LIBERA UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA SICILIA CENTRALE KORE ENNA

thesis in

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

By

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil

Supervisors

Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Emanuela Garofalo Prof. Daniela Villari
Thesis submitted to University Kore of Enna to obtain Second level master degree in architecture restoration A.A. 2008-2009

Supervisors

Thesis title:

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt
(the conservation of the Italian residential buildings)

Researcher name:

Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil
Assistant lecturer, Department of Architectural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Supervisors
name Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Emanuela Garofalo Prof. Daniela Villari profession signature

The Master Director

The president of Kore University

ii

Daniela Villari Examination Committee Name profession signature The Master Director The president of Kore University iii . Supervisors name profession signature Prof. Teotista Panzeca Prof. Faculty of Engineering. Mansoura University.Examination Committee Thesis title: The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Researcher name: Assistant lecturer. Department of Architectural Engineering. Egypt. Emanuela Garofalo Prof.

Zito. the research supervisors. for offering this generous grant and for care and supporting during the course. M. for their invaluable suggestions in the improvement of the study. in many ways have generously contributed to the successful completion of the study: Prof. Daniela Villari. this humble research would not have been completed with out their support. L. M. assistance and for his continues support. Prof. Prof. Teotista Panzeca. the scientific Committee of the course for their support and cooperation. Infranca. University Kore of Enna. the director of the course. Salerno. for his sincere concern. Prof . Prof. Al-KHouri. iv . Prof. Dr.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The researcher would like to express his sincere and profound gratitude to the following persons and instituutions who. Emanuela Garofalo & Prof. Messina.

T.To Prof. Panzeca my Parents My Gulfillmrnt and preseverance wife Eman My sweetheart son Eiad With love and respect v .

Determine the deterioration in these buildings and what is the basic maintenance procedures that can done to protect them. Sicily. Prof. Italy. Faculty of Engineering. Egypt designed or built Italian architects and engineers from the nineteenth and early twentieth century till now. the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria from the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC till the beginning of the twenty-one century to identify the influence of Alexandrian history on it’s built environment. Manuela Garofalo. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about weathering forms on stone buildings with photos about each form. Egypt. The first part contains the historical study and include three chapters. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Assistant lecturer. Teotista Panzeca. The study concentrate on the residential buildings at Alexandria. the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and their contributions to the Egyptian architecture and modern heritage. Supervisors: Prof. Researcher: Second level master degree in architecture restoration (2008-2009) University Kore of Enna. Daniela Villari This research is an integral part of a study that conceived to further awareness of the long history of cultural relations between Italy and the Italian culture and Egypt to create new spaces of comparison and bolster shared interests so as to enhance the already-existing climate of collaboration and mutual understanding. And to make some documentation of these building to make it easy for a future rehabilitation. Prof. The research aims to highlight the importance of the nineteenth and early twentieth century residential buildings made by Italians in Alexandria. Mansoura University. vi . the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies and the comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. The research consists of three parts and one appendix. Department of Architectural Engineering.ABSTRACT Thesis title: The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. And the third chapter concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria to illustrate its importance in the Alexandrian heritage. The second part of the research contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters. The research problem is that most of European residential buildings that shapes the city center of most Egyptian cities suffer from the lack of protection because many of them are private and they are not considered till now as monuments by the Egyptian laws and also there is no maintenance or restoration programs to this kind of building. And the second chapter studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building in the critical parts that may suffer from structural problems.

And if their isn’t immediate movement to protect and conserve that heritage it will disappear soon. The research concluded that the Alexandrian built heritage as all suffer from neglecting and are threaten with elimination and destruction due to mainly economical condition that leads to lack of maintenance and that are more presented at the private residential building because there isn’t clear vision to mange and protect those building. the first one studies the current situation.The third part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters. The study of the Italian buildings in the square illustrate the current situation of the buildings and the problems that they suffer from. and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” which is one of the main commercial districts at Alexandria city center and was redesigned by Italian architect. vii . the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built environment and some examples of rehabilitation of building in Alexandria city center. also the square contains now five Italian buildings three of them are private residence.

1-1-5-Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517). 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Therapeutical steps. 1-1-4.Italian architects and private residential buildings. 2-1-1.Documentation within the scope of anamnesis. Hypotheses. viii viii viii viii viii viii viii 1 3 3 4 7 9 12 12 14 18 18 22 29 29 39 42 43 43 44 46 48 48 48 50 51 51 52 52 52 preface. 1-1-2. 1-3.consolidation.In site investigation and laboratory studies.The first Italian architects and engineers in Egypt. 2-1-4-4.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 1-1-3. 1-3-2. 2-1-4-5. 1-1.Documentation within the scope of diagnosis. 2-2. viii . 1-2-1. 1-1-1.Historical study.Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade.Table of contents Contents Page No.Early Islamic Period (639-1250). Introduction. 2-1-4-2. 2-2-1. 1-2-2. Aim of the research. 1-1-7-British Occupation and Contemporary Alexandria (1882-2009).Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 1-3-1.Structural failure and interventions in stone building.Roman Annexation and the Byzantine Period (30 BC-641). 2-1-4-3.History of Alexandria. 2-2-1-1.Preconsolidation.protection. 1.Mapping of weathering forms. Research organization. 2-1-4-1. 2-1-2.sealing – plastering.Mechanism of break down in stone building.Italian contributions in modern Alexandria.Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 BC-30 BC). 1-1-6-The Ottomans and Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (1517-1882).cleaning. 2. 2-1-3. 2-1-4. Research problem. Geographic limitation and scope of study.The pursuit of modern architecture for Egypt. 2-1.Hellenistic Alexandria (332 BC-30 BC).

Okalle Menasce.The branches of the National Bank of Egypt. 3-2-1. Group 2 – Discoloration / Deposits. 3-2-2-5. 3-1-2-4. 3-1.V.Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Mohamed A1i Theater.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-1-2-6.Alexandria National Museum (re-use).Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Current Situation of “Ahmed Orabi & Manshieh Squares”.Cinema Amir .Okalle Monferato. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.Mutations in Alexandria built environment. 2-2-2-2.Villa Bassili .Structural improvement integrations in stone building. 3-1-2. 3-1-1.Selected examples of recent architectural restoration and renovation projects in Alexandria. 3-2-2-3. 3-1-2-5.Reinforcement of the structure with steel.Interventions on the wooden roofs. Group 3 – Detachment.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.Collapse on the isolated walls. 2-2-2-1. 3-1-2-1.Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending. Group 1 . 2-2-2-4.History of the square “place d’armes”. Page No. 52 53 54 55 55 56 58 59 62 63 63 67 67 68 69 69 70 71 71 73 73 75 75 78 79 81 82 83 86 88 88 90 92 94 95 3. Recearcher C. 3-2-2-4. 3-1-2-3.Ismail Monument (unknown soldier).Mohamed A1i Club (renovation and re-use).Interventions on the wooden beams.Loss of stone material.Recovery of arches and vaults.Contents 2-2-1-2. 2-2-1-4.Twentieth Century Fox (transformation).Principle guidelines for architectural conservation 3-2. 3-2-2.Waqf Yacoub Dahan. 3-1-2-2. ix .Palazzina Aghion (renovation and re-use). 3-1-3.Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut. 2-2-2. 2-2-2-3.Mixed Tribunals. Group 4 – Fissures / deformation. 3-2-2-2. 2-2-1-3. 3-2-2-1.

photos of Pompey column. panorama view and photos of corniche of Alexandria. Map of the Turkish town by the French Expedition in 1798-1801. photos of Haramlek.History of Alexandria. Photos of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Table (A-1) Table (2-1) Table (2-2) Table (2-3) Description of the Table Italian Community population statistics. Plan and photo of the Bourse of Minet el Bassal. Drawings of the proposal for the competition of a theatre in Alexandria. Photo of the Tossiza palace. Photo of the Zizinia theatre. x . Old postcards (1883) of “Stock exchange. Helffrich 1566. Genoa and Montazah palace. Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century. x 44 44 45 List of Figures Figure No. Imaginary sketch and prespective of library of Alexandria.Borsa”. Map of Alexandria in the late Roman period by A. Alexandria. (Amoud al Sawary) at Kom al-Shugafa. Plans. Map of Alexandria by J. 1. Items of documentation within the scope of diagnosis. Site plan of Kom el Dikka. photos Roman Theatre Restoration at Kom Al-Dikka. Scales of stone deterioration. Map of classical Alexandria by Dr. Photos of Al-Rifaiy Mosque (the tombs of Royal family). Photo of sabil-Kuttab Al-Walda.Historical study. Daguerreotype and photo of Ras el Tin palace. Photos of Misr Bank in Mohammad Farid street in Cairo.Montazah palace. Adriani. Description of the figure Page No. photo of castle Mackenzie.Tassos Neroutsous. Photos of Fort Qaitbey. site plan and Elevations of the mosque of 1000Columns. Map of contemporary Alexandria. Photos of the Montaza Royal palace. 1-1. 2 3 4 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 15 16 16 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.List of Tables Table No. Fig (1-1) Fig (1-2) Fig (1-3) Fig (1-4) Fig (1-5) Fig (1-6) Fig (1-7) Fig (1-8) Fig (1-9) Fig (1-10) Fig (1-11) Fig (1-12) Fig (1-13) Fig (1-14) Fig (1-15) Fig (1-16) Fig (1-17) Fig (1-18) Fig (1-19) Fig (1-20) Fig (1-21) Fig (1-22) Fig (1-23) Fig (1-24) Fig (1-25) Fig (1-26) Fig (1-27) Fig (1-28) Fig (1-29) Fig (1-30) The Palestrina a roman mosaic. Photos of the entrance of Ras el Tin palace and detail of coat of arms. Items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis. Page No. Imaginary sketch of the lighthouse of Alexandria. plans of Serapeum reconstruction Ptolemaic and Roman phase.

De Menasce”. Classification of weathering forms. Elevation and plans of “Villa laurens”. Saleh building”. Photo and plans of Villa Lutzzatto Pasha.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: Photo of The palace of Count Zizinia. photos of sealing process with stone mortar. Diagram of the three categories of diagnosis. Photos of building on Venice style awarded the Municipality Prize. diagram of definitions of damage categories. photos of consolidation of fragile materials and separated parts. Photo of “Villa Adda”. Photo of “Fumaroli building” on Avenue Fouad I. Photo of “Cecil Hotel”. photo of vegetable disinfestations. photos of integrations of small elements that are broken or lost. photos of cleaning with nebulized and atomized water. and plans of “Gallery Menasce”. photos of Qaid Ibrahim Mosque. photos of cleaning with absorbing materials. Photos. 24 25 26 26 29 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 34 35 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 38 38 1-3. Photo of “Societe des immeubles d’Egypte”. Elevation and plans of “Palazzina Aghion”.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. Plan of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque. Catania”. photos of cleaning with laser. photos of cleaning with mechanic method and micro sand blasting. Photo of “M. ” and “villa Baron J. Fig (1-31) Fig (1-32) Fig (1-33) Fig (1-34) Fig (1-35) Fig (1-36) Fig (1-37) Fig (1-38) Fig (1-39) Fig (1-40) Fig (1-41) Fig (1-42) Fig (1-43) Fig (1-44) Fig (1-45) Fig (1-46) Fig (1-47) Fig (1-48) Fig (1-49) Fig (1-50) Fig (1-51) Fig (1-52) Fig (1-53) Fig (1-54) Fig (1-55) Fig (1-56) Fig (1-57) Description of the figure Elevations and photo of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque. Photo. Photo. at Rue Sherif. Photos of “Villa mazloum Pasha”. Photo of “ElNokaly apartment building”. 43 45 46 47 47 47 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 51 xi . Photo and plans of Palazzina Pini Bey. plan of the Place des Consuls in late 19th century.In site investigation and laboratory studies. Map of damage categories. Photo. Elevations and plans of “okalle Monfrato”. Photos of “Villa H. Photo of “Primi Building”. drawing of Lithological mapping “monastery of Benedettini. Lindeman. Page No. 2-1. 2. Photo of “Heikal apartment building”.Figure No. Fig (2-1) Fig (2-2) Fig (2-3) Fig (2-4) Fig (2-5) Fig (2-6) Fig (2-7) Fig (2-8) Fig (2-9) Fig (2-10) Fig (2-11) Fig (2-12) Fig (2-13) Fig (2-14) Fig (2-15) Diagram of the approach to monument preservation. photos of Preconsolidation presses. Photo and plan of El sayed Mohamed Korayem Mosque. Photo of “fumaroli building” on Rue Sherif. Photos of place d' Armes before and after the bombardment of 1882. Elevations. Photo of “Villa Awad and Abani”. Photo and plans of “Mixed Tribunals”.

photos of buildings at “Messina. Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). Fig (3-1) Fig (3-2) Fig (3-3) Fig (3-4) Fig (3-5) Fig (3-6) Fig (3-7) Fig (3-8) Fig (3-9) Fig (3-10) Fig (3-11) Fig (3-12) Photos of “High and Low conventional style” in Alexandria. 52 52 52 53 53 53 54 54 54 55 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 61 2-2. photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall bending.Future of Alexandrian built environment. photos of Collapse on the isolated walls. photos of the wooden beams supported only on the walls. Photos of “Villa Bassili” before and after renovation. photos of connecting the carrying walls of the arch or vaults with steel. Sketches of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. Photo of details in buildings at city center in Alexandria. Plan and Photo of “Graeco-Roman museum” in Alexandria. photos of the corrosion of old steel bars that damage the nearby stones. and replacement of damaged parts. Sketches of supporting the arch. Photo of “Villa Aldo Ambron” in Ruins. photos of the steel cases that contain the wooden beams. photo the cracks in the connection between the façade and the building. Alexandria. photos of the steel bars inserted at the top corners of outer walls photos of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall cut. Sketches of using steel bar inserted at the corners of the building. Sketches of using steel cases to support wooden beams. photos of cracks on the isolated walls due to over loading. photos of damages on old wood beams that support the roofs. photo of crack in the arch and separation between it’s stones. Photo of “Villa Baron de Menasce” demolished. 3-1. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. photos of buildings at “Messina. photo and diagram of the Failure due to the collapse of the façade. photo of the intermediate connection of the beams throw steel part.Applied study. Photos of badly conceived addition: Faculty of agriculture. Photo of “Art studio of Gilda Ambron” in Ruins. 63 64 64 64 64 65 66 66 66 67 67 68 xii . Sketches of wooden truss supported on stone arches. photo of covering the roof with thin layer of wood. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. photos of the final finishing layer supported on sheets of isolation.Figure No. photo of supporting the arches during the restoration process. photos of upper cover of the steel cases that prevent it from sliding .Structural failure and interventions in stone building. Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). Sicily” after the earthquake (1908). photos of building at “Messina. Sketches of wooden beam of the truss directly supported on the walls. Fig (2-16) Fig (2-17) Fig (2-18) Fig (2-19) Fig (2-20) Fig (2-21) Fig (2-22) Fig (2-23) Fig (2-24) Fig (2-25) Fig (2-26) Fig (2-27) Fig (2-28) Fig (2-29) Fig (2-30) Fig (2-31) Fig (2-32) Fig (2-33) Fig (2-34) Fig (2-35) Fig (2-36) Fig (2-37) Fig (2-38) Fig (2-39) Fig (2-40) Fig (2-41) Fig (2-42) Fig (2-43) Fig (2-44) Fig (2-45) Description of the figure Page No. Sketches of supporting the loads above the arch during restoration. photos and sketch of using steel bar in ancient buildings. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria. 3.

Photos of “Mohamed Ali club” before and after renovation. Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century Photos of Place des Consuls in late 19th century Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square. Photos of the original and current state of “Ismail Monument”. 68 69 69 70 70 71 73 73 74 74 74 75 75 76 76 77 78 78 78 79 79 80 80 80 81 81 81 82 82 3-2. Photos of piazza and façade of “Mohamed Ali theatre”. Photos of the interventions by the users by adding some coverings. Photos of the side facades that suffer from degradation. Photos of the constructions added on the roof. Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square. Photos of the bad conditions of the internal court. Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows. Photos of “Okalle Menasce” at Manshieh square. Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows Photos of the structural problems at the top Cornish. Photos of “Manshieh square” showing the status of “Mohamed Ali”.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Photos of “Banco di Roma” before and after renovation. xiii . Page No. Photos of disfiguring the building Entrance and main façade Photos of the deterioration in the internal façade on the main court. Fig (3-13) Fig (3-14) Fig (3-15) Fig (3-16) Fig (3-17) Fig (3-18) Fig (3-19) Fig (3-20) Fig (3-21) Fig (3-22) Fig (3-23) Fig (3-24) Fig (3-25) Fig (3-26) Fig (3-27) Fig (3-28) Fig (3-29) Fig (3-30) Fig (3-31) Fig (3-32) Fig (3-33) Fig (3-34) Fig (3-35) Fig (3-36) Fig (3-37) Fig (3-38) Fig (3-39) Fig (3-40) Fig (3-41) Description of the figure Photos of “Cordahi Complex” before and after renovation.Figure No. Old photo of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” at Manshieh square. Photos of “palazzina Aghion” before and after renovation. Photos of the iron dome that cover the main court. Photos of ‘Okalle Monferato” at Manshieh square. Photos of “Mixed Tribunals” at Manshieh square. Part of Alexandria’s Google earth map. Photos of damage and degradation of the wooden roof of the staircase. Photos of “bank of Athens” before and after renovation. Photos of current situation of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” at Manshieh.

Historical study.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 3-2.History of Alexandria.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 1-3. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 3-1.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 3. . 1-1.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.Future of Alexandrian built environment.preface. 1. 2-2.In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-1.

Florentine neo-fifteenth century and Roman neo-sixteenth-century styles of buildings constructed for the Italian community and its representative institutions. from that we noticed that Alexandria had about (50%) of the Italian migration in Egypt.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. in the city center of Cairo. Egypt. is one of the three countries of the eastern and southern shore of the Mediterranean that have recorded the strongest presence of Italian architects and engineers. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Preface ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preface ___________________________________________________________________________ Introduction This research is an integral part of a study that conceived to further awareness of the long history of cultural relations between Italy and the Italian culture and Egypt to create new spaces of comparison and bolster shared interests so as to enhance the already-existing climate of collaboration and mutual understanding." P. "Italy in Alexandria"p. Also it had a significant and noticeable presence of Italian architect and contractors whom shaped the architecture of modern Alexandria. Italy and other European countries had a numerous contribution to Egyptian architecture and city planning over a period of almost two centuries. Many works that marked significant milestones in Egyptian architecture from the second half of the Nineteenth Century were planned by Italians. xiv . the safe guarding of Pharaoh’s monuments and the improvement of museum structures to the substantial Italian participation in international competitions for the Alexandrian Library and the Great Egyptian Museum of Giza1. with regard not only to official buildings but also to residential private buildings. Franco. It is exceptional in terms of the quantity and quality of projects and realizations: from nineteenthcentury plans for the European core of Alexandria to the eclecticism swinging between Venetian neo-gothic. Table (A-1)Italian Community population statistics Year 1871 1882 1897 1907 1917 1927 1937 Egypt 13906 14251 24454 34926 40198 52462 47706 Cairo 3367 4969 8670 13296 15655 18571 16443 Alexandria 7539 11579 11743 16669 17860 24280 22881 Source: (Awad. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985). from the Art Deco of the 1920s to the rationalism of the second half of the 1930s. introduction for the project “Mediterranean Crossroads”. Italian minister of foreign affairs. from postWorld War II urban planning studies and projects for the country's tourist development. along with Turkey and Tunisia. Mohamed F. that leads to start in Egypt the “importation” of European architecture. The next table shows the Italian Community population statistics during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Mohamed F. Alexandria and some neighborhoods in most of the Egyptian cities with a high concentration of foreign and specially Italian inhabitants.77) 1 Frattini. numbering several hundred mosques (Mario Rossi alone designed 260 mosques for various Egyptian cities) and their participation expand the private sector not only in the royal palaces but also in designing many apartments and villas for private residence. economical and cultural changes.95) & ( Awad. from the modernism of the years around the turn of the century to the re-occurring eclecticism of the sumptuous residences of Cairo's young aristocracy as well as royal palaces. Their activity in the public and religious architecture sector over the course of the Twentieth Century was particularly remarkable. The contribution of the Italian architects and Engineers was a result of the political.

builders and handicrafts were employed in their construction. Research organization: The study consists of three parts and one appendix. Research problem: • At the present the most of European residential buildings that shapes the city center of most Egyptian cities suffer from the lack of protection because many of them are private and they are not considered till now as monuments by the Egyptian laws and also there is no maintenance or restoration programs to this kind of building. the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies. Hypotheses: • Making documentation of these building will keep this kind of architecture from getting lost.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. xv . and also as a consequence of geographic proximity. the first one studies the current situation. and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” to study the Italian buildings in the square and to illustrate its current situation. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Preface ______________________________________________________________________________________ Preface ___________________________________________________________________________ Because of the good organization and efficiency of constructors. Egypt designed or built Italian architects and engineers from the nineteenth and early twentieth century till now. The third part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters. the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and the third chapter concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria. and the second chapter studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building. Most of these residence buildings still exist and represent a significant part of Alexandrian architectural heritage. • Make some documentation of these building to make it easy for a future rehabilitation. • Determine the deterioration in these buildings and what is the basic maintenance procedures that can done to protect them. Geographic limitation and scope of study: The study will concentrate on the residential buildings at Alexandria. • With continues maintenance to these building we can prevent them from elimination and reduce the cost of restoration. the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria. The second part contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters. The first part contains the historical study and include three chapters. Aim of the research: • To enlightenment with importance of the nineteenth and early twentieth century residential buildings made by Italians in Alexandria. Many Italian architects were involved in the design of these buildings. there was a special link with Italian architecture in that period. but they are threatened with elimination because of neglecting and lack of maintenance. and some Italian contractors. the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built environment. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about Weathering forms on stone buildings with photos about each form.

Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 3. 2-1.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 3-1. . 1-1.preface.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.History of Alexandria. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-2.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 1. 2-2.Historical study. 1-3.In site investigation and laboratory studies.Future of Alexandrian built environment.

It was founded around a small pharaonic town c.aspx (Official website of Alexandria governorate). 334 BC by Alexander III of Macedon. another city in Egypt. until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD when a new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo). It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years. Alexandria was known because its lighthouse (Pharos) – one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World –. and during the Ptolemaic dynasty1.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. It is home to the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (the new Library).eg/default. its library (the largest library in the ancient world) and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa (one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages).gov.alexandria. Alexandria was also an important trading post between Europe and Asia. when a city named Rhakotis existed there. 1 . This part contains the historical study and include three chapters. which began in 1994. 1 http://www. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria. the first illustrates the history of the city of Alexandria from the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC till the beginning of the twenty-one century to identify the influence of Alexandrian history on it’s built environment. In ancient times. Alexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. And the third chapter concentrates on the residential building made by Italian in Alexandria to illustrate its importance in the Alexandrian heritage. because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. the second chapter studies the Italian architects at Egypt and their contributions to the Egyptian architecture and modern heritage. Introduction: Alexandria extends about 32 km (20 miles) along the coast of the Mediterranean sea in northcentral Egypt. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Part one: Historical study. and is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander.

Structural failure and interventions in stone building.preface.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 3.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 1-1. 2-1.History of Alexandria. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 1-3. .Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 1.Historical study.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 3-2. 3-1. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.

8) 1 Awad. Egypt. Fig (1-1) The Palestrina (fund in a small town Praeneste near Rome) a roman mosaic covering an area of 20 square meters. suggesting an alienation from Egyptian influences and its Nilotic civilization. depicts the Nile delta. It fell to the Arabs in 641 AD. Alexandria. other buildings and temples. Alexandria implies a long tradition in the diversity of its society and established interaction with other cultures. tourism and transportation center. had seen it reduced to little more than a small fishing village. the imperial palace of Alexandria. The current city is Egypt's leading port. Source: (Awad. Mohamed F. Mohamed F. dating back to the second century BC and attributed to the Alexandrian artist Demetrius the topographer. especially those of the Mediterranean1. 2 . and quickly became one of the greatest cities of the Hellenistic world second only to Rome in size and wealth. The city was revived by Muhammad Ali as a part of his early industrialization program. which by the late Ottoman period. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Introduction: The history of Alexandria dates back to the city's founding by Alexander the great in 331 BC (the exact date is disputed). "Italy in Alexandria" p. and a new capital of Egypt.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. It was the seat of the Ptolemaic rulers of Egypt. And for that matter it was the gateway to Egypt and the point of contact with other civilizations. it fell into a long decline. p9. Alexandria preservation trust.2008. a commercial. sailing ships and flora along the upper Nile. was founded on the Nile. Fustat. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”. After Alexandria's status as the country's capital ended. It is often described as Ad Aegyptum or “near Egypt”.

was designed and constructed by Dinocrates of Rhodes. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-1. known as the Heptastadion. The city was physically divided by the intersection of two main thoroughfares: the east-west Canopic Way and the Street of the Soma (Sema). essentially exposing the city to the prevailing winds from the north.Tassos Neroutsous.30 BC). its history can be divided into several often-overlapping periods. The surrounding streets of the ancient city were laid out in a Hippodamian grid. 1888 showing the location of the Roman camp. infrastructural development for the city of Alexandria began in full force. Source: (Awad. Archaeological evidence has further shown that block sizes during Alexandria's Hellenistic period were 10 meters smaller in perimeter than the classic Hellenic stade block. The early Islamic period saw a new capital in Egypt (639-1250). Archaeological evidence shows that in Alexandria.History of Alexandria: Alexandrian urbanism spans the great political empires.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Subsequently. The Heptastadion separated the Great Harbor from the Eunostos Harbor and was built at the enormous scale of seven stadia long (1. At the time of its erection. This causeway. medieval wall built by Sultan Ahmed Ibn Tulun). The greatest of these undertakings was that of an artificial causeway built to connect the nearby island of Pharos to the mainland.260 meters).16) 1-1-1. which encompassed the Ptolemaic Dynasty.Hellenistic Alexandria (332 BC-30 BC): After Alexander's departure for Asia Minor. the city's fortunes changed again under the Mamluk Sultanate (1250-1517) and the Ottoman Period (1517-1882). Fig (1-2) Map of classical Alexandria by Dr. giving way to the Romans (30 BC-641). The Street of the Soma ran between the Moon Gate and the 3 . including the Byzantine period.8 km. this city wall was the third largest known urban enclosure. the urban street grid seems to have been rotated 25 degrees off the cardinal axes. the city witnessed the British occupation (1882-1922) and Egyptian independence in June 1956. The Canopic Way connected the Canopic Gate and the Necropolis Gate of the city wall. Mohamed F. after those of Athens and Syracuse. Alexandria was established as Egypt's capital in the Hellenistic period (332 BC. which was ended by the French invasion under Napoleon (1798) and the initial British invasion following their victory at the Battle of Alexandria (1801). The foundations of the city were laid with the construction of a city wall measuring 15. (Two successive city walls were built after the Hellenistic wall: the Roman wall and the 9th c.

4 . Upon Alexander's death in 323 BC. the guardian genius of the city. where differentiated settlement patterns and orthogonal town planning methods were already in practice . this strategy had to contend with pre-existing Ancient Egyptian codes of urban development. an elevator. built under Ptolemy I. Destroyed in a 13th century earthquake. and new temples for two Alexandrine cults adopted during his reign. however. would later be reused. the city's close proximity to the sea had caused much of the original city foundations. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sun Gate of the city wall.flickr. There was no consensus among ancient historians. These codes were established during the Old Kingdom of Egypt (2575-2130 BC). and were lined with marble colonnades and paved with granite blocks. Ptolemy I's most famous project was the lighthouse of Alexandria at the island of Pharos. Fig (1-3)Imaginary sketch of the lighthouse of Alexandria.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. the tutelary god of the dynasty. 1-1-2. began with Ptolemy I in 305 BC and ended with Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. The marble used in the first city.000. a staircase. It was designed with three setbacks. and the second temple constructed in Alexandria was dedicated to Alexander himself. and a powerful light that projected out to sea for up to 55 kilometers . Of all of these. The first temple was dedicated to Serapis. the lighthouse is described in historical texts as rising to over 120 meters high. Archaeologists estimate that both streets measured between 25 and 70 meters. The Ptolemies' emphasis on urban development and expansion followed the Greek tradition. a series of fortification walls around the city's perimeter. Source: http://www. The original city may have initially covered an area of 840 hectares. the lighthouse was constructed at the entrance of the Great Harbor and is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. the construction of the city was still not complete.Ptolemaic Dynasty (305 BC-30 BC): Ptolemaic rule over Egypt. this marble would be ground up to make cement as Mohammed 'Ali Pasha rebuilt Alexandria from 1810-1850 under the Ottomans. to sink.com For 300 years the Ptolemies controlled Egypt from Alexandria.000 to 500. During this time. was the period of greatest infrastructural and cultural development in Alexandria. Situated on the eastern end of the island where the Qaytbay Fort stands today. including the ancient docks and parts of the Royal Enclosure. Ptolemy I major construction projects included the lighthouse of Pharos. in one example. and population estimates for Alexandria during Hellenistic rule vary between 75.

Many of the urban undertakings in Alexandria were not completed during Ptolemy I Soter's rule. Libya. Under Ptolemaic rule. and lived mainly in the southern district around the precinct of the Serapeum. glass. but lay mostly in private hands. drawn from Alexander's Macedonian forces. the cosmopolitan nature of the populace did not greatly impact the architecture and spatial planning of Hellenistic Alexandria. and Egyptian towns such as the former Rhakotis and nearby Canopus. immigrants would later arrive from Syria. Early Alexandria was divided into five districts. or quarters. Alexandria became a major center for the arts and sciences: astronomy. and religious studies. The south-west quarter of Rhakotis (Rhacotis) took its full name from the former fishing village that predated Alexandria's founding. Salt. a quarter accommodated six insulae intersected by two minor roads. medicine. perfumes were marginally state controlled. Another important characteristic of Alexandria was its function as a polis (city-state). Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Under Ptolemaic rule. These included Euclid. but rather by his successors.' Dating almost from the founding of the city.5 meters. philosophy. also known as 'Beta. the gymnasium (with porticos more than a stadium long) were constructed under Ptolemy II Philadelphus. consequently. the Musaeum attracted many mathematicians. Theaters. zoological gardens. older Greek Naukratis and Memphis. This street grid was divided into insulae (blocks).5 by 182. the Musaeum was comparable in scholarly fame to top institutions in Athens. Italy. literature. laboratories and observatories. and each insula could hold as many as 20 houses. Jewish scholars began translating the Old Testament from its original Hebrew into Greek. and Massillia (contemporary Marseilles) in the western Mediterranean. Housing plots measured 22 by 22 meters. Alexandria's Egyptians formed the largest ethnic community in Alexandria. Similar to a modern university or research institute with colleges. poets and dramatists. named after the first five letters of the Greek alphabet (A-E). In Alexandria. scientists. or 100 by 500 Ptolemaic feet. This group of scholars would later produce the standard orthodox version known as the Septuagint. Brucheum (the Brucheion). not only in Alexandria. oil. the Jewish community was allowed to form an association (politeuma) to freely practice their faith and manage their affairs according to Jewish law. a contradiction in power existed under Ptolemaic rule. Ptolemaic Alexandria had a very cosmopolitan population. and its Royal Palace complex also contained its own administrative buildings and a harbor. However. linen textiles and papyrus paper were royal monopolies. The Ptolemies' monopolistic policies saw state and royal funds controlling most of the major industries. The Jewish Quarter was known as 'Delta. In lesser numbers. Asia Minor. Archimedes. Alexandria had its own citizenship and constitution.' was the royal or Greek quarter. Carthagenia. However. while lesser industries such as woolen textiles. the original location of the village of Rhakotis. yet its autonomy and its city government were restricted in scope. the Temple of the Muses that was commissioned by Ptolemy I Soter.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Strato and Zenodotus. but throughout Egypt. The land use program for the city under the Ptolemaic dynasty was primarily residential. 5 . Syracuse. As a polis. and was occupied almost entirely by native Egyptians. each averaging 36. as well as the Musaeum (Mouseion). and it comprised nearly a third of the city. Beta was situated in the northeast. wine.

000 papyrus scrolls. (a colonnade which enclosed the original Temple of Serapis.jpg Of particular importance in the planning of the Musaeum was the Library of Alexandria (constructed 288-280 BC). Demetrius El Phalerum. was later completed by Octavian. who dedicated it to himself.000 scrolls. housed a museum and held about 500. and general consensus holds that its collections were lost in a fire.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. and although a definitive number was never recorded. However. situated at the Serapeum. The exact fate of the Library of Alexandria is unknown. it was completed under his son Ptolemy II. planned by Ptolemy I's chief advisor. and is supported by the discovery of inscription plaques at the site. Books were housed in several depositories. Contemporary Egyptologists continue to debate the fire.utexas.edu/courses/introtogreece/cc301/alexlibext. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-4)Imaginary sketch and prespective of library of Alexandria. the story of this wedding gift is itself disputed. A temple commissioned by Cleopatra VII Philopator in honor of Mark Anthony. According to some sources. Ptolemaic rule in Egypt ended with the suicide of the celebrated Cleopatra VII in 30 BC. Historical texts indicate that although the library was conceived of during Ptolemy I Soter's regime. Another ambitious late Ptolemaic project is the Caesareum. while the "Daughter Library". This library reportedly encompassed multiple buildings in the Musaeum. and would continue until Constantine I (618). and this is corroborated by some ancient texts. a wedding gift from Mark Anthony. The construction of the Serapeum itself is attributed to Ptolemy III. some scholars believe that its full collection comprised circa 500. one ancient story holds that Julius Caesar accidentally set the fire during a 48 BC visit to Alexandria. in addition to the shrines of Isis and Harpocrates) housed the overstock of books from the Musaeum and Cleopatra VII Philopator's two hundred thousand volumes from the library of Pergamum. 6 . the "Mother Library" at the Musaeum included the collections and research institutes. and the loss of the Alexandrine texts. Source: http://www. Roman rule in Egypt began under Octavian.

particularly to Roman territories. "Italy in Alexandria" p. The city's ports were kept busy with exports of grain. Throughout this period.Roman Annexation and the Byzantine Period (30 BC-641): Power over Egypt was ceded to Octavian (Augustus Caesar) following his 30 BC defeat of the Ptolemaic forces at Actium. Source: (Awad.).jsp?site_id=9170 1-1-3.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.C.org/library/sites/one-site. Mohamed F. According to an 7 . (Amoud al Sawary) at Kom al-Shugafa (30-48 B. Roman dominium over Egypt would last for the next 670 years. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-5)plans of Serapeum reconstruction Ptolemaic and Roman phase by Alan Rowe& Judith Mckenzie. and Alexandria functioned as Rome's breadbasket. Alexandria remained the capital of the province of Egypt under Roman rule.24) Fig (1-6)photos of Pompey column. Source: http://archnet.

Poseidon's temple (located close to the Theatre). Mohamed F. Alexandria was predominantly residential. the Emporium (Exchange). Outside of these areas. 2300 sanctuaries could be counted by the end of the Roman period. The agora (marketplace) was at the center of the city. 8 . Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ account from Strabo's time. house district . The plan reveals a complex including an amphitheatre. the Mausoleum of Alexander at Soma built by Ptolemy I. Alexandrian architectural landmarks included the Royal Palaces. The Canopic Way and the Street of the Soma served as the main thoroughfares. the Temple of Saturn.shops and classrooms of the philosophical schools. Archaeological findings estimate that the average residential footprint under Roman rule was 200 square meters. the Navalia (the docks). In total.30) While residences dominated ancient Alexandrian land use patterns. and civic buildings lined them both.28 &p. the grand Theater (on modern Hospital Hill. fig(1-7) Site plan of Kom el Dikka.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. cisterns. the city was served by 18 main streets. Source: (Awad. which extended for 16 kilometers. near the Ramleh station). the Musaeum. the aforementioned Caesareum. and the Serapeum . "Italy in Alexandria" p. with 7 running east-west and 11 running north-south. roman baths. the Gymnasium and the Palaestra.

Under al-Als. and the Green Gate) were closed at night to prevent Bedouin raids. the coastal fringe sank.jsp?site_id=776 1-1-4. and earthquake tremors caused significant damage to the island of Pharos. East Gate. but the city subsequently lost influence as al-Fustat became the economic and political capital of the country.org/library/sites/one-site. geomorphological changes compounded the political neglect of Alexandria: several branches of the Nile silted up. By 639 Roman Byzantine rulers had ceded power to the Arab army commanded by 'Amr ibn al-As. 9 . restored 1980s). Rashid Gate.. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-8)photos of Roman Theatre Restoration at Kom Al-Dikka (2nd c. Thereafter. The city's four gates (the West Gate. Source: http://archnet.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.Early Islamic Period (639-1250): In 616 Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians until 628. Alexandria saw a wave of rebuilding.

62&p. Formerly located at the seaward end of the Street of Soma." were retained. In 912. Originally the Church of St. Following the establishment of Islamic law. many Roman citizens left the city. Although nothing remains of the temple today. one was presented to the British and erected along the Thames Embarkment (1878) and the other was offered to the USA. Source: (Awad. site plan and Elevations of the mosque of 1000Columns. and the city's economy continued its decline. "Italy in Alexandria" p. The new city wall built described a shrinking Alexandria.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. and retransformed into a Franciscan convent and the church of st. Rita. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ fig(1-9)Plans. who also completed renovations on the lighthouse in 797. and stands in New York's Central Park (1881). Theonas. 10 . known as "Cleopatra's needles. one that occupied just under half the city's urban footprint under the Romans. Mohamed F.63) Major urban changes during this period included the fortification of the coast and the new city walls under Ibn Tulun. the Temple of Serapis was demolished. two obelisks.

(G)Small fort.67) fig(1-11) Map of Alexandria in the late Roman period by A. (C)Sea door.64) 11 . (A)Cairo gate. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Adriani. (F)A mosque used by Turks. Source: (Awad. Mohamed F. (G)old port. Mohamed F. Source: (Awad. (G)new port. (B)Pepper gate. (D)The canal. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ fig(1-10) Map of Alexandria by J. Helffrich 1566. "Italy in Alexandria" p. (E)The Fort.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.

The 1798 invasion disrupted Alexandria's limited industry and commerce. the city approximated a village of 4.000 (1874). In 1517. Mohammad Ali reconstructed the harbor. the city's population grew from 60. Mahmud II) to allow access to the Nile.000.000 (1821-40) to 270. He also supervised the construction of a new shipyard 12 . 1-1-5-Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt (1250-1517): Under the Mamluks. This canal marked a renewal of Alexandria's social and cultural development: during this period. and Sultan Qaytbey built a fort to defend the harbor in its place. fig(1-12)Photos of Fort Qaitbey. He ordered ruined columns to be thrown into the harbor to prevent enemy ships from approaching. and this policy continued until Napoleon Bonaparte invaded in 1798. the city itself would continue to shrink until Ottoman times. with narrow streets and covered markets. the Mamluks gave way to the Ottomans. which at that time sustained the small Egyptian port. and he also began to improve the city's standard of living. and. beginning with a canal (the Mahmudiyya canal. Salah al-Din fortified the city walls (1181) and converted Alexandria into a military base. Under the Ayyubids (1171-1260). Architecturally. 88 mosques could be counted in the late 18th century. little of Alexandria's urban fabric was changed through the end of the Fatimid dynasty (1171). Alexandria expanded under the Mamluk mosque building programs. with the help of French engineers. and their development followed urban patterns in the Islamic world. At the time of his arrival. Subsequent invasions of Egyptian territories came as a result of the instability of power in Napoleonic Europe and Ottoman attempts to re-establish control over Egypt. the lighthouse at Pharos was destroyed during an earthquake. Although Alexandria continued to be Egypt's principal port. New "suburban" districts were created to the west and south of the city. who ushered in a policy of isolationism. and experienced a brief revival in the twelfth century.org 1-1-6-The Ottomans and Muhammad 'Ali Pasha (1517-1882): In (1805) Mohammad Ali Pasha recognized Alexandria's proximity to Constantinople and consequent economic potential. He made the city his summer capital and subsequently initiated a rebuilding and restoration program for the city. built a palace and a famously beautiful lighthouse on the Ras al-Tin peninsula. This isolationism was founded in the idea of trade as leading to Western colonization. With Napoleon came French ambitions to use Alexandria to open up a trade route to the East. which had been so drastically affected during the transition from Roman rule.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. erected a series of commercial and industrial buildings. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Generally speaking. Source: http://archnet. named for the Ottoman sultan.

From 186070. and to improve urban conditions overall. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ facility. and was moving into the orbit of Europe. It is of equal importance to note that it was not until the turn of the nineteenth century that contemporary Alexandria exceeded the size of Greek Alexandria. Construction on the city's tramway system was completed in 1860. over two-thirds of Egypt's export earnings came from cotton trading. this system is the oldest of all such networks in Africa. Although agricultural exports had always played a major role in its economy. during the nineteenth century Egyptian trade with Europe flourished.81) By 1870. Ismail built new roads and laid out new districts. fig(1-13) Daguerreotype and photo of Ras el Tin palace. However. The next governor. and granted many plots of land in the new Raml suburb. As Alexandria expanded. Alexandria grew rapidly thereafter: 1850 saw high numbers of Europeans taking up residence in the city and becoming influential citizens. to promote cleanliness and public health initiatives. Alexandria was successfully disengaging itself from the Ottoman commonwealth. and Genoa. He established a committee for traffic control.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Alexandria was one of the first Egyptian cities to have an underground sanitary sewerage system. The city's expansion in trade and infrastructure followed the assimilation of Egypt into the European world economy. Mohammad 'Ali Pasha's planning strategies focused on infrastructure (railways. its Arab walls were torn down. also known as Ismail the Magnificent. purified water from the Mahmudiyyah canal was piped throughout the city from a filtering station. Mohamed F. 13 . Mohammed Said Pasha (1854-1863) extended the railway line to Cairo and connected Alexandria and Cairo with modern telegraph lines. the Ministry of Commerce offices moved to Alexandria. where numerous lavish palaces were built. roads) to facilitate economic development. Mohammed Ali's grandson (1848-1854) built a railway from Alexandria to Suez that continued as far as Kafr al-Zayat. As governor. and the city witnessed the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century. By the late nineteenth century. that the Europeanization of Alexandria began. "Italy in Alexandria" p. today. which would become one of Egypt's greatest military and naval establishments. which played a role in destroying some of the city's historic urban fabric. while the trade of other agricultural products increased dramatically. It was under the government of Ismail Pasha (1863-1879). Source: (Awad. Alexandria was the fourth leading Mediterranean port after Istanbul. Marseilles. improved trade relationships. during Ismail's reign. Under Mohammad 'Ali Pasha. this did not extend to preventing unplanned thoroughfares and other spontaneous development.

Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ fig(1-14) Map of the Turkish town as documented by the French Expedition in 1798-1801.72) 1-1-7-British Occupation.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. facing high-end holiday resorts and apartments across the street. the small Salamlek Palace. originally dug in the premodern city to service waste. were restored and are today open to the public. the national independence movement saw the British Declaration (1922). 14 . Alexandria experienced a new wave of urban growth: Alexandria was developed into a major British Royal Naval base. Between 1922 and 1956. and catacombs form a great part of the city's infrastructure. Lake al-Hadara was drained. and the suburb of Smouha founded. to Egypt. urban development in Alexandria continued at a rapid rate. "Italy in Alexandria" p. These canals. a twenty-kilometer-long seacoast promenade. and Contemporary Alexandria (1882-2009): In the 1880s a nationalist trend rose in Egypt. with the strategic Suez Canal (1869) to the east of the city. the Ras al-Tin Palace on Pharos Island and the Al-Muntazah Palace at the eastern end of Al-Jaysh Avenue. The city's Corniche. the Treaty of Alliance between Egypt and Britain (1936). was built in 1934. Two of the royal palaces. Throughout the struggles for independence. Source: (Awad. a military officer. together with a vast. and 'Urabi Pasha. gathered enough energy within the army ranks to resist the Turkish establishment. Large numbers of Europeans died in the ensuing violent chaos. bathing clubs and cafes. influencing Alexandria's summer tourism industry. and then British occupation. The center has since moved to Saad Zaghlul Square. The Corniche houses a series of informal beach huts. Other major building projects of the period included the Al Muntazah Palace. active network of cellars. The modern plan of Alexandria follows the ancient grid. In 1925. Under the British. Mohamed F. and below these streets run subterranean canals. and the impressive Palestine Hotel. tunnels. and the 1952 July 23 revolution. between the Cotton Exchange and the Bourse (Stock Exchange). Egyptian Independence. bringing British troops. The commercial center of the city was located at Liberation Square (Midan at-Tahrir).

Source: (Awad. Source: http://archnet. "Italy in Alexandria" p.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ fig(1-15)Map of contemporary Alexandria.410) fig(1-16)panorama view and photos of corniche of Alexandria.org/library/sites/one-site. Mohamed F.jsp?site_id=9173 15 .

Its urban form is that of a T-shaped peninsula. the L-shaped. Existing ancient architectural monuments include the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa. covering approximately 2. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Alexandria's post-independence urban expansion (following the 1936 British withdrawal) was unprecedented in the city's history. the rectangular (Ashia housing type). Some segments of the lake shore are used for saltworks and fisheries. The remaining area is 40 percent croplands.679 square kilometers. the walk-up flats (El Dekhila). the urban center (including the old city and its newer suburbs) occupying about 100 square kilometers. Source: http://archnet. These tombs are sited adjacent to the ancient Temple of Serapis (Serapeum). The presence of the lake directed the expansion of the city along a relatively linear pattern. The two main streets of ancient Alexandria. 2002). the square (Rabaa housing type). Source: http://archnet. a late second-century burial site carved out of solid rock and located as deep as three levels below ground. The city now occupies a 70-kilometer strip along the Mediterranean coast line in the northwest Nile Delta. Housing a library and reading spaces. the western port of the city is primarily industrial. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Modern building projects in the city include the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Snohetta. fig(1-17)Photos of the Montaza Royal palace. Mohamed F. and 25 percent water from Lake Maryut. Alexandria's main public spaces in the early twenty-first century fall along the waterfront and the squares adjacent to the harbor. and the Aimaras Rabba housing types.org Residential building typologies in contemporary Alexandria fall into formal categories: researchers count the linear (El Hokma and Ahalee housing type). continue to be the principal streets of the city. the Bibliotheca was the winner of a competition run by the library 16 . 35 percent desert. and the Street of the Soma (now Nabi Daniel Street or An-Nabi Danyal Street).346) fig(1-18)Photos of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. designed as a tilting disc rising from the ground.org & (Awad.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. the east-west Canopic Way (now Hurriya Street or Al-Hurriya Avenue).

"Alexandria and the Egyptian Mediterranean: a traveler's guide". 3. Major mosques include Ali ibn Abi Talib Mosque (in Somouha). Boulder. Dudley.2006.archnet. with one of the finest collections of Graeco-Roman artifacts in the world. Jobbins. Michael J. Bilal Mosque." In Grove Art Online. which are separated by a T-shaped peninsula . 11. Mansheya Square (in Mansheya). The city mirrors the issues faced by most developing cities. Alexandria's major civic spaces include Ahmed Orabi Square and Saad Zaghlul Square (both located in the downtown area). http://www. Haag. Abdel Azim. which each in turn added to the city's fabric.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T001722. Mueller.britannica. west and south sides of the complex. Today the port is divided into the eastern harbor and the western harbor. 1807-1882. and Giovanni Ruffin. 8. Oxford Art Online". Alexandria: Hellenistic Age. V. El-Mowasah Mosque (in Hadara). Colonial Bridgehead: Government and Society in Alexandria.1993 . Cairo: American University in Cairo Press . and the Egyptian government. Alexandria.com/eb/article-26550/Hellenistic-Age. Reimer. and stark contrasts in civic infrastructure and architecture can be seen today between all six of Alexandria's districts: Montaza. UNESCO. and five major highways. "Property disputes in 19th century Alexandria". Elements of the ancient city. such as its main streets and millenia-old port. combine with geomorphological changes to define and direct its urban growth today. New York: NYU Press . It is sited on the site of the former Great Library. and its north side faces the waterfront.1993. the palace garden complex is surrounded by walls on the east. the downtown. Tahrir Square (formerly Mohammed Ali Square at the Places des Consuls) and Ahmed Zewail Square (near Wabour El Mayah). Judith. Ramadan. Colorado: Westview Press . et al. The Montaza Royal Gardens are an important urban green space. New York: NYU Press . Morsi Saad. 5. El-Din. 4. Amreya. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ________________________________________________ Chapter (1): History of Alexandria ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ sponsors. The ancient Roman amphitheatre and Pompey's Pillar still stand. The city also hosts the Graeco-Roman Museum. located 7 kilometers southeast of the city center. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press . www. 2004. Settlements of the Ptolemies: city foundations and new settlement in the Hellenistic world. Michael. El-Gamee el-Bahari (in Mandara).The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. 7.oxfordartonline. "Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece". Katja. Mostafa. (Accessed May 19. Western Alexandria and Gumro . Hatem Mosque (also in Somouha). Graeco-Roman ruins and modern high-rise buildings coexist within Alexandria.2004. C. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. Today. Notes: 1." Alexandria: The Site and the History. 2004. http://www. Harris. 9.1993. 2009 )."Alexandria: The Site and the History. "Alexandria: French Expedition to the Modern Age. "Alexandria: Thousand-Year Capital of Egypt. 10. it has seen many restorations under multiple regimes. 2. Jenny. Hoda el-Islam Mosque (in Sidi Bishr)." Alexandria: The Site and the History. New York: NYU Press." Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Alexandra. 17 . Its port has the longest history of all its urban infrastructure: dating to 1900 BCE. eastern Alexandria. W. El-Abbadi.1997. 2006. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online". Abu el-Abbas el-Mursi Mosque (in Anfoushi). Its urban infrastructure also includes the main airport (Al Nozha airport). 2008). (Accessed March 16. Arizona: Middle East Studies Association of North America . 6. MA: Peeters .1989.org the main recourses are: McKenzie. Reimer. The history of Alexandria showcases a broad cast of colonial powers. Michael J.

In site investigation and laboratory studies.Historical study. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 3-1.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 1-3. .Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 3. 1-1.preface.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 2-2.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 2-1.History of Alexandria. 3-2. 1.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.

The presence of this French colony was thus a guarantee of welcome for Italians forced to leave their own homeland because they had been openly involved with Napoleonic 18 .destroyed by British cannon fire in 1882. This is confirmed by the existence of a plan for a "large spinning mill in Cairo. The first fact can be interpreted as an indirect consequence of Bonaparte's campaign in Egypt. Fig (1-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th cantury also known as Place d' Armes. the king and members of the royal family). place Mohamed Ali. which put them in contact with top government (the pasha and later the khedive. building contractors and specialized workers. many artists and intellectuals who had accompanied the Napoleonic armada settled in the country to participate in the modernization pursued by Muhammad Ali. and the Papal subject Francesco Mancini who settled in Egypt and stayed until 1865. and in during that coordinated the development of the town plan. by other technicians and French military men called upon by the pasha.flicr. who seems to have cultivated the proposition of seeking his fortune in more hospitable lands. and they were joined. among them was the author of the plan for the Bonaparte Forum in Milan. Manshieh and Liberation square.com ) The presence of Italian architects in Egypt less considerable in quantitative terms than that recorded by their rise to important public posts.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. (Giovanni Antonio Antolini). Source: (www. architects. Also part of the first migratory wave were Livorno native Lorenzo Masi. Also he designed the organization of the European city heart. offered asylum to Italian political emigrants. and the "Quartier Franc" centered around the (Place d' Armes) completed around 1855 and surrounded by buildings -some of which were also designed by him. during the Restoration.The first Italian architects and engineers in Egypt: The first exiles were engineers involved with the governments of the Napoleonic Republics and the first Kingdom of Italy. a victim in 1815 along with his friend (Pietro Giordani) of the purge carried out by the papal government at the Fine Arts Academy of Bologna (which marked for him the start of a long period of financial difficulties). 1-2-1. From 1837 to 1847 he served as head engineer of the Alexandria “Commissione d`Ornato”. and in particular the Egypt of (Muhammad Ali). restored the canal linking the Nile and the port of Alexandria to full efficiency with the collaboration of Girolamo Segato. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt: The first Italian exile architects and engineers in Egypt starts from the Restoration of the Ottoman Empire. which was in use until the start of the Twentieth Century. who made an important contribution to the introduction of the cadastre in Egypt. and left early studies on the excavation or the Suez Canal. including a considerable number of engineers. Egypt" (1815) as well as drawings for an embassy in Constantinople.

"Italy in Alexandria" p. who had moved to Alexandria in 1825 after having accompanied the first warship constructed on orders from Mohammad Ali in Livorno's shipyards. the khedive's Azbakiyya Opera Theatre (1869). quickly constructed of wood on the basis of a plan by architect Andrea Scala to host 19 . the painting and sculptural work for the decoration of the palace of Gabbar (1846-48). temporary decorations to welcome Muhammad Ali upon his return from a trip to Naples (1848) as well as those for the palace of Gabbar commissioned by viceroy (Said pasha) to celebrate the anniversary of his ascent to the throne (1856). newly arrived in Alexandria. and the familiarity of various Italian architects with the governing elite. designed by P. Avoscani.90) Fig (1-21) Old postcards (1883) of “Stock exchange. decorations for squares. E. decorations for the palaces of Abbasiyya and Hilmiyya (1849) and for the palaces of Gazira and Chubra (1860-61).& www. was hired to supervise three-hundred workmen in executing the architectural furnishings and interior decoration of the palace of Ras al-Tin Muhammad Ali's favorite residence. Self taught through on-the-job practice in the field of ornamental painting and architectural decoration in his native Livorno.flicr. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ administrations. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt” p. which in some cases went beyond normal relations with clients.com This was the start of a brilliant career as a court architect in the service of the founder of modern Egypt and his successors. Twenty-one-year-old Pietro.Borsa” at place des Consuls by F. Fig (1-20)Photos of the entrance of Ras el Tin palace and detail of coat of arms. and enlisted in the Egyptian military marines. and in Cairo. constituted an efficacious channel for the transmission of ideas. Source: (Godoli. Source: (Awad. Mancini. in March of 1837 he joined his brother (Camillo). the most important achievements of which were. was that of Pietro Avoscani 1816-91. Mohamed F. 16). streets and public buildings on the occasion of the wedding of Kamel pasha (1846). the execution of the coat of arms above the entranceway to the palace of Ras alTin (1847). where he had his first contacts with the "Giovine Italia".The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. The first important case of an Italian patriot being well-introduced into the pasha's court and appreciated not only for his professional skills but also for his capacity as an adviser on relations with European states and on diplomatic matters in commercial and financial transactions. in Alexandria. which.

Mariano Falcini and two other unidentified architects. Also notable among the public structures the building of International Market of Minia al-Bassal (1871) in Alexandria. "Italy in Alexandria" p. and to France to acquire furniture and decorative elements. with four prizes awarded to Antonio Corazzi. Avoscani. "Italy in Alexandria" p. 20 . A competition was held in 1858 to choose the plan of the theatre. Source: (Awad. known as the Colton Exchange. Even when working for private individuals. to be built by Luigi Piattoli. Fig (1-23)Photo of the Zizinia theatre.97) And in 1857 he was among the financers of the company promoted by banker Carlo Biagini for the construction of a new Italian theatre in Alexandria.92) In 1853 princes Ismaill and Halim sent Pietro to Carrara (Italy) to choose marble for the entrance door to the palace of Ras al-Tin. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ the premiere of Aida in celebration of the opening of the Suez Canal. the terracotta ornamental work was produced by the Andrea Boni firm of Milan. designed by P. he never failed to utilize Italian suppliers: in the theatre built in Alexandria in 1862 for Count Zizinia. designed by P. Mohamed F. Avoscani 1863. on these and other missions Avoscani made his contribution to establishing commercial relations between Egypt and the Italian art industries and construction material suppliers.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Fig (1-22)Plan and photo of the Bourse of Minet el Bassal. Mohamed F. Source: (Awad.

96) 21 . Mohamed F. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-24)Drawings of the proposal for the competition of a theatre in Alexandria. by M.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (Awad. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Falcini 1858.

Mohamed F. Giacomelli.with an eclectic attitude and free from philological preoccupations. P12. Mancini.85) After the bombing of Alexandria and landing of the English expedition corps in 1882 marked both the defeat of the nationalist movement headed by colonel Ahmed Orabi. But their contribution to the reconstruction of Place des Consuls and the adjacent areas after 1882 adopted very different styles. now Salah Salem and Nabi Daniel Street (1886-87). who had been pursued with the complicity of khedive Tawfiq. who made contributions to the revalidation of Islamic architecture in their projects in Cairo. Cairo. Fig (1-25)Photo of sabil-Kuttab Al-Walda. who had come to Egypt in 1853 with his father. Source: (E. This architect also worked mainly for members of the royal family: for the khedive Said and he designed the palace of Qasr AI-Nil. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ".The pursuit of modern architecture for Egypt: Most of the buildings planned by Italians who arrived in Egypt in the 1820s and 1830s were characterized by a re-reading of models of classicism from the latter part of the Eighteenth Century or the Napoleonic era. by C. In the block of flats constructed in Rue Cherif Pacha (1883-88). stylistic forms and motifs drawn from the repertoire of Islamic architecture. the exiles who arrived after (1848) began to show the first signs of a retrieval . "Italy in Alexandria"p. Source: (Awad.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.archnet. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ 1-2-2.) Fig (1-26)Photo of the Tossiza palace by F. and Alfonso Maniscalco (1853-?) from Naples. started the reconstruction of the core or the European city of Alexandria figures like Antonio Lasciac (1856-1946) from Gorizia. Godoli & M. and from 1873 to 1879 was in the service of Khedive Ismail's mother. The earliest example is probably the Sabil-kuttab al-Walda (public fountain and koranic school) built for the queen mother in Bab al-Hadid zone (1867-69) in Cairo on plans by architect Ciro Pantanelli (1833-84). Source: www. Fig (1-27)Photos of Al-Rifaiy Mosque (the tombs of Royal family) at Cairo by Max Herz .org Around 1900 appeared some of the most significant Italian contributions to the Islamic 22 .Pantanelli.

Source: www. it associated western plan types and facade schemas with a very liberal manipulation of elements of Mamluke architecture.archnet. Fig (1-28)photos of Haramlek. built by the brothers Antonio Battigelli (1848-1898) and Francesco Battigelli (1861-?).The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. and who presumably played a fundamental role in guiding stylistic choices. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ revival. located in the Al-Rifaiy Mosque. in collaboration with the Hungarian Max Herz. and in 1901 director of the Museum of Arab Art. The oldest of the two brothers had demonstrated a certain familiarity with Arab art in the tomb of Khedive Ismail (1896). Genoa: the original style.Montazah palace by Ernesto Verrucci. this building was an important affirmation of the neo-Islamic orientation.org Fig (1-29)photo of castle Mackenzie. who in 1890 had become head architect of the Committee for the conservation of monuments of Arab art. First and foremost was the demolished villa for the Danish consul Antonio Zogheb in Qasr AI-Nil (1898-1902).196) 23 . and shortly after the completion of villa Zogheb Alfonso Maniscalco finished the Egyptian Library (1903-4). Source: (Awad. which had its main stronghold in Cairo. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Mohamed F. and Montazah palace the copy of the Italian style. 1923-1928 . later adapted to host the Cairo Museum of Islamic Art.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt

___________________________________________________________________________ Another Italian, Ernesto Verrucci (1874-1945), who arrived in Egypt in 1897 after having participated in the Greek-Turkish war, and he made significant contributions to Islamicinspired architecture. After initially working on the Greco-Roman Museum of Alexandria, Verrucci moved to Cairo, probably in (1898), to take over as head department architect at the Ministry of Public Works. Then he left this position in 1907 to undertake freelance work. Among his first contributions to the Islamic revival were the mausoleum for doctor Elui pasha in the necropolis of Imam al Chafiy in Cairo. And in his first decade working his neo-Mameluke plan won the competition for the new Egyptian University of Cairo (191314), construction of which, assigned to an Italian firm, was impeded by the outbreak of the First World War. After the ceremony marking the laying of the first stone had been celebrated with great solemnity on March 13, 1914. And also the tombs of King Fuad and the queen mother in the Al-Rifaiy mosque in Cairo (1917-19). Many of the Italian architects residing in Egypt who made significant contributions to the Islamic revival had an in-depth knowledge of monuments of Arab art, and were also directly involved in ensuring its safeguarding. Their contribution to the Islamic revival did not end with the beginning of the great war, but carried on until the have of the Second World War. Between 1922 and 1927 architect Lasciac built the Misr Bank in (Mohammad Farid) street in Cairo, the interior of which proposed an eclectic sampling of motifs from Arab and ottoman art, also displaying a harmonization of precious materials that added a hint of the Byzantine. And again in the pediatric hospital of Abu al-Rich in Cairo's Sayyida Zaynab quarter (1930), he proposed a rarefied and extremely distilled version of Mamluke inspired motifs, adapting them to the reinforced concrete construction and because of the need to economize on materials and specialized labor.

Fig (1-30)Photos of Misr Bank in Mohammad Farid street in Cairo, by Lasciac, 1927. Source: www.archnet.org

The '30s saw the development of a tendency due especially to the efforts of Egyptian architect Mustafa Fahmy towards a modernized Islamic style, based on a simplification of the lexical elements of the tradition, sometimes with Art Deco influenced stylizations, and on the adoption of monumental plans characterized by the highlighting of the parts arranged on the main axes or symmetry. Along the same lines was the School of Arts and Crafts (not the Department or Engineering of Ayn Shams University) in the Abbassiyya quarter of Cairo, built in 1932 on plans by Adolfo Brandani, which had an forepart in the middle of the main facade, characterized by a high loggia with a giant order of columns, surmounted by an onion dome. A particularly interesting and largely still unexplored chapter of the Italian contribution to the Islamic revival, is the sector of religious architecture. For example, there has not yet
24

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt

___________________________________________________________________________ been sufficient investigation of activity in this sphere by Achille Patricolo, to whom we owe the al-Fath mosque in the palace of Abdin in Cairo (1918), erected to replace an earlier XIX-century mosque, of which he conserved the minaret and entrance doorway, reconstructing the rest and adding an Ottoman-style cupola echoing that of the mosque of Abu Dahab (1774) in the al-Azhar district. Among the architects who held positions within the Ministry of El-Awqaf, Eugenio Valzania (1880-1930), who had only recently been re-discovered, after a long period of ignorance of the role he had played in the planning of works attributed by historiography to his younger collaborators, like Mario Rossi (1897-1961) and Giuseppe Tavarelli (1883-?). The finding of drawings dated 1929 now allows us to attribute to Valzania the ideation of plans of two mosques, the al-Tabbah in Cairo (1929-33) and the Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas in Alexandria (1929-45), long attributed solely to Rossi who, after Valzania's death continued the construction.

Fig (1-31)Elevations and photo of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque, by Mario Rossi and Eugenio Valzania, 1928-1938. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.242 -244)

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The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt

___________________________________________________________________________

Fig (1-32) Plan of Al-Mursi abu Al-Abbas Mosque, by Mario Rossi and Eugenio Valzania, 1928-1938. Source: (Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.242 -244)

According to a bibliographic source usually well-informed on Egypt, the mosque of heliopolis (1929-31), now known as Masgid al-Thawra Mosque of the Revolution, was also built by Tavarelli in forms inspired by Fatimid architecture on the basis of a plan by Valzania. The conception of the mosques of heliopolis and Alexandria seems to indicate him as the initiator of an approach to the planning of these religious buildings that tended to combine philological scrupulousness in reusing the Islamic styles of the local tradition with a rapport between the mosque and its urban surroundings, with green spaces or buffer zones that isolated it from the surrounding constructions. This type of urban insertion of the mosque, which sometimes became a dominant presence in its context with highly spectacular results, was perpetuated by Mario Rossi who, in the service of the Ministry of El-Awqaf, according to his own declarations, created 260 plans for mosques in many cities in Egypt, between 1929 and 1955. In this abundant production, two periods stands out: the first, comprised between 1929 and the start of the Second World War, was marked by an historicist orientation with architectural elements and ornamental motifs of Mamluke and Ottoman mosques, while in terms of floor plans, the planimetric schemas of Italian Renaissance central-plan churches were combined with the Madrasa plans of the traditional Cairo mosque; the second, coinciding with the decade after the war and inaugurated in 1946 by Rossi's conversion to Islam, was characterized by greater liberty in the organization of floor plans, which tended to free themselves from symmetry and from the simplification of traditional Islamic architectural elements and motifs to adapt new materials and construction techniques.

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by Mario Rossi. Mohamed F. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-33) photos of Qaid Ibrahim Mosque. Source: (Awad. "Italy in Alexandria" p.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. by Mario Rossi.340) 27 . Source: (Awad. 1949-1950.336) Fig (1-34) Photo and plan of El sayed Mohamed Korayem Mosque. Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p. 1951.

"Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration". Magdy M." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. Godoli. 2008 Pp. 2. Cairo. Awad.114119. 1990. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in Portugal. 154-160.86-93. 198-216. Ciranna. 12. Lucilia Verdelho. Pp. James. & Scaccabarozzi. Dickie. 25th November 2008. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . Italian institute for culture. Cairo. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985). 142-153. 28 . 9.172-177. Milva. Pp. Alexandria. 3. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive. Alexandria". 1990. A. 2008 Pp. da Costa. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”. 4. Ezio& Giacomelli. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day".by Italian institute for culture. ed. 94-101. Petruccioli Attilio. 8. 1990.by Italian institute for culture. Cairo. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . C. Cairo. Mohamed F. Dalu. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber. 11. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century". Egypt. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria. Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria. 6. 1990. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . Awad. 10.by Italian institute for culture. Godoli. Cairo. 1990. C. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri Vici. Pallini. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . Pp. Alexandria preservation trust." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. E.2008. Pp. 7. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”. Moussa. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study _______________________________ Chapter (2): Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt ___________________________________________________________________________ Notes: 1.102-105. 1990." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. Mohamed F. Alexandria 1918-1939: The Italian conection". Pallini. 2008 Pp. 72-85. Simonetta.by Italian institute for culture. Mohamed F. A. Pp.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. 5." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 2008 Pp. Awad. Jones. 13." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. & Scaramuzzi. 1990. 14-72." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre.

In site investigation and laboratory studies. .Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.History of Alexandria.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 1.preface.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3-1. 3-2.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 3.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.Historical study. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 2-1. 1-3. 1-1. 2-2.

Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 1-3-1. became increasingly involved also with private and community developments. Mancini continued using his earlier concepts. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ 1-3. (Pini) subdivided its plots and developed some of its elite residences. This came at a time when a new urban elite of notables expressed their readiness to sponsor their private projects and also those of their ethnic communities.Italian architects and private residential buildings: Having worked for the Pashas. Fig (1-35)Photo by Gustave Le Gray 1862 . The palace of Count Zizinia on place des Consuls by Antonio Lukovitch. Source: (Awad. already applied to the Tossiza Palace and marking the architectural language of the square. The earliest fortunes were mostly those of wealthy Greek families (such as Tossiza. the modifications of the Place des Consuls. 29 . For the Tossiza Palace. featuring early Venetian influences. Lukovitch and Avoscani. Other Europeans then followed suit. Moharrem Bey and further towards Ramleh. and Ernesto Bierotti's developments of the Greek community residential buildings in 1853. or La Bourse). Zizinia and D'Anastasi). Following the same tradition were his compatriots. and that of Lutzzatto Pasha. had bought land and built the first European house in 1836. Luigi Storari in the Greek Church. meant that elitist residences moved towards Rue Rossette. among many others. including his own two Palazzinas in 1890. the first visionary of Ramleh suburban potential.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. now known as Place Mohamed Ali. he represented the architecture of the palace in a confused combination of Moorish arches and classical columns and detailing. all of them were close friends and confidants of the Pashas. Evangelismos 1847-1856. While reverting to his earlier eclectic tendencies. the most prominent building on the square (later to become the Stock Exchange. (Cesare Scotti). expressing his best architecture in Neo-c1assical language. "Italy in Alexandria"p. (Filipo Pini Bey) is said to have been the ear1iest promoter of the Quartier Tewfikieh (later known as Quartier Rosette or the Quartier Latin) in 1875. In contrast to Mancini's conservative Neo-c1assicism. thereby reproducing a Venetian version of Orientalism. Mohamed F. Italian professionals in Egypt such as Francesco Mancini.88) during the second half of the 19th century. Another Italian. Lukovitch 's designs for the Count Zizinia Palace on the same Place des Consuls were rather challenging.

"Italy in Alexandria" p. Forillio. Manshieh and Liberation square.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.84) 30 . Source: (Awad. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-36)Photos of place d' Armes before and after the bombardment of 1882 by L. place Mohamed Ali. Mohamed F. Source: (Awad.85) Fig (1-37)plan of the Place des Consuls in late 19th cantury also known as Place d' Armes. Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.

31 . "Italy in Alexandria"p. the Italian role in rebuilding the city was considerable.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. especially when the increasing competition from other nationals. and Augusto Cesarias was its structural engineer. presently the Spanish Consulate. presently Belqis School. paid by the Egyptian government. their total monopoly of the building profession and its trades remained disputable among historians. Yet. On the Place des Consuls. Mohamed F. such as Greek professionals and contractors. Source: (Awad. Mohamed F.99) The British bombardment of the city and the events that followed (11 July 1882) completely destroyed the European centre around the Place Mohamed Ali However. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-38)Photo and plans of Villa Lutzzatto Pasha by Filipo Pini. the Italians were the major contributors to the rebuilding of the square and the design of its most important buildings. the compensation and indemnities. Source: (Awad. "Italy in Alexandria"p. In the post-Bombardment era 1882-1918.98) Fig (1-39)Photo and plans of Palazzina Pini Bey by Filipo Pini. The imposing seat of the Mixed Tribunals in 1887 was designed in the Beaux Arts tradition by Alfonso Maniscalco Bey. were crucial in effecting the quick recovery and rebuilding of the city centre. is considered.

1887. by Antonio Maniscalco Bey. designed by Lasciac in Neo-Baroque eclectic styles. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-40) Elevations. owners of the Okalle Menasce. possibly paving the way for similar developments along the parallel axis of Rue Tewfik and Attarin Mosque. The buildings. extended to a series of residential buildings along Rue Sherif Pasha in 1887. Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Source: (Awad.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. These were the Grand Okalle Menasce by Antonio Lasciac in 1885 and the Okalle Monferato by Luigi Piattoli 1887. 32 . Photo and plans of “Mixed Tribunals”. Lasciac's work for the Societe des Immeubles d' Egypte.113) The commercial entity of the square is further emphasized by the two large okalles modeled on the concepts of Milanian Galleria. were described as most elegant and included all the desirable conveniences of modern Iiving.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.114. Mohamed F. by Luigi Piattoli. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-41)Photos.116) 33 . "Italy in Alexandria" p. Source: (Awad. Elevations and plans of “okalle Monfrato”. 1887.

"Italy in Alexandria" p. Fig (1-42) Photo of “Primi Building ”. Source: (Awad. at Rue Sherif by Antonio Lasciac. Its councils included elite members of the Italian community such as Stagni. and Campos etc. Mohamed F. are expressed in the design of Ramleh Railway Station 1887. Source: (Awad. Lasciac also designed a building for the Karam brothers on Rue de la Gare de Ramleh. Mohamed F. 1886-1887. combined with aesthetic Renaissance elegance. by Antonio Lasciac. Viterbo. "Italy in Alexandria" p. his most remarkable residential achievement was in the high eclectic mannerist architecture of the Palauina Aghion. Mohamed F. His eclectic designs 34 . Source: (Awad. including the Villa of Baker Pasha. by Antonio Lasciac.120) The Italian influences retained their importance when the Municipality of Alexandria was created in 1890. 1887 for the French cigarette manufacturer Laurens. Lasciac's engineering skills. and other police quarters together with the Fire Brigade Station at Kom el Dikka.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. the Italian involvement was also eminent. 1883-1887.118. described by Bonola Bey in 1906 as "Ingenere di Prima classe”. Aldo Marelli. Bacos. "Italy in Alexandria" p. and surprisingly is very historicist in the design of his Italian Renaissance Palauo in Ramleh.117) Fig (1-43) Photo of “Societe des immeubles d’Egypte”. Yet. Italians constituted at least fifty percent of its technical staff and included prominent engineers such as Guiseppe Ramacciotti.119) In other public projects. The Police Headquarters in Bab Sharki and its dependencies. at the corner of Rue Rossette and Rue Nabi Daniel. 1887. the Primi building on the Place des Consuls and a residential block owned by the Jewish community on Rue Nabi Daniel. and plans of “Gallery Menasce ”. Fig (1-44) Photo. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ During the same period. Lumbroso. were all designed around the end of the nineteenth century by the Italian architect.

"Italy in Alexandria" p. 1898-1899 before and after extention. by Antonio Lasciac. and for the renovation of the Villa Binder Nagel in 1905. Elevation and plans of “Palazzina Aghion ”. Source: (Awad. built in Neo-C1assical splendour to host the German Kaiser on his expected visit to Alexandria. 1887.124) 35 . for the design of the Villa Karam in 1898 in Ramleh. However. Fig (1-45) Photo. he is better remembered for his other designs: the Prussian Hospital of Diaconasses in Hadra (later known as Anglo-Suisse). Mohamed F. by Antonio Lasciac.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Mohamed F.122) Fig (1-46) Photos of “Villa mazloum Pasha”. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ were strongly influenced by the designs of medieval Italian castelli. Source: (Awad.

Lindeman. a leading land and building company in Alexandrian and Egyptian activities (1907-1912). ” and “villa Baron J. Dessberg and A. 1907-1912. Elevation and plans of “Villa laurens”. Gharbaneyat and Gabbari. 1886-1887.125) The Industrial Building Company of Egypt. The Company Construction Departments in 1911 expanded to include Italian engineers such as G. by Antonio Lasciac. Mohamed F. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-47) Photo. Presided over by Amin Karam. SiaccL U.162. Industrial Buildings of Egypt were also actively involved in developing public and private buildings in Alexandria. campos) in areas such as Ramleh. such as the Egyptian Government School in Moharrem Bey 1909. and the Egyptian Postal Service building 1909-1910. included land speculation (such as those bought from A. Fig (1-48) Photos of “Villa H. Fusignani. the technical administration of the company was mostly Italian.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (Awad.163) 36 . Mohamed F.”. Source: (Awad. "Italy in Alexandria" p. by The Industrial Building Company of Egypt. "Italy in Alexandria" p.De Menasce.

M. featuring in the Moassat Building in 1929 on the Corniche and the Heikal apartment building on the Chamber of Commerce Street 1933. Loria's S. Loria (1929) awarded the Municipality Honorary Prize for Best Facades. A. Loria (1929). Reinventing Italy in Alexandria may also be experienced in some private developments belonging to his Italian clientele such as the Villa Viterbo in Rond Point. and Lodolini's apartment building in Carlton. and the EI Nokaly's apartment blocks in Ramleh Station 19261928 carry strong Venetian references. Source: (Awad. such as the Gothic detailing borrowed from its Palazzo Ducale. Aghion in 1930s.204. "Italy in Alexandria" p. and among others. Source: (Awad. 37 .205). "Italy in Alexandria" p. Fig (1-50) Photo of “ElNokaly apartment building” by G. Mohamed F. projecting light and shade contrasts on building facades and their tilted roof epics. Source: (Awad. Loria (1928). A.A.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Mohamed F. and those of the Pinto family.202). Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Alexandria became the commitment and practices of Italian Venetian professionals. such as Mario Avena in the Villa Giannotti. "Italy in Alexandria" p.208). Douak.A. G. the Italianated facade won for its architect the Municipality Honorary Prize for Best Facades. Salem. and the Mansour Kelada apartment building 1926. specially the Jews and also increasingly among Egyptians. and the Villa Lombardo built by Pietro Campo in Rue Ruffer in Carlton (later renamed Syria Street in Rushdy). and also features in other Italian architects' work of the period. who found their clientele within their own community. on Avenue Fouad I and Cairo Station Square 1925. It extends to influence other non-Italian clients such as those experienced in the Villa Zalza!. Granato in the Villa Aziza Fahmy 1927 on the Corniche of Glymonopoulo. Mohamed F. Fig (1-51) Photo of “Cecil Hotel” by G.A. 1925. Farghaly Pasha in Gianaclis by G. This was a perfect opportunity and setting for Giacomo Alessandro Loria 1879-1937 to reproduce his Little Venice in the Alexandrian context. Reinvented and decorated with polychromatic brickwork and mosaics imported from Italy. In historical revivalism. Loria in the Villa Adda in Moharrem Bey. They also feature in the Art Deco treatments of the Villa A. Fig (1-49) Photos of building on Venice style by G. the Italian villa appears in his Villa Awad in Glymonopoulo.

Carnevale (1929).232).225)."Italy in Alexandria" p. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Smith. Smith. Carnevale (1929). Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p. Smith. 38 . by E. Fig (1-54) Photo of “Villa Adda” by G."Italy in Alexandria" p.202). Saleh building” by R. Source:(Awad. Source: (Awad. Fig (1-53) Photo of “Heikal apartment building” by Source:(Awad. Mohamed Mohamed F.A.232)."Italy in Alexandria" p.214).The Italian Architecture in Alexandria."Italy in Alexandria" p. Mohamed F. Source:(Awad. Mohamed F. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (1-52) Photo of “M. Loria. Source:(Awad.225). Fig (1-55) Photo of “Villa Awad and Abani” by R. Fig (1-56)Photo of “Fumaroli building” on Avenue Fig (1-57) Photo of “fumaroli building” on Rue Sherif Fouad I by E. Mohamed F. F. R. Source: (Awad.

high hopes and enthusiasm expressed in the words of Paolo Portoghesi. The joint venture Rodio/Trevi and Arab Contractors for building the foundations of the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina brought an Italian participation to the creation of a new future for the city. the new Bibliotheca Alexandrina was destined to become the new beacon of culture and means of interaction between cultures and civilizations of the world. Capitalizing on memory. 3rd highest number after France (76). in collaboration with the governorate of Alexandria launched several initiatives and competitions among which Mario Botta's 39 . in collaboration with the Alexandria and Mediterranean Research Center. the case of renovation of Villa Silvio Pinto in Bulkeley. by Mario Avena is clearly demonstrative of such dominance. The old world can still provide intellectual energy and qualitative commitment to this reflection: but it cannot be achieved without an increasingly wide spread participation of the intellectual forces of these new countries. 1927. identified with the practices of Italian resident professionals continuing to reflect an architecture. the Italian studio Bertocchini and Ruggiero. whereby local expression is still overpowered by the further accidental of the city's built environment. and the need to develop a hotel. only a single Egyptian participation is recorded. Taken into consideration was the future of the Library. while setting the standards for the preservation of the morphology of the Eastern Harbor and its architectural heritage. Along those lines. from Alexandria to Rome.Italian contributions in modern Alexandria: The new millennium saw a renewed interest. Such influence.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. 1-3-2. with regard to the popularity of Italian revivalist architecture. In renewed efforts to develop the area around the Library of Alexandria. While ten Italian firms with a total of sixteen contractors and suppliers were assigned to the job. out of a total of 501 submissions. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ The prominent role of the Italian professionals in Alexandria during the first quarter of the 20th century is further confirmed in Fraser's impression that" Alexandria of 1880-1930 was largely built by Italian architects and engineers". aquarium. the chair of urban planning at the University of Rome 'La Spienza'. and the UK (52). in the competition. an event organized by the Bibliotheca Alexandrina in 2005 and financed by the World Bank and sponsored by the Italian Trust Fund for Culture and Sustainable Development: This enthusiasm can only be activated by a profound reflection on the meaning and consequences of the choices that are made. with the Manfredi Nicoletti team receiving second prize while the Ruggiero Lenci group received an honorable mention. The Italian participation in the competition was certainly significant: 44 final submissions. in the introductory note to The Mediterranean City: a Dialogue among Cultures. It is the journey of the Homeric hero reinterpreted by Dante and Joyce that thanks to its openmindedness and infinity provides us with the only means available: hope. organized by the Ministry of Culture for the renovation of the Egyptian Academy of Arts in Rome 2003. set up a vision for the future of the Eastern Harbour. There was certainly enthusiasm in the opposite direction. underwater museum. Already such enthusiasm across the Mediterranean was expressed in the international competition for the design of the Library of Alexandria (1988-89). expressed in the city's identity. with first prize awarded to the Alexandrian-based architectural firm Awad & Partners. the Bibliotheca Alexandrina. Most certainly. a Euro-Mediterranean Stock Exchange and a museum at Fort Qaitbey.

All this therefore marks changing times and the realities of the present. Today a limited Alexandrian Italian community numbers no more than 800 residents. The same year. still remains an incomplete mandate. These include initiatives by the Politechnico of Milan. Its churches and Latin cemeteries “Terra Santa” are now managed by the Catholic Copts. the “Academia Adrianea di Architettura e Archeologia” and the “Dipartimento di storia dell'architettura e delia citto”. while the Orthodox Copts have also taken over the “Cimitero Civili”.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. workshops and exhibitions in collaboration with the Alexandria and Mediterranean Research Center of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina during the course of 2008. Modernity. influenced by socio-economic. enthusiasm and renewed interest in developing the future city focus on capitalizing and reviving the city's rich. The same can be said with regard to cultural institutions such as the Societa Dante Alighieri di Roma. yet still to a great extent undervalued. renewed interest in Egypt's banking and financial sector saw the Bank of Intesa San paolo take over the Bank of Alexandria. Universito di Firenze in the form of conferences. More recent initiatives expressing Italian commitment. Only the Casa di Riposo is still run for its diminished Italian community. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ proposal was in competition with a selected group of international renowned architectural firms put forward by the international Gulf development group IMAAR in 2006. insofar as the majority of the Alexandrian built environment is concerned. It is only architects' dreams that can turn Portoghesi's enthusiasm and hopes into a future reality for an Alexandria striving to revive its historic role as one of the greatest cosmopolitan cities of the world. cosmopolitan heritage. which is now an Egyptian NGO under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Social Affairs. political and cultural conditions in society. 40 .

Alexandria. 2008 Pp. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration". "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day". "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century"." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 14-72. 1990. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria. 9. Godoli. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber. 10.114119. Milva. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in Portugal. A.by Italian institute for culture. Ciranna. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”. 1990. Awad. 154-160. Cairo. Magdy M. Simonetta. Alexandria preservation trust. 6. Pp. Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 11.by Italian institute for culture. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . Alexandria 1918-1939: The Italian conection". Egypt." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre.by Italian institute for culture. Mohamed F. Pallini. Jones. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”. & Scaramuzzi. Moussa. 3. 2008 Pp. 2008 Pp. 1990. Mohamed F. 1990. ed.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive. C. Pp. Godoli. Ezio& Giacomelli. Cairo." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. Awad. Pp. 8. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985). 72-85. 2008 Pp. 13. 2. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri Vici.102-105. 94-101. Alexandria". Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 7. Dalu. Pp. Cairo. 25th November 2008. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (1): Historical study ___________________ Chapter (3): Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Notes: 1. Pallini.2008. 41 .86-93. Petruccioli Attilio. A." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 142-153. 1990. 5. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period. 1990. Cairo. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . Mohamed F.172-177. da Costa.by Italian institute for culture. 1990. E. Pp. James. Dickie. Italian institute for culture. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . 4. & Scaccabarozzi. 12. Cairo. C. Lucilia Verdelho. Awad. 198-216.

3. 1-3. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Historical study. 1.Structural failure and interventions in stone building.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 3-2.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 1-1. 2-2. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. . 3-1.Future of Alexandrian built environment.preface.In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-1.History of Alexandria.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.

Utilization of the building. all experts agree that precise damage diagnosis is the prerequisite for understanding causes. the first one illustrates the in-site investigation and laboratory studies and the comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. In the course of time. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ___________________________________________________________________________ 2-Damage diagnosis on stone buildings: This part of the research contains the theoretical study about damage diagnosis on stone buildings and includes two chapters. insufficient maintenance or inappropriate restoration activities may have contributed to alarming stone damage. Due to the increasing awareness and respect for our built heritage.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. The interaction between stone materials and natural or anthropogenic weathering factors controls the type and extent of stone damages. interdisciplinary research and new technologies have been introduced in damage diagnosis and monument preservation activities. monuments and art objects. 42 . processes and characteristics of stone damage and for sustainable monument preservation. all natural stones are affected by weathering. During the last few decades. And the second chapter studies the structural types of failure and interventions in stone building in the critical parts that may suffer from structural problems. And at the end of the study there is one appendix about weathering forms on stone buildings with photos about each form. Introduction: The history of mankind has been accompanied by the use of natural stones for buildings. preservation of stone building has become an important public and political concern. Today.

3-1. 1-1.History of Alexandria.preface. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.Structural failure and interventions in stone building.Future of Alexandrian built environment.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 3.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.Historical study.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1. . 2-2. 3-2.In site investigation and laboratory studies. 1-3.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 1.

testapplication of preservation Implementation of preservation measures Quality control Monitoring and maintenance DOCUMENTATION Fig (2-1) Diagram of the approach to monument preservation. • Location of the object: geographical and topographical location. exposure characteristics. especially by weathering. designation. compile and evaluate all information. calculation. architectural style. age.In site investigation and laboratory studies: Stones are one of the most important materials in the old building as structure element or as claddings and ornaments.678) 2-1-1. Fitzner. All stone buildings are affected by stone deterioration. • Description of the object: type. p. overall appearance. biosphere or pollution. APPROACH TO SUSTAINABLE PRESERVATION OF STONE MONUMENTS ANAMNESIS Object identification Location of the object Description of the object Art history Construction history Restoration history Case history DIAGNOSIS Stone materials and their properties State of deterioration Rating of damage processes of deterioration Progression of stone deterioration THERAPY Conception. owner. and high level of scientific knowledge is an important basis for effective and economic preservation measures. The well-accepted approach to sustainable monument preservation comprises the steps of anamnesis. it considers the following objectives: Object identification: name. dimension. Source: (B. building ground. That’s because of its characteristics (strength. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ 2-1. surroundings in the course of time. Hence. In particular. • Art history: architectural composition. but the alarming increase of weathering damage on the stones and the danger that a major part of built cultural heritage could be partially or completely destroyed. responsible authorities. Documentation has to be involved in each of these three steps. which means physical disintegration or chemical decomposition is initiated and controlled by the interaction between stone and other factors such as climate.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. The increasing damage on stone monuments and the danger of irretrievable loss of cultural heritage has resulted in ever-increasing efforts world-wide for monument preservation. requires immediate measures for building preservation.Documentation within the scope of anamnesis: The anamnesis is to acquire. geological conditions. texture and strength). artistical elements. as well as the knowledge of weathering factors and processes which control this weathering behavior. data and documents for the identification and description of stone buildings and for the portrayal of their history. diagnosis and therapy Fig (2-1). historical / cultural / artistical 43 . "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments". profound knowledge of the material properties and the weathering behavior of the natural stones is necessary.

The overall aim of the diagnosis is the characterization. surface structure. whole structures aesthetic appearance or monuments In-site investigation Particular objectives of diagnosis are: • stone materials and their properties: type and distribution of stone materials. newspapers. mechanical properties. evaluation of building logs. Scales Non-visible deterioration Parameters Investigation Laboratory analysis Involved sciences Geosciences. chemical composition. • Case history: utilization and function of the object in the course of time. accounts. material sciences. Collection and evaluation of oral information from people professionally involved with the object and from local people Collection and evaluation of environmental data from authorities or institutions Documentation of own observations. 44 . physical disintegration. hygric properties. reports. thermal properties. static calculations etc. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ value of the object. suppliers documents. quantification. • Restoration history: concepts and chronology of previous restoration measures. Items of documentation with respect to anamnesis are presented in table (2-1). files. journals. history of environmental conditions such as climate and pollution.Documentation within the scope of diagnosis: The diagnosis uses the information provided by the anamnesis and it represents the basis for the decision and implementation of appropriate preservation measures. manufacturing available documents manuals. stone quality. Diagnosis has to consider different scales of stone deterioration as described in table (2-2). construction manuals. microbiology. type and provenance of building materials. plans. macroscopical characteristics. interpretation and rating of stone damage on the building. ecology Structural engineering. chemistry. artwork. construction techniques. Items of documentation Archive workDrawings. textural properties. natural impacts. records. • state of stone deterioration: stone alteration. stone mounting. expertise. The methodological approach of diagnosis includes laboratory analysis and in-site investigation. Table (2-2) Scales of stone deterioration. deterioration profiles. mineral composition. porosity properties. Table (2-1) Items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis. craftwork. elaboration of new documents where necessary Anamnesis 2-1-2. maps. stone working. type and intensity of deterioration phenomena. architecture Nanoscale Changes of stone < mm properties Microscale Mass loss. mm to cm micromorphology Mesoscale Deterioration Visible cm to m phenomena deterioration Macroscale Structural stability. photographs or other relevant illustrations compilation and Publications. • Construction history: phases of construction / rebuilding. techniques and materials applied for restoration.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. chemical decomposition. correlations between stone properties. physics.

need and urgency of intervention. Diagnosis can be divided into three categories: In-site investigation Building mapping Measurements sampling Laboratory analysis Analysis of physical. rates of deterioration. classification of deterioration phenomena considering type and intensity.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.qualitative or quantitative results / direct or inferable information. dimension. files. • progression of stone deterioration: stone properties in the course of deterioration. data sets. Stone materials and their properties .considerations / schemes for the rating of damage and for the appraisal of need and urgency of preservation measures. maps of damage with quantitative evaluation. orientation. chemical and mechanical material properties Weathering simulation Outdoor exposure chamber tests Fig (2-2) Diagram of the three categories of diagnosis. files. places of sampling. mechanisms of deterioration. files. data sets. diagrams The building mapping method has been established as a non-destructive procedure for the precise registration. models of stone deterioration. Table (2-3)Items of documentation within the scope of diagnosis. risk prognosis. data sets. photographs. evaluation and documentation of deterioration phenomena. files. • rating of damage: degree of damage. It can be Diagnosis 45 . diagrams. Items of documentation Description of all methods applied during the course of diagnosis including their aims. appropriation / suitability. sequences of deterioration phenomena. diagrams. maps of deterioration phenomena with quantitative evaluation Evaluation of Factors and processes of stone deterioration . exposure characteristics. of the Description and graphic documentation of the investigation areas diagnostical location.classification schemes. distribution of damage. Description success. type and dimension of samples. Description and graphic documentation of sampling . reasons for selection. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ • factors and processes influencing stone deterioration: natural and anthropogenic factors. files. diagrams Rating of damage . diagrams Progression of stone deterioration . items of documentation with respect to diagnosis are presented in table (2-3). threshold levels. prognosis. data sets. interaction of processes. The application of these three complementary diagnostical steps and the joint evaluation of results contribute essentially to reliable damage diagnosis for stone monuments.characterization of deterioration according to change of stone properties.materials.modes of assessment / quantification. photographs. data sets. modes of evaluation. reasons for concept selection. coaction of factors. lithological maps with quantitative evaluation State of stone deterioration . rating of accuracy / validity / transferability.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. It is recommended to also consider the intensity of deterioration phenomena. They use digital plans of stone monuments or structures. quantitative evaluation and transformation of information. Well-established petrographical schemes should be used for the description of stone types. or due to availability and workability of stone material. petrographical characterization and registration of all stone types. a standard intensity classification of deterioration phenomena is not suitable. The lithological mapping comprises the survey. In many buildings different stone types were used. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ applied to all stone types and to all kinds of stone objects. illustration. Digital plans and information files with planimetric data allow manifold options for the query.Mapping of weathering forms: Weathering forms represent visible results of weathering processes which are controlled by interacting weathering factors. constructional or artistical considerations. Fig (2-3) drawing of Lithological mapping “monastery of Benedettini. due to architectural. rebuilding or stone replacement may have also resulted in additional stone types. And damage indices are calculated for conclusive 46 . identification. 2-1-3. The objective and reproducible registration and documentation of deterioration phenomena (weathering forms or weathering features) require precise. This term is used for visible stone deterioration at mesoscale (cm to m). Catania”. this is very important for the evaluation of damage in dependence upon stone types. modern computer programs are used for the processing of information registered in the course of mapping. Damage categories are based on the intensity of the weathering forms. The distribution of stone types is illustrated in maps and is evaluated quantitatively according to number or area of dimension stones. However. Six damage categories have been identified. The classification of intensities has to be adjusted to each monument or stone structure with respect to the apparent range of intensities.

Damage categories are based on the intensity of the weathering forms. Fig (2-6)Map of damage categories with rating of urgency of preservation measures. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ quantification and rating of damages. the weathering forms are Classified into four levels1: LEVEL I: includes four groups of weathering forms: Group 1– loss of stone material.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Lambertus Church. MonschauKalterherberg. Group 4– fissures / deformation. ”St. Fig (2-5) diagram of definitions of damage categories. LEVEL II: Each group is subdivided into main weathering forms LEVEL III: Several main weathering forms are further specified by means of individual weathering forms LEVEL IV: The individual weathering forms are further differentiated according to intensities (letters are used for the weathering forms and numbers for intensities). Six damage categories have been identified as shown in the next figures. Group 3– detachment. Damage categories and especially damage indices represent very practical tools for reliable 1 Photos of Weathering forms on stone buildings are included in Appendix (A) at the end of the Report. Group 2– discoloration / deposits. 47 . Germany” SW tower and part of west facade. Fig (2-4) Classification of weathering forms.

And It consist in sticking small portions.Therapeutical steps: Based on anamnesis and diagnosis. • Ultrasonic.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Important therapeutical and preventive preservation measures are the following: A) Preconsolidation. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ judgement/certification of preservation measures. Source: (lecture by Prof. of Japanese paper and adding consolidator. Villari. vegetation and Etc. • Water compress with absorbing materials.Preconsolidation: Complex and difficult operation required when the degradation process is strong. 2-1-4. then many cycles of product must be done till all the vegetables organism are dead. but without mixing air and water. Cleaning must be controllable by the operator. non corrosive. The nozzle are directed to the surface. gauze. E) protection. Damage categories locate those parts of a building which intervention has to focus on. then removed with brush and water.). and doesn’t leave harmful materials or create breaks. D) consolidation. with minimum amount of consolidator and utilizing reversible materials like Japanese paper. Before starting the disinfestations. And the main cleaning methods are: • Nebulized and atomized water. and by aerosol or brush for the mask or alga. C) sealing – plastering. • Laser.cleaning: The aim of the cleaning is to remove any thing that may damage the stone such as Soluble salts. It is used at low pressure ( max 2 par. acrylic resins and other materials that can be removed after the cleaning. effective and economic therapeutical steps can be proposed and calculated. Damage indices point out need and urgency of intervention. Nebulized water: Like atomized water. Italy). and it’s effect is direct and 48 . and obstacles the normal cleaning operations. 2-1-4-1. Then must be completely vegetable disinfestations by injection with some chemicals for the superior plants. Fig (2-7) photos of Preconsolidation presses: sticking Fig (2-8) photo of vegetable disinfestations. Crust. Kore university of Enna. 2-1-4-2. B) cleaning. atomized water: It cleans and remove the encrustations with effect of a washing of water mixed with air that produce an aerosol effect. It needs to have low pressure and the nozzle must not be direct to the surface but must have an angle between 30° to 45°. the surface must be cleaned with a wooden or plastic palette. D. • Mechanic method. selective and gradual.

using micro instruments as Scalpel . Kore university of Enna. Fig (2-11) photos of cleaning with mechanic method and micro sand blasting. Italy). Mechanic cleaning: it is used to remove very consistent crusts that can’t be soluble in water or chemically. Source: (lecture by Prof.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. D. Micro sand blast or Ultrasonic instruments. and it operates only on the external surface by a laser light without any contact but it very slaw and expensive. Micro drills. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ stronger than atomized water To clean deep crust it needs many cycles of washing. Villari. After each cycle a sample of the waste water must be taken and continue until the quantity of salt is at demonized water level. 49 . D. Kore university of Enna. Laser cleaning: it is anew method of cleaning. and is very good to remove black spots. and it may be made by (Paper Pulp) or (Absorbing Clay). D. Fig (2-10) photos of cleaning with absorbing materials. Italy). Source: (lecture by Prof. Villari. Absorbing materials: it absorbs all the soluble salts and alternation products and removes different types of spots. Villari. Source: (lecture by Prof. Fig (2-9) photos of cleaning with nebulized and atomized water. each cycle has a duration of about 10 minutes followed by one hour of drying. Italy). Kore university of Enna.

50 . Fig (2-14) photos of integrations of small elements that are broken or lost. D. 2-1-4-3. Kore university of Enna. Source: (lecture by Prof. Sometimes it necessary to make integrations of small elements that are broken or lost with material such as acrylic resin. Villari. Kore university of Enna. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (2-12) photos of cleaning with laser. Source: (lecture by Prof. D. D. For the biggest elements it is fixed with titanium. quick lime or smashed stones.sealing – plastering: This process consists of the removal of old sealing and wrong intervention with mechanical methods. Fig (2-13) photos of sealing process with stone mortar. Villari. Kore university of Enna. Italy). Teflon or stainless steel bars. then plastering of cracks or joints with mortar made by the same material of the original stones (smashing the stones at the right grins and may be added some acrylic to make the mortar stronger as possible. Source: (lecture by Prof. Italy). Villari. Italy).The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.

Working group “Natural stones and weathering“. 5. Spain. Kore university of Enna.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.irb. 51 . Germany. Fitzner and K. Heinrichs. 2008. SPON PRESS. Fitzner. Villari. Villari. B. Aachen University of Technology. Fig (2-15) photos of consolidation of fragile materials and separated parts. Sevilla.Geological Institute. RWTH Aachen University . Fitzner. 2nd edition. that process improve the properties of the material and make it more resistance to water and humidity. ” Damage index for stone monuments”. It is applicable with brush or spray.2001. 6.hr/korisnici/obelic/euro-med/CA. London. 4.stone. 2-1-4-5. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study _____________________________ Chapter (1): In site investigation and laboratory studies ___________________________________________________________________________ 2-1-4-4.Richardson. Italy). B.protection: It is the final operation that aims to slow down the deterioration process and maintain the restoration. Italy. B. D. "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings". 7. http://www. La Bouchardiere.de at 1-2009. Fitzner. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna. damage categories and damage indices”. Stockholm.htm at 5-2009. B. Barry A.2004. Source: (lecture by Prof. 2. D. Heinrichs. Geological Institute.rwth-aachen. http://www. K. Notes: 1. Working group "NATURAL STONES AND WEATHERING". D.consolidation: This process aims to give back the continuity to the fragile materials and separated parts by applying an appropriate product with a strong adhesive power. 3. 10th international congress on deterioration and conservation of stone. 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. ”Damage diagnosis on stone monuments – weathering forms. 5-8 April 2000. "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments".

1-1.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 3.History of Alexandria.Historical study. 2-2.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 1. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. . 2-1. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.preface.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.In site investigation and laboratory studies.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 3-2. 3-1. 1-3.

Fig (2-16) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the collapse of the façade. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ 2-2. 2-2-1-1.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. • Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending. Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908). Fig (2-17)photos of building at “Messina. Fig (2-18) photo the cracks in the connection between the façade and the building. • Collapse on the isolated walls.Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade: This type of failure happen when separation of the façade due to the motion that involves one or more of structure panels of the building at the upper floors of the construction. 52 . 2-2-1-2.Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending: This type of failure happen due to frontal cracks in the façade that causes separation of one part or more of the walls then collapse of the central zone of the wall at the form of (V shape) at the upper part of the façade. • Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut.Structural failure and interventions in stone building: 2-2-1.Mechanism of break down in stone building: The main types of failure in stone buildings are as followed: • Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade.

html 2-2-1-3. Italy).com/messina_terremoto_1908_porta_messina_gbr. T. at Kore university of Enna. at Kore university of Enna. Fig (2-20) photos of buildings at “Messina. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (2-19) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall bending. T. Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908). Panzeca. Fig (2-21) photo and diagram of the Failure due to the wall cut.grifasi-sicilia.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (lecture by Prof. Source: (lecture by Prof. 53 .Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut: This type of failure happen due to separation of the wall and rotate it out side around the lower edge leaving the panels and the building and causes collapse in the façade. Panzeca. Source: http://www. Italy).

Sicily” after the earthquake (28 December 1908). Source: http://www. Italy). at Kore university of Enna.grifasi-sicilia. T. 54 . Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (2-22) photos of buildings at “Messina. T.html 2-2-1-4.com/messina_terremoto_1908_via_porta_imperiale. at Kore university of Enna. Source: (lecture by Prof. Fig (2-23) photos of Collapse on the isolated walls. Italy). Source: (lecture by Prof. This phenomenon is often tied to the non homogeneity of the building system (stone and mortar). It appears as 45° cracks on one or both sides of the walls. Panzeca.Collapse on the isolated walls: This breakout in walls mainly occurs in presence of an excessive load and/or additional tension that is created when the foundations is subjected to motion or settlement. The stability of the structure in this case is depending on the relation between the length and the dimension of the cross section.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Panzeca. Fig (2-24) photos of cracks on the isolated walls due to over loading or foundation movement.

Reinforcement of the structure with steel: Using steel bars to reinforcement the stone structure is a traditional process as seen in some of the ancient building. Source: (lecture by Prof. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ 2-2-2. it’s place and the structural element that require intervention and some of the basic intervention are listed below: 2-2-2-1. So it is recommended to use steel bars inserted inside a (PVC tubes) that prevent direct contact between steel and stone also make it possible to maintain the steel when necessary. Italy by Prof. (2-25) photos and sketch of using steel bar in ancient buildings. (2-26) photos of the corrosion of old steel bars that damage the nearby stones. Panzeca). Sicily. T. Panzeca.(2-27) Sketches of using steel bar inserted at the corners of the building inside (PVC tubes) and connected with steel plates and bolts . 55 .Structural improvement integrations in stone building: Interventions improvements are required in stone building due to the damage level. The steel bars inserted at the corners of the building in the top of the outer walls and connected with steel plates and bolts as seen in Fig.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Panzeca. at Kore university of Enna. Source: (lecture by Prof. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. Fig. Italy). at Kore university of Enna. T. Fig. But sometimes it causes a serious damage to the stone due to the corrosion of the iron bars that leads to increasing of its volume causing cracks in the stones. Fig. Italy). (2-?). T.

56 . (2-28) photos of the steel bars inserted at the top corners of outer walls and the connection with steel plates and bolts. or the damage at connection with walls due to humidity and wood deterioration. Italy). Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig. and those beams suffer from damage due to over weight that cause buckling at the middle of the beam. Sicily. Italy by Prof. T. Source: (lecture by Prof. at Kore university of Enna. Panzeca).(2-30) Sketches of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. T.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Panzeca. (2-29) photos of using steel bar in case of deferent thickness in the walls. In cases of deferent thickness in the walls the bars are connected throw intermediate plate and the cables are inserted in two levels Fig.Interventions on the wooden beams: floors on the old stone building mostly supported on wooden beams. Fig. Italy by Prof. 2-2-2-2. Sicily. T. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. Panzeca).

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (photos by the researcher at “Okalle Monfrato”. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. Italy by Prof. Egypt). (2-31) photos of damages on old wood beams that support the roofs.(2-32) that cases helps to make strong connection. Panzeca. Panzeca). T. T. Italy). (2-33) photos of the steel cases that contain the wooden beams and connect it with the walls. at Kore university of Enna. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig. Fig. Fig. transforming the loads from beams to the walls and make it easy to maintain or change the beams when needed. 57 . Sicily.(2-32) Sketches of using steel cases to support the connection between the wooden beams and the stone structure. Source: (lecture by Prof. Alexandria. When replacing the old wooden beams it is better to introduce the beams into walls throw steel cases with steel plate and bolts at top as shown in Fig.

Italy by Prof.Interventions on the wooden roofs: Final covering in most of the old building are made of wooden trusses and those trusses transform loads to stone arches and then to the walls. Panzeca. 58 . After finishing the wooden truss it is covered with layer of wood and fixed on it a layer of corrugated cartoon sheets covered with water resistance material to isolate the structure from rains. Fig. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. in some cases the arches are damage or can’t support the load from the truss as in Fig. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig. at Kore university of Enna. (2-34) photos of upper cover of the steel cases that prevent it from sliding. T. Italy). at Kore university of Enna. T.(2-35) Sketches of wooden truss supported on stone arches and the damage due to movement of the truss. Panzeca. Sicily. Source: (lecture by Prof. Panzeca).The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Fig.(2-35).(2-36) Sketches of wooden beam of the truss directly supported on the walls and connect the parts of the beam together with steel bar. 2-2-2-3. Source: (lecture by Prof. Italy). In that case it better to support the wooden beam of the truss directly on the walls and connect the parts of the beam together with steel bar to eliminate the horizontal forces. T. and on this layer fixed the final finished surface.

2-2-2-4.(2-42) photo of supporting the arches during the between it’s stones. Fig. T. Italy by Prof.(2-40) photos of the final finishing layer supported on sheets of cartoon coated with water resistance material. Fig. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. Panzeca).(2-41) photo of cracks in the arch and separation Fig. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle. Sicily. Fig.(2-39) photo of covering the roof with thin layer of wood before the final finishing.Recovery of arches and vaults: Stone arches and vaults manly consists of cut stones but together to form the arch and supported on each other with it’s own weight only.(2-37) photos of the wooden beams supported only on the walls and separated from the stone arches. Fig. 59 . restoration process.(2-38) photo of the intermediate connection of the beams throw steel part. Italy by Prof. Panzeca). Sicily. T. so if any stone peace of the arch get damaged it may cause failure to the whole arch.

Panzeca. T. Sicily. so the loads must be temporary transformed with steel supports until the restoration of the arch and then reload the again and these supports must be located as in Fig. the arch must be supported with external supports –strong enough to carry out the loads.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (Restoration project of “Rampenseri castle.(2-43) Sketches of supporting the arch. T. Italy by Prof. and in this case it is difficult to restore the arch because of the existence of the loads. In some cases the loads transformed from the arch or vault to the walls cause torsion on the walls and that cause failure to the arch system. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ In this case. Source: (lecture by Prof. In other the arch are over loaded due to the weight of the filling material above it. reinforce it and replacement of damaged parts. at Kore university of Enna. Italy). Panzeca). Fig. so the walls must be connected together with steel bars to resist the loads.then remove the damage stone and connect the remaining part s of the arch with steel pars and then rearrange the arch again.(2-44) photos of connecting the carrying walls of the arch or vaults with steel bars.(2-?). that process transform the loads away from the damaged stone and keep the arch works as structure element. Fig. 60 .

Panzeca. at Kore university of Enna. Notes: 1.Richardson. 2nd edition. "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings". Source: (lecture by Prof. 2. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna.(2-45) Sketches of supporting the loads above the arch during restoration. T.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Italy). Barry A. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (2): Theoretical study ____________________ Chapter (2): Structural failure and interventions in stone building ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig. Italy. Panzeca.2001. T. 61 . 2008. SPON PRESS. London.

.In site investigation and laboratory studies. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.History of Alexandria.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Future of Alexandrian built environment.preface.Historical study. 1. 1-1. 3-1.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 2-1. 3-2. 1-3.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-2.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. 3.

62 . This part includes the applied study on Alexandrian heritage and consists of two chapters.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. the first one studies the current situation.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. and the second chapter is a case study of El Manshieh or “Mohamed Ali Square” which is one of the main commercial districts at Alexandria city center and was redesigned by Italian architect. also the square contains now five Italian buildings three of them are private residence. The study of the Italian buildings in the square illustrate the current situation of the buildings and the problems that they suffer from. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study ___________________________________________________________________________ 3. the problems and the Future of Alexandrian built environment and some examples of rehabilitation of building in Alexandria city center.

3-1.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.History of Alexandria. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 1.preface.In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2. 2-1.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 1-1. . 3. 1-3.Historical study. 3-2.Future of Alexandrian built environment.

governmental offices and public utilities. The only exception was the home for the elderly. old street names were replaced by new revolutionary names: Gamal Abdel Nasser replacing Fouad I. which were nationalized and sequestrated in the process of Egyptianization (make every thing Egyptian). the post 1960s era was dominated by decolonization and state socialism. therefore ending 150 years of Alexandrian cosmopolitanism.Mutations in Alexandria built environment: In contrast to elitism in the period of Mohamed Ali family. it continued to function as an old people's home. The socialist laws of nationalization and sequestration deprived foreigners of their livelihood and brought about their eventual exodus. The unique nineteenth and early twentieth architecture remains. but most vestiges of the ancient city have gone. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ 3-1. No exception was made for Italian commercial and industrial ventures and private property. Though it was turned into an Egyptian welfare foundation. ill conceived additions and remodeling.com) Most sequestrated private Egyptian and foreign elitist property in the form of building stock was transformed into government offices and public institutions (such as schools and hospitals). misuse.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. As little trace of Alexandria's ancient splendor has survived. the Casa di Riposo.Future of Alexandrian built environment: As a consequence of the 1952 revolution.flicr. ill-conceived additions and remodeling. The same 63 . The sequestration and confiscation of foreign and elitist property following the socialist changes of society in the 1960s and the mass exodus of Europeans from Egypt resulted in property being transformed into schools. Fig (3-1) Photos of “High and Low conventional style” in the cotemporary Alexandria’s built environment. 3-1-1. Source: (www. and consequently suffered the ill fate of degradation due to the lack of maintenance. These buildings and the surrounding environment suffered the consequences of neglect. it is today difficult to grasp the importance and beauty of this city in ancient times. and Salah Salem replacing Sherif Pasha.

"Italy in Alexandria"p. "Italy in Alexandria"p.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ can be said for the Don Bosco and Scuola Maria Ausiliatirica. Fig (3-2) Photos of badly conceived addition: Faculty of agriculture. The Italian Hospital was donated by the Italian community to the Egyptian military in 1974. which helped renovate and maintain the Casa di Riposo. which were allowed to function. "Italy in Alexandria"p. Alexandria university. Source: (Awad. Source: (Awad. This process of metamorphosis resulted in the creation of a dense "common" urban order and a modern conventional style where the high rise apartment building. Source: (Awad. though with an Egyptian curriculum. Mohamed F.000 LE). in exchange for a generous donation by the army (300. "Italy in Alexandria"p. devoid of any cultural expressions and the vitality associated with modernism. Mohamed F. Source: (Awad. is devoid sometimes of external finishing. who were unable to maintain them in the face of increasing economic pressures. A lot of other private property was transferred to private Egyptians.361) 64 .363) Fig (3-3) Photo of “Art studio of Gilda Ambron” in Ruins. allowing it to function to the present. Mohamed F. especially in suburban Ramleh. run by the Salessiane. and so sacrificed them for high rise apartment buildings.360) Fig (3-5) Photo of “Villa Aldo Ambron” in Ruins.360) Fig (3-4) Photo of “Villa Baron de Menasce” demolished. Mohamed F. with the "architecture of bricks and concrete" dominating its urban morphology.

Source: (http://en. Moreover. 65 . Moreover. Albini in collaboration with Egyptian architects Salah Zeitoun and Mustafa Shawki. The unrealized proposal was also quite offensive to the landscape of the gardens. and a deficit economy dependant on external borrowing and remittances from Egyptians working abroad. thereby discouraging owners from maintaining their buildings and developers from investing in new ones. This deprived old buildings of maintenance. High density and crowding are also created by the subdivision of floor space and apartments.wikipedia. and rooftops have been occupied by haphazard constructions. while increased population and migration pressures aggravated the demand for housing.org/wiki/Graeco-Roman_Museum ) The one and unique Egyptian/Italian architectural venture of this period was the proposal to build a Graeco-Roman museum (1964-72) in the Shallalat Municipal parks. contributing to the pollution and general environmental degradation of the city center. only small capital and enterprise was allowed to circulate and function. only a handful of small businesses and petty contracting survived and continued to function.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. the intensity of the traffic and the absence of adequate parking facilities remain among the major problems that need to be addressed in a comprehensive preservation policy for Alexandria's city center. proposed by F. Fig (3-6) Plan and Photo of “Graeco-Roman museum” in Alexandria. Even within the government's intensive industrialization policies in the successive five year plans there was hardly any significant western interest or contribution. The most serious problem facing conservation remains the degradation of the building stock due to the lack of maintenance and repair as a result of the freezing and devaluation of rents (rents have been blocked in Egypt since the 1940s). Demographic pressure has also taken its toll on the city as informal habitats spread into the center. Many such spaces have been transformed for petty commercial activities and industries. such as the small ventures of Sampieri in paint works and Nussoleze in glass works. and turned into a permanent crisis. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ The government imposition of "fair rent" meant the freezing and devaluation of returns on property value. Insofar as the Italian presence in building professions and its enterprises were concerned. within a state controlled system.

org) 66 .com) Fig (3-8) Photo of details in buildings at city center in Alexandria showing the bad conditions due to lack of maintenance. Source: (photos by the researcher) Fig (3-9) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing structural problems.flicr. Source: (www. Source: (www.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-7) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing bad conditions due to lack of maintenance.archnet.

since 67 .Villa Bassili . Despite the general atmosphere of neglect. usually found on the ground floor of buildings.and of the Pini residence which is now the Health and Sanitation Office.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. The American Consulate bought the property from the successors of A.Selected examples of recent architectural restoration and renovation projects in Alexandria: Alexandria's city center can be considered well preserved as most of the original buildings of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century have survived demolition. remodeling and deformation affecting their original styles. The project of transforming the building into the Alexandria National Museum started in 2001. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-10) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing deformation due to adding more floors. Erlanger. The most visible threat to the architectural environment is related to advertisement signage and decorations depicting commercial activities. The Italian architect Maurizzio de Paulo was in charge of the museum's interior. whereas others are still waiting for their turn. lack of maintenance. The renovation project in the context of its new use as a museum was certainly a good example of preservation. ill-conceived additions. Bassili in 1960 and sold it to the Ministry of Culture in 1997 at a price of 12 million LE.today the Bilquis school . This is the case of the Luzzatto residence . and it was inaugurated in September 2003. these buildings do suffer from neglect. Recent restorations have proved to be more harmful than beneficial when the use of inappropriate materials.Alexandria National Museum (re-use): The property was designed in 1929-31 by V. However. 3-1-2-1. some buildings have been successfully restored. shop windows and commercial signs . Source: (photos by the researcher) Fig (3-11) Photo of buildings at city center in Alexandria showing bad integrations with paints. wrong colors. Source: (photos by the researcher) 3-1-2. or the bad restoration of detailed moldings have disfigured the original style of the building.

Mohamed F.Rehabilitation and Restoration of the Mohamed A1i Theater. Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. unrealistic initial budgeting and constant replacement of consulting services and related drawing and specifications resulted in the disruption of site work and the inflation of costs from 3.49) 68 . since the surrounding buildings. Source: (Awad. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ its showcases and displaced objects did not interfere with the original setting and decor of the original building. Fig (3-12) Photos of “Villa Bassili” before and after renovation.48) 3-1-2-2. Cordahi. included within the Cordahi Complex (upgrading and restoration): The Mohamed Ali Theater.5 to 25 million LE. Fig (3-13) Photos of “Cordahi Complex” before and after renovation. designed by the same architect (1928). The project highlights the importance of considering the urban context of the restored edifice. owned by G. The surrounding two apartment buildings were. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. the piazza and the entrance gallery were all restored within the process of renovating the theater. incomplete predesign inception. "p. was designed by the architect G. "p. However.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Source: (Awad. which has remained well preserved. Parcq in 1921 on the location of the old Zizinia Theater. In 2003 the whole complex was restored and additional structures were attached to the backstage area of the theater to provide better performance facilities.

The internal reorganization of the bank seems to have not disrupted the designs.E. Additional features to the original exterior architecture have disfigured the original character of the building. and the restored premises were inaugurated in 2001 at a final cost of 11 million LE.49) Fig (3-15) Photos of “Mohamed Ali club” before and after renovation. was designed in 1905 by the architect H. such as air-conditioning. yet the more serious problems associated with the post construction phase seem to have been related to technical specifications and control of the execution of services. The exterior restoration carefully retained the original features of the building which still remains one of the most distinguished buildings of Alexandria's city center. The original club was renovated in 2001 under the direction of Dr. 3-1-2-4. Source: (Awad.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. The renovation process seems to have been more concerned with introducing novelty than preservation. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-14) Photos of piazza and main façade of “Mohamed Ali theatre” before and after renovation. etc. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. with an estimated budget of 8 million L. The first. 69 . the former Sherif Pasha Street. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. acoustics and lighting. Gorra in the new-renaissance style. Varied cultural events are held there including lectures. whilst most of the furniture was replaced and disposed of. music concerts and seminars. this building was erected in about the 1890s for the Alexandria Exchange Company and was known as the Bourse Toussoun. "p. exhibitions. originally the Banco di Roma. "p. called the Horreya Cultural Center. Source: (Awad.The branches of the National Bank of Egypt (renovation and restoration): The National Bank of Egypt took the initiative of renovating two of its branches on Salah Salem Street. Adel Mokhtar. since most of the original interiors were preserved. EI Hadari and EI Kholy. Mohamed F.50) 3-1-2-3. The restoration work started in 1997 under the consultancy of Aboul Fadl.Mohamed A1i Club (renovation and re-use): Originally known as Club Mohamed Ali. Today it is a government property.. Mohamed F.

Source: (Awad.Palazzina Aghion (renovation and re-use): Originally belonging to the Aghion family. Gripari in around 1918. Mohamed F. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. While these two examples belong to the same client and were renovated nearly simultaneously. The ownership of the building changed later to the Takla family. Unfortunately the renovation process. Paraskevas and P. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. following an eclectic NewRenaissance and mannerist style.51) Fig (3-17) Photos of “bank of Athens” before and after renovation. a study for the complete renovation of the premises was prepared by Awad & Partners. which added a top floor to the structure. 3-1-2-5. formerly the Bank of Athens. "p.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Nowadays the property is occupied by the AI-Ahram newspaper. though preserving the main features of the facade. Source: (Awad. was designed by N. Mohamed F. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-16) Photos of “Banco di Roma” before and after renovation. originally a civil engineering firm. entailed a complete destruction of the original interior spaces and detailing within the newly introduced modern renovations. it is obvious that the two approaches to conservation were quite diverse.50) The second branch of the National Bank of Egypt. the Palazzina Aghion was built in 1887. More recently. However. "p. It was designed by the Italian architect Antoine Lasciac. the actual execution of work not only entailed no 70 . when the Aghions had to move to the Rosetta Gate district after the British bombardment of Alexandria in 1882. It was restored and renovated under the directions of Moharem and Backhoum Consultants.

making changes to specifications and drawings with the aim of reducing costs. repair and safeguarding of the built environment will demand an urgent review of building and zoning laws and regulations concerning additions. "“The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. Procedures such as exemption from taxation. In this particular case most of the proposed works were dismissed and the building only received some cleaning and a fresh coat of paint applied to its facades and interiors. While the decorative original roof was protected and covered by a new false ceiling. • Public awareness and concern for conservation should be promoted with the help and contribution of public organizations. Geordanou.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. 3-1-3. • The maintenance. Managed by Twentieth Century Fox. and private interest groups. Zoning laws and regulations should consider new development land uses and building lines. but the client also exercised management of the renovation process. G. building permits and exchange of property procedures could also be considered. the' promoter and owner of several similar establishments in Alexandria. Source: (Awad. "p. styles.51) 3-1-2-6. the cinema was subdivided into several smaller cinemas in 2002 by the Italian architect Violante Claudio. the press and media. Fig (3-18) Photos of “palazzina Aghion” before and after renovation. the cinema's interiors and elegant cafeteria in the basement were sacrificed to fit the new space requirements. materials. The expropriation of buildings for public welfare or utility and compensation to property owners and their encouragement in conservation should be considered in the light of property and ownership rights. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ professional supervision. • The upgrading of building laws must involve provision for periodical maintenance and repair involving owners and tenants associations. 71 .Principle guidelines for architectural conservation: • It is recommended that the process of listing of buildings and groups of buildings of architectural significance or merit should be encouraged and consolidated with scientific surveys and documentation. air conditioners and so on. Mohamed F.Twentieth Century Fox (transformation): Cinema Amir is a beautiful example of the grand cinema traditions of Alexandria's Art Deco period. extensions. It was designed by the American architects John & Drew Aberson for Mr. building heights and colors. the use of signals.Cinema Amir .

14-72. advertisements and decorations inappropriate to the original styles of the buildings. 2. 1990. Infill should therefore conform to present zoning and the current uses of the different sections and identified activities of the building. Cairo.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. 1990. Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e. Petruccioli Attilio. 72 . Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration". Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation. Specific legislation must therefore take into consideration the special character of the area. 2005.by Italian institute for culture. Notes: 1. 3. inappropriate use of building materials and colors. This should include regulations to control typology. 4. Awad. 5. damage due to failure in services. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”. such as leaking pipes. Awad. May. Awad. EUROMED Heritage II. building heights and so on. a general lack of awareness. Alexandria. 2008 Pp. E. Mohamed F. 72-85.2008. menace due to vandalism. Mohamed & El Tabbakh. street and area. “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”. • Renovation and restoration of buildings will have to take into consideration structural failures. Godoli. bad workmanship. Egypt. Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985). Pp. disregard and disinterest in the qualitative and aesthetic values of the built environment such as the commercial use of signals." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. Alexandria preservation trust. • It is therefore recommended to view the European city conservation and regeneration within their context. Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”. Alexandria. users and interest groups together with public and governmental agencies. but equally important is the mobilization and the effective management resources again involving the general public. style. Mohamed F. • It is therefore recommended not only to ensure the use of professional expertise and the appropriate technologies for the process of restoration and renovation. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study _________________________________ Chapter (1): Future of Alexandrian built environment ___________________________________________________________________________ • New land uses or re-use should be considered within the actual architectural and urban suitability. ed.

preface. 1- Historical study. 1-1- History of Alexandria. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 1-3- Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2- Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 2-1- In site investigation and laboratory studies. 2-2- Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 3- Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1- Future of Alexandrian built environment.

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.
Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3-2- Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”:
By the turn of the twentieth century, Alexandria had established a reputation as Egypt's commercial and financial capital and the square of El-Tahrir or El Manshieh is considered the main commercial district of the Alexandrian city center.

3-2-1- History of the square “place d’armes”:
Francesco Mancini’s early involvement in 1820 with ibrahim basha’s own private developments, including the Okalle Neuve, the first and most important commercial building on the grand place -known as place d’armes- possibly influenced his cession in transforming the character and function of the square from a military exercise and parade ground to its new commercial entity “plan of the square figures (1-36)& (1-37)”.

Fig (3-19) Old postcards of Place des Consuls in late 19th century also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

Mohamed Ali Square, formerly known as the place des Consuls, and the adjacent Sherif Street, presently Salah Salem Street, were the seat of the Stock Exchange and many bank premises: the Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Lioyds Bank, the Bank of Athens and the elegant Banco di Roma designed by Henri Gorra in 1905 and inspired by the Palazzo Farnese in Rome.

Fig (3-20) Photos of Place des Consuls in late 19th century also known as Place d' Armes, place Mohamed Ali, Manshieh and Liberation square. Source: (www.flicr.com )

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For the design of the new buildings on the square, Mancini adapted a traditional typology of the okalle, whose ground spaces, grouped round an open court, were usually reserved for commercial uses. The upper floors served as residences. These new rectilinear block developments introduced within a street grid pattern and a newly adopted neo-c1assical language marked the new order and lingua franca of the young cosmopolitan city. Such a change was certainly a contrast to and a defiance of an already existing and well-established organic order that had characterized the indigenous quarters of the Ottoman city.

Fig (3-21) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square showing the court building “Mixed Tribunals”.

Fig (3-22) Panoramic view of Manshieh and Liberation square showing “Okalle Menasce”. Source: (www.archnet.org )

Because the new urban spaces around this square reflected both the power and wealth of the vicarage family, and the growing influence of the foreign consuls, the square was renamed Place des Consuls. More importantly, the new urban: space was embellished with an obelisk in its center, and with fountains and music kiosks, and was surrounded with hotels, cafe concerts, and restaurants. All this reflected a newly adopted life style similar to those of the great European cities. Yet in the mind's eye of many travelers, as apparent from their description, the character of the city remained to a great extent quite eclectic.

Fig (3-23) Photos of “Manshieh square” showing the status of “Mohamed Ali” and Parking area. Source: (www.archnet.org )

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Fig (3-25) Photos of ‘Okalle Monferato” at Manshieh square designed by Luigi Piattoli (1887). and those building suffer from the same problems as all the ancient city center buildings at Alexandria. (5) Cotton Palace. while preventing further deterioration or destruction. remains of the highest priority. 3-2-2-1. Fig (3-24) Part of Alexandria’s Google earth map showing “Manshieh Square”(A). Despite a few individual attempts to preserve some of these buildings.Current Situation of “Ahmed Orabi & Manshieh Squares”: The square that used to contain the city's elitist residences. a more effective approach of listing the buildings and preserving their collective character. Mohamed F. (1) Okalle Monferato. Okalle Monferato designed by Luigi Piattoli (1887) was one of the biggest grand commercial building that still exist “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-41)”. (4) Waqf Yacoub Dahan. The next part will explain the current conditions of those building. the exterior of the building is quite in good conditions but the problem is the shop windows and commercial signs that disfigure the building as shown in the next photos. (3) Okalle Menasce. (2) Mixed Tribunals. “Ahmed Orabi Square” (B). have been more recently transformed into cultural centers. and the places of the Italian building in the squares. Source: (Photos by the researcher & Awad.362) 75 . Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-2-2.Okalle Monferato: The Okalle is a type of buildings modeled on the concepts of Milanian Galleria where the ground floor contains commercial activities and the residence at the upper floors and the building contain large open court that include most of its activities. (6) Ismail Monument (unknown soldier). banks. "Italy in Alexandria" p.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. and government and administrative offices. At present the square include some old buildings among them there is five Italian buildings.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-26) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher) 76 . Source: (Photos by the researcher) Fig (3-27) Photos of the structural problems at the top Cornish and the side elevation.

Source: (Photos by the researcher) 77 . damaged plumping systems.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. electric and phone connections and lack of maintenance . Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-28) Photos of the bad conditions of the internal court due to lack of cleaning.

org & the researcher) 78 . Source: (Photos by www. and Augusto Cesarias was its structural engineer “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-40)”. Source: (Photos by the researcher) Fig (3-30) Photos of the interventions by the users by adding some coverings at the main court because of the original covering dome is not functioning. Fig (3-31) Photos of “Mixed Tribunals” at Manshieh square designed by Antonio Maniscalco Bey. Source: (Photos by the researcher) 3-2-2-2. 1887. all the glass were removed and the iron suffer from corrosion .The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-29) Photos of the iron dome that cover the main court. The building is a government property and it is still used as a court. Most of the main façade of the building are in good conditions but the side facades suffer from some degradations and need restoration and maintenance.archnet.Mixed Tribunals The imposing seat of the Mixed Tribunals in 1887 now called “El-Hakaneia palace” was designed in the Beaux Arts tradition by Alfonso Maniscalco Bey.

The main façade had some degradations and also the internal facades on the main court suffer from problems.Okalle Menasce: The other grand commercial Italian building at the square is Okalle Menasce designed in (1885) by Antonio Lasciac who worked for the Societe des Immeubles d' Egypte. Fig (3-33) Photos of “Okalle Menasce” at Manshieh square by Antonio Lasciac (1885). Source: (Photos by the researcher) 3-2-2-3. owners of the building “plans and elevations of the building figures (1-44)”. Source: (Photos by the researcher) 79 .The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Fig (3-32) Photos of the side facades that suffer from degradation. The building also like “Okalle Monferato” is suffering from the disfigure due to the shop windows and commercial signs.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig (3-34) Photos of disfiguring the building Entrance, main façade, Back one and the Internal court by the shop windows and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-35) Photos of the deterioration in the internal façade on the main court . Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-36) Photos of damage and degradation of the wooden roof of the staircase and the sky light covering it. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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3-2-2-4- Waqf Yacoub Dahan: This residential building was designed and built by the industrial building company of Egypt from (1907-1912) by architect H.Gorra bey, the building suffer from the deformation due to the commercial mall in the ground floor, air conditions at the side facades and also the adding of some constructions randomly on the roof, also the two domes at the top corners of the façade suffer from degradation and deformation.

Fig (3-37) Old photo of “Waqf Yacoub Dahan” by Fig (3-38) Photos of current situation of “Waqf Yacoub H.Gorra bey. Source: (Photos by Awad, Mohamed F. Dahan” at Manshieh. "Italy in Alexandria" p.165) Source: (Photos by the researcher)

Fig (3-39) Photos of disfiguring the building façade by the shop windows, air conditions and commercial signs. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

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The Italian Architecture in Alexandria, Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Part (3): Applied study __________________________ Chapter (2): Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Fig (3-40) Photos of the constructions added on the roof and the bad conditions of the upper domes at the corners. Source: (Photos by the researcher)

3-2-2-5- Ismail Monument (unknown soldier): This monument was called the monument of Ismail il Magnifico and was sculpted by Pietro Canonica (1927- 1938), the Italian contractor was De Farro Contractors. After the 1952 revolution the statue of Khedive Ismail was removed and the monument was renamed to the unknown soldier Monument.

Fig (3-41) Photos of the original and current state of “Ismail Monument” or the unknown soldier Monument sculpted by Pietro Canonica 1927. Source: (Photos by the researcher & Awad, Mohamed F. "Italy in Alexandria" p.197)

Notes:
1. 2. 3. Awad, Mohamed F. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”, Alexandria preservation trust, Alexandria, Egypt,2008. Awad, Mohamed F. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985)." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp. 72-85. Awad, Mohamed & El Tabbakh, May, “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”, Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e; Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation, EUROMED Heritage II, Alexandria, 2005. Godoli, Ezio& Giacomelli, Milva, "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century", Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 25th November 2008. Jones, Dalu. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, 1990, Pp.86-93. Pallini, C. & Scaccabarozzi, A. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day", Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century ,by Italian institute for culture, Cairo, 2008 Pp. 198-216.

4. 5. 6.

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3. 1-1.History of Alexandria. 3-2. 1.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt. 2-2. 2-1.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 1-3.Structural failure and interventions in stone building.In site investigation and laboratory studies.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 3-1.Historical study.preface. .

Genoa or Ottoman turkey. and Byzantine influences were inscribed in the Alexandrian context and however prominent was the classical identity of the city and its planning. and mostly neglected by historians. which put them in contact with top government. forts and enclosure walls. Naples. defenses of the city. While Alexandria grew to become Egypt’s economic capital the Italian community constituted approximately 25% of the European population around 1897. The more recent history of 19th and 20th century Alexandria is even more complex and diverse. and were also directly involved in ensuring its safeguarding. based on a simplification of the lexical elements of the tradition. which had its main stronghold in Cairo. Around 1900 appeared some of the most significant Italian contributions to the Islamic revival. After the bombing of Alexandria and landing of the English expedition corps in 1882 started the reconstruction of the core or the European city of Alexandria. Their contribution to the Islamic revival did not end with the beginning of the great war. In addition. distinguishing it from other Egyptian Cities. and on the 83 . Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Conclusion ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion of the historical study: Influence of The Alexandrian history on its built environment: Hellenistic. the hybrid character of the city remained quite eclectic. Most of the buildings planned by Italians who arrived in Egypt in the 1820s and 1830s were characterized by a re-reading of models of classicism from the latter part of the Eighteenth Century or the Napoleonic era. Roman. the exiles who arrived after (1848) began to show the first signs of a retrieval .The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. the political. He called in foreign experts to develop the country’s infrastructure and civil administration. the Italians gained a sort of monopoly in developing the city’s architecture and directing its urban development. However. the modern renaissance of Egypt and Alexandria began in 1805 with Mohamed Ali’s efforts to modernize Egypt. Many of the Italian architects residing in Egypt who made significant contributions to the Islamic revival had an in-depth knowledge of monuments of Arab art. Primary sources of Alexandria history of 16th. The '30s saw the development of a tendency due especially to the efforts of Egyptian architect Mustafa Fahmy towards a modernized Islamic style. Italians were reputed as professional builders and craftsmen as well as the involvement in the public domain where they constituted an important professional core staff in the ministry of public works. With the establishment of the “Comissione d`Ornato” Alexandria’s first planning commission at 1834 and later with the creation of its municipality in 1890.17th and 18th century are dominated by traveler’s accounts describing the monuments. sometimes with Art Deco influenced stylizations. stylistic forms and motifs drawn from the repertoire of Islamic architecture. but carried on until the have of the Second World War.with an eclectic attitude and free from philological preoccupations. the port. economic and social history of Alexandria and its relations with the independent princely states of Venice. Italian experts played a major role in that process and Italian was even adopted as the lingua franca in the Egyptian administration. The Italian architects and engineers in Egypt The presence of Italian architects in Egypt less considerable in quantitative terms than that recorded by their rise to important public posts. where many of the classical elements scattered in its ruins were reused in the medieval and later Islamic periods.

In the post-Bombardment era 1882-1918. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Conclusion ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ adoption of monumental plans characterized by the highlighting of the parts arranged on the main axes or symmetry. their total monopoly of the building profession and its trades remained disputable among historians. Quantitative rating of damages represents an important scientific contribution to reliable damage diagnosis at stone monuments. The earliest fortunes were mostly those of wealthy Greek families all of them were close friends and confidants of the Pashas. The same can be said with regard to cultural institutions such as the Societa Dante Alighieri di Roma. The Italian influences retained their importance when the Municipality of Alexandria was created in 1890. which is now an Egyptian NGO under the supervision of the Egyptian Ministry of Social Affairs. This came at a time when a new urban elite of notables expressed their readiness to sponsor their private projects and also those of their ethnic communities. Today a limited Alexandrian Italian community numbers no more than 800 residents. is considered. 84 . Its councils included elite members of the Italian community. the danger of the loss of cultural heritage has resulted in ever-increasing efforts world-wide for monument preservation. especially when the increasing competition from other nationals. Damage indices are introduced as new tool for scientific quantification and rating of stone damages. interpretation.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Its churches and Latin cemeteries “Terra Santa” are now managed by the Catholic Copts. diagnosis and therapy are presented. All this therefore marks changing times and the realities of the present. the Italian role in rebuilding the city was considerable. while the Orthodox Copts have also taken over the “Cimitero Civili”. such as Greek professionals and contractors. Italian professionals in became increasingly involved also with private and community developments. The approach to the protection of stone monuments can be subdivided into anamnesis. who found their clientele within their own community. Yet. Italian architects and private residential buildings: Having worked for the Pashas. The particular objectives and items of documentation within the scope of anamnesis. Alexandria became the commitment and practices of Italian Venetian professionals. Conclusion of the theoretical study: In site investigation and laboratory studies All stone buildings are affected by stone deterioration. especially by weathering. diagnosis and therapy. Comprehensive documentation important in the field of stone monument preservation. Precise diagnosis is required for characterization. Only the Casa di Riposo is still run for its diminished Italian community. Application of damage indices improves stone damage diagnosis and is very suitable for evaluation and certification of preservation measures and for longterm survey and maintenance of stone monuments. Evaluation and graphic documentation of stone deterioration is presented by means of examples referring to in-situ investigation of stone monuments in the framework of diagnosis. rating and prediction of the weathering damages at stone monuments and is vital for remedy of stone damages and sustainable monument preservation. According to established international directives. specially the Jews and also increasingly among Egyptians. documentation is a necessary part of all three work steps. and among others.

have been more recently transformed into cultural centers. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Conclusion ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Structural failure and interventions in stone building: There are three main types of failure in stone buildings. public awareness and poverty. political and environmental conditions prevalent in the society . Alexandria's most recent heritage remains unprotected because of the lack of legislation and effective management. Mode (I): Failure due to the collapse of the façade. Conclusion of the applied study: Alexandria's preservation experiences. a more effective approach of listing the buildings and preserving their collective character. Mode (III): Failure due to the wall cut. 85 . while preventing further deterioration or destruction. And if their isn’t immediate movement to protect and conserve that heritage it will disappear soon. also exemplify the fragility and the vulnerability of its conservation. while demonstrating the richness and diversity of its heritage.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. those interventions include the reinforcement of all the part of the building. the rule of law. the walls roofs foundations and cantilevers with appropriate material usually steel and this steel must be inserted in careful way to prevent the damage that caused by steel in the future. and government and administrative offices. And these structural failures require some intervention to protect the building from collapsing. remains of the highest priority. Many problems related to conservation arise from the socio-economic. Despite a few individual attempts to preserve some of these buildings. hence there is an urgent need to develop mechanisms for its protection. Mode (II): Failure due to the wall bending. El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”: The square of “Ahmed Orabi and El Manshieh” that used to contain the city's elitist residences.governmental practices. The research concluded that the Alexandrian built heritage as all suffer from neglecting and are threaten with elimination and destruction due to mainly economical condition that leads to lack of maintenance and that are more presented at the private residential building because there isn’t clear vision to mange and protect those building. banks.

In site investigation and laboratory studies.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 1-1. 3-2.Historical study. 3.Structural failure and interventions in stone building.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 1-3. .Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. 3-1.preface. 1. 2-2.History of Alexandria. 2-1.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings.

94-101. 15. 8. Patrimoines partage`s En Me`diterrane`e. Cairo. 4. Heinrichs. New York: NYU Press . Lucilia Verdelho. "The Works of Mario Rossi at Alexandria. Barry A. El-Abbadi. Cairo. Mostafa. 1990. 1993. 1990. Simonetta. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt : a long-lasting political emigration". 25th November 2008. Milva. El-Din.Richardson. Michael. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) List of References ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ List of References Publications: 1. Alexandria.britannica. (Accessed May 19. New York: NYU Press . 1990.2004.172-177. Ele`ments cle`s de la re`habilitation. Heinrichs. Alexandria: Hellenistic Age. D. Haag. "Italian Architecture in Egypt in the Thirties: The Work of Clemente Busiri Vici.2004. Alexandria 1918-1939: The Italian conection". http://www. 72-85. 2nd edition." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 12. Dickie. Mohamed F.de at 1-2009. "Italian Influence on Alexandria's Architecture (1834-1985). 5. 2004. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . Mohamed & El Tabbakh. Fitzner and K. 14-72. Mohamed F. E. 1990. "Italian Influence on the Beginnings of Neo-Arabic Revivalism in Portugal. 2. James. 14. 2008 Pp. 13. Godoli."Alexandria: The Site and the History. 16.Geological Institute. Working group "NATURAL STONES AND WEATHERING". RWTH Aachen University . Alexandria preservation trust. Morsi Saad. 3. 17. ” Damage index for stone monuments”. "Documentation and evaluation of stone damage on monuments". Working group “Natural stones and weathering“. 10th international congress on deterioration and conservation of stone. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . May.stone.114-119. Awad. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online". 11. La Bouchardiere." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre.by Italian institute for culture. Alexandria.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. "Defects and Deterioration in Buildings". Ezio& Giacomelli. Geological Institute. 2008 Pp. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press . Fitzner. 7." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre.by Italian institute for culture. 2008). 18. Awad. B." Encyclopaedia Britannica. K. Cairo. ”Damage diagnosis on stone monuments – weathering forms. Godoli. Italian institute for culture. Germany. B." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 6. Awad. 86 . 9. 142-153. 5-8 April 2000. Alexandria. 2005. B. Pp. Aachen University of Technology. "From Historucism to Modernity (the inter-war period. damage categories and damage indices”. 5th International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. Sevilla. Ciranna. Awad. B. 10. Egypt.1993.com/eb/article-26550/Hellenistic-Age. “Italy in Alexandria: influences on the built environment”. "Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century". "Alexandria: Thousand-Year Capital of Egypt. EUROMED Heritage II. London. “The conservation and rehabilitation of Alexandria’s city center”.rwth-aachen. Fitzner. Fitzner. da Costa.2008. SPON PRESS." Alexandria: The Site and the History.2001. Pp. Spain. http://www. Mohamed F. Stockholm. Pp.

Jones. Panzeca. 20.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. http://www. Pallini.by Italian institute for culture. Jobbins. Pp.1993 . 2008 Pp. www. Mueller. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. et al. Abdel Azim. Petruccioli Attilio. 32. 25. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna. 27. ed. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . http://www. 2008. C. 2008 Pp. and Giovanni Ruffin. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) List of References ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. V. Cairo. Ramadan.com 35.1989.oxfordartonline. C. Cairo." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. 2009 ).flicr. Jenny. 154-160. Web sites: 33. Italy.by Italian institute for culture. 30. 1990. "Mario Rossi and the Egyptian School of Architecture in Alexandria. Boulder. A. Michael J. & Scaramuzzi. 198-216. Reimer.org 34.com/subscriber/article/grove/art/T001722. 2004. 26." Environmental Design: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. "Alexandra. New York: NYU Press. Pallini. "New protagonists: projects for Egypt by Italian architects from 1952 to the present day". Sponde Amate ”Environmental Design: Presence of Italy in the Architecture of the Islamic Meditterranean”. W. "Property disputes in 19th century Alexandria". & Scaccabarozzi. (Accessed March 16. "Alexandria and the Egyptian Mediterranean: a traveler's guide". Michael J.archnet. Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt from the nineteenth to the twenty-first century . 23. Oxford Art Online". D. Journal of Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre. Pp. Dalu. Arizona: Middle East Studies Association of North America . Lectures 31. Colonial Bridgehead: Government and Society in Alexandria. 2008. A. “Lectures of restoration” Kore university of Enna. Harris. " Italian Architects in Egypt at the Time of the Khedive.102-105. MA: Peeters . 1990. Katja. Reimer.irb. Villari. "Italian project for new city of Sidi Gaber. McKenzie. 22. 1807-1882. Boston: Brill Academic Publishers. Moussa. T. Settlements of the Ptolemies: city foundations and new settlement in the Hellenistic world. 2006.htm at 5-2009. Colorado: Westview Press .1997. 87 . Magdy M.hr/korisnici/obelic/euro-med/CA. "Alexandria: French Expedition to the Modern Age. 24. www. 29. Italy. 21. Judith." Alexandria: The Site and the History. 28. 1990. "Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece". C." In Grove Art Online.86-93. Dudley. Alexandria".2006.

2-2. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 1-3.In site investigation and laboratory studies.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”. .Historical study.preface. 3-1.History of Alexandria. 3-2. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 2-1. 1-1.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings.Future of Alexandrian built environment. 3. 1.

loss of crusts (cW) Limestone Sandstone Rounding / notching (Ro) Limestone Sandstone Alveolar weathering (Ra) Sandstone Marble Roughening (Rr) 1 FITZNER.Loss of stone material Sandstone Sandstone Back weathering . B.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings1 Group 1 . 2004.& HEINRICHS.de 88 .loss of indefinable pieces (zW) Limestone Tuff Back weathering .loss of crumbs / splinters (uW) Sandstone Greywacke Back weathering . Working group ”Natural stones and weathering”. ”Photo atlas of weathering forms on stone monuments”.rwth-aachen. Geological Institute. http://www. RWTH Aachen University.loss of stone layers dependent on stone structure (xW) Sandstone Sandstone Back weathering .stone.loss of scales (sW) Limestone Limestone Back weathering . K.

Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Limestone Limestone Microkarst (Rm) Sandstone Limestone Weathering out of stone components (Rk) Limestone Conglomerate Clearing out of stone components (Rh) Limestone Sandstone Weathering out dependent on stone structure (tR) Marble Pitting (Rt) Sandstone Sandstone Relief .anthropogenic impact (aR) Limestone Break out-anthropogenic impact (aO) Sandstone Break out constructional cause(bO) Sandstone Break out .The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.natural cause(nO) Marble Sandstone Break out – non recognizable cause (oO) 89 .

tuff Limestone Light-colored crust Soiling by particles from Soiling due to tracing the surface (hkC) water (wI) anthropogenic impact(aI) Limestone Sandstone Efflorescences (Ee) Sandstone Sandstone Subflorescences (Ef) Limestone Tuff Dark-colored crust tracing the surface (dkC) Limestone Sandstone Soiling by particles from the atmosphere (pI) Limestone Sandstone Marble Quartzite 90 .The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Group 2 – Discoloration / Deposits Marble Coloration (Dc) Soapstone Limestone Bleaching (Db) Limestone Soiling by droppings (gI) Limestone Dark-colored crust change the surface(diC) Sandstone Basaltic lava.

Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Light-colored crust changing the surface (hiC) Colored crust tracing the surface (fkC) Sandstone Limestone Colored crust changing the surface (fiC) Sandstone Tuff Microbiological colonization (Bi) Travertine Sandstone Colonization by higher plants (Bh) Limestone Sandstone Coloration to dark colored crust tracing the surface (Dc-dkC) Limestone Limestone Soiling by particles from the atmosphere to darkcolored crust tracing the surface (pI-dkC) Sandstone Efflorescences to lightcolored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC) Sandstone Colonization by higher plants (Bh) Tuff Sandstone Efflorescences to light-colored crust tracing the surface (Ee-hkC) Quartzite Sandstone/ Limestone Microbiological colonization to dark-colored crust tracing the surface (Bi-dkc) 91 .The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Group 3 – Detachment Limestone Granular disintegration into powder (Gp) Sandstone Quartzite Granular disintegration into sand (Gs) Granite Granular disintegration into grus (Gg) Limestone Limestone Crumbling (Pu) Sandstone Limestone Splintering (Pn) Quartzite splintering (Pu-Pn) Sandstone Single flakes (eF) Limestone Multiple flakes (mF) Limestone Splitting up (Xv) Sandstone Single scale (eS) Sandstone Marble Sandstone Scale .tooling of the stone surface (qS) Sandstone Mudstone Sandstone Sandstone 92 .

The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Multiple scales (mS) Exfoliation (Xl) Sandstone Splitting up (Xv) Sandstone Granular disintegration in sand to flakes(Gs-eF) Sandstone Limestone Detachment of a dark-colored crust changing the surface (diK) Limestone Detachment of a lightcolored crust changing the surface (hiK) Limestone Detachment of a darkcolored crust tracing the surface (dkK) Sandstone Granular disintegration into sand to single flakes(Gs-eF) Limestone Detachment of a light colored crust changing the stone surface (hiK) Quartz porphyry Granite Granular disintegration into grus to single flakes(Gg-eF) Limestone Single flakes to crumbling (eF-Pu) Sandstone Single flakes to single scale (eF-eS) Limestone Limestone Crumbling to single scale (Pu-eS) Sandstone Limestone Multiple flakes to multiple scales (mF-mS) 93 .

convex(lV) Marble Deformation.The Italian Architecture in Alexandria. concave(rV) 94 . Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) Appendix (A) _______________________________________________________ (Weathering forms on stone buildings) ___________________________________________________________________________ Group 4 – Fissures / deformation Sandstone Fissures independent of stone structure (vL) Marble Fissures independent of stone structure (vL) Sandstone Fissures dependent on stone structure(tL) Marble Deformation.

C.Italian contributions in Alexandrian built environment: 2. 3-2.Structural failure and interventions in stone building. 1-2-Italian Architects and Engineers in Egypt.Historical study. 3. .Future of Alexandrian built environment. 2-1.In site investigation and laboratory studies.preface. 1. 2-2.History of Alexandria.V. 1-1.Applied study on Alexandrian heritage.Case study: El Manshieh “Mohamed Ali Square”.Theoretical study: Damage diagnosis on stone buildings. Conclusion References Appendix (A): Weathering forms on stone buildings. 3-1. 1-3.

Mansoura University. Numbers: Work Address: Department of Architectural Engineering. Certificate No. Master of Architecture Restoration (study in English)(60credit hours). Home Address: 68-Elandalus street. Egypt. Nationality: Martial Status Married (1 son. Italy. The Approaches of cultural building (analytical study of design principles). Phone +20-050-2230094 (home). Egypt. 35516. Egypt. Education Period: Institution: Place: Achieved qualification: Degree: Period: Institution: Place: Achieved qualification: Period: Institution: Place: Achieved qualification: Degree: From (10-11-2008) to (10-7-2009).(1) Enna Kore University Enna. From (15-8-2001) to (23-1-2007) Certificate No. University Neighborhood.com +20-012-2390650 (mobile). From (15-9-1995) to (1-6-2000). The Italian residential buildings in Egypt (the conservation and maintenance). 60 Al-Gomhoreya St.two years old) Arch_m_khalil@yahoo. El-Mansoura.Graduation project grade Excellent. Certificate No. Master degree in architecture engineering. date of birth: Egyptian.(2) Department of Architectural Engineering.2) Ranked Second. Bachelor's degree in architecture engineering.(3) Department of Architectural Engineering. General grade very good (78. Mansoura City Dakahleia.The researcher Curriculum Vitae Personal information: Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Name: October 14. Mansoura University El-Mansoura city.com E-Mail: M_khalil2002@hotmail. Mansoura University. Faculty of Engineering. El-Mansoura city. 95 . Faculty of Engineering. Egypt. Egypt. Not finished yet. 1978 . Sicily . Elgharbia . Faculty of Engineering..

96 . Mansoura University. Egypt.18/20 Speaking. Egypt Teaching (architecture design) and (working drawing) to architecture student at the architecture department.20/20 Listening. Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Linguistic Competencies Arabic : native language.(4) demonstrator Architecture Department. faculty of Engineering.5 Writing). Italian elementary Ability of reading elementary Ability of writing Ability of oral expression elementary Linguistic Certificates English Certificate No.Work Experience Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties Period: Type of employment Department Qualification and duties since 2-2007 till now Certificate No. language type Italian Certificate No. • Maxon CINEMA 4D (R. Egypt Teaching (urban design and landscape). • Adobe Photoshop (CS3) professional (user& teacher). EL-HUMEDY architecture office. Mansoura University.0 Speaking. 9) (Rendering software) professional (user). faculty of Engineering.5. Professional architecture (Modelling &Rendering) with computer (10 years experience). SABEEL architecture office at El Mansoura city. Egypt User and teacher for computer architecture presentation using: • AutoCAD 2D & 3D (Ver. From 7-2000 to 6-2005 Architect and graphics designer. type (6. Presentation and graphics designer (Working by E-mail).6. Saudi Arabia.(5) language (IELTS Exam) overall score 6.5 Listening. Mansoura University.5 Reading. presentation using computer.(4) Assistant lecturer Architecture Department.and 5. (architecture design) and (working drawing) to architecture student at the architecture department. faculty of Engineering. English Excellent. Ability of reading Excellent. from 12-2001 to 2-2007 Certificate No. Ability of writing Ability of oral expression Excellent.and 18/20 Writing).0 at (7-12-2007) first trial.(6) Level (A1) Common European framework – score (19/20) at (25-2-2009) (17/20 Reading. From 1-2006 to 11-2008 Teacher and trainer of computer graphics and CAD programs Designing with Computer center at Architecture Department. 2009) professional (user& teacher). Design and draw some public and resident building at Egypt.

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Egypt (the conservation of the Italian residential buildings) By Mohamed Ali Mohamed Khalil Supervisors Prof. Daniela Villari Thesis submitted to University Kore of Enna to obtain Second level master degree in architecture restoration A. 2008-2009 . Teotista Panzeca Prof.LIBERA UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA SICILIA CENTRALE KORE ENNA thesis in The Italian Architecture in Alexandria.A. Manuela Garofalo Prof.

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