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Chapter I Introduction Background of the Study The English language is the global lingua franca. In approximately 1762, the Filipinos were introduced to the English language by the British invaders. However, the English language only became significant in the period between 1898 and 1946, when the Philippines was under the United States sovereignty. Since then, the English language remains the country’s official language. On July 14, 1936, the National Language Institute selected Tagalog as the basis of National Language. As time went by, Filipinos started to use both languages at the same time and thus, code switching emerged. According to YourDictionary.com (n.d.), “Code switching” is a linguistics term that basically means switching back and forth between two or more languages in the course of a conversation. It can also refer to the ability to switch languages or dialects quickly from one conversation to the next depending on the situation or conversation partner. In the Philippines, Taglish is a portmanteau of the words "Tagalog" and "English" which refers to the Philippine language Tagalog (or its liberalized official form, Filipino) infused with American English terms. Taglish is perhaps most common in Metro Manila, where its use has become stereotyped. Its influence has nevertheless become great, as it is now arguably a lingua franca in many parts of the country. Another related example of code-switching is Englog, English infused with Tagalog words, a popular type being called Coño/Konyo English.

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Undeniably, code-switching allows Filipinos to communicate more clearly by providing a broader list of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, and the like. On the other hand, experts have been recently discouraging the mixing of the English and the Filipino language. The spread of Taglish prevents the Filipino language from replacing English as the language of opportunity since academic English and academic Filipino, not Taglish, are needed to pass academic and licensing exams (Thompson, 2003). The prevalent use of code-switching in the Philippines greatly affects many Filipinos, especially the students. This study discovered the reasons behind the code switching of 2AHR students of San Beda College. Statement of the Problem Specifically, the study answered the following questions: 1. What form of code-switching is most frequently used by 2AHR students: 1.1 Taglish or Tagalog-English? 1.2 Englog or English-Tagalog? 2. Do the following factors affect the code switching habit of 2AHR students: 2.1 Age? 2.2 Gender? 2.3 Socio-economic status? Significance of the Study

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The researchers hoped that the findings of this study enabled students to understand the code-switching phenomenon, factors that leads to it, and encourage them to improve their English ability. Understanding this matter also served as a guide in developing their capability to communicate well verbally using the English language. Theoretical and Conceptual Framework Independent Variables - Age - Gender - Socio-Economic Status

The code switching habit of 2AHR students

The independent variables such as age, gender and socio-economic status affects the code-switching habit of 2AHR students. Research Hypothesis The factors age, gender and socio-economic status do not influence the code-switching habit of 2AHR students in San Beda College, S.Y. 2010-2011. Scope and Limitation This research dealt with the factors that lead to code-switching habit of second year HR students, it was not design to give a negative impression to the people who used code switching, nor will it explore the general causes and effects. The researchers limited themselves to the code-switching habit of second year HR students and the factors that trigger its usage namely age, gender and socio-economic status.

Englog. most common in Metro Manila where its use has become stereotype. An informal form of English infused with Tagalog words.).).d. WordIQ.d. and class (Webster’s third new international dictionary. 1993). Socio-economic status. Taglish. place of residence. and. 1993). a popular type of which is called Konyo English.d. Birth. perhaps. Code switching.d. The position of an individual on a social-economic scale that measures such factors as education. Taglish is. race. heritage and religion. .). in some populations. (n. All words.). Dictionary. The phenomenon of alternating between two or more languages during spoken conversation. Habit.4 Definition of Terms Age. An informal dialect of Tagalog that infuses English terms. (n. income. Gender. Fact-index. 1993). (n. A behavior pattern acquired by frequent repetition or developed as a physiological function and showing itself in regularity (Webster’s third new international dictionary. (n. type of occupation. The length of time during which a being or thing has lived or existed (Webster’s third new international dictionary.

It was during the Commonwealth period that our search for a national language was first recognized officially. which was established through Commonwealth Act No. 1936. The chief agency for the creation of the development of a common national language is the Institute of National Language (INL). the country adopted the more common name to help with the acceptance of the actual language among other Filipino individuals. According to statistics Tagalog is spoken as a first language by over 24 million individuals and as a second language by more than 65 million (Cardozo. While the Tagalog language has existed for several years. It is also referred to as Filipino.5 Chapter II Review of Related Literature History of Languages in the Philippines The present linguistic situation in the Philippines creates a dilemma for Filipinos themselves (Gonzales. Having a national language was first conceived as early as 1925 when Manuel L. 2008). the National Assembly shall take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing languages. A . Article XIII of the 1935 Constitution. Tagalog is the language of the Republic of the Philippines. A national language is a necessity in order to develop not only a country’s identity as a nation but also as its medium of communication. In Section 3. 1988). It is one of the most spoken languages of the Filipino culture. Quezon recalled Rizal's feeling of frustration for not being able to communicate with a fellow countrywoman while on a boat bound for Europe. 148 in November 19.

the means the Americans used to teach us via the mass media. Spanish became the lingua franca of the Philippines until the 19th and early 20th centuries. From these. one would be chosen to become the basis of the national language. It was also the language of the Philippine Revolution. The English language is the official global lingua franca. the Philippine islands were under the Spanish colony. Definition of Code-switching Poplack (2004) stated that code-switching is but one of a number of the linguistic manifestations of language contact and mixing. interference.6 director. Ilokano. Hiligaynon and Pangasinan. . social. The group was to make a descriptive and comparative survey of one of the major dialects namely. Tagalog. Lambert (2005) stated that for centuries. 2011). Decades after the US granted the Philippines its independence in 1946. Tagalog was heavily favored because it has the most number of highly developed literatures and was considered as the best-studied language during that time (Simborio. Bikolano. English . the arts. the bilingual policy emerged or also called. The Philippine-American connection has undergone considerable changes since then. which variously include borrowing on the lexical and syntactic levels. language transfer. Kapampangan. executive secretary and seven members compose it. during this time. Many Filipinos still believed in and actively campaigned for the Philippines becoming the 51st state of the United States. language attrition.continues to be a strong thread that binds the two nations (Espinosa. linguistic convergence. Today. 1997). business and political interaction . “code switching”. Waray. Instead of improving Filipinos’ English skills. therefore the universal language. and the 1899 Malolos Constitution proclaimed it as the official language of the First Philippine Republic.

To put it simply. Taglish is mostly used for convenience. the portmanteau of English and Tagalog words. having 2 (two) sub-categories: Taglish and Englog. or familiar with the use of difficult English words. However. also more known as Coño/Konyo English. Types of Code-switching Taglish or Tagalog-English is the portmanteau of Tagalog and English words. where it is now arguably its lingua franca. pidginization and creolization.7 language death. so they usually resort to the insertion of Tagalog words in most of their English sentences. code-switching is popularly known as the switching from one language to another during a conversation. as some Tagalog/Filipino are less familiar with their English counterparts. English was to be the medium of instruction in all learning institutions within the Philippines. “Maaring i-explain mo sa akin?” instead. 210. “Maaring ipaliwanag mo sa akin?” wherein Filipinos nowadays say. Another type of common code switching in the Philippines is the Englog or EnglishTagalog. An example is saying. among others. Code switching is now very common in the Philippines. This kind of language is commonly used by Filipinos that are not used to. Taglish is most common in Metro Manila. Related Reading According to the Executive Order No. after being abolished—a move made in 1987 shortly after EDSA I—it only resulted in the birth of “Englog”—a mishmash of English and Tagalog words and phrases which did not succeed in making Filipinos truly bilingual . There is little consensus in the literature over which aspects should be subsumed under the label code switching.

or Taglish to state the message in the fastest. Despite code switching having a number of benefits. 2007). which language would provide the most expressive.” or a combination of English and the local dialect. Villafuerte (2006) stated that the Bilingual policy is to be blamed for the downgrade of Filipinos’ English skills for the last three decades. most concise way of saying something. It stated that because of bilingual policy. Mr. “The spread of Taglish prevents the Filipino language . but the teachers and professors as well.” in a sense. This kind of strategic competence is currently very evident in texting – the texter can choose between English. but was apparently the language used not only by the students. which gradually led to the fall of Filipinos’ competitive edge in getting good occupation opportunities.8 (Romualadez. easiest way possible. Tagalog. It was a disastrous move to impose Tagalog-based Filipino as the medium of instruction even for subjects like Mathematics and Science. even trilingual) have the strategic competence to “calculate. the need for congress to quickly revive English as a medium of instruction” said Viliafuerte. Villafuerte based his findings after the Department of Education compared the results of the 2006 National Achievement Test of the Fourth year and Grade 6 students’ results. “The policy’s linguistic juggling has contributed in a big way to the rapid decline of the English proficiency of many Filipinos. subjects that were supposed to be taught in English were actually done in “Taglish. Taglish was not directly taught inside the campus. Thus. According to Thompson (2003). Effects of Code-switching Bautista (2009) believed that bilinguals (and most Filipinos are bilingual. it also has its disadvantages. who was one of the authors of a bill seeking to reinstate English as the teaching language. In an article.

while others would say that they code switch because it is more convenient. office workers. Reasons Behind Code-switching It is undeniable that most of the Filipinos nowadays— children. they utilize the English terminology .9 from replacing English as the language of opportunity since academic English and academic Filipino. Second is the lack of register also known as deficiency-driven code switching. lawyers. Muthusamy (as cited by Malik. engineers while they interact among themselves due to the fact that proper terms in Tagalog or in any other language other than English may not be offered to them. which has become a part of their daily lives. teachers. code switching takes place in the speech of doctors. college students often code switch by moving from Tagalog to English. But what is really the reason why people code switch? The researchers believe that the common reason why people code switch is because of the following: first is the issue on the lack of facility. 1994) said that bilinguals or multilinguals often explain that they code switch when they cannot find an appropriate expression or vocabulary item or when the language of conversation does not have the particular word needed to carry on the conversation smoothly. religious person and even government officials—code-switch. As a result. For example. it resulted to a nation with poor language proficiency both in English and Tagalog. That happens when people are not equally competent in two languages and when they do not know the terms in two languages. In certain occupations. Some would say that code switching is done because of the lack of proficiency on a certain language. are needed to pass academic and licensing exams. celebrities. not Taglish. Instead. Furthermore. students. professionals. it was to give the country its own identity by replacing a foreign language.” The Filipino/Tagalog language was proclaimed as the medium of instruction.

But the more common reason of code switching now can be called “proficiency-driven code switching. For example. the television announcer often uses Tagalog as it is the national language but also switches to English. he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in the base language. Muthusamy (as cited by Malik. . 1979) reports several instances in which a switch at the end of an argument not only helps to end the interaction but may serve to emphasize a point. The habitual experience of a person can also trigger the use of code switching. 1994) stresses the fact that code switching often occurs in fixed phrases of greeting and parting.” This is the kind used by people who are proficient in both languages and who code-switch for purposes of communicative efficiency. a person knows exactly the word in both the languages (Tagalog and English) but the English language may be more available at the point of time when the speaker is troubled. Code-switching is also used when a person intends to address people coming from various linguistic backgrounds. Usually when people are tired or angry. invitation. Another reason can be the mood of the person. when a person is in the right state of mind. Code-switching is also used to emphasize a point. Muthusamy (as cited by Gal. code switching takes place with a new dimension. This means. Frequently. commands and request. in the Philippines. expressions of gratitude and discourse markers such as you know or pero (but).10 that they are familiar with. There are cases that code switching happens in order to address a different audience.

The sample size of 15 . Manila concerning their code switching habit.11 Chapter III Methodology Research Design This study used the descriptive-survey method. gender and socio-economic affected this. Manila S. The result of the sample size decided the number of respondents. which are age.Y. have a relationship to this habit. Through descriptive survey. The researchers believed that this design is the most appropriate for this study for it can use either qualitative and/or quantitative form of data. 2010-2011. This study stated the present condition of the 2nd year BSBA Human Resource Development Management students of San Beda College. and socio-economic status. Despite the small population of 2nd year AHR consisting of more or less 20 students. The researchers used this method considering the objectives to obtain the data were first hand from the respondents. Sampling Design and Determination of Sample Size Random sampling was employ in this study. this study determined whether the proposed factors. and how the independent variables age. gender. the researchers further minimized their subjects by determining the sample size. The Subjects The subjects of this study were the 2nd year BSBA Human Resource Development Management students of San Beda College.

The profile contains the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondent such as name. Lastly. The survey proper explores the code-switching habits of the respondents. the researchers selected an expert to advise and verify the content of the questionnaire. Then the researchers revised the survey-questionnaire according to the instructions and comments of the chosen expert. Hence. In order to test and confirm its validity. However. and is divided into 2 parts: the respondent’s profile and the survey proper. and monthly family income. The Research Instrument A survey-questionnaire was use as the main data instrument for this study. The questionnaire is personally constructed by the researchers. namely the frequency of their usage. articles and news.12 respondents participated in this study. and asked the expert for any suggestions and corrections to ensure the effectiveness of the instrument. age. Other primary information was based from books. . the factors that trigger and influence them. Data Gathering Procedure The researchers used the survey method in gathering data and information. and the reasons behind this habit. Validation of Research Instruments The questionnaire was a researcher-made survey. The researchers did not impose certain inclusion criteria in selecting the subjects since the respondents were randomly chosen. content validity is used. the survey proper applied the Likert scale for the answers. Moreover. this study obtained primary data from the output of the survey questionnaires that was given to the respondents. gender. the researchers assumed that the ages of the respondents would range from 18 to 22.

Moreover. On the other hand. As for this study. which determined whether the independent variables indeed have a significant relationship with the subjects’ code switching habit. After gathering all the information. for the socioeconomic status. Data Processing Method The researchers constructed a survey-questionnaire. The researchers asked permission from the class adviser of 2AHR to conduct the survey during one of their class periods. Pearson-r was used to correlate the age and the weighted score of the respondent on the survey proper. the researchers used the percentage formula to know the percent of the students who code switch and what income bracket do they belong. They consulted the chosen experts in order to test and confirm its validity. The researchers chose this method since the Pearson-r is appropriate for determining the level of relationship between two sets of data. Internet sources were also used in gathering information. the researchers tallied the data for the correlation using the Pearson-r. the Pearson-r . they revised the survey-questionnaire according to the instructions of the experts. Then the researchers gave the respondents at least ten minutes to answer the survey-questionnaire. They researchers gave the 15 respondents questionnaires respectively. the researchers collected the questionnaire. Statistical Method Percentage and frequency were used in this study to determine whether gender and the socio-economic status have an effect on the code-switching habit of the subjects. After which. Then.13 secondary data were derived from related studies and dictionaries.

Analysis and Interpretation of Data This chapter presents the results of the survey on the code-switching habit of 2nd year BSBA Human Resource Development Management students of San Beda College. 3. What form of code-switching is most frequently used by 2AHR students: 3.14 determined whether age does indeed have an influence on the code switching habit of second year AHR students. analysis and interpretation of data.1 Taglish or Tagalog-English? 3.2 Englog or English-Tagalog? Table 4. Analysis and interpretation of data are presented in the order of the statement of the problems. Chapter IV Presentation.1 Most Commonly Used Form of Code-Switching of Male Respondents I use Taglish or Tagalog-English 3 4 4 3 I use Englog or English-Tagalog 3 4 4 3 .

Table 4. the answers of the male respondents to both questions are all the same. which depicts regular usage of both pormanteau.2 Most Commonly Used Form of Code-Switching of Female Respondents I use Taglish or Tagalog-English 2 3 4 4 Average = 3.45. As shown above.2 shows the scores of female respondents to questions 2 and 3 which are “I use Taglish or Tagalog-English” and “I use Englog or English-Tagalog”. the answers of the female respondents to both questions are all the same. . The average of the rating of female respondents for both Taglish and Englog is 3.25 Table 4.25 I use Englog or English-Tagalog 2 3 4 4 Average = 3.25. As shown above.15 4 2 3 3 5 4 3 4 2 3 3 5 4 3 Average = 3.1 shows the scores of male respondents to questions 2 and 3 which are “I use Taglish or Tagalog-English” and “I use Englog or English-Tagalog”. The average of the rating of male respondents for both Taglish and Englog is 3.45 Average = 3.45 Table 4. which depicts regular usage of both pormanteau.

890 Table 4.101409239.150 Y2 324 400 361 324 ∑Y2= 1.369 1. shows a negligible relationship between the two sets of data.936 2. Using these results. the researchers computed for the Pearson-r and arrived at a value of 0.116 ∑X2= 6. . Do the following factors affect the code switching habit of 2AHR students: 4.101409239 Y (Age) 18 20 19 18 ∑X= 75 X2 729 1.3 shows the weighted average of the scores of female respondents on their codeswitching habit represented by the X variable.2 Gender? Table 4. As shown on the table. attained by an 18-year-old respondent. achieved also by a respondent 18 years of age.16 4.409 XY 486 740 836 828 ∑XY= 2. and their respective ages represented by the Y variable. the highest score out of 70 is 46. which according to statistical standards.3 Correlation of Age and Code-Switching Habit of Female Respondents X (Scores) 27 37 44 46 ∑X= 154 r = 0. The lowest score on the other hand is 27.1 Age? 4.

the researchers computed for the Pearson-r and arrived at a value of 0.764 1. attained by an 18-year-old respondent.401 2.444 1.401 3.849 2.4 shows the weighted average of the scores of male respondents on their codeswitching habit represented by the X variable.4 X (scores) 29 37 38 40 42 43 45 48 49 49 56 ∑X= 476 Correlation of Age and Code-Switching Habit of Male Respondents Y (Age) 17 18 18 19 19 18 17 18 21 18 18 ∑Y= 201 X2 841 1.008 ∑XY= 8. and their respective ages represented by the Y variable. which according to statistical standards.600 1. the highest score out of 70 is 56.2536770444 Table 4.685 XY 493 666 684 760 798 774 765 864 1. achieved by a respondent 17 years of age.029 882 1. The lowest score on the other hand is 29.723 r = 0.025 2.2536770444.17 Table 4.304 2.316 ∑X2= 21. As shown in the table. Using these results. .369 1.134 Y2 289 324 324 361 361 324 289 324 441 324 324 ∑Y2= 3. shows a low or slight relationship between the two sets of data.

116 2.444 1. As shown on the table.401 3. the correlation between the code-switching habit of male respondents and their ages is higher as compared to the correlation between the code-switching habit of female respondents and their respective ages.316 ∑X = 27.2.764 1.5 shows the weighted average of the scores of both female and male respondents on their code-switching habit represented by the X variable. and their respective ages represented by the Y variable. Table 4.029 882 1.304 2.613 Table 4. the highest score out of 70 is 56.369 1.936 2. achieved by a respondent 18 years .369 1. attained by an 18year-old respondent.401 2. The lowest score on the other hand is 27.18 As seen on tables 4.464 2 2 X (scores) 27 29 37 37 38 40 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 49 56 ∑X = 630 r = 0.1 and 4.5 Correlation of Age and Code-Switching Habit of Male and Female Respondents Y (Age) 18 17 18 20 18 19 19 18 19 17 18 18 21 18 18 ∑Y = 276 X2 729 841 1.600 1.849 1.185222 Y2 324 289 324 400 324 361 361 324 361 289 324 324 441 324 324 ∑Y = 5.008 ∑XY = 11.025 2.094 XY 486 493 666 740 684 760 798 774 836 765 828 864 1.

Using these results. 000 – P30. Out of eleven male respondents. The percentages gathered have been roundedoff to the nearest whole number. shows negligible relationship between the two sets of data.1 The Socio-Economic Status of Code-Switching Male Respondents Figure 4. which will determine their socio-economic status.185222. 000 falling under the B or .1 shows the percentage of the monthly family income of male respondents. which according to statistical standards. Figure 4. while five respondents or 46% have a monthly family income of P31. the researchers computed for the Pearson-r and arrived at a value of 0. 000 – P50.19 of age. three or 27% have a family income of P10. 000 which falls under the C or lower middle class.

2 The Socio-Economic Status of Code-Switching Female Respondents Figure 4. 000 – P50. two respondents or also 27% have a monthly family income of P51.2 shows the percentage of the monthly family income of female respondents.20 upper middle class. which will determine their socio-economic status. Figure 4. while 3 . 000 and above which categorizes them under the A or upper class. only one or 25% has a family income of P31. The percentages gathered have been roundedoff to the nearest whole number. 000 which falls under the B or upper middle class. Out of 4 female respondents. Lastly.

On the other hand. 000 and above which categorizes them under the A or upper class. Majority of male respondents who code-switch are those falling into the income bracket of P31. there is a negligible relationship between the age and code-switching habit of both female and male respondents 3. the following conclusions were made: 1. There is a negligible relationship between the age and code-switching habit of female respondents.21 respondents or 75% have a monthly family income of P51. 000 – P50. Both Englog or English-Tagalog and Taglish or Tagalog-English are used by 2AHR students as their form of code-switching. there is low or slight relationship between the age and code-switching habit of male respondents. 2. However. On the other hand. 000 falling under the B or upper middle class. . Chapter V Conclusion and Recommendation Conclusion Based on the significant findings of the study.

As shown by the results of this study. Difficulty in finding an appropriate word or expression or simply the lack of facility also affects their code-switching habit. the female respondents use Taglish and Englog at the same frequency. the relationship of the respondents to their family. It is also stated in the study that the lack of register or when speakers are not equally competent in two languages and when the speakers do not know the terms in two languages. Moreover. the ability of a person who is able to speak more than one language fluently plays an important role during their interaction. the same with the male respondents who use Taglish and Englog both at the same level of frequency.d.). For example. joy. The emotions such as anger. 000 and above which categorizes them under the A or upper class. According to a dissertation by Muthusamy (n. college students often code switch by moving from English to Tagalog. There are many reasons why codeswitching takes place. bilinguals or multilinguals often explain that they code-switch when they cannot find an appropriate expression or vocabulary item or when the language of conversation does not have the particular word needed to carry on the conversation smoothly.22 majority of female respondents who code-switch are those falling under the income bracket of P51. the respondents also code-switch in order to emphasize a certain point or matter in a conversation. and professors influence their code-switching habit. The lack of proficiency in speaking Tagalog or English affects the code switching habit of 2AHR students. the mood of a person usually when they are tired or . Moreover. friends. then code-switching occurs. sadness of a person triggers the code-switching habit of the respondents.

The researchers thus. The factors such as age. when a person is in the right state of mind. which is losing proficiency in both languages. gender and socio-economic status do not really lead to the code- switching habit of 2AHR students. code-switching has been said to be a bane. recommend the subjects to further improve their communication skills in using English or Tagalog independently to prevent the said disadvantage of code-switching. the future researchers should consider other factors in determining the code-switching habit of a person. 3. The psychological aspect and intellectual quotient of a person may also be a basis for his or her code-switching habit. he/she can find the appropriate word or expression in the base language. If it in terms of clarity and convenience in communication. 2. Very often he/she knows exactly the word in both the languages (X and Y) but the language Y may be more available at the point of time. . On the other hand. Recommendation 1. it is no doubt a beneficial habit.23 angry. The researchers recommend the professors to be a role model in order to encourage their students to further improve communication skills without the use of code-switching. code-switching takes place with a new dimension. In line with this. Code-switching can either be good or bad depending on the situation. They can also implement a “Speak in English” or “Speak in Tagalog” rule during class hours to further stress this. This means. if it is about formality and language structures.

Why do we code-switch? Retrieved December 21. (n.).html Bilingual policy blamed for poor English. the future researchers must also use an equal size of respondents for both male and female to assure accuracy and prevent gender bias in results.24 4.com. Conduct a more comprehensive research with regard to the code-switching phenomena in order to address the language and communication competency of students by using a larger sample size with different variety of subjects of different characteristics. 2011. (2008.com/tagalog-language-history/ . J. (2006.B13. 408(14). (2009.com/word. August 29). December 14).mb. Tagalog language history. 2011 from http://thelanguagechronicle. July 9).L. References Code-switching. M. from http://www.allwords. 2010 from http://www.d.ph/articles/218315/why-do-we-codeswitch Cardozo. Retrieved March 10. Also. p.codeswitching. Retrieved January 18. Bautista. Manila Bulletin.

(1998). Retrieved January 18.com. Taglish.pdf Muthusamy.asp Thompson. Manila.thefreedictionary. Universiti Putra Malaysia.).com/socioeconomic+status Espinosa.taglish. 26. (n. p. Communicative functions and reasons for code switching: A Malaysian perspective. Malaysia. 2011. 2010 from http://rdarc. A. Code-switching in the media: A Filipino case study.d.ta. (2007).ac.fact-index. B. P. In U.25 Dictionary. "Code-Switching". 2011 from http://www. (1988). D.jp/webdav/frds/public/kiyou/rdvol8/rd-v8-337. Retrieved March 10.toyo. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. K. The role of English and its maintenance in the Philippines. . N. Romualdez.gabbydictionary. Filipino English and Taglish: Language switching from multiple perspectives.). from http://medicaldictionary. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Philippines: Solaridad Publishing House. 2011. Retrieved January 18. Socio-economic status. (2003).).com/history.d. January 19).d. from http://www.html Gonzalez. (2011.9.t. Shana (2004). Retrieved March 10. R. English or Engalog? Good News Pilipinas. English in the Philippines. Trudgill. Sociolinguistics. (2005). Lambert. Simborio. Ammon. (n. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.B3. p. Fact-index. History of the Filipino language. S.itakura.J. Mattheier and P. 21(310). N. Dittmar. (n. An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society. Poplack.

2011 Dear Respondents. S.d. 2011 from http://www.wordiq.26 Webster’s third new international dictionary (1993).Y. (n.Switching Habit of Second Year HR Students in San Beda College. MA: Merriam-Webster. Springfield. Webster’s third new international dictionary (1993). Code-switching.com/definition/Englog YourDictionary. Springfield. WordIQ.com/technology/what-is-code-switching.). Code.switching habit of subjects. gender and socio.html Appendix A February 9.). Englog.economic status have an effect on the code. MA: Merriam-Webster. the researchers seek to determine whether the factors age. .yourdictionary. 2011 from http://answers. Age.Switching is the concurrent use of more than one language. Retrieved March 16. Retrieved March 10. Gender.2011” . Webster’s third new international dictionary (1993). Habit. (n. in a conversation. Through this study.d. PAX! We the students of 2nd year BSBA Human Resource Development Management students of San Beda College. Manila are conducting a survey about “The Factors Leading to Code. 2010. or language variety. Springfield. MA: Merriam-Webster.

The Researchers Noted: Ms.27 In this regard. and if requested. Respectfully. may we request you to honestly answer the attached survey.com Thank you for your time and cooperation. For inquiries and additional information. you will be provided with the copy of the paper once the researchers have completed it. Rest assured that all information will be held confidential. Gender Male Monthly family income: Female .questionnaire about the aforementioned topic. The results of this research will solely be used for the said study. Choose only the best answer. Sybil Agreda Appendix B Part I Demographic Profile Name (optional):_________________________________ Year & Section:_______________ Age:________ Direction: Please check the box that corresponds to your answer. please contact Kimbee Lim at Mobile: +639359651370 or E-mail: kimbee_lim21@yahoo.

).000 P30. joy.Always 1 1.Tagalog). 6. My family influences my code. 14.English). 2 3 4 5 4.Never 2.000. My friends influence my code. 11. 10.000 P10. 9. 5.28 P5.Sometimes 4.000 Others:________________ Part II Code-Switching Habit Directions: Please check the box that corresponds to your best answer. I code-switch because of lack of facility or the ability to find an appropriate expression. I use Taglish (Tagalog. Code-switching affects my English Proficiency. I use Englog (English.switching habit.Rarely 3. 2. etc.switching habit. I code-switch. Wherein: 1. . 8. My professors influence my code. 13.switching habit. I code-switch to emphasize an important matter in a conversation. I express myself better with the use of codeswitching 1 2 3 4 5 7.000. I code-switch because of lack of proficiency in speaking Tagalog or English. 12.30. I code-switch when addressing a foreign audience.Often 5. 3. I code-switch because I get carried away by emotions (anger.10.50. Code-switching helps me in communicating well.000. sadness.

_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ “That in All Things.29 Directions: Kindly write your answer on the space provided. Do you think Code-switching is a good habit? Explain. God May Be Glorified!” Appendix C Computations and Formulas 1. Most Commonly Used Form of Code-Switching of Female Respondents Given: I use Taglish or Tagalog-English 2 3 4 I use Englog or English-Tagalog 2 3 4 .

45 Solution: Get the mean. Most Commonly Used Form of Code-Switching of Male Respondents Given: I use Taglish or Tagalog-English 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 5 4 3 Average = 3.30 4 Total: 13 4 Total: 13 Solution: Get the mean.45 I use Englog or English-Tagalog 3 4 4 3 4 2 3 3 5 4 3 Average = 3. .25 2.25 I use Englog or English-Tagalog: 2+3+4+4 = 13/4 = 3. I use Taglish or Tagalog-English: 2+3+4+4 = 13/4 = 3.

890 Equation: r = n(∑XY) – (∑X)( ∑Y) √(n∑X2-(∑X)2) (n∑Y2-(∑Y)2) Solution: r = 4(2.31 I use Taglish or Tagalog-English: 3+4+4+3+4+2+3+3+5+4+3 = 38/11 = 3.936 2.409)-(75)2) r = 11.150)-(154)2) (4(1. Correlation of Age and Code-Switching Habit of Female Respondents Given: X (Scores) 27 37 44 46 ∑X= 154 Y (Age) 18 20 19 18 ∑X= 75 X2 729 1.550 √(24.890) − (154)( 75) √(4(6.560 − 11.116 ∑X2= 6.409 XY 486 740 836 828 ∑XY= 2.369 1.45 I use Englog or English-Tagalog: 3+4+4+3+4+2+3+3+5+4+3 = 38/11 = 3.625) r = 10 .636 − 5.45 3.150 Y2 324 400 361 324 ∑Y2= 1.600 − 23.716) (5.

32 98.685 XY 493 666 684 760 798 774 765 864 1.134 Y2 289 324 324 361 361 324 289 324 441 324 324 ∑Y2= 3.61034429 r = 0.723) − (476)(201) √11(21.401 3.369 1.600 1.849 2.685)(201)2) .764 1. Correlation of Age and Code Switching Habit of Male Respondents Given: X (scores) 29 37 38 40 42 43 45 48 49 49 56 ∑X= 476 Y (Age) 17 18 18 19 19 18 17 18 21 18 18 ∑Y= 201 X2 841 1.008 ∑XY= 8.134) − (476)2) (11(3.316 ∑X2= 21.101409239 4.025 2.401 2.723 Equation: r = n(∑XY) – (∑X)( ∑Y) √(n∑X2-(∑X)2) (n∑Y2-(∑Y)2) Solution: r = 11(8.029 882 1.444 1.304 2.

000 51. Correlation of Socio Economic Status and Code Switching Habit of Male Respondents Monthly Family Income No.000 .939559 r = 0.401) r = 277 √(8898) (134) r = 277 1091.576) (40. Correlation of Socio Economic Status and Code Switching Habit of Female Respondents Monthly Family Income 10.000 – 50.953 − 95.000 – 30.535 − 40.676 √(232.25367704444 5.474 − 226.000 31. of Respondents Percentage . of Respondents 0 1 3 Percentage 0% 25% 75% 6.33 r = 95.Above No.

34 10.000 51.Above 3 5 3 27.000 31.000 – 50.45% 27.000 .000 – 30.27% 45.27% .

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