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=~åó=éçáåí=u=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉK== = 144 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 105. sÉêíáÅ~ä=iáåÉ= ñ =~= = 632.CHAPTER 7. = = 631.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 106. píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉ=áå=m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã= ñ = ~N + íÄN I==  ó = ~ O + íÄO ïÜÉêÉ== (ñ I ó ) ~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~åó=ìåâåçïå=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI== (~N I ~ O ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~=âåçïå=éçáåí=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI== (ÄN I ÄO ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉI== í=áë=~=é~ê~ãÉíÉêK= = 145 . = = 634.CHAPTER 7.

aáëí~åÅÉ=cêçã=~=mçáåí=qç=~=iáåÉ= qÜÉ=Çáëí~åÅÉ=Ñêçã=íÜÉ=éçáåí= m(~ I Ä) =íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉ= ^ñ + _ó + ` = M =áë== ^~ + _Ä + ` K= Ç= ^ O + _O = = Figure 108. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Figure 107.CHAPTER 7. = 146 . = = 635.

CHAPTER 7. m~ê~ääÉä=iáåÉë= qïç=äáåÉë= ó = â Nñ + ÄN =~åÇ= ó = â O ñ + ÄO =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ== â N = â O K= qïç= äáåÉë= ^Nñ + _Nó + `N = M = ~åÇ= ^ O ñ + _O ó + ` O = M = ~êÉ= é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ= ^N _N = K= ^ O _O = = Figure 109. = = 637. mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=iáåÉë= qïç=äáåÉë= ó = â Nñ + ÄN =~åÇ= ó = â O ñ + ÄO =~êÉ=éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=áÑ== N â O = − =çêI=Éèìáî~äÉåíäóI= â Nâ O = −N K= âN qïç= äáåÉë= ^Nñ + _Nó + `N = M = ~åÇ= ^ O ñ + _ O ó + ` O = M = ~êÉ= éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=áÑ= ^N^ O + _N_ O = M K= = 147 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 636.

= = 638. ^åÖäÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=iáåÉë= â − âN í~å ϕ = O I== N + â Nâ O ^N^ O + _N_ O Åçë ϕ = K= O O ^N + _N ⋅ ^ O + _ O O O = 148 .CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 110.

4 Circle = o~ÇáìëW=o= `ÉåíÉê=çÑ=ÅáêÅäÉW= (~ I Ä) = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=ñI=óI= ñ N I= ó N I=£= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=í= 149 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 111.CHAPTER 7. = = 639. fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=qïç=iáåÉë= fÑ=íïç=äáåÉë= ^Nñ + _Nó + `N = M =~åÇ= ^ O ñ + _ O ó + ` O = M =áåíÉêëÉÅíI=íÜÉ=áåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=éçáåí=Ü~ë=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë= − `N_ O + ` O_N − ^N` O + ^ O`N ñM = I= ó M = K= ^N_ O − ^ O_N ^N_ O − ^ O_N = = = 7.

bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=`áêÅäÉ=`ÉåíÉêÉÇ=~í=íÜÉ=lêáÖáå=Epí~åÇ~êÇ= cçêãF= ñ O + ó O = oO = ====== = Figure 112. = = 641. 150 .CHAPTER 7. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=`áêÅäÉ=`ÉåíÉêÉÇ=~í=^åó=mçáåí= (~I Ä) (ñ − ~ )O + (ó − Ä)O = o O Figure 113. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 640.

CHAPTER 7. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã ñ = o Åçë í I= M ≤ í ≤ Oπ K  ó = o ëáå í = 644. = = 643. qÜêÉÉ=mçáåí=cçêã ñO + óO ñ ó N O O ñN + óN ñN óN N =M ñO + óO ñO óO N O O O O ñP + óP ñP óP N = = Figure 114. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã ^ñ O + ^ó O + añ + bó + c = M =E^=åçåòÉêçI= aO + b O > Q ^c FK== qÜÉ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅáêÅäÉ=Ü~ë=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë= (~ I Ä) I=ïÜÉêÉ== a b ~=− I= Ä = − K= O^ O^ qÜÉ=ê~Çáìë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅáêÅäÉ=áë 151 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 642.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY o= = = = aO + b O − Q ^c K O^ 7.CHAPTER 7.5 Ellipse = pÉãáã~àçê=~ñáëW=~= pÉãáãáåçê=~ñáëW=Ä= cçÅáW= cN (− ÅI M) I= cO (ÅI M) = aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=ÑçÅáW=OÅ= = bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíóW=É== oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=í= mÉêáãÉíÉêW=i= ^êÉ~W=p= = = 645. = 152 . bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~å=bääáéëÉ=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=cçêãF ñO óO + =N ~ O ÄO = Figure 115.

bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíó Å É = <N= ~ = 649.CHAPTER 7. êN + êO = O~ I= ïÜÉêÉ== êN I== êO ==~êÉ==Çáëí~åÅÉë==Ñêçã==~åó==éçáåí== m(ñ I ó ) ==çå= íÜÉ=ÉääáéëÉ=íç=íÜÉ=íïç=ÑçÅáK= = = Figure 116. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã ñ = ~ Åçë í I= M ≤ í ≤ Oπ K  ó = Ä ëáå í = = 153 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 646. bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=aáêÉÅíêáÅÉë ~ ~O ñ=± =± = É Å = 650. = = 647. ~ O = ÄO + Å O = 648.

^ééêçñáã~íÉ=cçêãìä~ë=çÑ=íÜÉ=`áêÅìãÑÉêÉåÅÉ i = π NKR(~ + Ä) − ~Ä I== i = π O(~ O + ÄO ) K= = 655.CHAPTER 7. p = π~Ä = = = = ( ) 7. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã ^ñ O + _ñó + `ó O + añ + bó + c = M I== ïÜÉêÉ= _ O − Q ^` < M K= = 652. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã=ïáíÜ=^ñÉë=m~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=^ñÉë ^ñ O + `ó O + añ + bó + c = M I== ïÜÉêÉ= ^` > M K = 653.6 Hyperbola = qê~åëîÉêëÉ=~ñáëW=~= `çåàìÖ~íÉ=~ñáëW=Ä= cçÅáW= cN (− ÅI M) I= cO (ÅI M) = aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=ÑçÅáW=OÅ= = bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíóW=É== ^ëóãéíçíÉëW=ëI=í= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=íI=â= = = = 154 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 651. `áêÅìãÑÉêÉåÅÉ i = Q~b(É ) I== ïÜÉêÉ==íÜÉ==ÑìåÅíáçå=b==áë==íÜÉ=ÅçãéäÉíÉ==ÉääáéíáÅ=áåíÉÖê~ä==çÑ= íÜÉ=ëÉÅçåÇ=âáåÇK== = 654.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 656. êN − êO = O~ I= ïÜÉêÉ== êN I== êO ==~êÉ==Çáëí~åÅÉë==Ñêçã==~åó=éçáåí== m(ñ I ó ) ==çå= íÜÉ=ÜóéÉêÄçä~=íç=íÜÉ=íïç=ÑçÅáK= = = 155 . = 657. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=eóéÉêÄçä~=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=cçêãF= ñO óO − = N= ~ O ÄO = = Figure 117.CHAPTER 7.

659. 660. 661.CHAPTER 7. = 658. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 118. = bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=^ëóãéíçíÉë= Ä ó=± ñ= ~ = Å O = ~ O + ÄO = = bÅÅÉåíêáÅáíó Å É = > N= ~ = bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=aáêÉÅíêáÅÉë ~ ~O ñ=± =± = É Å = = = 156 .

CHAPTER 7. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=bèì~íáçåë=çÑ=íÜÉ=oáÖÜí=_ê~åÅÜ=çÑ=~=eóéÉêÄçä~= ñ = ~ ÅçëÜ í I= M ≤ í ≤ Oπ K  ó = Ä ëáåÜ í = 663. ^ëóãéíçíáÅ=cçêã= ÉO ñó = I== Q çê== ÉO â ó = I=ïÜÉêÉ= â = K= ñ Q få= íÜáë= Å~ëÉ= I= íÜÉ= ~ëóãéíçíÉë= Ü~îÉ= Éèì~íáçåë= ñ = M = ~åÇ= ó = M K== = 157 . dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã ^ñ O + _ñó + `ó O + añ + bó + c = M I== ïÜÉêÉ= _ O − Q ^` > M K= = 664. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 662. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã=ïáíÜ=^ñÉë=m~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=^ñÉë ^ñ O + `ó O + añ + bó + c = M I== ïÜÉêÉ= ^` < M K= 665.

bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=m~ê~Äçä~=Epí~åÇ~êÇ=cçêãF ó O = Oéñ = 158 . = = = = 7.7 Parabola = cçÅ~ä=é~ê~ãÉíÉêW=é= cçÅìëW=c= sÉêíÉñW= j(ñ M I ó M ) = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=bI=cI=éI=~I=ÄI=Å= = = 666. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 119.CHAPTER 7.

dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã ^ñ O + _ñó + `ó O + añ + bó + c = M I== ïÜÉêÉ= _ O − Q ^` = M K= = N 668. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = Figure 120. = = bèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíêáñ é ñ = − I= O `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÑçÅìë= é  c I M  I= O  `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=îÉêíÉñ= j(MI M) K= = 667.CHAPTER 7. ó = ~ñ O I= é = K= O~ bèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíêáñ 159 .

CHAPTER 7. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêãI=^ñáë=m~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ó-~ñáë== ^ñ O + añ + bó + c = M =E^I=b=åçåòÉêçFI== N ó = ~ñ O + Äñ + Å I= é = K== O~ bèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíêáñ é ó = ó M − I= O `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÑçÅìë= 160 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY é ó = − I= O `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÑçÅìë=  é c MI  I=  O `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=îÉêíÉñ= j(MI M) K= = = Figure 121. = = 669.

= = = = 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY é  c ñ M I ó M +  I= O  `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=îÉêíÉñ= Ä Q~Å − ÄO K= ñ M = − I= ó M = ~ñ O + Äñ M + Å = M O~ Q~ = = Figure 122.8 Three-Dimensional Coordinate System = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ñ M I= ó M I= ò M I= ñ N I= ó N I= ò N I=£= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW= λ == aáëí~åÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=éçáåíëW=Ç= ^êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉW=s= = 161 .CHAPTER 7.

= = 671. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 670. aáîáÇáåÖ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí=áå=íÜÉ=o~íáç= λ = ñ + λñ O ó + λó O ò + λò O ñM = N I= ó M = N I= ò M = N I== N+ λ N+ λ N+ λ ïÜÉêÉ= ^` λ= I= λ ≠ −N K= `_ = 162 .CHAPTER 7. aáëí~åÅÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mçáåíë= Ç = ^_ = = (ñ O − ñ N )O + (ó O − óN )O + (ò O − òN )O = = === Figure 123.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ======== = Figure 124. 163 . = = = Figure 125.

^êÉ~=çÑ=~=qêá~åÖäÉ= qÜÉ=~êÉ~=çÑ=~=íêá~åÖäÉ=ïáíÜ=îÉêíáÅÉë= mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) I= mO (ñ O I ó O I ò O ) I=~åÇ= mP (ñ P I ó P I ò P ) =áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó== p= N O óN óO óP òN N òP N O òN òP ñN N ñP N O ñN ñP óN N óP N O òO N + òO ñO N + ñO ó O N K= = 674. jáÇéçáåí=çÑ=~=iáåÉ=pÉÖãÉåí= ñ + ñO ó + óO ò +ò ñM = N I= ó M = N I= ò M = N O I= λ = N K= O O O = 673. sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=qÉíê~ÜÉÇêçå= qÜÉ=îçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=íÉíê~ÜÉÇêçå=ïáíÜ=îÉêíáÅÉë= mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) I= mO (ñ O I ó O I ò O ) I= mP (ñ P I ó P I ò P ) I=~åÇ= mQ (ñ Q I ó Q I ò Q ) =áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó== ñ N óN òN N N ñO óO òO N s=± I== S ñ P óP òP N ñQ óQ òQ N çê= ñ N − ñ Q óN − ó Q òN − ò Q N s = ± ñ O − ñ Q ó O − ó Q ò O − ò Q K= S ñP − ñ Q óP − ó Q òP − òQ kçíÉW=tÉ=ÅÜççëÉ=íÜÉ=ëáÖå=EHF=çê=E¥F=ëç=íÜ~í=íç=ÖÉí=~=éçëáíáîÉ= ~åëïÉê=Ñçê=îçäìãÉK== = 164 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 672.CHAPTER 7.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ==== = Figure 126.9 Plane = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=ñI=óI=òI= ñ M I= ó M I= ò M I= ñ N I= ó N I= ò N I=£= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI= ^N I= ^ O I=~I=ÄI=ÅI= ~N I= ~ O I= λ I=éI=íI=£== r r r kçêã~ä=îÉÅíçêëW= å I= åN I= å O = aáêÉÅíáçå=ÅçëáåÉëW= Åçë α I= Åçë β I= Åçë γ = aáëí~åÅÉ=Ñêçã=éçáåí=íç=éä~åÉW=Ç= = = 675.CHAPTER 7. = = = = 7. dÉåÉê~ä=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=mä~åÉ= ^ñ + _ó + `ò + a = M = = = 165 .

kçêã~ä=sÉÅíçê=íç=~=mä~åÉ= r qÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= å (^I _I ` ) =áë=åçêã~ä=íç=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ= ^ñ + _ó + `ò + a = M K= = = === Figure 127. m~êíáÅìä~ê=`~ëÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=mä~åÉ= ^ñ + _ó + `ò + a = M = = fÑ= ^ = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=áë=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáëK= fÑ= _ = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=áë=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ó-~ñáëK= fÑ= ` = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=áë=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ò-~ñáëK= fÑ= a = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=äáÉë=çå=íÜÉ=çêáÖáåK== = fÑ= ^ = _ = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=áë=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉK= fÑ= _ = ` = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=áë=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=óò-éä~åÉK= fÑ= ^ = ` = M I=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=áë=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=ñò-éä~åÉK= = 166 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 676. = = 677.CHAPTER 7.

mçáåí=aáêÉÅíáçå=cçêã= ^(ñ − ñ M ) + _(ó − ó M ) + `(ò − ò M ) = M I== ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=éçáåí= m(ñ M I ó M I ò M ) =äáÉë=áå=íÜÉ=éä~åÉI=~åÇ=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= (^I _I ` ) =áë=åçêã~ä=íç=íÜÉ=éä~åÉK=== = = ==== Figure 128. = = 679. fåíÉêÅÉéí=cçêã= ñ ó ò + + = N= ~ Ä Å = 167 .CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 678.

= = 680. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 129.CHAPTER 7. qÜêÉÉ=mçáåí=cçêã= ñ − ñP ó − óP ò − òP ñ N − ñ P ó N − ó P ò N − ò P = M I== ñ O − ñ P ó O − óP ò O − òP çê== ñ ó ò N ñN óN òN N = M K= ñO óO òO N ñP óP òP N = 168 .

= = 681. kçêã~ä=cçêã= ñ Åçë α + ó Åçë β + ò Åçë γ − é = M I== ïÜÉêÉ==é==áë==íÜÉ==éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê==Çáëí~åÅÉ==Ñêçã==íÜÉ=çêáÖáå=íç= íÜÉ=éä~åÉ=I=~åÇ= Åçë α I= Åçë β I= Åçë γ =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíáçå=ÅçëáåÉë= çÑ=~åó=äáåÉ=åçêã~ä=íç=íÜÉ=éä~åÉK== = 169 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 130.CHAPTER 7.

= = 682. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã= ñ = ñ N + ~Në + ~ O í  ó = ó N + ÄNë + ÄO í I== ò = ò + Å ë + Å í N N O  ïÜÉêÉ= (ñ I ó I ò ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=~åó=ìåâåçïå=éçáåí=çå= íÜÉ=äáåÉ=I=íÜÉ=éçáåí= m(ñ N I ó N I ò N ) =äáÉë=áå=íÜÉ=éä~åÉI=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçêë= (~N I ÄN I ÅN ) =~åÇ= (~ O I ÄO I Å O ) =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=íç=íÜÉ=éä~åÉK= = 170 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ====== Figure 131.CHAPTER 7.

CHAPTER 7. = = 683. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 132. aáÜÉÇê~ä=^åÖäÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=mä~åÉë= fÑ=íÜÉ=éä~åÉë=~êÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó== ^Nñ + _Nó + `Nò + aN = M I== ^ O ñ + _ O ó + ` Oò + aO = M I== íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ÇáÜÉÇê~ä=~åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉã=áë== r r åN ⋅ å O ^N^ O + _N_ O + `N` O Åçë ϕ = r r = K= O O O åN ⋅ å O ^N + _N + `N ⋅ ^ O + _ O + ` O O O O = 171 .

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ====== Figure 133. mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=mä~åÉë= qïç=éä~åÉë= ^Nñ + _Nó + `Nò + aN = M =~åÇ= ^ O ñ + _ O ó + ` Oò + aO = M =~êÉ=éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=áÑ== ^N^ O + _N_ O + `N` O = M K= = 686. = = 684. m~ê~ääÉä=mä~åÉë= qïç=éä~åÉë= ^Nñ + _Nó + `Nò + aN = M =~åÇ= ^ O ñ + _ O ó + ` Oò + aO = M =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ== ^N _N `N = = K= ^ O _O `O = 685. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=mä~åÉ=qÜêçìÖÜ= m(ñ N I ó N I ò N ) =~åÇ=m~ê~ääÉä=qç= íÜÉ=sÉÅíçêë= (~N I ÄN I ÅN ) =~åÇ= (~ O I ÄO I Å O ) =EcáÖKNPOF= 172 .CHAPTER 7.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ñ − ñN ~N ~O ó − óN ò − òN ÄN ÅN = M = ÄO ÅO = 687. aáëí~åÅÉ=cêçã=~=mçáåí=qç=~=mä~åÉ= qÜÉ=Çáëí~åÅÉ=Ñêçã=íÜÉ=éçáåí= mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) =íç=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ= ^ñ + _ó + `ò + a = M =áë== 173 . bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=mä~åÉ=qÜêçìÖÜ= mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) =~åÇ= mO (ñ O I ó O I ò O ) I= ~åÇ=m~ê~ääÉä=qç=íÜÉ=sÉÅíçê= (~ I ÄI Å ) = ñ − ñ N ó − óN ò − òN ñ O − ñN ~ = ó O − óN ò O − òN = M = Ä Å = Figure 134.CHAPTER 7. = 688.

fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=qïç=mä~åÉë= fÑ=íïç=éä~åÉë= ^Nñ + _Nó + `Nò + aN = M =~åÇ= ^ O ñ + _ O ó + ` Oò + aO = M = áåíÉêëÉÅíI= íÜÉ= áåíÉêëÉÅíáçå= ëíê~áÖÜí= äáåÉ=áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó= ñ = ñ N + ~í  ó = ó N + Äí I== ò = ò + Åí N  çê== ñ − ñ N ó − óN ò − òN = = I== Ä Å ~ ïÜÉêÉ== 174 .CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY Ç= ^ñ N + _ó N + `òN + a ^O + _O + `O K= = = ====== Figure 135. = = 689.

mçáåí=aáêÉÅíáçå=cçêã=çÑ=íÜÉ=bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=iáåÉ== ñ − ñ N ó − óN ò − òN = = I== Ä Å ~ ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=éçáåí= mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) =äáÉë=çå=íÜÉ=äáåÉI=~åÇ= (~ I ÄI Å ) =áë= íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíáçå=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=íÜÉ=äáåÉK== = 175 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ~= _N _O Ä `N ` I= Ä = N `O `O aN aO aN aO ^N ^ I= Å = N ^O ^O _N I== _O ñN = Å óN = ~ òN = = = = aN aO `N a _N −Å N `O aO _ O I== O O ~ + Ä + ÅO ^N a `N −~ N ^O aO ` O I== O O ~ + Ä + ÅO _N a ^N −Ä N _O aO ^ O K== O O ~ + Ä + ÅO 7.CHAPTER 7.10 Straight Line in Space = mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=ñI=óI=òI= ñ N I= ó N I= ò N I=£= aáêÉÅíáçå=ÅçëáåÉëW= Åçë α I= Åçë β I= Åçë γ = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=aI=~I=ÄI=ÅI= ~N I= ~ O I=íI=£== r r r aáêÉÅíáçå=îÉÅíçêë=çÑ=~=äáåÉW= ë I= ëN I= ëO = r kçêã~ä=îÉÅíçê=íç=~=éä~åÉW= å = ^åÖäÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=íïç=äáåÉëW= ϕ = = 690.

= = 691. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 136.CHAPTER 7. qïç=mçáåí=cçêã= ñ − ñN ó − óN ò − òN = = == ñ O − ñ N ó O − óN ò O − òN = ===== Figure 137. = 176 .

CHAPTER 7. m~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=cçêã== ñ = ñ N + í Åçë α  ó = ó N + í Åçë β I== ò = ò + í Åçë γ N  ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=éçáåí= mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) =äáÉë=çå=íÜÉ=ëíê~áÖÜí=äáåÉI= Åçë α I= Åçë β I= Åçë γ =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíáçå=ÅçëáåÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíáçå= îÉÅíçê=çÑ=íÜÉ=äáåÉI=íÜÉ=é~ê~ãÉíÉê=í=áë=~åó=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêK== = = ===== Figure 138. ^åÖäÉ=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=píê~áÖÜí=iáåÉë= r r ë ⋅ë ~N~ O + ÄNÄO + ÅNÅ O Åçë ϕ = r N rO = = O O O ëN ⋅ ëO ~N + ÄN + ÅN ⋅ ~ O + ÄO + Å O O O O = 177 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 692. = = 693.

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

=

=====
Figure 139.

=

= 694. m~ê~ääÉä=iáåÉë= qïç=äáåÉë=~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ== r r ëN öö ëO I== çê== ~ N ÄN ÅN = = K= ~ O ÄO Å O = 695. mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=iáåÉë= qïç=äáåÉë=~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ== r r ëN ⋅ ëO = M I== çê== ~N~ O + ÄNÄO + ÅNÅ O = M K= = 696. fåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=qïç=iáåÉë= ñ − ñ N ó − óN ò − òN = = =~åÇ= qïç=äáåÉë= ~N ÄN ÅN

178

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

ñ − ñO ó − óO ò − òO = = =áåíÉêëÉÅí=áÑ== ~O ÄO ÅO ñ O − ñ N ó O − óN ò O − òN ~N ÄN ÅN = M K= ~O ÄO ÅO = 697. m~ê~ääÉä=iáåÉ=~åÇ=mä~åÉ== ñ − ñ N ó − óN ò − òN = = =~åÇ=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ= qÜÉ=ëíê~áÖÜí=äáåÉ= Ä Å ~ ^ñ + _ó + `ò + a = M =~êÉ=é~ê~ääÉä=áÑ= r r å ⋅ ë = M I== çê== ^~ + _Ä + `Å = M K= =

===== =
Figure 140.

=

= =

179

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

698. mÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=iáåÉ=~åÇ=mä~åÉ== ñ − ñ N ó − óN ò − òN = = =~åÇ=íÜÉ=éä~åÉ= qÜÉ=ëíê~áÖÜí=äáåÉ= Ä Å ~ ^ñ + _ó + `ò + a = M =~êÉ=éÉêéÉåÇáÅìä~ê=áÑ= r r å öö ë I== çê== ^ _ ` = = K= ~ Ä Å =

==== =
Figure 141.

=

= =

= mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=íÜÉ=èì~ÇêáÅ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉëW=ñI=óI=ò= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=_I=`I=~I=ÄI=ÅI= â N I â O I â P I=£=

180

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

699. dÉåÉê~ä=nì~Çê~íáÅ=bèì~íáçå= ^ñ O + _ó O + `ò O + Ocóò + Odòñ + Oeñó + Omñ + Onó + Ooò + a = M = 700. `ä~ëëáÑáÅ~íáçå=çÑ=nì~ÇêáÅ=pìêÑ~ÅÉë= = `~ëÉ= o~åâEÉF= o~åâEbF= â=ëáÖåë= qóéÉ=çÑ=pìêÑ~ÅÉ= ∆= N= P= Q= p~ãÉ= oÉ~ä=bääáéëçáÇ= <M= O= P= Q= p~ãÉ= fã~Öáå~êó=bääáéëçáÇ= > M= P= P= Q= eóéÉêÄçäçáÇ=çÑ=N=pÜÉÉí= > M = aáÑÑÉêÉåí= Q= P= Q= eóéÉêÄçäçáÇ=çÑ=O=pÜÉÉíë= < M = aáÑÑÉêÉåí=
R= S= T= U= V= NM= NN= NO= NP= NQ= NR= NS= NT= P= P= O= O= O= O= O= O= O= N= N= N= N= P= P= Q= Q= P= P= P= O= O= P= O= O= N=

<M= > M=
= = = = = = = = =

= =

aáÑÑÉêÉåí= p~ãÉ= p~ãÉ= aáÑÑÉêÉåí= p~ãÉ= p~ãÉ= aáÑÑÉêÉåí= aáÑÑÉêÉåí= p~ãÉ= = = = =

oÉ~ä=nì~ÇêáÅ=`çåÉ= fã~Öáå~êó=nì~ÇêáÅ=`çåÉ= bääáéíáÅ=m~ê~ÄçäçáÇ= eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=m~ê~ÄçäçáÇ= oÉ~ä=bääáéíáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê= fã~Öáå~êó=bääáéíáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê= eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê= oÉ~ä=fåíÉêëÉÅíáåÖ=mä~åÉë= fã~Öáå~êó=fåíÉêëÉÅíáåÖ=mä~åÉë= m~ê~ÄçäáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê= oÉ~ä=m~ê~ääÉä=mä~åÉë= fã~Öáå~êó=m~ê~ääÉä=mä~åÉë= `çáåÅáÇÉåí=mä~åÉë=

= eÉêÉ== ^ e n m    ^ e d    e _ c n É =  e _ c  I= b =  I= ∆ = ÇÉí(b ) I== d c ` o  d c `      m n o a   â N I â O I â P =~êÉ=íÜÉ=êççíë=çÑ=íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçåI== ^−ñ e d e _−ñ c = M K= d c `−ñ = =

181

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

701. oÉ~ä=bääáéëçáÇ=E`~ëÉ=NF= ñO óO òO + + = N= ~ O ÄO Å O =

=

=====
Figure 142.

=

= 702. fã~Öáå~êó=bääáéëçáÇ=E`~ëÉ=OF= ñO óO òO + + = −N = ~ O ÄO Å O = 703. eóéÉêÄçäçáÇ=çÑ=N=pÜÉÉí=E`~ëÉ=PF= ñO óO òO + − = N= ~ O ÄO Å O =

182

CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

=

=====
Figure 143.

=

= 704. eóéÉêÄçäçáÇ=çÑ=O=pÜÉÉíë=E`~ëÉ=QF= ñO óO òO + − = −N = ~ O ÄO Å O =

=

=
Figure 144.

=

183

bääáéíáÅ=m~ê~ÄçäçáÇ=E`~ëÉ=TF= ñO óO + −ò = M= ~ O ÄO = 184 . ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 705. oÉ~ä=nì~ÇêáÅ=`çåÉ=E`~ëÉ=RF= ñO óO òO + − =M= ~ O ÄO Å O = = == Figure 145. fã~Öáå~êó=nì~ÇêáÅ=`çåÉ=E`~ëÉ=SF= ñO óO òO + + =M= ~ O ÄO Å O = 707. = = 706.CHAPTER 7.

eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=m~ê~ÄçäçáÇ=E`~ëÉ=UF= ñO óO − −ò = M= ~ O ÄO ==== Figure 147.CHAPTER 7. = 185 . = 708. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ====== Figure 146.

eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê=E`~ëÉ=NNF= ñO óO − = N= ~ O ÄO = 186 . fã~Öáå~êó=bääáéíáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê=E`~ëÉ=NMF= ñO óO + = −N = ~ O ÄO = 711.CHAPTER 7. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 709. = = 710. oÉ~ä=bääáéíáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê=E`~ëÉ=VF= ñO óO + = N= ~ O ÄO = = ===== Figure 148.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ====== Figure 149. oÉ~ä=fåíÉêëÉÅíáåÖ=mä~åÉë=E`~ëÉ=NOF= ñO óO − =M= ~ O ÄO = 713.CHAPTER 7. m~ê~ÄçäáÅ=`óäáåÇÉê=E`~ëÉ=NQF= ñO −ó =M= ~O = 187 . fã~Öáå~êó=fåíÉêëÉÅíáåÖ=mä~åÉë=E`~ëÉ=NPF= ñO óO + = M= ~ O ÄO = 714. = = 712.

`çáåÅáÇÉåí=mä~åÉë=E`~ëÉ=NTF= ñO = M = = = = = = 188 .CHAPTER 7. oÉ~ä=m~ê~ääÉä=mä~åÉë=E`~ëÉ=NRF= ñO = N= ~O = 716. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY = ===== Figure 150. = = 715. fã~Öáå~êó=m~ê~ääÉä=mä~åÉë=E`~ëÉ=NSF= ñO = −N = ~O = 717.

12 Sphere = o~Çáìë=çÑ=~=ëéÜÉêÉW=o= mçáåí=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW=ñI=óI=òI= ñ N I= ó N I= ò N I=£= `ÉåíÉê=çÑ=~=ëéÜÉêÉW= (~ I ÄI Å ) = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=^I=aI=bI=cI=j= = = 718. ANALYTIC GEOMETRY 7. aá~ãÉíÉê=cçêã (ñ − ñ N )(ñ − ñ O ) + (ó − óN )(ó − ó O ) + (ò − òN )(ò − ò O ) = M I== 189 . bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=`áêÅäÉ=`ÉåíÉêÉÇ=~í=^åó=mçáåí= (~ I ÄI Å ) (ñ − ~ )O + (ó − Ä)O + (ò − Å )O = o O 720. bèì~íáçå=çÑ=~=péÜÉêÉ=`ÉåíÉêÉÇ=~í=íÜÉ=lêáÖáå=Epí~åÇ~êÇ= cçêãF= ñ O + ó O + ò O = oO = = = ====== Figure 151.CHAPTER 7. = = 719.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY ïÜÉêÉ== mN (ñ N I ó N I ò N ) I= mO (ñ O I ó O I ò O ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÉåÇë=çÑ=~=Çá~ãÉíÉêK== = 721. cçìê=mçáåí=cçêã= ñO + óO + òO ñ ó ò N O O O ñ N + óN + ñ N ñ N óN òN N ñO + óO + ñO ñO óO òO N = M = O O O O O O ñ P + óP + ñ P ñP óP òP N ñO + óO + ñO ñQ óQ òQ N Q Q Q = 722. dÉåÉê~ä=cçêã ^ñ O + ^ó O + ^ò O + añ + bó + cò + j = M =E^=áë=åçåòÉêçFK== qÜÉ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëéÜÉêÉ=Ü~ë=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë= (~ I ÄI Å ) I=ïÜÉêÉ== a b c ~=− I= Ä = − I= Å = − K= O^ O^ O^ qÜÉ=ê~Çáìë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëéÜÉêÉ=áë aO + b O + c O − Q ^ O j K o= O^ = = 190 .CHAPTER 7.

724. = bîÉå=cìåÅíáçå= Ñ (− ñ ) = Ñ (ñ ) = = lÇÇ=cìåÅíáçå= Ñ (− ñ ) = −Ñ (ñ ) = = mÉêáçÇáÅ=cìåÅíáçå= Ñ (ñ + åq ) = Ñ (ñ ) = = fåîÉêëÉ=cìåÅíáçå= ó = Ñ (ñ ) =áë=~åó=ÑìåÅíáçåI= ñ = Ö(ó ) =çê= ó = Ñ −N (ñ ) =áë=áíë=áåîÉêëÉ= ÑìåÅíáçåK== = 191 . 726.1 Functions and Their Graphs 723.Chapter 8 Differential Calculus = = = = cìåÅíáçåëW=ÑI=ÖI=óI=ìI=î= ^êÖìãÉåí=EáåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉFW=ñ= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=Ç= k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= ^åÖäÉW= α = fåîÉêëÉ=ÑìåÅíáçåW= Ñ −N = = = 8. 725.

iáåÉ~ê=cìåÅíáçå= ó = ~ñ + Ä I== ñ ∈ o I== ~ = í~å α ==áë=íÜÉ=ëäçéÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=äáåÉI==Ä==áë= íÜÉ=ó-áåíÉêÅÉéíK= = 192 . = = 727. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ===== Figure 152.CHAPTER 8. `çãéçëáíÉ=cìåÅíáçå= ó = Ñ (ì ) I= ì = Ö(ñ ) I= ó = Ñ (Ö(ñ )) =áë=~=ÅçãéçëáíÉ=ÑìåÅíáçåK= = 728.

= 193 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ====== Figure 153. nì~Çê~íáÅ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ñ O I= ñ ∈ o K= = = = ====== Figure 154.CHAPTER 8. = = 729.

`ìÄáÅ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ñ P I= ñ ∈ o K= = 194 . = = 731. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 730. ó = ~ñ O + Äñ + Å I= ñ ∈ o K= = = === Figure 155.CHAPTER 8.

ó = ~ñ P + Äñ O + Åñ + Ç I= ñ ∈ o K= = 195 . = 732. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = = = Figure 156.CHAPTER 8.

mçïÉê=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ñ å I= å∈ k K= = 196 . = = 733. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = == Figure 157.CHAPTER 8.

CHAPTER 8. = Figure 159. = = 197 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ====== = Figure 158.

bñéçåÉåíá~ä=cìåÅíáçåë= ó = ~ ñ I= ~ > M I= ~ ≠ N I= ó = É ñ =áÑ= ~ = É I= É = OKTNUOUNUOUQSK = = = = Figure 161. = 198 . = = 735.CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 734. pèì~êÉ=oççí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ñ I= ñ ∈ [MI ∞ ) K= = ======= Figure 160.

eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=páåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== Éñ − É−ñ ó = ëáåÜ ñ I= ëáåÜ ñ = I= ñ ∈ o K= O = 199 . = = 737.CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 736. içÖ~êáíÜãáÅ=cìåÅíáçåë= ó = äçÖ ~ ñ I= ñ ∈ (MI ∞ ) I= ~ > M I= ~ ≠ N I= ó = äå ñ =áÑ= ~ = É I= ñ > M K= = = Figure 162.

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ==== Figure 163.CHAPTER 8. eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`çëáåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== Éñ + É−ñ ó = Åçë Ü ñ I= Åçë Ü ñ = I= ñ ∈ o K= O = ====== Figure 164. = = 738. = 200 .

= = 740. eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=q~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ëáåÜ ñ É ñ − É − ñ ó = í~åÜ ñ I= ó = í~åÜ ñ = = I= ñ ∈ o K= ÅçëÜ ñ É ñ + É − ñ = = ====== Figure 165. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 739. eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`çí~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ÅçëÜ ñ É ñ + É − ñ ó = Åçí Ü ñ I= ó = Åçí Ü ñ = = I= ñ ∈ o I= ñ ≠ M K= ëáåÜ ñ É ñ − É − ñ = 201 .CHAPTER 8.

eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=pÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå== N O ó = ëÉÅ Ü ñ I= ó = ëÉÅ Ü ñ = = ñ − ñ I= ñ ∈ o K= ÅçëÜ ñ É + É Figure 167.CHAPTER 8. = 202 . = = 741. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ====== Figure 166.

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 742.CHAPTER 8. eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`çëÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå== N O = ñ − ñ I= ñ ∈ o I= ñ ≠ M K= ó = ÅëÅÜ ñ I= ó = ÅëÅÜ ñ = ëáåÜ ñ É − É = = ====== Figure 168. fåîÉêëÉ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=páåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅëáåÜ ñ I= ñ ∈ o K= = 203 . = = 743.

= = 745. fåîÉêëÉ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`çëáåÉ=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅÅçëÜ ñ I= ñ ∈ [NI ∞ ) K= = = ===== Figure 170. = = 744. fåîÉêëÉ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=q~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅí~åÜ ñ I= ñ ∈ (− NI N) K= = 204 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ===== Figure 169.CHAPTER 8.

= = 746.CHAPTER 8. fåîÉêëÉ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`çí~åÖÉåí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅÅçíÜ ñ I= ñ ∈ (− ∞I − N) ∪ (NI ∞ ) K== = 205 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ===== Figure 171.

= = 747. fåîÉêëÉ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=pÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅëÉÅÜ ñ I= ñ ∈ (MI N] K= = 206 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = ===== Figure 172.CHAPTER 8.

= = 748.CHAPTER 8. fåîÉêëÉ=eóéÉêÄçäáÅ=`çëÉÅ~åí=cìåÅíáçå== ó = ~êÅÅëÅÜ ñ I= ñ ∈ o I= ñ ≠ M K== Figure 174. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS Figure 173. = = 207 .

äáã[Ñ (ñ ) + Ö(ñ )] = äáã Ñ (ñ ) + äáã Ö (ñ ) = ñ →~ ñ →~ ñ →~ = 750. äáã Ñ (ñ ) äáã Ñ (ñ ) = ñ →~ I=áÑ= äáã Ö(ñ ) ≠ M K= ñ →~ ñ → ~ Ö (ñ ) äáã Ö(ñ ) ñ →~ 753. äáã ñ →M = 758. äáã ëáå ñ = N= ñ →M ñ í~å ñ =N= ñ = 757. äáã[Ñ (ñ ) − Ö (ñ )] = äáã Ñ (ñ ) − äáã Ö (ñ ) = ñ →~ ñ →~ ñ →~ = 751. äáã Ñ (ñ ) = Ñ (~ ) I=áÑ=íÜÉ=ÑìåÅíáçå= Ñ (ñ ) =áë=Åçåíáåìçìë=~í= ñ = ~ K= ñ →~ = = 756. äáã Ñ (Ö (ñ )) = Ñ äáã Ö (ñ ) = ñ →~ ñ →~ = ( ) 755.2 Limits of Functions = cìåÅíáçåëW= Ñ (ñ ) I= Ö(ñ ) = ^êÖìãÉåíW=ñ= oÉ~ä=Åçåëí~åíëW=~I=â= = = 749.CHAPTER 8. äáã[âÑ (ñ )] = â äáã Ñ (ñ ) = ñ →~ ñ →~ = 754. äáã[Ñ (ñ ) ⋅ Ö (ñ )] = äáã Ñ (ñ ) ⋅ äáã Ö (ñ ) = ñ →~ ñ →~ ñ →~ = 752. äáã ëáå −N ñ = N= ñ →M ñ 208 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 8.

DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 759.CHAPTER 8. äáã äå(N + ñ ) = N= ñ →M ñ ñ =  N 761.3 Definition and Properties of the Derivative = cìåÅíáçåëW=ÑI=ÖI=óI=ìI=î= fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉW=ñ= oÉ~ä=Åçåëí~åíW=â= ^åÖäÉW= α = = = Ñ (ñ + ∆ñ ) − Ñ (ñ ) ∆ó Çó 764. äáã N +  = É = ñ →∞  ñ = ñ  â 762. äáã ~ ñ = N = ñ →M = = = 8. äáã í~å −N ñ = N= ñ →M ñ = 760. äáã N +  = É â = ñ →∞  ñ = 763. ó′(ñ ) = äáã == = äáã = ∆ñ → M ∆ñ →M ∆ñ ∆ñ Çñ = 209 .

= 767. = Çó = í~å α == Çñ = Ç(ì + î ) Çì Çî = + = Çñ Çñ Çñ Ç(ì − î ) Çì Çî = − = Çñ Çñ Çñ Ç(âì ) Çì =â = Çñ Çñ 766. mêçÇìÅí=oìäÉ= Ç(ì ⋅ î ) Çì Çî = ⋅ î + ì ⋅ == Çñ Çñ Çñ = = 210 . == Figure 175. = 769. = 768.CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = = 765.

`Ü~áå=oìäÉ= ó = Ñ (Ö(ñ )) I= ì = Ö(ñ ) I== Çó Çó Çì = ⋅ K= Çñ Çì Çñ = 772.4 Table of Derivatives = fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉW=ñ= oÉ~ä=Åçåëí~åíëW=`I=~I=ÄI=Å= k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= 211 . oÉÅáéêçÅ~ä=oìäÉ= Çó Ç  N   = − Çñ = Çñ  ó  óO   = 774. aÉêáî~íáîÉ=çÑ=fåîÉêëÉ=cìåÅíáçå= Çó N = I== Çñ Çñ Çó ïÜÉêÉ= ñ (ó ) áë=íÜÉ=áåîÉêëÉ=ÑìåÅíáçå=çÑ= ó (ñ ) K== = 773.CHAPTER 8. nìçíáÉåí=oìäÉ= Çì Çî ⋅î −ì⋅ Ç  ì  Çñ Çñ =  = O Çñ  î  î = 771. içÖ~êáíÜãáÅ=aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~íáçå= ó = Ñ (ñ ) I= äå ó = äå Ñ (ñ ) I== Çó Ç = Ñ (ñ ) ⋅ [äå Ñ (ñ )] K= Çñ Çñ = = 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 770.

= 781. Ç (` ) = M = Çñ = Ç (ñ ) = N = Çñ = Ç (~ñ + Ä) = ~ = Çñ = Ç (~ñ O + Äñ + Å ) = ~ñ + Ä = Çñ Ç å (ñ ) = åñ å−N = Çñ Ç −å (ñ ) = − ñå+N = å Çñ Ç N N  =− O = Çñ  ñ  ñ = Ç Çñ 776. = 780. 212 . 777.CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 775. ( ñ ) = O Nñ = = 783. = 779. 778. Ç (äå ñ ) = N = ñ Çñ = Ç (äçÖ ~ ñ ) = N I= ~ > M I= ~ ≠ N K= ñ äå ~ Çñ = 785. 782. Ç Çñ = ( ñ )= å N å å ñ å −N = 784.

213 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 786. 795. Ç ñ (~ ) = ~ ñ äå ~ I= ~ > M I= ~ ≠ N K= Çñ = Ç ñ (É ) = É ñ = Çñ Ç (ëáå ñ ) = Åçë ñ = Çñ = Ç (Åçë ñ ) = − ëáå ñ = Çñ = Ç (í~å ñ ) = NO = ëÉÅ O ñ = Çñ Åçë ñ = Ç (Åçí ñ ) = − NO = − ÅëÅ O ñ = Çñ ëáå ñ = Ç (ëÉÅ ñ ) = í~å ñ ⋅ ëÉÅ ñ = Çñ = Ç (ÅëÅ ñ ) = − Åçí ñ ⋅ ÅëÅ ñ = Çñ = Ç (~êÅëáå ñ ) = N O = Çñ N− ñ = Ç (~êÅÅçë ñ ) = − N O = Çñ N− ñ = Ç (~êÅí~å ñ ) = N O = N+ ñ Çñ = 787. 790. 796. 789.CHAPTER 8. = 788. 794. 791. 793. 792.

801. 802. 806. 799. 800. 807. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 797. Ç (~êÅ Åçí ñ ) = − N O = Çñ N+ ñ = Ç (~êÅ ëÉÅ ñ ) = NO = Çñ ñ ñ −N = Ç (~êÅ ÅëÅ ñ ) = − NO = Çñ ñ ñ −N = Ç (ëáåÜ ñ ) = ÅçëÜ ñ = Çñ = Ç (ÅçëÜ ñ ) = ëáåÜ ñ = Çñ = Ç (í~åÜ ñ ) = N O = ëÉÅÜ O ñ = ÅçëÜ ñ Çñ = Ç (ÅçíÜ ñ ) = − N O = −ÅëÅÜ O ñ = Çñ ëáåÜ ñ = Ç (ëÉÅÜ ñ ) = −ëÉÅÜ ñ ⋅ í~åÜ ñ = Çñ = Ç (ÅëÅÜ ñ ) = −ÅëÅÜ ñ ⋅ ÅçíÜ ñ = Çñ = Ç (~êÅëáåÜ=ñ ) = N = Çñ ñO +N = N Ç (~êÅÅçëÜ=ñ ) = O = Çñ ñ −N 798. 803. 214 . 805.CHAPTER 8. 804.

= = = 8.5 Higher Order Derivatives = cìåÅíáçåëW=ÑI=óI=ìI=î= fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉW=ñ= k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= = = pÉÅçåÇ=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉ= O ′ =  Çó  ′ = Ç  Çó  = Ç ó = Ñ ′′ = (Ñ ′)     O  Çñ  Çñ  Çñ  Çñ = eáÖÜÉê-lêÇÉê=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉ= Çå ó (å ) Ñ = å = ó (å ) = (Ñ (å −N) ) ′ = Çñ = (ì + î )(å ) = ì (å ) + î (å ) = = (ì − î )(å ) = ì(å ) − î (å ) = = iÉáÄåáíò∞ë=cçêãìä~ë= (ìî )′′ = ì′′î + Oì′î′ + ìî′′ = 811. 815. 814. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 808. 812. 813. Ç (~êÅí~åÜ=ñ ) = N O I= ñ < N K= Çñ N− ñ = Ç (~êÅÅçíÜ=ñ ) = − ON I= ñ > N K= Çñ ñ −N = Ç î Çî (ì ) = îì î −N ⋅ Çì + ì î äå ì ⋅ Çñ = Çñ Çñ 809. 810. 215 .CHAPTER 8.

(ñ )( ) = (ãã>å)> ñ − ã å ã −å = = 817. å −N (äå ñ )(å ) = (− N) (å − N)> = å ñ = 820. (− N)å−N (å − N)> = (äçÖ ~ ñ ) = å (å ) ñ äå ~ = 819. (ñ )( ) = å> = å å = 818. (ëáå ñ )(å ) = ëáå ñ + åπ  =    O  = 824. (~ )( ) = ã ~ äå å ~ = = 823. (Åçë ñ )(å ) = Åçë ñ + åπ  =    O  = = = 216 .CHAPTER 8. (~ )( ) = ~ ñ å ñ äå å ~ = = 821. (É )( ) = É ñ å ãñ å ñ = å ãñ = 822. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS (ìî )′′′ = ì′′′î + Pì′′î′ + Pì′î′′ + ìî′′′ = (ìî )(å ) = ì (å ) î + åì (å−N) î ′ + å(å − N) ì (å−O) î ′′ + K + ìî (å ) = N⋅ O = 816.

6 Applications of Derivative = cìåÅíáçåëW=ÑI=ÖI=ó= mçëáíáçå=çÑ=~å=çÄàÉÅíW=ë== sÉäçÅáíóW=î= ^ÅÅÉäÉê~íáçåW=ï= fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉW=ñ= qáãÉW=í= k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= = = 825. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 8. q~åÖÉåí=iáåÉ= ó − ó M = Ñ ′(ñ M )(ñ − ñ M ) = = 217 .CHAPTER 8. sÉäçÅáíó=~åÇ=^ÅÅÉäÉê~íáçå= ë = Ñ (í ) =áë=íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=çÑ=~å=çÄàÉÅí=êÉä~íáîÉ=íç=~=ÑáñÉÇ= ÅççêÇáå~íÉ=ëóëíÉã=~í=~=íáãÉ=íI== î = ë′ = Ñ ′(í ) =áë=íÜÉ=áåëí~åí~åÉçìë=îÉäçÅáíó=çÑ=íÜÉ=çÄàÉÅíI= ï = î′ = ë′′ = Ñ ′′(í ) =áë=íÜÉ=áåëí~åí~åÉçìë=~ÅÅÉäÉê~íáçå=çÑ= íÜÉ=çÄàÉÅíK== = 826.

fåÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=~åÇ=aÉÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=cìåÅíáçåëK== fÑ= Ñ ′(ñ M ) > M I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=áë=áåÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=~í= ñ M K=EcáÖ=NTTI= ñ < ñ N I= ñ O < ñ FI= fÑ= Ñ ′(ñ M ) < M I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=áë=ÇÉÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=~í= ñ M K=EcáÖ=NTTI= ñ N < ñ < ñ O FI= fÑ= Ñ ′ (ñ M ) =ÇçÉë=åçí=Éñáëí=çê=áë=òÉêçI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=íÉëí=Ñ~áäëK== = 218 . kçêã~ä=iáåÉ= N (ñ − ñ M ) =EcáÖ=NTSF= ó − óM = − Ñ ′(ñ M ) = 828. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = Figure 176.CHAPTER 8. = = 827.

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS = Figure 177. cáêëí=aÉêáî~íáîÉ=qÉëí=Ñçê=içÅ~ä=bñíêÉã~K= fÑ=ÑEñF=áë==áåÅêÉ~ëáåÖ==E Ñ ′ (ñ ) > M F=Ñçê==~ää==ñ==áå==ëçãÉ==áåíÉêî~ä= (~I ñ N ] ==~åÇ==ÑEñF==áë==ÇÉÅêÉ~ëáåÖ==E Ñ ′ (ñ ) < M F==Ñçê=~ää==ñ=áå=ëçãÉ= áåíÉêî~ä= = [ñ N I Ä) I= = íÜÉå= ÑEñF= Ü~ë= ~= = äçÅ~ä= ã~ñáãìã= = ~í= = ñ N = EcáÖKNTTFK== 219 . `êáíáÅ~ä=mçáåíë= ^=ÅêáíáÅ~ä=éçáåí=çå=ÑEñF=çÅÅìêë=~í= ñ M =áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ=ÉáíÜÉê= Ñ ′ (ñ M ) =áë=òÉêç=çê=íÜÉ=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉ=ÇçÉëå∞í=ÉñáëíK= = 831. içÅ~ä=ÉñíêÉã~= ^=ÑìåÅíáçå=ÑEñF=Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ã~ñáãìã=~í= ñ N =áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ= íÜÉêÉ=Éñáëíë=ëçãÉ=áåíÉêî~ä=Åçåí~áåáåÖ= ñ N =ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= Ñ (ñ N ) ≥ Ñ (ñ ) =Ñçê=~ää=ñ=áå=íÜÉ=áåíÉêî~ä=EcáÖKNTTFK== = ^=ÑìåÅíáçå=ÑEñF=Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáãìã=~í= ñ O =áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ= íÜÉêÉ=Éñáëíë=ëçãÉ=áåíÉêî~ä=Åçåí~áåáåÖ= ñ O =ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= Ñ (ñ O ) ≤ Ñ (ñ ) =Ñçê=~ää=ñ=áå=íÜÉ=áåíÉêî~ä=EcáÖKNTTFK= = 830. = = 829.

CHAPTER 8. fÑ=ÑEñF=áë=ÇÉÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=E Ñ ′ (ñ ) < M F=Ñçê=~ää=ñ=áå=ëçãÉ=áåíÉêî~ä= (~I ñ O ]=~åÇ=ÑEñF=áë=áåÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=E Ñ ′ (ñ ) > M F=Ñçê=~ää=ñ=áå=ëçãÉ= áåíÉêî~ä= [ñ O I Ä) I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáãìã=~í= ñ O K== EcáÖKNTTFK= = 833. fåÑäÉÅíáçå=mçáåíë= fÑ== Ñ ′ (ñ P ) ==Éñáëíë==~åÇ== Ñ ′′(ñ ) ==ÅÜ~åÖÉë=ëáÖå=~í= ñ = ñ P I==íÜÉå= íÜÉ= éçáåí= (ñ P I Ñ (ñ P )) = áë= ~å= áåÑäÉÅíáçå= éçáåí= çÑ= íÜÉ= Öê~éÜ= çÑ= Ñ (ñ ) K=fÑ= Ñ ′′(ñ P ) =Éñáëíë=~í=íÜÉ=áåÑäÉÅíáçå=éçáåíI=íÜÉå= Ñ ′′(ñ P ) = M = EcáÖKNTTFK= = 837. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 832. pÉÅçåÇ=aÉêáî~íáîÉ=qÉëí=Ñçê=`çåÅ~îáíóK== fÑ= Ñ ′′(ñ M ) > M I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=áë=ÅçåÅ~îÉ=ìéï~êÇ=~í= ñ M K== fÑ= Ñ ′′(ñ M ) < M I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=áë=ÅçåÅ~îÉ=Ççïåï~êÇ=~í= ñ M K= fÑ= Ñ ′′(ñ ) =ÇçÉë=åçí=Éñáëí=çê=áë=òÉêçI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=íÉëí=Ñ~áäëK= = 836. pÉÅçåÇ=aÉêáî~íáîÉ=qÉëí=Ñçê=içÅ~ä=bñíêÉã~K= fÑ= Ñ ′ (ñ N ) = M =~åÇ= Ñ ′′(ñ N ) < M I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ã~ñáãìã= ~í== ñ N K= fÑ= Ñ ′ (ñ O ) = M =~åÇ= Ñ ′′(ñ O ) > M I=íÜÉå=ÑEñF=Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáãìã= ~í= ñ O K=EcáÖKNTTF= = 834. `çåÅ~îáíóK== ÑEñF= áë= = ÅçåÅ~îÉ= ìéï~êÇ= ~í= = ñ M = = áÑ= = ~åÇ= = çåäó= = áÑ= = Ñ ′ (ñ ) = áë============ áåÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=~í= ñ M =EcáÖKNTTI= ñ P < ñ FK=== ÑEñF=áë==ÅçåÅ~îÉ==Ççïåï~êÇ=~í== ñ M ==áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ== Ñ ′ (ñ ) ==áë=============== ÇÉÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=~í= ñ M K=EcáÖKNTTI= ñ < ñ P FK=== = 835. i∞eçéáí~ä∞ë=oìäÉ= M Ñ (ñ ) Ñ ′(ñ ) äáã = äáã =áÑ= äáã Ñ (ñ ) = äáã Ö (ñ ) =  K== ñ → Å Ö (ñ ) ñ →Å Ö ′(ñ ) ñ →Å ñ →Å ∞ = 220 .

CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 8. = 221 . Ñ (ñ + ∆ñ ) = Ñ (ñ ) + Ñ ′(ñ )∆ñ = = = Figure 178. Çó = ó′Çñ = = 839.7 Differential = cìåÅíáçåëW=ÑI=ìI=î= fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉW=ñ= aÉêáî~íáîÉ=çÑ=~=ÑìåÅíáçåW= ó′(ñ ) I= Ñ ′(ñ ) = oÉ~ä=Åçåëí~åíW=`= aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=çÑ=ÑìåÅíáçå= ó = Ñ (ñ ) W=Çó= aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=çÑ=ñW=Çñ= pã~ää=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=áå=ñW= ∆ñ = pã~ää=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=áå=óW= ∆ó = = = 838.

Ç(`ì ) = `Çì = = 844. cáêëí=lêÇÉê=m~êíá~ä=aÉêáî~íáîÉë= qÜÉ=é~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉ=ïáíÜ=êÉëéÉÅí=íç=ñ= ∂Ñ ∂ò = Ñ ñ =E~äëç= = ò ñ FI= ∂ñ ∂ñ qÜÉ=é~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉ=ïáíÜ=êÉëéÉÅí=íç=ó= ∂Ñ ∂ò = Ñ ó =E~äëç= = ò ó FK= ∂ó ∂ó = = 222 . Ç(ì − î ) = Çì − Çî = = 843.8 Multivariable Functions = cìåÅíáçåë=çÑ=íïç=î~êá~ÄäÉëW= ò (ñ I ó ) I= Ñ (ñ I ó ) I= Ö (ñ I ó ) I= Ü(ñ I ó ) == ^êÖìãÉåíëW=ñI=óI=í= pã~ää=ÅÜ~åÖÉë=áå=ñI=óI=òI=êÉëéÉÅíáîÉäóW= ∆ñ I= ∆ó I= ∆ò K= = = 846. Ç(ì + î ) = Çì + Çî = = 842.CHAPTER 8. Ç  = = îO î = = = 8. pã~ää=`Ü~åÖÉ=áå=ó= ∆ó = Ñ (ñ + ∆ñ ) − Ñ (ñ ) = = 841. Ç(ìî ) = îÇì + ìÇî = =  ì  îÇì − ìÇî 845. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 840.

pÉÅçåÇ=lêÇÉê=m~êíá~ä=aÉêáî~íáîÉë= ∂  ∂Ñ  ∂ OÑ = Ñ ññ I==  = ∂ñ  ∂ñ  ∂ñ O ∂  ∂Ñ  ∂ OÑ  = = Ñ óó I== ∂ó  ∂ó  ∂ó O   ∂  ∂Ñ  ∂ OÑ = Ñ ñó I==  = ∂ó  ∂ñ  ∂ó∂ñ ∂  ∂Ñ  ∂ OÑ  = = Ñ óñ K==   ∂ñ  ∂ó  ∂ñ∂ó fÑ=íÜÉ=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉë=~êÉ=ÅçåíáåìçìëI=íÜÉå== ∂ OÑ ∂ OÑ = K== ∂ó∂ñ ∂ñ∂ó = 848. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 847. pã~ää=`Ü~åÖÉë= ∂Ñ ∂Ñ ∆ò ≈ ∆ñ + ∆ó = ∂ñ ∂ó = = 223 . `Ü~áå=oìäÉë== fÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) = Ö(Ü(ñ I ó )) =EÖ=áë=~=ÑìåÅíáçå=çÑ=çåÉ=î~êá~ÄäÉ=ÜFI=íÜÉå== ∂Ñ ∂Ü ∂Ñ ∂Ü = Ö′(Ü(ñ I ó )) I= = Ö′(Ü(ñ I ó )) K== ∂ó ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ó = ∂Ñ Çñ ∂Ñ Çó + K== fÑ= Ü(í ) = Ñ (ñ (í )I ó (í )) I=íÜÉå= Ü′(í ) = ∂ñ Çí ∂ó Çí = fÑ= ò = Ñ (ñ (ìI î )I ó (ìI î )) I=íÜÉå== ∂ò ∂Ñ ∂ñ ∂Ñ ∂ó ∂ò ∂Ñ ∂ñ ∂Ñ ∂ó + K== + = I= = ∂ì ∂ñ ∂ì ∂ó ∂ì ∂î ∂ñ ∂î ∂ó ∂î = 849.CHAPTER 8.

q~åÖÉåí=mä~åÉ= qÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=í~åÖÉåí=éä~åÉ=íç=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ= ò = Ñ (ñ I ó ) = ~í= (ñ M I ó M I ò M ) =áë== ò − ò M = Ñ ñ (ñ M I ó M )(ñ − ñ M ) + Ñ ó (ñ M I ó M )(ó − ó M ) K= = 224 . p~ÇÇäÉ=mçáåí= ^=ëí~íáçå~êó==éçáåí==ïÜáÅÜ==áë==åÉáíÜÉê==~==äçÅ~ä==ã~ñáãìã= åçê=~=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáãìã= = 853. içÅ~ä=j~ñáã~=~åÇ=jáåáã~= Ñ (ñ I ó ) =Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ã~ñáãìã=~í= (ñ M I ó M ) =áÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) ≤ Ñ (ñ M I ó M ) = Ñçê=~ää= (ñ I ó ) =ëìÑÑáÅáÉåíäó=ÅäçëÉ=íç= (ñ M I ó M ) K== = Ñ (ñ I ó ) =Ü~ë=~=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáãìã=~í= (ñ M I ó M ) =áÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) ≥ Ñ (ñ M I ó M ) = Ñçê=~ää= (ñ I ó ) =ëìÑÑáÅáÉåíäó=ÅäçëÉ=íç= (ñ M I ó M ) K= = 851. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 850. pÉÅçåÇ=aÉêáî~íáîÉ=qÉëí=Ñçê=pí~íáçå~êó=mçáåíë= ∂Ñ ∂Ñ = = M FK== iÉí= (ñ M I ó M ) =ÄÉ=~=ëí~íáçå~êó=éçáåí=E ∂ñ ∂ó Ñ ññ (ñ M I ó M ) Ñ ñó (ñ M I ó M ) K== a= Ñ óñ (ñ M I ó M ) Ñ óó (ñ M I ó M ) = fÑ= a > M I= Ñ ññ (ñ M I ó M ) > M I== (ñ M I ó M ) ==áë=~=éçáåí=çÑ=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáã~K= fÑ= a > M I= Ñ ññ (ñ M I ó M ) < M I== (ñ M I ó M ) ==áë=~=éçáåí=çÑ=äçÅ~ä=ã~ñáã~K= fÑ= a < M I= (ñ M I ó M ) =áë=~=ë~ÇÇäÉ=éçáåíK= fÑ= a = M I=íÜÉ=íÉëí=Ñ~áäëK= = 854.CHAPTER 8. pí~íáçå~êó=mçáåíë= ∂Ñ ∂Ñ = = M K= ∂ñ ∂ó içÅ~ä=ã~ñáã~=~åÇ=äçÅ~ä=ãáåáã~=çÅÅìê=~í=ëí~íáçå~êó=éçáåíëK= == 852.

9 Differential Operators = r r r råáí=îÉÅíçêë=~äçåÖ=íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉ=~ñÉëW= á I= à I= â = pÅ~ä~ê=ÑìåÅíáçåë=EëÅ~ä~ê=ÑáÉäÇëFW= Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) I= ì(ñ N I ñ O I KI ñ å ) = dê~ÇáÉåí=çÑ=~=ëÅ~ä~ê=ÑáÉäÇW= Öê~Ç ì I= ∇ì = ∂Ñ aáêÉÅíáçå~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉW= = ∂ä r sÉÅíçê=ÑìåÅíáçå=EîÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇFW= c (mI nI o ) = r r aáîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇW= Çáî c I= ∇ ⋅ c = r r `ìêä=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇW= Åìêä c I= ∇ × c = i~éä~Åá~å=çéÉê~íçêW= ∇ O = = = 856. aáêÉÅíáçå~ä=aÉêáî~íáîÉ= ∂Ñ ∂Ñ ∂Ñ ∂Ñ = Åçë α + Åçë β + Åçë γ I== ∂ä ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò 225 . kçêã~ä=íç=pìêÑ~ÅÉ= qÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=åçêã~ä=íç=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ= ò = Ñ (ñ I ó ) =~í= (ñ M I ó M I ò M ) =áë== ñ − ñM ó − óM ò − òM = = K= Ñ ñ ( ñ M I ó M ) Ñ ó (ñ M I ó M ) −N = = = 8. dê~ÇáÉåí=çÑ=~=pÅ~ä~ê=cìåÅíáçå=  ∂Ñ ∂Ñ ∂Ñ  Öê~Ç Ñ = ∇Ñ =  I I  I==  ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò     ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì   K= Öê~Ç ì = ∇ì =  I IKI  ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ñ å  O  N  = 857.CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS 855.

i~éä~Åá~å=léÉê~íçê= ∂ OÑ ∂ OÑ ∂ OÑ ∇ OÑ = O + O + O = ∂ò ∂ó ∂ñ = r r 861. Åìêä Åìêä c = Öê~Ç Çáî c − ∇ Oc = ∇ ∇ ⋅ c − ∇ Oc = = = ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 226 . DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=ÇáêÉÅíáçå=áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= r ä (Åçë αI Åçë βI Åçë γ ) I= Åçë O α + Åçë O β + Åçë O γ = N K== = 858. Çáî Åìêä c = ∇ ⋅ ∇ × c ≡ M = = 862.CHAPTER 8. Çáî (Öê~Ç Ñ ) = ∇ ⋅ (∇Ñ ) = ∇ OÑ = = r r r r r 864. Åìêä(Öê~Ç Ñ ) = ∇ × (∇Ñ ) ≡ M = = 863. `ìêä=çÑ=~=sÉÅíçê=cáÉäÇ= r r r á à â r r ∂ ∂ ∂ = Åìêä c = ∇ × c = ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ñ m n o  ∂o ∂n  r  ∂m ∂o  r  ∂n ∂m  r =  ∂ó − ∂ò  á +  ∂ò − ∂ñ  à +  ∂ñ − ∂ó â =          = 860. aáîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=çÑ=~=sÉÅíçê=cáÉäÇ= r r ∂m ∂n ∂o + + = Çáî c = ∇ ⋅ c = ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò = 859.

= 870.1 Indefinite Integral = 865. = 868. ∫ Ñ (~ñ )Çñ = ~ c(~ñ ) + ` = 227 N .Chapter 9 Integral Calculus = = = = cìåÅíáçåëW=ÑI=ÖI=ìI=î= fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉëW=ñI=íI= ξ = aÉêáî~íáîÉ=çÑ=~=ÑìåÅíáçåW= ó′(ñ ) I= Ñ ′(ñ ) I= c′(ñ ) I=£= oÉ~ä=Åçåëí~åíëW=`I=~I=ÄI=ÅI=ÇI=â= k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=ãI=åI=áI=à= = = fåÇÉÑáåáíÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=~=ÑìåÅíáçåW= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ I= ∫ Ö (ñ )Çñ I=£= 9. = 869. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = c(ñ ) + ` =áÑ= c′(ñ ) = Ñ (ñ ) K= = 866. (∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ ) ′= Ñ (ñ ) = ∫ âÑ (ñ )Çñ = â ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ∫ [Ñ (ñ ) + Ö(ñ )]Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ + ∫ Ö(ñ )Çñ = ∫ [Ñ (ñ ) − Ö(ñ )]Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ − ∫ Ö(ñ )Çñ = = 867.

∫ ~Çñ = ~ñ + ` = = 877. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 871. jÉíÜçÇ=çÑ=pìÄëíáíìíáçå= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ì(í ))ì′(í )Çí =áÑ= ñ = ì(í ) K= = 875. O ∫ ñ Çñ = = 879.CHAPTER 9. fåíÉÖê~íáçå=Äó=m~êíë= ∫ ìÇî = ìî − ∫ îÇì I== ïÜÉêÉ= ì(ñ ) I= î (ñ ) =~êÉ=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ÄäÉ=ÑìåÅíáçåëK== = = = = 9. ∫ Ñ (ñ ) Çñ = äå Ñ (ñ ) + ` = Ñ ′(ñ ) = 874. ∫ Ñ (~ñ + Ä)Çñ = ~ c(~ñ + Ä) + ` = = N ∫ Ñ (ñ )Ñ ′(ñ )Çñ = O Ñ (ñ ) + ` = O N 872. é ∫ ñ Çñ = = 228 . = 873. ∫ ñÇñ = = ñO +`= O ñP +`= P ñ é +N + ` I= é ≠ −N K= é+N 878.2 Integrals of Rational Functions 876.

= 886. = N ~  äå ~ + Äñ + +`= O  Ä  ~ + Äñ  = 229 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS 880. (~ñ + Ä)å+N + ` I= å ≠ −N K= ∫ (~ñ + Ä) Çñ = ~(å + N) å = 881. ∫ ~ñ + Ä = ~ äå ~ñ + Ä + ` = = 883. ∫ Åñ + Ç Çñ = Å ñ + = Çñ ~ñ + Ä ~ ÄÅ − ~Ç äå Åñ + Ç + ` = ÅO N ñ+Ä 884. ∫ ñ (~ + Äñ ) = ~ äå = Çñ O Çñ N ~ + Äñ +`= ñ Ä O 888.CHAPTER 9. ∫ ñ (~ + Äñ ) = − ~ñ + ~ ∫ (~ + Äñ ) ñÇñ O N äå ~ + Äñ +`= ñ = 889. ñ OÇñ N N  O O ∫ ~ + Äñ = ÄP  O (~ + Äñ ) − O~(~ + Äñ ) + ~ äå ~ + Äñ  + ` =   = 887. ∫ (ñ + ~ )(ñ + Ä) = ~ − Ä äå ñ + ~ + ` I= ~ ≠ Ä K= = N ñÇñ ∫ ~ + Äñ = Ä (~ + Äñ − ~ äå ~ + Äñ ) + ` = O 885. ∫ = Çñ = äå ñ + ` = ñ Çñ N 882.

INTEGRAL CALCULUS 890. ñ OÇñ N ~O  +`= = P  ~ + Äñ − O~ äå ~ + Äñ − ∫ (~ + Äñ )O Ä   ~ + Äñ   = 891. ∫ ñ (~ + Äñ ) Çñ O = N N ~ + Äñ + O äå +`= ~ (~ + Äñ ) ~ ñ = 892. ∫ N+ ñ = Çñ O 897. ∫~ = O Çñ N ~+ñ +`= = äå O O~ ~ − ñ −ñ ñ−~ Çñ N +`= = äå O O~ ñ + ~ −~ = í~å −N ñ + ` = 895. ∫~ = O N ñ Çñ = í~å −N + ` = O ~ ~ +ñ 898. ∫ ~ + Äñ = O 230 . ∫ñ = Çñ N ñ −N +`= = äå O −N O ñ +N Çñ N N+ ñ = äå +`= O N− ñ 893.CHAPTER 9. ∫ N− ñ = O 894. ∫ñ = O N ñÇñ = äå(ñ O + ~ O ) + ` = O +~ O Çñ =  Ä N  ~êÅí~å ñ  ~  + ` I= ~Ä > M K= ~Ä   899. ∫ñ = O 896.

CHAPTER 9. ∫ O = äå + ` I= ~ñ + Äñ + Å ÄO − Q~Å O~ñ + Ä + ÄO − Q~Å ÄO − Q~Å > M K= = 904. ∫ = ñÇñ O(~ñ − OÄ) = ~ñ + Ä + ` = P~ O ~ñ + Ä 231 . Çñ N ñO = äå ∫ ñ (~ + Äñ O ) O~ ~ + Äñ O + ` = = 902.3 Integrals of Irrational Functions = 905. ∫ = 907. ∫~ = O Çñ N ~ + Äñ = äå +`= O O −Ä ñ O~Ä ~ − Äñ Çñ N O~ñ + Ä − ÄO − Q~Å 903. ∫ = Çñ O ~ñ + Ä + ` = = ~ñ + Ä ~ ~ñ + Ä Çñ = P O (~ñ + Ä) O + ` = P~ 906. Çñ O O~ñ + Ä ~êÅí~å + ` I= = + Äñ + Å Q~Å − ÄO Q~Å − ÄO ÄO − Q~Å < M K= ∫ ~ñ O = = = 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 900. ∫ ~ + Äñ = ñÇñ O = ~ N äå ñ O + + ` = Ä OÄ 901.

INTEGRAL CALCULUS 908. ∫ñ = ~ñ + Ä Çñ = P O(P~ñ − OÄ) (~ñ + Ä) O + ` = O NR~ 909. ~ñ + Ä − Ä − ~Å Çñ N äå = + ` I== ~ñ + Ä + Ä − ~Å ~ñ + Ä Ä − ~Å Ä − ~Å > M K= ∫ (ñ + Å ) = 910. ∫ = ñ OÇñ O(U~ O − Q~Äñ + PÄO ñ O ) = ~ + Äñ + ` = NRÄP ~ + Äñ 915. ~ñ + Ä Çñ N = ~êÅí~å + ` I== ~Å − Ä ~ñ + Ä ~Å − Ä Ä − ~Å < M K= ∫ (ñ + Å ) ∫ = 911. N ~ñ + Ä (~ñ + Ä)(Åñ + Ç ) − = Çñ = Åñ + Ç Å ~Ç − ÄÅ äå ~ (Åñ + Ç ) + Å(~ñ + Ä) + ` I= ~ > M K= − Å ~Å ~ñ + Ä N Çñ = Åñ + Ç Å = 912. ∫ = (~ñ + Ä)(Åñ + Ç ) − = − ~ (Åñ + Ç ) ~Ç − ÄÅ ~êÅí~å + ` I=E ~ < M I= Å > M FK== Å(~ñ + Ä) Å ~Å O(U~ O − NO~Äñ + NRÄO ñ O ) NMRÄP 913.CHAPTER 9. ∫ñ = Çñ N ~ + Äñ − ~ = + ` I= ~ > M K= äå ~ + Äñ ~ ~ + Äñ + ~ 232 . O ∫ ñ ~ + Äñ Çñ = (~ + Äñ )P + ` = = 914.

∫ = ~+ñ Ä−ñ Çñ = − (~ + ñ )(Ä − ñ ) − (~ + Ä)~êÅëáå +`= Ä−ñ ~+Ä N+ ñ Çñ = − N − ñ O + ~êÅëáå ñ + ` = N− ñ Çñ ñ −~ +` = Ä−~ 919. ~ñ O + Äñ + Å ~ > M K= = ∫ ∫ 923. ∫ = ñ O + ~ O Çñ = ñ O O ~O ñ + ~ + äå ñ + ñ O + ~ O + ` = O O 233 . ∫ñ = Çñ O ~ + Äñ = ~êÅí~å + ` I= ~ < M K= −~ ~ + Äñ −~ ~−ñ Çñ = Ä+ ñ 917. Çñ ~ñ + Äñ + Å O =− = 924. ∫ = (~ − ñ )(Ä + ñ ) + (~ + Ä)~êÅëáå ñ+Ä +`= ~+Ä 918. ∫ = ~ + Äñ − Åñ O Çñ = OÅñ − Ä ~ + Äñ − Åñ O + = QÅ ÄO − Q~Å OÅñ − Ä + ~êÅëáå +`= U ÅP ÄO + Q~Å Çñ = N äå O~ñ + Ä + O ~ (~ñ O + Äñ + Å ) + ` I== ~ N O~ñ + Ä O ~êÅëáå Ä − Q~Å + ` I= ~ < M K= Q~ ~ 922. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 916. ∫ (ñ − ~ )(Ä − ~ ) = O ~êÅëáå = 921.CHAPTER 9. ∫ = 920.

∫ñ = O ñ O + ~ O Çñ = − ~Q äå ñ + ñ O + ~ O + ` = U 927. ∫ = ñ O − ~ O Çñ = ñ O O ~O ñ − ~ − äå ñ + ñ O − ~ O + ` = O O N O O PO (ñ − ~ ) + ` = P 934. ∫ = ñO + ~O ñO + ~O Çñ = − + äå ñ + ñ O + ~ O + ` = ñO ñ Çñ ñ +~ O O 928. ∫ = = ñ O + ~O + ` = ñ O O ~O ñ + ~ − äå ñ + ñ O + ~ O + ` = O O 931. ∫ = ñ OÇñ ñ O + ~O Çñ = 932. ∫ñ ñ O − ~ O Çñ = 234 . ∫ = ñ O + ~O ñ Çñ = ñ O + ~ O + ~ äå +`= ñ ~ + ñ O + ~O ñÇñ ñ +~ O O 930. ∫ = = äå ñ + ñ O + ~ O + ` = 929. ∫ñ = ñ O + ~ O Çñ = N O O PO (ñ + ~ ) + ` = P ñ (Oñ O + ~ O ) ñ O + ~ O − = U 926.CHAPTER 9. ∫ñ = N ñ = äå +`= ñ O + ~O ~ ~ + ñ O + ~O 933. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 925.

∫ = ñ O O ~O = ñ − ~ + äå ñ + ñ O − ~ O + ` = O O O O ñ −~ N ~ = − ~êÅëáå + ` = ~ ñ ñ −~ O O ñ OÇñ 940. ∫ = ñO − ~O ~ Çñ = ñ O − ~ O + ~ ~êÅëáå + ` = ñ ñ ñO − ~O ñ O − ~O Çñ = − + äå ñ + ñ O − ~ O + ` = O ñ ñ Çñ ñ −~ O O 936. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 935. ∫ (ñ − ~ ) = Çñ ñ −~ O O =− 943. ∫ = ñÇñ ñ −~ O O = ñ O − ~O + ` = 939. ∫ = 937. ∫ (ñ = O − ~O ) O P Çñ =− ñ ~O ñ O − ~O +`= 235 .CHAPTER 9. ∫ñ = Çñ O ñ O − ~O = ñ O − ~O +`= ~Oñ 944. ∫ñ = Çñ 941. ∫ (ñ + ~ ) = Çñ ñ O − ~O = N ñ −~ +`= ~ ñ+~ N ñ+~ +`= ~ ñ −~ 942. ∫ = = äå ñ + ñ O − ~ O + ` = 938.

∫ ñ OÇñ ~O − ñ O =− 236 . ∫ = ~O − ñO = ëáå 953. ∫ = Çñ N− ñO Çñ = ~êÅëáå ñ + ` = ñ +`= ~ 952. ∫ = ~O − ñ O ñ Çñ = ~ O − ñ O + ~ äå +`= ñ ~ + ~O − ñ O ñ ~O − ñO ~O − ñO Çñ = − − ~êÅëáå + ` = O ~ ñ ñ 950. ∫ = ~ O − ñ O Çñ = ñ ~O ñ O ~ − ñ O + ~êÅëáå + ` = ~ O O N O (~ − ñ O )P O + ` = P 947. O O ∫ ñ ~ − ñ Çñ = − = 948. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 945. ∫ (ñ = O − ~ O ) O Çñ = − P ñ (Oñ O − R~ O ) ñ O − ~ O + = U P~ Q + äå ñ + ñ O − ~ O + ` = U 946. ∫ = 951. O O O ∫ ñ ~ − ñ Çñ = Q ñ (Oñ O − ~ O ) ~ O − ñ O + ~U ~êÅëáå ñ + ` = U ~ = 949. ∫ = ñÇñ ~ −ñ O O = − ~O − ñ O + ` = ñ O ~O ñ ~ − ñ O + ~êÅëáå + ` = O O ~ 954.CHAPTER 9.

∫ ëáå ñÇñ = − Åçë ñ + ` = = 963. ∫ (~ = = = O −ñ O ) ñ ~O ~O − ñ O P +`= 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 955. ∫ (ñ − ~ ) = Çñ ~O − ñ O =− 957. ∫ (~ = O − ñ O ) O Çñ = Çñ = O 961. ∫ Åçë ñÇñ = ëáå ñ + ` = 237 . ∫ (ñ + Ä ) Ä < ~ K= Çñ ~ −ñ O O = N ~ −Ä O O äå ñ+Ä ~ −Ä O O ~ O − ñ O + ~ O + Äñ + `I = = 959.CHAPTER 9.4 Integrals of Trigonometric Functions = 962. ∫ (ñ + ~ ) = Çñ ~O − ñ O =− N ~−ñ +`= O ~+ñ N ~+ñ +`= O ~−ñ N ÄO − ~ O ~êÅëáå Äñ + ~ O + ` I= Ä > ~ K= ~ (ñ + Ä ) 956. ∫ (ñ + Ä ) = Çñ ~O − ñ O = 958. ∫ñ = Çñ O ~O − ñO P =− ~O − ñO +`= ~Oñ Q ñ O (R~ − Oñ O ) ~ O − ñ O + P~ ~êÅëáå ñ + ` = U U ~ 960.

∫ ëáå = Çñ P ñ 973. ∫ Åçë = O 966. ∫ Åçë = P 968. ∫ ëáå = P N N P ñ Çñ = Åçë P ñ − Åçë ñ + ` = Åçë Pñ − Åçë ñ + ` = P NO Q N N P ñ Çñ = ëáå ñ − ëáå P ñ + ` = ëáå Pñ + ëáå ñ + ` = P NO Q ñ 967. ∫ Åçë ñ = ∫ ëÉÅ ñ Çñ = äå í~å O + Q  + ` =   = Çñ ñ π 970. ∫ ëáå = Çñ O ñ = ∫ ÅëÅ O ñ Çñ = − Åçí ñ + ` = = ∫ ëÉÅ O ñ Çñ = í~å ñ + ` = = ∫ ÅëÅ P ñ Çñ = − = ∫ ëÉÅP ñ Çñ = N Åçë ñ N ñ + äå í~å + ` = O O ëáå ñ O O 971. ∫ ëáå = O ñ Çñ = ñ Çñ = ñ N − ëáå Oñ + ` = O Q ñ N + ëáå Oñ + ` = O Q 965.CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 964. ∫ Åçë = Çñ P ñ ëáå ñ N  ñ π + äå í~å +  + ` = O O Åçë ñ O O Q 974. ∫ ëáå ñ = ∫ ÅëÅ ñ Çñ = äå í~å O + ` = = Çñ 969. ∫ ëáå ñ Åçë ñ Çñ = − Q Åçë Oñ + ` = 238 . ∫ Åçë = Çñ O ñ 972.

979. ëáå O ñ  ñ π ∫ Åçë ñ Çñ = äå í~å O + Q  − ëáå ñ + ` =   = 981. ∫ Åçë ñ ëáå ñ = äå í~å ñ + ` = 239 Çñ . ∫ ëáå = = O ñ Åçë O ñ Çñ = 978. ∫ Åçí ñÇñ = äå ëáå ñ + ` = ∫ ëáå = Åçë ñ N Çñ = − + ` = − ÅëÅ ñ + ` = O ñ ëáå ñ Åçë O ñ ñ Çñ = äå í~å + Åçë ñ + ` = 984. ∫ ëáå ñ Åçë = N ñ Çñ = − ÅçëP ñ + ` = P ñ N − ëáå Q ñ + ` = U PO 977.CHAPTER 9. ∫ í~å = = O ñ Çñ = í~å ñ − ñ + ` = 982. ∫ ëáå ñ O = 985. ∫ í~å ñÇñ = − äå Åçë ñ + ` = ∫ Åçë = ëáå ñ N Çñ = + ` = ëÉÅ ñ + ` = O ñ Åçë ñ 980. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 975. ∫ ëáå = O N ñ Åçë ñ Çñ = ëáå P ñ + ` = P O 976. 983. ∫ Åçí O ñ Çñ = − Åçí ñ − ñ + ` = = 986.

Åçë å+N ñ +`= å +N = ëáå å +N ñ 996. ∫ ëáå ñ Åçë = O ñ 989. ∫ ëáå ñ Åçë ñ Çñ = +`= å +N = å 240 . ∫ ëáå ãñ Åçë åñ Çñ = − O(ã + å) ã O ≠ å O K= = Åçë(ã + å )ñ − 992. ∫ ëÉÅ ñ í~å ñÇñ = ëÉÅ ñ + ` = = 994. ∫ ÅëÅ ñ Åçí ñÇñ = − ÅëÅ ñ + ` = = å ∫ ëáå ñ Åçë ñ Çñ = − 995. ∫ Åçë ãñ Åçë åñ Çñ = O(ã + å) ã O ≠ å O K= = ëáå(ã + å )ñ + ëáå(ã − å )ñ + ` I= O(ã − å ) 993. ∫ ëáå ãñ ëáå åñ Çñ = − O(ã + å) ã O ≠ å O K= = 991.CHAPTER 9. ∫ ëáå = O Çñ N  ñ π =− + äå í~å +  + ` = ñ Åçë ñ ëáå ñ O Q Çñ = N ñ + äå í~å + ` = Åçë ñ O 988. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 987. ∫ ëáå = O Çñ = í~å ñ − Åçí ñ + ` = ñ Åçë O ñ ëáå(ã + å )ñ + ëáå(ã − å )ñ + ` I= O(ã − å ) Åçë(ã − å )ñ + ` I= O(ã − å ) 990.

∫ ÅçëÜ ñÇñ = ëáåÜ ñ + ` = = 1003. ∫ ~êÅí~å ñ Çñ = ñ ~êÅí~å ñ − O äå(ñ + N) + ` = N 1000. ∫ ëáåÜ ñÇñ = ÅçëÜ ñ + ` = = 1002. ∫ ÅëÅÜ O ñÇñ = − ÅçíÜ ñ + ` = = 1007. ∫ ëÉÅÜñ í~åÜ ñÇñ = −ëÉÅÜñ + ` = = 241 . ∫ í~åÜ ñ Çñ = äå ÅçëÜ ñ + ` = = 1004.5 Integrals of Hyperbolic Functions = 1001. ∫ ëÉÅÜ O ñÇñ = í~åÜ ñ + ` = = 1006. ∫ ~êÅëáå ñ Çñ = ñ ~êÅëáå ñ + = N− ñO + ` = N− ñO + ` = N O 998. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 997.CHAPTER 9. ∫ ~êÅÅçë ñ Çñ = ñ ~êÅÅçë ñ − = 999. ∫ ~êÅ Åçí ñ Çñ = ñ ~êÅ Åçí ñ + äå(ñ O + N) + ` = O = = = = 9. ∫ ÅçíÜ ñ Çñ = äå ëáåÜ ñ + ` = = 1005.

∫ äå ñ Çñ = ñ äå ñ − ñ + ` = ñ = 1014. ∫ ~ Çñ = +`= äå ~ = É ~ñ 1011. ∫ ÅëÅÜñ ÅçíÜ ñÇñ = −ÅëÅÜñ + ` = = = = 9. ∫ É ñ Çñ = É ñ + ` = = ~ñ 1010. ∫ É ~ñ Çñ = +`= ~ = É ~ñ 1012. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1008.6 Integrals of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions = 1009.CHAPTER 9. ∫ É ~ñ ëáå Äñ Çñ = É +`= ~ O + ÄO = 242 . ∫ ñ å äå ñ Çñ = ñ å +N  +`= − O  å + N (å + N)  = ~ ëáå Äñ − Ä Åçë Äñ ~ñ 1016. ∫ ñÉ ~ñ Çñ = O (~ñ − N) + ` = ~ = 1013. ∫ ñ äå ñ = äå äå ñ + ` = = Çñ  äå ñ N  1015.

∫ ëáåÜ = Çñ å ñ =− 1022. ∫ ÅçëÜ å ñÇñ = = 1023. ∫ É ~ñ Åçë Äñ Çñ = ~ Åçë Äñ + Ä ëáå Äñ ~ñ É +`= ~ O + ÄO = = = 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1017. ∫ ëáåÜ å ñÇñ = N å −N å −O ëáåÜ å −N ñ ÅçëÜ ñ − ∫ ëáåÜ ñÇñ = å å ÅçëÜ ñ å−O Çñ − å −N ∫ ëáåÜ å−O ñ I= å ≠ N K= (å − N) ëáåÜ ñ å − N N å −N å −O ëáåÜ ñ ÅçëÜ å −N ñ ÅçëÜ ñ + ∫ ÅçëÜ ñÇñ = å å ëáåÜ ñ å−O Çñ + å −N ∫ ÅçëÜ å−O ñ I= å ≠ N K= (å − N) ÅçëÜ ñ å − N ã = 1021. É ãñ É ãñ ã É ãñ Çñ = − + Çñ I= å ≠ N K= ∫ ñå (å − N)ñ å−N å − N ∫ ñ å−N = 1020. ∫ ñ å É ãñ Çñ = N å ãñ å ñ É − ∫ ñ å −NÉ ãñ Çñ = ã ã = 1019. ∫ ëáåÜ ñ ÅçëÜ ñÇñ = = å+ã ã −N å ã −O + ∫ ëáåÜ ñ ÅçëÜ ñÇñ = å+ã = ëáåÜ å −N ñ ÅçëÜ ã +N ñ 1025. ∫ ëáåÜ å ñ ÅçëÜ ã ñÇñ = = å+ã å 243 .7 Reduction Formulas = 1018. ∫ ÅçëÜ = Çñ å ñ =− ëáåÜ å +N ñ ÅçëÜ ã −N ñ 1024.CHAPTER 9.

∫ ÅçíÜ å ñÇñ = − = 1028. ∫ = + å å −N ∫ Åçë å−O ñ I= å ≠ N K= Åçë ñ (å − N) Åçë ñ å − N = ëáå å+N ñ Åçë ã −N ñ 1033. ∫ ëÉÅÜ å ñÇñ = ëÉÅÜ å −O ñ í~åÜ ñ å − O å −O + ∫ ëÉÅÜ ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N å −N N å −N å −O 1029.CHAPTER 9. ∫ ëáå å ñ Åçë ã ñÇñ = − = å+ã = 244 . ∫ Åçë å ñÇñ = ëáå ñ Åçë å −N ñ + ∫ Åçë ñÇñ = å å = Çñ ëáå ñ å−O Çñ 1032. ∫ =− + å å −N ∫ ëáå å−O ñ I= å ≠ N K= (å − N) ëáå ñ å − N ëáå ñ = N å −N å −O 1031. ∫ í~åÜ å ñÇñ = − = 1027. INTEGRAL CALCULUS − = å −N å −O ã ∫ ëáåÜ ñ ÅçëÜ ñÇñ = å+ã N í~åÜ å −N ñ + ∫ í~åÜ å −O ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N N ÅçíÜ å −N ñ + ∫ ÅçíÜ å − O ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N 1026. ∫ ëáå å ñÇñ = − ëáå å −N ñ Åçë ñ + ∫ ëáå ñÇñ = å å = Çñ Åçë ñ å−O Çñ 1030. ∫ ëáå å ñ Åçë ã ñÇñ = = å+ã ã −N + ëáå å ñ Åçë ã −O ñÇñ = å+ã∫ = ëáå å −N ñ Åçë ã +N ñ 1034.

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS

+ =

å −N å −O ã ∫ ëáå ñ Åçë ñÇñ = å+ã N í~å å −N ñ − ∫ í~å å −O ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N N Åçí å −N ñ − ∫ Åçí å−O ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N

1035. ∫ í~å å ñÇñ =

=
1036. ∫ Åçí å ñÇñ = −

=
1037. ∫ ëÉÅ å ñÇñ =

ëÉÅ å −O ñ í~å ñ å − O å −O + ∫ ëÉÅ ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N å −N ÅëÅ å −O ñ Åçí ñ å − O å −O + ∫ ÅëÅ ñÇñ I= å ≠ N K= å −N å −N ñ å +N äå ã ñ ã − ñ å äå ã −N ñÇñ = å +N å +N ∫

=
1038. ∫ ÅëÅ å ñÇñ = −

=
1039. ∫ ñ å äå ã ñÇñ =

=
1040.
äå ã ñ äå ã ñ ã äå ã −N ñ Çñ = − + Çñ I= å ≠ N K= ∫ ñå (å − N)ñ å−N å − N ∫ ñ å

=
1041. ∫ äå å ñÇñ = ñ äå å ñ − å ∫ äå å −N ñÇñ =

=
1042. ∫ ñ å ëáåÜ ñÇñ = ñ å ÅçëÜ ñ − å ∫ ñ å −N ÅçëÜ ñÇñ =

=
1043. ∫ ñ å ÅçëÜ ñÇñ = ñ å ëáåÜ ñ − å ∫ ñ å −N ëáåÜ ñÇñ =

=
1044. ∫ ñ å ëáå ñÇñ = − ñ å Åçë ñ + å ∫ ñ å −N Åçë ñÇñ =

=
1045. ∫ ñ å Åçë ñÇñ = ñ å ëáå ñ − å ∫ ñ å −N ëáå ñÇñ =

245

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS

1046. ∫ ñ å ëáå −N ñÇñ =

N ñ å +N ñ å +N Çñ = ëáå −N ñ − å + N ∫ N− ñO å +N ñ å +N N ñ å +N Åçë −N ñ + Çñ = å +N å + N ∫ N− ñO ñ å +N N ñ å +N í~å −N ñ − Çñ = å +N å + N ∫ N+ ñO

=
1047. ∫ ñ å Åçë −N ñÇñ =

=
1048. ∫ ñ å í~å −N ñÇñ =

= ñ å Çñ ñ Ä Çñ 1049. ∫ å = − ∫ å = ~ñ + Ä ~ ~ ~ñ + Ä = Çñ − O~ñ − Ä 1050. ∫ = = å O O (~ñ + Äñ + Å ) (å − N)(Ä − Q~Å )(~ñ O + Äñ + Å )å−N O(Oå − P)~ Çñ − O ∫ (~ñ O + Äñ + Å )å−N I= å ≠ N K= (å − N)(Ä − Q~Å ) =
1051.

+~ å ≠ N K=
O

∫ (ñ ∫ (ñ

Çñ

O å

)

=

O(å − N)~ O (ñ O + ~

ñ

O å −N

)

+

Oå − P O(å − N)~ O

∫ (ñ

O

+ ~O )

Çñ

å −N

I

=
1052.
O

= å −N O(å − N)~ O (ñ O − ~ O ) Oå − P Çñ − I= å ≠ N K= O ∫ O(å − N)~ (ñ O − ~ O )å−N −~
O å

Çñ

)

=−

ñ

= = = = =

246

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS

9.8 Definite Integral
= aÉÑáåáíÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=~=ÑìåÅíáçåW= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ I= ∫ Ö (ñ )Çñ I=£=
~ ~ Ä Ä

oáÉã~åå=ëìãW= ∑ Ñ (ξ á )∆ñ á == pã~ää=ÅÜ~åÖÉëW= ∆ñ á == ^åíáÇÉêáî~íáîÉëW= c(ñ ) I= d(ñ ) == iáãáíë=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåëW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=Ç= = =
1053. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =
~ Ä å→∞ ã~ñ ∆ñ á →M á =N á =N

å

äáã

∑ Ñ (ξ )∆ñ
á

å

á

I==

ïÜÉêÉ== ∆ñ á = ñ á − ñ á −N I== ñ á −N ≤ ξ á ≤ ñ á K== =

=
Figure 179.

=

=

247

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS

1054. ∫ NÇñ = Ä − ~ =
~

Ä

=
1055. ∫ âÑ (ñ )Çñ = â ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =
~ ~ Ä Ä

=
1056.

∫ [Ñ (ñ ) + Ö(ñ )]Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ + ∫ Ö(ñ )Çñ =
~ ~ ~

Ä

Ä

Ä

=
1057.

∫ [Ñ (ñ ) − Ö(ñ )]Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ − ∫ Ö(ñ )Çñ =
~ ~ ~

Ä

Ä

Ä

=
1058. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = M =
~ ~

=
1059. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = − ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =
~ Ä Ä ~

=
1060. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ + ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =Ñçê= ~ < Å < Ä K=
~ ~ Å Ä Å Ä

=
1061. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ ≥ M =áÑ= Ñ (ñ ) ≥ M =çå= [~ I Ä] K=
~ Ä

=
1062. ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ ≤ M =áÑ= Ñ (ñ ) ≤ M =çå= [~ I Ä] K=
~ Ä

= = = =

248

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS

1063. cìåÇ~ãÉåí~ä=qÜÉçêÉã=çÑ=`~äÅìäìë=

∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = c(ñ )
~

Ä

Ä ~

= c(Ä) − c(~ ) =áÑ= c′(ñ ) = Ñ (ñ ) K=

= 1064. jÉíÜçÇ=çÑ=pìÄëíáíìíáçå== fÑ= ñ = Ö (í ) I=íÜÉå==

∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ∫ Ñ (Ö(í ))Ö′(í )Çí I==
~ Å

Ä

Ç

ïÜÉêÉ= Å = Ö −N (~ ) I= Ç = Ö −N (Ä) K= = 1065. fåíÉÖê~íáçå=Äó=m~êíë=

∫ ìÇî = (ìî ) ~ − ∫ îÇì =
Ä ~ ~

Ä

Ä

= 1066. qê~éÉòçáÇ~ä=oìäÉ= Ä å −N Ä−~   Ñ (ñ )Çñ = Ñ (ñ M ) + Ñ (ñ å ) + O∑ Ñ (ñ á ) =  ∫ Oå  á =N  ~ =

249

CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS

=
Figure 180.

=

= 1067. páãéëçå∞ë=oìäÉ== Ä Ä−~ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = På [Ñ (ñ M ) + QÑ (ñ N ) + OÑ (ñ O ) + QÑ (ñ P ) + = ~ + OÑ (ñ Q ) + K + QÑ (ñ å −N ) + Ñ (ñ å )] I== ïÜÉêÉ== Ä−~ ñá = ~ + á I= á = MI NI OI KI å K== å =

250

= = 1068. INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 181. ^êÉ~=råÇÉê=~=`ìêîÉ= p = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = c(Ä) − c(~ ) I== ïÜÉêÉ= c′(ñ ) = Ñ (ñ ) K= = ~ Ä 251 .CHAPTER 9.

CHAPTER 9. = = 1069. INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 182. ^êÉ~=_ÉíïÉÉå=qïç=`ìêîÉë= p = ∫ [Ñ (ñ ) − Ö (ñ )]Çñ = c(Ä) − d(Ä) − c(~ ) + d(~ ) I== ïÜÉêÉ= c′(ñ ) = Ñ (ñ ) I= d′(ñ ) = Ö (ñ ) K= = ~ Ä 252 .

9 Improper Integral = 1070. = = = = 9.CHAPTER 9. fÑ= Ñ (ñ ) =áë=~=Åçåíáåìçìë=ÑìåÅíáçå=çå= [~ I ∞ ) I=íÜÉå== • • ∞ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = äáã ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ K= ~ å →∞ ~ å = 253 . qÜÉ=ÇÉÑáåáíÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä== ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =áë=Å~ääÉÇ=~å=áãéêçéÉê=áåíÉÖê~ä= ~ Ä áÑ== ~=çê=Ä=áë=áåÑáåáíÉI= Ñ (ñ ) ==Ü~ë==çåÉ==çê==ãçêÉ=éçáåíë=çÑ==ÇáëÅçåíáåìáíó= =====áå=íÜÉ=áåíÉêî~ä= [~ I Ä] K= = 1071. INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 183.

fÑ= Ñ (ñ ) =áë=~=Åçåíáåìçìë=ÑìåÅíáçå=çå= (− ∞I Ä] I=íÜÉå== −∞ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = äáã ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ K= å→ −∞ å Ä Ä = = Figure 185. = = 1072. INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 184.CHAPTER 9. = 254 .

INTEGRAL CALCULUS kçíÉ=W=qÜÉ=áãéêçéÉê=áåíÉÖê~äë=áå=NMTNI=NMTO=~êÉ=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí= áÑ=íÜÉ=äáãáíë=Éñáëí=~åÇ=~êÉ=ÑáåáíÉX=çíÜÉêïáëÉ=íÜÉ=áåíÉÖê~äë=~êÉ= ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= = ∞ 1073. −∞ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ + ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = −∞ Å Å ∞ = = Figure 186. = = fÑ=Ñçê=ëçãÉ=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉê=ÅI=ÄçíÜ=çÑ=íÜÉ=áåíÉÖê~äë=áå=íÜÉ=êáÖÜí= ∞ ëáÇÉ= ~êÉ= ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíI= íÜÉå= íÜÉ= áåíÉÖê~ä= −∞ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = áë= ~äëç===== ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíX=çíÜÉêïáëÉ=áí=áë=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= = 1074.CHAPTER 9. `çãé~êáëçå=qÜÉçêÉãë= iÉí== Ñ (ñ ) =~åÇ== Ö(ñ ) ==ÄÉ==Åçåíáåìçìë==ÑìåÅíáçåë==çå=íÜÉ=ÅäçëÉÇ= áåíÉêî~ä= [~ I ∞ ) K= pìééçëÉ= íÜ~í= M ≤ Ö (ñ ) ≤ Ñ (ñ ) = Ñçê= ~ää= ñ= áå= [~I ∞ ) K= 255 .

INTEGRAL CALCULUS • fÑ= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíI=íÜÉå= ∫ Ö (ñ )Çñ =áë=~äëç= ~ ~ ∞ ∞ =====ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíI= • fÑ= ∫ Ö (ñ )Çñ =áë=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíI=íÜÉå= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =áë=~äëç=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= ~ ~ ∞ ∞ = 1075. aáëÅçåíáåìçìë=fåíÉÖê~åÇ= iÉí= Ñ (ñ ) =ÄÉ=~=ÑìåÅíáçå=ïÜáÅÜ=áë=Åçåíáåìçìë=çå=íÜÉ=áåíÉêî~ä== [~I Ä) =Äìí=áë=ÇáëÅçåíáåìçìë=~í= ñ = Ä K=qÜÉå== ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = äáã ~ Ä Ä−ε ε →M + ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ~ = = Figure 187. ^ÄëçäìíÉ=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ= = fÑ= ∫ Ñ (ñ ) Çñ =áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ =áë=~Äëç~ ~ ∞ ∞ äìíÉäó=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK=== = 1076.CHAPTER 9. = 256 .

CHAPTER 9. iÉí= Ñ (ñ ) =ÄÉ=~=Åçåíáåìçìë=ÑìåÅíáçå=Ñçê=~ää=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêë==ñ==áå= íÜÉ=áåíÉêî~ä== [~ I Ä] ==ÉñÅÉéí==Ñçê==ëçãÉ=éçáåí==Å==áå= (~ I Ä) K=qÜÉå= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = äáã ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ + äáã ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ K= ~ Ä Å −ε Ä ε →M + ~ δ →M + Å +δ = = Figure 188. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1077. = = = = 9.10 Double Integral = cìåÅíáçåë=çÑ=íïç=î~êá~ÄäÉëW= Ñ (ñ I ó ) I= Ñ (ìI î ) I=£= açìÄäÉ=áåíÉÖê~äëW= ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó I= ∫∫ Ö (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó I=£= o o oáÉã~åå=ëìãW= ∑∑ Ñ ì á I î à ∆ñ á ∆ó à = á =N à=N ã å ( ) pã~ää=ÅÜ~åÖÉëW= ∆ñ á I= ∆ó à = oÉÖáçåë=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåW=oI=p== mçä~ê=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ê I= θ = 257 .

aÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=açìÄäÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä= qÜÉ=ÇçìÄäÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çîÉê=~=êÉÅí~åÖäÉ= [~I Ä]× [ÅI Ç] =áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ= íç=ÄÉ== [~ I Ä ]×[Å I Ç ] ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = äáã ïÜÉêÉ= ì á I î à =áë=ëçãÉ=éçáåí=áå=íÜÉ=êÉÅí~åÖäÉ= (ñ á −N I ñ á )× ó à−N I ó à I=~åÇ= ∆ñ á = ñ á − ñ á −N I= ∆ó à = ó à − ó à−N K= = ( ( ) ã~ñ ∆ñ á →M ã~ñ ∆ó à → M á =N à=N ∑∑ Ñ (ì I î )∆ñ ∆ó ã å á à á à I== ) === Figure 189. INTEGRAL CALCULUS ^êÉ~W=^= pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=p= sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=ëçäáÇW=s= j~ëë=çÑ=~=ä~ãáå~W=ã= aÉåëáíóW= ρ(ñ I ó ) = cáêëí=ãçãÉåíëW= j ñ I= j ó = jçãÉåíë=çÑ=áåÉêíá~W= f ñ I= f ó I= fM = `Ü~êÖÉ=çÑ=~=éä~íÉW=n= `Ü~êÖÉ=ÇÉåëáíóW= σ(ñ I ó ) = `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=ã~ëëW= ñ I= ó = ^îÉê~ÖÉ=çÑ=~=ÑìåÅíáçåW= µ = = 1078.CHAPTER 9. = 258 .

∫∫ [Ñ (ñ I ó ) − Ö(ñ I ó )]Ç^ = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ − ∫∫ Ö(ñ I ó )Ç^ = o o o = 1081. ∫∫ [Ñ (ñ I ó ) + Ö(ñ I ó )]Ç^ = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ + ∫∫ Ö(ñ I ó )Ç^ = o o o = 1080. = = 1079. fÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) ≤ Ö(ñ I ó ) =çå=oI=íÜÉå= ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ ≤ ∫∫ Ö (ñ I ó )Ç^ K= o o = 1083. ∫∫ âÑ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = â ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ I== o o ïÜÉêÉ=â=áë=~=Åçåëí~åíK= = 1082. INTEGRAL CALCULUS qÜÉ=ÇçìÄäÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çîÉê=~=ÖÉåÉê~ä=êÉÖáçå=o=áë== ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = ∫∫ Ö(ñ I ó )Ç^ I== ïÜÉêÉ=êÉÅí~åÖäÉ= [~I Ä]× [ÅI Ç] =Åçåí~áåë=oI== Ö(ñ I ó ) = Ñ (ñ I ó ) =áÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) =áë=áå=o=~åÇ= Ö(ñ I ó ) = M =çíÜÉêïáëÉK= = o [~ I Ä ]×[Å I Ç ] = Figure 190. fÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) ≥ M =çå=o=~åÇ= p ⊂ o I=íÜÉå= 259 .CHAPTER 9.

INTEGRAL CALCULUS = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ ≤ ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ K= p o = = Figure 191. = = 1084. fÑ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) ≥ M =çå=o=~åÇ=o=~åÇ=p=~êÉ=åçå-çîÉêä~ééáåÖ= êÉÖáçåëI=íÜÉå= o ∪p ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ + ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ K== o p eÉêÉ= o ∪ p =áë=íÜÉ=ìåáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=êÉÖáçåë=o=~åÇ=pK= = = Figure 192. = = = 260 .CHAPTER 9.

CHAPTER 9. fíÉê~íÉÇ=fåíÉÖê~äë=~åÇ=cìÄáåá∞ë=qÜÉçêÉã= ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = ∫ ∫ Ñ) (ñ I ó )ÇóÇñ == ( o ~é ñ Ä è(ñ ) Ñçê=~=êÉÖáçå=çÑ=íóéÉ=fI== o = {(ñ I ó ) ö ~ ≤ ñ ≤ ÄI é(ñ ) ≤ ó ≤ è(ñ )} K= = = Figure 193. = = o ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = ∫ ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó == Å ì(ó ) Ç î (ó ) Ñçê=~=êÉÖáçå=çÑ=íóéÉ=ffI= o = {(ñ I ó ) ö ì(ó ) ≤ ñ ≤ î (ó )I Å ≤ ó ≤ Ç} K= = 261 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1085.

`Ü~åÖÉ=çÑ=s~êá~ÄäÉë= o p ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó = ∫∫ Ñ [ñ (ìI î )I ó(ìI î )] ∂(ìI î ) ÇìÇî I== ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ (ñ I ó ) ∂ì ∂î ïÜÉêÉ= = ≠ M áë= íÜÉ= à~ÅçÄá~å= çÑ= íÜÉ= íê~åë∂ (ìI î ) ∂ó ∂ó ∂ì ∂î Ñçêã~íáçåë= (ñ I ó ) → (ìI î ) I=~åÇ=p=áë=íÜÉ=éìääÄ~Åâ=çÑ=o=ïÜáÅÜ= ∂ (ñ I ó ) 262 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 194.CHAPTER 9. = = 1086. açìÄäÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=çîÉê=oÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=oÉÖáçåë= = fÑ=o=áë=íÜÉ=êÉÅí~åÖìä~ê=êÉÖáçå= [~ I Ä]× [ÅI Ç] I=íÜÉå== Ä Ç Ç Ä     Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó = ∫  ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Çó Çñ = ∫  ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Çñ Çó K== ∫∫     o ~Å Å~   = få=íÜÉ=ëéÉÅá~ä=Å~ëÉ=ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=áåíÉÖê~åÇ= Ñ (ñ I ó ) =Å~å=ÄÉ=ïêáííÉå=~ë= Ö (ñ )Ü(ó ) =ïÉ=Ü~îÉ== Ä Ç   ∫ Ö (ñ )Çñ   ∫ Ü(ó )Çó  K== Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó = ∫∫ Ö (ñ )Ü(ó )ÇñÇó =  ∫∫   o o ~ Å  = 1087.

CHAPTER 9. açìÄäÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=áå=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= = qÜÉ=aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=ÇñÇó=Ñçê=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=áë== ∂ (ñ I ó ) ÇñÇó = ÇêÇθ = êÇêÇθ K== ∂ (êI θ) = iÉí=íÜÉ=êÉÖáçå=o=áë=ÇÉíÉêãáåÉÇ=~ë=ÑçääçïëW= M ≤ Ö (θ) ≤ ê ≤ Ü(θ) I= α ≤ θ ≤ β I=ïÜÉêÉ= β − α ≤ Oπ K== qÜÉå== ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó = ∫ ∫ Ñ (ê Åçë θI ê ëáå θ)êÇêÇθ K= o β Ü (θ ) α Ö (θ ) = 263 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS Å~å=ÄÉ=ÅçãéìíÉÇ=Äó= ñ = ñ (ìI î ) I= ó = ó (ìI î ) =áåíç=íÜÉ=ÇÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=oK== = 1088. = = 1089. mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= ñ = ê Åçë θ I= ó = ê ëáå θ K== = = Figure 195.

= = fÑ=íÜÉ=êÉÖáçå=o=áë=íÜÉ=éçä~ê=êÉÅí~åÖäÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó== M ≤ ~ ≤ ê ≤ Ä I= α ≤ θ ≤ β I=ïÜÉêÉ= β − α ≤ Oπ I=== íÜÉå== ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó = ∫ ∫ Ñ (ê Åçë θI ê ëáå θ)êÇêÇθ K== o α ~ β Ä = = Figure 197.CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 196. = = = 264 .

^êÉ~=çÑ=~=oÉÖáçå= ^ = ∫ ∫ ÇóÇñ =EÑçê=~=íóéÉ=f=êÉÖáçåFK= ~ Ö (ñ ) Ä Ñ (ñ ) = = Figure 198. = = ^ = ∫ ∫ ÇñÇó =EÑçê=~=íóéÉ=ff=êÉÖáçåFK= Å é( ó ) Ç è(ó ) = = Figure 199. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1090. = = = 265 .CHAPTER 9.

CHAPTER 9. sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=pçäáÇ= s = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ K== o = = Figure 200. = = fÑ=o=áë=~=íóéÉ=f=êÉÖáçå=ÄçìåÇÉÇ=Äó= ñ = ~ I= ñ = Ä I= ó = Ü(ñ ) I= ó = Ö (ñ ) I=íÜÉå== s = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = ∫ ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇóÇñ K== o ~ Ü(ñ ) Ä Ö(ñ ) = fÑ=o=áë=~=íóéÉ=ff=êÉÖáçå=ÄçìåÇÉÇ=Äó= ó = Å I= ó = Ç I= ñ = è(ó ) I= ñ = é(ó ) I=íÜÉå= s = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ = ∫ ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )ÇñÇó K== o Å é( ó ) Ç è(ó ) = 266 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1091.

pìêÑ~ÅÉ=^êÉ~= p = ∫∫ o  ∂ò   ∂ò  N +   +   ÇñÇó =  ∂ñ   ∂ó    O O = 267 . = = 1093. ^êÉ~=~åÇ=sçäìãÉ=áå=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= fÑ=p=áë=~=êÉÖáçå=áå=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉ=ÄçìåÇÉÇ=Äó= θ = α I= θ = β I= ê = Ü(θ) I= ê = Ö (θ) I== íÜÉå== ^ = ∫∫ Ç^ = ∫ ∫ êÇêÇθ I== p α Ü(θ ) β Ö (θ ) s = ∫∫ Ñ (êI θ)êÇêÇθ K== p = = Figure 201. INTEGRAL CALCULUS fÑ== Ñ (ñ I ó ) ≥ Ö (ñ I ó ) ==çîÉê==~==êÉÖáçå==oI==íÜÉå==íÜÉ==îçäìãÉ==çÑ= íÜÉ= ëçäáÇ= ÄÉíïÉÉå= òN = Ñ (ñ I ó ) = ~åÇ= ò O = Ö(ñ I ó ) = çîÉê= o= áë= ÖáîÉå=Äó= s = ∫∫ [Ñ (ñ I ó ) − Ö (ñ I ó )]Ç^ K== o = 1092.CHAPTER 9.

`ÉåíÉê=çÑ=j~ëë= N ñ= = ∫∫ ñρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ = ã ã o jó ∫∫ ñρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ o ∫∫ ρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ o I== 268 . jçãÉåíë= qÜÉ=ãçãÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ä~ãáå~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ==ñ-~ñáë==áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó=Ñçêãìä~= j ñ = ∫∫ óρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ K== o = qÜÉ=ãçãÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ä~ãáå~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ó-~ñáë=áë= j ó = ∫∫ ñρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ K= o = qÜÉ=ãçãÉåí=çÑ=áåÉêíá~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáë=áë= f ñ = ∫∫ ó Oρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ K== o = qÜÉ=ãçãÉåí=çÑ=áåÉêíá~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ó-~ñáë=áë= f ó = ∫∫ ñ Oρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ K== o = qÜÉ=éçä~ê=ãçãÉåí=çÑ=áåÉêíá~=áë= fM = ∫∫ (ñ O + ó O )ρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ K== o = 1096. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1094. j~ëë=çÑ=~=i~ãáå~= ã = ∫∫ ρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ I== o ïÜÉêÉ==íÜÉ==ä~ãáå~==çÅÅìéáÉë==~==êÉÖáçå==o=~åÇ==áíë==ÇÉåëáíó==~í= ~=éçáåí=EñIóF=áë= ρ(ñ I ó ) K=== = 1095.CHAPTER 9.

11 Triple Integral = cìåÅíáçåë=çÑ=íÜêÉÉ=î~êá~ÄäÉëW= Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) I= Ö (ñ I ó I ò ) I=£= qêáéäÉ=áåíÉÖê~äëW= ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çs I= ∫∫∫ Ö (ñ I ó I ò )Çs I=£= d d oáÉã~åå=ëìãW= ∑∑∑ Ñ ì á I î à I ï â ∆ñ á ∆ó à ∆ò â = á =N à=N â =N ã å é ( ) pã~ää=ÅÜ~åÖÉëW= ∆ñ á I= ∆ó à I= ∆ò â = iáãáíë=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåW=~I=ÄI=ÅI=ÇI=êI=ë= oÉÖáçåë=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåW=dI=qI=p== `óäáåÇêáÅ~ä=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ê I= θ I=ò= péÜÉêáÅ~ä=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ê I= θ I= ϕ = sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=ëçäáÇW=s= 269 . `Ü~êÖÉ=çÑ=~=mä~íÉ= n = ∫∫ σ(ñ I ó )Ç^ I== o ∫∫ óρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ o ∫∫ ρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ o K== ïÜÉêÉ=ÉäÉÅíêáÅ~ä=ÅÜ~êÖÉ=áë=ÇáëíêáÄìíÉÇ=çîÉê=~=êÉÖáçå=o=~åÇ=áíë= ÅÜ~êÖÉ=ÇÉåëáíó=~í=~=éçáåí=EñIóF=áë= σ(ñ I ó ) K=== = 1098. ^îÉê~ÖÉ=çÑ=~=cìåÅíáçå= N µ = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó )Ç^ I== po ïÜÉêÉ= p = ∫∫ Ç^ K== o = = = 9.CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS j N ó = ñ = ∫∫ óρ(ñ I ó )Ç^ = ã ã o = 1097.

∫∫∫ [Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) − Ö(ñ I óI ò )]Çs = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )Çs − ∫∫∫ Ö(ñ I óI ò )Çs d d d d d = 1102. aÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=qêáéäÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä= qÜÉ=íêáéäÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çîÉê=~=é~ê~ääÉäÉéáéÉÇ= [~I Ä]× [ÅI Ç]× [êI ë] = áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=íç=ÄÉ== [~ I Ä ]×[Å I Ç ]×[ê I ë ] ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çs = ïÜÉêÉ= ì á I î à I ï â =áë=ëçãÉ=éçáåí=áå=íÜÉ=é~ê~ääÉäÉéáéÉÇ= (ñ á −N I ñ á )× ó à−N I ó à × (ò â −N I ò â ) I=~åÇ= ∆ñ á = ñ á − ñ á −N I= ∆ó à = ó à − ó à−N I= ∆ò â = ò â − ò â −N K= = 1100.CHAPTER 9. ∫∫∫ [Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) + Ö (ñ I ó I ò )]Çs = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çs + ∫∫∫ Ö (ñ I ó I ò )Çs ( ( ) ) ã~ñ ∆ñ á →M ã~ñ ∆ó à →M á =N à=N â =N ã~ñ ∆ò â →M äáã ∑∑∑ Ñ (ì I î I ï )∆ñ ∆ó ∆ò ã å é á à â á à â I d d d = 1101. ∫∫∫ âÑ (ñ I óI ò )Çs = â ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çs I== ïÜÉêÉ=â=áë=~=Åçåëí~åíK= = 1103. fÑ== Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) ≥ M =~åÇ=d=~åÇ=q=~êÉ=åçåçîÉêä~ééáåÖ=Ä~ëáÅ= êÉÖáçåëI=íÜÉå== ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )Çs = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )Çs + ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )Çs K== d∪q d q eÉêÉ= d ∪ q =áë=íÜÉ=ìåáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=êÉÖáçåë=d=~åÇ=qK= = 270 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS j~ëë=çÑ=~=ëçäáÇW=ã== aÉåëáíóW= µ(ñ I ó I ò ) = `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=ã~ëëW= ñ I= ó I= ò = cáêëí=ãçãÉåíëW= j ñó I= j óò I= j ñò = jçãÉåíë=çÑ=áåÉêíá~W= f ñó I= f óò I= f ñò I= f ñ I= f ó I= fò I= fM = = = 1099.

CHAPTER 9. `Ü~åÖÉ=çÑ=s~êá~ÄäÉë= ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )ÇñÇóÇò = = d = ∫∫∫ Ñ [ñ (ìI î I ï )I ó (ìI î I ï )I ò (ìI î I ï )] p ∂ (ñ I ó I ò ) ÇñÇóÇòI = ∂ (ìI î I ï ) 271 . qêáéäÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=çîÉê=m~ê~ääÉäÉéáéÉÇ= fÑ=d=áë=~=é~ê~ääÉäÉéáéÉÇ= [~ I Ä]× [ÅI Ç]× [êI ë] I=íÜÉå= Ä Ç ë     Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )ÇñÇóÇò = ∫  ∫  ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çò Çó Çñ K== ∫∫∫   d ~ Å  ê     = få==íÜÉ=ëéÉÅá~ä=Å~ëÉ==ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=áåíÉÖê~åÇ== Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) ==Å~å=ÄÉ= ïêáííÉå=~ë= Ö (ñ ) Ü(ó ) â (ò ) =ïÉ=Ü~îÉ== Ä  Ç  ë  Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )ÇñÇóÇò =  ∫ Ö (ñ )Çñ  ∫ Ü(ó )Çó  ∫ â (ò )Çò  K== ∫∫∫     d  ~  Å  ê = 1106. bî~äì~íáçå=çÑ=qêáéäÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=Äó=oÉéÉ~íÉÇ=fåíÉÖê~äë= fÑ=íÜÉ=ëçäáÇ=d=áë=íÜÉ=ëÉí=çÑ=éçáåíë= (ñ I ó I ò ) =ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= = (ñ I ó )∈ oI χ N (ñ I ó ) ≤ ò ≤ χ O (ñ I ó ) I=íÜÉå==  χ O ( ñ I ó ) = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )ÇñÇóÇò = ∫∫  ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çò  ÇñÇó I==  d o  χN ( ñ I ó )   ïÜÉêÉ=o=áë=éêçàÉÅíáçå=çÑ=d=çåíç=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉK= = fÑ=íÜÉ=ëçäáÇ=d=áë=íÜÉ=ëÉí=çÑ=éçáåíë= (ñ I ó I ò ) =ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= ~ ≤ ñ ≤ ÄI ϕN (ñ ) ≤ ó ≤ ϕO (ñ )I χN (ñ I ó ) ≤ ò ≤ χ O (ñ I ó ) I=íÜÉå== ∫∫∫ d  ϕO ( ñ )  χ O ( ñ I ó )   Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )ÇñÇóÇò = ∫  ∫  ∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çò Çó Çñ ==    ~  ϕN ( ñ )  χN ( ñ I ó )    Ä = 1105. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1104.

CHAPTER 9. qêáéäÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=áå=péÜÉêáÅ~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= qÜÉ=aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=ÇñÇóÇò=Ñçê=péÜÉêáÅ~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=áë== ∂ (ñ I ó I ò ) ÇñÇóÇò = ÇêÇθÇϕ = ê O ëáå θÇêÇθÇϕ == ∂ (êI θI ϕ) = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )ÇñÇóÇò = = = d χ O ( ê Åçë θ Iê ëáå θ ) 272 . qêáéäÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=áå=`óäáåÇêáÅ~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= qÜÉ=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=ÇñÇóÇò=Ñçê=ÅóäáåÇêáÅ~ä=ÅççêÇáå~íÉë=áë== ∂ (ñ I ó I ò ) ÇñÇóÇò = ÇêÇθÇò = êÇêÇθÇò K== ∂ (êI θI ò ) = iÉí=íÜÉ=ëçäáÇ=d=áë=ÇÉíÉêãáåÉÇ=~ë=ÑçääçïëW= (ñ I ó )∈ oI χN (ñ I ó ) ≤ ò ≤ χ O (ñ I ó ) I= ïÜÉêÉ=o=áë=éêçàÉÅíáçå=çÑ=d=çåíç=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉK=qÜÉå== ∫∫∫ Ñ (ñ I óI ò )ÇñÇóÇò = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ê Åçë θI ê ëáå θI ò )êÇêÇθÇò = d p   Ñ (ê Åçë θI ê ëáå θI ò )Çò  êÇêÇθ K=  ∫∫ ∫  o ( ê Iθ )  χN ( ê Åçë θ Iê ëáå θ )   eÉêÉ=p=áë=íÜÉ=éìääÄ~Åâ=çÑ=d=áå=ÅóäáåÇêáÅ~ä=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëK= = 1108. INTEGRAL CALCULUS ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ì ∂î ∂ï ∂ (ñ I ó I ò ) ∂ó ∂ó ∂ó = ≠ M ==áë==íÜÉ==à~ÅçÄá~å==çÑ= ïÜÉêÉ== ∂ (ìI î I ï ) ∂ì ∂î ∂ï ∂ò ∂ò ∂ò ∂ì ∂î ∂ï íÜÉ= íê~åëÑçêã~íáçåë= (ñ I ó I ò ) → (ìI î I ï ) I= ~åÇ= p= áë= íÜÉ= éìääÄ~Åâ= çÑ= d= ïÜáÅÜ= Å~å= ÄÉ= ÅçãéìíÉÇ= Äó= ñ = ñ (ìI î I ï ) I= ó = ó (ìI î I ï ) = ò = ò (ìI î I ï ) =áåíç=íÜÉ=ÇÉÑáåáíáçå=çÑ=dK= = = 1107.

sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=pçäáÇ= s = ∫∫∫ ÇñÇóÇò = d = 1110. sçäìãÉ=áå=`óäáåÇêáÅ~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= s = ∫∫∫ êÇêÇθÇò = p ( ê I θ Iò ) = 1111. = = 1109.CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS ========= = ∫∫∫ Ñ (ê ëáå θ Åçë ϕI ê ëáå θ ëáå ϕI ê Åçë θ) ê O ëáå θÇêÇθÇϕ I== p ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=ëçäáÇ=p=áë=íÜÉ=éìääÄ~Åâ=çÑ=d=áå=ëéÜÉêáÅ~ä=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëK=qÜÉ=~åÖäÉ== θ ==ê~åÖÉë==Ñêçã==M=íç== Oπ I==íÜÉ==~åÖäÉ== ϕ = ê~åÖÉë=Ñêçã=M=íç= π K== = = ======= Figure 202. sçäìãÉ=áå=péÜÉêáÅ~ä=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= s = ∫∫∫ ê O ëáå θÇêÇθÇϕ = p ( ê I θ Iϕ ) = 273 .

INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1112. jçãÉåíë=çÑ=fåÉêíá~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáëI=ó-~ñáëI=~åÇ=ò-~ñáë= f ñ = f ñó + f ñò = ∫∫∫ (ò O + ó O )µ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs I== f ó = f ñó + f óò = ∫∫∫ (ò O + ñ O )µ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs I== d d 274 . `ÉåíÉê=çÑ=j~ëë=çÑ=~=pçäáÇ= j óò j ñó j ñ= I= ó = ñò I= ò = I== ã ã ã ïÜÉêÉ== j óò = ∫∫∫ ñµ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs I== j ñò = ∫∫∫ óµ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs I== j ñó = ∫∫∫ òµ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs = d d d ~êÉ==íÜÉ==Ñáêëí==ãçãÉåíë==~Äçìí==íÜÉ==ÅççêÇáå~íÉ=éä~åÉë= ñ = M I= ó = M I= ò = M I=êÉëéÉÅíáîÉäóI== µ(ñ I ó I ò ) =áë=íÜÉ=ÇÉåëáíó=ÑìåÅíáçåK== = 1114.CHAPTER 9. j~ëë=çÑ=~=pçäáÇ= ã = ∫∫∫ µ(ñ I ó I ò )Çs I== d ïÜÉêÉ= íÜÉ= ëçäáÇ= çÅÅìéáÉë= ~= êÉÖáçå= d= ~åÇ= áíë= ÇÉåëáíó= ~í============ ~=éçáåí= (ñ I ó I ò ) =áë= µ(ñ I ó I ò ) K=== = 1113. jçãÉåíë=çÑ=fåÉêíá~=~Äçìí==íÜÉ==ñó-éä~åÉ=Eçê= ò = M FI=óò-éä~åÉ== E ñ = M FI=~åÇ=ñò-éä~åÉ=E ó = M F= f ñó = ∫∫∫ ò Oµ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs I== f óò = ∫∫∫ ñ Oµ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs I== f ñò = ∫∫∫ ó Oµ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs K== d d d = 1115.

mçä~ê=jçãÉåí=çÑ=fåÉêíá~= fM = f ñó + f óò + f ñò = ∫∫∫ (ñ O + ó O + ò O )µ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs = d = = 9.12 Line Integral = pÅ~ä~ê=ÑìåÅíáçåëW= c(ñ I ó I ò ) I= c(ñ I ó ) I= Ñ (ñ ) = pÅ~ä~ê=éçíÉåíá~äW= ì(ñ I ó I ò ) = `ìêîÉëW=`I= `N I= ` O = iáãáíë=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåëW=~I=ÄI= α I= β = m~ê~ãÉíÉêëW=íI=ë= mçä~ê=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëW= ê I= θ = r sÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇW= c (mI nI o ) = r mçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçêW= ê (ë ) = r r r r råáí=îÉÅíçêëW= á I= à I= â I= τ = ^êÉ~=çÑ=êÉÖáçåW=p= iÉåÖíÜ=çÑ=~=ÅìêîÉW=i= j~ëë=çÑ=~=ïáêÉW=ã= aÉåëáíóW= ρ(ñ I ó I ò ) I= ρ(ñ I ó ) = `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=ã~ëëW= ñ I= ó I= ò = cáêëí=ãçãÉåíëW= j ñó I= j óò I= j ñò = jçãÉåíë=çÑ=áåÉêíá~W= f ñ I= f ó I= fò = sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=ëçäáÇW=s= tçêâW=t= r j~ÖåÉíáÅ=ÑáÉäÇW= _ = `ìêêÉåíW=f= bäÉÅíêçãçíáîÉ=ÑçêÅÉW= ε = j~ÖåÉíáÅ=ÑäìñW= ψ = 275 .CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS fò = f ñò + f óò = ∫∫∫ (ó O + ñ O )µ(ñ I ó I ò ) Çs K== d = 1116.

iáåÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=pÅ~ä~ê=cìåÅíáçå=áå=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë= 276 . fÑ=`=áë=~=ëãççíÜ=ÅìêîÉ=áå=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå= ó = Ñ (ñ ) I= ~ ≤ ñ ≤ Ä I=íÜÉå== ∫ c(ñ I ó )Çë = ∫ c(ñ I Ñ (ñ )) N + (Ñ ′(ñ )) Çñ K== O ` ~ Ä = 1121. iáåÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=~=pÅ~ä~ê=cìåÅíáçå= r r iÉí=~=ÅìêîÉ=`=ÄÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê=ÑìåÅíáçå= ê = ê (ë ) I= M ≤ ë ≤ p I=~åÇ=~=ëÅ~ä~ê=ÑìåÅíáçå=c=áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=çîÉê=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=`K== qÜÉå== p r ∫ c(ê (ë ))Çë = ∫ c(ñ I óI ò )Çë = ∫ cÇë I== M ` ` ïÜÉêÉ=Çë=áë=íÜÉ=~êÅ=äÉåÖíÜ=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~äK== = 1118. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1117. fÑ=íÜÉ=ëãççíÜ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=é~ê~ãÉíêáòÉÇ=Äó= ê = ê (í ) I= α ≤ í ≤ β I=íÜÉå== ∫ c(ñ I ó I ò )Çë = ∫ c(ñ (í )I ó(í )I ò(í )) (ñ ′(í )) + (ó′(í )) + (ò′(í )) Çí K= O O O ` α β = 1120. ∫ c Çë = ∫ c Çë + ∫ c Çë = `N ∪ ` O `N `O = = Figure 203.CHAPTER 9. = = r r 1119.

iáåÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=sÉÅíçê=cáÉäÇ= r r iÉí=~=ÅìêîÉ=`=ÄÉ=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê=ÑìåÅíáçå= ê = ê (ë ) I= M ≤ ë ≤ p K=qÜÉå== r Çê r = τ = (Åçë αI Åçë βI Åçë γ ) == Çë áë=íÜÉ=ìåáí=îÉÅíçê=çÑ=íÜÉ=í~åÖÉåí=äáåÉ=íç=íÜáë=ÅìêîÉK== = O β O = Figure 204. INTEGRAL CALCULUS  Çê  ∫ c(ñ I ó )Çë = ∫ c(ê Åçë θI ê ëáå θ) ê +  Çθ  Çθ I==   α ` ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=éçä~ê=ÑìåÅíáçå= êEθF K= = 1122. = = r iÉí= ~= îÉÅíçê= ÑáÉäÇ= c (mI nI o ) = áë= ÇÉÑáåÉÇ= çîÉê= íÜÉ= ÅìêîÉ= `K= r qÜÉå=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇ= c =~äçåÖ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ= `=áë== ∫ mÇñ + nÇó + oÇò = ∫ (m Åçë α + n Åçë β + o Åçë γ )Çë K= ` M p = = 277 .CHAPTER 9.

mêçéÉêíáÉë=çÑ=iáåÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë=çÑ=sÉÅíçê=cáÉäÇë= r r r r c ⋅ Ç ê = − ∫ c ⋅ Ç ê I== ∫ ( ) ( ) −` ` ïÜÉêÉ=-`=ÇÉåçíÉ==íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=ïáíÜ=íÜÉ=çééçëáíÉ=çêáÉåí~íáçåK= = r r r r r r r r ∫ c ⋅ Çê = ∫ c ⋅ Çê = ∫ c ⋅ Çê + ∫ c ⋅ Çê I== ( ) ( ) ( `N ) ( `O ) ` `N ∪ ` O ïÜÉêÉ=`=áë=íÜÉ=ìåáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉë= `N =~åÇ= ` O K== = r 1124. fÑ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=é~ê~ãÉíÉêáòÉÇ=Äó= ê (í ) = ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í ) I= α ≤ í ≤ β I=íÜÉå== ∫ mÇñ + nÇó + oÇò = = ` Çó Çñ Çò   = ∫  m(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í )) + n(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í )) + o(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í )) Çí Çí Çí Çí  α = 1125.CHAPTER 9. dêÉÉå∞ë=qÜÉçêÉã=  ∂n ∂m  ∫∫  ∂ñ − ∂ó ÇñÇó = ∫ mÇñ + nÇó I==    o  ` r r r ïÜÉêÉ= c = m(ñ I ó ) á + n(ñ I ó ) à = áë= ~= Åçåíáåìçìë= îÉÅíçê= ÑìåÅ∂m ∂n íáçå=ïáíÜ==Åçåíáåìçìë==Ñáêëí=é~êíá~ä==ÇÉêáî~íáîÉë= I= =áå=~= ∂ó ∂ñ ëçãÉ= Ççã~áå= oI= ïÜáÅÜ= áë= ÄçìåÇÉÇ= Äó= ~= ÅäçëÉÇI= éáÉÅÉïáëÉ= ëãççíÜ=ÅìêîÉ=`K== = = 278 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1123. fÑ=`=äáÉë=áå=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉ=~åÇ=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå= ó = Ñ (ñ ) I= íÜÉå== Ä ÇÑ   mÇñ + nÇó = ∫  m(ñ I Ñ (ñ )) + n(ñ I Ñ (ñ )) Çñ K== ∫ Çñ  ` ~ β = 1126.

qÉëí=Ñçê=~=`çåëÉêî~íáîÉ=cáÉäÇ= r ^=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇ=çÑ=íÜÉ=Ñçêã= c = Öê~Ç ì =áë=Å~ääÉÇ=~=ÅçåëÉêî~íáîÉ= r r r r ÑáÉäÇK=qÜÉ=äáåÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=ÑìåÅíáçå= c = m á + n à + oâ = áë=é~íÜ=áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ== r r r á à â r ∂ ∂ ∂ r Åìêä c = = M K== ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò m n o = fÑ=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=áë=í~âÉå=áå=ñó-éä~åÉ=ëç=íÜ~í== ∫ mÇñ + nÇó = ì(_) − ì(^ ) I== ` íÜÉå=íÜÉ=íÉëí=Ñçê=ÇÉíÉêãáåáåÖ=áÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇ=áë=ÅçåëÉêî~íáîÉ= Å~å=ÄÉ=ïêáííÉå=áå=íÜÉ=Ñçêã== ∂m ∂n = K== ∂ó ∂ñ = 279 . ^êÉ~=çÑ=~=oÉÖáçå=o=_çìåÇÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=`ìêîÉ=`= N p = ∫∫ ÇñÇó = ∫ ñÇó − óÇñ = O` o = 1128. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1127.CHAPTER 9. m~íÜ=fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåÅÉ=çÑ=iáåÉ=fåíÉÖê~äë= r r r r qÜÉ= äáåÉ= áåíÉÖê~ä= çÑ= ~= îÉÅíçê= ÑìåÅíáçå= c = m á + n à + oâ = áë= ë~áÇ=íç=ÄÉ=é~íÜ=áåÇÉéÉåÇÉåíI=áÑ=~åÇ=çåäó=áÑ=mI=nI=~åÇ=o=~êÉ= Åçåíáåìçìë= áå= ~= Ççã~áå= aI= ~åÇ= áÑ= íÜÉêÉ= Éñáëíë= ëçãÉ= ëÅ~ä~ê= ÑìåÅíáçå== ì = ì(ñ I ó I ò ) ==E~==ëÅ~ä~ê==éçíÉåíá~äF==áå==a==ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= r ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì = n I= c = Öê~Ç ì I=çê= = o K== = m I= ∂ò ∂ñ ∂ó qÜÉå== rr r ∫ c(ê ) ⋅ Çê = ∫ mÇñ + nÇó + oÇò = ì(_) − ì(^ ) K== ` ` = 1129.

iÉåÖíÜ=çÑ=~=`ìêîÉ=áå=mçä~ê=`ççêÇáå~íÉë=  Çê  i = ∫   + ê O Çθ I== Çθ  α  ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå= ê = ê(θ) I= α ≤ θ ≤ β =áå=éçä~ê=ÅççêÇáå~íÉëK=== = 1132. iÉåÖíÜ=çÑ=~=`ìêîÉ= r O O O β β Çó Çê (í ) Çí = ∫  Çñ  +   +  Çò  Çí I= i = ∫ Çë = ∫       Çí Çí   Çí   Çí  ` α α  ïÜÉêÉ=`=á~=~=éáÉÅÉïáëÉ=ëãççíÜ=ÅìêîÉ=ÇÉëÅêáÄÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=éçëár íáçå=îÉÅíçê= ê (í ) I= α ≤ í ≤ β K= = fÑ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=íïç-ÇáãÉåëáçå~äI=íÜÉå= r O O β β Çê  Çñ   Çó  (í ) Çí = ∫   +   Çí K== i = ∫ Çë = ∫ Çí Çí   Çí  ` α α  = fÑ=íÜÉ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=íÜÉ=Öê~éÜ=çÑ=~=ÑìåÅíáçå= ó = Ñ (ñ ) =áå=íÜÉ=ñóéä~åÉ= (~ ≤ ñ ≤ Ä) I=íÜÉå== i=∫ ~ Ä  Çó  N +   Çñ K==  Çñ  O = 1131. j~ëë=çÑ=~=táêÉ= ã = ∫ ρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë I== β O ïÜÉêÉ= ρ(ñ I ó I ò ) =áë=íÜÉ=ã~ëë=éÉê=ìåáí=äÉåÖíÜ=çÑ=íÜÉ=ïáêÉK= = fÑ=`=áë=~=ÅìêîÉ=é~ê~ãÉíêáòÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê=ÑìåÅíáçå r ê (í ) = ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í ) I==íÜÉå==íÜÉ==ã~ëë==Å~å==ÄÉ==ÅçãéìíÉÇ=Äó= íÜÉ=Ñçêãìä~= ` 280 .CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1130.

`ÉåíÉê=çÑ=j~ëë=çÑ=~=táêÉ= j óò j ñó j ñ= I= ó = ñò I= ò = I= ã ã ã ïÜÉêÉ== j óò = ∫ ñρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë I== j ñò = ∫ óρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë I== j ñó = ∫ òρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë K= ` ` ` = 1134. jçãÉåíë=çÑ=fåÉêíá~= qÜÉ=ãçãÉåíë=çÑ=áåÉêíá~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáëI=ó-~ñáëI=~åÇ=ò-~ñáë= ~êÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=Ñçêãìä~ë= f ñ = ∫ (ó O + ò O )ρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë I== f ó = ∫ (ñ O + ò O )ρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë I== f ò = ∫ (ñ O + ó O )ρ(ñ I ó I ò )Çë K== ` ` ` = 281 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS  Çñ   Çó   Çò  ã = ∫ ρ(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í ))   +   +   Çí K==  Çí   Çí   Çí  α = fÑ=`=áë=~=ÅìêîÉ=áå=ñó-éä~åÉI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ã~ëë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ïáêÉ=áë=ÖáîÉå= Äó== ã = ∫ ρ(ñ I ó )Çë I= ` β O O O çê= ã = ∫ ρ(ñ (í )I ó (í )) α β  Çñ   Çó    +   Çí =Eáå=é~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=ÑçêãFK=  Çí   Çí  O O = 1133.CHAPTER 9.

sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=pçäáÇ=cçêãÉÇ=Äó=oçí~íáåÖ=~=`äçëÉÇ=`ìêîÉ= ~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáë= π s = − π ∫ ó OÇñ = −Oπ ∫ ñóÇó = − ∫ OñóÇó + ó OÇñ == O` ` ` = 282 . ^êÉ~=çÑ=~=oÉÖáçå=_çìåÇÉÇ=Äó=~=`äçëÉÇ=`ìêîÉ= N p = ∫ ñÇó = − ∫ óÇñ = ∫ ñÇó − óÇñ K== O` ` ` = = Figure 205. = = fÑ=íÜÉ=ÅäçëÉÇ=ÅìêîÉ=`=áë=ÖáîÉå=áå=é~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=Ñçêã= r ê (í ) = ñ (í )I ó (í ) I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=~êÉ~=Å~å=ÄÉ=Å~äÅìä~íÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=Ñçêãìä~= β β β Çó Çó Çñ N  Çñ  p = ∫ ñ (í ) Çí = − ∫ ó (í ) Çí = ∫  ñ (í ) − ó (í ) Çí K== Çí Çí O α Çí Çí  α α = 1136. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1135.CHAPTER 9.

= 283 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS = Figure 206. = = 1137. tçêâ= r tçêâ=ÇçåÉ=Äó=~=ÑçêÅÉ= c =çå=~å=çÄàÉÅí=ãçîáåÖ=~äçåÖ=~=ÅìêîÉ= `=áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä= r r t = ∫ c ⋅ Ç ê I= r r ïÜÉêÉ= c =áë=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê=ÑçêÅÉ=ÑáÉäÇ=~ÅíáåÖ=çå=íÜÉ=çÄàÉÅíI= Ç ê =áë= íÜÉ=ìåáí=í~åÖÉåí=îÉÅíçêK== ` = Figure 207.CHAPTER 9.

CHAPTER 9. = 284 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS fÑ=íÜÉ=çÄàÉÅí=áë=ãçîÉÇ=~äçåÖ=~=ÅìêîÉ=`=áå=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉI=íÜÉå= r r t = ∫ c ⋅ Ç ê = ∫ mÇñ + nÇó I== ` ` = fÑ= ~= é~íÜ= `= áë= ëéÉÅáÑáÉÇ= Äó= ~= é~ê~ãÉíÉê= í= Eí= çÑíÉå= ãÉ~åë= íáãÉFI=íÜÉ=Ñçêãìä~=Ñçê=Å~äÅìä~íáåÖ=ïçêâ=ÄÉÅçãÉë= Çñ Çó Çò   t = ∫ m(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í )) + n(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í )) + o(ñ (í )I ó (í )I ò (í ))  ÇíI Çí Çí Çí  α β ïÜÉêÉ=í=ÖçÉë=Ñêçã= α =íç= β K== = r fÑ= ~= îÉÅíçê= ÑáÉäÇ= c = áë= ÅçåëÉêî~íáîÉ= ~åÇ= ì(ñ I ó I ò ) = áë= ~= ëÅ~ä~ê= éçíÉåíá~ä= çÑ= íÜÉ= ÑáÉäÇI= íÜÉå= íÜÉ= ïçêâ= çå= ~å= çÄàÉÅí= ãçîáåÖ= Ñêçã=^=íç=_=Å~å=ÄÉ=ÑçìåÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=Ñçêãìä~= t = ì(_ ) − ì(^ ) K== = 1138. ^ãéÉêÉ∞ë=i~ï= r r _ ⋅ Ç ê = µ M f K== ∫ r qÜÉ=äáåÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=~=ã~ÖåÉíáÅ=ÑáÉäÇ= _ =~êçìåÇ=~=ÅäçëÉÇ=é~íÜ= `= áë= Éèì~ä= íç= íÜÉ= íçí~ä= ÅìêêÉåí= f= ÑäçïáåÖ= íÜêçìÖÜ= íÜÉ= ~êÉ~= ÄçìåÇÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=é~íÜK== = ` Figure 208.

c~ê~Ç~ó∞ë=i~ï= r r Çψ = ε = ∫ b ⋅ Çê = − Çí ` = qÜÉ= ÉäÉÅíêçãçíáîÉ= ÑçêÅÉ= EÉãÑF= ε = áåÇìÅÉÇ= ~êçìåÇ= ~= ÅäçëÉÇ= äççé=`=áë=Éèì~ä=íç=íÜÉ=ê~íÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅÜ~åÖÉ=çÑ=ã~ÖåÉíáÅ=Ñäìñ= ψ = é~ëëáåÖ=íÜêçìÖÜ=íÜÉ=äççéK=== = = Figure 209. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1139. = = = = 9.13 Surface Integral = pÅ~ä~ê=ÑìåÅíáçåëW= Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) I= ò (ñ I ó ) = r r mçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçêëW= ê (ìI î ) I= ê (ñ I ó I ò ) = r r r råáí=îÉÅíçêëW= á I= à I= â = pìêÑ~ÅÉW=p= r sÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇW= c (mI nI o ) = r r aáîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇW= Çáî c = ∇ ⋅ c = 285 .CHAPTER 9.

pìêÑ~ÅÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=~=pÅ~ä~ê=cìåÅíáçå= iÉí=~=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=p=ÄÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçê= r r r r ê (ìI î ) = ñ (ìI î )á + ó (ìI î ) à + ò (ìI î )â I== ïÜÉêÉ= (ìI î ) = ê~åÖÉë= çîÉê= ëçãÉ= Ççã~áå= a(ìI î ) = çÑ= íÜÉ= ìîéä~åÉK= qÜÉ==ëìêÑ~ÅÉ==áåíÉÖê~ä==çÑ==~==ëÅ~ä~ê=ÑìåÅíáçå== Ñ (ñ I ó I ò ) =çîÉê= íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=p=áë=ÇÉÑáåÉÇ=~ë== r r ∂ê ∂ê Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çp = ∫∫ Ñ (ñ (ìI î )I ó (ìI î )I ò (ìI î )) × ÇìÇî I== ∫∫ ∂ì ∂î p a(ì I î ) r r ∂ê ∂ê ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=é~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉë= =~åÇ= =~êÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó== ∂ì ∂î 286 .CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS r r `ìêä=çÑ=~=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇW= Åìêä c = ∇ × c == r sÉÅíçê=ÉäÉãÉåí=çÑ=~=ëìêÑ~ÅÉW= Çp = r kçêã~ä=íç=ëìêÑ~ÅÉW= å = pìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~W=^= j~ëë=çÑ=~=ëìêÑ~ÅÉW=ã= aÉåëáíóW= µ(ñ I ó I ò ) = `ççêÇáå~íÉë=çÑ=ÅÉåíÉê=çÑ=ã~ëëW= ñ I= ó I= ò = cáêëí=ãçãÉåíëW= j ñó I= j óò I= j ñò = jçãÉåíë=çÑ=áåÉêíá~W= f ñó I= f óò I= f ñò I= f ñ I= f ó I= fò = sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=ëçäáÇW=s= r cçêÅÉW= c = dê~îáí~íáçå~ä=Åçåëí~åíW=d= rr cäìáÇ=îÉäçÅáíóW= î (ê ) = cäìáÇ=ÇÉåëáíóW= ρ = r mêÉëëìêÉW= é(ê ) = j~ëë=ÑäìñI=ÉäÉÅíêáÅ=ÑäìñW= Φ = pìêÑ~ÅÉ=ÅÜ~êÖÉW=n= `Ü~êÖÉ=ÇÉåëáíóW= σ(ñ I ó ) = r j~ÖåáíìÇÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÉäÉÅíêáÅ=ÑáÉäÇW= b = = = 1140.

fÑ==íÜÉ==ëìêÑ~ÅÉ==p==áë==ÖáîÉå=Äó==íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå= ò = ò(ñ I ó ) =ïÜÉêÉ= ò (ñ I ó ) ==áë==~==ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ÄäÉ==ÑìåÅíáçå==áå=íÜÉ=Ççã~áå= a(ñ I ó ) I= íÜÉå== ∫∫ Ñ (ñ I ó I ò )Çp = (∫∫ ) Ñ (ñ I ó I ò(ñ I ó )) p a ñ Ió  ∂ò   ∂ò  N +   +   ÇñÇó K==  ∂ñ   ∂ó    O O = r 1142. pìêÑ~ÅÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä=çÑ=íÜÉ=sÉÅíçê=cáÉäÇ= c =çîÉê=íÜÉ=pìêÑ~ÅÉ=p= • fÑ=p=áë=çêáÉåíÉÇ=çìíï~êÇI=íÜÉå== r r r r ===== ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ Çp = ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ åÇp = p ====== = r r r  ∂ê ∂ê  = ∫∫ c(ñ (ìI î )I ó (ìI î )I ò (ìI î )) ⋅  ×  ÇìÇî K==  ∂ì ∂î  a( ì I î ) p fÑ=p=áë=çêáÉåíÉÇ=áåï~êÇI=íÜÉå== r r r r ===== ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ Çp = ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ åÇp = • p ====== = r r r  ∂ê ∂ê  = ∫∫ c(ñ (ìI î )I ó (ìI î )I ò (ìI î )) ⋅  ×  ÇìÇî K==  ∂î ∂ì  a( ì I î ) p r r Çp = åÇp ==áë==Å~ääÉÇ==íÜÉ==îÉÅíçê=ÉäÉãÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉK==açí= ãÉ~åë= = íÜÉ= = ëÅ~ä~ê= = éêçÇìÅí= = çÑ= = íÜÉ= = ~ééêçéêá~íÉ= = îÉÅíçêëK= r r ∂ê ∂ê qÜÉ=é~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉë= =~åÇ== =~êÉ=ÖáîÉå=Äó== ∂ì ∂î 287 .CHAPTER 9. INTEGRAL CALCULUS r r r ∂ó r ∂ò ∂ê ∂ñ = (ìI î ) á + (ìI î ) à + (ìI î )â I== ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì r r r ∂ó r ∂ò ∂ ê ∂ñ = (ìI î ) á + (ìI î ) à + (ìI î )â = ∂î ∂î ∂î ∂î r r ∂ê ∂ê ~åÇ= × =áë=íÜÉ=Åêçëë=éêçÇìÅíK== ∂ì ∂î = 1141.

INTEGRAL CALCULUS r r r ∂ó r ∂ò ∂ê ∂ñ = (ìI î ) ⋅ á + (ìI î ) ⋅ à + (ìI î ) ⋅ â I== ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì r r r ∂ó r ∂ò ∂ ê ∂ñ = (ìI î ) ⋅ á + (ìI î ) ⋅ à + (ìI î ) ⋅ â K== ∂î ∂î ∂î ∂î = 1143. r  ∂ò r ∂ò r r  = ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅  á + à − â ÇñÇó K==  ∂ñ  ∂ó   a( ñ I ó ) r r ∫∫ (c ⋅ å)Çp = ∫∫ mÇóÇò + nÇòÇñ + oÇñÇó = p = ∫∫ (m Åçë α + n Åçë β + o Åçë γ )Çp I== p p ïÜÉêÉ= m(ñ I ó I ò ) I= n(ñ I ó I ò ) I= o(ñ I ó I ò ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=ÅçãéçåÉåíë=çÑ= r íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= ÑáÉäÇ= c K== Åçë α I= Åçë β I= Åçë γ ==~êÉ=íÜÉ= ~åÖäÉë= ÄÉíïÉÉå=íÜÉ=çìíÉê=ìåáí= r åçêã~ä=îÉÅíçê= å =~åÇ=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáëI=ó-~ñáëI=~åÇ=ò-~ñáëI=êÉëéÉÅíáîÉäóK= = 288 . fÑ==íÜÉ==ëìêÑ~ÅÉ==p==áë==ÖáîÉå=Äó=íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå= ò = ò (ñ I ó ) I=ïÜÉêÉ= ò (ñ I ó ) ==áë==~==ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ÄäÉ==ÑìåÅíáçå==áå==íÜÉ=Ççã~áå= a(ñ I ó ) I= íÜÉå== • fÑ= p= áë= çêáÉåíÉÇ= ìéï~êÇI= áKÉK= íÜÉ= â-íÜ= ÅçãéçåÉåí= çÑ= íÜÉ= åçêã~ä=îÉÅíçê=áë=éçëáíáîÉI=íÜÉå=== r r r r ===== ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ Çp = ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ åÇp = p p ====== = = r  ∂ò r ∂ò r r  c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅  − ∫∫  ∂ñ á − ∂ó à + â ÇñÇó I==    a( ñ I ó ) fÑ=p=áë=çêáÉåíÉÇ=Ççïåï~êÇI=áKÉK=íÜÉ=â-íÜ=ÅçãéçåÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ= åçêã~ä=îÉÅíçê=áë=åÉÖ~íáîÉI=íÜÉå=== r r r r ===== ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ Çp = ∫∫ c(ñ I ó I ò ) ⋅ åÇp • p p ====== = 1144.CHAPTER 9.

INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1145.CHAPTER 9. fÑ=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=p=áë=ÖáîÉå=áå=é~ê~ãÉíêáÅ=Ñçêã=Äó=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê= r ê (ñ (ìI î )I ó (ìI î )I ò (ìI î )) I==íÜÉå==íÜÉ==ä~ííÉê=Ñçêãìä~=Å~å=ÄÉ= ïêáííÉå=~ë== m n o ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò ∫∫ ∫∫Iî ) ∂ì ∂ì ∂ì ÇìÇîI p p a(ì ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò ∂î ∂î ∂î ïÜÉêÉ= (ìI î ) = ê~åÖÉë= çîÉê= ëçãÉ= Ççã~áå= a(ìI î ) = çÑ= íÜÉ= ìîéä~åÉK= = 1146. aáîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=qÜÉçêÉã=áå=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=cçêã=  ∂m ∂n ∂o  mÇóÇò + nÇñÇò + oÇñÇó = ∫∫∫  ∫∫  ∂ñ + ∂ó + ∂ò ÇñÇóÇò K==   p d  = 1148. píçâÉ∞ë=qÜÉçêÉã= r r r r c ⋅ Ç ê = ∫∫ ∇ × c ⋅ Çp I== ∫ ( ) ` p 289 . aáîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=qÜÉçêÉã= r r r c ⋅ Çp = ∫∫∫ ∇ ⋅ c Çs I== ∫∫ ( ) r r c ⋅ å Çp = ∫∫ mÇóÇò + nÇòÇñ + oÇñÇó = ( ) p d ïÜÉêÉ== r c(ñ I ó I ò ) = m(ñ I ó I ò )I n(ñ I ó I ò )I o(ñ I ó I ò ) === áë==~==îÉÅíçê==ÑáÉäÇ==ïÜçëÉ==ÅçãéçåÉåíë==mI==nI==~åÇ==o==Ü~îÉ== Åçåíáåìçìë=é~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉëI== r ∂m ∂n ∂o ∇⋅c = + + == ∂ñ ∂ó ∂ò r r áë==íÜÉ==ÇáîÉêÖÉåÅÉ==çÑ== c I==~äëç==ÇÉåçíÉÇ== Çáîc K==qÜÉ==ëóãÄçä= ∫∫ =áåÇáÅ~íÉë==íÜ~í=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=áë=í~âÉå=çîÉê=~=ÅäçëÉÇ= ëìêÑ~ÅÉK== = 1147.

píçâÉ∞ë=qÜÉçêÉã=áå=`ççêÇáå~íÉ=cçêã= ∫ mÇñ + nÇó + oÇò = `  ∂o ∂n   ∂n ∂m   ∂m ∂o  = ∫∫    ∂ó − ∂ò ÇóÇò +  ∂ò − ∂ñ ÇòÇñ +  ∂ñ − ∂ó ÇñÇó        p  == 1150. pìêÑ~ÅÉ=^êÉ~= ^ = ∫∫ Çp = p = 1151.CHAPTER 9. fÑ=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=p=áë=é~ê~ãÉíÉêáòÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê== r r r r ê (ìI î ) = ñ (ìI î )á + ó (ìI î ) à + ò (ìI î )â I== íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~=áë== r r ∂ê ∂ê ^ = ∫∫ × ÇìÇî I== ∂ì ∂î a( ì I î ) r ïÜÉêÉ== a(ìI î ) ==áë==íÜÉ==Ççã~áå==ïÜÉêÉ==íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ= ê (ìI î ) =áë= ÇÉÑáåÉÇK== = 290 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS ïÜÉêÉ== r c(ñ I ó I ò ) = m(ñ I ó I ò )I n(ñ I ó I ò )I o(ñ I ó I ò ) === áë==~=îÉÅíçê==ÑáÉäÇ==ïÜçëÉ==ÅçãéçåÉåíë==mI==nI==~åÇ=o==Ü~îÉ= Åçåíáåìçìë=é~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉëI== r r r á à â r ∂ ∂ ∂  ∂o ∂n  r  ∂m ∂o  r  ∂n ∂m  r á +  ∇×c= = − − − â à + ∂ñ ∂ñ ∂ñ  ∂ó ∂ò   ∂ò ∂ñ   ∂ñ ∂ó      m n o r r áë=íÜÉ=Åìêä=çÑ= c I=~äëç=ÇÉåçíÉÇ= Åìêä c K== qÜÉ=ëóãÄçä== ∫ =áåÇáÅ~íÉë=íÜ~í=íÜÉ=äáåÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä=áë=í~âÉå=çîÉê= ~=ÅäçëÉÇ=ÅìêîÉK== = 1149.

`ÉåíÉê=çÑ=j~ëë=çÑ=~=pÜÉää= j óò j ñó j ñ= I= ó = ñò I= ò = I== ã ã ã ïÜÉêÉ== j óò = ∫∫ ñµ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== j ñò = ∫∫ óµ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== j ñó = ∫∫ òµ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp = p p p p ~êÉ==íÜÉ==Ñáêëí==ãçãÉåíë==~Äçìí===íÜÉ=ÅççêÇáå~íÉ=éä~åÉë= ñ = M I= ó = M I= ò = M I==êÉëéÉÅíáîÉäóK== µ(ñ I ó I ò ) =áë=íÜÉ=ÇÉåëáíó=ÑìåÅíáçåK= = 1155. INTEGRAL CALCULUS 1152. fÑ=p=áë=ÖáîÉå=ÉñéäáÅáíäó=Äó=íÜÉ=ÑìåÅíáçå= ò (ñ I ó ) I==íÜÉå==íÜÉ==ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=~êÉ~=áë==  ∂ò   ∂ò  ^ = ∫∫ N +   +   ÇñÇó I==  ∂ñ   ∂ó    a( ñ I ó ) ïÜÉêÉ= a(ñ I ó ) =áë=íÜÉ=éêçàÉÅíáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=p=çåíç=íÜÉ=ñóéä~åÉK== = 1153. j~ëë=çÑ=~=pìêÑ~ÅÉ= ã = ∫∫ µ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== O O ïÜÉêÉ= µ(ñ I ó I ò ) = áë= íÜÉ= ã~ëë= éÉê= ìåáí= ~êÉ~= = EÇÉåëáíó= ÑìåÅíáçåFK= = 1154.CHAPTER 9. jçãÉåíë=çÑ=fåÉêíá~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ñó-éä~åÉ=Eçê= ò = M FI==óò-éä~åÉ== E ñ = M FI=~åÇ=ñò-éä~åÉ=E ó = M F= f ñó = ∫∫ ò Oµ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== f óò = ∫∫ ñ Oµ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== p p 291 .

CHAPTER 9. mêÉëëìêÉ=cçêÅÉ= r r r c = ∫∫ é(ê )Çp I== p r ïÜÉêÉ=íÜÉ=éêÉëëìêÉ== é(ê ) ==~Åíë==çå==íÜÉ==ëìêÑ~ÅÉ==p==ÖáîÉå==Äó= r íÜÉ=éçëáíáçå=îÉÅíçê= ê K= = 1160. jçãÉåíë=çÑ=fåÉêíá~=~Äçìí=íÜÉ=ñ-~ñáëI=ó-~ñáëI=~åÇ=ò-~ñáë= f ñ = ∫∫ (ó O + ò O )µ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== f ó = ∫∫ (ñ O + ò O )µ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp I== fò = ∫∫ (ñ O + ó O )µ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp K== p p p = 1157. sçäìãÉ=çÑ=~=pçäáÇ=_çìåÇÉÇ=Äó=~=`äçëÉÇ=pìêÑ~ÅÉ= s= N ñÇóÇò + óÇñÇò + òÇñÇó == P ∫∫ p = 1158. cäìáÇ=cäìñ=E~Åêçëë=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=pF= r r r Φ = ∫∫ î (ê ) ⋅ Çp I== p 292 . dê~îáí~íáçå~ä=cçêÅÉ= r r ê c = dã ∫∫ µ(ñ I ó I ò ) P Çp I= ê p ïÜÉêÉ=ã=áë=~=ã~ëë=~í=~=éçáåí= ñ M I ó M I ò M =çìíëáÇÉ=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉI== r ê = ñ − ñ M I ó − ó M I ò − ò M I== µ(ñ I ó I ò ) =áë=íÜÉ=ÇÉåëáíó=ÑìåÅíáçåI== ~åÇ=d=áë=Öê~îáí~íáçå~ä=Åçåëí~åíK= = 1159. INTEGRAL CALCULUS f ñò = ∫∫ ó Oµ(ñ I ó I ò )Çp K= p = 1156.

pìêÑ~ÅÉ=`Ü~êÖÉ= n = ∫∫ σ(ñ I ó )Çp I== p ïÜÉêÉ= σ(ñ I ó ) =áë=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=ÅÜ~êÖÉ=ÇÉåëáíóK= = 1163. j~ëë=cäìñ=E~Åêçëë=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=pF= r r r Φ = ∫∫ ρî (ê ) ⋅ Çp I== r r ïÜÉêÉ= c = ρî =áë=íÜÉ=îÉÅíçê=ÑáÉäÇI= ρ =áë=íÜÉ=ÑäìáÇ=ÇÉåëáíóK= = 1162. d~ìëë∞=i~ï= qÜÉ=ÉäÉÅíêáÅ=Ñäìñ=íÜêçìÖÜ=~åó=ÅäçëÉÇ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ=áë=éêçéçêíáçå~ä= íç=íÜÉ=ÅÜ~êÖÉ=n=ÉåÅäçëÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=ëìêÑ~ÅÉ= r r n Φ = ∫∫ b ⋅ Çp = I== εM p ïÜÉêÉ== Φ =áë=íÜÉ=ÉäÉÅíêáÅ=ÑäìñI== r b =áë=íÜÉ=ã~ÖåáíìÇÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÉäÉÅíêáÅ=ÑáÉäÇ=ëíêÉåÖíÜI= c ε M = UIUR × NM −NO =áë=éÉêãáííáîáíó=çÑ=ÑêÉÉ=ëé~ÅÉK== ã = = p 293 . INTEGRAL CALCULUS r r ïÜÉêÉ= î (ê ) =áë=íÜÉ=ÑäìáÇ=îÉäçÅáíóK= == 1161.CHAPTER 9.

Chapter 10 Differential Equations = = = = cìåÅíáçåë=çÑ=çåÉ=î~êá~ÄäÉW=óI=éI=èI=ìI=ÖI=ÜI=dI=eI=êI=ò== ^êÖìãÉåíë=EáåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=î~êá~ÄäÉëFW=ñI=ó= cìåÅíáçåë=çÑ=íïç=î~êá~ÄäÉëW= Ñ (ñ I ó ) I= j(ñ I ó ) I= k(ñ I ó ) = Çó & cáêëí=çêÇÉê=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉW= ó ′ I= ì′ I= ó I= I=£= Çí Ç Of pÉÅçåÇ=çêÇÉê=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉëW= ó′′ I= && I= O I=£= ó Çí O ∂ì ∂ ì m~êíá~ä=ÇÉêáî~íáîÉëW= I= O I=£= ∂í ∂ñ k~íìê~ä=åìãÄÉêW=å= m~êíáÅìä~ê=ëçäìíáçåëW= ó N I= ó é = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=âI=íI=`I= `N I= ` O I=éI=èI= α I= β = oççíë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅÜ~ê~ÅíÉêáëíáÅ=Éèì~íáçåëW= λN I= λ O = qáãÉW=í= qÉãéÉê~íìêÉW=qI=p= mçéìä~íáçå=ÑìåÅíáçåW= m(í ) == j~ëë=çÑ=~å=çÄàÉÅíW=ã= píáÑÑåÉëë=çÑ=~=ëéêáåÖW=â= aáëéä~ÅÉãÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ã~ëë=Ñêçã=ÉèìáäáÄêáìãW=ó= ^ãéäáíìÇÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåíW=^= cêÉèìÉåÅóW= ω = a~ãéáåÖ=ÅçÉÑÑáÅáÉåíW= γ = mÜ~ëÉ=~åÖäÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåíW= δ = ^åÖìä~ê=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåíW= θ = mÉåÇìäìã=äÉåÖíÜW=i= 294 .

CHAPTER 10. iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçåë= Çó + é(ñ )ó = è(ñ ) K== Çñ = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== ∫ ì(ñ )è(ñ )Çñ + ` I== ó= ì (ñ ) ïÜÉêÉ== ì(ñ ) = Éñé ∫ é(ñ )Çñ K= ( ) = 1165. pÉé~ê~ÄäÉ=bèì~íáçåë= Çó = Ñ (ñ I ó ) = Ö (ñ )Ü(ó ) = Çñ = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó= Çó ∫ Ü(ó ) = ∫ Ö(ñ )Çñ + ` I== çê= e(ó ) = d(ñ ) + ` K= = = = 295 .1 First Order Ordinary Differential Equations = 1164. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ^ÅÅÉäÉê~íáçå=çÑ=Öê~îáíóW=Ö= `ìêêÉåíW=f= oÉëáëí~åÅÉW=o= fåÇìÅí~åÅÉW=i= `~é~Åáí~åÅÉW=`= = = 10.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1166.CHAPTER 10. eçãçÖÉåÉçìë=bèì~íáçåë= Çó = Ñ (ñ I ó ) = áë= ÜçãçÖÉåÉçìëI= áÑ= Çñ íÜÉ=ÑìåÅíáçå= Ñ (ñ I ó ) =áë=ÜçãçÖÉåÉçìëI=íÜ~í=áë== Ñ (íñ I íó ) = Ñ (ñ I ó ) K== = ó qÜÉ=ëìÄëíáíìíáçå= ò = =EíÜÉå= ó = òñ F=äÉ~Çë=íç=íÜÉ=ëÉé~ê~ÄäÉ= ñ Éèì~íáçå= Çò ñ + ò = Ñ (NI ò ) K== Çñ = 1167. _Éêåçìääá=bèì~íáçå= Çó + é(ñ )ó = è(ñ )ó å K== Çñ = qÜÉ=ëìÄëíáíìíáçå= ò = ó N−å =äÉ~Çë=íç=íÜÉ=äáåÉ~ê=Éèì~íáçå== Çò + (N − å )é(ñ ) ò = (N − å )è(ñ ) K== Çñ = 1168. oáÅÅ~íá=bèì~íáçå= Çó = é(ñ ) + è(ñ ) ó + ê(ñ ) ó O = Çñ = fÑ=~=é~êíáÅìä~ê=ëçäìíáçå= ó N =áë=âåçïåI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=Å~å=ÄÉ=çÄí~áåÉÇ=ïáíÜ=íÜÉ=ÜÉäé=çÑ=ëìÄëíáíìíáçå= N ò= I=ïÜáÅÜ=äÉ~Çë=íç=íÜÉ=Ñáêëí=çêÇÉê=äáåÉ~ê=Éèì~íáçå== ó − óN Çò = −[è(ñ ) + Oó Nê(ñ )] ò − ê(ñ ) K== Çñ = = = qÜÉ= ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä= Éèì~íáçå= 296 .

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1169. kÉïíçå∞ë=i~ï=çÑ=`ççäáåÖ= Çq = − â (q − p ) I== Çí ïÜÉêÉ= q(í ) =áë=íÜÉ=íÉãéÉê~íìêÉ=çÑ=~å=çÄàÉÅí=~í=íáãÉ=íI=p=áë=íÜÉ= íÉãéÉê~íìêÉ= çÑ= íÜÉ= ëìêêçìåÇáåÖ= ÉåîáêçåãÉåíI= â= áë= ~= éçëáíáîÉ=Åçåëí~åíK== = qÜÉ=ëçäìíáçå=áë= q(í ) = p + (qM − p) É −âí I== ïÜÉêÉ= qM = q(M) = áë= íÜÉ= áåáíá~ä= íÉãéÉê~íìêÉ= çÑ= íÜÉ= çÄàÉÅí= ~í= íáãÉ= í = M K== = = 297 . o~Çáç~ÅíáîÉ=aÉÅ~ó= Çó = − âó I== Çí ïÜÉêÉ= ó (í ) =áë=íÜÉ=~ãçìåí=çÑ=ê~Çáç~ÅíáîÉ=ÉäÉãÉåí=~í=íáãÉ=íI=â= áë=íÜÉ=ê~íÉ=çÑ=ÇÉÅ~óK== = qÜÉ=ëçäìíáçå=áë== ó (í ) = ó M É − âí I=ïÜÉêÉ= ó M = ó (M) =áë=íÜÉ=áåáíá~ä=~ãçìåíK= = 1171.CHAPTER 10. bñ~Åí=~åÇ=kçåÉñ~Åí=bèì~íáçåë= qÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå== j(ñ I ó )Çñ + k(ñ I ó )Çó = M == áë=Å~ääÉÇ=Éñ~Åí=áÑ== ∂j ∂k = I== ∂ó ∂ñ ~åÇ=åçåÉñ~Åí=çíÜÉêïáëÉK= = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== ∫ j(ñ I ó )Çñ + ∫ k(ñ I ó )Çó = ` K== = 1170.

2 Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations = 1173. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1172. mçéìä~íáçå=aóå~ãáÅë=EiçÖáëíáÅ=jçÇÉäF= Çm m  = âm N −  I== Çí  j ïÜÉêÉ= m(í ) =áë=éçéìä~íáçå=~í=íáãÉ=íI=â=áë=~=éçëáíáîÉ=Åçåëí~åíI= j=áë=~=äáãáíáåÖ=ëáòÉ=Ñçê=íÜÉ=éçéìä~íáçåK== = qÜÉ=ëçäìíáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=Éèì~íáçå=áë== jmM m(í ) = I=ïÜÉêÉ= mM = m(M) =áë=íÜÉ=áåáíá~ä=éçéìmM + (j − mM )É − âí ä~íáçå=~í=íáãÉ= í = M K=== = = = 10.CHAPTER 10. eçãçÖÉåÉçìë=iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçåë=ïáíÜ=`çåëí~åí=`çÉÑÑáÅáÉåíë== ó′′ + éó′ + èó = M K== qÜÉ=ÅÜ~ê~ÅíÉêáëíáÅ=Éèì~íáçå=áë== λO + éλ + è = M K== = fÑ= λN = ~åÇ= λ O = ~êÉ= ÇáëíáåÅí= êÉ~ä= êççíë= çÑ= íÜÉ= ÅÜ~ê~ÅíÉêáëíáÅ= Éèì~íáçåI=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== ó = `NÉ λNñ + ` OÉ λ O ñ I=ïÜÉêÉ== `N =~åÇ= ` O =~êÉ=áåíÉÖê~íáçå=Åçåëí~åíëK== == é fÑ= λN = λ O = − I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== O ó = (`N + ` O ñ )É O K== = fÑ= λN =~åÇ= λ O =~êÉ=ÅçãéäÉñ=åìãÄÉêëW= é − ñ 298 .

aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=bèì~íáçåë=ïáíÜ=ó=jáëëáåÖ= ó′′ = Ñ (ñ I ó′) K== pÉí= ì = ó′ K=qÜÉå=íÜÉ=åÉï=Éèì~íáçå=ë~íáëÑáÉÇ=Äó=î=áë== ì′ = Ñ (ñ I ì ) I== ïÜáÅÜ=áë=~=Ñáêëí=çêÇÉê=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=Éèì~íáçåK= ó é = ñ â É αñ (oN (ñ )Åçë βñ + o O (ñ )ëáå β ñ ) I== 299 .CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS λN = α + β á I= λ O = α − β á I=ïÜÉêÉ== Qè − é O é α = − I= β = I== O O íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== ó = É αñ (`N Åçë β ñ + ` O ëáå β ñ ) K== = 1174. fåÜçãçÖÉåÉçìë=iáåÉ~ê=bèì~íáçåë=ïáíÜ=`çåëí~åí======================= `çÉÑÑáÅáÉåíë== ó′′ + éó′ + èó = Ñ (ñ ) K== = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó== ó = ó é + ó Ü I=ïÜÉêÉ== ó é =áë==~=é~êíáÅìä~ê==ëçäìíáçå=çÑ==íÜÉ=áåÜçãçÖÉåÉçìë=Éèì~íáçå= ~åÇ= ó Ü =áë=íÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=çÑ=íÜÉ=~ëëçÅá~íÉÇ=ÜçãçÖÉåÉçìë=Éèì~íáçå=EëÉÉ=íÜÉ=éêÉîáçìë=íçéáÅ=NNTPFK= = fÑ=íÜÉ=êáÖÜí=ëáÇÉ=Ü~ë=íÜÉ=Ñçêã== Ñ (ñ ) = É αñ (mN (ñ )Åçë β ñ + mN (ñ )ëáå βñ ) I== íÜÉå=íÜÉ==é~êíáÅìä~ê=ëçäìíáçå= ó é =áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó== ïÜÉêÉ= íÜÉ= éçäóåçãá~äë= oN (ñ ) = ~åÇ= o O (ñ ) = Ü~îÉ= íç= ÄÉ= ÑçìåÇ= Äó=ìëáåÖ=íÜÉ=ãÉíÜçÇ=çÑ=ìåÇÉíÉêãáåÉÇ=ÅçÉÑÑáÅáÉåíëK== • fÑ= α + β á =áë=åçí=~=êççí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ÅÜ~ê~ÅíÉêáëíáÅ=Éèì~íáçåI=íÜÉå= íÜÉ=éçïÉê= â = M I= • fÑ= α + β á =áë=~=ëáãéäÉ=êççíI=íÜÉå= â = N I= • fÑ= α + β á =áë=~=ÇçìÄäÉ=êççíI=íÜÉå= â = O K== = 1175.

aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=bèì~íáçåë=ïáíÜ=ñ=jáëëáåÖ= ó′′ = Ñ (ó I ó′) K== pÉí= ì = ó′ K=páåÅÉ== Çì Çì Çó Çì ó′′ = = = ì I== Çñ Çó Çñ Çó ïÉ=Ü~îÉ= Çì ì = Ñ (ó I ì ) I== Çó ïÜáÅÜ=áë=~=Ñáêëí=çêÇÉê=ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä=Éèì~íáçåK== = 1177. cêÉÉ=råÇ~ãéÉÇ=sáÄê~íáçåë= qÜÉ=ãçíáçå=çÑ=~=j~ëë=çå=~=péêáåÖ=áë=ÇÉëÅêáÄÉÇ=Äó=íÜÉ=Éèì~íáçå== ã&& + âó = M I== ó ïÜÉêÉ== ã=áë=íÜÉ=ã~ëë=çÑ=íÜÉ=çÄàÉÅíI= â=áë=íÜÉ=ëíáÑÑåÉëë=çÑ=íÜÉ=ëéêáåÖI= ó=áë=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåí=çÑ=íÜÉ=ã~ëë=Ñêçã=ÉèìáäáÄêáìãK= = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== ó = ^ Åçë(ωM í − δ ) I== ïÜÉêÉ== ^=áë=íÜÉ=~ãéäáíìÇÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåíI= Oπ I= ωM =áë=íÜÉ=ÑìåÇ~ãÉåí~ä=ÑêÉèìÉåÅóI=íÜÉ=éÉêáçÇ=áë= q = ωM δ =áë=éÜ~ëÉ=~åÖäÉ=çÑ=íÜÉ=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåíK= qÜáë=áë=~å=Éñ~ãéäÉ=çÑ=ëáãéäÉ=Ü~êãçåáÅ=ãçíáçåK== = 1178. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 1176. cêÉÉ=a~ãéÉÇ=sáÄê~íáçåë= ã&& + γó + âó = M I=ïÜÉêÉ== ó & γ =áë=íÜÉ=Ç~ãéáåÖ=ÅçÉÑÑáÅáÉåíK== qÜÉêÉ=~êÉ=P=Å~ëÉë=Ñçê=íÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçåW= = 300 .CHAPTER 10.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS `~ëÉ=NK γ O > Qâã =EçîÉêÇ~ãéÉÇF= ó (í ) = ^É λNí + _É λ Oí I== ïÜÉêÉ== λN = − γ − γ O − Q âã − γ + γ O − Q âã I= λ O = K== Oã Oã = `~ëÉ=OK= γ O = Qâã EÅêáíáÅ~ääó=Ç~ãéÉÇF= ó (í ) = (^ + _í )É λí I== ïÜÉêÉ== γ λ=− K= Oã = `~ëÉ=PK= γ O < Qâã =EìåÇÉêÇ~ãéÉÇF== ó (í ) = É − γ í Oã ^ Åçë(ωí − δ ) I=ïÜÉêÉ== ω = Qâã − γ O K== = 1179. oi`=`áêÅìáí= Ç Of Çf N i O + o + f = s′(í ) = ωb M Åçë(ωí ) I= Çí Çí ` 301 . páãéäÉ=mÉåÇìäìã= Ç Oθ Ö + θ = M I= Çí O i ïÜÉêÉ= θ = áë= íÜÉ= ~åÖìä~ê= Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåíI= i= áë= íÜÉ= éÉåÇìäìã= äÉåÖíÜI=Ö=áë=íÜÉ=~ÅÅÉäÉê~íáçå=çÑ=Öê~îáíóK= = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=Ñçê=ëã~ää=~åÖäÉë= θ =áë== Ö i θ(í ) = θã~ñ ëáå í I=íÜÉ=éÉêáçÇ=áë= q = Oπ K== i Ö = 1180.CHAPTER 10.

3. Some Partial Differential Equations = 1181. qÜÉ=eÉ~í=bèì~íáçå= ∂ O ì ∂ O ì ∂ì + = = ∂ñ O ∂ó O ∂í 302 . qÜÉ=i~éä~ÅÉ=bèì~íáçå= ∂ Oì ∂ Oì + = M= ∂ñ O ∂ó O ~ééäáÉë=íç=éçíÉåíá~ä=ÉåÉêÖó=ÑìåÅíáçå= ì(ñ I ó ) ==Ñçê==~==ÅçåëÉêî~íáîÉ= ÑçêÅÉ= ÑáÉäÇ= áå= íÜÉ= ñó-éä~åÉK= m~êíá~ä= ÇáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ä= Éèì~íáçåë=çÑ=íÜáë=íóéÉ=~êÉ=Å~ääÉÇ=ÉääáéíáÅK== = 1182.CHAPTER 10. DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ïÜÉêÉ=f=áë=íÜÉ=ÅìêêÉåí=áå=~å=oi`=ÅáêÅìáí=ïáíÜ=~å=~Å=îçäí~ÖÉ= ëçìêÅÉ= s(í ) = b M ëáå(ωí ) K=== = qÜÉ=ÖÉåÉê~ä=ëçäìíáçå=áë== f(í ) = `NÉ êNí + ` OÉ êOí + ^ ëáå(ωí − ϕ) I= ïÜÉêÉ== Qi − o ± oO − ` I== ê NI O = Oi ωb M ^= I== O N  O O O  iω −  + o ω `  N   iω ϕ = ~êÅí~å −  I==  o o`ω  `N I= ` O =~êÉ=Åçåëí~åíë=ÇÉéÉåÇáåÖ=çå=áåáíá~ä=ÅçåÇáíáçåëK= = = = 10.

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ~ééäáÉë= íç= íÜÉ= íÉãéÉê~íìêÉ= ÇáëíêáÄìíáçå= ì(ñ I ó ) = áå= íÜÉ= ñóéä~åÉ=ïÜÉå=ÜÉ~í=áë=~ääçïÉÇ=íç=Ñäçï=Ñêçã=ï~êã=~êÉ~ë=íç=Åççä= çåÉëK=qÜÉ=Éèì~íáçåë=çÑ=íÜáë=íóéÉ=~êÉ=Å~ääÉÇ=é~ê~ÄçäáÅK== = 1183. qÜÉ=t~îÉ=bèì~íáçå= ∂ Oì ∂ Oì ∂ Oì + = = ∂ñ O ∂ó O ∂í O ~ééäáÉë=íç=íÜÉ=Çáëéä~ÅÉãÉåí= ì(ñ I ó ) =çÑ=îáÄê~íáåÖ=ãÉãÄê~åÉë= ~åÇ= çíÜÉê= ï~îÉ= ÑìåÅíáçåëK= qÜÉ= Éèì~íáçåë= çÑ= íÜáë= íóéÉ= ~êÉ= Å~ääÉÇ=ÜóéÉêÄçäáÅK== = = 303 .CHAPTER 10.

~ á = á −N á +N = O = ~ +~ O~ + (å − N)Ç 1187.1 Arithmetic Series = fåáíá~ä=íÉêãW= ~N = kíÜ=íÉêãW= ~ å = aáÑÑÉêÉåÅÉ=ÄÉíïÉÉå=ëìÅÅÉëëáîÉ=íÉêãëW=Ç= kìãÄÉê=çÑ=íÉêãë=áå=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉëW=å= pìã=çÑ=íÜÉ=Ñáêëí=å=íÉêãëW= på = = = 1184.Chapter 11 Series = = = = 11. ~ å = ~ å −N + Ç = ~ å −O + OÇ = K = ~N + (å − N)Ç = = 1185. ~N + ~ å = ~ O + ~ å−N = K = ~ á + ~ å +N−á = = ~ +~ 1186. på = N å ⋅ å = N ⋅å= O O = = = = = 304 .

2 Geometric Series = fåáíá~ä=íÉêãW= ~N = kíÜ=íÉêãW= ~ å = `çããçå=ê~íáçW=è= kìãÄÉê=çÑ=íÉêãë=áå=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉëW=å= pìã=çÑ=íÜÉ=Ñáêëí=å=íÉêãëW= på = pìã=íç=áåÑáåáíóW=p= = = 1188.CHAPTER 11. ~ á = ~ á −N ⋅ ~ á +N = = ~ å è − ~N ~N (è å − N) 1191. på = = = è −N è −N = ~ 1192.3 Some Finite Series = kìãÄÉê=çÑ=íÉêãë=áå=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉëW=å= = = 305 . p = äáã på = N = å →∞ N− è cçê= è < N I=íÜÉ=ëìã=p=ÅçåîÉêÖÉë=~ë= å → ∞ K= = = = 11. ~ å = è~ å −N = ~Nè å −N = = 1189. ~N ⋅ ~ å = ~ O ⋅ ~ å −N = K = ~ á ⋅ ~ å +N−á = = 1190. SERIES 11.

NP + PP + RP + K + (Oå − N) = å O (Oå O − N) = = N N N N 1201. + + +K+ +K = N= N⋅ O O ⋅ P P ⋅ Q å(å + N) = N N N N 1203. SERIES 1193. â + (â + N) + (â + O) + K + (â + å − N) = = å(Oâ + å − N) = O = 1197. N + + + + K + +K = É = (å − N)> N> O> P> = = = = 306 . N + P + R + K + (Oå − N) = = P = P 1200. N + P + R + K + (Oå − N) = å O = = 1196. N + O + P + K + å = å(å + N) = O 1194.CHAPTER 11. N + + + + K + å + K = O = O Q U O = N N N N 1202. NO + OO + PO + K + å O = å(å + N)(Oå + N) = S O  å(å + N)  1198. O + Q + S + K + Oå = å(å + N) = = 1195. NP + OP + PP + K + åP =  =  O   = å(Qå O − N) O O O O 1199.

SERIES 11.5 Properties of Convergent Series = `çåîÉêÖÉåí=pÉêáÉëW= ∑ ~ å = ^ I= ∑ Äå = _ = å =N å =N ∞ ∞ oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW=Å= 307 .CHAPTER 11. fåÑáåáíÉ=pÉêáÉë= ∑~ å =N ∞ å = ~N + ~ O + K + ~ å + K = = 1205. kíÜ=qÉêã=qÉëí= • • fÑ=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉë= ∑ ~ å áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíI=íÜÉå= äáã ~ å = M K== fÑ= äáã ~ å ≠ M I=íÜÉå=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉë=áë=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= å→∞ å =N å→∞ ∞ = = = 11.4 Infinite Series = pÉèìÉåÅÉW= {~ å }= cáêëí=íÉêãW= ~N = kíÜ=íÉêãW= ~ å = = = 1204. kíÜ=m~êíá~ä=pìã= på = ∑ ~ å = ~N + ~ O + K + ~ å = å =N å = 1206. `çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=çÑ=fåÑáåáíÉ=pÉêáÉë= ∑~ å =N ∞ å = i I=áÑ= äáã på = i = å →∞ = 1207.

∑ Å~ å =N å = Å∑ ~ å = Å^ K== å =N ∞ = = = 11. ∑ (~ å + Ä å ) = ∑ ~ å + ∑ Ä å = ^ + _ = å =N ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ å =N å =N = 1209.CHAPTER 11. SERIES 1208. qÜÉ=iáãáí=`çãé~êáëçå=qÉëí= iÉí= ∑ ~ å =~åÇ= ∑ Äå =ÄÉ=ëÉêáÉë=ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= ~ å =~åÇ= Äå =~êÉ=éçëáå =N å =N ∞ ∞ íáîÉ=Ñçê=~ää=åK== ∞ ∞ ~å • fÑ= M < äáã < ∞ = íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å = ~åÇ= ∑ Äå ~êÉ= ÉáíÜÉê= ÄçíÜ= å →∞ Ä å =N å =N å ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí=çê=ÄçíÜ=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= ∞ ∞ ~å • fÑ= äáã = M =íÜÉå= ∑ Äå ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí=áãéäáÉë=íÜ~í= ∑ ~ å =áë= å →∞ Ä å =N å =N å ~äëç=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK= 308 .6 Convergence Tests = 1210. qÜÉ=`çãé~êáëçå=qÉëí= iÉí= ∑ ~ å =~åÇ= ∑ Äå =ÄÉ=ëÉêáÉë=ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= M < ~ å ≤ Äå =Ñçê=~ää=åK== • ∞ ∞ fÑ= ∑ Äå áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí=íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å áë=~äëç=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK== fÑ= ∑ ~ å áë=ÇáîÉêÖÉåí=íÜÉå= ∑ Äå áë=~äëç=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= å =N å =N å =N ∞ å =N ∞ å =N ∞ å =N ∞ • = 1211.

qÜÉ=fåíÉÖê~ä=qÉëí= iÉí= Ñ (ñ ) = ÄÉ= ~= ÑìåÅíáçå= ïÜáÅÜ= áë= ÅçåíáåìçìëI= éçëáíáîÉI= ~åÇ= ÇÉÅêÉ~ëáåÖ=Ñçê=~ää= ñ ≥ N K=qÜÉ=ëÉêáÉë== é-ëÉêáÉë= ∑ ∞ ∑ Ñ (å) = Ñ (N) + Ñ (O) + Ñ (P) + K + Ñ (å) + K = å =N ∞ ÅçåîÉêÖÉë=áÑ= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ ÅçåîÉêÖÉëI=~åÇ=ÇáîÉêÖÉë=áÑ= N ∞ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ → ∞ =~ë= å → ∞ K= N å = 1214. qÜÉ=o~íáç=qÉëí= iÉí= ∑ ~ å =ÄÉ=~=ëÉêáÉë=ïáíÜ=éçëáíáîÉ=íÉêãëK= å =N ∞ • fÑ= äáã ∞ ~ å +N < N =íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK= å →∞ ~ å =N å • • ∞ ~ å +N > N =íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å =áë=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= å →∞ ~ å =N å ∞ ~ fÑ= äáã å +N = N = íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å = ã~ó= ÅçåîÉêÖÉ= çê= ÇáîÉêÖÉ= ~åÇ= å →∞ ~ å =N å íÜÉ= ê~íáç= íÉëí= áë= áåÅçåÅäìëáîÉX= ëçãÉ= çíÜÉê= íÉëíë= ãìëí= ÄÉ= ìëÉÇK== fÑ= äáã = 309 .CHAPTER 11. é-ëÉêáÉë= N =ÅçåîÉêÖÉë=Ñçê= é > N =~åÇ=ÇáîÉêÖÉë=Ñçê= é å =N å M < é ≤ N K= = 1213. SERIES • fÑ= äáã ∞ ∞ ~å = ∞ =íÜÉå= ∑ Äå ÇáîÉêÖÉåí=áãéäáÉë=íÜ~í= ∑ ~ å =áë= å →∞ Ä å =N å =N å ~äëç=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= = 1212.

^ÄëçäìíÉ=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ= • ∑ (− N) ~ å å =N ∞ å = ~åÇ= ∑ (− N) å =N ∞ å −N ~å = ^= ëÉêáÉë= ∑~ å =N ∞ å = áë= ~ÄëçäìíÉäó= ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí= áÑ= íÜÉ= ëÉêáÉë= ∑~ å =N ∞ å =áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK== 310 . qÜÉ=oççí=qÉëí= iÉí= ∑ ~ å =ÄÉ=~=ëÉêáÉë=ïáíÜ=éçëáíáîÉ=íÉêãëK= å =N ∞ • fÑ= äáã å ~ å < N =íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å =áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK= å →∞ ∞ • fÑ= äáã å ~ å > N =íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å =áë=ÇáîÉêÖÉåíK= å →∞ å =N ∞ å =N ∞ • fÑ= äáã å ~ å = N =íÜÉå= ∑ ~ å =ã~ó=ÅçåîÉêÖÉ=çê=ÇáîÉêÖÉI=Äìí= å →∞ å =N åç=ÅçåÅäìëáçå=Å~å=ÄÉ=Çê~ïå=Ñêçã=íÜáë=íÉëíK= = = = 11.7 Alternating Series = 1216. SERIES 1215.CHAPTER 11. qÜÉ=^äíÉêå~íáåÖ=pÉêáÉë=qÉëí=EiÉáÄåáò∞ë=qÜÉçêÉãF= = iÉí= {~ å }=ÄÉ=~=ëÉèìÉåÅÉ=çÑ=éçëáíáîÉ=åìãÄÉêë=ëìÅÜ=íÜ~í= ~ å+N < ~ å =Ñçê=~ää=åK= äáã ~ å = M K== å→∞ qÜÉå= íÜÉ= ~äíÉêå~íáåÖ= ëÉêáÉë= ÄçíÜ=ÅçåîÉêÖÉK==== = 1217.

`çåÇáíáçå~ä=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ= ^= ëÉêáÉë= ∑~ å =N ∞ å áë= ÅçåÇáíáçå~ääó= ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí= áÑ= íÜÉ= ëÉêáÉë= áë= ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí=Äìí=áë=åçí=~ÄëçäìíÉäó=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåíK= = = = 11. SERIES • fÑ=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉë= ∑ ~ å áë=~ÄëçäìíÉäó=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí=íÜÉå=áí=áë=Åçåå =N ∞ îÉêÖÉåíK= = 1218.8 Power Series = oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêëW=ñI= ñ M = mçïÉê=ëÉêáÉëW= ∑ ~ å ñ å I= ∑ ~ å (ñ − ñ M ) = å å =M å =M ∞ ∞ tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=å= o~Çáìë=çÑ=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉW=o= = 1219. mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë=áå= (ñ − ñ M ) = ∑ ~ (ñ − ñ ) å =M å M å = ~ M + ~ N (ñ − ñ M ) + ~ O ( ñ − ñ M ) + K + ~ å (ñ − ñ M ) + K O å = 1221. mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë=áå=ñ= ∑~ å =M ∞ ∞ å ñ å = ~ M + ~Nñ + ~ O ñ O + K + ~ å ñ å + K = = 1220. fåíÉêî~ä=çÑ=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=== qÜÉ=ëÉí=çÑ=íÜçëÉ=î~äìÉë=çÑ=ñ=Ñçê=ïÜáÅÜ=íÜÉ=ÑìåÅíáçå= Ñ (ñ ) = ∑ ~ å (ñ − ñ M ) =áë=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåí=áë=Å~ääÉÇ==íÜÉ==áåíÉêî~ä=çÑ= å å =M ∞ ÅçåîÉêÖÉåÅÉK= 311 .CHAPTER 11.

SERIES 1222.9 Differentiation and Integration of Power Series = `çåíáåìçìë=ÑìåÅíáçåW= Ñ (ñ ) = mçïÉê=ëÉêáÉëW= ∑ ~ å ñ å = å =M ∞ tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=å= o~Çáìë=çÑ=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉW=o= = = 1223. o~Çáìë=çÑ=`çåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ= fÑ=íÜÉ=áåíÉêî~ä=çÑ=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåÅÉ=áë== (ñ M − oI ñ M + o ) ==Ñçê==ëçãÉ= o ≥ M I=íÜÉ=o=áë=Å~ääÉÇ==íÜÉ=ê~Çáìë=çÑ=ÅçåîÉêÖÉåÅÉK==fí=áë=ÖáîÉå= ~ë= ~ N =çê= o = äáã å K== o = äáã å →∞ å ~ å →∞ ~ å +N å = = = 11.CHAPTER 11. aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~íáçå=çÑ=mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë= iÉí= Ñ (ñ ) = ∑ ~ å ñ å = ~ M + ~ Nñ + ~ O ñ O + K =Ñçê= ñ < o K== qÜÉåI= = Ñçê= ñ < o I= Ñ (ñ ) = áë= ÅçåíáåìçìëI= íÜÉ= ÇÉêáî~íáîÉ= Ñ ′(ñ ) = Éñáëíë=~åÇ= Ç Ç Ç Ñ ′(ñ ) = ~ M + ~ Nñ + ~ O ñ O + K = Çñ Çñ Çñ = ~N + O~ O ñ + P~ P ñ O + K = ∑ å~ å ñ å −N K= å =N ∞ ∞ å =M = = = 312 .

CHAPTER 11. q~óäçê=pÉêáÉë= ∞ (ñ − ~ )å = Ñ (~ ) + Ñ ′(~ )(ñ − ~ ) + Ñ ′′(~ )(ñ − ~ )O + K Ñ (ñ ) = ∑ Ñ (å ) (~ ) å> O> å=M == + Ñ (å ) (~ )(ñ − ~ ) + o å K== å> å = 1226. qÜÉ=oÉã~áåÇÉê=^ÑíÉê=åHN=qÉêãë=áë=ÖáîÉå=Äó== å +N Ñ (å +N) (ξ )(ñ − ~ ) I=== ~ < ξ < ñ K= oå = (å + N)> = 1227.10 Taylor and Maclaurin Series = tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=å= aáÑÑÉêÉåíá~ÄäÉ=ÑìåÅíáçåW= Ñ (ñ ) = oÉã~áåÇÉê=íÉêãW= o å = = = 1225. fåíÉÖê~íáçå=çÑ=mçïÉê=pÉêáÉë= iÉí= Ñ (ñ ) = ∑ ~ å ñ å = ~ M + ~ Nñ + ~ O ñ O + K =Ñçê= ñ < o K== qÜÉåI==Ñçê= ñ < o I=íÜÉ=áåÇÉÑáåáíÉ=áåíÉÖê~ä= ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ Éñáëíë=~åÇ== å =M ∞ ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ = ∫ ~ Çñ + ∫ ~ ñÇñ + ∫ ~ ñ Çñ + K = O M N O = ~ M ñ + ~N ∞ ñO ñP ñ å +N + ~O + K = ∑ ~å + ` K= O P å +N å =M = = = 11. SERIES 1224. j~Åä~ìêáå=pÉêáÉë= 313 .

Åçë ñ = N − + − + K + (Oå )> O> Q> S> = 314 . É ñ = N + ñ + + +K+ + K= O> P> å> = O P (ñ äå ~ )å + K = ñ äå ~ (ñ äå ~ ) (ñ äå ~ ) 1229. SERIES Ñ (ñ ) = ∑ Ñ (å ) (M ) å =M ∞ Ñ ′′(M)ñ O Ñ (å ) (M )ñ å ñå = Ñ (M) + Ñ ′(M)ñ + +K+ + oå å> O> å> = = = = 11.CHAPTER 11. äå ñ = O +   K I= ñ > M K=  +   ñ + N P  ñ + N R  ñ + N    = (− N)å ñ Oå ± K = ñO ñQ ñS 1233. äå(N + ñ ) = ñ − + − + K + O P Q å +N =   N+ ñ ñP ñR ñT = O ñ + + + + K I= ñ < N K= 1231.11 Power Series Expansions for Some Functions = tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=å= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW=ñ= = = ñO ñP ñå 1228. äå   N− ñ P R T   =  ñ − N N  ñ − N P N  ñ − N  R  1232. ~ ñ = N + + + +K+ N> O> P> å> = (− N)å ñ å+N ± K I= − N < ñ ≤ N K= ñ O ñP ñ Q 1230.

ëáåÜ ñ = ñ + = = = = = 315 . ~êÅëáå ñ = ñ + + +K+ + K I= O⋅P O⋅ Q ⋅R O ⋅ Q ⋅ SK (Oå )(Oå + N) ñ < N K= =  π  ñ P N ⋅ Pñ R N ⋅ P ⋅ RK (Oå − N)ñ Oå +N + +K+ + K I 1238. í~å ñ = ñ + + + + + K I= ñ < K= O P NR PNR OUPR =  N  ñ ñ P Oñ R Oñ T 1236. ëáå ñ = ñ − + − + K + (Oå + N)> P> R> T> = ñ P Oñ R NT ñ T SOñ V π 1235. ÅçëÜ ñ = N + ñO ñQ ñS ñ Oå + + +K+ + K= (Oå )> O> Q> S> ñP ñR ñT ñ O å +N + + +K+ + K= (Oå + N)> P> R> T> = 1241. Åçí ñ = −  + +  P QR VQR + QTOR + K I= ñ < π K=  ñ   = ñ P N ⋅ Pñ R N ⋅ P ⋅ RK (Oå − N)ñ Oå +N 1237. ~êÅí~å ñ = ñ − (− N) ñ Oå+N ± K I= ñ ≤ N K= ñP ñR ñT + − +K+ P R T Oå + N å = 1240. SERIES (− N) ñ Oå+N ± K = ñP ñR ñT 1234.CHAPTER 11. ~êÅÅçë ñ = −  ñ +   O  O⋅P O⋅Q ⋅R O ⋅ Q ⋅ SK (Oå )(Oå + N)  å ñ < N K= = 1239.

SERIES 11. (N + ñ ) = N + å`Nñ + å` O ñ O + K + ã ` å ñ ã + K + ñ å = = å(å − N)K[å − (ã − N)] 1243. P N + ñ = N + − + − + K I= ñ ≤ N K= P P⋅S P⋅S⋅V P ⋅ S ⋅ V ⋅ NO = = = 11.12 Binomial Series = tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêëW=åI=ã= oÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW=ñ= `çãÄáå~íáçåëW= å ` ã = = = å 1242. å ` ã = I= ñ < N K= ã> = N 1244. = N − ñ + ñ O − ñ P + K I= ñ < N K= N+ ñ = N 1245. N + ñ = N + − + − + K I= ñ ≤ N K= O O⋅Q O⋅Q ⋅S O⋅Q ⋅S⋅U = ñ N ⋅ Oñ O N ⋅ O ⋅ Rñ P N ⋅ O ⋅ R ⋅ Uñ Q 1247. = N + ñ + ñ O + ñ P + K I= ñ < N K= N− ñ = ñ ñ O N ⋅ Pñ P N ⋅ P ⋅ Rñ Q 1246.CHAPTER 11.13 Fourier Series = fåíÉÖê~ÄäÉ=ÑìåÅíáçåW= Ñ (ñ ) = cçìêáÉê=ÅçÉÑÑáÅáÉåíëW= ~ M I= ~ å I= Äå = tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêW=å== 316 .

CHAPTER 11. Ñ (ñ ) = M + ∑ (~ å Åçë åñ + Äå ëáå åñ ) = O π ∞ å =N = N 1249. π −π = = 317 . SERIES ~ 1248. ~ å = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Åçë åñ Çñ == π −π = π N Äå = ∫ Ñ (ñ )ëáå åñ Çñ == 1250.

å ` ã = å ` å −ã = = 1256. _áåçãá~ä=`çÉÑÑáÅáÉåí= å å> å `ã =   =  ã  ã> (å − ã )> =   = 1255.1 Permutations and Combinations = mÉêãìí~íáçåëW= å mã = `çãÄáå~íáçåëW= å ` ã = tÜçäÉ=åìãÄÉêëW=åI=ã= = = 1251.Chapter 12 Probability = = = = 12. å ` ã + å ` ã +N = å +N ` ã +N = = 318 . å mã = = (å − ã )> = 1254. c~Åíçêá~ä= å> = N ⋅ O ⋅ PK(å − O)(å − N)å = M> = N = = 1252. å må = å> = = å> 1253.

m~ëÅ~ä∞ë=qêá~åÖäÉ= = oçï=M= = = = = = = oçï=N= = = = = = N= oçï=O= = = = = N= = oçï=P= = = = N= = P= oçï=Q= = = N= = Q= = oçï=R= = N= = R= = NM= oçï=S= N= = S= = NR= = = = = N= = = = N= = O= = N= = P= = S= = Q= = NM= = OM= = NR= = = = N= = R= = = = = = N= = S= = = = = = N= = = = = = = = N= 12. å ` M + å `N + å ` O + K + å ` å = Oå = = 1258. PROBABILITY 1257. mêçÄ~Äáäáíó=çÑ=~å=bîÉåí= ã m(^ ) = I== å ïÜÉêÉ== ã=áë=íÜÉ=åìãÄÉê=çÑ=éçëëáÄäÉ=éçëáíáîÉ=çìíÅçãÉëI== å=áë=íÜÉ=íçí~ä=åìãÄÉê=çÑ=éçëëáÄäÉ=çìíÅçãÉëK= = 319 .2 Probability Formulas = bîÉåíëW=^I=_= mêçÄ~ÄáäáíóW=m= o~åÇçã=î~êá~ÄäÉëW=uI=vI=w= s~äìÉë=çÑ=ê~åÇçã=î~êá~ÄäÉëW=ñI=óI=ò= bñéÉÅíÉÇ=î~äìÉ=çÑ=uW= µ = ^åó=éçëáíáîÉ=êÉ~ä=åìãÄÉêW= ε == pí~åÇ~êÇ=ÇÉîá~íáçåW= σ = s~êá~åÅÉW= σ O = aÉåëáíó=ÑìåÅíáçåëW= Ñ (ñ ) I= Ñ (í ) = = = 1259.CHAPTER 12.

fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=bîÉåíë= m(^ L _ ) = m(^ ) I== m(_ L ^ ) = m(_ ) = = 1265. m(^ ∩ _ ) = m(_ ) ⋅ m(^ L _ ) = m(^ ) ⋅ m(_ L ^ ) = 320 . dÉåÉê~ä=^ÇÇáíáçå=oìäÉ= m(^ ∪ _ ) = m(^ ) + m(_ ) − m(^ ∩ _ ) I== ïÜÉêÉ== ^ ∪ _ =áë=íÜÉ=ìåáçå=çÑ=ÉîÉåíë=^=~åÇ=_I== ^ ∩ _ =áë=íÜÉ=áåíÉêëÉÅíáçå=çÑ=ÉîÉåíë=^=~åÇ=_K= = 1268. `çãéäÉãÉåí= m(^ ) = N − m(^ ) = = 1264. `Éêí~áå=bîÉåí= m( ^ ) = N = = 1262. `çåÇáíáçå~ä=mêçÄ~Äáäáíó= m(^ ∩ _ ) m( ^ L _ ) = = m(_ ) = 1269. fãéçëëáÄäÉ=bîÉåí= m( ^ ) = M = = 1263. PROBABILITY 1260. o~åÖÉ=çÑ=mêçÄ~Äáäáíó=s~äìÉë= M ≤ m(^ ) ≤ N = = 1261. jìäíáéäáÅ~íáçå=oìäÉ=Ñçê=fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=bîÉåíë= m(^ ∩ _ ) = m(^ ) ⋅ m(_ ) = = 1267.CHAPTER 12. ^ÇÇáíáçå=oìäÉ=Ñçê=fåÇÉéÉåÇÉåí=bîÉåíë= m(^ ∪ _ ) = m(^ ) + m(_ ) = = 1266.

_~óÉë∞=cçêãìä~= m(_ ) ⋅ m(^ L _ á ) m(_ á L ^ ) = ã á I== ∑ m(_ á ) ⋅ m(^ L _ á ) â =N ïÜÉêÉ== _ á =áë=~=ëÉí=çÑ=ãìíì~ääó=ÉñÅäìëáîÉ=ÉîÉåíë=EÜóéçíÜÉëÉëFI= ^ =áë=íÜÉ=Ñáå~ä=ÉîÉåíI== m(_ á ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=éêáçê=éêçÄ~ÄáäáíáÉëI= m(_ á L ^ ) =~êÉ=íÜÉ=éçëíÉêáçê=éêçÄ~ÄáäáíáÉëK= = 1273. `ÜÉÄóëÜÉî=fåÉèì~äáíó= s(u ) m( u − µ ≥ ε ) ≤ O I== ε ïÜÉêÉ= s(u ) =áë=íÜÉ=î~êá~åÅÉ=çÑ=uK= 321 . i~ï=çÑ=qçí~ä=mêçÄ~Äáäáíó= m(^ ) = ∑ m(_ á )m(^ L _ á ) I== á =N ã ïÜÉêÉ= _ á =áë=~=ëÉèìÉåÅÉ=çÑ=ãìíì~ääó=ÉñÅäìëáîÉ=ÉîÉåíëK== = 1271. i~ï=çÑ=i~êÖÉ=kìãÄÉêë= p  m å − µ ≥ ε  → M =~ë= å → ∞ I==  å  p  m å − µ < ε  → N =~ë= å → ∞ I==  å  ïÜÉêÉ== på =áë=íÜÉ=ëìã=çÑ=ê~åÇçã=î~êá~ÄäÉëI= å =áë=íÜÉ=åìãÄÉê=çÑ=éçëëáÄäÉ=çìíÅçãÉëK= = 1274. _~óÉë∞=qÜÉçêÉã= m(^ L _ ) ⋅ m(_ ) m(_ L ^ ) = = m(^ ) = 1272. PROBABILITY 1270.CHAPTER 12.

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY

1275. kçêã~ä=aÉåëáíó=cìåÅíáçå=
− N O ϕ(ñ ) = É Oσ I== σ Oπ ïÜÉêÉ=ñ=áë=~=é~êíáÅìä~ê=çìíÅçãÉK= = 1276. pí~åÇ~êÇ=kçêã~ä=aÉåëáíó=cìåÅíáçå=

( ñ −µ ) O

N − òO É = ϕ(ò ) = Oπ ^îÉê~ÖÉ=î~äìÉ= µ = M I=ÇÉîá~íáçå= σ = N K= =

O

=

=====
Figure 210.

=

= 1277. pí~åÇ~êÇ=w=s~äìÉ= u−µ w= = σ = 1278. `ìãìä~íáîÉ=kçêã~ä=aáëíêáÄìíáçå=cìåÅíáçå=
− N c(ñ ) = ∫∞É σ Oπ −

ñ

( í −µ ) O
OσO

Çí I==

322

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY

ïÜÉêÉ== ñ=áë=~=é~êíáÅìä~ê=çìíÅçãÉI== í =áë=~=î~êá~ÄäÉ=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåK= =  α −µ β−µ 1279. m(α < u < β ) = c  I=  − c  σ   σ  ïÜÉêÉ= u=áë=åçêã~ääó=ÇáëíêáÄìíÉÇ=ê~åÇçã=î~êá~ÄäÉI= c=áë=Åìãìä~íáîÉ=åçêã~ä=ÇáëíêáÄìíáçå=ÑìåÅíáçåI== m(α < u < β ) =áë=áåíÉêî~ä=éêçÄ~ÄáäáíóK= = ε 1280. m( u − µ < ε ) = Oc  I== σ ïÜÉêÉ== u=áë=åçêã~ääó=ÇáëíêáÄìíÉÇ=ê~åÇçã=î~êá~ÄäÉI= c=áë=Åìãìä~íáîÉ=åçêã~ä=ÇáëíêáÄìíáçå=ÑìåÅíáçåK= = 1281. `ìãìä~íáîÉ=aáëíêáÄìíáçå=cìåÅíáçå= c(ñ ) = m(u < ñ ) = ∫ Ñ (í )Çí I==
−∞

ñ

ïÜÉêÉ=í=áë=~=î~êá~ÄäÉ=çÑ=áåíÉÖê~íáçåK= = 1282. _Éêåçìääá=qêá~äë=mêçÅÉëë= µ = åé = I= σ O = åéè I== ïÜÉêÉ== å =áë=~=ëÉèìÉåÅÉ=çÑ=ÉñéÉêáãÉåíëI== é =áë=íÜÉ=éêçÄ~Äáäáíó=çÑ=ëìÅÅÉëë=çÑ=É~ÅÜ=ÉñéÉêáãÉåíëI= è =áë=íÜÉ=éêçÄ~Äáäáíó=çÑ=Ñ~áäìêÉI= è = N − é K= = 1283. _áåçãá~ä=aáëíêáÄìíáçå=cìåÅíáçå=======  å Ä(åI éI è ) =   é â è å − â I== â  

323

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY

Ñ (ñ ) = (è + éÉ ñ ) I== ïÜÉêÉ== å=áë=íÜÉ=åìãÄÉê=çÑ=íêá~äë=çÑ=ëÉäÉÅíáçåëI= é=áë=íÜÉ=éêçÄ~Äáäáíó=çÑ=ëìÅÅÉëëI= è=áë=íÜÉ=éêçÄ~Äáäáíó=çÑ=Ñ~áäìêÉI= è = N − é K= = 1284. dÉçãÉíêáÅ=aáëíêáÄìíáçå= m(q = à) = è à−Né I== N è µ = I= σ O = O I== é é ïÜÉêÉ== q=áë=íÜÉ=Ñáêëí=ëìÅÅÉëëÑìä=ÉîÉåí=áë=íÜÉ=ëÉêáÉëI= à=áë=íÜÉ=ÉîÉåí=åìãÄÉêI= é=áë=íÜÉ=éêçÄ~Äáäáíó=íÜ~í=~åó=çåÉ=ÉîÉåí=áë=ëìÅÅÉëëÑìäI== è=áë=íÜÉ=éêçÄ~Äáäáíó=çÑ=Ñ~áäìêÉI= è = N − é K= = 1285. mçáëëçå=aáëíêáÄìíáçå= λâ −λ m(u = â ) ≈ É I= λ = åé I== â> O µ = λ I= σ = λ I== ïÜÉêÉ== λ =áë=íÜÉ=ê~íÉ=çÑ=çÅÅìêêÉåÅÉI= â=áë=íÜÉ=åìãÄÉê=çÑ=éçëáíáîÉ=çìíÅçãÉëK= = 1286. aÉåëáíó=cìåÅíáçå==
å

µ = åé I= σ O = åéè I=

m(~ ≤ u ≤ Ä) = ∫ Ñ (ñ )Çñ ==
~

Ä

= 1287. `çåíáåìçìë=råáÑçêã=aÉåëáíó= ~+Ä N I== I= µ = Ñ= Ä−~ O

324

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY

ïÜÉêÉ=Ñ=áë=íÜÉ=ÇÉåëáíó=ÑìåÅíáçåK= = 1288. bñéçåÉåíá~ä=aÉåëáíó=cìåÅíáçå= Ñ (í ) = λÉ −λí I= µ = λ I= σ O = λO = ïÜÉêÉ=í=áë=íáãÉI= λ =áë=íÜÉ=Ñ~áäìêÉ=ê~íÉK= = 1289. bñéçåÉåíá~ä=aáëíêáÄìíáçå=cìåÅíáçå= c(í ) = N − É −λí I== ïÜÉêÉ=í=áë=íáãÉI= λ =áë=íÜÉ=Ñ~áäìêÉ=ê~íÉK= = 1290. bñéÉÅíÉÇ=s~äìÉ=çÑ=aáëÅêÉíÉ=o~åÇçã=s~êá~ÄäÉë= µ = b(u ) = ∑ ñ á éá I==
á =N å

ïÜÉêÉ= ñ á =áë=~=é~êíáÅìä~ê=çìíÅçãÉI= é á =áë=áíë=éêçÄ~ÄáäáíóK= = 1291. bñéÉÅíÉÇ=s~äìÉ=çÑ=`çåíáåìçìë=o~åÇçã=s~êá~ÄäÉë= µ = b(u ) = ∫ ñÑ (ñ )Çñ ==
−∞ ∞

= 1292. mêçéÉêíáÉë=çÑ=bñéÉÅí~íáçåë= b(u + v ) = b(u ) + b(v ) I== b(u − v ) = b(u ) − b(v ) I= b(Åu ) = Åb(u ) I== b(uv ) = b(u ) ⋅ b(v ) I== ïÜÉêÉ=Å=áë=~=Åçåëí~åíK= = 1293. b(u O ) = s(u ) + µ O I== ïÜÉêÉ== µ = b(u ) =áë=íÜÉ=ÉñéÉÅíÉÇ=î~äìÉI=== s(u ) =áë=íÜÉ=î~êá~åÅÉK= = = =

325

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY

1294. j~êâçî=fåÉèì~äáíó= b(u ) m(u > â ) ≤ I== â ïÜÉêÉ=â=áë=ëçãÉ=Åçåëí~åíK= = 1295. s~êá~åÅÉ=çÑ=aáëÅêÉíÉ=o~åÇçã=s~êá~ÄäÉë=

σ O = s(u ) = b (u − µ ) = ∑ (ñ á − µ ) éá I==
O O á =N

[

]

å

ïÜÉêÉ== ñ á =áë=~=é~êíáÅìä~ê=çìíÅçãÉI= é á =áë=áíë=éêçÄ~ÄáäáíóK= = 1296. s~êá~åÅÉ=çÑ=`çåíáåìçìë=o~åÇçã=s~êá~ÄäÉë= σ = s(u ) = b (u − µ ) =
O O

[

] ∫ (ñ − µ) Ñ (ñ )Çñ ==

O

−∞

= 1297. mêçéÉêíáÉë=çÑ=s~êá~åÅÉ= s(u + v ) = s(u ) + s(v ) I== s(u − v ) = s(u ) + s(v ) I= s(u + Å ) = s(u ) I= s(Åu ) = Å O s(u ) I= ïÜÉêÉ=Å=áë=~=Åçåëí~åíK= = 1298. pí~åÇ~êÇ=aÉîá~íáçå=

a(u ) = s(u ) = b (u − µ ) = = 1299. `çî~êá~åÅÉ= Åçî (uI v ) = b[(u − µ(u ))(v − µ(v ))] = b(uv ) − µ(u )µ(v ) I== ïÜÉêÉ== u =áë=ê~åÇçã=î~êá~ÄäÉI== s(u ) =áë=íÜÉ=î~êá~åÅÉ=çÑ=uI== µ =áë=íÜÉ=ÉñéÉÅíÉÇ=î~äìÉ=çÑ=u=çê=vK=
O

[

]

326

CHAPTER 12. PROBABILITY

= 1300. `çêêÉä~íáçå= Åçî (uI v ) I== ρ(uI v ) = s(u )s(v ) ïÜÉêÉ== s(u ) =áë=íÜÉ=î~êá~åÅÉ=çÑ=uI== s(v ) =áë=íÜÉ=î~êá~åÅÉ=çÑ=vK= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

327

= iççâ=Ñçê=çíÜÉê=Ü~åÇÄççâë=~åÇ=ëçäîÉÇ=éêçÄäÉã=ÖìáÇÉë=~í= ïïïKã~íÜ-ÉÄççâëKÅçãK= = = = = .

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