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Micro Shots 2010

Micro Shots 2010

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JaxWorks Small Business Spreadsheet Factory

Please Note: There is No Support For Free Downloads


Since 1996, JaxWorks has offered a suite of Free Excel workbooks and spreadsheets, and associated MS Word, PDF and HTML
documents, that cover a number of financial, accounting and sales functions. These are invaluable small business tools.

Also included Free are:
- business plan tools, including spreadsheets and excellent instructions
- Excel functions glossary and guide;
- free training courses for most Microsoft Office applications. These guides are in
PDF format and rival commercial books!
- comprehensive list of acronyms, ratios and formulas in customer financial
analysis, and financial terms;
- suite of online calculators, including, breakeven analysis, productivity analysis,
business evaluation;
- Altman Z-Score (covering publicly and privately held firms, and small
businesses);
- and payroll analysis.

If you are involved in financial analysis at any level, or want to learn more about MS Excel and other applications in the Of
suite this site is invaluable.
JaxWorks Small Business Spreadsheet Factory
Please Note: There is No Support For Free Downloads
Excel workbooks and spreadsheets, and associated MS Word, PDF and HTML
documents, that cover a number of financial, accounting and sales functions. These are invaluable small business tools.
free training courses for most Microsoft Office applications. These guides are in
suite of online calculators, including, breakeven analysis, productivity analysis,
If you are involved in financial analysis at any level, or want to learn more about MS Excel and other applications in the Office
© Copyright, 2010, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Please Note: There is No Support For Free Downloads
MicroShots™ Business Analysis System is designed for the owner or professional to quickly analyze the overall
health of any business. MicroShots are miniature chart snapshots of key financial analysis data. The MicroShots
worksheet is fully automated and yields instant results.

Here is what you do:
1) Enter data in cells with Blue figures in the "Master Data Entry" worksheet.
2) Enter data in cells with Blue figures in the "Cash Flow Data Entry" worksheet.
3) Go to the "Quick Analysis 4 Periods" worksheet. Here you will find the Primary Financial Predictors that
determine the overall health of the business.
4) Next, go to the "Summary Analysis" worksheet. All of the key analysis worksheets feed information back to
this summary sheet for additional fast assessment.
5) Then, go to the "Financial Health Analysis" worksheet. This worksheet condenses everything into one printed
page.
6) Lastly, go to the automated "MicroShots" worksheet for some amazing fast analysis results.


© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
© Copyright, 2010, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Please Note: There is No Support For Free Downloads
™ Business Analysis System is designed for the owner or professional to quickly analyze the overall
health of any business. MicroShots are miniature chart snapshots of key financial analysis data. The MicroShots
" worksheet. Here you will find the Primary Financial Predictors that
" worksheet. All of the key analysis worksheets feed information back to
" worksheet. This worksheet condenses everything into one printed
" worksheet for some amazing fast analysis results.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
• Copyright • Master Data Entry • License Agreement
Financial Analysis Z-Score Analysis Special Analysis
• Asset Chart • Z-Score Analysis • Market Value Explained
• Breakdown of Costs • Z-Score Explained • Market Value Analysis
• Cash Flow Data Entry • Z-Score Analysis (1) • Return-on-investment analysis
• Cash Flow 4 Periods • Z-Score Analysis (2) • SB Headcount Analysis
• Cash Flow 8 Periods • Z-Score Analysis (3) • Corporate Headcount Analysis
• Comp. Balance Sheet • Z-Score (1) Chart
• Comp. Income Statement • Z-Score (2) Chart
• Financial Summary • Z-Score (3) Chart
• Forecast Analysis
• Logit Analysis
• MicroShots
• Payroll Analysis
• Quick Analysis 4 Periods
• Stock Valuation
• Summary Analysis
© Copyright, 2010, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Master I ndex
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
I ncome Statement
Month Month
Sales & Cost of Sales 1 2
Gross Sales $2,010,000 $2,560,000
Discounts/Allowances ($50,000) ($60,000)
Net Sales $1,960,000 $2,500,000
Direct Material Cost $320,000 $427,600
Direct Labor Cost $300,000 $315,000
Other Direct Costs $125,000 $128,750
Total Cost of Sales $745,000 $871,350
Gross Profit $1,215,000 $1,628,650
Expenses
Fixed Expenses 1 2
Executive Salaries $190,000 $191,000
Advertising $50,000 $51,500
Auto & Truck Expenses $30,000 $30,900
Depreciation $5,000 $5,150
Employee Benefits $3,000 $3,090
Home Office Business Expenses $1,000 $1,030
Insurance $3,906 $3,754
Bank Charges $2,133 $2,197
Legal & Professional Services $1,000 $1,330
Meals & Entertainment $4,000 $4,120
Office Expense $6,000 $6,180
Retirement Plans $1,000 $1,030
Rent - Equipment $3,000 $3,090
Rent - Office Property $8,750 $9,110
Repairs $1,000 $1,030
Supplies $1,000 $1,030
Taxes - Business & Payroll $1,000 $1,030
Travel $6,230 $6,120
Utilities $11,974 $12,374
Other Expenses $0 $0
Total Fixed Expenses $329,993 $335,065
Variable Expenses 1 2
Office salaries $90,000 $102,700
Employee benefits $43,000 $46,875
Payroll taxes $18,000 $18,540
Sales and Marketing $14,000 $14,420
Telephone and telegraph $6,000 $6,180
Stationary and office supplies $2,110 $2,680
Bad debts $100 $103
Postage $5,557 $5,724
Contributions $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Add Item $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0
Miscellaneous $0 $0
Total Variable Expenses $178,767 $197,222
1 2
Operating expenses $508,760 $532,287
Interest $16,250 $16,738
Depreciation $32,500 $33,475
Amortization $1,250 $1,288
Other $0 $0
Total expenses $558,760 $583,787
Operating income $656,240 $1,044,863
Other income and expenses 1 2
Gain (loss) on sale of assets $10,000 $10,300
Other (net) $20,000 $20,600
Subtotal $30,000 $30,900
Income before tax $686,240 $1,075,763
Income taxes $205,872 $322,729
Net income $480,368 $753,034
Return On Ownership $670,368 $944,034
Break-Even $686,241 $1,075,764
686 1,076
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Balance Sheet
ASSETS Month Month
Current Assets 1 2
Cash and cash equivalents $451,000 $464,530
Accounts receivable $350,000 $460,500
Notes receivable $1,200 $3,200
Inventory $400,000 $612,000
Other current assets $10,000 $10,300
Total Current Assets $1,212,200 $1,550,530
Fixed Assets 1 2
Land $1,000,000 $1,030,000
Buildings $1,500,000 $1,555,000
Equipment $800,000 $824,000
Subtotal $3,300,000 $3,409,000
Less-accumulated depreciation $400,000 $412,000
Total Fixed Assets $2,900,000 $2,997,000
Intangible Assets 1 2
Cost $50,000 $51,500
Less-accumulated amortization $20,000 $20,600
Total Intangible Assets $30,000 $30,900
Other assets $25,000 $25,750
Total Assets $4,167,200 $4,604,180
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities 1 2
Accounts payable $600,000 $618,000
Notes payable $100,000 $103,000
Current portion of long-term debt $100,000 $103,000
Income taxes $30,000 $30,900
Accrued expenses $90,000 $92,700
Other current liabilities $16,000 $16,480
Total Current Liabilities $936,000 $964,080
Non-Current Liabilities 1 2
Long-term debt $601,200 $624,200
Deferred income $100,000 $103,000
Deferred income taxes $30,000 $30,900
Other long-term liabilities $50,000 $51,500
Total Liabilities $1,717,200 $1,773,680
Stockholders' Equity 1 2
Capital stock issued $100,000 $100,000
Number of shares issued 100,000 100,000
Additional paid in capital $950,000 $678,500
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Retained earnings $1,400,000 $1,542,000
Total Stockholders' Equity $2,450,000 $2,320,500
Total Liabilities and Equity $4,167,200 $4,094,180
Amount sheet is out-of-balance $0 $510,000
Summary Extractions & Additional Data Entries
Beginning of
Year
Inventory 400,000
Total assets 3,266,000
Owners' equity 1,550,000
Number of common shares 100,000
1 2
Current assets 1,212,200 1,550,530
Fixed assets 2,900,000 2,997,000
Total assets 4,112,200 4,547,530
Average total assets 3,689,100 3,906,765
Cash and cash equivalents 451,000 464,530
Inventory 400,000 612,000
Average inventory 400,000 506,000
Current liabilities 936,000 964,080
Total liabilities 1,717,200 1,773,680
Owners' equity 2,450,000 2,320,500
Number of common shares 100,000 100,000
Average number of common shares 100,000 100,000
Average owners' equity 2,000,000 1,935,250
Market price per share 96.52 96.52
Cash flow 90,360 289,233
Cash flow per share 0.90 2.89
Dividends paid 5,000 6,000
Retained Earnings 1,400,000 1,542,000
Total sales 2,010,000 2,560,000
Operating expenses 508,760 532,287
Operating income 1,501,240 2,027,713
Advertising expense 50,000 51,500
Marketing expense 45,000 45,000
Earnings before interest and taxes 686,240 1,075,763
Interest expense 16,250 16,738
Net income 480,368 753,034
Total loan 601,200 624,200
Value of collateral or property 65,000 65,000
Line Item
Line Item
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Cash Flow Data Entries
Operating Data 1
Days sales in accounts receivable 30
Days materials cost in inventory 30
Days finished goods in inventory 45
Days materials cost in payables 60
Days payroll expense accrued 7
Days operating expense accrued 20
Expense Data
Direct labor $320,000
Other payroll $240,000
Payroll taxes $56,000
Insurance $28,000
Legal/accounting $40,000
Office overhead $60,000
Financing Data (0 on) Depreciation Capital
Long term debt
Short-term debt
Capital stock issued $100,000
Additional paid-in capital $50,000
Accumulated depreciation (as of 2005) $400,000
Forecasted
1 2
Sales
Sales $2,000,000 $1,500,000
Cost of sales $945,000 $865,000
Gross profit $1,055,000 $635,000
Expenses
Operating expenses $424,000 $318,000
Interest $16,250 $16,250
Depreciation $32,500 $33,958
Amortization $1,250 $1,250
Total expenses $474,000 $369,458
Operating income $581,000 $265,542
Other income and expenses
Gain (loss) on sale of assets $100,000 $10,000
Other (net) $20,000 $50,000
Subtotal $120,000 $60,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Income before tax $701,000 $325,542
Income taxes $210,300 $97,663
Net income $490,700 $227,879
Retained earnings-beginning $1,400,000 $1,890,700
Dividends paid $0 $0
Retained earnings-ending $1,890,700 $2,118,579
Detailed Supporting Information
Cost of sales
Direct labor $320,000 $240,000
Materials $500,000 $500,000
Other costs $125,000 $125,000
Depreciation: Enter the numbers of years.
30 year Buildings $12,500 $12,083
10 year Equipment $20,000 $21,875
Interest: Percentages from Data sheet
10.00% Long-Term $1,250 $1,250
10.00% Short-Term $15,000 $15,000
Cash Flow Balance Sheet Entries
Actual Forecast
0 1
ASSETS
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents $451,000 $90,360
Accounts receivable $350,000 $657,534
Inventory $400,000 $630,411
Other current assets $10,000 $60,000
Total Current Assets $1,211,000 $1,438,305
Fixed Assets
Land $100,000 $112,500
Buildings $1,500,000 $1,450,000
Equipment $800,000 $875,000
Subtotal $2,400,000 $2,437,500
Less-accumulated depreciation $400,000 $432,500
Total Fixed Assets $2,000,000 $2,005,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Intangible Assets
Cost $50,000 $50,000
Less-accumulated amortization $20,000 $21,250
Total Intangible Assets $30,000 $28,750
Other assets $25,000 $33,000
Total Assets $3,266,000 $3,505,055
Actual Forecast
LIABILITIES AND 0 1
STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable $600,000 $328,767
Notes payable $100,000 $50,000
Current portion of long-term debt $100,000 $100,000
Income taxes $30,000 $183,300
Accrued expenses $90,000 $83,288
Other current liabilities $16,000 $12,000
Total Current Liabilities $936,000 $757,355
Non-Current Liabilities
Long-term debt $600,000 $500,000
Deferred income $100,000 $90,000
Deferred income taxes $30,000 $27,000
Other long-term liabilities $50,000 $90,000
Total Liabilities $1,716,000 $1,464,355
Stockholders' Equity
Capital stock issued $100,000 $100,000
Additional paid in capital $50,000 $50,000
Retained earnings $1,400,000 $1,890,700
Other $0 $0
$1,550,000 $2,040,700
Total Liabilities and Equity $3,266,000 $3,505,055
"C" Corporation (Y/N) Y
Cash balance positive or (negative) Positive Positive
Amount sheet is out-of-balance $0 $0
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month
3 4
$2,721,800 $3,285,454
($70,000) ($80,000)
$2,651,800 $3,205,454
$431,238 $432,513
$330,450 $346,364
$132,613 $136,591
$894,301 $915,467
$1,757,500 $2,289,987
3 4
$195,000 $195,000
$53,045 $54,636
$31,827 $32,782
$45,305 $50,464
$3,183 $3,278
$1,061 $1,093
$4,010 $3,994
$2,263 $2,331
$1,670 $2,020
$4,244 $4,371
$6,365 $6,556
$1,061 $1,093
$3,183 $3,278
$9,544 $9,929
$1,061 $1,093
$1,061 $1,093
$1,061 $1,093
$6,010 $5,900
$14,186 $16,974
$0 $0
$385,138 $396,977
3 4
$112,368 $118,647
$47,970 $51,249
$19,096 $19,669
$14,853 $15,298
$6,365 $6,556
$3,005 $3,493
$106 $109
$5,895 $6,072
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$209,659 $221,095
3 4
$594,797 $618,071
$17,240 $17,757
$34,479 $35,514
$1,326 $1,366
$0 $0
$647,842 $672,707
$1,109,658 $1,617,279
3 4
$10,609 $10,927
$21,218 $31,855
$31,827 $42,782
$1,141,485 $1,660,061
$342,445 $498,018
$799,039 $1,162,043
$994,039 $1,357,043
$1,141,486 $1,660,062
1,141 1,660
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month
3 4
$478,466 $492,820 450794.6146
$871,315 $1,382,454
$3,000 $3,400
$824,360 $937,091
$10,609 $10,927
$2,187,750 $2,826,692
3 4
$1,106,090 $1,109,273
$1,591,350 $1,739,091
$948,720 $874,182
$3,646,160 $3,722,545
$424,360 $437,091
$3,221,800 $3,285,454
3 4
$53,045 $54,636
$21,218 $21,855
$31,827 $32,782
$26,523 $27,318
$5,467,899 $6,172,246
3 4
$636,540 $640,563
$106,090 $109,273
$106,090 $109,273
$31,827 $32,782
$95,481 $98,345
$16,974 $17,484
$993,002 $1,007,719
3 4
$645,630 $668,308
$106,090 $109,273
$31,827 $32,782
$53,045 $54,636
$1,829,594 $1,872,718
3 4
$100,000 $100,000
100,000 100,000
$1,853,045 $2,469,710
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
$1,685,260 $1,729,818
$3,638,305 $4,299,528
$5,467,899 $6,172,246
$0 $0
3 4 Summary
2,187,750 2,826,692 $2,826,692
3,221,800 3,285,454 $3,285,454
5,409,550 6,112,146 $6,112,146
4,337,775 4,689,073 $4,689,073
478,466 492,820 $492,820
824,360 937,091 $937,091
612,180 668,545 $668,545
993,002 1,007,719 $1,007,719
1,829,594 1,872,718 $1,872,718
3,638,305 4,299,528 $4,299,528
100,000 100,000 100,000
100,000 100,000 100,000
2,594,153 2,924,764 $2,924,764
96.52 96.52 $96.52
614,196 1,267,364 $2,261,153
6.14 12.67 $22.61
7,000 8,000 $26,000
1,685,260 1,729,818 $1,729,818
2,721,800 3,285,454 $10,577,254
594,797 618,071 $2,253,915
2,127,003 2,667,383 $8,323,339
53,045 54,636 $209,181
45,000 45,000 $180,000
1,141,485 1,660,061 $4,563,549
17,240 17,757 $67,984
799,039 1,162,043 $3,194,484
645,630 668,308 $668,308
65,000 65,000 $65,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
2 3 4
30 30 30
30 30 30
45 45 45
60 60 60
7 7 7
20 20 20
$240,000 $208,000 $321,616
$180,000 $156,000 $241,212
$42,000 $36,400 $56,283
$21,000 $18,200 $28,141
$30,000 $26,000 $40,202
$45,000 $39,000 $60,303
Current Portion LT Portion Rate
$100,000 $500,000 10.00%
$50,000 10.00%
Forecasted Total
3 4 4 Periods
$1,300,000 $2,010,100 $6,810,100
$833,000 $1,071,616 $3,714,616
$467,000 $938,484 $3,095,484
$275,600 $426,141 $1,443,741
$16,250 $16,250 $65,000
$33,958 $33,958 $134,374
$1,250 $1,250 $5,000
$327,058 $477,599 $1,648,115
$139,942 $460,885 $1,447,369
$3,000 $405,700 $518,700
$100,000 $200,000 $370,000
$103,000 $605,700 $888,700
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
$242,942 $1,066,585 $2,336,069
$72,883 $319,975 $700,821
$170,059 $746,609 $1,635,248
$2,118,579 $2,288,638 $1,400,000
$0 $50,000 $50,000
$2,288,638 $2,985,247 $2,985,248
$208,000 $321,616 $1,089,616
$500,000 $500,000 $2,000,000
$125,000 $250,000 $625,000
$12,083 $12,083 $48,749
$21,875 $21,875 $85,625
$1,250 $1,250 $5,000
$15,000 $15,000 $60,000
Forecast
2 3 4
$289,233 $614,196 $1,267,364
$493,151 $427,397 $660,855
$590,959 $575,178 $692,852
$45,090 $76,320 $50,000
$1,418,433 $1,693,091 $2,671,071
$125,000 $137,500 $150,000
$1,450,000 $1,450,000 $1,450,000
$875,000 $875,000 $875,000
$2,450,000 $2,462,500 $2,475,000
$466,458 $500,416 $534,374
$1,983,542 $1,962,084 $1,940,626
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
$50,000 $50,000 $50,000
$22,500 $23,750 $25,000
$27,500 $26,250 $25,000
$120,000 $5,000 $23,000
$3,549,475 $3,686,425 $4,659,697
Forecast
2 3 4
$328,767 $328,767 $328,767
$50,000 $50,000 $50,000
$100,000 $100,000 $100,000
$70,663 $45,883 $292,975
$62,466 $54,137 $83,708
$12,000 $12,000 $12,000
$623,896 $590,787 $867,450
$500,000 $500,000 $500,000
$90,000 $90,000 $90,000
$27,000 $27,000 $27,000
$40,000 $40,000 $40,000
$1,280,896 $1,247,787 $1,524,450
$100,000 $100,000 $100,000
$50,000 $50,000 $50,000
$2,118,579 $2,288,638 $2,985,247
$0 $0 $0
$2,268,579 $2,438,638 $3,135,247
$3,549,475 $3,686,425 $4,659,697
Positive Positive Positive
$0 $0 $0
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Year of Projection 2000
Corporation Type (C or S)? C 'C' Corporation format selected; income taxes WILL be computed
Operating Data 1
Days sales in accounts receivable 30
Days materials cost in inventory 30
Days finished goods in inventory 45
Days materials cost in payables 60
Days payroll expense accrued 7
Days operating expense accrued 20
Expense Data
Direct labor as % of sales 16.00% of sales $320,000
Other payroll as % of sales 12.00% of sales $240,000
Payroll taxes as % of payroll 10.00% of payroll $56,000
Insurance as % of payroll 5.00% of payroll $28,000
Legal/accounting as % of sales 2.00% of sales $40,000
Office overhead as % of sales 3.00% of sales $60,000
Financing Data (0 on) Depreciation Capital
Long term debt
Short-term debt
Capital stock issued $100,000
Additional paid-in capital $50,000
Accumulated depreciation (as of 1999) $400,000
CASH FLOW DATA ENTRY
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
2 3 4
30 30 30
30 30 30
45 45 45
60 60 60
7 7 7
20 20 20
$240,000 $208,000 $321,616
$180,000 $156,000 $241,212
$42,000 $36,400 $56,283
$21,000 $18,200 $28,141
$30,000 $26,000 $40,202
$45,000 $39,000 $60,303
Current Portion LT Portion Rate
$100,000 $500,000 10.00%
$50,000 10.00%
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
6200 XYZ Drive
ABC, California 00000-0000
Phone: (000) 000-0000
FAX: (000) 000-0000
E-mail: someone@xyz.com
Financial Health MicroShots
Sales Cash Flow
4 Periods 4 Periods
Thousands of $ Thousands of $
Net Income Debt Ratio
4 Periods 4 Periods
Thousands of $ Ratio
Current Ratio Break-Even
4 Periods 4 Periods
Ratio Thousands of $
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
1 2 3 4
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
1 2 3 4
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
1 2 3 4
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
1,400
1 2 3 4
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
1 2 3 4
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
1 2 3 4
Financial Analysis
Financial Summary 4 Periods (1000s)
Analysis 1 2 3 4
Net Sales 1,960 2,500 2,652 3,205
Cost of Goods Sold 745 871 894 915
Gross Profit (Margin) 1,215 1,629 1,757 2,290
G&A 179 197 210 221
Total Operating Expenses 559 584 648 673
EBIT* 686 1,076 1,141 1,660
Net Income After 480 753 799 1,162
Ownership** 670 944 994 1,357
Current Assets 1,212 1,551 2,188 2,827
Inventory 400 612 824 937
Other Assets 10 10 11 11
Total Assets 4,167 4,604 5,468 6,172
Current Liabilities 936 964 993 1,008
Non-current Liabilities 781 810 837 865
Total Liabilities 1,717 1,774 1,830 1,873
Equity 2,450 2,321 3,638 4,300
Net Cash Flow 90 289 614 1,267
Current Ratio 1.30 1.61 2.20 2.81
Quick Ratio 0.87 0.97 1.37 1.88
Debt Ratio 0.41 0.39 0.33 0.30
Asset Turnover 0.47 0.54 0.48 0.52
Net Income/Sales 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.36
Debt/Equity 0.70 0.76 0.50 0.44
Return on Assets 0.15 0.24 0.18 0.23
Working Capital 276 586 1,195 1,819
Sales/Working Capital 7.10 4.26 2.22 1.76
Book Market Value 2,450 2,831 3,638 4,300
Plus Ownership** 3,120 3,775 4,632 5,657
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Forecasted
1 2
Cash from operations
Net earnings (loss) $490,700 $227,879
Add-depreciation and amortization $33,750 $35,208
Net cash $524,450 $263,087
Cash provided (used) by
operating activities
Accounts Receivable ($307,534) $164,383
Inventory ($230,411) $39,452
Other current assets ($50,000) $14,910
Other non-current assets ($8,000) ($87,000)
Accounts payable ($271,233) $0
Current portion of long-term debt $0 $0
Income taxes $153,300 ($112,637)
Accrued expenses ($6,712) ($20,822)
Other current liabilities ($4,000) $0
Dividends paid $0 $0
Net cash from operations ($724,590) ($1,714)
Investment transactions
Increases (decreases)
Land $12,500 $12,500
Buildings and improvements ($50,000) $0
Equipment $75,000 $0
Intangible assets $0 $0
Net cash from investments $37,500 $12,500
Financing transactions
Increases (decreases)
Short term notes payable ($50,000) $0
Long term debt ($100,000) $0
Deferred income ($10,000) $0
Deferred income taxes ($3,000) $0
Other long-term liabilities $40,000 ($50,000)
Capital stock and paid in capital $0 $0
Net cash from financing ($123,000) ($50,000)
Net increase (decrease) in cash ($360,640) $198,873
Cash at beginning of period $451,000 $90,360
CASH FLOW STATEMENT 4 PERI ODS
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Cash at the end of period $90,360 $289,233
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Forecasted Total
3 4 4 Periods
$170,059 $746,609 $1,635,248
$35,208 $35,208 $139,374
$205,267 $781,817 $1,774,621
$65,754 ($233,458) ($310,855)
$15,781 ($117,674) ($292,852)
($31,230) $26,320 ($40,000)
$115,000 ($18,000) $2,000
$0 $0 ($271,233)
$0 $0 $0
($24,780) $247,092 $262,975
($8,329) $29,571 ($6,292)
$0 $0 ($4,000)
$0 ($50,000) ($50,000)
$132,196 ($116,149) ($710,257)
$12,500 $12,500 $50,000
$0 $0 ($50,000)
$0 $0 $75,000
$0 $0 $0
$12,500 $12,500 $75,000
$0 $0 ($50,000)
$0 $0 ($100,000)
$0 $0 ($10,000)
$0 $0 ($3,000)
$0 $0 ($10,000)
$0 $0 $0
$0 $0 ($173,000)
$324,963 $653,168 $816,364
$289,233 $614,196 $451,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
$614,196 $1,267,364 $1,267,364
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Current Forecasted-Linear Regression Analysis
1 2 3
Cash from operations 1 2 3
Net earnings (loss) $490,700 $227,879 $170,059
Add-depreciation and amortization $33,750 $35,208 $35,208
Net cash from operations $524,450 $263,087 $205,267
Cash provided (used) by
operating activities
Accounts Receivable ($307,534) $164,383 $65,754
Inventory ($230,411) $39,452 $15,781
Other current assets ($50,000) $14,910 ($31,230)
Other non-current assets ($8,000) ($87,000) $115,000
Accounts payable ($271,233) $0 $0
Current portion of long-term debt $0 $0 $0
Income taxes $153,300 ($112,637) ($24,780)
Accrued expenses ($6,712) ($20,822) ($8,329)
Other current liabilities ($4,000) $0 $0
Dividends paid $0 $0 $0
Net cash from operations ($724,590) ($1,714) $132,196
Investment transactions
Increases (decreases)
Land $12,500 $12,500 $12,500
Buildings and improvements ($50,000) $0 $0
Equipment $75,000 $0 $0
Intangible assets $0 $0 $0
Net cash from investments $37,500 $12,500 $12,500
Financing transactions
Increases (decreases)
Short term notes payable ($50,000) $0 $0
Long term debt ($100,000) $0 $0
Deferred income ($10,000) $0 $0
Deferred income taxes ($3,000) $0 $0
Other long-term liabilities $40,000 ($50,000) $0
Capital stock and paid in capital $0 $0 $0
Net cash from financing ($123,000) ($50,000) $0
Net increase (decrease) in cash ($360,640) $198,873 $324,963
Cash at beginning of period $451,000 $90,360 $289,233
CASH FLOW PROJ ECTI ONS 8 PERI ODS
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Cash at the end of period $90,360 $289,233 $614,196
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Current Forecasted-Linear Regression Analysis
4 5 6 7 8
4 5 6 7 8
$746,609 $586,289 $657,279 $728,270 $799,261
$35,208 $35,937 $36,374 $36,812 $37,249
$781,817 $622,226 $693,654 $765,082 $836,510
($233,458) ($46,814) ($34,454) ($22,094) ($9,734)
($117,674) $5,422 $36,876 $68,330 $99,784
$26,320 $35,705 $53,987 $72,269 $90,551
($18,000) $43,500 $60,700 $77,900 $95,100
$0 $135,617 $216,986 $298,356 $379,726
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$247,092 $158,052 $194,975 $231,899 $268,822
$29,571 $28,763 $40,897 $53,031 $65,165
$0 $2,000 $3,200 $4,400 $5,600
($50,000) ($50,000) ($65,000) ($80,000) ($95,000)
($116,149) $312,244 $508,167 $704,091 $900,014
$12,500 $12,500 $12,500 $12,500 $12,500
$0 $25,000 $40,000 $55,000 $70,000
$0 ($37,500) ($60,000) ($82,500) ($105,000)
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$12,500 $0 ($7,500) ($15,000) ($22,500)
$0 $25,000 $40,000 $55,000 $70,000
$0 $50,000 $80,000 $110,000 $140,000
$0 $5,000 $8,000 $11,000 $14,000
$0 $1,500 $2,400 $3,300 $4,200
$0 ($20,000) ($27,000) ($34,000) ($41,000)
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $61,500 $103,400 $145,300 $187,200
$653,168 $995,970 $1,312,721 $1,629,472 $1,946,224
$614,196 $533,313 $602,159 $671,005 $739,851
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
$1,267,364 $1,529,282 $1,914,880 $2,300,477 $2,686,075
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Account
Descriptions
Period
1
Accounts Receivable-Beginning 350,000
Accounts Receivable-Ending 657,534
Cash 451,000
Cash Flow 90,360
Current Assets 1,212,200
Current Liabilities 936,000
EBIT 686,240
Equity 2,450,000
Fixed Assets 2,900,000
Interest 16,250
Inventory-Beginning 400,000
Inventory-Ending 630,411
Long Term Debt 601,200
Market Value of Equity 2,450,000
Marketable Securities 10,000
Net Profit before Interest and Taxes 656,240
Retained Earnings 1,400,000
Sales 1,960,000
Tangible Total Assets 3,300,000
Total Assets 4,167,200
Total Liabilities 1,717,200
Working Capital 276,200
Primary Financial Predictors - 4 Periods - Quick Analysis
EBIT Sales
Cash Flow Working Capital
Current Assets Current Liabilities
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Primary Financial Predictors - 4 Periods - Quick Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Primary Financial Predictors - 4 Periods - Quick Analysis
Predictions
Z Score: If Publicly Held 1
1.2 x (working capital / total assets) 0.0795
1.4 x (retained earn / total assets) 0.4703
3.3 x (EBIT / total assets) 0.5434
.6 x (market value equity / total liabilities) 0.8560
.999 x (sales / total assets) 0.4699
Z-Score 2.42
Z Score: If Privately Held 1
.717 x (working capital / total assets) 0.0475
.847 x (retained earn / total assets) 0.2846
3.107 x (EBIT / total assets) 0.5116
.042 x (market value equity / total liabilities) 0.0599
.998 x (sales / total assets) 0.4694
Z-Score 1.37
Z Score: Non-Manufacturing 1
6.56 x (working capital / total assets) 0.4348
3.26 x (retained earn / total assets) 1.0952
6.72 x (EBIT / total assets) 1.1066
1.05 x (market value equity / total liabilities) 1.4981
Z Score 4.13
Springate Analysis 1
Working Capital 276,200
Net Profit before interest and Taxes 656,240
Total Assets 4,167,200
Net Profit before Taxes 686,240
Current Liabilities 936,000
Sales 1,960,000
Working Capital/Total Assets 0.06628
Net Profit before interest and Taxes/Total Assets 0.16468
Net Profit before Taxes/Current Liabilities 0.73316
Sales/Total Assets 0.47034
Z = 1.25
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Primary Financial Predictors - 4 Periods - Quick Analysis
Logit Analysis 1
Cash 451,000
Marketable Securities 10,000
Accounts Receivable-Beginning 350,000
Accounts Receivable-Ending 657,534
Inventory-Beginning 400,000
Inventory-Ending 630,411
Fixed Assets 2,900,000
Total Assets 4,167,200
Current Liabilities 936,000
Long Term Debt 601,200
Sales 1,960,000
Income from Continuing Operations 656,240
Constant 0.23883
Average Inventories/Sales -0.035
Average Receivables/Average Inventories -1.651
Cash+Marketable Securities/Total Assets -1.193
Quick Assets/Current Liabilities 3.673
Income from CO/(Total Assets-Current Liab) 0.099
Long-Term Debt/(Total Assets-Current Liab) -0.809
Sales/(Net Working Capital+Fixed Assets) 0.058
Sum of Coefficients * Ratios 0.381
Probability of Bankruptcy 40.58%
1
Fulmer H-Factor Analysis 1
Retained Earnings/Total Assets 0.3360
Sales/Total Assets 0.4703
EBIT/Equity 0.2801
Cash Flow/Total Debt 0.0526
Total Debt/Total Assets 0.4121
Current Liabilities/Total Assets 0.2246
Log Tangible Total Assets 6.5185
Working Capital/Total Debt 0.1608
Log EBIT/Interest 1.6256
H-Factor
1.86
0.10
0.02
0.07
-0.05
0.52
3.75
0.17
1.45
Sum 7.89
Less -6.08
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Primary Financial Predictors - 4 Periods - Quick Analysis
H = 1.82
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Period
2
Period
3
Period
4
Predictor
ID
Instructions
657,534 460,500 493,151 L
460,500 493,151 427,397 L
464,530 478,466 492,820 L
663,403 803,429 1,145,988 F
1,550,530 2,187,750 2,826,692 Z, S
964,080 993,002 1,007,719 All
1,075,763 1,141,485 1,660,061 Z, S, F
2,320,500 3,638,305 4,299,528 F
2,997,000 3,221,800 3,285,454 L
16,738 17,240 17,757 F
630,411 590,959 575,178 L
590,959 575,178 692,852 L
624,200 645,630 668,308 L
2,320,500 3,638,305 4,299,528 Z
10,300 10,609 10,927 L
1,044,863 1,109,658 1,617,279 S, L
1,542,000 1,685,260 1,729,818 Z, F
2,500,000 2,651,800 3,205,454 ALL except Z3
3,409,000 3,646,160 3,722,545 F
4,604,180 5,467,899 6,172,246 All
1,773,680 1,829,594 1,872,718 Z, F
586,450 1,194,748 1,818,973 Z, S, F
Quick Analysis
These figures are linked to
the Master Data Entry
worksheet.

The Predictor ID Codes
indicate the individual
analyses that use the
numbers:

Z = Z-Scores
S = Springate
L = Logit Analysis
F = Fulmer H-Factor
All = All Predictors
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Quick Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Quick Analysis
Predictions
2 3 4 TREND
0.1528 0.2622 0.3536
0.4689 0.4315 0.3924
0.7710 0.6889 0.8876
0.7850 1.1932 1.3775
0.5424 0.4845 0.5188
2.72 3.06 3.53 3.85 OK
Overall Trend OK
2 3 4 TREND
0.0913 0.1567 0.2113
0.2837 0.2611 0.2374
0.7259 0.6486 0.8356
0.0549 0.0835 0.0964
0.5419 0.4840 0.5183
1.70 1.63 1.90 2.03 Warning - Trend Below 2.90
Overall Trend is OK
2 3 4 TREND
0.8356 1.4334 1.9332
1.0918 1.0048 0.9136
1.5701 1.4029 1.8074
1.3737 2.0880 2.4107
4.87 5.93 7.06 7.96 OK
Overall Trend is OK
2 3 4 TREND
586,450 1,194,748 1,818,973
1,044,863 1,109,658 1,617,279
4,604,180 5,467,899 6,172,246
1,075,763 1,141,485 1,660,061
964,080 993,002 1,007,719
2,500,000 2,651,800 3,205,454
0.12737 0.21850 0.29470
0.23365 0.20876 0.26896
1.11584 1.14953 1.64734
0.54298 0.48498 0.51933
1.80 1.82 2.42 2.71 OK - Above 0.862
Overall Trend is OK
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Quick Analysis
2 3 4 TREND
464,530 478,466 492,820
10,300 10,609 10,927
657,534 460,500 493,151
460,500 493,151 427,397
630,411 590,959 575,178
590,959 575,178 692,852
2,997,000 3,221,800 3,285,454
4,604,180 5,467,899 6,172,246
964,080 993,002 1,007,719
624,200 645,630 668,308
2,500,000 2,651,800 3,205,454
1,044,863 1,109,658 1,617,279
0.23883 0.23883 0.23883
-0.026 -0.023 -0.023
-1.234 -1.357 -0.976
-1.112 -0.964 -0.880
2.982 3.041 2.840
0.140 0.121 0.152
-0.746 -0.628 -0.563
0.077 0.077 0.090
0.321 0.505 0.879
42.04% 37.65% 29.33% 28% OK - Below 50%
2 3 4 5 Overall Trend is OK
2 3 4 TREND
0.3349 0.3082 0.2803
0.5430 0.4850 0.5193
0.4636 0.3137 0.3861
0.3740 0.4391 0.6119
0.3852 0.3346 0.3034
0.2094 0.1816 0.1633
6.5326 6.5618 6.5708
0.3306 0.6530 0.9713
1.8080 1.8209 1.9708
1.85 1.70 1.55
0.12 0.10 0.11
0.03 0.02 0.03
0.48 0.56 0.78
-0.05 -0.04 -0.04
0.49 0.42 0.38
3.76 3.77 3.78
0.36 0.71 1.05
1.62 1.63 1.76
8.65 8.88 9.40
-6.08 -6.08 -6.08
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Quick Analysis
2.57 2.80 3.33 3.82 OK
2.63 Overall Trend is OK
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month
1 2
1 2
Z Score: If Publicly Held 2.40 2.70
(Higher is Better) If Z is less than 1.8 then the firm is classified as Failed.
Z Score: If Privately Held 1.35 1.68
(Higher is Better) If Z is less than 1.23 then the firm is classified as Failed.
Z Score: Non-manufacturing 4.09 4.83
(Higher is Better) If Z is less than 1.11 then the firm is classified as Failed.
Logit Analysis 58.42% 41.04%
(Lower is Better) If percentage is higher than 50% and trending higher-Not Good!
Turnover of Total Operating Assets 158% 159%
Net Sales to Net Worth 80.99% 109.19%
Gross Margin on Net Sales 61.99% 65.15%
Operating Income to Net Sales Ratio 33.48% 41.79%
Earnings Per Share (EPS) Ratio $4.80 $7.53
Net Profit Margin 24.51% 30.12%
Return on Total Assets 11.53% 16.36%
Return on Net Worth 19.61% 26.60%
Acid Test (Quick Ratio) 0.87 0.97
Current Ratio 1.30 1.61
The XYZ Company
FINANCIAL INDICATORS
Income Ratios
Profitability Ratios
Liquidity Ratios
Summary Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
Average Collection Period Computations
Accounts Receivable $350,000 $460,500
Credit Sales $2,010,000 $2,560,000
Days Per Year 365 365
Credit sales per day $5,507 $7,014
Average Collection Period - Days 63.56 65.66
Average Collection Period Ratio 5.74 5.56
Inventory Turnover 1.86 1.42
Days Sales in AR 65.18 67.23
Receivables Turnover 5.60 5.43
Days Inventory 195.97 256.36
Debt ratio 0.41 0.39
Net Sales to Inventory 4.90 4.08
Days Purchases in AP 293.96 258.87
Activity Ratios
Other Key Ratios
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
Working Capital $276,200 $586,450
Net Sales to Working Capital 7.10 4.26
Total Assets to Net Sales 2.13 1.84
Net Sales to AR 5.60 5.43
Net Sales to Net Fixed Assets 0.68 0.83
Net Sales to Total Assets 0.47 0.54
Amortization and Depreciation Expense to Net Sales 0.02 0.01
Gross Profit Percentage 61.99% 65.15%
Operating Expenses as % of Net Sales 28.51% 23.35%
Return on Net Sales 24.51% 30.12%
Income before tax to Net Worth 28.01% 38.01%
Income before tax to Total Assets 16.47% 23.36%
Retained Earning to Net Income 291.44% 204.77%
Times Interest Earned 40.38 62.43
Interest Expense to Net Sales 0.01 0.01
Current Liabilities to Net Worth 0.38 0.34
Current Liabilities to Inventory 2.34 1.58
AP to Net Sales 0.31 0.25
Total Liabilities to Net Worth (Debt Ratio) 70.09% 62.66%
Net Worth to Total Liabilities 1.43 1.60
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
CURRENT NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 37
CURRENT SALES ANNUALIZED $3,399,968
CURRENT COMPLETED PERIOD SALES $3,285,454
CURRENT PAYROLL $350,064
QUARTER/YEAR PAYROLL ONE YEAR AGO $313,647
SALES VOLUME REQUIRED, AT CURRENT PAYROLL LEVEL, TO PRODUCE PROFITS
EQUAL TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR PROFITS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $3,666,922
SALES DEFICIENCY = SALES REQUIRED MINUS CURRENT VOLUME
SALES DEFICIENCY IS--------------- ($266,954)

GROSS PAYROLL ALLOWABLE
UNDER PROJECTED CONDITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $324,579
GROSS PAYROLL BURDEN IS------ ($25,485)
THE NUMBER OF NEEDED EMPLOYEES ON THE PAYROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAYROLL ANALYSIS
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
Month Month
Cash from operations 1 2
Net earnings (loss) $480,368 $753,034
Add-depreciation and amortization $33,750 $34,763
Net cash from operations $514,118 $787,797
Cash provided (used) by
operating activities
Accounts Receivable ($307,534) $164,383
Inventory ($230,411) $39,452
Other current assets ($50,000) $14,910
Other non-current assets ($8,000) ($87,000)
Accounts payable ($271,233) $0
Current portion of long-term debt $0 $0
Income taxes $153,300 ($112,637)
Accrued expenses ($6,712) ($20,822)
Other current liabilities ($4,000) $0
Distributions to shareholders $0 $0
Net cash used by operations ($724,590) ($1,714)
Investment transactions
Increases (decreases)
Land $12,500 $12,500
Buildings and improvements ($50,000) $0
Equipment $75,000 $0
Intangible assets $0 $0
Net cash from investments $37,500 $12,500
Financing transactions
Increases (decreases)
Short term notes payable ($50,000) $0
Long term debt ($100,000) $0
Deferred income ($10,000) $0
Deferred income taxes ($3,000) $0
Other long-term liabilities $40,000 ($50,000)
Capital invested $0 $0
Net cash from financing ($123,000) ($50,000)
CASH FLOW ANALYSIS
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
Net increase (decrease) in cash ($360,640) $198,873
Cash at beginning of period $451,000 $464,530
Cash at the end of period $90,360 $663,403
Prepared by J axWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month Trend
3 4 5 Comments
3 4 5
3.04 3.51 3.83 Trend is Upward
If Z is less than 1.8 then the firm is classified as Failed.
1.62 1.88 2.01 Trend is Upward
If Z is less than 1.23 then the firm is classified as Failed.
5.89 7.02 7.92 Trend is Upward
If Z is less than 1.11 then the firm is classified as Failed.
20.78% 8.28% -10.54% Trend is Downward
If percentage is higher than 50% and trending higher-Not Good!
120% 112% 93% Trend is Downward
73.53% 75.13% 71.39% Trend is Downward
66.28% 71.44% 73.58% Trend is Upward
41.85% 50.45% 54.64% Trend is Upward
$7.99 $11.62 $13.21 Trend is Upward
30.13% 36.25% 39.06% Trend is Upward
14.61% 18.83% 20.37% Trend is Upward
21.96% 27.03% 28.20% Trend is Upward
1.37 1.88 2.13 Trend is Upward
2.20 2.81 3.26 Trend is Upward
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
$871,315 $1,382,454
$2,721,800 $3,285,454
365 365
$7,457 $9,001
116.85 153.58
3.12 2.38 1.07 Trend is Downward
1.08 0.98 0.59 Trend is Downward
119.93 157.42 184.79 Trend is Upward
3.04 2.32 1.04 Trend is Downward
336.45 373.62 443.86 Trend is Upward
0.33 0.30 0.26 Trend is Downward
3.22 3.42 2.58 Trend is Downward
259.80 255.39 238.31 Trend is Downward
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
$1,194,748 $1,818,973 $2,278,247 Trend is Upward
2.22 1.76 (0.68) Trend is Downward
2.06 1.93 1.89 Trend is Downward
3.04 2.32 1.04 Trend is Downward
0.82 0.98 1.05 Trend is Upward
0.48 0.52 0.53 Trend is Upward
0.01 0.01 0.01 Trend is Downward
66.28% 71.44% 73.58% Trend is Upward
24.43% 20.99% 18.95% Trend is Downward
30.13% 36.25% 39.06% Trend is Upward
31.37% 38.61% 40.29% Trend is Upward
20.88% 26.90% 29.10% Trend is Upward
210.91% 148.86% 108.59% Trend is Downward
64.37 91.08 103.07 Trend is Upward
0.01 0.01 0.00 Trend is Downward
0.27 0.23 0.18 Trend is Downward
1.20 1.08 0.51 Trend is Downward
0.24 0.20 0.17 Trend is Downward
50.29% 43.56% 33.65% Trend is Downward
1.99 2.30 2.58 Trend is Upward
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
-8.1%
Comments
-3.01 Under-staffed
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
Month Month Trend
3 4 5 Comments
$799,039 $1,162,043 $1,321,378 Trend is Upward
$35,805 $36,880 $37,907 Trend is Upward
$834,845 $1,198,922 $1,359,286 Trend is Upward
$65,754 ($233,458) ($46,814) Trend is Upward
$15,781 ($117,674) $5,422 Trend is Upward
($31,230) $26,320 $35,705 Trend is Upward
$115,000 ($18,000) $43,500 Trend is Downward
$0 $0 $135,617 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $0 Trend is Upward
($24,780) $247,092 $158,052 Trend is Upward
($8,329) $29,571 $28,763 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $2,000 Trend is Upward
$0 ($50,000) ($50,000) Trend is Downward
$132,196 ($116,149) $312,244 Trend is Upward
$12,500 $12,500 $12,500 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $25,000 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 ($37,500) Trend is Downward
$0 $0 $0 Trend is Upward
$12,500 $12,500 $0 Trend is Downward
$0 $0 $25,000 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $50,000 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $5,000 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $1,500 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 ($20,000) Trend is Downward
$0 $0 $0 Trend is Upward
$0 $0 $61,500 Trend is Upward
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
Summary Analysis
$324,963 $653,168 $995,970 Trend is Upward
$478,466 $492,820 $506,553 Trend is Upward
$803,429 $1,145,988 $1,502,523 Trend is Upward
Prepared by J axWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
I ncome Statement
Month Month Month
1 2 3
Gross Sales $2,010,000 $2,560,000 $2,721,800
Discounts/Allowances ($50,000) ($60,000) ($70,000)
Net Sales $1,960,000 $2,500,000 $2,651,800
Direct Material Cost $320,000 $427,600 $431,238
Direct Labor Cost $300,000 $315,000 $330,450
Other Direct Costs $125,000 $128,750 $132,613
Total Cost of Sales $745,000 $871,350 $894,301
Gross Profit $1,215,000 $1,628,650 $1,757,500
Expenses
Fixed Expenses 1 2 3
Executive Salaries $190,000 $191,000 $195,000
Advertising $50,000 $51,500 $53,045
Auto & Truck Expenses $30,000 $30,900 $31,827
Depreciation $5,000 $5,150 $45,305
Employee Benefits $3,000 $3,090 $3,183
Home Office Business Expenses $1,000 $1,030 $1,061
Insurance $3,906 $3,754 $4,010
Bank Charges $2,133 $2,197 $2,263
Legal & Professional Services $1,000 $1,330 $1,670
Meals & Entertainment $4,000 $4,120 $4,244
Office Expense $6,000 $6,180 $6,365
Retirement Plans $1,000 $1,030 $1,061
Rent - Equipment $3,000 $3,090 $3,183
Rent - Office Property $8,750 $9,110 $9,544
Repairs $1,000 $1,030 $1,061
Supplies $1,000 $1,030 $1,061
Taxes - Business & Payroll $1,000 $1,030 $1,061
Travel $6,230 $6,120 $6,010
Utilities $11,974 $12,374 $14,186
Other Expenses $0 $0 $0
Total Fixed Expenses $329,993 $335,065 $385,138
Forecast Analysis- 12 Fiscal Periods
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Forecast Analysis- 12 Fiscal Periods
Variable Expenses 1 2 3
Office salaries $90,000 $102,700 $112,368
Employee benefits $43,000 $46,875 $47,970
Payroll taxes $18,000 $18,540 $19,096
Sales and Marketing $14,000 $14,420 $14,853
Telephone and telegraph $6,000 $6,180 $6,365
Stationary and office supplies $2,110 $2,680 $3,005
Bad debts $100 $103 $106
Postage $5,557 $5,724 $5,895
Contributions $0 $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0 $0
Add Item $0 $0 $0
Miscellaneous $0 $0 $0
Total Variable Expenses $178,767 $197,222 $209,659
1 2 3
Operating expenses $508,760 $532,287 $594,797
Interest $16,250 $16,738 $17,240
Depreciation $32,500 $33,475 $34,479
Amortization $1,250 $1,288 $1,326
Other $0 $0 $0
Total expenses $558,760 $583,787 $647,842
Operating income $656,240 $1,044,863 $1,109,658
Other income and expenses 1 2 3
Gain (loss) on sale of assets $10,000 $10,300 $10,609
Other (net) $20,000 $20,600 $21,218
Subtotal $30,000 $30,900 $31,827
1 2 3
Income before tax $686,240 $1,075,763 $1,141,485
Income taxes $205,872 $322,729 $342,445
Net income $480,368 $753,034 $799,039
Return On Ownership $670,368 $944,034 $994,039
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Forecast Analysis- 12 Fiscal Periods
Balance Sheet
ASSETS Month Month Month
Current Assets 1 2 3
Cash and cash equivalents $451,000 $464,530 $478,466
Accounts receivable $350,000 $460,500 $871,315
Notes receivable $1,200 $3,200 $3,000
Inventory $400,000 $612,000 $824,360
Other current assets $10,000 $10,300 $10,609
Total Current Assets $1,212,200 $1,550,530 $2,187,750
Fixed Assets 1 2 3
Land $1,000,000 $1,030,000 $1,106,090
Buildings $1,500,000 $1,555,000 $1,591,350
Equipment $800,000 $824,000 $948,720
Subtotal $3,300,000 $3,409,000 $3,646,160
Less-accumulated depreciation $400,000 $412,000 $424,360
Total Fixed Assets $2,900,000 $2,997,000 $3,221,800
Intangible Assets 1 2 3
Cost $50,000 $51,500 $53,045
Less-accumulated amortization $20,000 $20,600 $21,218
Total Intangible Assets $30,000 $30,900 $31,827
Other assets $25,000 $25,750 $26,523
Total Assets $4,167,200 $4,604,180 $5,467,899
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Forecast Analysis- 12 Fiscal Periods
Balance Sheet
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities 1 2 3
Accounts payable $600,000 $618,000 $636,540
Notes payable $100,000 $103,000 $106,090
Current portion of long-term debt $100,000 $103,000 $106,090
Income taxes $30,000 $30,900 $31,827
Accrued expenses $90,000 $92,700 $95,481
Other current liabilities $16,000 $16,480 $16,974
Total Current Liabilities $936,000 $964,080 $993,002
Non-Current Liabilities 1 2 3
Long-term debt $601,200 $624,200 $645,630
Deferred income $100,000 $103,000 $106,090
Deferred income taxes $30,000 $30,900 $31,827
Other long-term liabilities $50,000 $51,500 $53,045
Sub-total $781,200 $809,600 $836,592
Total Liabilities $1,717,200 $1,773,680 $1,829,594
Stockholders' Equity 1 2 3
Capital stock issued $100,000 $100,000 $100,000
Additional paid in capital $950,000 $678,500 $1,853,045
Retained earnings $1,400,000 $1,542,000 $1,685,260
Total Stockholders' Equity $2,450,000 $2,320,500 $3,638,305
Total Liabilities and Equity $4,167,200 $4,094,180 $5,467,899
Altman Z-Score Analysis 1 2 3
Publicly Held Firm 2.40 2.70 3.04
Privately Held Firm 1.35 1.68 1.62
Service, Retail, Wholesale 4.09 4.83 5.89
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month Month Month Month Month Month
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$3,285,454 $3,641,354 $4,040,170 $4,438,986 $4,837,803 $5,236,619 $5,635,435
($80,000) ($90,000) ($100,000) ($110,000) ($120,000) ($130,000) ($140,000)
$3,205,454 $3,551,354 $3,940,170 $4,328,986 $4,717,803 $5,106,619 $5,495,435
$432,513 $488,132 $522,250 $556,367 $590,485 $624,603 $658,721
$346,364 $361,589 $377,043 $392,497 $407,951 $423,405 $438,859
$136,591 $140,397 $144,261 $148,124 $151,988 $155,851 $159,715
$915,467 $990,118 $1,043,553 $1,096,988 $1,150,423 $1,203,859 $1,257,294
$2,289,987 $2,561,236 $2,896,617 $3,231,998 $3,567,379 $3,902,760 $4,238,141
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$195,000 $197,500 $199,400 $201,300 $203,200 $205,100 $207,000
$54,636 $56,159 $57,704 $59,250 $60,795 $62,340 $63,886
$32,782 $33,695 $34,623 $35,550 $36,477 $37,404 $38,332
$50,464 $70,616 $88,270 $105,925 $123,580 $141,234 $158,889
$3,278 $3,370 $3,462 $3,555 $3,648 $3,740 $3,833
$1,093 $1,123 $1,154 $1,185 $1,216 $1,247 $1,278
$3,994 $4,046 $4,098 $4,150 $4,202 $4,254 $4,306
$2,331 $2,396 $2,462 $2,528 $2,594 $2,659 $2,725
$2,020 $2,355 $2,695 $3,035 $3,375 $3,715 $4,055
$4,371 $4,493 $4,616 $4,740 $4,864 $4,987 $5,111
$6,556 $6,739 $6,925 $7,110 $7,295 $7,481 $7,666
$1,093 $1,123 $1,154 $1,185 $1,216 $1,247 $1,278
$3,278 $3,370 $3,462 $3,555 $3,648 $3,740 $3,833
$9,929 $10,326 $10,723 $11,120 $11,517 $11,914 $12,311
$1,093 $1,123 $1,154 $1,185 $1,216 $1,247 $1,278
$1,093 $1,123 $1,154 $1,185 $1,216 $1,247 $1,278
$1,093 $1,123 $1,154 $1,185 $1,216 $1,247 $1,278
$5,900 $5,790 $5,680 $5,570 $5,460 $5,350 $5,240
$16,974 $18,080 $19,761 $21,442 $23,124 $24,805 $26,486
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$396,977 $424,549 $449,651 $474,754 $499,856 $524,959 $550,061
There are instances where 4 financial periods are not enough. This worksheet allows you to post
to 12. You will be overwriting forecast formulas, so, be sure you save a backup copy for recovery

Use this worksheet with the Financial Summary sheet to flag problem areas that are magified
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$118,647 $129,831 $139,392 $148,953 $158,514 $168,075 $177,636
$51,249 $53,734 $56,318 $58,902 $61,487 $64,071 $66,655
$19,669 $20,217 $20,774 $21,330 $21,886 $22,443 $22,999
$15,298 $15,724 $16,157 $16,590 $17,023 $17,455 $17,888
$6,556 $6,739 $6,925 $7,110 $7,295 $7,481 $7,666
$3,493 $3,941 $4,388 $4,836 $5,283 $5,731 $6,178
$109 $112 $115 $118 $122 $125 $128
$6,072 $6,241 $6,413 $6,585 $6,757 $6,929 $7,100
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$221,095 $236,540 $250,482 $264,424 $278,366 $292,308 $306,250
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$618,071 $661,089 $700,134 $739,178 $778,222 $817,267 $856,311
$17,757 $18,252 $18,754 $19,256 $19,758 $20,261 $20,763
$35,514 $36,503 $37,508 $38,512 $39,517 $40,521 $41,526
$1,366 $1,404 $1,443 $1,481 $1,520 $1,559 $1,597
$0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0 $0
$672,707 $717,248 $757,838 $798,428 $839,018 $879,607 $920,197
$1,617,279 $1,843,988 $2,138,779 $2,433,570 $2,728,362 $3,023,153 $3,317,944
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$10,927 $11,232 $11,541 $11,850 $12,159 $12,468 $12,777
$31,855 $32,464 $36,082 $39,700 $43,318 $46,936 $50,554
$42,782 $43,695 $47,623 $51,550 $55,477 $59,404 $63,332
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$1,660,061 $1,887,683 $2,186,402 $2,485,120 $2,783,839 $3,082,557 $3,381,276
$498,018 $566,305 $655,921 $745,536 $835,152 $924,767 $1,014,383
$1,162,043 $1,321,378 $1,530,481 $1,739,584 $1,948,687 $2,157,790 $2,366,893
$1,357,043 $1,518,878 $1,729,881 $1,940,884 $2,151,887 $2,362,890 $2,573,893
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month Month Month Month Month Month
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$492,820 $506,553 $520,492 $534,432 $548,371 $562,311 $576,251
$1,382,454 $1,643,112 $1,993,930 $2,344,748 $2,695,565 $3,046,383 $3,397,201
$3,400 $4,300 $4,940 $5,580 $6,220 $6,860 $7,500
$937,091 $1,149,271 $1,331,634 $1,513,997 $1,696,361 $1,878,724 $2,061,087
$10,927 $11,232 $11,541 $11,850 $12,159 $12,468 $12,777
$2,826,692 $3,314,467 $3,862,537 $4,410,607 $4,958,676 $5,506,746 $6,054,816
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$1,109,273 $1,162,318 $1,202,709 $1,243,099 $1,283,490 $1,323,881 $1,364,272
$1,739,091 $1,784,766 $1,860,128 $1,935,490 $2,010,852 $2,086,214 $2,161,576
$874,182 $948,542 $983,268 $1,017,995 $1,052,721 $1,087,448 $1,122,174
$3,722,545 $3,895,625 $4,046,104 $4,196,584 $4,347,063 $4,497,543 $4,648,022
$437,091 $449,271 $461,634 $473,997 $486,361 $498,724 $511,087
$3,285,454 $3,446,354 $3,584,470 $3,722,586 $3,860,703 $3,998,819 $4,136,935
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$54,636 $56,159 $57,704 $59,250 $60,795 $62,340 $63,886
$21,855 $22,464 $23,082 $23,700 $24,318 $24,936 $25,554
$32,782 $33,695 $34,623 $35,550 $36,477 $37,404 $38,332
$27,318 $28,079 $28,852 $29,625 $30,398 $31,170 $31,943
$6,172,246 $6,822,596 $7,510,481 $8,198,367 $8,886,253 $9,574,138 $10,262,024
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$640,563 $658,833 $672,856 $686,879 $700,902 $714,925 $728,948
$109,273 $112,318 $115,409 $118,499 $121,590 $124,681 $127,772
$109,273 $112,318 $115,454 $118,568 $121,659 $124,784 $127,886
$32,782 $33,695 $34,636 $35,570 $36,498 $37,435 $38,366
$98,345 $101,086 $103,868 $106,649 $109,431 $112,213 $114,995
$17,484 $17,971 $18,465 $18,960 $19,454 $19,949 $20,443
$1,007,719 $1,036,220 $1,060,628 $1,085,037 $1,109,445 $1,133,853 $1,158,261
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$668,308 $690,523 $712,799 $735,074 $757,350 $779,625 $801,901
$109,273 $112,318 $115,409 $118,499 $121,590 $124,681 $127,772
$32,782 $33,695 $34,623 $35,550 $36,477 $37,404 $38,332
$54,636 $56,159 $57,704 $59,250 $60,795 $62,340 $63,886
$864,999 $892,695 $920,534 $948,373 $976,212 $1,004,051 $1,031,890
$1,872,718 $1,928,916 $1,981,162 $2,033,409 $2,085,656 $2,137,903 $2,190,150
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
$100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000
$2,469,710 $2,921,233 $3,494,600 $4,067,968 $4,641,335 $5,214,703 $5,788,070
$1,729,818 $1,872,448 $1,985,719 $2,098,990 $2,212,262 $2,325,533 $2,438,805
$4,299,528 $4,893,680 $5,580,319 $6,266,958 $6,953,597 $7,640,236 $8,326,875
$6,172,246 $6,822,596 $7,561,481 $8,300,367 $9,039,253 $9,778,138 $10,517,024
4 5 6 7 8 9 10
3.51 3.83 4.20 4.57 4.93 5.30 5.67
1.88 2.01 2.16 2.31 2.47 2.62 2.77
7.02 7.92 8.91 9.89 10.88 11.86 12.85
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month
11 12
$6,034,251 $6,433,067
($150,000) ($160,000)
$5,884,251 $6,273,067
$692,838 $726,956
$454,313 $469,767
$163,578 $167,442
$1,310,729 $1,364,164
$4,573,522 $4,908,903
11 12
$208,900 $210,800
$65,431 $66,977
$39,259 $40,186
$176,543 $194,198
$3,926 $4,019
$1,309 $1,340
$4,358 $4,410
$2,791 $2,857
$4,395 $4,735
$5,235 $5,358
$7,852 $8,037
$1,309 $1,340
$3,926 $4,019
$12,708 $13,105
$1,309 $1,340
$1,309 $1,340
$1,309 $1,340
$5,130 $5,020
$28,167 $29,848
$0 $0
$575,163 $600,266
to post additional periods up
recovery.
magified over time.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
11 12
$187,196 $196,757
$69,239 $71,823
$23,555 $24,112
$18,321 $18,753
$7,852 $8,037
$6,626 $7,073
$131 $134
$7,272 $7,444
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$0 $0
$320,192 $334,134
11 12
$895,355 $934,400
$21,265 $21,767
$42,530 $43,535
$1,636 $1,674
$0 $0
$960,787 $1,001,376
$3,612,735 $3,907,526
11 12
$13,086 $13,395
$54,173 $57,791
$67,259 $71,186
11 12
$3,679,994 $3,978,712
$1,103,998 $1,193,614
$2,575,996 $2,785,099
$2,784,896 $2,995,899
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month
11 12
$590,190 $604,130
$3,748,019 $4,098,837
$8,140 $8,780
$2,243,450 $2,425,813
$13,086 $13,395
$6,602,886 $7,150,955
11 12
$1,404,663 $1,445,053
$2,236,938 $2,312,301
$1,156,900 $1,191,627
$4,798,501 $4,948,981
$523,450 $535,813
$4,275,051 $4,413,167
11 12
$65,431 $66,977
$26,173 $26,791
$39,259 $40,186
$32,716 $33,488
$10,949,910 $11,637,795
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
11 12
$742,970 $756,993
$130,863 $133,953
$130,994 $134,090
$39,298 $40,227
$117,776 $120,558
$20,938 $21,433
$1,182,669 $1,207,077
11 12
$824,176 $846,451
$130,863 $133,953
$39,259 $40,186
$65,431 $66,977
$1,059,729 $1,087,567
$2,242,397 $2,294,644
11 12
$100,000 $100,000
$6,361,438 $6,934,805
$2,552,076 $2,665,347
$9,013,513 $9,700,152
$11,255,910 $11,994,795
11 12
6.04 6.40
2.92 3.07
13.84 14.82
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
*EBIT is Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
**Ownership is the Total Reward for being the owner=Owner Salary + Bonus + Net Income + Other
Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4
Income Statement Forecast
Net Sales $1,960,000 $2,500,000 $2,651,800 $3,205,454
Cost of Goods Sold $745,000 $871,350 $894,301 $915,467
Gross Profit (Margin) $1,215,000 $1,628,650 $1,757,500 $2,289,987
G&A $178,767 $197,222 $209,659 $221,095
Total Operating Expenses $558,760 $583,787 $647,842 $672,707
EBIT* $686,240 $1,075,763 $1,141,485 $1,660,061
Net Income After $480,368 $753,034 $799,039 $1,162,043
Ownership** $670,368 $944,034 $994,039 $1,357,043
Balance Sheet Forecast
Current Assets $1,212,200 $1,550,530 $2,187,750 $2,826,692
Inventory $400,000 $612,000 $824,360 $937,091
Other Assets $10,000 $10,300 $10,609 $10,927
Total Assets $4,167,200 $4,604,180 $5,467,899 $6,172,246
Current Liabilities $936,000 $964,080 $993,002 $1,007,719
Non-current Liabilities $781,200 $809,600 $836,592 $864,999
Total Liabilities $1,717,200 $1,773,680 $1,829,594 $1,872,718
Equity $2,450,000 $2,320,500 $3,638,305 $4,299,528
Cash Flow Forecast
Net Cash Flow $90,360 $289,233 $614,196 $1,267,364
Key Ratios Forecast
Current Ratio 1.30 1.61 2.20 2.81
Quick Ratio 0.87 0.97 1.37 1.88
Debt Ratio 0.41 0.39 0.33 0.30
Asset Turnover 0.47 0.54 0.48 0.52
Net Income/Sales 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.36
Debt/Equity 0.70 0.76 0.50 0.44
Return on Assets 0.15 0.24 0.18 0.23
Working Capital $276,200 $586,450 $1,194,748 $1,818,973
Sales/Working Capital 7.10 4.26 2.22 1.76
Market Value Forecast
Book Market Value $2,450,000 $2,830,500 $3,638,305 $4,299,528
Plus Ownership** $3,120,368 $3,774,534 $4,632,344 $5,656,570
Altman Z-Score Analysis Forecast
Publicly Held Firm 2.40 2.70 3.04 3.51
Privately Held Firm 1.35 1.68 1.62 1.88
Non-Manufacturing 4.09 4.83 5.89 7.02
*EBIT is Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
**Ownership is the Total Reward for being the owner=Owner Salary + Bonus + Net Income + Other
Financial Summary Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Income Statement
Smoothing Forecast - 8 Periods
Net Sales Cost of Goods Sold Gross Profit (Margin)
G&A Total Operating Expenses EBIT*
Net Income After Ownership**
1
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month Month Month Trend
5 6 7 8 ASSESSMENT
Forecast
$3,641,354 $4,040,170 $4,438,986 $4,837,803 Upward
$990,118 $1,043,553 $1,096,988 $1,150,423 Upward
$2,651,236 $2,996,617 $3,341,998 $3,687,379 Upward
$236,540 $250,482 $264,424 $278,366 Upward
$717,248 $757,838 $798,428 $839,018 Upward
$1,887,683 $2,186,402 $2,485,120 $2,783,839 Upward
$1,321,378 $1,530,481 $1,739,584 $1,948,687 Upward
$1,518,878 $1,729,881 $1,940,884 $2,151,887 Upward
Forecast
$3,314,467 $3,862,537 $4,410,607 $4,958,676 Upward
$1,149,271 $1,331,634 $1,513,997 $1,696,361 Upward
$11,232 $11,541 $11,850 $12,159 Upward
$6,822,596 $7,510,481 $8,198,367 $8,886,253 Upward
$1,036,220 $1,060,628 $1,085,037 $1,109,445 Upward
$892,695 $920,534 $948,373 $976,212 Upward
$1,928,916 $1,981,162 $2,033,409 $2,085,656 Upward
$4,893,680 $5,580,319 $6,266,958 $6,953,597 Upward
Forecast
$1,529,282 $1,914,880 $2,300,477 $2,686,075 Upward
Forecast
3.20 3.64 4.06 4.47 Upward
2.09 2.39 2.67 2.94 Upward
0.28 0.26 0.25 0.23 Downward
0.53 0.54 0.54 0.54 Upward
0.36 0.38 0.39 0.40 Upward
0.39 0.36 0.32 0.30 Downward
0.23 0.24 0.24 0.25 Upward
$2,278,247 $2,801,909 $3,325,570 $3,849,232 Upward
1.60 1.44 1.33 1.26 Downward
Forecast
$4,893,680 $5,529,319 $6,164,957 $6,800,596 Upward
$6,412,558 $7,259,200 $8,105,842 $8,952,483 Upward
Forecast
3.83 4.20 4.57 4.93 Upward
2.01 2.16 2.31 2.47 Upward
7.92 8.91 9.89 10.88 Upward
Financial Summary Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Balance Sheet
Smoothing Forcast - 8 Periods
Current Assets Inventory Other Assets
Total Assets Current Liabilities Non-current Liabilities
Total Liabilities Equity
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
6200 XYZ Drive
ABC, California 00000-0000
Phone: (000) 000-0000
FAX: (000) 000-0000
E-mail: someone@xyz.com
Comparative I ncome Statement - 4 Periods
Income Details $ % $ % $
Gross Sales $2,010,000 102.55% $2,560,000 102.40% $2,721,800
Discounts/Allowances ($50,000) -2.55% ($60,000) -2.40% ($70,000)
Net Sales $1,960,000 100.00% $2,500,000 100.00% $2,651,800
Direct Material Cost $320,000 16.33% $427,600 17.10% $431,238
Direct Labor Cost $300,000 15.31% $315,000 12.60% $330,450
Other Direct Costs $125,000 6.38% $128,750 5.15% $132,613
Total Cost of Sales $745,000 38.01% $871,350 34.85% $894,301
Gross Profit $1,215,000 61.99% $1,628,650 65.15% $1,757,500
Expenses
Fixed Expenses
Executive Salaries $190,000 9.69% $191,000 7.64% $195,000
Advertising $50,000 2.55% $51,500 2.06% $53,045
Auto & Truck Expenses $30,000 1.53% $30,900 1.24% $31,827
Depreciation $5,000 0.26% $5,150 0.21% $45,305
Employee Benefits $3,000 0.15% $3,090 0.12% $3,183
Home Office Business Expenses $1,000 0.05% $1,030 0.04% $1,061
Insurance $3,906 0.20% $3,754 0.15% $4,010
Bank Charges $2,133 0.11% $2,197 0.09% $2,263
Legal & Professional Services $1,000 0.05% $1,330 0.05% $1,670
Meals & Entertainment $4,000 0.20% $4,120 0.16% $4,244
Office Expense $6,000 0.31% $6,180 0.25% $6,365
Retirement Plans $1,000 0.05% $1,030 0.04% $1,061
Rent - Equipment $3,000 0.15% $3,090 0.12% $3,183
Rent - Office Property $8,750 0.45% $9,110 0.36% $9,544
Repairs $1,000 0.05% $1,030 0.04% $1,061
2 3
May 03, 2012
Month
1
Month Month
Sales Revenue Cost of Sales Gross Profit Fixed Expenses Other Expenses Income Before Tax
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Comparative I ncome Statement - 4 Periods
2 3
Month
1
Month Month
Sales Revenue Cost of Sales Gross Profit Fixed Expenses Other Expenses Income Before Tax
Supplies $1,000 0.05% $1,030 0.04% $1,061
Taxes - Business & Payroll $1,000 0.05% $1,030 0.04% $1,061
Travel $6,230 0.32% $6,120 0.24% $6,010
Utilities $11,974 0.61% $12,374 0.49% $14,186
Other Expenses $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Total Fixed Expenses $329,993 16.84% $335,065 13.40% $385,138
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Comparative I ncome Statement - 4 Periods
2 3
Month
1
Month Month
Sales Revenue Cost of Sales Gross Profit Fixed Expenses Other Expenses Income Before Tax
Variable Expenses
Office salaries $90,000 4.59% $102,700 4.11% $112,368
Employee benefits $43,000 2.19% $46,875 1.88% $47,970
Payroll taxes $18,000 0.92% $18,540 0.74% $19,096
Sales and Marketing $14,000 0.71% $14,420 0.58% $14,853
Telephone and telegraph $6,000 0.31% $6,180 0.25% $6,365
Stationary and office supplies $2,110 0.11% $2,680 0.11% $3,005
Bad debts $100 0.01% $103 0.00% $106
Postage $5,557 0.28% $5,724 0.23% $5,895
Contributions $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Add Item $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Add Item $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Add Item $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Add Item $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Add Item $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Total Variable Expenses $178,767 9.12% $197,222 7.89% $209,659
Operating expenses
$508,760 25.96% $532,287 21.29% $594,797
Interest $16,250 0.83% $16,738 0.67% $17,240
Depreciation $32,500 1.66% $33,475 1.34% $34,479
Amortization $1,250 0.06% $1,288 0.05% $1,326
Other $0 0.00% $0 0.00% $0
Total expenses $558,760 28.51% $583,787 23.35% $647,842
Operating income $656,240 33.48% $1,044,863 41.79% $1,109,658
Other income and expenses
Gain (loss) on sale of assets $10,000 0.51% $10,300 0.41% $10,609
Other (net) $20,000 1.02% $20,600 0.82% $21,218
Subtotal $30,000 1.53% $30,900 1.24% $31,827
Income before tax $686,240 35.01% $1,075,763 43.03% $1,141,485
Income taxes $205,872 10.50% $322,729 12.91% $342,445
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Comparative I ncome Statement - 4 Periods
2 3
Month
1
Month Month
Sales Revenue Cost of Sales Gross Profit Fixed Expenses Other Expenses Income Before Tax
Net income $480,368 24.51% $753,034 30.12% $799,039
Return On Ownership $670,368 34.20% $944,034 37.76% $994,039
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
% $ %
102.64% $3,285,454 100.00%
-2.64% ($80,000) -2.43%
100.00% $3,205,454 97.57%
16.26% $432,513 13.49%
12.46% $346,364 10.81%
5.00% $136,591 4.26%
33.72% $915,467 28.56%
66.28% $2,289,987 71.44%
7.35% $195,000 6.08%
2.00% $54,636 1.70%
1.20% $32,782 1.02%
1.71% $50,464 1.57%
0.12% $3,278 0.10%
0.04% $1,093 0.03%
0.15% $3,994 0.12%
0.09% $2,331 0.07%
0.06% $2,020 0.06%
0.16% $4,371 0.14%
0.24% $6,556 0.20%
0.04% $1,093 0.03%
0.12% $3,278 0.10%
0.36% $9,929 0.31%
0.04% $1,093 0.03%
3
May 03, 2012
4
Month Month
Income Before Tax Income Taxes Net Income (Loss)
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
3 4
Month Month
Income Before Tax Income Taxes Net Income (Loss)
0.04% $1,093 0.03%
0.04% $1,093 0.03%
0.23% $5,900 0.18%
0.53% $16,974 0.53%
0.00% $0 0.00%
14.52% $396,977 12.38%
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
3 4
Month Month
Income Before Tax Income Taxes Net Income (Loss)
4.24% $118,647 3.70%
1.81% $51,249 1.60%
0.72% $19,669 0.61%
0.56% $15,298 0.48%
0.24% $6,556 0.20%
0.11% $3,493 0.11%
0.00% $109 0.00%
0.22% $6,072 0.19%
0.00% $0 0.00%
0.00% $0 0.00%
0.00% $0 0.00%
0.00% $0 0.00%
0.00% $0 0.00%
0.00% $0 0.00%
7.91% $221,095 6.90%
22.43% $618,071 19.28%
0.65% $17,757 0.55%
1.30% $35,514 1.11%
0.05% $1,366 0.04%
0.00% $0 0.00%
24.43% $672,707 20.99%
41.85% $1,617,279 50.45%
0.40% $10,927 0.34%
0.80% $31,855 0.99%
1.20% $42,782 1.33%
43.05% $1,660,061 51.79%
12.91% $498,018 15.54%
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
3 4
Month Month
Income Before Tax Income Taxes Net Income (Loss)
30.13% $1,162,043 36.25%
37.49% $1,357,043 42.34%
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
6200 XYZ Drive
ABC, California 00000-0000
Phone: (000) 000-0000
FAX: (000) 000-0000
E-mail: someone@xyz.com
ASSETS $ % $ % $
Current Assets
Cash and cash equivalents $451,000 10.82% $464,530 10.09% $478,466
Accounts receivable $350,000 8.40% $460,500 10.00% $871,315
Notes receivable $1,200 0.03% $3,200 0.07% $3,000
Inventory $400,000 9.60% $612,000 13.29% $824,360
Other current assets $10,000 0.24% $10,300 0.22% $10,609
Total Current Assets $1,212,200 29.09% $1,550,530 33.68% $2,187,750
Fixed Assets
Land $1,000,000 24.00% $1,030,000 22.37% $1,106,090
Buildings $1,500,000 36.00% $1,555,000 33.77% $1,591,350
Equipment $800,000 19.20% $824,000 17.90% $948,720
Subtotal $3,300,000 79.19% $3,409,000 74.04% $3,646,160
Less-accumulated depreciation $400,000 9.60% $412,000 8.95% $424,360
Total Fixed Assets $2,900,000 69.59% $2,997,000 65.09% $3,221,800
Intangible Assets
Cost $50,000 1.20% $51,500 1.12% $53,045
Less-accumulated amortization $20,000 0.48% $20,600 0.45% $21,218
Total Intangible Assets $30,000 0.72% $30,900 0.67% $31,827
Other assets $25,000 0.60% $25,750 0.56% $26,523
Total All Other Assets $55,000 1.32% $56,650 1.36% $58,350
Total Assets $4,167,200 100.00% $4,604,180 100.00% $5,467,899
1
Month Month
May 03, 2012
Comparative Balance Sheet - 4 Periods
2 3
Month
Total Current Assets Total Fixed Assets Total Assets Total Current Liabilities Total Liabilities Total Stockholders' Equity
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
1
Month Month
Comparative Balance Sheet - 4 Periods
2 3
Month
Total Current Assets Total Fixed Assets Total Assets Total Current Liabilities Total Liabilities Total Stockholders' Equity
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS' EQUITY
Current Liabilities
Accounts payable $600,000 14.40% $618,000 15.09% $636,540
Notes payable $100,000 2.40% $103,000 2.52% $106,090
Current portion of long-term debt $100,000 2.40% $103,000 2.52% $106,090
Income taxes $30,000 0.72% $30,900 0.75% $31,827
Accrued expenses $90,000 2.16% $92,700 2.26% $95,481
Other current liabilities $16,000 0.38% $16,480 0.40% $16,974
Total Current Liabilities $936,000 22.46% $964,080 23.55% $993,002
Non-Current Liabilities
Long-term debt $601,200 14.43% $624,200 15.25% $645,630
Deferred income $100,000 2.40% $103,000 2.52% $106,090
Deferred income taxes $30,000 0.72% $30,900 0.75% $31,827
Other long-term liabilities $50,000 1.20% $51,500 1.26% $53,045
Total Liabilities $1,717,200 41.21% $1,773,680 43.32% $1,829,594
Stockholders' Equity
Capital stock issued $100,000 2.40% $100,000 2.44% $100,000
Number of shares issued $100,000 2.40% $100,000 2.44% $100,000
Additional paid in capital $950,000 22.80% $678,500 16.57% $1,853,045
Retained earnings $1,400,000 33.60% $1,542,000 37.66% $1,685,260
Total Stockholders' Equity $2,450,000 58.79% $2,320,500 56.68% $3,638,305
Total Liabilities and Equity $4,167,200 100.00% $4,094,180 100.00% $5,467,899
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
% $ %
8.75% $492,820 7.98%
15.94% $1,382,454 22.40%
0.05% $3,400 0.06%
15.08% $937,091 15.18%
0.19% $10,927 0.18%
40.01% $2,826,692 45.80%
20.23% $1,109,273 17.97%
29.10% $1,739,091 28.18%
17.35% $874,182 14.16%
66.68% $3,722,545 60.31%
7.76% $437,091 7.08%
58.92% $3,285,454 53.23%
0.97% $54,636 0.89%
0.39% $21,855 0.35%
0.58% $32,782 0.53%
0.49% $27,318 0.44%
1.40% $60,100 1.44%
100.00% $6,172,246 100.00%
Month
May 03, 2012
4
Month
3
Total Stockholders' Equity Total Liabilities and Equity
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month
4
Month
3
Total Stockholders' Equity Total Liabilities and Equity
11.64% $640,563 10.38%
1.94% $109,273 1.77%
1.94% $109,273 1.77%
0.58% $32,782 0.53%
1.75% $98,345 1.59%
0.31% $17,484 0.28%
18.16% $1,007,719 16.33%
11.81% $668,308 10.83%
1.94% $109,273 1.77%
0.58% $32,782 0.53%
0.97% $54,636 0.89%
33.46% $1,872,718 30.34%
1.83% $100,000 1.62%
1.83% $100,000 1.62%
33.89% $2,469,710 40.01%
30.82% $1,729,818 28.03%
66.54% $4,299,528 69.66%
100.00% $6,172,246 100.00%
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Logit Analysis developed by Christine Zavgren-Bankruptcy Predictor
Zavgren, C. 1983, The Prediction of Corporate Failure: The State of the Art, Journal of Accounting Literature
The Prediction of Corporate Failure
Logit Analysis: The Model
Chistine Zavgren
Bankruptcy prediction models are more generally known as measures of financial distress. The best-known,
used, multiple discriminant analysis method is the one proposed by Edward Altman, Professor of Finance at
Business, New York University, The Z-Score Analysis or Zeta Model. Despite the positive results of his study,
a key weakness: it assumed variables in the sample data to be normally distributed. "If all variables are not
the methods employed may result in selection of an inappropriate set of predictors". Chistine Zavgren developed
corrected for this problem. Her model used logit analysis to predict bankruptcy. Due to its use of logit analysis,
considered "more robust". Further, logit analysis actually provides a probability (in terms of a percentage) of bankruptcy
probability calculated might be considered a measure of the effectiveness of management, i.e. effective management
a company to the verge of bankruptcy.
Application of the logit model requires four steps. First, a series of seven financial ratios are calculated. Second,
multiplied by a coefficient unique to that ratio. This coefficient can be either positive or negative. Third, the
summed together (y). Finally, the probability of bankruptcy for a firm is calculated as the inverse of (1 + ey) where
of natural logarithms."Explanatory variables with a negative coefficient increase the probability of bankruptcy because
ey toward zero, with the result that the bankruptcy probability function approaches 1/1, or 100 percent. Likewise,
variables with a positive coefficient decrease the probability of bankruptcy".
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The Prediction of Corporate Failure
Logit Analysis: The Model
Chistine Zavgren
Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4
Cash $451,000 $464,530 $478,466 $492,820
Marketable Securities $10,000 $10,300 $10,609 $10,927
Accounts Receivable $350,000 $460,500 $871,315 $1,382,454
Inventory $400,000 $612,000 $824,360 $937,091
Fixed Assets $2,900,000 $2,997,000 $3,221,800 $3,285,454
Total Assets $4,167,200 $4,604,180 $5,467,899 $6,172,246
Current Liabilities $936,000 $964,080 $993,002 $1,007,719
Long Term Debt $601,200 $624,200 $645,630 $668,308
Sales $1,960,000 $2,500,000 $2,651,800 $3,205,454
Income from Continuing Operations $656,240 $1,044,863 $1,109,658 $1,617,279
Logit Analysis
Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4
Constant 0.23883 0.23883 0.23883 0.23883
Inventories/Sales -0.022 -0.026 -0.034 -0.032
Receivables/Inventory -1.385 -1.191 -1.673 -2.335
Cash+Marketable Securities/Total Assets -1.193 -1.112 -0.964 -0.880
Quick Assets/Current Liabilities 2.663 2.982 4.211 5.754
Income from CO/(Total Assets-Current Liab) 0.099 0.140 0.121 0.152
Long-Term Debt/(Total Assets-Current Liab) -0.809 -0.746 -0.628 -0.563
Sales/(Net Working Capital+Fixed Assets) 0.068 0.077 0.066 0.069
Sum of Coefficients * Ratios -0.340 0.362 1.338 2.404
Probability of Bankruptcy 58.42% 41.04% 20.78% 8.28%
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Zavgren, C. 1983, The Prediction of Corporate Failure: The State of the Art, Journal of Accounting Literature
The Prediction of Corporate Failure
Logit Analysis: The Model
Chistine Zavgren
known, and most-widely
Finance at the Stern School of
study, Altman’s model had
not normally distributed,
developed a model that
logit analysis, her model is
of bankruptcy. Also, the
management will not lead
calculated. Second, each ratio is
the resulting values are
ey) where "e" is the base
bankruptcy because they reduce
. Likewise, independent
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The Prediction of Corporate Failure
Logit Analysis: The Model
Chistine Zavgren
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Determining the Value of a Business
There are three techniques and several variations for determining the value of a business:
1 The balance sheet technique.
2 The earnings approach.
3 The market (or price/earnings) approach .
Balance Sheet Technique.
The deal must be financially feasible for both parties. The seller must be satisfied with the price received for the business.
Frequently, the entrepreneur feels like he is selling his baby. So, he does not want to leave a dime on the table. But, the buyer
cannot pay an excessively high price that would require heavy borrowing and would strain cash flows from the outset.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
Perhaps the most difficult stage in a buyout is determining an acceptable price for the business. Business valuation is partly an art
and partly a science. Computing the value of the company's tangible assets usually poses no major problem, but assigning a price
to the intangibles such as goodwill, almost always creates controversy. The seller expects goodwill to reflect the hard work and
long hours invested in building the business. The buyer, however, is willing to pay extra only for those intangible assets that
produce exceptional income. So, how can the buyer and the seller arrive at a fair price? There are few universal rules in
establishing the value of a business, but both parties should observe the following guidelines.
The wisest approach is to compute a company’s value using several techniques and then choose the one that makes the most
sense.
There is no single best method for determining a business's worth since each business sale is unique.
No surprise is the best surprise. Both parties should deal with one another honestly and in good faith.
The primary reason buyers purchase existing businesses is to get their future earning potential. The second most common reason
is to get an established asset base. It is much easier to buy assets than to build them. Evaluation methods should take these
characteristics into consideration. However, too many business sellers and buyers depend on rules of thumb that ignore the unique
features of small companies. For example, cable TV franchises are valued at 11 times cash flow; advertising agencies at 75
percent of gross income; day care centers at $500 to $1,000 per child enrolled; motels at $12,300 to $14,600 per room; and
garbage pickup routes at two and one half times gross income. The problem is that such one size fits-all approaches seldom work
well because no two businesses are alike.
The best rule of thumb to use in valuing businesses is "Don't use rules of thumb to value businesses.” If you rely on these rules too
much, you can be led astray. On average, businesses sell for one third less than the accepted industry rule of thumb.
The buyer and the seller should have access to business records.
The balance sheet technique is one of the most commonly used methods of evaluating a business, although it is not highly
recommended because it oversimplifies the valuation process. This method computes the company's net worth or owner's equity
(net worth = assets - liabilities) and uses this figure as the value. The problem with this technique is that it fails to recognize reality:
Most small businesses have market values that exceed their reported book values.
The first step is to determine which assets are included in the sale. In most cases, the owner has some personal assets he does
not want to sell. Remember that net worth on a financial statement will likely differ significantly from actual net worth in the market.
Valuations should be based on facts, not fiction.
The XYZ Company
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Earnings Approach.
Fixed assets transferred in a sale might include land, buildings, equipment, and fixtures. Business owners frequently carry real
estate and buildings at prices well below their actual market value. Equipment and fixtures, depending on their condition and
usefulness, may increase or decrease the true value of the business. Appraisals of these assets on insurance policies are helpful
guidelines for establishing market value.
Variation: Adjusted Balance Sheet Technique. A more realistic method for determining a company's value is to adjust the book
value of net worth to reflect actual market value. The values reported on a company’s books may overstate or understate the true
value of assets and liabilities. Typical assets in a business sale include notes and accounts receivable, inventories, supplies, and
fixtures. If a buyer purchases notes and accounts receivable, he should estimate the likelihood of their collection and adjust their
value accordingly.
In manufacturing, wholesale, and retail businesses, inventory usually is the largest single asset involved in the sale. Taking a
physical inventory count is the best way to determine accurately the quantity of goods to be transferred. The sale may include three
types of inventory, each having its own method of valuation: raw materials, work in-process, and finished goods. The buyer and the
seller must arrive at a method for evaluating the inventory First-in-first-out (FIFO), last-in-first out (LIFO), and average costing are
three frequently used techniques, but the most common methods use the cost of last purchase and the replacement value of the
inventory. Before accepting any inventory value, the buyer should evaluate the condition of the goods.
One young couple purchased a lumber yard without examining the inventory completely. After completing the sale, they discovered
that most of the lumber in a warehouse they had neglected to inspect was warped and was of little value as building material. The
bargain price they paid for the business turned out not to be the good deal they had expected. To avoid such problems, some
buyers insist on having a knowledgeable representative on an inventory team that counts the inventory and checks its condition.
Nearly every sale involves merchandise that cannot be sold; but, by taking this precaution, a buyer minimizes the chance of being
stuck with worthless inventory.
Business evaluations based on balance sheet method suffer one major drawback: they do not consider the future earning potential
of the business. These techniques value assets at current prices and do not consider them as tools for creating future profits. The
next method for computing the value of a business is based on its expected future earnings.
The buyer of an existing business is essentially purchasing its future income. The earnings approach is more refined because it
considers the future income potential of the business.
Variation 1: Excess Earnings Method. This method combines both the value of the firm's existing assets (over its liabilities) and an
estimate of its future earnings potential to determine a business's selling price. One advantage of this technique is that it offers an
estimate of goodwill. Goodwill is an intangible asset that often creates problems in a business sale. In fact, the most common
method of valuing a business is to compute its tangible net worth and then to add an often arbitrary adjustment for goodwill. In
essence, goodwill is the difference between an established, successful business and one that has yet to prove itself. It is based on
the company’s reputation and its ability to attract customers. A buyer should not accept blindly the seller's arbitrary adjustment for
goodwill because it is likely to be inflated.
There are three versions of the earnings approach.
Step 1: Compute adjusted tangible net worth.
Using the previous method of valuation, the buyer should compute the firm's adjusted tangible net worth.
The excess earnings method provides a more consistent and realistic approach for determining the value of goodwill. It measures
goodwill by the amount of profit the business earns above the average firm in the same industry. It also assumes that the owner is
entitled to a reasonable return on the firm's adjusted tangible net worth..
Total tangible assets (adjusted for market value) minus total liabilities yields adjusted tangible net worth.
Step 2: Calculate the opportunity costs of investing in the business.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Opportunity Costs represent the cost of forgoing a choice. If the buyer chooses to purchase the assets of a business, he cannot
invest his money elsewhere. So, the opportunity cost of the purchase would be the amount the buyer could earn by investing the
same amount in a similar risk investment.
There are three principal components in the rate of return used to value a business: (1) the basic, risk free return, (2) an inflation
premium, and (3) the risk allowance for investing in the particular business. The basic, risk free return and the inflation premium
are reflected in investments like U. S. Treasury bonds. To determine the appropriate rate of return for investing in a business, the
buyer must add to this base rate a factor reflecting the risk involved in purchasing the company. The greater the risk, the higher the
rate of return. A normal-risk business typically indicates a 25 percent rate of return.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
____________________________________
The second part of the buyer’s opportunity cost is the salary she could earn working for someone else.
Step 3: Project net earnings. The buyer must estimate the company's net earnings for the upcoming year before subtracting the
owner's salary. Averages can be misleading, so the buyer must be sure to investigate the trend of net earnings. Have they risen
steadily over the past five years, dropped significantly remained relatively constant, or fluctuated wildly? The more erratic your
earnings are, the more they will be discounted. Past income statements provide useful guidelines for estimating earnings.
Once again, the buyer must evaluate the risk involved in purchasing the business to determine the appropriate rate of return on the
investment. The greater the risk involved, the higher the return the buyer requires. Risk determination is always somewhat
subjective, but it is necessary for proper evaluation. The capitalized earnings approach divides estimated net earnings (after
subtracting the owner's reasonable salary) by the rate of return that reflects the risk level. For example, the capitalized value
(assuming a reasonable salary of $25,000) would be:
Step 4: Compute extra earning power. A company’s extra earning power is the difference between forecasted earnings (step 3)
and total opportunity costs (step 2). Most small businesses that are for sale do not have extra earning power (i.e., excess
earnings). They show marginal or no profits.
Step 5: Estimate the value of intangibles. The owner can use the extra earning power of the business to estimate the value of its
intangible assets- that is, goodwill. Multiplying the extra earning power by a years of profit figure yields an estimate of the intangible
assets’ value. The years of profit figure for a normal risk business ranges from three to four. A very high-risk business may have a
years of profit figure of 1, while a well-established firm might use a figure of 7.
Step 6: Determine the value of the business. To determine the value of the business, the buyer simply adds the adjusted tangible
net worth (step 1) and the value of the intangibles (step 5).
Both the buyer and seller should consider the tax implications of transferring goodwill. The amount the seller receives for goodwill
is taxed as ordinary income. The buyer cannot count this amount as a deduction because goodwill is a capital asset that cannot be
depreciated or amortized for tax purposes. Instead, the buyer would prefer to pay the seller for signing a covenant not to compete
because its value is fully tax deductible.
net earnings ( after deducting owner's salary)
rate of return 25%
Clearly, firms with lower risk factors are more valuable. Most normal risk businesses use a rate of return factor ranging from 25
percent to 33 percent. The lowest risk factor most buyers would accept for any business ranges from 15 to 20 percent.
The success of this approach depends on the accuracy of the buyer's estimates of net earnings and risk. But, it does offer a
systematic method for assigning a value to goodwill.
Variation 2: Capitalized Earnings Approach. Another earnings approach capitalizes expected net profits to determine the value of
a business. The buyer should prepare his own pro forma income statement and should ask the seller to prepare one also. Use a
five year weighted average of past sales (with the greatest weights assigned to the most recent years) to estimate sales for the
upcoming year.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Unrepresentative earnings estimates. The private company's net earnings may not realistically reflect its true earning potential. To
minimize taxes, owners usually attempt to keep profits low and rely on fringe benefits to make up the difference.
Finding similar companies for comparison. Often, it is extremely difficult for a buyer to find comparable publicly held companies
when estimating the appropriate P/E ratio.
Step 5: Compute the total value.
The primary advantage of this technique is that it values a business solely on the basis of its future earning potential, but its
reliability depends on making forecasts of future earnings and on choosing a realistic present value rate. The discounted cash flow
technique is especially well-suited for valuing service businesses (whose asset bases are often small) and for companies
experiencing high growth rates.
The biggest advantage of the market approach is its simplicity. But, this method suffers from several disadvantages, including the
following:
One way is to assume that earnings will grow by a constant amount over the next five years. Perhaps a better method is to develop
three forecasts-an optimistic, a pessimistic, and a most likely for each year and then find a weighted average using the formula.
The buyer must remember that the farther into the future he forecasts, the less reliable are his estimates .
Market Approach.
The market (or price/earnings) approach uses the price/earnings ratios of similar businesses to establish the value of a company.
The buyer must use businesses whose stocks are publicly traded to get a meaningful comparison. A company's price/earnings
ratio (or P/E ratio) is the price of one share of its common stock in the market divided by its earnings per share (after deducting
preferred stock dividends). To get a representative P/E ratio, the buyer should average the P/Es of as many similar businesses as
possible. To compute the company's value, the buyer multiplies the average price/earnings ratio by the private company's
estimated earnings.
Step 3: Estimate the income stream beyond five years.
One technique suggests multiplying the fifth year income by 1/rate of return.
Necessary comparisons between publicly traded and privately owned companies. The stock of privately owned companies is
illiquid, and, therefore, the PIE ratio used is often subjective and lower than that of publicly held companies.
Step 2: Discount these future earnings at the appropriate present value rate.
The rate the buyer selects should reflect the rate he could earn on a similar risk investment.
Step 4: Discount the income estimate beyond five years using the present value factor for the sixth year.
This variation of the earnings approach assumes that a dollar earned in the future is worth less than that same dollar today.
Therefore, using this approach, the buyer estimates the company's net income for several years into the future and then discounts
these future earnings back to their present value. The resulting present value is an estimate of the company's worth. The reduced
value of future dollars has nothing to do with inflation. Instead, present value represents the cost of the buyer giving up thc
opportunity to earn a reasonable rate of return by receiving income in the future instead of today. To illustrate the importance of the
time value of money, consider two $1 million sweepstake winners. Rob wins $1 million in a sweepstakes, but he receives it in
$50,000 installments over 20 years. If Rob invested every installment at 15 percent interest, he would have accumulated
$5,890,505.98 at the end of 20 years. Lisa wins $1 million in another sweepstakes, but she collects her winnings in a lump sum. If
Lisa invested her $1 million today at 15 percent. She would have accumulated $16,366,537.39 at the end of twenty years. The
difference in their wealth is the result of the time value of money.
The discounted future earnings approach involves five steps.
Step 1: Project future earnings for five years into the future.
Variation 3: Discounted Future Earnings Approach.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Despite its drawbacks, the market approach is useful as a general guideline to establishing a company's value.
Applying the after-tax earnings of a private company to determine its value. If a prospective buyer is using an after-tax P/E ratio
from public companies, he also must use after-tax earnings from the private company.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Which of these methods is best for determining the value of a small business? Simply stated, there is no single best method.
Valuing a business is partly an art and partly a science. Using these techniques, a range of values will emerge. Buyers should look
for values that might cluster together and then use their best judgment to determine their offering price.
Conclusion
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The deal must be financially feasible for both parties. The seller must be satisfied with the price received for the business.
Frequently, the entrepreneur feels like he is selling his baby. So, he does not want to leave a dime on the table. But, the buyer
cannot pay an excessively high price that would require heavy borrowing and would strain cash flows from the outset.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
Perhaps the most difficult stage in a buyout is determining an acceptable price for the business. Business valuation is partly an art
and partly a science. Computing the value of the company's tangible assets usually poses no major problem, but assigning a price
to the intangibles such as goodwill, almost always creates controversy. The seller expects goodwill to reflect the hard work and
long hours invested in building the business. The buyer, however, is willing to pay extra only for those intangible assets that
produce exceptional income. So, how can the buyer and the seller arrive at a fair price? There are few universal rules in
establishing the value of a business, but both parties should observe the following guidelines.
The wisest approach is to compute a company’s value using several techniques and then choose the one that makes the most
sense.
There is no single best method for determining a business's worth since each business sale is unique.
No surprise is the best surprise. Both parties should deal with one another honestly and in good faith.
The primary reason buyers purchase existing businesses is to get their future earning potential. The second most common reason
is to get an established asset base. It is much easier to buy assets than to build them. Evaluation methods should take these
characteristics into consideration. However, too many business sellers and buyers depend on rules of thumb that ignore the unique
features of small companies. For example, cable TV franchises are valued at 11 times cash flow; advertising agencies at 75
percent of gross income; day care centers at $500 to $1,000 per child enrolled; motels at $12,300 to $14,600 per room; and
garbage pickup routes at two and one half times gross income. The problem is that such one size fits-all approaches seldom work
well because no two businesses are alike.
The best rule of thumb to use in valuing businesses is "Don't use rules of thumb to value businesses.” If you rely on these rules too
much, you can be led astray. On average, businesses sell for one third less than the accepted industry rule of thumb.
The buyer and the seller should have access to business records.
The balance sheet technique is one of the most commonly used methods of evaluating a business, although it is not highly
recommended because it oversimplifies the valuation process. This method computes the company's net worth or owner's equity
(net worth = assets - liabilities) and uses this figure as the value. The problem with this technique is that it fails to recognize reality:
Most small businesses have market values that exceed their reported book values.
The first step is to determine which assets are included in the sale. In most cases, the owner has some personal assets he does
not want to sell. Remember that net worth on a financial statement will likely differ significantly from actual net worth in the market.
Valuations should be based on facts, not fiction.
The XYZ Company
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Fixed assets transferred in a sale might include land, buildings, equipment, and fixtures. Business owners frequently carry real
estate and buildings at prices well below their actual market value. Equipment and fixtures, depending on their condition and
usefulness, may increase or decrease the true value of the business. Appraisals of these assets on insurance policies are helpful
guidelines for establishing market value.
Variation: Adjusted Balance Sheet Technique. A more realistic method for determining a company's value is to adjust the book
value of net worth to reflect actual market value. The values reported on a company’s books may overstate or understate the true
value of assets and liabilities. Typical assets in a business sale include notes and accounts receivable, inventories, supplies, and
fixtures. If a buyer purchases notes and accounts receivable, he should estimate the likelihood of their collection and adjust their
value accordingly.
In manufacturing, wholesale, and retail businesses, inventory usually is the largest single asset involved in the sale. Taking a
physical inventory count is the best way to determine accurately the quantity of goods to be transferred. The sale may include three
types of inventory, each having its own method of valuation: raw materials, work in-process, and finished goods. The buyer and the
seller must arrive at a method for evaluating the inventory First-in-first-out (FIFO), last-in-first out (LIFO), and average costing are
three frequently used techniques, but the most common methods use the cost of last purchase and the replacement value of the
inventory. Before accepting any inventory value, the buyer should evaluate the condition of the goods.
One young couple purchased a lumber yard without examining the inventory completely. After completing the sale, they discovered
that most of the lumber in a warehouse they had neglected to inspect was warped and was of little value as building material. The
bargain price they paid for the business turned out not to be the good deal they had expected. To avoid such problems, some
buyers insist on having a knowledgeable representative on an inventory team that counts the inventory and checks its condition.
Nearly every sale involves merchandise that cannot be sold; but, by taking this precaution, a buyer minimizes the chance of being
stuck with worthless inventory.
Business evaluations based on balance sheet method suffer one major drawback: they do not consider the future earning potential
of the business. These techniques value assets at current prices and do not consider them as tools for creating future profits. The
next method for computing the value of a business is based on its expected future earnings.
The buyer of an existing business is essentially purchasing its future income. The earnings approach is more refined because it
considers the future income potential of the business.
Variation 1: Excess Earnings Method. This method combines both the value of the firm's existing assets (over its liabilities) and an
estimate of its future earnings potential to determine a business's selling price. One advantage of this technique is that it offers an
estimate of goodwill. Goodwill is an intangible asset that often creates problems in a business sale. In fact, the most common
method of valuing a business is to compute its tangible net worth and then to add an often arbitrary adjustment for goodwill. In
essence, goodwill is the difference between an established, successful business and one that has yet to prove itself. It is based on
the company’s reputation and its ability to attract customers. A buyer should not accept blindly the seller's arbitrary adjustment for
goodwill because it is likely to be inflated.
There are three versions of the earnings approach.
Step 1: Compute adjusted tangible net worth.
Using the previous method of valuation, the buyer should compute the firm's adjusted tangible net worth.
The excess earnings method provides a more consistent and realistic approach for determining the value of goodwill. It measures
goodwill by the amount of profit the business earns above the average firm in the same industry. It also assumes that the owner is
entitled to a reasonable return on the firm's adjusted tangible net worth..
Total tangible assets (adjusted for market value) minus total liabilities yields adjusted tangible net worth.
Step 2: Calculate the opportunity costs of investing in the business.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Opportunity Costs represent the cost of forgoing a choice. If the buyer chooses to purchase the assets of a business, he cannot
invest his money elsewhere. So, the opportunity cost of the purchase would be the amount the buyer could earn by investing the
same amount in a similar risk investment.
There are three principal components in the rate of return used to value a business: (1) the basic, risk free return, (2) an inflation
premium, and (3) the risk allowance for investing in the particular business. The basic, risk free return and the inflation premium
are reflected in investments like U. S. Treasury bonds. To determine the appropriate rate of return for investing in a business, the
buyer must add to this base rate a factor reflecting the risk involved in purchasing the company. The greater the risk, the higher the
rate of return. A normal-risk business typically indicates a 25 percent rate of return.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
The second part of the buyer’s opportunity cost is the salary she could earn working for someone else.
Step 3: Project net earnings. The buyer must estimate the company's net earnings for the upcoming year before subtracting the
owner's salary. Averages can be misleading, so the buyer must be sure to investigate the trend of net earnings. Have they risen
steadily over the past five years, dropped significantly remained relatively constant, or fluctuated wildly? The more erratic your
earnings are, the more they will be discounted. Past income statements provide useful guidelines for estimating earnings.
Once again, the buyer must evaluate the risk involved in purchasing the business to determine the appropriate rate of return on the
investment. The greater the risk involved, the higher the return the buyer requires. Risk determination is always somewhat
subjective, but it is necessary for proper evaluation. The capitalized earnings approach divides estimated net earnings (after
subtracting the owner's reasonable salary) by the rate of return that reflects the risk level. For example, the capitalized value
(assuming a reasonable salary of $25,000) would be:
Step 4: Compute extra earning power. A company’s extra earning power is the difference between forecasted earnings (step 3)
and total opportunity costs (step 2). Most small businesses that are for sale do not have extra earning power (i.e., excess
earnings). They show marginal or no profits.
Step 5: Estimate the value of intangibles. The owner can use the extra earning power of the business to estimate the value of its
intangible assets- that is, goodwill. Multiplying the extra earning power by a years of profit figure yields an estimate of the intangible
assets’ value. The years of profit figure for a normal risk business ranges from three to four. A very high-risk business may have a
years of profit figure of 1, while a well-established firm might use a figure of 7.
Step 6: Determine the value of the business. To determine the value of the business, the buyer simply adds the adjusted tangible
net worth (step 1) and the value of the intangibles (step 5).
Both the buyer and seller should consider the tax implications of transferring goodwill. The amount the seller receives for goodwill
is taxed as ordinary income. The buyer cannot count this amount as a deduction because goodwill is a capital asset that cannot be
depreciated or amortized for tax purposes. Instead, the buyer would prefer to pay the seller for signing a covenant not to compete
because its value is fully tax deductible.
net earnings ( after deducting owner's salary)
rate of return 25%
Clearly, firms with lower risk factors are more valuable. Most normal risk businesses use a rate of return factor ranging from 25
percent to 33 percent. The lowest risk factor most buyers would accept for any business ranges from 15 to 20 percent.
The success of this approach depends on the accuracy of the buyer's estimates of net earnings and risk. But, it does offer a
systematic method for assigning a value to goodwill.
Variation 2: Capitalized Earnings Approach. Another earnings approach capitalizes expected net profits to determine the value of
a business. The buyer should prepare his own pro forma income statement and should ask the seller to prepare one also. Use a
five year weighted average of past sales (with the greatest weights assigned to the most recent years) to estimate sales for the
upcoming year.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Unrepresentative earnings estimates. The private company's net earnings may not realistically reflect its true earning potential. To
minimize taxes, owners usually attempt to keep profits low and rely on fringe benefits to make up the difference.
Finding similar companies for comparison. Often, it is extremely difficult for a buyer to find comparable publicly held companies
when estimating the appropriate P/E ratio.
Step 5: Compute the total value.
The primary advantage of this technique is that it values a business solely on the basis of its future earning potential, but its
reliability depends on making forecasts of future earnings and on choosing a realistic present value rate. The discounted cash flow
technique is especially well-suited for valuing service businesses (whose asset bases are often small) and for companies
experiencing high growth rates.
The biggest advantage of the market approach is its simplicity. But, this method suffers from several disadvantages, including the
following:
One way is to assume that earnings will grow by a constant amount over the next five years. Perhaps a better method is to develop
three forecasts-an optimistic, a pessimistic, and a most likely for each year and then find a weighted average using the formula.
The buyer must remember that the farther into the future he forecasts, the less reliable are his estimates .
Market Approach.
The market (or price/earnings) approach uses the price/earnings ratios of similar businesses to establish the value of a company.
The buyer must use businesses whose stocks are publicly traded to get a meaningful comparison. A company's price/earnings
ratio (or P/E ratio) is the price of one share of its common stock in the market divided by its earnings per share (after deducting
preferred stock dividends). To get a representative P/E ratio, the buyer should average the P/Es of as many similar businesses as
possible. To compute the company's value, the buyer multiplies the average price/earnings ratio by the private company's
estimated earnings.
Step 3: Estimate the income stream beyond five years.
One technique suggests multiplying the fifth year income by 1/rate of return.
Necessary comparisons between publicly traded and privately owned companies. The stock of privately owned companies is
illiquid, and, therefore, the PIE ratio used is often subjective and lower than that of publicly held companies.
Step 2: Discount these future earnings at the appropriate present value rate.
The rate the buyer selects should reflect the rate he could earn on a similar risk investment.
Step 4: Discount the income estimate beyond five years using the present value factor for the sixth year.
This variation of the earnings approach assumes that a dollar earned in the future is worth less than that same dollar today.
Therefore, using this approach, the buyer estimates the company's net income for several years into the future and then discounts
these future earnings back to their present value. The resulting present value is an estimate of the company's worth. The reduced
value of future dollars has nothing to do with inflation. Instead, present value represents the cost of the buyer giving up thc
opportunity to earn a reasonable rate of return by receiving income in the future instead of today. To illustrate the importance of the
time value of money, consider two $1 million sweepstake winners. Rob wins $1 million in a sweepstakes, but he receives it in
$50,000 installments over 20 years. If Rob invested every installment at 15 percent interest, he would have accumulated
$5,890,505.98 at the end of 20 years. Lisa wins $1 million in another sweepstakes, but she collects her winnings in a lump sum. If
Lisa invested her $1 million today at 15 percent. She would have accumulated $16,366,537.39 at the end of twenty years. The
difference in their wealth is the result of the time value of money.
The discounted future earnings approach involves five steps.
Step 1: Project future earnings for five years into the future.
Variation 3: Discounted Future Earnings Approach.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Despite its drawbacks, the market approach is useful as a general guideline to establishing a company's value.
Applying the after-tax earnings of a private company to determine its value. If a prospective buyer is using an after-tax P/E ratio
from public companies, he also must use after-tax earnings from the private company.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Overview
The XYZ Company
Which of these methods is best for determining the value of a small business? Simply stated, there is no single best method.
Valuing a business is partly an art and partly a science. Using these techniques, a range of values will emerge. Buyers should look
for values that might cluster together and then use their best judgment to determine their offering price.
Conclusion
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Balance Sheet Technique
Book Value of Net Worth = Assets minus Liabilities
= $4,167,200
= $2,450,000
Adjusted Balance Sheet Technique
Adjusted Net Worth = Adjusted Assets minus Liabilities
= $3,601,700
= $1,884,500
Earnings Approach
Variation 1 - Excess Earnings Method
Step 1 Adjusted tangible net worth equals
equals
Step 2 Opportunity Costs equals
Step 3 Estimated net earnings = equals
Step 4 Extra earning power=estimated net earnings-opportunity cost =
equals
Step 5 Value of intangibles=extra earning power X years of profit figure =
equals
Step 6 Value of business tangible net worth + value of intangibles =
equals
Variation 2 - Capitalized Earnings Approach
net earnings
Value = --------------------------------------------------------------------
Value = ---------------------------------------------------------------------
Value =
Variation 3 - Discounted Future Earnings Approach
Step 1 Projected future earnings approach
Year Pessimistic
5 $1,281,737
6 $1,484,567
7 $1,687,397
8 $1,890,226
9 $2,093,056
Step 2 Discount future earnings at the appropriate present value factor
Year Forecasted Earnings
5 $1,325,783
6 $1,535,583
7 $1,745,383
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
8 $1,955,183
9 $2,164,983
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Step 3 Estimate income stream beyond 4 years
Income Stream = Fourth year income X
= $2,164,983
= $8,659,931
Step 4 Discount income stream beyond four years (using fifth year present value factor)
Present value of income stream =
equals
Step 5 Compute the Total Value
Total Value = Step 2 + Step 4
Total Value = $3,737,878
Total Value = $5,343,083
Market Approach
Value = estimated earnings x Representative price-earnings ratio
Value = $1,325,783 Times
Value = $11,012,121
Summary of Approaches
Balance Sheet Technique
Adjusted Balance Sheet Technique
Earnings Approach Variation 1
Variation 2
Variation 3
Market Approach
Average
Median
Market Value Estimates
$4,000,000
$6,000,000
$8,000,000
$10,000,000
$12,000,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Market Value Analysis
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
$0
$2,000,000
$4,000,000
Balance Sheet
Technique
Adjusted Balance
Sheet Technique
Earnings Approach
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Assets minus Liabilities
$1,717,200
Adjusted Assets minus Liabilities
$1,717,200
$3,601,700 $1,717,200
$1,884,500
$596,125
$1,325,783
Extra earning power=estimated net earnings-opportunity cost =
$729,658
Value of intangibles=extra earning power X years of profit figure =
$3,648,290
Value of business tangible net worth + value of intangibles =
$5,532,790
net earnings
--------------------------------------------------------------------
rate of return
$1,325,783
---------------------------------------------------------------------
0.25
$5,303,132
Most Likely Optimistic Weighted Average
$1,321,378 $1,387,447 $1,325,783
$1,530,481 $1,607,005 $1,535,583
$1,739,584 $1,826,563 $1,745,383
$1,948,687 $2,046,121 $1,955,183
$2,157,790 $2,265,679 $2,164,983
Total $8,726,914
Discount future earnings at the appropriate present value factor
X Present Value Factor = Net Present Value
X 0.8000 $1,060,626
X 0.6400 $982,773
X 0.5120 $893,636
minus
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
X 0.4096 $800,843
X 0.3277 $709,465
Total $3,737,878
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
1
--------------
Rate of Return
X 4.00
Discount income stream beyond four years (using fifth year present value factor)
$8,659,931 X 0.1854
$1,605,205
+ $1,605,205
estimated earnings x Representative price-earnings ratio
8.3
Base Price Base Price + Intangibles
$2,450,000 $2,582,000
$1,884,500 $2,016,500
$5,532,790 $5,664,790
$5,303,132 $5,435,132
$5,343,083 $5,475,083
$11,012,121 $11,144,121
$5,254,271 $5,386,271
$5,323,107 $5,455,107
Market Value Estimates
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
Earnings Approach Market Approach
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
6200 XYZ Drive
ABC, California 00000-0000
Phone: (000) 000-0000
FAX: (000) 000-0000
E-mail: someone@xyz.com
Comparative Payroll Analysis
Payroll Analysis What-if Payroll Analysis
What-if Analysis
Use the spinners to experiment with the payroll demand.
CURRENT NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 37 CURRENT NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
CURRENT SALES ANNUALIZED (Weekly X 52 Weeks) $3,399,968 CURRENT SALES ANNUALIZED (Weekly X 52 Weeks)
CURRENT COMPLETED YEAR SALES $3,285,454 CURRENT COMPLETED YEAR SALES
CURRENT PAYROLL ANNUALIZED (Weekly X 52 Weeks) $350,064 CURRENT PAYROLL ANNUALIZED (Weekly X 52 Weeks)
PRIOR YEAR PAYROLL $313,647 PRIOR YEAR PAYROLL
SALES VOLUME REQUIRED, AT CURRENT PAYROLL LEVEL, TO PRODUCE PROFITS SALES VOLUME REQUIRED, AT CURRENT PAYROLL LEVEL, TO PRODUCE PROFITS
EQUAL TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR PROFITS-------- $3,666,922 EQUAL TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR PROFITS--------
SALES DEFICIENCY = SALES REQUIRED MINUS CURRENT VOLUME SALES DEFICIENCY = SALES REQUIRED MINUS CURRENT VOLUME
SALES DEFICIENCY IS--------------- ($266,954) SALES DEFICIENCY IS---------------

GROSS PAYROLL ALLOWABLE GROSS PAYROLL ALLOWABLE
UNDER PROJECTED CONDITIONS----- $324,579 UNDER PROJECTED CONDITIONS-----
GROSS PAYROLL BURDEN IS------ ($25,485) OR -8.1% GROSS PAYROLL BURDEN IS------
THE NUMBER OF NEEDED EMPLOYEES ON THE PAYROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -3.01 THE NUMBER OF EXCESS EMPLOYEES ON THE PAYROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This analysis uses simple direct proportions.
Refer to it as a payroll performance snapshot in positive & negative situations.
May 03, 2012
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Comparative Payroll Analysis
What-if Payroll Analysis
What-if Analysis
Use the spinners to experiment with the payroll demand.
CURRENT NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 37
CURRENT SALES ANNUALIZED (Weekly X 52 Weeks) $3,399,968 100%
CURRENT COMPLETED YEAR SALES $3,285,454 100%
CURRENT PAYROLL ANNUALIZED (Weekly X 52 Weeks) $350,064 100%
$313,647 100%
SALES VOLUME REQUIRED, AT CURRENT PAYROLL LEVEL, TO PRODUCE PROFITS
EQUAL TO THE PREVIOUS YEAR PROFITS-------- $3,666,922
SALES DEFICIENCY = SALES REQUIRED MINUS CURRENT VOLUME
SALES DEFICIENCY IS--------------- ($266,954)

GROSS PAYROLL ALLOWABLE
UNDER PROJECTED CONDITIONS----- $324,579
GROSS PAYROLL BURDEN IS------ ($25,485) OR -8.1%
THE NUMBER OF EXCESS EMPLOYEES ON THE PAYROLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -3.01
May 03, 2012
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
Reset Spinners Calculator
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
6200 XYZ Drive
ABC, California 00000-0000
Phone: (000) 000-0000
FAX: (000) 000-0000
E-mail: someone@xyz.com
Return on incremental investment beginning 3rd Year 20%
Plowback rate beginning 3rd Year 30%
Weighted average cost of capital 12%
Tax rate 30%
Month
1
Sales
Earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT)
Taxes on EBIT
EBIAT
Current assets less marketable securities $1,112,200
Current liabilities $936,000
Adjusted net working capital $176,200
Gross property, plant and equipment $3,300,000
Accumulated depreciation $400,000
Net property, plant and equipment $2,900,000
Invested capital $3,076,200
EBIAT
Less change in invested capital
Free cash flow
Terminal value
Total
PV factor
PV of cash flow and terminal value
Cumulative PV
Enterprise value $11,089,274
Plus marketable securities $100,000
Less short-term debt ($936,000)
Less long-term debt ($601,200)
Equity value $9,652,074
Divide by number of shares outstanding 100,000
Value per share $96.52
May 03, 2012
COMPANY STOCK VALUATI ON
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Month Month Month
2 3 4
$2,560,000 $2,721,800 $3,285,454
$1,075,763 $1,141,485 $1,660,061
($322,729) ($342,445) ($498,018)
$753,034 $799,039 $1,162,043
$1,450,530 $2,087,750
$964,080 $993,002
$486,450 $1,094,748
$3,409,000 $3,646,160
$412,000 $424,360
$2,997,000 $3,221,800
$3,483,450 $4,316,548 $4,665,160
$753,034 $799,039 $1,162,043
($407,250) ($833,098) ($348,613)
$345,784 ($34,058) $813,430
$14,370,595
$345,784 ($34,058) $15,184,025
89.29% 79.72% 71.18%
$308,736 ($27,151) $10,807,689
$308,736 $281,585 $11,089,274
May 03, 2012
COMPANY STOCK VALUATI ON
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The XYZ Company
6200 XYZ Drive
ABC, California 00000-0000
Phone: (000) 000-0000
FAX: (000) 000-0000
E-mail: someone@xyz.com
Breakdown of Operating Costs
TOTAL OPERATING COSTS
COMPARATIVE PERIODS Month Month Month Month Trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total For Period $745,000 $871,350 $894,301 $915,467 $990,118
1 DAY $2,041 $2,387 $2,450 $2,508 $2,713
1 HOUR $85.05 $99.47 $102.09 $104.51 $113.03
1 MINUTE $1.42 $1.66 $1.70 $1.74 $1.88
LABOR EXPENSE
COMPARATIVE PERIODS Month Month Month Month Trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total For Period $300,000 $315,000 $330,450 $346,364 $361,589
1 DAY $822 $863 $905 $949 $991
1 HOUR $34.25 $35.96 $37.72 $39.54 $41.28
1 MINUTE $0.57 $0.60 $0.63 $0.66 $0.69
MATERIAL EXPENSE
COMPARATIVE PERIODS Month Month Month Month Trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total For Period $320,000 $427,600 $431,238 $432,513 $488,132
1 DAY $877 $1,172 $1,181 $1,185 $1,337
1 HOUR $36.53 $48.81 $49.23 $49.37 $55.72
1 MINUTE $0.61 $0.81 $0.82 $0.82 $0.93
OTHER EXPENSES
COMPARATIVE PERIODS Month Month Month Month Trend
1 2 3 4 5
Total For Period $125,000 $128,750 $132,613 $136,591 $140,397
1 DAY $342 $353 $363 $374 $385
1 HOUR $14.27 $14.70 $15.14 $15.59 $16.03
1 MINUTE $0.24 $0.24 $0.25 $0.26 $0.27
May 03, 2012
Prepared by JaxWorks Consultancy, Inc.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Publicly Held Firms
Altman's model is probably the classic of this genre. The original data sample consisted
of 66 firms, half of which had filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 7. All businesses in the
database were manufacturers, and small firms with assets of less than $1 million were eliminated.
The Z-Score formula is as follows:
Z = 1.2X.sub.1 + 1.4X.sub.2 + 3.3X.sub.3 + 0.6X.sub.4 + 1.0X.sub.5
Privately Held Firms.
Z.sub.1 = .717X.sub.1 + .847X.sub.2 + 3.107X.sub.3 + .420X.sub.4 + .998X.sub.5
Nonmanufacturing-Small Business-Merchandising and Service firms Firms.
The X.sub.5 (Sales/Total Assets) ratio is believed to vary significantly by industry. It is likely
to be higher for merchandising and service firms than for manufacturers, since the former are
typically less capital intensive. Consequently, nonmanufacturers would have significantly higher
asset turnover and Z scores. The model is thus likely to underpredict certain sorts of bankruptcy.
To correct for this potential defect, Altman recommends the following correction that eliminates
the X.sub.5 ratio:
Z.sub.11 = 6.56X.sub.1 + 3.26X.sub.2 + 6.72X.sub.3 + 1.05X.sub.4
Altman's Z-Scores Explained
If a firm's stock is not publicly traded, the X4 term (Market Value of Equity/Book Value of
Debt) cannot be calculated. To correct for this problem, the Z score can be re-estimated
using book values of equity. This provides the following score:
Where X.sub.1 = Working Capital/Total Assets.
Where X.sub.2 = Retained Earnings/Total Assets. This is a measure of cumulative
profitability that reflects the firm's age as well as earning power. Many studies have shown
failure rates to be closely related to the age of the business.
Where X.sub.3 = Earnings Before Income Taxes/Total Assets. This is a measure of
operating efficiency separated from any leverage effects. It recognizes operating earnings
as a key to long-run viability.
Where X.sub.4 = Market Value of Equity/Book Value of Debt. This ratio adds a market
dimension. Academic studies of stock markets suggest that security price changes may
foreshadow upcoming problems.
Where X.sub.5 = Sales/Total Assets. This is a standard turnover measure. Unfortunately, it
varies greatly from one industry to another.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Check your Z-Score: How's your Fiscal Fitness?
Routinely used by Stockbrokers trying to determine if a company is a good investment, Bankers to
determine loan risk, and internally, by anyone who wants to take close look at their own company's
financial health.
Data Needed:(Linked From The "Master Data Entry" and Other Worksheets)
• Earnings before taxes
• Total assets
• Net Sales
• Market Value of Equity
• Total Liabilities
• Working Capital
• Retained Earnings
The worksheet will indicate:
The short-term potential for financial problems at your company.
The Expert
Edward I. Altman, Professor and Vice-Director of New York University's Salomon Center,
Leonard N. Stern School of Business.
Dr. Altman is known as the founding father of using statistical techniques to predict company failure.
He developed the Z-Score analysis almost 30 years ago, and is the author of several books, including
The Z-Score Bankruptcy Model: Past, Present, and Future (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977),
and Corporate Financial Distress and Bankruptcy, 2nd edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993).
The Analysis
The original data sample consisted of 66 firms, half of which had filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 7.
All businesses in the database were manufacturers, and small firms with assets of less than $1 million
were eliminated.
Altman's Z-score calculates five ratios:
1. return on total assets,
2. sales to total assets,
3. equity to debt,
4. working capital to total assets, and
5. retained earnings to total assets.
These ratios are then multiplied by a predetermined weight factor, and the results are added together.
The final number--the Z-score--yields a number between -4 and +8. Financially-sound companies show
Z-scores above 2.99, while those scoring below 1.81 are in fiscal danger, maybe even heading toward
bankruptcy. Scores that fall between these ends indicate potential trouble. In Altman's initial study
of 66 bankrupt companies, Z-scores for 95 % of these companies pointed to trouble or imminent
bankruptcy.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis - Publicly Held Firm
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis - Publicly Held Firm
Although the numbers that go into calculating the Z-score (and a company's financial soundness)
are sometimes influenced by external factors, it provides a good quick analysis of where your company
stands compared to the competition, and a good tool for analyzing the ups and downs of your company's
financial stability over time.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis Process
x Weight x Weighted
Factor Ratio
Return on Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Sales to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Equity to Debt Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Working Capital to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Retained Earnings to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Your Z-Score if Publicly Held Firm
Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4
Publicly Held Firm 2.40 2.70 3.04 3.51
KEY:
Z-SCORE ABOVE 2.99--YOU'RE IN GOOD SHAPE
Z-SCORE BETWEEN 2.99 and 1.81--WARNING SIGNS
Z-SCORE BELOW 1.81--BIG TROUBLE--COULD BE HEADING TOWARD BANKRUPTCY
Ratio Formula
Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
Total Assets
Net Sales
Total Assets
Market Value of Equity
Total Assets
Total Liabilities
Working Capital
Total Assets
Retained Earnings
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Z-Score Analysis Publicly Held
2.40
2.70
3.04
3.51
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
4.00
Periods
Z-Score Analysis - Publicly Held
Z-Score Publicly Held
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Z-Score Analysis Publicly Held
3.51
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Check your Z-Score: How's your Fiscal Fitness?
Routinely used by Stockbrokers trying to determine if a company is a good investment, Bankers to
determine loan risk, and internally, by anyone who wants to take close look at their own company's
financial health.
Data Needed:(Linked From The "Master Data Entry" and Other Worksheets)
• Earnings before taxes
• Total assets
• Net Sales
• Market Value of Equity
• Total Liabilities
• Working Capital
• Retained Earnings
The worksheet will indicate:
The short-term potential for financial problems at your company.
The Expert
Edward I. Altman, Professor and Vice-Director of New York University's Salomon Center,
Leonard N. Stern School of Business.
Dr. Altman is known as the founding father of using statistical techniques to predict company failure.
He developed the Z-Score analysis almost 30 years ago, and is the author of several books, including
The Z-Score Bankruptcy Model: Past, Present, and Future (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977),
and Corporate Financial Distress and Bankruptcy, 2nd edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993).
The Analysis
The original data sample consisted of 66 firms, half of which had filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 7.
All businesses in the database were manufacturers, and small firms with assets of less than $1 million
were eliminated.
Altman's Z-score calculates five ratios:
1. return on total assets,
2. sales to total assets,
3. equity to debt,
4. working capital to total assets, and
5. retained earnings to total assets.
These ratios are then multiplied by a predetermined weight factor, and the results are added together.
The final number--the Z-score--yields a number between -4 and +8. Financially-sound companies show
Z-scores above 2.99, while those scoring below 1.81 are in fiscal danger, maybe even heading toward
bankruptcy. Scores that fall between these ends indicate potential trouble. In Altman's initial study
of 66 bankrupt companies, Z-scores for 95 % of these companies pointed to trouble or imminent
bankruptcy.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis - Privately Held Firm
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis - Privately Held Firm
Although the numbers that go into calculating the Z-score (and a company's financial soundness)
are sometimes influenced by external factors, it provides a good quick analysis of where your company
stands compared to the competition, and a good tool for analyzing the ups and downs of your company's
financial stability over time.
x Weight x Weighted
Factor Ratio
Return on Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Sales to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Equity to Debt Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Working Capital to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Retained Earnings to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Your Z-Score if Privately Held Firm
Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4
Privately Held Firm 1.35 1.68 1.62 1.88
KEY:
Z-SCORE ABOVE 2.90--YOU'RE IN GOOD SHAPE
Z-SCORE BETWEEN 2.90 and 1.23--WARNING SIGNS
Z-SCORE BELOW 1.23--BIG TROUBLE--COULD BE HEADING TOWARD BANKRUPTCY
Ratio Formula
Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
Total Assets
Net Sales
Total Assets
Market Value of Equity
Total Assets
Total Liabilities
Working Capital
Total Assets
Retained Earnings
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Z-Score Analysis Privately Held
1.35
1.68
1.62
1.88
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
Periods
Z-Score Analysis - Privately Held
Z-Score Privately Held
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Z-Score Analysis Privately Held
1.88
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Check your Z-Score: How's your Fiscal Fitness?
Routinely used by Stockbrokers trying to determine if a company is a good investment, Bankers to
determine loan risk, and internally, by anyone who wants to take close look at their own company's
financial health.
Data Needed:(Linked From The "Master Data Entry" and Other Worksheets)
• Earnings before taxes
• Total assets
• Net Sales
• Market Value of Equity
• Total Liabilities
• Working Capital
• Retained Earnings
The worksheet will indicate:
The short-term potential for financial problems at your company.
The Expert
Edward I. Altman, Professor and Vice-Director of New York University's Salomon Center,
Leonard N. Stern School of Business.
Dr. Altman is known as the founding father of using statistical techniques to predict company failure.
He developed the Z-Score analysis almost 30 years ago, and is the author of several books, including
The Z-Score Bankruptcy Model: Past, Present, and Future (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1977),
and Corporate Financial Distress and Bankruptcy, 2nd edition (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1993).
The Analysis
The original data sample consisted of 66 firms, half of which had filed for bankruptcy under Chapter 7.
All businesses in the database were manufacturers, and small firms with assets of less than $1 million
were eliminated.
Altman's Z-score calculates five ratios:
1. return on total assets,
2. sales to total assets,
3. equity to debt,
4. working capital to total assets, and
5. retained earnings to total assets.
These ratios are then multiplied by a predetermined weight factor, and the results are added together.
The final number--the Z-score--yields a number between -4 and +8. Financially-sound companies show
Z-scores above 2.99, while those scoring below 1.81 are in fiscal danger, maybe even heading toward
bankruptcy. Scores that fall between these ends indicate potential trouble. In Altman's initial study
of 66 bankrupt companies, Z-scores for 95 % of these companies pointed to trouble or imminent
bankruptcy.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis - Nonmanufacturing
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
The Altman Z-Score Analysis - Nonmanufacturing
Although the numbers that go into calculating the Z-score (and a company's financial soundness)
are sometimes influenced by external factors, it provides a good quick analysis of where your company
stands compared to the competition, and a good tool for analyzing the ups and downs of your company's
financial stability over time.
x Weight x Weighted
Factor Ratio
Return on Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Sales to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Equity to Debt Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Working Capital to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Retained Earnings to Total Assets Varies by Varies by
Category Category
Your Z-Score if Small Business, Service, Retail Sales, or Wholesaler
Month Month Month Month
1 2 3 4
Nonmanufacturing 4.09 4.83 5.89 7.02
KEY:
Z-SCORE ABOVE 2.6--YOU'RE IN GOOD SHAPE
Z-SCORE BETWEEN 2.6 and 1.11--WARNING SIGNS
Z-SCORE BELOW 1.11--BIG TROUBLE--COULD BE HEADING TOWARD BANKRUPTCY
Ratio Formula
Earnings Before Interest and Taxes
Total Assets
Net Sales
Total Assets
Market Value of Equity
Total Assets
Total Liabilities
Working Capital
Total Assets
Retained Earnings
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Z-Score Analysis Nonmanufacturing
4.09
4.83
5.89
7.02
0.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
8.00
Periods
Z-Score Analysis - Nonmanufacturing
Z-Score Nonmanufacturing
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Z-Score Analysis Nonmanufacturing
7.02
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Category 1 2 3 4
Altman Z Score - Publicly Held 2.40 2.70 3.04 3.51
Altman Z Score - Privately Held 1.35 1.68 1.62 1.88
Altman Z Score - Non-manufacturing 4.09 4.83 5.89 7.02
Z-Score Analysis
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Cash flow and ROI statement
0 1
Greater margin driven by higher production capacity $500,000
Improved cycle time benefits:
Reduced energy cost due to less running time 125,000
Reduced labor cost due to less running time 500,000
Fewer accidents, resulting in less workers' compensation 100,000
Improved quality benefits:
Fewer defects, resulting in less rework 250,000
Fewer customer returns, resulting in less reprocessing costs 50,000
Reduced time spent handling customer complaints 50,000
<Benefit driver>
<Benefit driver>
<Benefit driver>
<Benefit driver>
Total annual benefits $1,575,000
Implementation filter 85%
Total benefits realized $1,338,750
Return-on-I nvestment (ROI ) Analysis
YEAR
BENEFIT DRIVERS
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Costs Year 0 Year 1
Total $1,650,000 $125,000
Benefits Year 0 Year 1
Annual benefit flow ($1,650,000) $1,213,750
Cumulative benefit flow (1,650,000) (436,250)
Discounted benefit flow Year 0 Year 1
Discounted costs $1,650,000 $108,696
Discounted benefits 0 1,164,130
Total discounted benefit flow (1,650,000) 1,055,435
Total cumulative discounted benefit flow (1,650,000) (594,565)
Initial investment Year 0 Year 1
Initial investment $1,200,000 $0
Implementation costs 400,000 0
Ongoing support costs 0 100,000
Training costs 50,000 25,000
Other costs 0 0
Total costs $1,650,000 $125,000
ROI measures
Cost of capital 15%
Net present value $2,223,632
Return on investment 66%
Payback (in years) 1.24
Return on investment
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
2 3
$1,000,000 $1,250,000
125,000 125,000
500,000 500,000
100,000 100,000
300,000 300,000
75,000 75,000
75,000 75,000
$2,175,000 $2,425,000
90% 95%
$1,957,500 $2,303,750
YEAR
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Year 2 Year 3
$125,000 $125,000
Year 2 Year 3
$1,832,500 $2,178,750
1,396,250 3,575,000
Year 2 Year 3
$94,518 $82,190
1,480,151 1,514,753
1,385,633 1,432,563
791,068 2,223,632
Year 2 Year 3
$0 $0
0 0
100,000 100,000
25,000 25,000
0 0
$125,000 $125,000

143% 215%
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Small Business Headcount and Payroll Analysis
HEADCOUNT SUMMARY Q1 Q2 Q3
Executive
Owner 1.00 1.00 1.00
Chief financial officer 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Total 2.00 2.00 2.00
Finance
Financial Analyst 1.00 1.00 1.00
Credit Analyst 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Total 2.00 2.00 2.00
Human Resources
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Open
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00
Information Technology
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00
Accounting
Controller 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sales
Sales Manager 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sales Representatives 2.00 2.00 2.00
Open
Total 3.00 3.00 3.00
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Small Business Headcount and Payroll Analysis
HEADCOUNT SUMMARY Q1 Q2 Q3
Operations
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00
Marketing
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Open
Total 1.00 1.00 1.00
Corporate totals 12.00 12.00 12.00
SUMMARY DATA BY DEPARTMENT
Department Total salary
Executive $150,000
Finance 55,000
Human Resources 40,000
Information Technology 40,000
Accounting 30,000
Sales 158,000
Operations 30,000
Marketing 35,000
Corporate Totals $538,000
Department % of total
Executive 18.2%
Finance 18.2%
Human Resources 9.1%
Information Technology 9.1%
Accounting 9.1%
Sales 27.3%
Operations 9.1%
Marketing 0.0%
Corporate Totals 100.0%
0
44
4
12
4
Total number
of employees
8
8
4
12
4
44
Total number
of employees
8
8
4
4
0
4
4
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Q4 Annual total
Annual
salary
Q1 cost Q2 cost Q3 cost Q4 cost
1.00 4.00 $100,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000 $25,000
1.00 4.00 50,000 12,500 12,500 12,500 12,500
0.00 0 0 0 0
2.00 8.00 $37,500 $37,500 $37,500 $37,500
1.00 4.00 $30,000 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500
1.00 4.00 25,000 6,250 6,250 6,250 6,250
0.00 0 0 0 0
2.00 8.00 $13,750 $13,750 $13,750 $13,750
1.00 4.00 $40,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
0.00 0 0 0 0
0.00 0 0 0 0
1.00 4.00 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
1.00 4.00 $40,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
0.00 0 0 0 0
1.00 4.00 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
1.00 4.00 $30,000 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500
0.00 0 0 0 0
1.00 4.00 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500
1.00 4.00 $40,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000 $10,000
2.00 8.00 59,000 29,500 29,500 29,500 29,500
0.00 0 0 0 0
3.00 12.00 $39,500 $39,500 $39,500 $39,500
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Q4 Annual total
Annual
salary
Q1 cost Q2 cost Q3 cost Q4 cost
1.00 4.00 $30,000 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500
0.00 0 0 0 0
1.00 4.00 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500 $7,500
1.00 4.00 $35,000 $8,750 $8,750 $8,750 $8,750
0.00 0 0 0 0
1.00 0.00 $8,750 $8,750 $8,750 $8,750
12.00 44.00 $134,500 $134,500 $134,500 $134,500
Benefits
Salary +
benefits
Variable
pay
$37,500 $187,500 $22,500
13,750 68,750 3,300.00
10,000 50,000 2,000.00
10,000 50,000 2,000.00
7,500 37,500 1,500.00
39,500 197,500 31,600.00
7,500 37,500 3,000.00
8,750 43,750 1,750.00
$134,500 $672,500 $67,650
Total comp % of total
$230,000 30.1%
77,050 10.1%
52,000 6.8%
52,000 6.8% Quarterly metrics:
39,000 5.1% Salary Benefits Salary + benefits
229,100 29.9% Q1 $134,500 $33,625 $168,125
40,500 5.3% Q2 134,500 33,625 168,125
45,500 5.9% Q3 134,500 33,625 168,125
Q4 134,500 33,625 168,125
$765,150 100.0% $538,000 $134,500 $672,500
0.00
0.00
0.00
Stock-based
compensation
$20,000
5,000.00
0.00
0.00
Variable
compensation %
15.0%
6.0%
5.0%
0.00
20.0%
5.0%
$25,000
10.0%
5.0%
5.0%
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Annual cost
$100,000
50,000
0
$150,000
$30,000
25,000
0
$55,000
$40,000
0
0
$40,000
$40,000
0
$40,000
$30,000
0
$30,000
$40,000
118,000
0
$158,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Annual cost
$30,000
0
$30,000
$35,000
0
$35,000
$538,000
39,000.00
229,100.00
40,500.00
45,500.00
$765,150
52,000.00
Total compensation
$230,000
77,050.00
52,000.00
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Corporate Headcount and Payroll Analysis
HEADCOUNT SUMMARY Q1 Q2 Q3
Executive
Chief executive officer 1.00 1.00 1.00
Chief financial officer 1.00 1.00 1.00
Chief operating officer 1.00 1.00 1.00
Chief information officer 1.00 1.00 1.00
President 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 5.00 5.00 5.00
Finance
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Financial planning director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Financial analyst 2.00 2.00 2.00
Credit analyst 1.00 1.00 1.00
Advisor 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 6.00 6.00 6.00
Human Resources
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Senior human resource representative 2.00 2.00 2.00
Benefits coordinator 1.00 1.00 1.00
Compensation manager 2.00 2.00 2.00
Human resource generalist 2.00 2.00 2.00
Payroll 1.00 1.00 1.00
Trainer
Recruiter
Total 10.00 10.00 10.00
Information Technology
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Systems engineer 2.00 2.00 2.00
Systems analyst 1.00 1.00 1.00
Technician 1.00 1.00 2.00
Support 2.00 2.00 2.00
Architect 1.00 1.00 1.00
Programmer 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 10.00 10.00 11.00
Accounting
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Controller 1.00 1.00 1.00
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Corporate Headcount and Payroll Analysis
HEADCOUNT SUMMARY Q1 Q2 Q3
Accounting manager 1.00 1.00 1.00
Accounts receivable 1.00 1.00 1.00
Accounts payable 1.00 1.00 1.00
Treasury 1.00 1.00 1.00
General accountant 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 7.00 7.00 7.00
Sales
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Regional director 2.00 2.00 2.00
Business development 1.00 1.00 1.00
Direct sales representative 4.00 4.00 4.00
Inside sales 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sales operations 1.00 1.00 1.00
Channel sales representative 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 11.00 11.00 11.00
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Corporate Headcount and Payroll Analysis
HEADCOUNT SUMMARY Q1 Q2 Q3
Operations
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Manager 1.00 1.00 1.00
Floor manager 5.00 5.00 5.00
Assistant 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 9.00 9.00 9.00
Marketing
Vice president 1.00 1.00 1.00
Director 1.00 1.00 1.00
Product manager 1.00 1.00 1.00
Market research 1.00 1.00 1.00
Market analyst 1.00 1.00 1.00
Product manager 1.00 1.00 1.00
Merchandiser 1.00 1.00 1.00
Assistant 1.00 1.00 1.00
Total 8.00 8.00 8.00
Corporate totals 66.00 66.00 67.00
SUMMARY DATA BY DEPARTMENT
Department Total salary
Executive $1,240,000
Finance 680,000
Human Resources 835,000
Information Technology 950,000
Accounting 540,000
Sales 1,000,000
Operations 705,000
Marketing 690,000
Corporate Totals $6,640,000
Department % of total
Executive 7.9%
Finance 9.4%
Human Resources 15.7%
Information Technology 16.5%
Accounting 11.0%
20
24
40
20
42
28
Total number
of employees
20
24
42
40
44
36
Total number
of employees
254
28
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Corporate Headcount and Payroll Analysis
HEADCOUNT SUMMARY Q1 Q2 Q3
Sales 17.3%
Operations 14.2%
Marketing 7.9%
Corporate Totals 100.0%
44
36
20
254
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Q4 Annual total
Annual
salary
Q1 cost Q2 cost Q3 cost Q4 cost
1.00 4.00 $300,000 $75,000 $75,000 $75,000 $75,000
1.00 4.00 250,000 62,500 62,500 62,500 62,500
1.00 4.00 225,000 56,250 56,250 56,250 56,250
1.00 4.00 225,000 56,250 56,250 56,250 56,250
1.00 4.00 240,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000
0.00 0 0 0 0
5.00 20.00 $310,000 $310,000 $310,000 $310,000
1.00 4.00 $200,000 $50,000 $50,000 $50,000 $50,000
1.00 4.00 125,000 31,250 31,250 31,250 31,250
2.00 8.00 100,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000
1.00 4.00 70,000 17,500 17,500 17,500 17,500
1.00 4.00 85,000 21,250 21,250 21,250 21,250
0.00 0 0 0 0
6.00 24.00 $170,000 $170,000 $170,000 $170,000
1.00 4.00 $140,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000
1.00 4.00 100,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 25,000
2.00 8.00 80,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
2.00 8.00 75,000 37,500 37,500 37,500 37,500
2.00 8.00 65,000 32,500 37,500 37,500 37,500
1.00 4.00 65,000 16,250 16,250 16,250 16,250
0.00 65,000 0 0 0 0
0.00 65,000 0 0 0 0
0.00 0 0 0 0
10.00 40.00 $205,000 $210,000 $210,000 $210,000
1.00 4.00 $140,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000 $35,000
1.00 4.00 110,000 27,500 27,500 27,500 27,500
2.00 8.00 90,000 45,000 45,000 45,000 45,000
1.00 4.00 90,000 22,500 22,500 22,500 22,500
2.00 6.00 80,000 20,000 20,000 40,000 40,000
2.00 8.00 75,000 37,500 37,500 37,500 37,500
1.00 4.00 80,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
1.00 4.00 80,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
0.00 0 0 0 0
11.00 42.00 $227,500 $227,500 $247,500 $247,500
1.00 4.00 $130,000 $32,500 $32,500 $32,500 $32,500
1.00 4.00 95,000 23,750 23,750 23,750 23,750
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Q4 Annual total
Annual
salary
Q1 cost Q2 cost Q3 cost Q4 cost
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
1.00 4.00 55,000 13,750 13,750 13,750 13,750
1.00 4.00 55,000 13,750 13,750 13,750 13,750
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
1.00 4.00 55,000 13,750 13,750 13,750 13,750
0.00 0 0 0 0
7.00 28.00 $135,000 $135,000 $135,000 $135,000
1.00 4.00 $120,000 $30,000 $30,000 $30,000 $30,000
2.00 8.00 100,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000
1.00 4.00 90,000 22,500 22,500 22,500 22,500
4.00 16.00 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000 90,000
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
1.00 4.00 80,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000
0.00 0 0 0 0
11.00 44.00 $250,000 $250,000 $250,000 $250,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Q4 Annual total
Annual
salary
Q1 cost Q2 cost Q3 cost Q4 cost
1.00 4.00 $150,000 $37,500 $37,500 $37,500 $37,500
1.00 4.00 100,000 25,000 25,000 25,000 25,000
1.00 4.00 85,000 21,250 21,250 21,250 21,250
5.00 20.00 65,000 81,250 81,250 81,250 81,250
1.00 4.00 45,000 11,250 11,250 11,250 11,250
0.00 0 0 0 0
9.00 36.00 $176,250 $176,250 $176,250 $176,250
1.00 4.00 $135,000 $33,750 $33,750 $33,750 $33,750
1.00 4.00 105,000 26,250 26,250 26,250 26,250
1.00 4.00 90,000 22,500 22,500 22,500 22,500
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
1.00 4.00 75,000 18,750 18,750 18,750 18,750
1.00 4.00 90,000 22,500 22,500 22,500 22,500
1.00 4.00 70,000 17,500 17,500 17,500 17,500
1.00 4.00 50,000 12,500 12,500 12,500 12,500
0.00 0 0 0 0
8.00 20.00 $172,500 $172,500 $172,500 $172,500
67.00 254.00 $1,646,250 $1,651,250 $1,671,250 $1,671,250
Benefits
Salary +
benefits
Variable
pay
$310,000 $1,550,000 $186,000
170,000 850,000 68,000.00
208,750 1,043,750 41,750.00
237,500 1,187,500 47,500.00
135,000 675,000 27,000.00
250,000 1,250,000 400,000.00
176,250 881,250 70,500.00
172,500 862,500 34,500.00
$1,660,000 $8,300,000 $875,250
Total comp % of total
$1,936,000 20.5%
968,000 10.3%
1,085,500 11.5%
1,235,000 13.1% Quarterly metrics:
702,000 7.4% Salary Benefits Salary + benefits
10.0%
5.0%
Variable
compensation %
15.0%
10.0%
5.0%
0.00
0.00
0.00
40.0%
5.0%
5.0%
0.00
Stock-based
compensation
$200,000
50,000.00
0.00
0.00
$250,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Q4 Annual total
Annual
salary
Q1 cost Q2 cost Q3 cost Q4 cost
1,650,000 17.5% Q1 $1,646,250 $411,563 $2,057,813
951,750 10.1% Q2 1,651,250 412,813 2,064,063
897,000 9.5% Q3 1,671,250 417,813 2,089,063
Q4 1,671,250 417,813 2,089,063
$9,425,250 100.0% $6,640,000 $1,660,000 $8,300,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Annual cost
$300,000
250,000
225,000
225,000
240,000
0
$1,240,000
$200,000
125,000
200,000
70,000
85,000
0
$680,000
$140,000
100,000
160,000
75,000
150,000
145,000
65,000
0
0
0
$835,000
$140,000
110,000
180,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
80,000
80,000
0
$950,000
$130,000
95,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Annual cost
75,000
55,000
55,000
75,000
55,000
0
$540,000
$120,000
200,000
90,000
360,000
75,000
75,000
80,000
0
$1,000,000
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Annual cost
$150,000
100,000
85,000
325,000
45,000
0
$705,000
$135,000
105,000
90,000
75,000
75,000
90,000
70,000
50,000
0
$690,000
$6,640,000
1,085,500.00
Total compensation
$1,936,000
968,000.00
1,235,000.00
702,000.00
1,650,000.00
951,750.00
897,000.00
$9,425,250
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
Annual cost
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
MicroShots™ is a registered trademarks of Jaxworks and affiliated companies. All other brands or products are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective holders and should be treated as such.
Copyright Notice
NOTICES REGARDING SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTS AND SERVICES.
IN NO EVENT SHALL JAXWORKS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER
RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTS, PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SERVICES,
OR INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THIS PROGRAM.
© 2010, JaxWorks
All rights reserved.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
MicroShots™ is a registered trademarks of Jaxworks and affiliated companies. All other brands or products are trademarks or registered trademarks of their
respective holders and should be treated as such.
Copyright Notice
NOTICES REGARDING SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTS AND SERVICES.
IN NO EVENT SHALL JAXWORKS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER
RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF SOFTWARE, DOCUMENTS, PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SERVICES,
OR INFORMATION AVAILABLE FROM THIS PROGRAM.
© 2010, JaxWorks
All rights reserved.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
License Agreement
Products by JaxWorks
Copyright (C) 2010 JaxWorks
All Rights Reserved


WARNING
=================

This program is protected by copyright law and international treaties.
Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this program, or any portion
of it may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be
prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under law.


LICENSE AGREEMENT
=================

You should read the following terms and conditions carefully before using
this software. Your use of this software indicates your full acceptance of
this license agreement and warranty.


LICENSE AGREEMENT
======================================

1. GRANTING OF LICENSE. JaxWorks, as Licenser, grants to you, the Licensee,
a non-exclusive license to use this software program (hereinafter referred
to as the "SOFTWARE") in accordance with the terms contained in this license.

You may use the SOFTWARE on a single desk top computer and one notebook computer.
You may access the SOFTWARE through a network, provided that you have obtained individual
licenses for the software to cover all workstations that will access the software through
the network.

2. COPYRIGHT. All title and copyrights in and to the SOFTWARE, including but
not limited to any images, texts, and sounds incorporated into the SOFTWARE,
are owned by JaxWorks.

3. REDISTRIBUTION. You CAN NOT freely distribute this SOFTWARE.

4. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY. THE SOFTWARE AND THE ACCOMPANYING FILES ARE PROVIDED
"AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND. TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW, JAXWORKS DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF PERFORMANCE,
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, IN NO EVENT SHALL JAXWORKS
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION OR LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR
INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE, EVEN IF JAXWORKS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.



JaxWorks
http://www.jaxworks.com


© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
License Agreement
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.
© Copyright, 2009, JaxWorks, All Rights Reserved.

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