HUAWEI GSM BSS8.

0 Function Description

secret

HUAWEI GSM BSS 8.0 Function Description
(This document is for HUAWEI BSC6000 and the related BTS)

2011-12-2

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Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2008-1

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Index
Basic Function Desciption...............................................................................................................12 1. Frequency Band....................................................................................................................12 1.1. GBFD-0101 850 MHz Frequency Band............................................................................12 1.2. GBFD-0102 900 MHz Frequency Band............................................................................12 1.3. GBFD-0103 1800 MHz Frequency Band..........................................................................13 1.4. GBFD-0104 1900 MHz Frequency Band..........................................................................13 2. Service Function....................................................................................................................13 2.1. GBFD-0201 Telephone Service (TS11)............................................................................13 2.2. GBFD-0202 Emergency Call Service (TS12)...................................................................14 2.3. GBFD-0203 Point To Point Short Message Service (TS21, TS22)..................................14 2.4. GBFD-0204 G3 Fax (TS61, TS62)....................................................................................15 2.5. GBFD-0205 Bearer Service...............................................................................................15 3. Mobility Management...........................................................................................................16 3.1. GBFD-0301 Location Updating........................................................................................16 3.2. GBFD-0302 IMSI Detach..................................................................................................17 3.3. GBFD-0303 Paging............................................................................................................18 3.4. GBFD-0304 Authentication...............................................................................................20 4. Cell Selection........................................................................................................................21 4.1. GBFD-0401 Basic Cell Selection......................................................................................21 4.2. GBFD-0402 Basic cell re-selection...................................................................................22 5. Call Control Function............................................................................................................24 5.1. GBFD-0501 Call Control...................................................................................................24 5.2. GBFD-0502 Assignment and Immediate Assignment .....................................................24 5.3. GBFD-0503 Call Reestablishment....................................................................................27 6. Handover...............................................................................................................................28 6.1. GBFD-0601 Basic Handover.............................................................................................28 6.2. GBFD-0602 PBGT Handover............................................................................................30 6.3. GBFD-0603 Signal Level Rapid Fall Handover...............................................................31 6.4. GBFD-0604 Load Handover..............................................................................................31
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6.5. GBFD-0605 Layered and Hierarchical Handover.............................................................32 6.6. GBFD-0606 Speed-sensitive Handover.............................................................................33 6.7. GBFD-0607 Directed Retry...............................................................................................34 6.8. GBFD-0608 SDCCH Handover........................................................................................35 6.9. GBFD-10102 Fast PBGT Handover..................................................................................35 6.10. GBFD-10103 Chain Cell Handover................................................................................36 7. Power Control.......................................................................................................................36 7.1. GBFD-0701 Static Power Control.....................................................................................36 7.2. GBFD-0702 Dynamic Power Control...............................................................................37 7.3. GBFD-0703 Enhanced Power Control Algorithm............................................................39 8. Measurement report (MR)....................................................................................................42 8.1. GBFD-0801 Processing of Measurement Report..............................................................42 8.2. GBFD-0802 Pre-processing of Measurement Report.......................................................42 9. Adjustment of Adaptive Timing Advance............................................................................43 9.1. GBFD-0901 Adjustment of Adaptive Timing Advance....................................................43 10. Radio Resource Management.............................................................................................43 10.1. GBFD-1001 TRX Management.......................................................................................43 10.2. GBFD-1002 Radio Link Management............................................................................44 10.3. GBFD-1003 Radio Common Channel Management.......................................................45 10.4. GBFD-1004 Radio Dedicated Channel Management.....................................................47 10.5. GBFD-1005 Enhanced Channel Assignment Algorithm................................................48 11. System Information.............................................................................................................50 11.1. GBFD-1101 System Information Sending......................................................................50 11.2. GBFD-1102 Forced System Information Sending by OMC...........................................53 12. O&M Functions..................................................................................................................54 12.1. GBFD-1201 Performance Management..........................................................................54 12.2. GBFD-1202 O&M of BTS..............................................................................................58 12.3. GBFD-1203 O&M of BSC..............................................................................................59 12.4. GBFD-1204 Clock Control Setting.................................................................................61 12.5. GBFD-1205 BSC Alarm..................................................................................................62 12.6. GBFD-1206 BTS Alarm..................................................................................................63
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12.7. GBFD-1207 BTS Test Function......................................................................................64 12.8. GBFD-1208 Dynamic Data Configuration......................................................................66 12.9. GBFD-1209 GUI Graphic Interface................................................................................67 12.10. GBFD-1210 Integrated Network Management Interface.............................................68 12.11. GBFD-1211 Reporting the Temperature List of the BTS Equipment Room...............68 12.12. GBFD-1212 Reporting the BTS Resource Information................................................69 12.13. GBFD-1213 Remote Upgrade of the BSC&BTS Software..........................................70 12.14. GBFD-1214 Operation & maintenance system one-key recovery................................70 13. LAPD Multiplexing at Abis Interface................................................................................70 13.1. GBFD-1301 LAPD Multiplexing at Abis Interface........................................................70 14. Networking Modes..............................................................................................................71 14.1. GBFD-1401 Star Networking Mode................................................................................71 14.2. GBFD-1402 Link Networking Mode..............................................................................72 14.3. GBFD-1403 Tree Networking Mode...............................................................................72 15. BTS Combined Cabinet......................................................................................................73 15.1. GBFD-1501 BTS combined cabinet................................................................................73 15.2. GBFD-1502 BTS Hybrid Cabinet Group........................................................................73 16. BSC cabinet/subrack sharing..............................................................................................74 16.1. GBFD-8801 BSC cabinet/subrack sharing......................................................................74 17. BTS Power Management....................................................................................................75 17.1. GBFD-1601 BTS power management.............................................................................75 17.2. GBFD-1602 Intelligent Shutdown of TRX.....................................................................75 18. Reliability and Maintainability...........................................................................................76 18.1. GBFD-1701 Board Switchover........................................................................................76 18.2. GBFD-1702 TC Resources Pool......................................................................................77 18.3. GBFD-1703 Resources Check.........................................................................................77 18.4. GBFD-1704 Software Patch............................................................................................78 18.5. GBFD-1705 Flow Control...............................................................................................80 19. A Interface Functions..........................................................................................................81 19.1. GBFD-1801 Ater Interface 4:1 Multiplexing..................................................................81 19.2. GBFD-1802 14-Digit Signaling Point Code....................................................................81
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19.3. GBFD-1803 Circuit Management....................................................................................82 19.4. GBFD-1804 A Interface Protocol Process......................................................................83 19.5. GBFD-1805 A Interface Occupation Rate Monitoring...................................................84 19.6. GBFD-1806 STP(Signaling Transport Point)...............................................................84 20. Supporting Three-Digit MNC.............................................................................................84 20.1. GBFD-1901 Supporting three-digit MNC.......................................................................85 21. STM-1 Optical Transmission Interface..............................................................................85 21.1. GBFD-2001 STM-1 Optical Transmission Interface......................................................85 22. Message Tracing.................................................................................................................85 22.1. GBFD-2201 Interface Message Tracing .........................................................................85 22.2. GBFD-2202 User Signaling Tracing...............................................................................86 23. Remote EAC Maintenance..................................................................................................87 23.1. GBFD-2301 Remote EAC Maintenance.........................................................................87 24. Cell Frequency Scan...........................................................................................................88 24.1. GBFD-2401 Cell Frequency Scan...................................................................................88 25. TCH Re-Assignment...........................................................................................................88 25.1. GBFD-2501 TCH Re-Assignment...................................................................................88 26. SDCCH Dynamic Adjustment............................................................................................89 26.1. GBFD-3001 SDCCH Dynamic Adjustment....................................................................89 27. Support of Daylight Saving Time.......................................................................................90 27.1. GBFD-6101 Support of Daylight Saving Time...............................................................91 28. MML...................................................................................................................................91 28.1. GBFD-6501 Man Machine Language (MML)................................................................91 29. Gb interface function...........................................................................................................92 29.1. GBFD-9001 Gb interface function..................................................................................92 30. PS functions.........................................................................................................................93 30.1. GBFD-9101 Packet channel combination type...............................................................93 30.2. GBFD-9102 System information.....................................................................................93 30.3. GBFD-9103 MS types.....................................................................................................94 30.4. GBFD-9104 MAC mode..................................................................................................94 30.5. GBFD-9105 RLC mode...................................................................................................95
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30.6. GBFD-9106 Coding scheme............................................................................................95 30.7. GBFD-9107 Networking control mode...........................................................................95 30.8. GBFD-9108 Network operation mode support...............................................................96 30.9. GBFD-9109 QoS(Best Effort)....................................................................................96 30.11. GBFD-9111 Assignment................................................................................................97 30.12. GBFD-9112 Paging........................................................................................................97 30.13. GBFD-9113 Timing advance update.............................................................................98 30.14. GBFD-9114 Measurement report..................................................................................98 30.15. GBFD-9115 Power control............................................................................................98 30.16. GBFD-9116 Uplink flow control...................................................................................99 30.17. GBFD-9117 Downlink flow control..............................................................................99 30.18. GBFD-9118 Resource pool of the packet service board...............................................99 30.19. GBFD-9119 Packet service configuration and maintenance.......................................100 30.20. GBFD-9120 Packet service performance management...............................................100 30.21. GBFD-9121 Packet service fault management............................................................100 Optional Function Desciption........................................................................................................102 1. Coverage enhanced.............................................................................................................102 1.1. GBFD-5901 PBT(Power Boost Technology)..................................................................102 1.2. GBFD-5902 Transmit Diversity......................................................................................102 1.3. GBFD-5903 4-Way Receiver Diversity..........................................................................103 1.4. GBFD-8101 Dynamic Transmit Diversity......................................................................103 1.5. GBFD-8102 Dynamic PBT(Power Boost Technology)..................................................104 1.6. GBFD-4001 Extended Cell..............................................................................................106 2. Capacity improvement........................................................................................................107 2.1. GBFD-3201 Concentric Cell...........................................................................................107 2.2. GBFD-4501 Co-BCCH Cell............................................................................................110 2.3. GBFD-4401 Multi-band Sharing one BSC......................................................................111 2.4. GBFD-4402 Enhanced Dual-Band Network...................................................................111 2.5. GBFD-3701 Frequency Hopping (RF hopping, baseband hopping)..............................112 2.6. GBFD-3702 BCCH Carrier Frequency Hopping............................................................114 2.7. GBFD-3703 Antenna Frequency Hopping......................................................................115
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2.8. GBFD-8001 BCCH Dense Frequency Multiplexing.......................................................115 2.9. GBFD-7001 Flex MAIO..................................................................................................117 2.10. GBFD-4901 Support for E-GSM and R-GSM Frequency Band..................................118 2.11. GBFD-5801 ICC(Interference Counteract Combine)..............................................119 2.12. GBFD-8201 Intra BSC Soft-Synchronized Network....................................................119 3. Networking Capacity .........................................................................................................121 3.1. GBFD-4601 Six-cell Function ........................................................................................121 3.2. GBFD-7801 Ring topology..............................................................................................121 3.3. GBFD-5201 High Speed Signaling ................................................................................122 3.4. GBFD-5301 Local Multiple Signaling Points.................................................................123 4. System reliability ...............................................................................................................125 4.1. GBFD-3801 TRX Cooperation........................................................................................125 4.2. GBFD-7401 MSC Pool....................................................................................................126 4.3. GBFD-6601 Abis Bypass.................................................................................................128 5. Voice service.......................................................................................................................129 5.1. GBFD-3301 Enhanced Full Rate.....................................................................................129 5.2. GBFD-3401 Half Rate.....................................................................................................129 5.3. GBFD-3402 Dynamic Adjustment between FR and HR................................................130 5.4. GBFD-5501 AMR FR......................................................................................................131 5.5. GBFD-5502 AMR HR.....................................................................................................133 5.6. GBFD-5503 AMR Power Control...................................................................................134 5.7. GBFD-5504 AMR FR/HR Dynamic Adjustment...........................................................135 5.8. GBFD-5505 AMR wireless link timer.............................................................................135 6. Voice quality enhancement.................................................................................................136 6.1. GBFD-5601 Automatic Level Control (ALC)................................................................136 6.2. GBFD-5602 Acoustic Echo Cancellation(AEC).............................................................137 6.3. GBFD-5603 Automatic Noise Restraint (ANR)..............................................................137 6.4. GBFD-5701 TFO.............................................................................................................138 6.5. GBFD-5702 TrFO............................................................................................................139 6.6. GBFD-6801 Voice Quality Index (VQI).........................................................................140 6.7. GBFD-7501 Enhanced Measurement Report(EMR)......................................................141
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7. Saving trasmission..............................................................................................................141 7.1. GBFD-6701 16Kbit RSL and OML on A-bis interface.................................................141 7.2. GBFD-7301 Flex Abis.....................................................................................................142 7.3. GBFD-6901 Flex Ater.....................................................................................................143 7.4. GBFD-7701 BSC local switch.........................................................................................144 7.5. GBFD-7702 BTS local switch.........................................................................................146 7.6. GBFD-8401 Abis Transmission Optimization................................................................147 7.7. GBFD-8402 Hub BTS in HDLC Mode...........................................................................149 8. Ciphering.............................................................................................................................150 8.1. GBFD-3501 A5/1 Ciphering Algorithm..........................................................................150 8.2. GBFD-3502 A5/2 Ciphering Algorithm..........................................................................151 8.3. GBFD-3503 A5/3 Ciphering Algorithm..........................................................................152 9. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast...............................................................................152 9.1. GBFD-3601 Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (TS23)..........................................152 9.2. GBFD-3602 Simplified Cell Broadcast...........................................................................153 10. maintainability...................................................................................................................154 10.1. GBFD-4701 Semi-Permanent Connection....................................................................154 11. Satellite Transmission.......................................................................................................158 11.1. GBFD-3901 Satellite Transmission over Abis Interface...............................................158 11.2. GBFD-3902 Satellite Transmission over A Interface...................................................159 11.3. GBFD-3903 Satellite Transmission over Ater Interface...............................................159 11.4. GBFD-3904 Satellite Transmission over Pb Interface..................................................160 11.5. GBFD-3905 Satellite Transmission over Gb Interface.................................................160 12. Hierarchical access............................................................................................................161 12.1. GBFD-6001 Resource Reservation...............................................................................161 12.2. GBFD-5001 Enhanced Multi Level Precedence and Preemption(EMLPP).................162 13. LCS....................................................................................................................................163 13.1. GBFD-5401 NSS-based LCS (Cell ID + TA)...............................................................163 13.2. GBFD-5402 BSS-based LCS (Cell ID + TA)...............................................................163 13.3. GBFD-5403 Simple mode LCS(Cell ID + TA).............................................................164 14. Power Control Algorithm..................................................................................................164
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14.1. GBFD-7601 HUAWEI III power control algorithm ....................................................164 14.2. GBFD-7101 BTS power lift for handover.....................................................................166 15. IP transmission..................................................................................................................167 15.1. GBFD-8601 Abis over IP..............................................................................................167 15.2. GBFD-8602 A over IP...................................................................................................168 15.3. GBFD-8603 Gb over IP.................................................................................................169 16. 2G/3G Interoperability......................................................................................................170 16.1. GBFD-4301 GSM/WCDMA Interoperability...............................................................170 16.2. GBFD-4302 GSM/TD-SCDMA Interoperability..........................................................172 17. Cell Reselection of PS Domain.........................................................................................173 17.1. GBFD-6301 Intra BSC Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC).................................173 17.2. GBFD-9801 Packet SI status(PSI).................................................................................173 18. Qos.....................................................................................................................................174 18.1. GBFD-9901 Streaming QoS(GBR)...............................................................................174 18.2. GBFD-9902 ARP(Allocation/Retention Priority)....................................................174 18.3. GBFD-9903 THP(Traffic handle Priority)...............................................................175 19. GPRS/EGPRS ..................................................................................................................176 19.1. GBFD-4101 GPRS.........................................................................................................176 19.2. GBFD-10001 Network operation mode I......................................................................178 19.3. GBFD-8901 CS-3/CS-4.................................................................................................178 19.4. GBFD-4201 EGPRS .....................................................................................................179 19.5. GBFD-3101 PDCH Dynamic Adjustment....................................................................181 Overall Dynamic PDCH Conversion: Except for static PDCH, all the other channels can be converted in real time based on the data service and the voice service. If required, TCH can be converted to PDCH for the PS service. When the voice service is not busy, more PDCHs are available. This can alleviate the transmission rate decrease due to PDCH multiplexing. This flexible mechanism can greatly improve the channel utilization and optimize the distribution of PDCHs and speech channels. The planning of this function is relatively simple and you only need to expand the capacity if required. .........................................................................................................................................182
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19.6. GBFD-10002 Gb Over Frame.......................................................................................183 20. Performance Speedup Features for EGPRS ....................................................................184 20.1. GBFD-9201 11-Bit EGPRS Access..............................................................................184 20.2. GBFD-9202 Immediate Assignment Function Moved down to the BTS.....................184 20.3. GBFD-9203 Extended Uplink TBF...............................................................................184 20.4. GBFD-9204 Dynamically Adjusting the Uplink MCS Coding....................................184 20.5. GBFD-9205 Dynamically Adjusting the RRBP Frequency..........................................185 20.6. GBFD-9206 Packet Uplink Assignment Taken Over by the BTS................................185 21. Enhanced Function of EGPRS Resource Management....................................................186 21.1. GBFD-9301 Enhanced Function of EGPRS Resource Management...........................186 21.2. GBFD-9302 Type of Preferred Channels for Packet Services......................................186 21.3. GBFD-9303 Load Sharing.............................................................................................187 21.4. GBFD-9304 Channel Dispatching.................................................................................188 21.5. GBFD-9401 EDA(Extended Dynamic Allocation).................................................188 21.6. GBFD-9501 Adaptive Adjustment of Uplink and Downlink Channels.......................189 22. Power reduce.....................................................................................................................190 22.1. GBFD-4801 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX).........................................................190 22.2. GBFD-4802 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)..............................................................191 23. Fast Move Coverage.........................................................................................................192 23.1. GBFD-10101 AFC(Automatic Frequency Correction).................................................193

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HUAWEI GBSS System Function Description
This is HUAWEI GBSS System Function Description

Basic Function Desciption
1. Frequency Band 1.1. GBFD-0101 850 MHz Frequency Band
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS equipment supports the GSM 850 frequency band. The defined frequency range of the GSM 850 frequency band is as follows: Uplink frequency: 824 MHz–849 MHz Downlink frequency: 869 MHz–894 MHz Frequency number: 128–251

1.2. GBFD-0102 900 MHz Frequency Band
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS equipment supports the GSM 900 frequency band. The GSM 900 frequency band is the main band and also the most widely used band in GSM. In order to differentiate from extended E-GSM 900 and R-GSM 900, standard GSM 900 is also termed PGSM 900 in protocol. The defined frequency range of the P-GSM 900 frequency band is as follows: Uplink frequency: 890 MHz–915 MHz Downlink frequency: 935 MHz–960 MHz Frequency number: 1–124
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1.3. GBFD-0103 1800 MHz Frequency Band
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS equipments support GSM 1800 frequency band. 1800M frequency band is also called DCS 1800, often mixed with GSM 900M to form dual band network. The defined frequency range of DCS 1800 frequency band is as follows: Uplink frequency: 1710 MHz–1785MHz Downlink frequency: 1805 MHz–1880MHz Frequency number: 512–885

1.4. GBFD-0104 1900 MHz Frequency Band
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS equipment supports the GSM 1900 frequency band. The 1900M frequency band is also known as PCS 1900. The defined frequency range of the PCS 1900 frequency band is as follows: Uplink frequency: 1850 MHz–1910 MHz Downlink frequency: 1930 MHz–1990 MHz Frequency number: 512–810

2. Service Function 2.1. GBFD-0201 Telephone Service (TS11)
Function Description: The Telephone service (TS11) defined in protocol is a basic function of GSM equipment and also a basic service provided by GSM BSS. The Voice service can be divided into mobile
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originating (MO) call and mobile terminating (MT) calls according to service initiator. The Telephone service provides voice call between MSs within a GSM PLMN, or between a PLMN MS and PSTN or other communication network. The BSS TRAU initiates the voice conversion between GSM voice coding and 64 kbps PCM coding. The default call voice coding of normal call is full rate (FR) voice coding before optional functions (such as Enhanced Full Rate voice coding) is available.

2.2. GBFD-0202 Emergency Call Service (TS12)
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports the emergency call service (TS12). If an MS makes an emergency call, it has higher priority level than normal calls. The Emergency call service also simplifies the call flow to increase connection speed and ensure the success rate of emergency calls. For example, in immediate assignment, the TCH can be assigned directly in Immediate Assignment Command to enable the emergency call to seize radio resources more easily at a faster speed.

2.3. GBFD-0203 Point To Point Short Message Service (TS21, TS22)
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports the Point-to-Point short message service, which includes the MT short message service (TS21) and MO short message service (TS22). The Point-to-Point short message service is used to transmit plain text information so that users can transfer simple information and the operators can send service or preferential information to their customers. Point-to-Point short messages can be initiated by the Short Message Center (SMC) or User Equipment (UE). The BSS supports two-way short messages: messages sent to User Equipment by the BSS after the BSS receives the short message signaling from the MSC, and messages forwarded to the MSC after the BSS receives the short messages from the User Equipment.
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2.4. GBFD-0204 G3 Fax (TS61, TS62)
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports alternate G3 Fax (TS61) and automatic G3 Fax (TS62). This kind of service is based on higher layer protocol. BSS provides the lower layer connection and the processing procedure for the upper layer service are completely transparent.

2.5. GBFD-0205 Bearer Service
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports all kinds of bearer services defined in the GSM specifications. The BSS provides the lower layer connection for this service and the processing procedure for the upper layer service is completely transparent. Bearer services can be used in low rate data application environment. Huawei’s BSS supports the following carrier services:  BS21 asynchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 300 bps  BS22 asynchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 1200bps  BS23 asynchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 1200/75 bps (notes 1)  BS24 asynchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 2400bps  BS25 asynchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 4800bps  BS26 asynchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 9600bps  BS31 synchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 1200 bps  BS32 synchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 2400 bps  BS33 synchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 4800 bps  BS34 synchronous duplex circuit data service, transparent/nontransparent, 9600 bps  BS41 PAD access service, asynchronous circuit, transparent/nontransparent, 300 bps  BS42 PAD access service, asynchronous circuit, transparent/nontransparent, 1200 bps  BS43 PAD access service, asynchronous circuit, transparent/nontransparent, 1200/75 bps (Remark 1)
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 BS44 PAD access service, asynchronous circuit, transparent/nontransparent, 2400 bps  BS45 PAD access service, asynchronous circuit, transparent/nontransparent, 4800 bps  BS46 PAD access service, asynchronous circuit, transparent/nontransparent, 9600 bps  BS51 packet access service, 2.4 kbps, synchronous, UDI, nontransparent  BS52 packet access service, 4.8 kbps, synchronous, UDI, nontransparent  BS53 packet access service, 9.6 kbps, synchronous, UDI, nontransparent  BS61 alternate speech/data service, transparent/nontransparent  BS81 speech followed by data service Note: BS23 and BS43 are only used for MO call. The 75bps is for uplink and 1200bps for downlink

3. Mobility Management 3.1. GBFD-0301 Location Updating
Function Description: The Location updating procedure is a signaling flow from the MS to the network updated location to keep the consistency amongst the HLR, VLR and MS. The Location updating is a special procedure, include following three type: normal location update, periodic location update, IMSI attach. Normal location update The normal procedure for location update is that MS initiates access request (the access cause is location update) and network assigns signaling channel for it. After channel assignment, BSC receives establishment indication that contains location update request. BSC sends location update message to MSC according to cell situation and MSC decides whether to accept or refuse location update. Periodic location update The type of location update can be seen in location update request. The T3212 timer in MS is used for periodic location update. When T3212 is times out, MS initiates periodic location update. The initial value of T3212 is obtained from the control channel description IE of system
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information type 3 of the network. IMSI attach The IMSI attach location update is a complement for the IMSI detach procedure. System information type 3 contains the ATT flag that indicates whether IMSI attach and IMSI detach are allowed. If the network indicates that IMSI attach and IMSI detach are required, the MS triggers the IMSI attach procedure when the IMSI is activated. The IMSI attach procedure can only be triggered when the MS activates the IMSI or the MS has moved from a non-coverage area to a coverage area, only if the update status is updated and the stored location area is the same as the location area broadcasted on the BCCH of the current service cell In other cases, normal location update is used. In the normal location update procedure, the network initiates other additional procedures such as classmark query, identity request, authentication procedures and encryption setting.

3.2. GBFD-0302 IMSI Detach
Function Description: The IMSI attach and detach means to attach a binary mark to the subscriber record in the MSC/VLR. The IMSI attach is marked as access granted, and IMSI detach is marked as access denied. IMSI attach and detach are an optional. If the cell where the MS is powered on supports this function, when MS is switched off, it will send an IMSI detach message to notify the network that its status has changed. The MSC/VLR sets the user status to access denied and MS cannot be called until the user initiate IMSI attach or generic location updating again. Whether the network allows IMSI attach or detach can be sent to MS by system information. System information type 3 contains an ATT that indicates whether IMSI attach and IMSI detach procedures are used.

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3.3. GBFD-0303 Paging
Function Description: A Paging message sent for the network to connect the called MS. MS monitors paging channel in a fixed cycle. If there is a paging message for it, MS will respond it and complete the subsequent procedure. Paging can be divided into packet paging and circuit paging:  Packet paging

When there are downlink data for MS, SGSN will initiate packet paging. If packet common control channel (PCCCH) is configuration, packet paging will be transmitted on it. If not, packet paging will be transmitted on PCH.  Circuit paging

Circuit switched calls are all circuit paging transmitted on PCH. When a call arrives at the MSC of the called MS, MSC find the location area of MS and sends paging message that contains identity information of the user (IMSI or TMSI) to all BSCs in this area. BSC determines the paging BTS according to location area and the paging group that the MS belongs to with IMSI and sends the paging signaling to BTS. BTS sends the paging message of MS on the assigned PCH. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports the following three standard paging modes:  Ordinary paging mode: Paging message is transmitted only on PCH configured and IMSI defined channels.  Complete paging mode: When a certain MS group is informed by this mode, the paging message of this group of users may be transmitted on any PCH of the same timeslot. When dynamic change of PCH configuration occurs, this mode can prevent paging message loss.  Spaced paging mode: BSS adds the paging message of a certain group to another paging channel to avoid temporary overload, which means, the MS receiving common paging on channel N can get the paging message on the next paging channel N+2. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports paging message queuing, paging retransmission, simultaneous processing of multiple pages and paging flow control. It can effectively improve and ensure the paging capacity of BSC. Paging message queuing Sending paging message in the Um interface is restricted with paging group, and one paging
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message may only be transmitted at the paging block corresponding to the paging group of this message. Moreover, each time only one paging request in Um interface can be transmitted at a paging block that contains at most four paging messages in Abis interface. Therefore, on the one hand BTS must temporarily save these paging message from BSC, on the other hand BTS ought to select some appropriate paging messages to transmit. That is paging messages queue. Selecting the appropriate paging messages should ensure that the total waiting time is as short as possible and that the second block of segmented immediate assignment packet will be transmitted during the specified period. If many paging messages have the same transmission priority, BTS will process these messages according to FIFO. Paging retransmission According to GSM specification, paging procedure demands that one cell and send paging message more than one time. The procedure does not specify the retransmission mechanism, so we may initiate the paging retransmission in MSC, BSC or BTS. One reasonable scheme includes a two-level retransmission: one is implemented in MSC which deals with the long intermittence such as crossing channel; and the other is implemented in the BTS which treats the bad transmission condition. Mostly we initiate the paging retransmission in MSC. The BTS supports the function of paging retransmission. We will retransmit those old paging message which have been transmitted at least one time when there is no new paging message and no immediate assignment to wait for transmitting. Simultaneous processing of multiple pages Each paging command from BSC in Abis interface comprises only one paging message sent to one MS, but each paging request in Um interface may package at most four paging messages sent to four different MSs. Therefore, in order to improve radio channel efficiency, we will package paging messages as many as possible in each paging request under the precondition of agreement with the related specification. In the paging block of some paging group, BTS will choose some available paging messages from the corresponding paging queue and package them as appropriate type of paging request. Therefore, one paging request can process multiple paging commands.
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Paging flow control When the paging flow from MSC exceeds the processing capability of BSS, BSS initiate selective flow control according to the current network situation to ensure robustness and healthy transaction of the system, the high efficiency of the paging capacity as well as the smoothness and stability of services.

3.4. GBFD-0304 Authentication
Function Description: Authentication is an identity verification process in which GSM network confirms the validity of IMSI or TMSI sent by the MS through radio interface. The purpose of authentication is to prevent illegal access to GSM network system and the theft of private information by illegal users. Authentication initiation The network initiates authentication procedure in the following situations:  MS requesting for the change of information in VLR or HLR;  Service access, including MS originating call, MS terminating call, MS activation and deactivation, and supplementary services;  The first network access after MSC/VLR reboot;  Mismatching Ciphering Key Sequence;  Determining whether the identity from MS is accessible to network;  Offering parameters for MS to calculate new ciphering key;  Network initiates and controls the authentication procedure. Having established the RR layer of MSC and BSS, the network can decide whether to initiate authentication procedure to authenticate the identity of users. BSS establishes RR connection and implements the transparent transmission between MSC and MS. Authentication procedure When the network decides to initiate authentication procedure, MSC/VLR will send MS an authentication request message to trigger authentication procedure and, at the same time, start timer T3260. MS responses this request with an authentication response message and reports the
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calculated result to core network for approval. Authentication strengthens the network identification of users and ensures their safety.

4. Cell Selection 4.1. GBFD-0401 Basic Cell Selection
Function Description: When MS is switched on or enters coverage area from dead zone, MS searches all frequency that PLMN allows and selects a proper cell to stay. This process is called cell selection. Cell selection procedure MS does not store any BCCH message –If MS does not store any BCCH message, it sets a search frequency band first and finds out the frequency that receives the highest level. –When MS tunes to the frequency with the highest level, it decides whether this point is BCCH carrier first: ––If it is, MS tries to decode SCH to synchronize with this frequency and read BCCH system broadcast messages. If MS can decode BCCH data correctly and confirm that this cell belongs to the selected PLMN, parameter C1 exceeds 0 and this cell is not access denied, MS will stay in this cell. ––Otherwise, MS will tune to the second highest or lower frequency until it finds the available cell. MS stores messages of BCCH carrier –If MS stores messages of BCCH carrier, it searches the stored BCCH frequency first. –If MS can decode this frequency into BCCH data of the cell but cannot stay in this cell, it will check the BA (BCCH) list. –If none of the BCCH frequency in the list is suitable, MS will initiate cell selection process without BCCH message mentioned earlier. Key factors influencing cell selection Whether MS can select a cell to stay in is also influenced by the following factors:
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The two parameters in system information 1: –Cell bar access (CBA) It indicates whether a cell allows access of a mobile phone. Cell bar access is a 1 bit code; 0 means access is allowed, and 1 means access is denied. This parameter does not influence the access of switchover. –Access control (AC) It can be divided into level 0 to level 9 and level 11 to level 15. Usually each GSM user has an access level and each level is represented by one bit: 1 means the current cell denies the access of MS with corresponding level. Otherwise, the access is allowed. Users with level 11 to level 15 have higher priority of access than users with level 0 to level 9, but there is no priority difference within level 11 to level 15 or level 0 to level 9. The minimum Rxlev allowed in system information 3: –RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: It is the threshold signal level represented by a 6 bits code. The corresponding level value of the range 0 to 63 is –110 dBm to –47 dBm. Access parameter CBQ in system information 4 –Cell Bar Qualify (CBQ): It is a 1 bit code. CBQ and CBA together form the priority status of the cell. For details, please refer to below as follows: Priority status formed by CBQ and CBA CBQ CBA Priority status of cell 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 selection Normal Barred Low Low Cell reselection status Normal Barred Normal Normal

4.2. GBFD-0402 Basic cell re-selection
Function Description: MS measures the downlink Rxlev of the serving cell and neighbor cell in idle mode. With the downlink Rxlev and the parameters of cell re-selection (CRO (Cell Reselect Offset), TO
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(Temporary Offset), PT (Penalty Time)) in system information, the MS will reselect the neighbor cell when the service which the neighbor can provide is better than that of the serving cell. Thus, all the service MS needs will be provided by the current serving cell which is neighbor cell before re-selection. BA list MS initiate cell re-selection according to BCCH assignment (BA) list in service cell system broadcast message. GSM network has two BA lists: One is transmitted in the system information on BCCH, used for cell selection and re-selection of MS in idle mode. The other is transmitted in the system information on SACCH, used to indicate to MS which BCCH carrier is for handover monitoring in dedicate mode. Cell re-selection initiation Cell re-selection will be initiated in any one of the following situations (if C2 algorithm has not been activated, C2=C1): The C2 value of a certain cell (belonging to the same location area with the current cell) exceeds that of the current cell by 5 seconds successively; The C2 value of a certain cell (belonging to different location area from the current cell) exceeds the sum of the C2 value of the current service cell and cell selection hysteresis value by 5 seconds successively; The current service cell is barred; MS detects downlink failure; The C1 value of the service cell is less than 0 for 5 seconds successively; Access attempt fails after maximum retransmission in MS random access. The following parameter in system information 4 decides whether to activate C2 calculation: Cell re-selection parameter indicator (PI): it indicates to MS whether to adopt C2 as cell reselection parameter and to check if this parameter exists. PI is a 1 bit code: 0 means C1 replacing C2 as the cell re-selection criteria; 1 means extracting parameter from system information and calculating C2 value as cell re-selection criteria. Cell re-selection keeps MS staying in the good cell, thus ensuring the quality of service.

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5. Call Control Function 5.1. GBFD-0501 Call Control
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports mobile originating call, mobile terminating call, and emergency call. Through resource management algorithms, BSC provides the transmission channel for the call control signaling between MS and MSC by establishing RR connection. Emergency call has higher priority than normal call. For example, a TCH can be assigned for emergency call directly during immediate assignment procedure; as a result, emergency call can get connection resource easier and has a faster connecting speed. The default call voice coding of normal call is full rate (FR) voice coding before optional voice coding is available. For BSC, call control mainly includes radio channel allocation, A interface allocation according to MSC and traffic channel release. GSM BSS supports the following call procedures:  Mobile originating call  Mobile terminating call  Emergency call  MS originating call release  Network originating call release

5.2. GBFD-0502 Assignment and Immediate Assignment
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports immediate assignment procedure, immediate assignment combination and corresponding assignment procedure defined in GSM protocol. Immediate assignment is used to establish RR connection between MS and network Assignment means BSS transfers MS to TCH. Assignment includes early assignment for MOC, late assignment for MOC, TCH Immediate assignment for MOC, early assignment for MTC, late assignment for MTC, and TCH Immediate assignment for MTC.
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Immediate assignment The immediate assignment procedure is always initiated by the BSS. It may be triggered by a paging request or by a mobile originating service request. The purpose of the immediate assignment procedure is to establish an RR connection between the mobile station and the network. In the immediate assignment procedure, the mobile station sends a CHANNEL REQUEST message on the Random Access Channel. The network responds with an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message, which causes the mobile station to seize the indicated dedicated channel. This channel can be a stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) or a traffic channel (TCH). Immediate assignment combination Each immediate assignment from BSC in Abis interface comprises the response for only one MS's channel request message, but the response messages for channel request in Um interface include three types: immediate assignment, immediate assignment extended and immediate assignment reject. Moreover, one immediate assignment extended may package two immediate assignment messages and one immediate assignment reject may package at most four reject type immediate assignment messages. Therefore, in order to improve radio channel efficiency, we will combine up to two immediate assignment messages as immediate assignment extended or up to four immediate assignments reject messages as immediate assignment reject to guarantee that Abis interface messages will be sent as many as possible in one Um interface message under the precondition of agreement with the related specification. Early assignment for MOC Early assignment for MOC (mobile original call) means TCH is assigned to MOC before call really establishment. As to signaling procedure in assignment procedure, ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to mobile station before ALERTING message. In this case, an alerting ringing tone has to be generated by the network. Late assignment for MOC In the case of late assignment for MOC, the network determines when TCH is to be assigned. The assignment may be performed at any time after call establishment has been initiated in the
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fixed network. ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to mobile station after ALERTING message. In that case, if the ringing tone is needed, it has to be generated locally at the mobile station as no traffic channel is allocated. TCH immediate assignment for MOC A traffic channel is directly assigned to a MOC during the immediate assignment procedure, process the user authentication and encryption and other signaling connection, then call establishment and subsequent communication goes on this traffic channel. While receiving the ASS REQ message, BSS modify the channel mode to service mode, through the channel, MSC assign the ringing and connecting message, the response time can be improved. Early assignment for MTC Mobile terminating call establishment is initiated by the network sending a PAGING REQUEST message. Upon receiving this message the mobile station initiates the immediate assignment procedure and responds to the network by sending the PAGING RESPONSE message. After that, Traffic channel is assigned to MTC before call establishment has been initiated. As to signaling procedure, ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to mobile station before ALERTING message. In this case, an alerting ringing tone has to be generated by the network. Late assignment for MTC Mobile terminating call establishment is initiated by the network sending a PAGING REQUEST message. Upon receiving this message the mobile station initiates the immediate assignment procedure and responds to the network by sending the PAGING RESPONSE message. After that, the network determines when the traffic channel is to be assigned. The assignment may be performed at any time after call establishment has been initiated in the fixed network. ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to mobile station after ALERTING message. In that case, if the ringing tone is needed, it has to be generated locally at the mobile station as no traffic channel is allocated. TCH immediate assignment for MTC The network initiates mobile terminating call establishment by sending a PAGING REQUEST message. Upon receiving this message the mobile station initiates the immediate assignment
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procedure, a traffic channel is directly assigned to a MTC during the immediate assignment procedure, process the user authentication and encryption and other signaling connection, then call establishment and subsequent communication goes on this traffic channel. At the end of immediate assignment procedure, MS responds to the network by sending the PAGING RESPONSE message, In the following assignment procedure, modify the channel mode to service mode, through the channel, MSC assign the ringing and connecting message, so the response time can be improved. Huawei’s GSM BSS provides TCH immediate assignment for MTC procedure as GSM protocol mentioned.

5.3. GBFD-0503 Call Reestablishment
Function Description: Call Reestablishment is a connection recovering process after the radio link failure occurs in MS call procedure. Call reestablishment may occur in a new cell or new location area. Whether to initiate call reestablishment attempt depends on the call control status and whether the cell allows call reestablishment. If a cell supports call reestablishment, the call re-establishment parameter must be set to “allowed” and this cell should not be barred. The call reestablishment procedure is as follows: Having found the radio link failure, BTS sends a radio link failure message to BSC. BSC will release the related radio resource and wait for MS to initiate call reestablishment. Having detected the radio link failure, MS sends channel request message (request cause is call reestablishment) in the selected cell (original cell or new cell). BSS initiates and completes immediate assignment procedure. After immediate assignment, MS sends a reestablishment request to MSC. MSC initiates encryption and assignment procedure and finishes call establishment. MSC sends status query message to MS to initiate status query and decides whether the call status or attached status matches or not. MS sends MSC status messages to report the call status or attached status.
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Call reestablishment completes. During the call reestablishment, MS cannot return to idle mode. Therefore, when MS select a cell in different location area as the target cell for call reestablishment, it cannot implement location update until this call ends. MSC controls the call reestablishment procedure. BSC initiate channel establishment and layer 3 information forwarding.

6. Handover 6.1. GBFD-0601 Basic Handover
Function Description: As a way of radio link control, handover enables conversation through different cells. Meanwhile, handover can regulate the traffic volume of a cell to optimize the overall performance of the system. Basic handover includes bad quality (BQ) handover, edge handover, timing advance (TA) handover and interference handover. Handover procedure involves MS, BSS and MSC. Both MS and BTS measure the current radio link status and combine the uplink and downlink measurement results together into one measurement result (MR) and sent it to BSC. BSC handover decision algorithm decides whether to initiate handover and what kind of handover to initiate for this MS according to MR and the real situation of radio network. Handover procedure includes MR processing, handover decision and handover signaling procedure. Handover type Handover can be divided into intra-BSC handover (supporting intra-cell handover and intraBTS inter-cell handover), inter-BSC intra-MSC handover inter-MSC handover. BSC initiate intra-BSC handover and report handover complete command to MSC. The two kinds of interBSC handover require MSC to participate in. BSC also supports OMS to initiate forced handover to a specific MS in a certain cell.
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Handover decision algorithm Handover decision algorithm can be divided into TA handover, BQ handover, edge handover, interference handover and other enhanced handover algorithm. TA handover Timing advance can be used as a standard to limit the cell size. BSC decides whether the TA value of the current MS exceeds the timing advanced limit (TALIM). If exceeds, BSS will initiate an emergency handover. The value range of TA is from 0 to 63 and the step length of each bit is 553.5 m. when TA value is 63, it means the distance is 35 km. if the service cell meets the requirement of TA emergency handover, it will be punished after handover completes in order to avoid this user being handed over to this cell again due to other reasons. TA handover algorithm has been changed to meet the special needs of the extended cells. BQ handover: The transmission quality of link is measured by bit error ratio (BER). BSC measures transmission quality through quality level in the measurement report. There are eight levels from 0 to 7: level 0 is best and level 7 is worst. High level may be resulted from low signal power or channel interference. When the received quality is lower than BQ handover limit, the network will start handover algorithm to ensure the quality of communication. This procedure is called BQ handover. If the service cell meets the requirement of BQ handover, it will be punished after handover completes in order to avoid this user being handed over to this cell again for other reasons. Edge handover: Edge handover is a kind of rescue handover based on signal level. When edge handover is triggered, the signal level of the target cell should exceed that of the service cell by at least one hysteresis value (hysteresis in inter-cell handover). The trigger principle of edge handover is that edge handover is triggered when the Rxlev of service cell is lower than edge handover limit and the P/N criteria is met in the statistic time in order to keep the conversation quality. Interference handover When the Rxlev is normal but the received quality is relatively bad, the network will start handover algorithm to keep the conversation quality. This procedure is called interference
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handover. The difference between interference handover and bad quality handover is that in interference handover, the received quality is not so bad to affect the communication and the Rxlev is relatively high. When interference handover is triggered, the quality of the channel used is slightly interfered and the communication is still sustained. Therefore, intra-cell handover is recommended. Interference handover keeps the quality of conversation and the continuity of mobile communication, thus improving the quality of service.

6.2. GBFD-0602 PBGT Handover
Function Description: Power BudGeT (PBGT) is an enhanced handover algorithm. It can make the user accept the service in the better cell and improve the quality of the network. PBGT also belongs to better cell handover, a handover based on propagation loss. PBGT handover algorithm searches for the cell with lower propagation loss and satisfying the system requirement on real-time basis so as to judge whether handover is needed. Difference from other handover algorithms: the trigger condition is the propagation loss but not the receiving power. Triggering condition of PBGT handover: The path loss of the adjacent cell is smaller than the threshold of the serving cell and the P/N criterion is satisfied within a period of measurement time. P/N criterion is that there is P satisfying the criterion during N measurements. PBGT (n) > PGBT_HO_Margin (n) In the inequality above, P, N and PBGT_HO_Margin (n) are configured at data configuration console. PBGT (n) calculates according to the control parameter and the information reported by BTS. PBGT handover occurs only between cells of the same layer and same level. The better cells bear more traffic load to improve the service quality, as user can get

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6.3. GBFD-0603 Signal Level Rapid Fall Handover
Function Description: This handover algorithm is sensitive to the signal level change of the users. It can effectively reduce the call drops due to the rapid change of signal level. Handovers such as edge handover and PBGT adopt methods such as averaging filter and P/N judgments. However it is not sensitive to short term signal level rapid dropping, FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filter to original receiving signal level is used to settle this problem. This kind of filter has a quick response to the rapid dropping slope of the original receiving signal level signal. This algorithm needs the original measurement report of the MS. The users in the mountainous areas or other extreme conditions can hand over quickly and the call does not drop. Thus, the network quality and the user satisfaction are improved.

6.4. GBFD-0604 Load Handover
Function Description: The load handover can balance the load of different cells effectively. It can transfer part of the traffic of a cell with too heavy traffic load to its neighboring cell. There may be cells with heavy load while their upper layer cell and the neighboring cell bear fewer loads. To achieve load balance between cells by sharing the load with upper layer and adjacent cell, the traffic load handover is applied. Its aim is to hand over part of the traffic in the heavily loaded cell to less loaded cells, and preventing the traffic of the adjacent cells being handed over to this cell. Load handover can be implemented between cells within the same BSC. The method of realizing load share: heighten the edge handover threshold towards that of the serving cell, the traffic at the cell edge will be handed over those with less traffic. The basis for judging the traffic of a cell is the cell flow (that is, TCH occupation rate) and the preset threshold. If the cell flow of a cell is higher than the heavy traffic load threshold (Load HO Start
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Threshold ), this cell is consider to have a heavy traffic load, and the load handover algorithm needs to be activated. If the cell flow of a cell is lower than the low traffic threshold (Load HO Rx Threshold), it is consider having a low traffic load, and is allowed to accept the traffic handed over from other heavy traffic load cells. To avoid all the calls in cell initiate the load handover after they reach the load handover threshold, the system controls the load handover bandwidth to control the handover. The load handover is allowed only when the Rxlev of the serving cell is in the range of the edge handover threshold and the edge handover threshold + load handover bandwidth. To avoid too many handovers happening simultaneously, the load handover is implemented step by step, that is, the edge handover threshold will increase by certain step length (CLS_Ramp) and period (CLS_Period). The increase ends when the threshold reaches the load handover bandwidth (CLS_Offset). The load handover algorithm can effectively share the load of the cell and reduce the cell congestion.

6.5. GBFD-0605 Layered and Hierarchical Handover
Function Description: The layered and hierarchical handover can adjust the traffic distribution on different network layers. It is suitable for various networking modes. The radio coverage in an area can be divided into four layers: The highest layer is the fourth layer. It is the umbrella-shaped cell. Generally, it is the GSM900 cell with wide coverage. It has two features: implement the coverage and implement the access of the fast-moving MS. The third layer is made up of the GSM900 macro cells. This the most widely-used cell of the current system. Most of the uses camp on this layer. The next layer is the GSM1800 micro cell with small coverage. The GSM1800 micro cell can solve the problem of insufficient frequency resources. This is the main means to implement the capacity.
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The bottom layer in the GSM1800 pico cell. Its main function is to meet the coverage requirement on the hot spot or the dead zone. The lower layer has the higher priority. If a cell has a high priority and its signal level is higher than a threshold (Inter-layer HO Threshold) and satisfy the P/N criterion, the call will be handed over to this cell even if the serving cell can still provide normal services. The purpose of layered and hierarchical handover is to direct the traffic to the cell with higher priority so that the traffic can be distributed more reasonably The service quality can be improved by setting the lowest threshold of receiving level of the target cell. There is a hysteresis when the handover occurs. Thus, the inter-layer pingpong handover will be avoided. The operators can construct a hierarchical network. They can take different traffic distribution strategies in different areas. Thus, the quality of the whole network can be improved.

6.6. GBFD-0606 Speed-sensitive Handover
Function Description: This kind of handover is initiated for fast moving MS to reduce the number of handover and hence reduced call drop rate. If MS is moving quickly within micro cell, it will be handed over to the macro cell. If the fast moving MS registered in the macro cell, time penalty will be implemented to the micro cell so that the MS will stay in the macro cell. There are two principles for speed-sensitive handover: If the MS is moving fast with the micro cell as the reference, it will be handed over to the macro cell. To avoid the fast moving MS registered in macro cell enter the micro cell, time penalty will be implemented to micro cell. BSC judges whether the MS is moving fast according to an algorithm. The judgment procedure is as follows:
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If the duration of MS camping in a cell is lower than a certain threshold (Fast Moving Time Threshold), this MS is considering being moving fast with this cell. To avoid miscarriage of justice, P/N measurement will be implemented to several cells. If the criterion of fast moving is satisfied, this MS will be handed over the macro cells. For MS registered in macro cell, the method of "timer + penalty" is applied. Before the speed sensitive timer of a certain micro cell times out, this receiving level of this micro cell will be punished, so that the position of this micro cell in the cell sequencing will be lowered. This function can ensure the MS moving fast stay in the macro cell. Thus, the handover times are reduced, the call drops are reduced.

6.7. GBFD-0607 Directed Retry
Function Description: The directed retry is actually a special handover. That is, when there is no radio resource in the assignment process, or to share the load, hand over towards the neighboring cells. This handover is from signaling channel to voice channel. The directed retry can be divided into three type: Intra-BSC directed retry Inter-BSC directed retry Inter-MSC directed retry After the MS accesses to the network, the MSC sends message "Assignment Request" to the BSC to request the TCH channel. If the communication between MSC and BSC need terrestrial circuit, the message "Assignment Request" contains the information about the terrestrial circuit. If the current cell cannot provide the required TCH channel, the BSC tries initiating a handover. The handover is based on the measure report from MS. The handover algorithm is the common handover algorithm. The MS is handed over to the neighboring cell. The neighboring cell provides the voice service for the MS. If the target cell is located in the same BSC with the original cell, the handover is called intraBSC directed retry.
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If the target cell is located in the different BSCs but the same MSC, the handover is called interBSC directed retry. If the target cell is located in the different MSC, the handover is called inter-MSC directed retry. After the directed retry is complete, the MS reports the handover complete message before it begins the call. BSC reports the MSC the assignment complete message or the handover complete message according to the target location. This function can reduce the call access failure due to the TCH congest of the cell.

6.8. GBFD-0608 SDCCH Handover
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports the SDCCH handover. The SDCCH handover refers to the handover from SDCCH channel to SDCCH channel. In common condition, the occupation time of the SDCCH channel is very short, the SDCCH handover seldom occurs. To avoid wrong handover due to the incorrect measurement report in the early period of call setup, you can set the minimum start time for the signaling channel handover to control the handover ratio of the signaling channel. The operator can use this function to improve the access success ratio of edge users and improve the quality of the network

6.9. GBFD-10102 Fast PBGT Handover
Function Description: In a fast-moving train, it takes a short time for an MS to move across a cell. Therefore, a handover must be performed quickly. To reduce the failure rate of handovers, a handover must be quickly initiated when required. If the handover fails (such as when the radio interface suddenly incurs interference), a second handover must be quickly initiated.

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Fast PBGT handover algorithm enables the better cell handover in a short period of time. Compared with the existing PBGT handover algorithm, the fast PBGT handover algorithm has the following improvement:
 Handing over an MS to a proper target cell by predicting the moving direction of the MS.  Accelerating the handover decision to improve the handover speed.

This function can improve the success rate of handovers in fast-moving environment.

6.10.GBFD-10103 Chain Cell Handover
Function Description: Through predicting the moving direction of fast-moving MS, we can make fast-moving MS handover between two chain neighbor cells. This function can reduce the number of call drops, improve the success rate of handovers in fast-moving environment, as well as improve the QoS and the network quality. Chain neighbor cells ensure reliable handovers between cells.
 railways.  Handover to a chain neighbor cell is preferred. This ensures the handover to the Chain neighbor cells are formed based on the feature of chain coverage, such as

moving direction.

This function can improve the success rate of handovers in fast-moving environment.

7. Power Control 7.1. GBFD-0701 Static Power Control
Function Description: Static power control is used to adjust BTS downlink power. By reducing the maximum transmission power of TRX, static power control can keep the coverage area and reduce intra2011-12-2 All Rights Reserved
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frequency interference. As an important means of radio link management, power control adjusts the maximum transmission power of TRX according to the expectation of system parameter setting, the Rxlev of uplink and downlink from BTS, and the MR of received quality. The basic principle of power control is: Reduce power when Rxlev or quality is higher than expectation Increase power when Rxlev or quality is lower than expectation Take both Rxlev and quality into consideration to improve the accuracy and efficiency of power control. Transmission power control tries to reduce transmission power when the transmission quality can be ensured without maximum transmission power. It can keep the transmission quality as well as reduce the average transmission power of MS and BTS and reduce the interference to other channels. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports 10 steps of BTS static power control: from 0dB to 20dB, with each step of 2dB. It can adjust the maximum transmission power of BTS within a large scope. The minimum step of BTS static power control is 0.2 dB so that more accurate power control can be implemented. By modifying and setting the parameters of static power control, coverage area, network architecture and the load of different cells are adjusted to meet the networking requirement of operators.

7.2. GBFD-0702 Dynamic Power Control
Function Description: Dynamic power control is used to reduce frequency interference within system by dynamic control of the transmission power of BTS and MS according to Rxlev and received quality. Dynamic power control includes MS dynamic power control and BTS dynamic power control. The purpose of MS power control is to adjust the output power of MS so that BTS can get stable receiving signal strength. Therefore, Interference between neighboring channels and the
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saturation ratio of multicoupler as well as the power consumption of MS are reduced. The power control of MS includes two adjustment stages: initial adjustment stage and stable adjustment stage. Initial Adjustment Stage Since BTS can support multi-call at the same time, the Rxlev should be quickly reduced in the new call connection. Otherwise, other calls supported by this BTS will deteriorate and the calls in other cells will also be affected. The purpose of initial adjustment stage is to quickly reduce the transmission power of MS to get the stable MR, so MS can be adjusted according to stable power control algorithm. Initial adjustment is used at the beginning of call connection. When a connection occurs, MS sends signals with nominal power (before receiving power adjustment commend, the nominal transmission power of MS is the maximum transmission power indicated on BCCH of the cell. If MS does not support this power level, it will adopt other power level most close to this level, such as the maximum power level supported by the classmark of MS in establishment indication message). Stable Adjustment Stage Stable adjustment is the common way to implement power control algorithm. The required parameters in uplink power control, the expected uplink Rxlev, and the uplink received quality can be adjusted according to the situation of the cell. After receiving a certain number of uplink MRs, the system compares the actual uplink Rxlev and received quality obtained by interpolation, filtering, and other methods with the expected values and calculate the power level that the MS should be adjusted to through power control algorithm. If the calculated power level differs from the output power level of MS and meets certain limit conditions (such as step limit of power adjustment and range limit of MS output power), the system will send power adjustment command. The purpose of uplink power control adjustment is to minimize the difference between the actual uplink Rxlev and received quality and the expected uplink Rxlev and received quality. BTS dynamic power control is the fine tuning based on static power control. The mode of BTS power control is almost the same with that of MS power control.
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BTS supports 15 steps of dynamic power control with each step of 2dB; MS supports 19 steps of dynamic power control with each step of 2dB.

7.3. GBFD-0703 Enhanced Power Control Algorithm
Function Description: Huawei enhanced power control algorithm is based on Huawei network optimization experiences. This algorithm has features such as MR compensation, MR prediction, adaptive power control, power control objective between the upper limit and lower limit, simple and flexible data configuration, and uplink power control step length and downlink power control step length being configured separately, which improve the accuracy of power control and ensure the stability and efficiency of algorithm. Procedure for power control decision Power control decision includes MR processing, power control request according to Rxlev, power control request according to received quality, and power control comprehensive decision. After MR processing, power control module compares the evaluation of Rxlev and the expected value and calculates the adjusted step length of transmission level in order to approach the expected value. Taking variable step length in transmission power adjustment can achieve quick power control. Power control module compares the evaluation of received quality with the expected value and calculates the adjusted step length of transmission level. When the received quality is bad, the transmission power will be improved; when the received quality is good, the transmission power will be reduced. The fixed step length is used in received quality based power adjustment, and then the system will make a comprehensive decision according to MR. Key technologies in power control decision In power control decision, Huawei adopts the following key technologies to improve the accuracy and efficiency of power control. MR compensation In power control decision, power control module will extract several Rxlev values and received
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quality values from former MRs. These MRs may be obtained under different transmission power. Therefore, in order to ensure the accuracy of Rxlev, the Rxlev values from the former MRs must be compensated if the transmission power in these MRs changes. Filter these MRs after interpolation and compensation and the power control decision will be more effective. Filter prediction As there is an interval between power control decision and power adjustment, the MR that the power control decision refers to cannot truly reflect the radio environment of power adjustment, but lags behind the changes of Rxlev and received quality, leading to the hysteresis of power adjustment. Filter prediction modifies the MR to approach the situation when power adjustment occurs. Therefore, the hysteresis can be removed effectively. The change trends of Rxlev and received quality keep continuity in a short period of time. Sample the preceding N MRs, and initiate weighted filtering, and then forecast the succeeding 0 to 3 MRs. Since there is usually an interval of only 3 MRs (1.5 s) between power control decision and power adjustment, the accuracy of forecast can be ensured. Filter the forecast MR, the interpolated MR and the compensated MR, and make the power control decision. Dual threshold power control algorithm Dual threshold power control algorithm adopts the following three strategies: –Adjusting step length of power according to Rxlev Although the purpose of power control is to achieve high conversation quality under low level, as the instability of radio link and interferences from outside, the transmission power cannot be too low. Huawei power control algorithm adopts dual threshold power control strategy to keep the Rxlev within this dual threshold. –Adjusting step length of power according to received quality The received quality changes with interference. The main interference in GSM is intrafrequency interference resulted from frequency multiplexing. This kind of interference is interactional: the increase of the power of one call equals the increase of the interference of another call. Therefore, the power adjustment due to the change of received quality should avoid the group effect of excessive increase of transmission power. The received quality is also dual limited. The received quality outside the limit requires transmission power adjustment,
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while the received quality within the limit does not. The power adjustment due to received quality takes fixed step length to avoid oscillation. –Adjusting Power control by taking both Rxlev and received quality into consideration Consider both Rxlev and received quality: meet the requirement of each factor on the one hand and consider the stability of algorithm and forbid instable adjustment when the two requirements are not compatible on the other hand. Therefore, the influences of these two factors to power control should be fully considered. Variable step length power control When variable step length regulation is adopted, if that the level or quality is greatly different from its expected value, use the larger step length to quickly adjust power; in the case that the level or quality is slightly different from its expected value, use the smaller step length to adjust power. Thus, quick and accurate power regulation is achieved. Adaptive power control Adaptive power control is to change power control strategy according different communication environments. This fact leads to a more effective and more stable power control. This is reflected in following two aspects: Power control adjustable maximum step length can be adjusted automatically according to the different communication environments. The different power control strategies are adopted for different communication environments Upper limit adjustment of signal strength when received quality is bad In dual threshold power control algorithm, the uplink/downlink signal strength has an upper limit and a lower limit. When the received quality is bad, further increase the upper limit of uplink/downlink signal strength. When the received quality is good, adopt the lower upper limit of uplink/downlink signal strength to reduce the transmission power of MS or BTS. When the received quality is bad, adopt the higher upper limit of uplink/downlink signal strength to improve the conversation quality. Uplink power control step length and downlink power control step length being configured separately This technology enables quick and flexible power control according to network condition:
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quickly increase power when the uplink/downlink signal strength or received quality suddenly becomes bad in order to avoid call drop or other problems. Benefits of enhanced power control algorithm Improve the accuracy and efficiency of power control; Reduce the interference of intra-network call; Improve the effective capacity of network; Improve the operation quality of network.

8. Measurement report (MR) 8.1. GBFD-0801 Processing of Measurement Report
Function Description: MR processing is used to report the measurement results and parameters to BSC for handover decision and power control procedures. MR consists of uplink MR and downlink MR. TRX initiate sampling measurement of uplink Rxlev and received quality and smooth processing within SACCH multi-frame cycle (the same with downlink smooth cycle), and then reports the results periodically to BSC through MR messages. MR synchronizes with SACCH multi-frame cycle. Downlink MR includes downlink Rxlev and downlink received quality of the service cell measured and the downlink Rxlev of the neighbor cell. Each SACCH multi-frame cycle is 480 ms. MS reports the measurement result to BTS. BTS combines the downlink MR and the corresponding uplink measurement result into one Measurement Report and send it to BSC. Sometimes BTS cannot receive the downlink measurement result from MS and the Measurement Report only contains uplink measurement result.

8.2. GBFD-0802 Pre-processing of Measurement Report
Function Description:
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MR pre-processing is an optional function of MR processing. It enables BTS to complete part of the MR pre-processing work that BSC responsible for, such as interpolation and filtering. This function reports information to BSC through pre-processed measurement result instead of the original measurement report. BSC configures BTS through pre-process configure message, which indicates the parameter settings of MR pre-processing, such as report cycle and filter length, BTS pre-processing of MR can reduce the signaling flow at Abis interface and improve the multiplexing level of signaling channel.

9. Adjustment of Adaptive Timing Advance 9.1. GBFD-0901 Adjustment of Adaptive Timing Advance
Function Description: Timing advance is a signal that sent by the BTS to the MS which the MS uses to advance it timings of transmissions to the BTS so as to compensate for propagation delay. MS timing offset is a delay of the received signal relative to the expected signal from an MS at zero distance under static channel conditions with zero timing advance. BTS calculates the MS timing offset and uses it to adjust the timing advance, and then send timing advance to MS. The MS timing offset is accurate to ±1 symbol, and reported once per SACCH or after RACH as required (i.e. at the same rate as timing advance). This function ensures the radio signaling arrive at BTS on time without mistake.

10. Radio Resource Management 10.1.GBFD-1001 TRX Management
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Function Description: TRX management is mainly about TRX status management, which includes the following procedures: SACCH filling information modification procedure This procedure enables BSC to indicate to BTS the new information used on downlink SACCHs, so BTS will inform MS to initiate system information update. Radio resource indication procedure Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC the interference level on idle dedicated channel of each TRX, so BSC is fully informed of the interference situation of the current idle channels for the subsequent channel allocation. Flow control procedure Through this procedure, frame unit controller (FUC) indicates to BSC the overload TRX. The cause of overload may include overload CCCH, overload AGCH and overload processor. Error report procedure BTS reports to BSC the detected downlink errors that cannot be reported by other procedures.

10.2.GBFD-1002 Radio Link Management
Function Description: Radio link management is mainly used to establish and release radio links and forward messages. This function manages the data link layer. Through the following procedures, BTS and BSC can implement channel state management, initial service establishment and service release: Link establishment indication procedure Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC that the multi-frame link has been established. BSC establishes an SCCP link to MSC according to this indication. Link establishment request Through this procedure, BSC requests to establish multi-frame link on radio path. Link release indication
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Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC that the radio link release initiated by MS has finished. Link release request Through this procedure, BSC requests BTS to release a radio link. Transparent Layer 3 message transmission in acknowledged mode Through this procedure, BSC request BTS to forward a transparent Layer 3 message in acknowledged mode. Transparent Layer 3 Message Reception in acknowledged mode Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC that a transparent layer 3 message is received in acknowledged mode. Transparent Layer 3 Message Transmission in unacknowledged mode Through this procedure, BSC request BTS to forward a transparent Layer 3 message in unacknowledged mode. Transparent Layer 3 message reception in unacknowledged mode Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC that a transparent layer 3 message is received in unacknowledged mode. Link error indication Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC the errors in radio link layer.

10.3.GBFD-1003 Radio Common Channel Management
Function Description: Radio common channel management procedure is mainly about the management of common control channels which include PCH, RACH, AGCH, NCH, PPCH, PRACH, PAGCH, and PNCH. Huawei BSS supports PCH, RACH, AGCH, PPCH, PRACH, and PAGCH. Common control channels PCH (Paging Channel): Downlink channel, MS listens to PCH at intervals to judge whether there is a call from MSC. RACH (Random Access Channel): Uplink channel, MS accesses to network through RACH
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and requests network to assign an SDCCH. AGCH (Access Grant Channel): Downlink channel, the network informs MS of the assigned dedicated channel (SDCCH or TCH) through AGCH. NCH (Notification Channel): Downlink channel, used for voice group call service and voice broadcast service. PPCH (Packet Paging Channel): Downlink channel, MS listens to PPCH at intervals to judge whether there is a call from SGSN. PRACH (Packet Random Access Channel): Uplink channel, MS requests for network access through PRACH. PAGCH (Packet Access Grant Channel): Downlink channel, network informs MS of the assigned packet data traffic channel through PAGCH. PNCH (Packet Notification Channel): Downlink channel, used for PTM-M call. Radio common channel management procedures Radio common channel management procedures include MS channel request, paging, immediate assignment, erasure indication, CCCH load indication, broadcast information modification and short message cell broadcast. It is used for signaling processing procedures such as terminal access and assignment. MS channel request: this procedure is triggered when TRX detects the random access (channel request message) from MS. Paging: this procedure is used to page an MS on a specific paging sub-channel. It is used for mobile terminating call and initiated by MSC through BSC. BSC decides the paging group used according to the IMSI of the called MS. The values of this paging group and the identity information of MS are sent to BTS. Immediate assignment: when MS first accesses to BTS, BSC assigns a dedicated channel for MS immediately through this procedure. CCCH load indication: BTS indicates to BSC the load information of specific CCCH timeslot. If this load exceeds the load limit set by the system, BTS will send overload indication to BSC periodically. Erasure indication: through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC that one immediate assignment message is deleted without being put in AGCH queue. In order to do that, BTS
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sends an erasure indication message to BTS. Broadcast information modification: BSC indicates to BTS the new information to broadcast on BCCH. In order to do that, BSC sends a BCCH message to BTS. Short message cell broadcast: through this procedure, BSC requests BTS to send cell broadcast short message.

10.4.GBFD-1004 Radio Dedicated Channel Management
Function Description: Radio dedicated channel management is the process of assignment, activation, release, management, and report of the dedicated channels such as SDCCH, SACCH, and TCH. It includes the following procedures: Channel activation Through this procedure, BSC indicates to BTS to activate a dedicated channel for a certain MS. After this channel is activated, BSC assigns this channel to the MS through immediate assignment, assignment command, additional assignment or handover command. Channel mode change Through this procedure, BSC requests BTS to change the mode of the activated channel. Handover detection This procedure is used to detect the access of the switched MS between target BTS and target BSC. Encryption initiation This procedure is used to initiate the encryption procedure specified in TS GSM 04.08. Measurement report This procedure includes the required basic measurement report procedure and optional measurement report procedure with pre-processing. BTS reports to BSC all the parameters related to handover decision. SACCH deactivation Through this procedure, BSC deactivates the SACCH of TRX according to the requirement of
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channel release procedure in TS GSM 04.08. Radio channel release Through this procedure, BSC indicates to BTS to release a radio channel no longer used. MS power control Through this procedure, BSS controls the transmission power of MS related to the activated channel. MS power control decision should be implemented in BSC or BTS BSS transmission power control Through this procedure, BSS controls the transmission power of the activated channel of TRX. BSS transmission power control should be implemented in BSC or BTS. Connection failure Through this procedure, BTS indicates to BSC that an activated dedicated channel has been broken. Physical context request Through this procedure, BSC obtains the physical parameters of specific channels, which always happens before a decision of channel change. It is an optional procedure. SACCH information modification Through this procedure, BSC indicates to BTS to change the filling information on a certain SACCH.

10.5.GBFD-1005 Enhanced Channel Assignment Algorithm
Function Description: Enhanced channel assignment algorithm is based on Huawei network operation experiences as well as the preferred mechanism. This kind of algorithm is better suited to cells with relatively high traffic volume and large number of TRXs. The channel assignment algorithm in BSC system selects proper channels to assign according to channel interference, configuration, history record, and load distribution, the transmission power ability of MS as well as the actual call instance and environment. Channel interference decides the key indexes of traffic measurement such as conversation
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quality, put-through rate, call drop rate and handover success rate. It is the first factor to be considered in channel assignment. The measurable interferences include uplink interference on idle channels and uplink/downlink interference on occupied channels. The preferred mechanism is based on the following aspects: Channel assignment based on interference Assign the channels with less interference first. There are two exceptions: For calls with high priority, MSC will limit the interference on channels to be assigned. Channels with interference beyond this limit cannot be assigned. Considering the maximum transmission power ability and propagation loss in the call environment, assign the channels with more interference to the calls with higher Rxlev and leave the channels with fewer interfaces to the calls with lower Rxlev in order to improve the overall put-through rate and conversation quality. Channel assignment based on channel configuration Consider channel configurations such as whether the channel and BCCH belong to the same TRX in order to reduce network interference and improve network quality. Channel assignment based on history record This kind of algorithm has memory function. History record includes the success, failure and call drop of the channel seizure. Whether the seizure failure and the call drop are cause by radio channels should be analyzed. This kind of history record can be used as a reference in channel assignment. Channel assignment based on load balance Load balance can keep the even distribution of channel seizures in different frequencies. It can reduce intra-frequency and inter-frequency interferences and avoid the risks due to the concentration of calls in several frequencies. Channel assignment based on specific calls Specific calls such as intra-cell handover and overlaid handover have special channel assignment strategies. Intra-cell handover is often caused by channel quality, which may indicate that the frequency of the original channel is interfered. If the original channel is frequency hopping channel, the frequency hopping group is very likely to be interfered seriously. Therefore, in intra-cell handover, the new channel takes the frequency or frequency
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hopping group that is different from the original cell as the first choice.

AMR based call: In networks with dense frequency multiplexing, the interference is very strong. Because AMR calls have excellent anti-interference performance, AMR calls are allocated to the carriers with dense frequency multiplexing, and non-AMR calls are allocated to the carriers with loose frequency multiplexing. In this way, the voice quality in the entire network is improved. The channel assignment in BSC system supports queuing. There is no queuing in initial assignment because the priority information of users cannot be obtained at that time. Queuing is mainly used in connection assignment and handover. MSC decides whether queuing is allowed in assignment request or handover request. If there is no channel available and queuing is allowed, BSC will queue this assignment request and assign the traffic channels as soon as possible to reduce the wait time of users. The channel assignment in BSC system supports different priority level assignment. Channels are assigned according to different priority levels. Sometimes, high priority users can even preempt the channels of users with low priority. Taking various factors into consideration can optimize the channel assignment for each call so that the users will get high voice quality.

11. System Information 11.1.GBFD-1101 System Information Sending
Function Description: System information includes the primary parameters of radio network at Um interface such as network identification parameters, cell selection parameters, system control parameters and network function parameters. By receiving system information, MS can correctly access to network and make network selection, and make full use of all kinds of services the network provides.
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Type of system information Huawei BSS supports 13 types of system information: 1, 2, 2bis, 2ter, 2quater, 3, 4, 5, 5bis, 5ter, 6, 7, and 13. Among them, 1, 2, 2bis, 2ter, 2quater, 3, 4, 7, and13 are broadcast messages transmitted on BCCH in idle mode; 5, 5bis, 5ter, and 6 are associated messages transmitted on SACCH in communication mode. Among the 13 types of system information, 1, 2, 2bis, 2ter, 3, 4, 5, 5bis, 5ter, and 6 are basic system information; 7 and 13 are system information transmitted to support GPRS; 2quater is information transmitted to support the inter-system handover and re-selection between 2G and 3G. Way of System information sending System information is sent by two different ways: broadcast message and channel associated message. In idle mode, MS communicates with the network via the broadcasting of system information. The network sends system information to MS so that MS knows its current position and the service type available. Some parameters can also control the cell reselection of MS. When MS is establishing calls, the communication between network equipment is realized with the channel associated system information. Network equipment sends some contents in the channel-associated message to MS so as to control the behaviors such as transmission, power control and handover of MS. The broadcast system information is closely related to the channel-associated message. The content in the broadcast system information can overlap with that in the channel associated message. While the content in the channel associated message can be inconsistent with that in the broadcast system information, because the channel associated message has the effect on only one MS, while the broadcast system information affects all MSs in idle mode. Parameters of system information System information contains the following key parameters of network: Network identity parameter It contains cell global identification (CGI) and base station identity code (BSIC). CGI consist of location area identification (LAI) and cell identification (CI). System messages 3, 6, and 4
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contain all or partial CGI information. BSIC marks the local color code of each GSM BTS. Since the frequencies are more or less reused according to network planning requirement, MS differentiates the BCCH TRXs of two cells sharing the same frequency with BSIC that transmitted on the sync channel of each cell. IMSI attach-detach allowed (ATT) It is used to inform MS that whether the IMSI ATT process is allowed. ATT is transmitted in the control channel description of system information type 3. Common control channel configuration (CCCH CONF) CCCH CONF decides the combination mode of CCCH. It is transmitted in the control channel description of system information type 3. CCCH CONF must be consistent with the actual configuration of CCCH. It is decided by traffic model of the cell. Access granted reserved blocks (BS AG BLKS RES) This parameter is transmitted in the control channel description of system information type 3. Parameter BS AG BLKS RES and parameter CCCH CONF together decide the CCCH information blocks contained in each BCCH multi-frame. After CCCH CONF is confirmed, parameter BS AG BLKS RES actually distributes the proportion of AGCH and PCH on CCCH. This parameter regulates the bearer status of AGCH and PCH. Paging channel multi-frames (BS PA MFRMS) This parameter is transmitted in the control channel description of system information type 3. It represents the number of multi-frames contained in a cycle of the paging sub-channel. In fact, this parameter determines how many paging sub-channels assigned in the paging channel of a cell. Periodical location update timer (T3212) This parameter determines the frequency of Periodical location update of MS. It is transmitted in the control channel description of system information type 3. It is an 8 bits code with the value ranging from 0 to 255. Each unit represents six minutes. Value 0 means no location update. Cell Channel Function Description: This parameter is transmitted in system information type 1. It describes the channel number of the radio frequency of the cell. It is mainly used for frequency hopping. Please note that the
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maximum channel number is 64. Neighbor Cells Function Description: This parameter is transmitted in system information type 2, 2bis, 2ter, 5, 5bis, and 5ter. It describes the absolute channel number of BCCH carrier frequency of the neighbor cell. The maximum number is 32. MS receives different neighbor cell list in idle mode and traffic mode that correspond to BA1 configuration and BA2 configuration respectively. These two BA lists can be configured in the same way or different way. Multi-band Reporting (MBR) This parameter is transmitted in system information type 2ter and type 5ter. It is a 2 bits code which indicates to dual band MS to report the neighbor information of different frequency bands. CELL_BAR_ACCESS This parameter indicates whether the cell allows the access of mobile phone access. It is a 1 bit code; 0 means access allowed and 1 means access denied. This parameter does not affect the access of handover. Cell re-selection parameter indicator (PI) It indicates to MS whether to adopt C2 as cell re-selection parameter and to check if this parameter exists. PI is a 1 bit code: 0 means C1 replacing C2 as the cell re-selection criteria; 1 means extracting parameter from system information and calculating C2 value as cell reselection criteria. System information is an important parameter for operators to regulate network and control terminal activities. It is also an important means for network optimization. A deep understanding of system information enables fine network architecture and high quality network.

11.2.GBFD-1102 Forced System Information Sending by OMC
Function Description: Through operation and maintenance center (OMC), the system information of a cell can be
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forcedly sent at any time in order to update the system information of this cell. Sometimes the configuration parameters of system information can be obtained immediately by tracing the system information at Abis interface. This function helps maintainers to verify network parameters after parameter adjustment.

12. O&M Functions 12.1.GBFD-1201 Performance Management
Function Description: Performance management is used to monitor, analyze and control network performance. In brief, performance management periodically takes samples of attribute management object, resource bearer function and service feature index. Then inspects and analyzes these sampled data, evaluates the effectiveness of the network, network unit, management object and resource, reports the status of telecom equipment to support network planning, analysis and optimization and improve the performance and efficiency of network. Structure of BSC6000 performance statistics BSC6000 performance statistics adopts two-stage structure: data sampling and data storage, analysis and monitoring. Data sampling is carried out by BSC6000 and reported to M2000. BSC6000 has buffering ability; M2000 carried out data storage, analysis and monitoring. M2000 also provides northbound interface and performance index and result to upper NM Station. Basic functions of performance statistics Performance monitoring The main job for operation support personnel is to monitor alarm and key performance indexes in order to solve the performance problems on time. Some of the key performance indexes in radio network, such as channel utilization rate, congestion rate, traffic volume (Erl), call handover attempt and success rate, the received quality of uplink/downlink, TCH call drop rate, SDCCH call drop rate, GPRS cell re-selection
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performance report and GPRS data throughput monitor, require real time monitor. The user interface of real time monitor can be displayed through histogram, fold-line graph or pie graph, or through clear and effective performance report. Threshold alarm is also one of the performance monitor functions. Through threshold alarm monitor, the improper performance index data can be detected on time to assist system maintenance. The threshold may have only upper limit or lower limit or both upper and lower limits according to specific measurement indexes. When the measurement value goes beyond the threshold, the performance operation system will automatically send threshold alarm to alarm system. The abnormality can be analyzed and removed according to feedback. Real-time monitoring: Generally, the minimum period of reporting the KPIs is 15 minutes. When optimizing the network, the maintenance personnel must check the impact of system parameter changes on the network performance. To satisfy the requirements on operation and maintenance while considering the load of the system, the system supports reporting some KPIs at the interval of 1 minute. These KPIs include TCH traffic volume, handover success rate, TCH call drop rate (including handover), TCH congestion rate (all busy), call setup success rate, paging overload rate, and CPU usage. You can select them if necessary. Performance control The purpose of performance control is to improve network performance and service quality, which can be called network optimization. Network optimization includes optimization analysis and optimization implementation. Optimization analysis Network optimization is based on deep analysis of the data (such as traffic statistics data, interface tracing data, drive test data, maintenance data, RFMT data, CHR, RSSI and other warehouse, such as diagnostic data) in performance data warehouse and the data alarm information. The analysis report and optimization suggestion are carried out after comprehensive analysis. Besides, the optimization guide is also required. Optimization implementation This function implements network optimization by performance control according to optimization suggestion.
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Performance analysis and report Operation support personnel monitor the network performance, the available network resources, resource utilization and service class according to the performance report made by maintenance personnel. The performance report varies according to different operators and the change of services. Huawei’s GSM BSS provides convenient customized report to meet different requirement and also provides original performance data for the enhancement maintenance of operators by third-party tools. Diagnosis and location of performance problems This function is the discrimination, judgment and location of the potential problems such as CHR, voice problems (call drop, put-through rate, one-way audio and so on) and signaling analysis according to the comprehensive analysis of performance statistics, performance diagnostic data ( such as CHR, RFMT, tracing, and RSSI ), alarm data, and configuration data. Function Description:of performance statistics index: Classification of performance statistics Performance statistics object can be divided into BSC, cell, TRX and cell neighborhood according to statistical object; Performance statistics also can be divided into paging, call procedure, measurement report and channel assignment according to the user status of a certain statistical indicator. Performance management can automatically add or delete the related statistics function according to the dynamic adjustment of network configuration. Performance measurement data is stored in network and users can obtain the customized report according to their own needs. The key performance index (KPI) and the routine maintenance index that the users (including maintenance personnel and network optimization engineers) care about are default defined in pre-defined index mode. According to the traffic statistics manual or other user manuals users can also customize the performance statistics report based on the detailed definition of original index. Enhanced performance statistics that Huawei’s GSM BSS supports Huawei’s GSM BSS also supports the following enhanced performance statistics: Cell incoming and outgoing handover statistics This function provides the performance measurement of adjacent cell incoming and outgoing
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handover. By statistic data, customer could know the running of the network from different aspect, and adjust the handover parameters to optimize the network. Undefined adjacent cell statistics This function provides BSIC, BCCH frequency, average signal intensity, quantity of measurement reports of the cell that is configured as an adjacent cell in BA list, but not so in cell adjacency relationship table. By statistic data, customer could know the running of the network from different aspect, and adjust the correlative parameters to optimize the network. Defined adjacent cell statistics This function provides BSIC, BCCH frequency, average signal intensity, quantity of measurement reports of the adjacent cell. By statistic data, customer could know the running of the network from different aspect, and adjust the correlative parameters to optimize the network. Up and Down link balance statistic This function provides uplink and downlink balanced performance measurement of TCH. The different grades between downlink receiving level and uplink receiving level would be counted. By statistic data, customer could know the running of the network from different aspect, and adjust the correlative parameters to optimize the network. Call loss statistics This function provides performance measurement of call loss related to connection failure signaling. Average uplink and downlink lever, average uplink and downlink quality, average time advance of SDCCH call loss or TCH call loss would be counted. By statistic data, customer could know the running of the network from different aspect, and adjust the correlative parameters to optimize the network. BTS service suspension statistics: The equipment together with the M2000 provides BTS service suspension statistics, covering:  The time when the BTS suspends the service  The time when the BTS recovers the service  The duration of service suspension in the BTS

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12.2.GBFD-1202 O&M of BTS
Function Description: The operation and maintenance of BTS is based on logical objects that include site, cell, base band (BT), channel (CH) and frequency carrier (RC). Administrative state The administrative state of each logical object represents the use of this resource is allowed or denied. It is forced set by administrators. There are three administrative states: Locked: The radio interface transceiver and ground BT transceiver are cut. Unlocked: The radio interface transceiver and ground BT transceiver are connected. Shut Down: Keep the current communication until service release and no new access is allowed. BT, CH and RC have all these three states. The administrative state of cell is the general management operation of all BTs, CHs and RCs under this cell. The administrative state of a cell has no ShutDown operation. The administrative state of a site refers to administrative rights, which means the configuration rights of all parameters of BTS. Operation and Maintenance of BTS O&M of BTS: the O&M of BTS mainly consists of the following aspects: –Query, loading, and activation of software version, –Transmission performance test –Leveled reset –Environment monitoring –Alarm mask –Query of ring networking parameters O&M of multi-BTS This function can reduce the work of maintenance personnel and the error rate for large area operation. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports four kinds of multi-BTS operation: multi-BTS failure query, query of multi-BTS software version, forced loading of multi-BTS software, and multiBTS software activation. O&M of cell This function mainly consists of cell attribute query, cell administrative state change, cell
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system information sending and forced cell handover. The function of forced cell handover is the forced handover with or without target cell provided by BSC. BSC selects target cell according to MR to endure the success rate of handover. This function is used for the handover of current users before the maintenance of BTS equipments in order to avoid call drop during maintenance operation. O&M of BT This function consists of BT attribute query, BT leveled reset, query and change of BT administrative state and BT test. O&M of CH This function consists of CH attribute query, query and change of CH administrative state, forced handover of CH and related operation and maintenance of CH. O&M of RC This function consists of the operation and maintenance of administrative state, attribute enquiry and automatic frequency correction. Query, maintenance and reset of BTS board. You can select boards according to the board distribution in maintenance interface and query the software and hardware information and extended power information, reset boards, and query board alarm. You can also set the timer for some boards. Check the operation status according to the simultaneous display of all boards on the panel so as to be fully aware of the general situation of the BTS. All the operation and maintenance functions can be performed at remote terminal and local terminal for the use and query of users. The common logical maintenance or operation is performed at remote terminal; the hardware replacement can be performed at local terminal.

12.3.GBFD-1203 O&M of BSC
Function Description: With graphical interface, the O&M of BSC can be understood and used quickly without complex operations. It mainly contains BSC software management, the query and reset of
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board, the query of system call resources, the operation and maintenance of all kinds of interfaces, LAPD link, and link SS7. Software management It includes operations such as loading, management, and activation. The management objects include software of each board, software patch, license, and BOOTROM. The operations of these four kinds of software enable a comprehensive management of BSC software. O&M of board It includes the reset and switchover of board, the monitoring of CPU and DSP, and the reset of frame or system. System monitoring is classified into two categories:  Monitoring and offline browse of the CPU/DSP usage: You can monitor a maximum of four objects in a task. Starting multiple monitoring tasks simultaneously is allowed. Through monitoring the CPU/DSP usage, you can obtain the system load in real time.  Monitoring and offline browse of the BER of the port: You can know the transmission quality in real time. The system supports the monitoring of E1/T1/STM-1. You can view the G.821-compliant error specifications, such as BER (Bit Error Ratio), ES (Errored Second), ESR (Errored Second Ratio), SES (Severely Errored Second), SESR (Severely Errored Second Ratio). Query of call resources The system enquires all the resources the user uses in GSM BSS according to the IMSI and other information of this user provided by maintenance personnel. These resources include the information of BTS, sector, and TRX, the circuit information of Abis interface, the Ater interface information of BSC in use, A interface, TC resources, and information of each board. All these information helps maintenance personnel quickly locate problems and failures. Maintenance of interface and link This function is mainly about the management of LAPD link, link SS7 and the trunk circuit of each interface, such as the query of the state of LAPD link , link SS7, and the trunk circuit, changing the state of trunk circuit, blocking and unblocking of LAPD link and link SS7 and so on. Time synchronization BSC6000 initiate time synchronization with the upper NM station through BAM and distributes the synchronized clock to all the boards in a network to synchronize all the elements of the
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system. Through powerful maintenance function, the maintenance personnel can quickly get familiar with GSM BSS maintenance console and master Huawei equipments to maintain Huawei’s GSM BSS system in a simply and efficient way.

E1/T1 Transmission BER Detection: On the maintenance GUI, you can obtain the information on the E1/T1 transmission quality in real time by viewing the G.821-compliant error specifications, such as Bit Error Ratio (BER), Errored Second (ES), Errored Second Ratio (ESR), and Severely Errored Second Ratio (SESR). Operation Log Report to Integrated Network Management: The BSC supports the query and export of operation logs by time. The exported logs are saved in .xml format. The BSC compresses the operation logs and uploads them to the integrated network management system by time or by file size. The integrated network management system can translate the operation logs in .xml format. It also supports the query by time.

12.4.GBFD-1204 Clock Control Setting
Function Description: The clock control setting function that Huawei’s GSM BSS provides includes the acquisition of clock running status, clock parameter setting, reset, and self-test. The system clock adopts active standby design and provides standard stratum 3 clock. For the clock source, BSC supports clock extraction from the line, or BITS clock input. External clock source is input to GGCK board as reference clock of BSC system. GGCK board inputs the clock signal to main service processing frame through backplane, or to extended service processing frame through clock distribution wires. TRAU distance extension frame can get clock signal from line and distribute it through GGNU board. BTS clock source adopts highly accurate clock and global leading APL algorithm. When BTS synchronizes with BSC, it works in a synchronization mode. Once the synchronization is lost, BTS works in clock hold mode immediately.

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12.5.GBFD-1205 BSC Alarm
Function Description: BSC alarm system provides two kinds of alarm output devices: alarm console and alarm box. Alarm box provides visual and audible alarm; alarm console is an OMC console, which provides detailed alarm information, recovery suggestion and alarm box control. BSC alarm system BSC alarm system consists of BAM alarm module, integrated network management alarm database, alarm console, and alarm box. Alarm system accurately reflects all kinds of real time fault information detected by BSC system to maintenance personnel through alarm information and the maintenance personnel will deal with it accordingly. BSC alarm classification According to its severity and influence, alarm can be divided into urgent alarm, severe alarm, common alarm, and promoting alarm. Different level of alarm provides different alarm display, such as color and sound. According to its subsystem and subsystem type, alarm can be divided into fault alarm and event alarm. For fault alarm, there is fault recovery alarm; event alarm has no corresponding recovery alarm. According to the cause of alarm, it can be divided into inter-module communication subsystem alarm, signaling subsystem alarm, clock subsystem alarm, trunk subsystem alarm and power supply subsystem alarm. These subsystem alarms help the maintenance personnel quickly locate the faults. BSC alarm provides software running alarm functions, such as CPU overload alarm and GBAM hardware capacity alarm. Alarm location and recovery suggestion The alarm information at alarm console provides detailed alarm information, including the ID of the alarm board, the potential cause and consequence of alarm, and the recovery suggestion. Alarm box control It provides manual control of alarm box. Manual operation at OMC alarm console can mute the sound or turn off the light. It also provides real-time print function.
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Dynamic configuration of alarm data According to the alarm data configuration, BSC can control automatically where the alarms will be sent, such as to alarm box only, to OMC alarm console only, to these two terminals together or to none. Alarm query This function provides various kinds of alarm enquiries. You can do real-time browse of fault alarm, urgent event alarm, or other event alarm at alarm console. You can also enquire historical fault alarm, recovery alarm, and event alarm according to alarm serial number, alarm ID, date and time of alarm, alarm module number, function number or alarm level. Monitoring of power distribution and fan –Power distribution monitor detects dual input of -48V voltage, the status of air-break switch and lightning protection unit and the ambient temperature and humidity of cabinet. –Fan monitor controls the rev of fan. When failure occurs to a fan, fan monitor will keep the rated running of the rest fans. supports the environment monitoring instrument. Each subrack in the BSC6000 can be connected with an environment monitoring instrument, which is connected with the system through serial ports. The environment monitoring instrument has four types of ports:  4 fixed analog ports: used for obtaining –48 V voltage, –24 V voltage, temperature, and humidity alarms  4 extended external analog ports  4 fixed external Boolean ports: used for obtaining water damage, smoke, infrared, and door status alarms  32 extended external Boolean ports Alarm information is stored in M2000 integrated network management. BSC has 300 thousands history alarm record buffer ability.

12.6.GBFD-1206 BTS Alarm
Function Description:
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BTS alarm depends on the functions of BSC alarm. BTS provides the same alarm functions as BSC by reporting the alarm to alarm center through the channel that BSC provides. BTS alarm is divided into eight categories: clock alarm, antenna system alarm, carrier system alarm, baseband alarm, power amplification alarm, transmission alarm and environment alarm. The environment alarm is usually carried out in extended alarm. BTS alarm can be enquired according to station number, cell number, or TRX number so as to confirm the failure and recovery status. BTS alarm information can be enquired and displayed at both remote and local alarm console. The environment alarm that BTS supports consists of fire, smoke, temperature, humidity, entrance guard, and power supply alarms. The ranges of temperature and humidity can be controlled by alarm threshold setting. BTS also supports clearance of environment alarm. BTS extended alarm requires EAC environment alarm box.

12.7.GBFD-1207 BTS Test Function
Function Description: This functions of BTS test includes site test, baseband test, baseband idle timeslot test, TCH loopback test, transmission performance test and cyclic redundancy check (CRC). Site test It is a test of hardware of boards, which include TMU board, TRX, CDU. The hardware test can help early detection and recovery of hardware failure. Baseband test Baseband test includes BIU loopback test and TRX self-test: BIU loopback test is a test of the link transmission of the timeslot that the TRX signaling channel corresponds to on the DBUS of BTS. During the text, TRX send the signaling channel data to the timeslot of DBUS in BTS. Through TMU loopback, TRX can receive the data it sent. TRX compares the data and reports the bit error rate. Therefore, the quality information of signaling channel link of DBUS in BTS is obtained. TRX self-test tests the state of TRX baseband.
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Baseband idle timeslot test In network optimization, sometimes the maximum interference status has to be set manually in order to obtain the information of maximum interference. The method is to let all idle timeslots send dummy burst. In test start command, set the test time to 1–24 hours. The test can be stopped automatically by software or manually at maintenance console. TCH loopback test TCH loopback test includes BIU loopback test and TRX radio frequency self-loop test. BIU loopback test is a test of the transmission of the timeslot that the TRX traffic channel corresponds to on the DBUS of BTS. During the text, TRX send the traffic channel data to the timeslot of DBUS in BTS. Through TMU loopback, TRX can receive the data it sent. TRX compares these data and reports the bit error rate. Therefore, the quality of traffic channel link of DBUS in BTS is obtained. TRX radio frequency self-test is carried out by the digital signal processing unit. Through baseband processing unit and the loopback of radio frequency unit, the data goes through baseband processing unit again and returns to digital signal processing unit. Digital signal processing unit compares the data and reports the bit error rate. Therefore, the quality information of transmitting and receiving channel is obtained. Transmission performance test It mainly tests the transmission performance of E1 port specified by BTS. E1 loopback test can quickly judge the transmission performance of a specified TMU board. There are two kinds of loopback available: E1 loopback and timeslot loopback. E1 loopback tests all the timeslots of a specified E1 port; timeslot loopback requires the user to specify the number of the timeslot to test, one timeslot for each test. Operators can decide whether to adopt CRC for the transmission between BTS and BSC. Through different kinds of BTS tests, maintenance personnel can quickly locate the cause of problem and the malfunctioning module to perform service recovery on time.

BTS Antenna System Connection Detection: The function is performed for the kickoff and cutover of a BTS and for the fault location of the BTS antenna system. The function has two parts: call test and antenna system intermodulation
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detection. Call test: You can enable the call of a specified MS to perform traverse handover on the channels in the cell through the BTS maintenance system and the BSC host. Thus the BTS can test the channels and then report the test result to the BTS maintenance system through the BSC. The test result is saved as a file for the tool-enabled analysis. You can test the following: misconnection of the antenna system, main and diversity problems, uplink and downlink balance, one-way audio, and no audio. Antenna system intermodulation detection: Detection of interference on each frequency band can be implemented through the frequency band scanning mode. The function is performed to realize the automation of the BTS kickoff test so that the workload of the kickoff personnel can be minimized and the efficiency can be enhanced. The function is also performed to locate the problems in the BTS antenna system. In addition, the maintenance cost can be reduced. Intra- and Inter-Frequency Check in One BTS:This function is performed for intra- and inter-frequency check on the frequencies in all the cells within one BTS during data configuration. This helps to avoid the configuration of intra- and inter-frequency in one BTS or one cell because of maloperation. Such configuration will lead to intra-network interference, but if the configuration is confirmed by the operator, it can be issued.

12.8.GBFD-1208 Dynamic Data Configuration
Function Description: BSC dynamic data configuration is implemented through the configuration of maintenance console. Maintenance console adopts graphical user interface and object-oriented management to implement data configuration with a natural paradigm. Operation tasks for dynamic data configuration are categorized according to the on-site demands. Each task adopts wizard mode to instruct the user to complete the complicated inservice system configuration and network parameter adjustment. GSM BSS supports adding
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hardware such as frame and board by dynamic configuration. After the configuration, hardware will automatically load software and data and go into running. Dynamic data configuration can be divided into dynamic configuration of BSC data, dynamic configuration of BTS data, and dynamic configuration of cell data. Dynamic configuration of BSC data It includes adding/deleting frame and board, configuring and modifying BSC software parameters, signaling link, A interface circuit, and handover parameters. It supports import / export network optimization data to ensure the continuation of network parameters. Dynamic configuration of BTS data It includes adding/deleting BTS, adding/deleting /modifying BTS hardware configuration, modifying site name, loopback attributes, and site attributes. It supports dynamic cross-frame transfer for operators to regulate the network. Dynamic configuration of cell data It includes adding/deleting cells and TRXs, and modifying cell attribute parameter, radio frequency parameter, power control parameter, system information, frequency hopping parameter, and channel type. It also includes dynamic adding/deleting external cell and configuring 3G neighbor cell. All GSM BSS data supports dynamic adding/deleting and dynamic configuration, which greatly reduces the work of maintenance personnel and the risk of network regulation, and simplifies the convenience of operation and maintenance. BTS reset is required after the configuration of some BTS data.

12.9.GBFD-1209 GUI Graphic Interface
Function Description: The operation and maintenance client of Huawei BSS is a graphic terminal based on GUI. The hardware of client is PC, connected to GBAM or M2000 through Ethernet. The client is a subsystem consisting of several functional modules. It provides user-oriented O&M interface that enables users to initiate all kinds of operations such as data configuration,
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equipment maintenance, performance management, and alarm management. The GUI based O&M terminal implements all kinds of O&M functions and outputs the related reports by communicating with GBAM. The operation and maintenance of Huawei GUI graphic interface support integrated network management accessed to M2000 from remote end, GBAM accessed to BSC from local end, and local maintenance of BTS. GUI graphic interface can avoid complex command that users have to input so as to simplify the maintenance work and improve the serviceability of system.

12.10. GBFD-1210 Integrated Network Management Interface
Function Description: GSM BSS products access to Huawei mobile integrated network management system iManager M2000 through integrated network management interface of OMC operation and maintenance. The product iManager M2000 is an integrated management system on network element level. It supports the integrated operation and maintenance of mobile equipment. With flexible access modes, the remote network element equipment can access through wide area network. The O&M console can be placed anywhere on the network. In normal communication, the integrated maintenance is performed; when the communication with network management center is interrupted, local maintenance is initiated. Through the interface of integrated network management, users can perform software management, configuration, maintenance, alarm, performance statistics, security management, and other maintenance operations. M2000 also provides northbound interface of NM station to upper NM station or the third-party NM station.

12.11. GBFD-1211 Reporting the Temperature List of the BTS Equipment Room
Function Description:
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This function is performed to activate or deactivate the measurement of temperatures in the equipment room. Through the site maintenance system, you can set the frequency and duration of reporting on the temperatures in the equipment room. Then the result of the activation or deactivation is displayed in the site maintenance system. Through the client, you can download the files of the temperature in the equipment room from the BAM in FTP mode. Through the client, you can also query the files of the temperature in the equipment room and save the query results.

12.12. GBFD-1212 Reporting the BTS Resource Information
Function Description: This function supports the following two modes:  Automatic reporting of the bar code of a board  Query of the reported bar code through the site maintenance system In the first mode, when a BTS is reset, or the bar code of a board changes, or an added board is dynamically configured, the BTS automatically reports the bar code of the board to the BSC. In the second mode, manually restart the reporting of the bar code of the board if the information about the bar code is lost because of the following:  The communication between the BSC and the BTS is disrupted.  The host and the BAM are overloaded.  The BAM is reset. If a board is deleted, the BSC deletes the related information about the bar code of the board from the BAM through the verification mechanism. If a board is deleted and then the configuration information about a BTS changes , the BSC sends the configuration information about the slots of the BTS to the BAM. Then the BAM deletes the BTS resource information about the slots that are not configured.

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12.13. GBFD-1213 Remote Upgrade of the BSC&BTS Software
Function Description: The Huawei BSS equipment supports remote upgrade of software from the M2000 and the LMT. The remote upgrade of BSC&BTS software function support :  Downloading, loading, activating of BSC software、BTS software and patch programs.  Rolling back the BSC&BTS software.  Loading and activating the license.  Viewing the information of the software version and licenses.

12.14. GBFD-1214 recovery
Function Description:

Operation

&

maintenance

system

one-key

The operation & maintenance system of Huawei BSS equipment includes GBAM and POMU. Both of them adopt the Linux operating system. If the operating system is damaged, you can use the system recovery disk delivered with the equipment and execute a one-key recovery command to recover the operation & maintenance system and restore the default configuration data. The function can simplify the maintenance work and recover the system quickly.

13. LAPD Multiplexing at Abis Interface 13.1.GBFD-1301 LAPD Multiplexing at Abis Interface
Function Description: In BSC6000 system, the interface board of the BTS supports 16 kbps TS exchange mode or N: 1 multiplexing mode which are specified for the RSL or OML signaling channels. The speech channel adopts the exclusive mode, 16 kbps TS interchange for full rate speech channel and 8 kbps TS interchange for half rate speech channel. For full rate TRX, the BSS system supports multiplexing four RSLs to one 64K E1 TS or 16
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kbps TS interchange. In this way, one E1 can support 15 TRXs inMAX. For half rate TRX, the BSS system supports N: 1 multiplexing (N=2, 3, 4). When the capacity of the speech channel is twice as before, the RSL signaling traffic flow of every TRX doubles, too. So the defaulted 2:1 multiplexing is adopted, that is, multiplex the RSL link of at most two TRXs to one 64 kbps E1 TS. The multiplexing ratio is related to the total number of TRXs one E1 supports. As the traffic flow is heavy in half rate mode, 2:1 multiplexing is recommended, that is, one E1 supports 13 half rate TRXs. N: 1 multiplexing can be configured according to different BTSs in a cascade. For example, for the S1/1/1, the first BTS can be configured with 4:1 multiplexing, the second 2:1 and the third 4:1. LAPD multiplexing at Abis interface raises the usability of the ground links at Abis interface and reduces the maintenance cost.

14. Networking Modes 14.1.GBFD-1401 Star Networking Mode
Function Description: The star networking mode is used in the populated areas. As shown below, every BTS is directly connected to the BSC separately and the structure is simple. So this mode fits for relatively bigger sites.
BTS1 BTS2 BSC BTS3

Start networking mode

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14.2.GBFD-1402 Link Networking Mode
Function Description: The link networking mode is used along the highway or railway and in less-populated areas. It can save the transmission resources greatly and supports multi E1s. The number of nodes in this networking mode should be less than five.
BTS1 BSC

BTS3

BTS2

Link networking mode

14.3.GBFD-1403 Tree Networking Mode
Function Description: The tree networking mode is used in vast area with small population. The number of grades in this networking mode should be less than five.
BTS2

BTS1 BSC BTS4 BTS3

Tree networking mode

Huawei’s GSM BSS also supports a combination of the networking modes mentioned above.

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15. BTS Combined Cabinet 15.1.GBFD-1501 BTS combined cabinet
Function Description: Combined cabinet refers to one main cabinet with one or more slave cabinets. The clock, data and operation and maintenance signals are sent from the main cabinet through the distribution cables to the slave cabinets. The combined cabinet has greater capacity than a single cabinet. The BTS in a combined cabinet is still a BTS in logic and the cells are synchronized cells. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports up to S24/24/24 synchronized cells. The configuration of Huawei BTS3X is shown below. Configuration of Huawei BTS3X
Site BTS30 BTS312 BTS3012 BTS3002 BTS3006C BTS3002E Configuration S18/18/18 S24/24/24 S24/24/24 S1/1 S12/12/12 S4/4/4 Number of TRXs 54 72 72 2 36 12

By combining cabinet, the capacity is expanded, the network quality is raised and the construction cost is reduced.

15.2.GBFD-1502 BTS Hybrid Cabinet Group
Function Description: A BTS3012 cabinet can be used together with BTS312 (or BTS30) cabinets to form a synchronized site. One BTS3012 cabinet can connect with two BTS312 cabinet groups or two BTS30 cabinet groups. This connection forms a hybrid cabinet group. The BTS3012 cannot coexist both the BTS312 and the BTS30 at the same time. Because the BTS312 and BTS30 have different features, two BTS312 cabinets form a cabinet group, while three BTS30 cabinets form a cabinet group. As a result, the maximum configuration varies when the BTS3012 cabinet connects with different types BTS cabinets. The BTSs in a hybrid cabinet group are completely synchronized. Note: The BTS3012 cabinet acts as the master one in the hybrid cabinet group.
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Benefits: This BTS3012 capability of hybrid cabinet group can: 1.Guarantee the investment of network providers 2.ensure smooth network upgrade 3.provide better performance and advance functions

16. BSC cabinet/subrack sharing 16.1.GBFD-8801 BSC cabinet/subrack sharing
Function Description: Cabinet sharing among the BSC, TC, and MGW: Huawei BSS equipment allows the BSC, TC, and MGW to share one cabinet for reducing space and cost. Huawei softswitch product includes MSC server (MSS) and MGW. The MSC server is responsible for call control and signaling, and the MGW is responsible for switching and service bearing. The equipment adopts distributed networking: The MSC server is deployed in the center of a large city, while the MGW is deployed in a place near the access network. When the caller and callee are under the control of an MGW, the MGW alone can complete handover, thus saving transmission resources. Cabinet sharing between the BSC and the RNC: Huawei BSS equipment shares a hardware platform with the RNC, and supports installing the BSC and RNC in one cabinet. The BSC and RNC have their own subracks and manage 2G/3G resources and calls independently. Subrack sharing among the BSC, TC, and PCU: Huawei BSS equipment supports subrack sharing among the BSC, TC, and PCU. One subrack can provide both voice service and packet service. One cabinet can provide voice service and packet service of 2048 carriers, greatly increasing system integration and reducing space and operation & maintenance cost.

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17. BTS Power Management 17.1.GBFD-1601 BTS power management
Function Description: Huawei BTS can flexibly deal with the load according to the actual situation, thus prolongs the serving time. When there is no mains supply, the BTS hierarchical power-down function reduces the power assumption and raises the duration of the storage battery. On one hand, when the mains supply is not available, all the TCH TRXs are shut except the BCCH TRX. This is called soft powerdown. On the other hand, when the capacity of the storage batteries drops to the preset value, all the TRXs are auto powered off to protect the storage batteries. This is called hard power-down. Whether to use auto power-off can be set. This function fits in the cascade networking when the mains supply of the previous site is not available while that of the next is normal. It prolongs the working time of the transmission module of the previous site as long as possible to reduce the impact on the next site. When the surrounding temperature is over high or the temperature adjusting unit does not work in good state, to avoid unfavorable impacts, the TMU will shut the power amplification of some TRXs if the temperature exceeds the threshold. When the TRX equipment has fatal fault or the standing wave ratio seriously exceeds the limit, to minimize the chance of total damage, TRX is allowed to quit the services and shut the power including that of the power amplifier. Whether this function is to be used and the parameters used are set on the background. By this way, the power management and self-protection of the system is enhanced. Thus raises the reliability of the system and prolongs the life cycle of the product.

17.2.GBFD-1602 Intelligent Shutdown of TRX
Function Description: Not all the cells in the running network are busy all the time. When a cell is idle, it can use only
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some TRXs to meet the current traffic requirements. In this case, you can enable the system to shut down some TRXs to reduce the power consumption of the BTS and the operating cost of telecom operators. The function Intelligent Shutdown of TRX consists of two parts:  Intelligent Shutdown of TRX by Time: Using this function, you can specify a period of time. In this period, the BSC commands the BTS to shut down some TRXs in a cell. When the period ends, the BSC commands the BTS to switch on the TRXs.  Intelligent Shutdown of TRX by Traffic Volume: If the Intelligent Shutdown of TRX function is enabled, the BSC will try to assign the channels on some specific TRXs during channel assignment. The BSC measures the number of busy channels and number of available channels in the cell. It predicts the number of busy channels based on the measurement results. If the predicted number of busy channels is less than the threshold for the number of available channels currently, the BSC commands the BTS to shut down a functional TRX. Before shutting down a TRX, the BSC will initiate an intra-cell handover to hand over the calls on the TRX into other TRXs. When there is no call on the TRX, the BSC commands the BTS to shut down the TRX. If some calls on the TRX cannot be handed over, the BSC stops commanding the BTS to shut down the TRX.

18. Reliability and Maintainability 18.1.GBFD-1701 Board Switchover
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS boards except those of the resources pool have two working modes, active and standby. The active board takes charge of the normal operation of the services and the standby one backs up the status of the active board. When the active board is faulty or needs replacing, the services are switched to the standby board for continuous operation of the system. There are two kinds of switchovers. One is switchover automatically by fault. The other is through the maintenance engineers on the OMC. The maintenance engineer sends the immediate switchover command to the system and the specific maintenance module notifies the relevant module to perform the switchover. When the standby board is switched over to the active one, the former active board will reset automatically. If it startup normally, it will be the standby one.
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The boards that support backup include the GGNU, GTNU, GXPUM, GEIUB, GEIUT, GEIUA and GGCK. The TRAU is designed in resources pool. The backup of the boards greatly raises the system reliability, prolongs the Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) and reduces the chance of service interruption caused by board fault.

18.2.GBFD-1702 TC Resources Pool
Function Description: The GDSUC realized decoding of the codes at the um interface and the 64KPCM codes at the A interface. The Transcode (TC) of the BSC are not tied to a specific cell or subscriber but are combined to be a common resources pool. All the TC can be allocated in turns in the resources pool according to load distribution. This avoids impact caused by fault of one certain board. The redundancy configuration of the system greatly raises the usability of the TC, thus raising the system stability. When a TC board is detected faulty, the system will auto perform fault clearance and give alarm. TC supports multi speech coding including FR, EFR, HR and AMR. The speech codes can be auto adapted and configured according to the actual situation, bringing great convenience to the operators. In the meantime, the BSC system performs auto statistics of the speech codes for strategy adjustment. TC resources pool can be located in the local BSC frame or in the core network side through the Ater interface. Circuit multiplexing used at the Ater interface saves the operation cost and brings convenience for deploying the equipment in the core machine room and maintenance. TC resources pool raises the system reliability and maintainability.

18.3.GBFD-1703 Resources Check
Function Description: Resources check is to initialize a check of the software resources for its normal operation. This
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function enables the system with more stability, self-detection and fault recovery. By auto correcting the software errors and checking the usage status of the system resources, this function ensures proper usage, allocation and release of the resources and raises the system stability. Resources check has two purposes: avoiding deadlock and inconsistent status of the resources. Resources check has two initiating ways: periodical check initiated by the BSC and the PCU. Periodical check initiated by the BSC During the idle time (for example, 2 clock at AM), the BSC initiates a periodical check, including -Occupation of the memory -Occupation of the circuit at A interface -Occupation and status consistency of the radio resources -Occupation of the network board -Occupation and status consistency of the signaling link and consistency of the status -BCCH mutual aid and TRX mutual aid -Others. For example, consistency of various system control parameters. Periodical check initiated by the PCU during the idle time (for example, 2 clock at AM), the PCU initiates a periodical check, which focuses on the status consistency of the resources between the PCU and BSC. The BSC then corrects the inconsistency. The check mainly includes - PDCH type and status - PCIC status - Cell status Through resources check, the system can detect the abnormality of the software in time. The software can perform self-recovery, thus raising the software reliability.

18.4.GBFD-1704 Software Patch
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Function Description: Huawei BSC supports software patch which is a separate software unit specified for modification of the defects or small characteristics. The patches can be divided into hot patches and cold patches, both supported by the BSC system. Hot patches for the equipment that needs continuous running, some new codes are used to replace the old ones to improve the defects or realize new demands without restart or interrupting the services. These new codes are called hot patches. Cold patches some new files are used to cover the old ones to improve the defects or realize new demands by restarting the software module. The new file sets are called cold patches. The use of patches can reduce the upgrade cost and avoid upgrade risks, especially the hot patches with backup function that can be operated at remote end at any time. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports patch management, loading, activation and fallback. Patch management Patch management is included with the main version in the software management of the BSS. This function supports query of the present patch condition and matching of the main version and patch. The patches should match the specific main version. Patch loading the patches are loaded to the object board and saved in the non-volatile memory. The user decides when to activate. Patch activation The patches are activated through the OMC to correct the defects or add new features. Patch fallback when the activated patches are not needed or have problems, patch fallback is used to return to the previous status. And the codes or functions of the patches cannot be effective. Through patches, the software is less frequently upgraded for minor defects. Thus the serving time of the system is prolonged and the software problems can be solved in time and conveniently.
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18.5.GBFD-1705 Flow Control
Function Description: In special circumstances, for example, paging over the whole network or heavy traffic, the system needs some special treatment to ensure normal operation of the key services and healthy operation of the system. GSM BSS flow control includes the following two parts: internal flow control and traffic flow control, and traffic flow control is the main part. Internal flow control This function prevents load raise caused by maintenance or reduces operation and maintenance or restricts some functions when the system load is heavy. Thus can realize self-protection of the system and ensure the traffic access. Traffic flow control This function is to sacrifice services by restricting some treatments to ensure key services of the system during over heavy traffic. Traffic flow control is realized through cell traffic control. Plenty of paging massages and CCCH downlink massages, or plenty of MSs accessing to the network at the same time will cause -Message sending failures by the BTS -Paging requests sent repeatedly by the MSC -Access requests sent repeatedly by the MS So system has many protections to ensure system healthy, and ensure key service ability. The traffic flow control includes: RSL flow control, with the function unit and protection object as single RSL, to prevent delay or lost of more important messages caused by plenty of paging messages. Flow control of single BTS TRX overload protection By flow control algorithms of different levels, the system load is lowered for its healthy operation and key services are ensured. When the load is lowered to the preset value, the system
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auto shuts down parts of the restrictions.

19. A Interface Functions 19.1.GBFD-1801 Ater Interface 4:1 Multiplexing
Function Description: Huawei GBSC supports 4:1 multiplexing at Ater interface, that is, by the Ater interface process board, the four TSs on E1 of A interface can be multiplexed to one TS at the Ater interface. In telephone network, the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) is used with the rate 64kbit/s. While in GSM, RPE-LTP or CELP with the rate 13kbit/s (transmitted by channel with the rate 16kbit/s) is used to save radio channel resources. So during a call between a fixed phone and a GSM mobile phone, the 13 kbps speech code should be converted to 64 kbps. Huawei speech code conversion is realized in TRAU. Before conversion, the speech codes within BSC are converted and transmitted in16 kbps channel. Ater interface is an internal interface between TC and service process module at which four speech channels are multiplexed to a 64 kbps E1 TS. When the TRAU is located on the MSC side, 75% of the toll transmission resources are saved. Huawei GBSC supports locating the TRAU both in local and on the MSC side, providing networking flexibility for the operators.

19.2.GBFD-1802 14-Digit Signaling Point Code
Function Description: Huawei’s GSM BSS supports connection of the SS7 signaling system and the MSC. The SS7 signaling system adopts 14-digit signaling point code that includes three parts, macro cell code, zone code and signaling point code. The Huawei GBSS also supports ANSI SS7.

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19.3.GBFD-1803 Circuit Management
Function Description: Huawei GBSC supports circuit management at A interface, including Circuit assignment at A interface during call or handover, the circuits at A interface specified in the MSC signaling are allocated and occupied. Then the message indicating assignment completed is sent back to the MSC. Circuit block When the circuit on the BSS side is unavailable, the MSC is notified. This process includes blocking and unblocking. The A interface block message includes an A interface circuit, identified by Circuit Identification Code (CIC). This command ensures consistency of the status on both sides of A interface. Circuit unblocks When the circuit on the BSS side is available or the fault of the BSC is cleared, the MSC is notified. The A interface block message includes an A interface circuit, identified by CIC. Circuit group block when multiple circuits at A interface need to be blocked, the circuit group block command is used. The command includes multiple A interface circuit, identified by CIC. Circuit group unblock When multiple circuits at A interface need to be unblocked, the circuit group unblock command is used. The command includes multiple A interface circuit, identified by CIC. Uninstalled circuit if the circuit specified in circuit block, unblock, reset, assignment and incoming BSC handover does not exist, or during BSC reset, the BSC will send an uninstalled circuit command to the MSC. Circuit reset when the local fault occurs to the system, use this command to recover the circuit status information of the BSC or MSC (for example, abnormal SCCP connection release). If a circuit
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becomes idle after abnormal SCCP connection release, the BSC will notify the MSC of its status. Circuit management also provides maintenance and control over single circuit or PCM circuit group of the GEIUA and GDSUC. Message resending is available when the ground circuit management messages (block/unblock/reset) timeout are not verified. Huawei’s GSM BSS circuit management is realized through the OMC for convenience of maintaining.

19.4.GBFD-1804 A Interface Protocol Process
Function Description: Huawei BSS realizes A interface-based signaling and protocol process, including connectionless and connection-oriented SCCP. A interface protocol process supports the following functions:  RR layer connection  MM layer connection and message sending  DTAP message transparent transmission  Incoming/outgoing handover  Internal handover  Query handover candidate  Call procedure  Flow control  Traffic access control  Classmark update  Connection release  Encryption mode control process  MS message initialization  Data link control  Message check  Circuit assembly  Process of abnormal SCCP
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 Queuing

19.5.GBFD-1805 A Interface Occupation Rate Monitoring
Function Description: This function is to monitor the occupation rate and usage status of the circuit at A interface and TC by performance measurement. The reports on the occupation rate of the circuit at A interface and code resources make the operator know better about the present resources. When the circuit occupation exceeds the preset value, the system will give an alarm, reminding the user to expand capacity. When the construction is large while the number of users is small at the beginning, the configuration of circuits at A interface can be reduced to lower the transmission cost. As the number of user increases, the monitoring function helps the user to expand capacity specifically, saving the overall operating cost.

19.6.GBFD-1806 STP(Signaling Transport Point)
Function Description: Huawei GBSS supports the signaling transfer function on the A interface. The GBSS can be connected to the MSC through STP devices. Currently, Huawei GBSS supports a maximum of 32 STPs. This function increases the flexibility of the selection of signaling routes on the A interface by supporting multiple routes, thus improving the system reliability.

20. Supporting Three-Digit MNC
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20.1.GBFD-1901 Supporting three-digit MNC
Function Description: All the cells (including external cells) and local BSC support both two-digit and three-digit MNC. The subscriber can operate according to actual situation.

21. STM-1 Optical Transmission Interface 21.1.GBFD-2001 STM-1 Optical Transmission Interface
Function Description: The BSC6000 supports the optical transmission interface at the A interface, Ater interface, Abis interface, and Pb interface. The optical transmission interface reduces the layout and maintenance work for the operators. The Huawei BSC system supports the STM-1. The optical interface at the A interface enhances the integration of the TRAU subrack. When the TRAU is near to the BSC, Huawei suggest using the optical transmission interface at the Ater interface board to reduce the layout work during construction. The Huawei BSC provides the telecom operators a great variety of transmission interfaces, such as A interface, Ater interface, Abis interface, Pb interface, and E1/T1 interface.

22. Message Tracing 22.1.GBFD-2201 Interface Message Tracing
Function Description: With this function, the operator can trace the signaling flow and monitor the signaling link without any addition device. This is very helpful for the maintenance staff to locate and solve the faults. With the message tracing function, you can trace the message in real time, save the tracing
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result, review the tracing result, and check the time when the message occurs. You can also filter the tracing by setting the tracing conditions to reduce the tracing task. A interface tracing function can trace the BSSAP messages 、 MTP2 messages、 MTP3 messages and SCCP messages. The BSSAP messages can be filtered according to the message type, for instance, BSSMAP, paging message, and DTAP messages. You can also trace the messages according to the cell, that is to say, to trace the A interface messages of all the users in a cell. Abis interface tracing function can trace the RSL, OML, and LAPD messages. You can filter the LAPD message tracing according to site and TRX. The RSL tracing can be filtered according to the message type. The OML tracing can also be filtered according to the message type. Pb interface tracing function can trace the application layer message and the LAPD message. You can trace the LAPD message according to the timeslot number. You can trace the application layer message according to the message type and the site number. You can filter the tracing of each interface according to the message layer and the logical objects. This can greatly reduce the tracing task and fasten the location of the fault. With this function, the operator can locate the problem and improve the maintenance efficiency and speed.

22.2.GBFD-2202 User Signaling Tracing
Function Description: The user signaling tracing function can trace all the signaling of a user in the BSS system. It provides help for the location of the problem of a single user. You can input the tracing characteristic words such as IMSI, TMSI, MSISDN, and IMEI. The host compares the user information with the input characteristic words after decodes the signaling of the call. If user information is consistent with the input characteristic words, the signaling of the call is returned to OMC for display. This function can trace, save, and review the signaling of a single user on the A interface and Abis interface. It avoids tracing all the messages in the A interface and Abis interface for the
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fault location of a single user, thus greatly improving the efficiency. The system can trace up to 16 users at the same time. You can trace the A interface signaling or the Abis interface signaling of a single user individually. When you trace the Abis interface signaling, you can choose whether to trace the measurement report. Through tracing the test user, you can obtain a more accurate test reference data for the drive test or other test. This can greatly improve the test efficiency and the accuracy. This function reduces the tracing task and the analysis task. It improves the tracing efficiency and speed. At the same time, it can trace the whole signaling flow of a specified user, thus providing more accurate reference data for the test.

23. Remote EAC Maintenance 23.1.GBFD-2301 Remote EAC Maintenance
Function Description: Huawei remote External Alarm Collection (EAC) allows the users to query data, set parameters and execute commands on the BTS environment monitor device through OMC, Include reset, Burglar alarm clearance, set the bounds of temperature/humidity, set alarm, query temperature/humidity, and so on. When the environment alarm occurs, remote EAC can report the alarm to the central equipment room to prompt the maintenance staff for further processing. If the environment extension alarm collector is equipped, the following items are supported: 32-channel Boolean value input/digital value input 8-channel digital value input 8-channel analog input Burglar alarm, temperature alarm, fire alarm and other alarms The maintenance staff can maintain the EAC in the remote end. This improves the maintenance efficiency.

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24. Cell Frequency Scan 24.1.GBFD-2401 Cell Frequency Scan
Function Description: This function uses the idle TCH to test uplink receiving level of all the frequencies of the specified frequency band. The result can be used for the engineers to choose a proper working frequency. This function is a feature function of Huawei. The function is to test the interference. Because this function scans the uplink level, the result reflects the signal strength of the frequency in the cell. The engineer can use the result to choose a proper working frequency. Under the condition that the normal call is not affected, this function uses the idle frame in the TCH to measure the level of specified uplink frequency. The cell frequency scan is implemented through the performance statistics. Under the conditions that the call is not affected, the function uses an idle TCH in the cell (the TCH in the BCCH TRX is assigned preferably) to scan the uplink receiving level of specified frequencies. It takes about one minute to scan 50 frequencies. You can register up to 124 frequency scan tasks at the same time. The result of the scan is the average of the uplink receiving levels scanned from the beginning of the scan task to the end of the scan task. The uplink frequency scan function is to test interference level that affects the uplink receiving quality in the radio environment. It can detect all the uplink interference. With this function, the maintenance staff can test the uplink interference without the test device. It can improve the accuracy of the frequency configuration and provide an overview of the uplink interference.

25. TCH Re-Assignment 25.1.GBFD-2501 TCH Re-Assignment
Function Description:
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When an assignment fails, re-assignment will be performed through radio interface to effectively improve the success rate of assignment procedure, thus improving the success rate of the system access. Re-assignment of Abis interface: After send the assignment command to BTS, BSC receives assignment failure information on SDCCH from BTS before the assignment complete timeout. According to common procedure, BSC should report assignment failure to MSC at this time, and then remove the resources related to this call. But if Abis interface has the re-assignment function, BSC will resend assignment command to BTS to activate the channel again and inform MS to initiate access attempt. Advantage of TCH re-assignment: Effectively avoiding first dial failure due to TRX channel failure (such as faulty connection of antenna feeder of the TRX, receive channel failure, but excluding the non-response of channel activation due to TRX hardware failure) Greatly reducing assignment failure due to frequency interference and improving the quality of services TCH re-assignment can improve the quality of service which is affected by frequency interference, channel failure, or construction error. It is also helpful for the later maintenance and helpful to improve the customer satisfaction. Huawei’s GSM BSS also supports TCH re-assignment of MSC. TCH re-assignment improves the assignment success rate and access success rate, thus improving efficiency of the network.

26. SDCCH Dynamic Adjustment 26.1.GBFD-3001 SDCCH Dynamic Adjustment
Function Description: This function can adjust the SDCCH dynamically. Thus, it can: Reduce the congestion of SDCCH
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Reduce the affection of the initial SDCCH configuration on the system performance The demand of SDCCH is calculated based on the traffic model. That is to say, it is calculated based on the current traffic distribution and relevant statistics data. However, the increase of the SMS service leads to the demand on more SDCCHs. Thus, the prediction on the demanded SDCCHs becomes very complex. If the users in a cell increase in a short time, many users fail to access to the network due to insufficient SDCCH. In this situation, the SDCCH dynamic adjustment function can convert the TCH into SDCCH dynamically to make more users access to the network. The dynamical adjustment of SDCCH takes cell as unit. The system automatically chooses a TCH to convert it into SDCCH and the BSC sends command to BTS to configure the TCH as SDCCH and BSC updates the internal channel table if the dynamical adjustment of SDCCH is allowed and the following conditions are met: The number of idle SDCCHs is less than or equal to the idle SDCCH number threshold, and the number of existing SDCCHs is less than the maximum SDCCH number of the cell, and the idle TCHs in the cell are more than four or more than the configured TRXs in the cell. When the idle SDCCHs are more the given threshold and after the TCH Minimum Recovery Time, the dynamic SDCCHs are converted in the TCH. Forced restoration of SDCCH channel: if you disable the SDCCH/TCH dynamical adjustment function, all the channels converted SDCCHs from TCH are restored to their original form(TCH).

Benefits: This function can:  Reduce the requirement on the accuracy of the estimation of the demand on SDCCH.  Reduce the task to change the initial configuration.  Increase the system capacity and put-through rate. Thus, the operator' revenue is increased.

27. Support of Daylight Saving Time
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27.1.GBFD-6101 Support of Daylight Saving Time
Function Description: Huawei BSS equipment supports daylight saving time, which can be queried and manually configured. Through the M2000 or LMT, a user that has the system administration authority can set the time zone of a network element (NE) and the Daylight Saving Time (DST) change rule. The function can meet the requirements of the countries where daylight saving time is applied. The configuration mode can be set to date configuration, week configuration, or a hybrid configuration of both date and week. Date configuration indicates the daylight saving time starts from or ends on a certain date in a certain month. Week configuration indicates that the daylight saving time starts from or ends on a certain day of a certain week in a certain month. Hybrid configuration indicates that the daylight saving time starts from or ends on a certain day after a certain date in a certain month. The offset of daylight saving time is expressed in minutes and can be integer multiples of 30 only. Through the M2000 or LMT, you can view the time zone of an NE and the DST change rule.

28. MML 28.1.GBFD-6501 Man Machine Language (MML)
Function Description: Huawei GSM BSS (GBSS) supports NE operation and maintenance through MML commands running on the M2000 or LMT. Compared with Graphic User Interface (GUI), MML is more effective. By running MML script files, you can configure and maintain multiple NEs concurrently or perform multiple steps of operations on one NE concurrently. MML improves maintenance efficiency, reduces improper manual operations, and greatly reduces operation and maintenance cost of telecom operators. The MML command supports the following operation modes:  Supports entering MML commands and parameters directly.  Supports entering MML commands and parameters through the GUI.
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 Provides the MML batch processing function. Many MML commands are put in a file. The LMT reads the MML commands in the file and executes these commands automatically.  Supports instant and timed batch processing.  Supports recording the MML commands and saving the results of the execution of the MML commands automatically.  Supports recording operations in the operation logs.  Supports MML preactivation.  The MML command supports the following operations:  Supports configuring all data. That is, through the MML commands, you can configure all data, including the BTS data.  Supports all alarm maintenance functions. That is, through the MML commands, you can browse alarms, query alarms, manually recover alarms, and configure environment alarms and alarm mask.  Supports maintaining BSC devices, transmission devices, signaling links, and interfaces. That is, through the MML commands, you can maintain the BSC and transmission devices, such as status query and switchover.  Supports maintaining BTS (such as resetting), boards, and carriers.  Supports collecting data files (including logs, performance files, and alarm files) to the LMT.  Supports security management. That is, through the MML commands, you can add, delete, and modify user information, manage rights of the users, and query operation logs.  Supports software management. That is, through the MML commands, you can upgrade the BSC software, BTS software, and patches, and maintain the BIOS and license.  Other functions, such as MML commands related to time and daylight saving time.

29. Gb interface function 29.1.GBFD-9001 Gb interface function
Function Description: Uplink/Downlink NS SDU transmission: The NS entity implements the uplink/downlink transmission of NS SDU. Load sharing: Supports load sharing among all NS-VCs under an NSE. LLC PDU transmission procedure: Complies with the LLC PDU transmission procedure of the

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08.18 protocol. Paging procedure: Complies with the paging procedure of the 08.18 protocol. Wireless access capability indication procedure: Complies with the wireless access capability indication procedure of the 08.18 protocol. Wireless access capability update procedure: Complies with the wireless access capability update procedure of the 08.18 protocol. Wireless status indication procedure: Complies with the wireless status indication procedure of the 08.18 protocol. GPRS service suspension procedure: Complies with the GPRS service suspension procedure of the 08.18 protocol. GPRS service recovery procedure: Complies with the GPRS service recovery procedure of the 08.18 protocol. Flush LL procedure: Complies with the Flush LL procedure of the 08.18 protocol. Traffic control procedure: Complies with the traffic control procedure of the 08.18 protocol, including BVC traffic control and MS traffic control. BVC procedure: Complies the BVC block/unblock procedure and BVC reset procedure of the 08.18 protocol.

30. PS functions 30.1.GBFD-9101 Packet channel combination type
Function Description:

Combined PDTCH The logic channel combination is: PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH

30.2.GBFD-9102 System information
Function Description:

Packet system information on BCCH
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Broadcast GPRS service support indication in SI3, SI4, SI7 or SI8, and broadcast GPRS service-relevant parameters in SI13.

PSI broadcast on PBCCH

Broadcast the PSI1, PSI2, PSI3 and PSI3bis on PBCCH.

PSI broadcast on PACCH

Regularly broadcast PSI1 (if there is PBCCH in the cell) or PSI13 (if there is no PBCCH in the cell) on PACCH for MS in the transmission status.

30.3.GBFD-9103 MS types
Function Description:

Class A MS

The MS in class-A mode is attached to both GPRS and other GSM services, and the MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and other GSM services.

Class B MS

The MS in class-B mode is attached to both GPRS and other GSM services, but the MS can only operate one set of services at a time.
Class C MS The MS in class-C mode is exclusively attached to GPRS services.
 

Multislot class 1 ~ 12 MS

Support the MS with multislot class 1 ~ 12.

30.4.GBFD-9104 MAC mode
Function Description:

Dynamic allocation mode

Dynamic allocation mode is the channel resource multiplexing mode of allocating for MS the radio block of the corresponding uplink channel through sending USF value on the downlink channel radio block.

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30.5.GBFD-9105 RLC mode
Function Description:

RLC acknowledged mode

The RLC acknowledged mode means the receiver confirms the RLC data and the transmitter retransmits the lost block, so as to ensure the reliable transmission of RLC data block.
RLC unacknowledged mode The RLC unacknowledged mode means that the receiver confirms the RLC data and the

transmitter doesn't retransmit the lost block. The receiver adds the lost block with filling bits and then sends to the upper layer for processing.

30.6.GBFD-9106 Coding scheme
Function Description:

CS-1

Coding scheme CS-1 provides error correction function and the data transmission rate is 9.05kb/s
CS-2 Coding scheme CS-2 provides a weaker error correction function than CS-1, and the data

transmission rate is 13.4kb/s

Coding scheme dynamic change

Dynamically adjust the coding scheme of PDCH according to the RLC block retransmissions rate of the uplink/downlink TBF

30.7.GBFD-9107 Networking control mode
Function Description:

NC0

the MS shall perform autonomous cell re-selection without sending measurement reports to the
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network.

30.8.GBFD-9108 Network operation mode support
Function Description:

Network operation mode II

The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and this channel is also used for GPRS paging. This means that the MS needs only to monitor the CCCH paging channel, but that CS paging continues on this paging channel even if the MS has been assigned a packet data channel.

Network operation mode III

The network sends a CS paging message for a GPRS-attached MS on the CCCH paging channel, and sends a GPRS paging message on either the packet paging channel (if allocated in the cell) or on the CCCH paging channel. This means that an MS that wants to receive pages for both circuit-switched and packet-switched services shall monitor both paging channels if the packet paging channel is allocated in the cell. No paging co-ordination is performed by the network.

30.9.GBFD-9109 QoS(Best Effort)
Function Description:

Best Effort level QoS

Satisfying the MS QoS requirement to the maximum extent according to the current wireless resource conditions

30.10.GBFD-9110 Access Function Description:
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Single-block access on CCCH

Support the channel request for single-block access initiated by the MS on CCCH

One phase access on CCCH

Support the channel request for one phase access initiated by the MS on CCCH

Access on PACCH

MS initiates a channel request via the uplink PACCH during the downlink transmission process.
Short access on PCCCH Support the packet channel request for short access initiated by the MS on PCCCH

30.11. GBFD-9111 Assignment
Function Description:

The packet uplink resource assignment on PACCH

The uplink assignment message is sent to MS via PACCH during the transmission process.

The packet downlink resource assignment on PACCH

The downlink assignment message is sent to MS via PACCH during the transmission process.

The uplink immediate assignment on CCCH

The uplink immediate assignment for establishing TBF connection is sent to MS via CCCH if the cell is configured with no packet control channel.

The downlink immediate assignment on CCCH

The downlink immediate assignment for establishing TBF connection is sent to MS via CCCH if the cell is configured with no packet control channel.

30.12. GBFD-9112 Paging
Function Description:

Packet paging on CCCH

As to NMO II, packet paging is sent on CCCH. As to NMO III, packet paging is sent on CCCH if cell is not configured with PCCCH.

Circuit paging on CCCH

As to NMO II and NMO III, circuit paging is sent on CCCH.

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30.13. GBFD-9113 Timing advance update
Function Description:

Continuous timing advance update

Allocate TAI to MS in the uplink or downlink assignment command to specify the PTCCH subchannel to be used by MS. Then MS regularly sends the access burst on the specified uplink PTCCH channel and the network measures the TA and sends it to MS via PTCCH/D.

Initial timing advance estimation

Obtain the initial TA through the packet channel request of MS, then send it to MS via the packet uplink or downlink assignment message. MS uses the initial value till a new value is obtained from the continuous timing advance update. If the initial TA can not be obtained through downlink assignment, the network side may actively send Polling message and specify the response message as access burst to obtain the initial TA, thus speeding up downlink data transmission.

30.14. GBFD-9114 Measurement report
Function Description:

Uplink measurement report

BTS calculates the level and quality of the uplink transmission signal from MS to BTS, and then the result is transmitted to PCU via the in-band signalling of TRAU frame at Abis interface to generate the measurement report

30.15. GBFD-9115 Power control
Function Description:

Packet uplink power control algorithm

Comply with the uplink open-loop power control algorithm in 05.08 protocol.

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30.16. GBFD-9116 Uplink flow control
Function Description:

Immediate assignment reject on CCCH

The immediate assignment reject on CCCH may prevent access channel congestion resulted from too frequent MS access by specifying the waiting time

30.17. GBFD-9117 Downlink flow control
Function Description:

Downlink BVC flow control

PCU reports to SGSN the flow control parameters according the size of the maximum bucket of each BVC cell, the cell leak rate, etc. On this basis SGSN controls the sending rate so as to prevent too frequent data loss caused by congestion and transmission interruption caused by insufficient flow.

Downlink MS flow control

PCU reports to SGSN such flow control parameters as the size of the maximum bucket of each MS, MS leak rate, etc. On this basis SGSN controls the sending rate so as to prevent too frequent data loss caused by congestion and transmission interruption caused by insufficient flow.

30.18. GBFD-9118 Resource pool of the packet service board
Function Description: Supports the DPU resource pool of the packet service board, distribution of packet cells within the BSC, preferred distribution of packet cells within a subrack, and cross-subrack distribution of cells.

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30.19. GBFD-9119 Packet service configuration and maintenance
Function Description: The configuration and maintenance operations include:  Adding/Deleting an object  Querying/Modifying the static and dynamic attributes of an object  Querying/Managing the status of an object  Querying/Maintaining the information of an object  Supports configuring the working mode for the PS domain of the BSC6000: built-in PCU or external PCU.  Supports configuring and maintaining the physical objects (board, DSP, E1 port, BC, IP port, and routes) of the BSC6000 PS domain and attributes of these objects.  Supports configuring and maintaining the service objects (cells, channels, NSE, NSVC, and NSVL) of the PS domain.  Supports configuring and maintaining the common service parameters and software parameters.  Supports MML based configuration and query.  Supports GUI based configuration and query.  Supports converting configuration data of the external PCU into configuration data of the built-in PCU.

30.20. GBFD-9120 Packet service performance management
Function Description:  Supports reporting all indexes.  Supports measuring the performance of the PS domain and complies with the network access test specifications of the operators.  Supports KPI monitoring and alarm functions.  The LMT/too/M2000 supports browsing and analyzing the PS domain traffic statistics.

30.21. GBFD-9121 Packet service fault management
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Function Description: Supports packet related alarm functions, such as device alarms and service alarms. Device alarm: The platform provides fault detection, fault isolation, switchover, and alarm reporting for the physical objects of boards and ports. Service alarm: Supports detecting exceptions and reporting the following alarms:  System capacity expansion early warning  Cell PS fault alarm and fault recovery  Cell transmission delay exception alarm  Cell capacity expansion alarm  PDCH link fault alarm and fault recovery  NSE fault alarm and fault recovery  Gb interface transmission quality alarm and recovery  NSVC interruption alarm and interruption recovery  IP port fault alarm and fault recovery  KPI alarm

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Optional Function Desciption
1. Coverage enhanced 1.1. GBFD-5901 PBT(Power Boost Technology)
Function Description: Larger radiated power is obtained through the PBT. The radio signals of the same frequency and same phrase output from two TRXs are combined by the combiner inside the BTS. And the output power gain is obtained. The power at the top of the cabinet is increased. The PBT is an efficient way to transform from the network coverage to the network capacity. In the initial network deployment period, the operator can use the PBT to extend the network coverage, and to reduce the configuration number of BTSs. When the subscriber number increases, the two TRXs can be used as two carriers in the DTRU. You need not to change the hardware board. When the PBT is used, the DTRU works in the single-carrier mode. The two TRXs are used as one carrier. The PBT function can be enabled for the BTS3012 and BTS3012AE by dada configuration.

Benefits: The network coverage is extended, and the configuration number of BTS is reduced. The PBT provides a feasible scheme to transform from the network coverage to the network capacity.

1.2. GBFD-5902 Transmit Diversity
Function Description: The transmit diversity function of the BTS uses two TRXs in the DTRU to transmit the co2011-12-2 All Rights Reserved
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carrier signals of some correlation. The two independent multi-path signals are then in the downlink. Then, the two independent multi-path signals are treated by the equalizer of the MS. The diversity gain is obtained, and the quality of the received signal is improved. At last, the downlink coverage effect is improved. When the transmit diversity is used, the DTRU works in the single-carrier mode. You need to enable this function through the dada configuration. The transmit diversity function can be enabled for the BTS3012 by dada configuration.

Benefits:  The receiving gain of the MS is increased.  The coverage effect of the downlink is improved.  The network construction cost is reduced.

1.3. GBFD-5903 4-Way Receiver Diversity
Function Description: The feature 4-way receiver diversity increases the receiver sensitivity of the DTRU by up to 3~5 dB, making it possible to achieve ubiquitous coverage with up to 30% fewer sites in plain.

Benefits: The 4-way receiver diversity can be used together with the PBT (Power Boost Technology) to increase the coverage of the BTS, and to reduce the number of BTSs.

1.4. GBFD-8101 Dynamic Transmit Diversity
Function Description: The dynamic Transmit Diversity technology refers to the transmit diversity technology at timeslot level. A subscriber having a conversation occupies a dedicated timeslot, and the quality
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of the subscriber’s traffic is under the monitoring of a measurement report. When the system finds that the conversation quality of the subscriber is lower than the threshold, it enables the dynamic Transmit Diversity function, and allocates a timeslot with the same number from an adjacent carrier to the subscriber. The signals carried on the two timeslots are the same, and the phases are also the same. The signals are sent out through different transmit ports, and are then enhanced through signal combination. Consequently, the reception quality is improved. When the adjacent channel is occupied by other subscribers, the system enables the intra-cell handover, and hands over the subscriber to an idle channel so that the adjacent channel can be used for the PBT. Because the reception quality of the subscriber is good during handover, the handover does not cause call drop. When the system finds that the conversation quality of the subscriber is higher than the threshold, the system cancels the dynamic transmit diversity function and releases the adjacent channel. Compared with static transmit diversity, the dynamic transmit diversity function does not decrease the capacity by half. It can achieve balance between capacity and coverage and realize flexible conversion.

Benefits:
 Fully uses the idle timeslots and enhances the coverage over areas with poor signals (such as the edge of a cell, inside a room, and inside a car) without wasting network resources and reducing network capacity. Adjusts the network resources in real time according to the network conditions to achieve the balance between traffic volume and coverage.   Improves the performance of the CO-BCCH concentric circle. Improves the handover success rate for subscribers at the edge of a cell.

1.5. GBFD-8102 Dynamic PBT(Power Boost Technology)
Function Description:

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The dynamic PBT technology is the PBT technology at timeslot level. A subscriber having a conversation occupies a dedicated timeslot, and the quality of the subscriber’s traffic is under the monitoring of a measurement report. When the system finds that the conversation quality of the subscriber is lower than the threshold, it enables the dynamic PBT function. The channels using timeslots with the same numbers on adjacent carriers suspend the service, and the RF channels serve as auxiliary channels, and provide the PBT function. At the moment, the RF channel of service timeslots and the auxiliary channels using the timeslots with the same numbers on adjacent carriers have the same transmitted signals and phases. After channel combination, the signals are enhanced, and the reception quality of the subscriber is improved consequently. When the channels using timeslots with the same numbers on adjacent carriers are occupied by other subscribers, the system enables the intra-cell handover and hands over the subscriber to other idle channels. The channels using timeslots with the same numbers on adjacent carriers can be used for dynamic PBT. The subscriber can enjoy very good reception quality at the time of handover. Therefore, the problem of call drop resulting from handover does not occur. When the network finds that the conversation quality of the subscriber is higher than the threshold, it disables the dynamic PBT function. The channels using timeslots with the same numbers on adjacent carriers recover and are ready to provide services. Compared with the static PBT function, the dynamic PBT does not reduce the capacity by half. It can achieve the balance between capacity and coverage.

Benefits:
 Fully uses the idle timeslots and enhances the coverage over areas with poor signals (such as the edge of a cell, inside a room, and inside a car) without wasting network resources and reducing network capacity. Adjusts the network resources in real time according to the network conditions to achieve the balance between traffic volume and coverage.   Improves the performance of the CO-BCCH concentric circle. Improves the handover success rate for subscribers at the edge of a cell.

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1.6. GBFD-4001 Extended Cell
Function Description: This function can break the limit of the 35 km and realize the wide coverage. This provides the good technical support for the operator the provide coverage in special area. In GSM specifications, the timing advance (TA) of cell has a restriction of 63 bit at the radio interface, which leads to the situation that the cell coverage radius should be within 35 km. In regions such as vast land, with scattered subscribers, with low traffic, and the infrastructure facilities such as transmission and power supply are hard to be constructed or unavailable. The radius of cell shall be over 35 km. The extended cell breaks the restriction of radius within 35 km. Supported by BTS hardware, it can cover a range with radius of up to 120 km. Operators can use this technology to fast construct their GSM networks with fewer stations and at lower cost, and to attract the mobile subscribers in special regions so as to improve revenue. When the cell coverage radius exceeds 35 km, signal delay exceeds the duration corresponding with the maximum value 63 bit specified in GSM specifications. If an MS reaches the ordinary coverage edge, it transmits at the maximum TA allowed by system. If the MS continues to move outwards, the system is no longer able to implement adaptive adjustment on TA value due to the TA has reached its maximum. Part of signaling transmitted by MS reaches the BTS receiver at next time timeslot. It is this principle that extended cell uses to realize the cell extension. That is, two continuous timeslots are assigned for each MS call, and the receiving window of BTS receiver is also extended to the width of two timeslots. Thus, the cell coverage radius is extended to over 35 km. To enable the MSs in extended range to initiate call at any time, BCCH, CCCH and SDCCH shall always be assigned with two timeslots. The extended cell also supports the GPRS/EGPRS service.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can expand its network coverage in special area, for example, in the vast plain or in the sea, thus increasing the operation efficiency.
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2. Capacity improvement 2.1. GBFD-3201 Concentric Cell
Function Description: The concentric cell can distribute the traffic flexibly and improve the multiplexing rate of the frequency. Thus, the quality of network and the coverage range are improved. The CONCENTRIC CELL technology divides an ordinary cell into two service layers: Overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell. For the MS in the underlaid subcell, try to distribute the less reuse frequency, such as BCCH frequency. For the MS in the Overlaid subcell, try to distribute the more reuse frequency, such as frequency except BCCH. The frequency inside the Overlaid subcell adopts more reuse frequency mode, which can improve system capacity effectively. As shown in figure, the MSs in the overlaid subcell are far from the interference. Therefore, even though the overlaid adopts the more frequency reuse, the voice quality still can be ensured. The underlaid adopts the loose reuse frequency, thus, the voice quality can also be ensured.
UnderLaid subcell Cell A OverLaid subcell Cell B

Signal

Interference

Aggressive frequency reuse of concentric cell

Improve system capacity: The concentric cell divides the cell coverage into overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell. The overlaid subcell and underlaid subcell can adopt different multiplexing modes. For the overlaid
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subcell cell, it adopts more reuse frequency mode such as 1x3 due to its small coverage. For the underlaid subcell cell, it adopts less reuse frequency mode such as 4x3 Improve coverage Increase the power of the power amplifier for the BCCH TRX, the coverage range of the cell can be widened. The TRXs of the cell may output different powers. Thus, the coverage range of the TRXs also differs. The actual coverage range of the cell is determined by the minimum coverage of the TRXs. The concentric cell can make the TRXs with wider coverage range as the underlaid subcell to solve the coverage problem in the remote area. It makes the TRXs with smaller coverage range as the overlaid subcell to solve the capacity problem in the near area. Finally, the coverage range of the cell is widened. The main function of concentric cell is implemented through the two modules: radio resource management module and handover decision module. Channel assignment technology of concentric cell Different channel assignment strategies are adopted for different situations, including: – Immediate assignment There is no reference receiving level, receiving quality and TA for immediate assignment. In order to guarantee the service quality, the SDCCH of underlaid subcell is assigned preferentially. Only when there is no signaling channel available in the underlaid subcell, will the signaling channel in the overlaid subcell be assigned. . – Assignment The channel assignment strategy of concentric cell is used to assign channels. The overlaid subcell channel will be assigned as far as possible when the subscriber is in the overlaid subcell coverage. The underlaid subcell channel will be assigned when no overlaid subcell channel is available. Similarly, the underlaid subcell channel will be assigned as far as possible when the subscriber is in the underlaid subcell coverage. The overlaid subcell channel will be assigned when no underlaid subcell channel is available. Select the suitable service layer to serve the subscriber. Concentric cell Handover algorithm The concentric cell handover algorithm is an extension of the Huawei handover algorithm. It
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enables the BSC to intelligently distribute the traffic and thus use the frequency resources more reasonably. It is developed based on the current Huawei handover algorithm. It incorporates the concentric cell handover judgment function into the current Huawei handover algorithm. When the MS moves across the edge of the overlaid Subcell and underlaid Subcell, the concentric cell handover is initiated. Thus, the MS can receive the service in a proper service layer. If the target layer is congested, the handover is not initiated. For the inter-cell handover, if the target cell is concentric cell, the system also uses the concentric cell handover algorithm to choose a proper layer to provide service.

Enhancement: GBSS7.0
Support for Main BCCH Configured in Overlaid Subcell: The main BCCH can be configured in the underlaid subcell or the overlaid subcell. The TRX in the overlaid subcell supports tight frequency reuse. Therefore, large network capacity is available if the main BCCH is configured in the overlaid subcell. When the main BCCH is configured in the overlaid subcell, the coverage of the overlaid subcell must be equivalent to that of the underlaid subcell. This can improve the KPI performance by reducing the failed handovers from the overlaid subcell to the underlaid subcell and reducing the failed overlaid subcell assignments. Support for PDCH configured in Overlaid Subcell: The number of PDCHs increases with the data service. This aggravates the TCH congestion of underlaid sub cell. If the PDCH is configured in the overlaid subcell, the PS service can be absorbed by the overlaid subcell and the underlaid subcell congestion is alleviate as a consequence. Therefore, the traffic volume in the concentric cell increases. Concentric Cell Handover Parameters Configured Separately for Voice Service and PS Service: If the concentric cell handover parameters of the voice service and that of the PS service are configured separately, the CS handover and the PS handover will be initiated ahead of time. This can reduce call drops.

Benefits: The operator can use the more reuse frequency to expand the system capacity. The operator can also extend the coverage range by using different service layers to bear
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different traffic.

2.2. GBFD-4501 Co-BCCH Cell
Function Description: Based on the concentric cell function, the Huawei co-BCCH cell function can be performed only after the concentric cell function is enabled. The concentric cell has one underlaid subcell and one overlaid subcell. If they act as a co-BCCH cell, the TRXs in the underlaid subcell are on a different frequency band from the TRXs in the overlaid subcell. All the TRXs in the same subcell, however, are on the same band. The Huawei co-BCCH cell function has the following characteristics:  The dual band portfolio can be 900/1800, 850/1800, or 850/1900.  The BCCH TRXs can be configured in the underlaid subcell or in the overlaid subcell.  The PDCH can be configured on the BCCH TRXs or on the common TRXs.  Dual-band MSs can make calls on any of the previous dual bands.  Intra-band frequency hopping is supported, but inter-band frequency hopping is not supported. For example, the frequency hopping within the 900 MHz or within the 1800 MHz band is supported. The frequency hopping, however, between the 900 MHz band and the 1800 MHz band is not supported.  The TRXs on one band can have different power control modes from the TRXs on the other band. For example, the TRXs on the 900 MHz band can have different power control modes from the TRXs on the 1800 MHz band.

Benefits: One BCCH can be saved because the two bands are in the same cell. At the same time, the traffic channels on the two bands are integrated into one cell instead of two cells so that channel resources can be shared. Thus the capacity is enhanced. Compared with the common dual-band network, the dual-band network using the co-BCCH cell function has larger capacity. In the cell on a certain existing band, capacity expansion can be performed through the direct addition of TRXs on the other band. For example, you can perform capacity expansion by adding the 1800 MHz band TRXs in the 900 MHz band cell. For the site with small capacity,
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the number of racks and the footprint can be minimized.

2.3. GBFD-4401 Multi-band Sharing one BSC
Function Description: This function enables the operator to use one BSC to support multiple frequency bands. The operators who have multiple frequency bands but each frequency band has little frequencies can set up a multi-band network with this function. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports 900M, 1800M, 1900M and 850M frequency band. Different frequency bands can share the BSC. Because most of the frequencies of 1800M and 1900M are the same, they cannot form a network together. Thus, the Huawei’s GSM BSS supports the following networking modes: 850M+900M+1800M 850M+900M+1900M In the multi-band network, set the cell selection parameter and handover parameter to implement the cell selection, reselection and handover between different frequency bands. The dual band network is the most popular multi-band network, including 900/1800 dual band network and 850/1900 dual band network.

Benefits: With this function, one BSC can support multiple frequency bands. Thus, the operator can use this function to extend the frequency band.

2.4. GBFD-4402 Enhanced Dual-Band Network
Function Description: The enhanced dual-band network function enhances the resource sharing capability of the channels in the overlaid and underlaid subcells based on the multi-band networking.
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Two physically independent cells (two co-site cells with different coverage radiuses) on different bands are configured with BCCHs and SDCCHs so that the cells form a cell group logically, mapping with the overlaid subcell and the underlaid subcell respectively. For the two cells in the group, the traffic channel resources are shared and the cell load is balanced through the enhanced dual-band network algorithm. The overlaid and underlaid subcells can obtain the information, such as level, channel, and load about each other, so the KPIs (for example, handover success rate and assignment success rate) can be kept at proper values when the channels in the overlaid and underlaid subcells are shared.

Benefits: Multi-band networking can be implemented and the telecom operators are provided with the band expansion capabilities. In addition to the proper KPIs, the system capacity is enhanced through the sharing of the resources in the overlaid and underlaid subcells.

2.5. GBFD-3701 Frequency Hopping (RF hopping, baseband hopping)
Function Description: The frequency hopping (FH) can avoid the attenuation caused by multi-path transmission and same frequency interference, and improve the average C/I of the interference restriction system (especially in cities), thus greatly improving the quality of session, strengthening the capability of high-density multiplexing and increasing the system capacity. Adopting FH can improve the transmission quality of the slowly moving MS. Besides, FH can also improve the security of communication. FH means that the carrier containing meaningful information hops under the control of a sequence. This sequence is called frequency-hopping sequence (HSN). FH mode can be divided into frame FH and timeslot FH by the concept of time-domain and can be divided into and into RF FH and base band FH by carrier realization mode. Huawei BSS realizes the baseband FH and RF FH at the timeslot level, and the baseband FH and RF FH at the frame level.
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RF FH: Both Tx and Rx join the FH. In a cell, the number of FH frequencies engaged in the FH can be larger than the number of TRXs. The RF FH is implemented through real-time switchover between two frequency synthesizers. There are two advantages for this implementation: Lower the speed requirements on the frequency synthesizer. When there is no FH, two frequency synthesizers work in the active/standby mode, thus enhancing the system reliability. Huawei BTS adopts dynamic loop bandwidth and Ping-Pong handover to solve the conflict between fast FH and signal quality. It can realize the unrestricted FH in the bandwidth of the supported frequency band. All FH indexes satisfy the requirements specified in the GSM protocols. Dynamic loop bandwidth technologies: The quality of the local oscillation signal is decided by reference clock (phase discrimination frequency), voltage-controlled oscillator and loop bandwidth. The phase noise of local oscillation within the loop bandwidth is decided by reference clock, and that beyond loop bandwidth is decided by voltage-controlled oscillator. When the Huawei BTS runs, the loop bandwidth needs to be dynamically adjusted according to the need of BTS. When the BTS does not run, the loop bandwidth changes back to best bandwidth, so that the output signal can be the best. Thus, the performance of the system is ensured. Ping-Pong handover: Two identical oscillators are designed on the circuit. A switch is used to choose the two oscillators. When one oscillator (suppose it is oscillator 1) is working, the other (suppose it is oscillator 2) locks on the next frequency quickly. Switching to another oscillator is realized with a switch between two timeslots. This avoids the instant performance worsening at the beginning and end of the timeslot. Baseband FH: Each transmitter works on a fixed frequency. Tx is not involved in FH. The transmitting FH is realized by switching the baseband signal. Rx is involved in FH. Therefore, the number of FH
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frequencies in a cell cannot be larger than number of the TRXs of the cell. When a TRX is faulty, the system starts the baseband FH TRX cooperation to ensure the conversation quality in the cell. Huawei BTS adopts the technology of FH_BUS, which implements FH on the basis of timeslot exchange. Each transmitter is tuned to a fixed frequency, and has a fixed ID. The coder of transmitter encodes the downlink signal to convert the data to burst format. It calculates the channel (that is, TRX) to be modulated for the burst according to FH algorithm, and adds the attached information related to power control to generate a special data packet. The coder transmits the data packet periodically (sub-timeslot). Modulator checks the TRX ID of the data packet from each sub-timeslot. If the TRX ID is different from the local TRX, it will receive that from the next sub-timeslot. If the TRX IDs are the same, it will accept the data packet, and delay for a timeslot and then transmitted to the air interface. Baseband FH has a very high requirement on the real-time identification of the ID of TRX. Huawei base band FH technology realizes fast and reliable TRX ID identification on the basis of the ASIC.

Benefits: The FH can greatly improve the quality and security of the call. It can also improve the networking capacity of the BTSs using Aggressive Frequency Reuse Pattern (AFR), and improves the system capacity.

2.6. GBFD-3702 BCCH Carrier Frequency Hopping
Function Description: BCCH uses fixed frequency. Therefore, it cannot join the RF FH but can join the baseband FH. The FH performance can be improved if the number of frequencies that join the FH increases. Therefore, if the BCCH frequency also joins the FH, the performance of the cell will be improved. To improve the cell performance, Huawei BSS supports the BCCH frequency and the BCCH TRX to join the baseband FH.
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For the FH that the BCCH frequency joins, the BCCH timeslot cannot join the FH but the rest timeslots of the frequency can join the baseband FH. The FH range is extended if the BCCH TRX joins the FH. Thus, the performance of the cell is improved. At the same time, the radio quality is improved due to that the rest channels of BCCH join the FH.

Benefits: The quality of the rest channels of the BCCH TRX other than the BCCH channel is improved.

2.7. GBFD-3703 Antenna Frequency Hopping
Function Description: For the realized frequency hopping (FH) function of the Huawei BSS, the RF FH and baseband FH cannot realize the FH of the BCCH TRX, and the FH of the BCCH TRX cannot realize the FH of timeslot 0 on the BCCH TRX. In the GSM cells, however, timeslot 0 on the BCCH TRX is important for the MS in idle mode to search for the network and for the MS in dedicated mode to measure the neighbor cells. If the MS is in an unfavorable position or the antenna of the BCCH TRX is damaged, the MS cannot receive the broadcast control messages from the BCCH TRX properly. The antenna FH function enables the data of all the timeslots on the BCCH TRX to be transmitted on the antenna of all the TRXs in the cell in turn. Thus the space diversity is increased and the quality of the BCCH TRX data received by the MS is improved. Therefore, the network performance is enhanced.

Benefits: The receive performance of the MS is improved, and the space diversity is realized. Therefore, the network performance is enhanced.

2.8. GBFD-8001 BCCH Dense Frequency Multiplexing
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Function Description: The function allows the operator to densely multiplex frequencies on BCCH carriers. In networks with limited frequency resources, this function can reduce the frequencies occupied by BCCH carriers, and provide more frequencies for the traffic channels. This function can increase system capacity and reduce investment in sites, without changing the original hardware. Every cell is configured with a BCCH carrier. Timeslot 0 of the carrier is mapped to the broadcast channel (BCH) or the common control channel (CCCH). The synchronization message, system message, paging message, and assignment message are carried in the timeslot to all subscribers of the cell continuously. These messages directly relate to cell residence, cell reselection, call initiation, and paging response. Therefore, the BCCH becomes the most important channel in the GSM telecommunication. Generally, the 4*3 mode is adopted for the BCCH frequency planning. This can ensure that the C/I ratio of the shared/adjacent frequencies on the BCCH carrier is very high. The BCCH occupies 12 frequencies. In a network with a higher frequency multiplexing level and limited frequency resources, if 3*3 multiplexing is implemented for the frequencies of the BCCH, the interference on the TCH on the BCCH carrier increases and the performance drops to an intolerable level. The BCCH dense frequency multiplexing function divides a cell into two different logical layers: The TCH layer on the BCCH carrier and the frequency hopping layer. The frequency hopping layer serves the whole system, covers the whole network, and provides coverage for calls at the edge of a cell. To guarantee the performance of call access, the TCH layer on the BCCH carrier must modify the coverage of its absorbed traffic. The interference in places near the BTS is smaller than the interference at the peripheral area and edge of a cell. Therefore, the TCH layer on the BCCH carrier provides the coverage for calls near the BTS only. In the initial access and channel allocation triggered by handover (in case of non-BCCH dense frequency multiplexing), the system first allocates traffic channels among non-BCCH carriers to ensure the subscriber access performance. When a call on a non-BCCH carrier in a cell is initiated, if the subscriber is near the BTS, it means that the BCCH dense frequency
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multiplexing only has smaller impact on the call. The system hands over the call to the BCCH carrier and reserves the channels on non-BCCH carriers to ensure the access performance of other calls.

Benefits:
  Reduces the frequencies occupied by the BCCH and improves frequency spectrum utilization rate. Increases the available frequencies of traffic channels and frequencies in frequency hopping, increases the system capacity without changing the original hardware, and reduces the investment in new sites and cells.  The TCH layer on the BCCH carrier is only used by the subscribers in a cell near the BTS. Because the interference on the uplink decreases, the subscribers can obtain better voice quality if this function is enabled.  Reduces the chance of random access failure and enhances the access performance.

2.9. GBFD-7001 Flex MAIO
Function Description:

In a site with large capacity, inter-frequency or intra-frequency interference may easily occur among channels because of the limited frequency resources and the aggressive frequency reuse. For example, when the MA has some neighbor frequencies, inter-frequency interference may occur among the channels if the channels that carry the same number of the timeslot on different TRXs use neighbor MAIOs and the channels are seized. If the Flex MAIO function is performed so that an MAIO is assigned to a certain channel under activation, the MAIO value is dynamically adjusted based on the interference on the current channel. The MAIO value is assigned to the channel so that the interference for the call is minimized from the perspective of the entire network. The Huawei BSS equipment records the interference conditions in each timeslot and updates the timeslot interference record upon channel activation or channel release.

Benefits: When the frequencies are limited, the cells in the BTS can optimally use the frequencies. Thus
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the inter-frequency and intra-frequency interference among channels in the GSM telecommunications system is minimized and the aggressive reuse of frequency resources in the BTS is realized. Therefore, the system capacity is enhanced.

2.10.GBFD-4901 Support for E-GSM and R-GSM Frequency Band
Function Description: E-GSM (including P-GSM900 and extended GSM900) is the extension of P-GSM900. The serving frequency of E-GSM is as follow: Uplink: 880 MHz –915 MHz Downlink: 925 MHz–960 MHz The frequency No.: 0–124, and 975–1023. R-GSM is the extension of E-GSM. The serving frequency of R-GSM is as follows: Uplink: 876 MHz–915 MHz: Downlink: 921 MHz–960 MHz The frequency No.: 0–124, and 955–1023. The E-GSM 900, R-GSM 900 and the P-GSM belong to the same frequency band while their frequencies are not adjacent. Thus the extended frequency band of E-GSM and R-GSM are introduced. The E-GSM extended frequency band refers to the E-GSM frequency band other than the PGSM frequency band. The R-GSM extended frequency band refers to the E-GSM frequency band other than the RGSM frequency band. For the cells configured with E-GSM extended frequency band or R-GSM extended frequency band, the system takes the frequency band support capability of MSs and the channel into consideration to adopt different channel assignment strategies. For immediate assignment, the system assigns channel for the MS according to the frequency support capability of BCCH. When assign the channel, the system obtains the classmark of MS and then obtains the frequency support capability of MS according to the classmark. Among all the channels that support the MS, the system prefers to assign the channel other than
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the intersecting channels. For example, if a MS supports E-GSM and the current channel has PGSM frequency band and E-GSM extended frequency band, the channel of E-GSM extended frequency band is assigned. The P-GSM channel is reserved for the MSs that have weak frequency band support capability.

Benefits: The service can be borne by the extended frequency band, which extends the frequency range.

2.11.GBFD-5801 ICC(Interference Counteract Combine)
Function Description: Inference Counteract Combine is a new receiver algorithm for the transceiver which drastically improves the uplink radio quality and speech quality. The prerequisite for ICC is that two antennas are used to receive two diversity signals, and then the ICC will compare to the training sequence to find out the characteristics of the interference signals, and remove the invalid signals from the desired signals.

Benefits: ICC not only can decrease the interference impacting on uplink signals but increase the network capacity where networks are uplink limited and improve speech quality since interference is reduced, as well as ICC can increase data throughput due to fewer retransmissions and the possibility to use higher coding schemes.

2.12.GBFD-8201 Intra BSC Soft-Synchronized Network
Function Description: Most of the current GSM networks are non-synchronous networks, that is, all BTSs are not
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synchronzied, and every BTS adopts different frame number, timeslot number, and TA offset. There are two network synchronization modes: hardware synchronization and software synchronization. In the hardware synchronization mode, every BTS is equipped with a GPS device. Through the synchronization by satellite transmission, network-wide synchronization is realized. But this mode necessitates extra cost. In the software synchronization mode, Um interface software is used to realize BSC-wide synchronization. The software adjusts the frame number, timeslot, and offset of the BTSs to synchronize all BTSs under the BSC. In a non-synchronous network, it is impossible to estimate the interference on the adjacent channels. The interference can be alleviated through loose frequency multiplexing and frequency hopping. In a synchronous network, the system can estimate the interference of shared/adjacent channels in any inter-cell overlapping area, and avoid collision of inter-cell shared/adjacent channels through the dynamic frequency and channel allocation algorithm. This greatly improves the frequency resource utilization rate and the network capacity. The synchronous network helps the ICC to achieve the optimum performance. When the useful signals are synchronized with the interference signals in time, the interference signals keep unchanged during the burst. The interference feature calculated according to the training sequence can effectively counteract the interference during the burst. At the moment, the ICC performance is the best.

Benefits:
 Synchronizes all BTSs under a BSC through software without the need of extra expensive hardware device. The necessary hardware devices include a GPS device for every BTS. The satellite is used to realize synchronization.  Synchronizes the BTSs, and realizes the DFCA function. The simulation result shows that: The DFCA technology applied in the synchronous network can improve the network capacity by 20–50%.  Synchronizes the BTSs and greatly improves the performance of ICC and SAIC. According to the simulation result, the ICC technology applied in the synchronous network can improve the network performance by 5.5 dB in contrast to the performance of the asynchronous network. The SAIC technology in the asynchronous network can improve the network capacity by 40%.
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Improves the KPIs, including mean opinion score (MOS) of the voice service, paging success rate, handover success rate, call drop rate, and traffic volume.

3. Networking Capacity 3.1. GBFD-4601 Six-cell Function
Function Description: Under special circumstance, one BTS is required to support more than three cells. Huawei’s GSM BSS can support up to six cells. Huawei macro cell BTS312 、3012、3012AE supports up to 12 antenna ports in one cabinet. Thus, one BTS can provide up to six cells. Under the 900/1800M dual band networking, the operator can use this function to provide three 900M cell and three 1800M cell with one BTS, thus saving the investment.

Benefits: Within this function, one BTS can provide six cells, thus saving the investment for the operator.

3.2. GBFD-7801 Ring topology
Function Description: Ring topology is a special chain networking. All sites form an ordinary chain network while the last site connects to the BSC. Thus, a ring is formed. If the transmission in somewhere is interrupted, the sites in front of the interrupted point can keep the same networking mode while the sites behind the interrupted point will form a new chain connection with a reverse transmission direction. The ring networking supports:  Automatic switchover  Manual switchover
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 Querying and dynamical setting of the switchover parameter  Dynamical data configuration, such as add/delete BTS, cell or TRX
BTS3 BTS2 BTS1 BSC

Benefits: if transmission in somewhere in the network is interrupted, the network can be automatically split into two chain networks. Both the sites in front of and behind the interruption point can work normally thus the network robustness is improved.

3.3. GBFD-5201 High Speed Signaling
Function Description: 2M High Speed Signaling can simplify the signaling networking between BSC and core network. It breaks the limitation of the 16 links of single signaling and satisfies the requirement of signaling flow for offices with large capacity. With the expanding of the capacity of mobile network office and the traffic volume, the entry of new services, and the popularizing of short message service and wireless intelligent network service, the signaling flow between different signaling points also increases rapidly. According to signaling SS7, single signaling points have a maximum of 16 signaling links. While the 2M high speed signaling link expands the transmission bandwidth to 2M for single signaling, and supports multiple 2M signaling between signaling points. 2M high speed signaling adopts a 2M E1 link between core network and BSC as the bearer of signaling SS7 to achieve high speed signaling with large capacity. 2M high speed signaling can break the limitation of sixteen 64K signaling links by configuring multiple links at one signaling point. At the same time, this function also simplifies the
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networking between BSC and core network, and reduces the configuration and maintenance work. Thus, it provides good technical support for the reliability between large capacity offices.

Benefits: 2M high speed signaling breaks the limitation of sixteen 64K signaling links, simplifies the networking between BSC and core network, and reduces the configuration and maintenance work.

3.4. GBFD-5301 Local Multiple Signaling Points
Function Description: Local multiple signaling points is a networking mode in which BSC possesses multiple signaling points and the target signaling point Is only one (MSC target signaling point). The local multiple signaling points breaks the limitation of 16 signaling links of A interface and further improves the capacity of single BSC in BSS. With the rapid development of mobile network, the requirement for network processing ability is much higher than before. Since the number of links between MSC and BSC should not exceed 16 according to ITU-T and GSM protocols, BSC6000 introduces the concept of multiple signaling points. It provides large capacity trunk between exchanges and resolution for large traffic volume link on the basis of ITU-T and national standards. The networking of multiple signaling points is shown below.

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16 signaling links

B S C

M S C

16 signaling links

Networking of multiple signaling points

As the capacity of BSC and the traffic volume of signaling SS7 increase, the requirement for the links of signaling SS7 also increases. The 16 links between MSC and BSC cannot satisfy the capacity requirement. Multiple signaling points can increase the signaling links of A interface and solve this problem. In the technology of multiple signaling points, one physical node is logically divided into multiple signaling points and each point can connect to other points independently. If a physical node is divided into N logical signaling points, since the maximum number of links between source point and target point is 16, the total number of links between this physical node and remote signaling point is N16, thus breaking the limitation of 16 links. Through multiple signaling points technology, BSC6000 can connect to MSC that does not support 2M high speed signaling, which improves the adaptability of BSC. BSC6000 local multiple signaling points are a logic concept. One physical node has multiple logical signaling points but there is only one target point. These points are independent with each other. Each of the multiple signaling points implements the same function of an independent signaling point. Currently, BSC only supports one target signaling point.

Benefits: Technology of multiple signaling points can increase the signaling links of A interface and
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expand the capacity of single office in BSS.

4. System reliability 4.1. GBFD-3801 TRX Cooperation
Function Description: In case of BCCH TRX failure or baseband FH TRX failure, the cell can handle it automatically through the TRX Cooperation function. Thus, the cell services can not be affected before the failed TRX is replaced. The TRX Cooperation includes BCCH TRX cooperation and baseband FH TRX cooperation. For the non-baseband FH cell, only the BCCH TRX cooperation occurs. For the baseband FH cell, both BCCH TRX cooperation and baseband FH TRX cooperation can occur. BCCH TRX cooperation: In the idle state, MS need to know some information about the infrastructure of the network. BSC sends the broadcast message to BTS, and BTS broadcasts it on BCCH. The broadcast information includes cell selection information, adjacent cell information, access control information, private channel control information, cell identification code, location, system parameters of packet service, and so on. When BCCH TRX of a cell fails, all services of this cell are interrupted. In order to ensure the cell services not to be affected, in case of BCCH TRX failure, another available TRX of the cell can substitute the BCCH TRX. Thus, the cell can continue to provide the services. After the original BCCH TRX recovers, the BCCH changes back to the original BCCH TRX. This is called BCCH TRX cooperation. Baseband FH TRX cooperation: In the baseband FH cell, if a TRX participating in FH fails, the conversations on this FH channel lose some voice frames. Correspondingly, the communication quality is decreased. In order to ensure the communication quality, in case of baseband FH TRX failure, BSC starts the TRX cooperation function. It automatically changes the cell to the non-FH mode. Thus, the

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failure of a TRX will not affect the communication quality of the entire cell. When the fault is removed, this cell can be restored to the FH mode. This is called baseband FH TRX cooperation.  Note: If BCCH TRX in a baseband FH cell fails, except for BCCH TRX cooperation, baseband FH TRX cooperation also occurs. That is, the cell is changed to the non-FH mode. In addition, only when the faults of all TRXs participating in FH and the original BCCH TRX are removed, the baseband FH TRX cooperation changes back. That is, the cell is restored to the FH mode.

Benefits: The TRX Cooperation function ensures that the cell can provide services at any time. The probability that the cell is out of service due to the BCCH TRX failure is reduced. The probability that the call quality in the cell is lowered due to the TRX joining the baseband FH fails is reduced. Thus, the reliability of the network is greatly improved.

4.2. GBFD-7401 MSC Pool
Function Description: MSC Pool function indicates that a maximum of 32 MSCs form a resource pool to provide network services for the mobile subscribers under one group of BSCs. Through the MSC Pool function, one BSC can be connected with multiple MSCs, and evenly distribute its traffic load to all the MSCs in the resource pool based on the network resource indicator (NRI) and the load sharing principle. The chart below shows the typical network topology for the MSC Pool function. Typical network topology for the MSC Pool function

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As shown above, MCS 1, MCS 2, and MCS 3 form an MSC pool (Pool Area 1). All the calls or data in the tour BSC service areas (BSC Area 1, BSC Area 2, BSC Area 5, and BSC Area 6) are routed to the MSC pool for further processing. There are three routing modes. Routing by NRI: The NRI is carried in the TMSI of an MS. It is assigned to the MS by the MSC. When the MS needs to use network services, it sends its TMSI to the network. Upon receipt of the TMSI, the BSC resolves the NRI from the TMSI and then routes the services of the MS to the MSC based on the MSC signaling point corresponding to the NRI in the configuration data.

Routing by network load: In the BSC configuration data, every MSC in the MSC pool is

configured with a static load factor, which indicates the load sharing percentage of services shared on each MSC. The BSC routes services to MSCs based on the load factors in a loading sharing principle. Routing by IMSI: When the IMSI carried in the network-initiated paging message is consistent with the IMSI carried in the MS-initiated paging message, the BSC routes the services of the MS to the MSC that returns a paging response.

Pool Area 1

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Benefits: The MSCs in the MSC pool bears traffic load evenly and share resources. The MSC Pool function can:  Improve the network capacity and save the cost of telecom operators  Achieve disaster-recovery backup and improve network reliability because the addition or deletion of an MSC does not affect normal services.  Automatically balance the traffic load on an MSC and reduce the operation and maintenance cost of telecom operators  The MSC pool is logically seen as one MSC. It can reduce inter-MSC handovers and improve network performance.

4.3. GBFD-6601 Abis Bypass
Function Description: To improve performance of the BSS the in area deficient of power supply, Huawei BTS supports the Abis Bypass function. The Abis bypass function is an optional function and suitable for the chain networking environment. The BTSs are configured with the Abis bypass board (ABB) to implement the Abis bypass function. When a BTS in the networking fails, the BTSs after this BTS are bypassed and can work normally. After the failure recovers, the bypassed BTSs automatically reset and return to the normal mode. This function is an optional function and suitable for the chain networking.

Benefits: In the chain networking, the next-level BTSs are not interrupted when a BTS fails. The stability of the network in the area deficient of power supply is improved.

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5. Voice service 5.1. GBFD-3301 Enhanced Full Rate
Function Description: Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) can provide better voice quality. EFR adopts the Algebraic code excitation linear prediction (ACELP) algorithm. Transcoder & Rate Adaptation Unit (TRAU) converts the voice signal received from MSC into frames in the format of 20 ms/frame. A frame of voice data contains 160 PCM sampling points, totally 1280 bit. The output parameters after encoding are 244 bit, making up the 320 bit TRAU frame together with the synchronous header and control parameter. Decoding is a reverse process of coding. After TRAU receives the TRAU frames sent from the BSC, it restores them into speech data by applying decoding algorithm before sending them to MSC.

Enhancement: GBSS8.0 Forced EFR Function in BSC: In the condition where the EFR function can improve speech
quality and both the MS and the BSC support the EFR function, the EFR function can be forcedly enabled on the BSC side if EFR is unavailable because the MSC does not support it. In this case, EFR should be shielded on the MSC side to avoid assignment failure or handover failure. This function is mainly applied in the areas with poor speech quality.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can provide better voice quality without affecting the network capacity.

5.2. GBFD-3401 Half Rate
Function Description: Under the half rate mode, two users can share one timeslot. Thus, the TRX can provide more
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voice channels. And the frequency utilization is improved. As the increase of the subscribers, the frequency resources of the current GSM network become more and more insufficient. The half rate function can improve the capacity of the current network without any hardware investment. When a BTS is configured with the half rate function, the TRAU needs to support the half rate coding. Huawei TRAU supports all series of voice coding. It can dynamically assign various voice coding resources according to the service assignment situation. If the half rate voice channel is used, the voice channel uses one 16 kbit/s channel to bear two voices in the Abis terrestrial circuit. Thus, the terrestrial link can bear more traffic. When the half rate is used, one TRX bears more traffic and the load of RSL link becomes relevantly heavier. Therefore, if the signaling multiplexing is used, the multiplexing mode cannot be configured as 4:1. The 2:1 mode is recommended. The half rate may slightly affect the voice quality. The Huawei BSS equipment calculates the loads on the Abis interface and on the Ater interface in real time. When the resources on the Abis interface or on the Ater interface are congested, the BSC assigns the half-rate channels first if a call allows the assignment of both half-rate voice channels and full-rate voice channels. Therefore, the bandwidth of the Abis interface and of the Ater interface can be fully utilized and more calls can be accessed.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can improve its network capacity without any hardware investment. One E1 can bear more traffic and the frequency utilization is improved.

5.3. GBFD-3402 Dynamic Adjustment between FR and HR
Function Description: When the BSS is configured with half rate function and the dynamical adjustment of full ratehalf rate function is enabled, the half rate and the full rate can be converted to each other
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dynamically. The system can automatically adjust the ratio between full rate and half rate channel. In this way, it can avoid the situation that some channels are congested while others are idle due to the fixed configuration of channels. You can also adjust the ratio between full rate and half rate channel for the whole network through setting relevant parameters. During the call process, the system decides the channel type to be assigned according to the resources of the MS, MSC and BSC. If it decides to assign the half rate channel while there is no half rate channel available. The system converts the full rate channel into half rate channel. If the system decides to assign the full rate channel while there is no full rate channel available, it converts the half rate channel into full rate channel. The channel properties do not change when the channels are released after the call ends. The ratio between half rate and full rate is automatically adjusted during the call if the channel occupation rate is normal. Only when the load of the cell is very high or the cell is congested, the half rate and full rate are converted to each other constantly.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can avoid the low channel usage due to fixed configuration of full rate channel and half rate channel. It can also reduce the task to configure or adjust the full rate channel and half rate channel.

5.4. GBFD-5501 AMR FR
Function Description: In an environment of some interference, better voice service quality can be provided if the system uses the AMR FR. In the same environment, the voice service quality provided when the system uses the AMR FR is equal to or better than that when the system use the EFR. The AMR is an integration of multiple voice coding and decoding rates. Different coding and
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decoding rates lead to different rates of voice code streams. The AMR enables the BTS and MS to select an appropriate coding and decoding algorithm, and to adjust the coding rate according to specific radio environment. Therefore, the voice service quality of the whole radio communication system is improved. In an environment of much interference, better quality of voice service can be provided when the system uses the AMR FR than that when the system uses the EFR or FR. And the AMR FR is more robust, with better ability of anti-interface, and is more adaptive to the aggressive frequency reuse. If the voice channel coding rate is higher, the more information of voice features is provided in the coded code stream, and the voice is more realistic, but the less redundancy information is in the code stream, and the anti-interference ability of code stream is poorer. In a hard communication environment, error code may occur and voice frames may be lost, and then voice maybe discontinued. If the voice channel coding rate is lower, the more redundancy information is in the coded code stream and the anti-interference ability and error correction ability of code stream is stronger. Then, the voice is more continued. The AMR FR provides a code rates selection, as shown below. Code rates selection Channel TCH/AFS Coding Rate 12.2 kbit/s 10.2 kbit/s
7.95 kbit/s 7.40 kbit/s 6.70 kbit/s 5.90 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s 4.75 kbit/s

Benefits:  Increase the bearable system capacity  Enhance the anti-interference ability.
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 Adapt to the aggressive frequency reuse.  Improve the network index in an increasing complex radio environment when combining with the frequency hopping technology.  Provide a better quality of voice service.

5.5. GBFD-5502 AMR HR
Function Description: In an environment of some interference, better voice service quality can be provided if the system use the AMR HR. In the same environment, the voice service quality provided when the system uses the AMR HR is equal to or better than that when the system uses the HR. To use the AMR HR function, you must enable the HR function in the system. For better voice quality can be provide when the system use the AMR in an environment of some interference, the AMR HR can be used extensively to enhance the system capacity. When much interference exists and the voice service quality is worse, the system automatically switches to the AMR FR in real-time. And the service quality and system capacity are balanced in real-time. The system can provide good voice service quality to subscribers when the system capacity is extended. The AMR HR provides a selection for coding rates, as shown below. Coding rates selection Channel TCH/AHS Coding Rate 7.40 kbit/s 6.70 kbit/s
5.90 kbit/s 5.15 kbit/s 4.75 kbit/s

Benefits:  Increase the bearable system capacity  Enhance the anti-interference ability.
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 Adapt the aggressive frequency reuse.  Improve the network index in an increasing complex radio environment when combining with the frequency hopping technology.  Provide a better quality of voice service.

5.6. GBFD-5503 AMR Power Control
Function Description: This function provides different power control modes for different AMR modes. Better anti-interference ability, larger network capacity, and better voice quality can be provided. The AMR voice codec can select one of the coding rates according to the radio channel quality, to achieve an optimized combination of voice coding rate and channel coding rate. The AMR voice codec can provide the best voice quality under the current radio environment and can meet the communication requirement in all kinds of radio environment. More redundancy information in the coded AMR code stream provides stronger antiinterference and error correction ability. And the voice continuity is improved. The system automatically decides whether to adopt the AMR. If the system uses the AMR, the power controls strategy for the AMR calling is different from that for the None-AMR calling. Therefore, the network interference is reduced, the BTS transmission power is saved, and the standby time of MS is longer.

Benefits:
    

The transmission power is reduced; The MS has a longer standby time. The network interference is reduced. The frequency usage is increased. The network service quality is better.

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5.7. GBFD-5504 AMR FR/HR Dynamic Adjustment
Function Description: Through the dynamical switching of AMR HR and AMR FR, the cell capacity and the voice service quality are balanced. To use the AMR HR/FR dynamic switching function, you must enable the HR and AMR HR function first. When the BSS completes the initial voice coding after setting up a call, the BSS calculates the RQI (radio quality index) according to the uplink signal quality measured by the BTS. According to the uplink quality, the code sets activated by the BSC, and the corresponding threshold, the system decides the coding and decoding manner of the uplink. And then, the BSS dynamically adjusts the voice coding rate of the uplink, and asks the MS to use the selected voice coding rate of uplink. According to the RQI and network capacity parameters, the BSS decides whether to enable the HR/FR channel switching in the cell, in order to balance the voice service quality and the cell capacity. The dynamic HR/FR switching in different radio environments and different capacity configurations helps to balance the voice service quality and the cell capacity.

Benefits: Less maintenance work is required. For the system can do automatically adjustment according to the environment. Network capacity is increased, and the voice service quality is not degraded. The income can be raised and operation cost can be cut for the operators.

5.8. GBFD-5505 AMR wireless link timer
Function Description: The wireless link timer is used to detect the quality of a wireless link. When the timer expires due to poor wireless link quality, the system deactivates the wireless channel, and interrupts the conversation. The timer can improve channel utilization efficiency, and prevent channels with
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poor quality from occupying wireless channel resources. This function provides a special wireless link timer for AMR calls. AMR calls enjoy higher robustness than common calls. When a common call fails due to poor link quality, the AMR voice service can maintain good conversation quality. If the wireless link timer of the AMR call and that of a common call adopt the same settings, the chance of AMR call drop increases and the conversation quality deteriorates. By adopting a maximum value for the AMR wireless link timer, you can make the AMR call endure the worst environment and reduce the call drop rate. You can configure the wireless link timers for the AMR HR and the AMR FR separately.

Benefits: You can prolong the conversation of AMR voice service, reduce the call drop rate, and improve the benefits of the operator by setting the wireless link timer of AMR voice service and that of non-AMR voice service separately, because the AMR voice service has strong anti-interference capability.

6. Voice quality enhancement 6.1. GBFD-5601 Automatic Level Control (ALC)
Function Description: Based on voice volume estimation and some other rules, the GBFD-5601 can adjust the voice volume to improve the voice service quality of the network. The arithmetic can automatically detect the voice volume. According to the estimation of the arithmetic, system will increase or decrease the gain. The adaptive voice volume control works in two gain modes:

Fixed gain mode: Increase or decrease the voice volume gain by a fixed percentage based on the original voice volume. Adaptive gain mode: Adjust the voice volume according to the arithmetic factors, such as the received voice volume, rate, maximum gain, and expected level.

The adaptive gain mode can adapt the network better.
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Benefits: Mask the difference of voice volume control modes of different terminal manufacturers, to balance the difference of the subscriber response in different regions. And the subscriber obtains higher voice service quality.

6.2. GBFD-5602 Acoustic Echo Cancellation(AEC)
Function Description: Because of the manufacture structure of the MS, the sound wave from the speaker is reflected to the earpiece. And the MS sends the received voice signal back to the receiving party. The quality of the call between the calling party and the receiving party is affected. This kind of echo is called the acoustic echo. For the speaker and the the earpiece of the MS is too close to each other, the MS produces much acoustic echo in the communication system. The AEC (acoustic echo cancellation) module of the TC (transcoder) processes the current voice signal of the speaker of the MS besides MSC or the fixed-line phone. The TC keeps the main characters of the current voice signal. After a delay, the TC compares the main characters of the voice signal with that of the current voice signal from terminal. If codes of similar characters exist, the codes are nonlinearly treated. Therefore, the voice signal reflected to the earpiece is counteracted. And the acoustic echo is cancelled.

Benefits: Cancel the acoustic echo which is produced because of the manufacture structure of the terminal. The voice quality is improved.

6.3. GBFD-5603 Automatic Noise Restraint (ANR)
Function Description:
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In an environment with background noises, the ANR function uses an algorithm to attenuate and restrain noises based on the differences between noises and common voices in terms of spectrum characteristics, time, and change. The ANR function can improve the quality of voices because it hardly distorts pure voices while improving signal-to-noise ratio and reducing noise level. Benefits: The ANR improves the quality of voices by restraining the background noises in conversations.

6.4. GBFD-5701 TFO
Function Description: In a traditional mobile network system which does not adopt the TFO, the voice signals are coded at the calling MS, and then transmitted to the initiatory TRAU for decoding through the radio interface. The decoded PCM dada stream is then transmitted to the terminal TRAU for coding through the 64 Kbit/s transmission links, and then transmitted to the receiving MS for decoding through radio interface. The voice signals go through two times of coding and decoding operations. This process is called repeat coding and decoding operations. The TFO is to solve the problem of voice signal loss in repeat coding and decoding operations in the traditional MS-MS calling process. When the calling MS and the receiving MS use the same voice coding scheme, the codec at the initiatory Radio Leg A and the terminal Radio Leg B are disabled. And voice signal are transparently transmitted between the calling MS and the receiving MS. In this case, the voice signal is coded at the calling MS for one time, and decoded at the receiving MS for one time. Repeat coding and decoding operations do not exist.

Benefits: The conversation quality is improved effectively for the repeat coding and decoding operations during a call from one MS to another MS is cancelled.

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6.5. GBFD-5702 TrFO
Function Description: In a traditional mobile network system which does not adopt the TFO/ TrFO, the voice signals are coded at the calling MS, and then transmitted to the initiatory TRAU for decoding through the radio interface. The decoded PCM dada stream is then transmitted to the terminal TRAU for coding through the 64 Kbit/s transmission links, and then transmitted to the called MS for decoding through radio interface. The voice signals go through two times of coding and decoding operations. This process is called repeat coding and decoding operations. When the TrFO function is used, the calling MS and the called MS use the same voice coding scheme. The voice signal is coded at the calling MS for one time, and decoded at the called MS for one time. This can solve the problem of voice signal loss in repeat coding and decoding operations in the traditional MS-MS calling process. The conversation quality is improved effectively. When a call is initiated, the codec negotiation is performed to establish the TrFO operation. The calling MS sends the supported coding/decoding type list to the MSC server on the calling side. The MSC server deletes the coding/decoding types not supported and then sends the list to the transmission network. The transmission network also deletes the coding/decoding types not supported and then sends the list to the MSC server on the called side. The MSC server on the called side performs the same operation and then sends the list to the called MS. The called MS selects an optimum coding/decoding type based on this list and its voice coding/decoding support condition, and returns this type to the MSC server on the called side, transmission network, MSC server on the calling side, and the calling MS. Then the call setup starts. If the call setup is successful, the compressed voice on the MS-MS call path is consistent. If the called MS fails to select an optimum coding/decoding type, the default PCM coding format is used. If the TrFO function fails, TFO function can be started again after the call is set up. Both TrFO and TFO use the voice compression in the core network. This can avoid the repeated code conversion and improve the QoS. There is also a difference between the two functions. TFO is enabled, disabled, and controlled by the TRAU after a call is set up. When the two

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codecs use the same coding/decoding scheme, the TFO is enabled. TrFO does not require the TRAU. It uses the OoBTC to negotiate the coding/decoding type of both the calling MS and the called MS before a call is set up. The compressed voice is sent directly after the call is set up. If the condition for TrFO is not met, it takes a period of time to restore the PCM coding/decoding. This period of time is mainly used to configure the TRAU. Without TRAU, the call fails. The advantage of TFO is that the PCM coding format is immediately used when the condition for TFO is not met. Therefore, the speech quality is not affected.

Benefits:
TrFO enables the calling MS and the called MS to use the same voice coding scheme. This avoids the repeated code conversion and improves the QoS. TrFO does not require the TRAU. Therefore, it can save TC resources.

6.6. GBFD-6801 Voice Quality Index (VQI)
Function Description: This function provides VQI scores for the uplink voice quality and facilitates the optimization of the entire network. The VQI scores are obtained through the measurement of the items, such as bit error rate (BER), frame error rate (FER), long frame erase (LFE), and voice code type.

Benefits: The VQI function has the following Benefits:  Reducing the cost of operation and maintenance  Enabling the operator to evaluate the voice quality of the network quickly and effectively  Facilitating fast location of voice problems  Facilitating network optimization

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6.7. GBFD-7501 Enhanced Measurement Report(EMR)
Function Description: The EMR is a new type of downlink measurement report introduced in R99. The EMR is reported to the network from an MS. In comparison with the MR, some measurement items such as BER and FER, are added to the EMR. Thus enhanced measurement can be provided for the serving cell and the performance of the power control and handover algorithm can be enhanced. Using the EMR, the MS can report the measurement results of more neighbor cells in a measurement report. A common MR can report the measurement results of a maximum of 6 GSM neighbor cells, but an EMR can report the measurement results of up to 15 neighbor cells. Thus the overall performance of the GSM system is enhanced. The EMR supports the measurement of the WCDMA/TD_SCDMA neighbor cells. Thus the interoperability between the GSM system and the WCDMA/TD_SCDMA system can be realized so that the requirement for service continuity is met.

Benefits: The enhanced measurement can improve the monitoring capability on the speech quality, enhance the performance of the power control and handover algorithm, and realize the interoperability between the GSM system and the WCDMA/TD_SCDMA system.

7. Saving trasmission 7.1. GBFD-6701 16Kbit RSL and OML on A-bis interface
Function Description: 16 k LAPD signaling link (OML and RSL) supports the 16 k singling link in the physical layer. Each 16 k LAPD signaling link only occupies 16 k bandwidth, thus saving the transmission resources on the Abis interface.
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This function supports:  The timeslot of the RSL and OML signaling link can choose the following four working modes through data configuration: 16 k, 32 k, 64 k, and 64 k statistical multiplexing. All the signaling links of a BTS can only be configured as the same mode.

 Under the 16 k LAPD signaling link mode, the 16 k signaling timeslot and the 16 k traffic timeslot can be configured in one 64 k timeslot on the Abis interface.

Benefits:  When this function is used in the small site configuration (such as, O1 or O2), it can greatly save the transmission resource of Abis interface. The rental cost of the satellite transmission is very high, the 16 k LAPD signaling link function can save the bandwidth and thus save the cost when the Abis interface adopts the satellite transmission.

7.2. GBFD-7301 Flex Abis
Function Description: The traditional BSC assigns the transmission resources on the Abis interface in a fixed way so that one timeslot on the Abis interface maps with one timeslot on the air interface. Thus the timeslots on the Abis interface and those on the air interface cannot be shared. In actual situation, for different BTSs and cells as well as the packet service and the circuit service, the resources on the air interface are not always seized. When a BTS is busy and another BTS is idle, or when the packet service is busy and the circuit service is idle, the resource usage is enhanced if the Abis resources can be shared among different BTSs, cells, or services. If the function is used in a multi-cell and high-configuration site, a multiply cascaded BTS, or a cell configured with the EDGE service, the resources can be utilized in a more effective manner.
Huawei Flex Abis supports the Abis timeslot resources shared by the PS service and the CS service. A special algorithm is designed to balance the Abis resources between the PS service and the CS service. In Flex Abis solution, a certain number of Abis resources are allocated to the PS service to ensure the QoS for some PS service users. In PS domain, the transmission resources on the Abis interface are allocated based on 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot. A main timeslot is allocated to the PDCH, and then additional timeslots are allocated in steps of 16 kbit/s based on the required coding rate on the Um interface. In

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Huawei algorithm, transmission resources are allocated based on the 16 kbit/s timeslot, which greatly improves the bandwidth utilization. In CS service, the timeslot transmission on the Abis interface uses the resource pool mode. Abis resources are allocated to TRXs only when the TRXs are busy. This can improve the utilization of Abis resources. Except for synchronous timeslot (TS0), RSL timeslot (radio signaling link), and OML timeslot (operation and maintenance link), all the other Abis resources are included in the Abis Pool.

For Huawei BSS, the assignment of half-rate channels on the Abis interface can be triggered based on the load of the Abis resources. The minimum Abis resource for allocation is 8 kbit/s. When the resource utilization on the Um interface does not reach the congestion threshold but the transmission resource utilization has reached the congestion threshold, 8 kbit/s half-rate channels on the Abis interface are assigned to improve the utilization of Abis resources.

Benefits: The function can realize the sharing of the Abis resources among BTSs, cells, or services. Thus the reusability of the resources can be enhanced. The operating costs of the telecom operators can be reduced if the transmission resources are limited, for example, satellite transmission.

7.3. GBFD-6901 Flex Ater
Function Description: The Ater interface is the internal interface between the service processing subrack and the audio processing subrack in the Huawei BSS equipment. The Ater interface resources are classified into 16 kbit/s Ater interface resources and 8 kbit/s Ater interface resources. During the call proceeding, the speech type is determined. If it is the full-rate speech, the 16 kbit/s Ater interface resources are assigned. If it is the half-rate speech, the 8 kbit/s Ater interface resources are assigned. Thus the Ater interface resources are fully utilized. You can determine the initial proportion of the 16 kbit/s Ater interface resources to the 8 kbit/s Ater interface resources. If either type of the resources is insufficient, dynamic adjustment can be performed. If the 16 kbit/s Ater interface resources are insufficient, two units of 8 kbit/s Ater interface resources can be adjusted to one unit of 16 kbit/s Ater interface resources. Likewise, if
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the 8 kbit/s Ater interface resources are insufficient, one units of 16 kbit/s Ater interface resources can be adjusted to two units of 8 kbit/s Ater interface resources. The adjustment procedure is recorded in the traffic statistics. You can obtain the information about the full-rate resources and half-rate resources, and the resource usage on the Ater interface for the currently specified subrack through the BSC6000 Local Maintenance Terminal. Through the query of the Ater resources, you can adjust the initial proportion of the full-rate resources to the half-rate resources based on the query result. You can determine whether the Ater interface causes congestion easily based on the Ater resource usage.

Benefits: Based on the speech type, the Ater interface resources are assigned according to the needs. Thus the waste of system resources is evaded.

7.4. GBFD-7701 BSC local switch
Function Description: The BTS local switching is the process where the BSC conditionally performs loopback against a pair of MSs (the calling MS and the called MS being located within the coverage of the same BTS or the same BTS group) on a convergent BTS. Thus the long-distance transmission resources or local transmission resources can be saved on the Abis interface and on the Ater interface. The term "conditionally" means that the function can be enabled only when the calling MS and the called MS within the coverage of the same BTS or the same BTS group have the same speech coding scheme. In AMR mode, the calling MS and the called MS should also have the same speech coding rate. The following figure shows the circuit usage with the function enabled. The system performs loopback against the speeches of both the calling MS and the called MS on the BTS side, and
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then releases the timeslots used on the Abis interface and on the Ater interface, as indicated by the dotted lines. At the same time, virtual loopback against the core network is performed on the interface board over the A interface. For the BTS local switching function, no reconstruction or configuration is required for the core network.

You can enable either the BTS local switching function or the BSC local switching function. You can also enable both at the same time. In actual use, if the geographical distribution of two MSs allows local switching and the MSs have different speech coding schemes, you can enable the local switching only after you have adjusted the speech coding schemes for the MSs. In other words, you must enable the two MSs to have the lowest speech coding capability. As a result, the speech coding schemes and the speech coding rates of the two MSs can become consistent.

Benefits: After the function is enabled, the speech does not use the resources on the Abis interface and on the Ater interface because the speech loopback is performed on the BTS side. Therefore, the
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long-distance transmission resources or local transmission resources can be saved on the Abis interface and on the Ater interface. After the function is enabled, the TC coding/decoding resources used by this call are released. If the proportion of the local switching is high, the configuration of TC resources can be minimized and the construction cost of the initial equipment can be reduced.

7.5. GBFD-7702 BTS local switch
Function Description: BSC local switching is defined as follows: a pair of calls (MOC and MTC) belongs to one BSC. The BSC conditionally performs a loopback test on the MOC and MTC through algorithms, so as to save the transmission resources on the Ater interface. "Conditionally" indicates that a loopback test can be used only when the voice encoding/decoding scheme for the MOC in a certain range must be consistent. In addition, the coding rate of the MOC and that of the MTC in AMR mode must be consistent.

Circuits seized by a pair of calls when the BSC local switching is disabled

BSC room MS A BTS BSC Y B

CN room

Switching in CN C

TC Z

C N

BTS MS

X

Transmission between NEs Circuits seized by a pair of calls

The chart above shows the circuits seized by a pair of calls when the BSC local switching is
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enabled. The BSC performs a loopback test on the voice on the Abis interface. Because the voice does not go through the Ater interface, the system will release the Ater interface transmission link (marked red) between the BSC and the TC. On the A interface boards on the BSC side, the system does not process the signals received from the A interface circuits seized by the calls. It sends idle frames on the transmitting ports to retain the circuits in the CN. The BSC local switching is transparent for the CN. It does not require any setting on the CN side.

Circuits seized by a pair of calls when the BSC local switching is enabled
Released circuits over the Ater interface MS A BTS BSC room BSC Y B CN room TC Z C CN

Switching in CN

BTS MS

X

Loopback in local switching

Transmission between NEs Circuits seized by a pair of calls Circuits released by local switching

Benefits: When the BSC local switching is enabled, the resources on the Ater interface are saved because voice loopback is performed on the Abis interface on the BSC side and the loopback does not occupy resources on the Ater interface. The enabling of the BSC local switching releases the TC encoding/decoding resources occupied by the call. When the BSC local switching is frequently used, the TC resources can be saved and the initial construction cost can be reduced.

7.6. GBFD-8401 Abis Transmission Optimization
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Function Description: The Abis interface transmission optimization function converges the Abis timeslots of a BTS on an HDLC channel, detects and compresses the idle voice frames by using the VAD technology, and sends the compressed data packets over the Abis HDLC channels for statistical multiplexing. This can greatly improve the E1/T1 bandwidth utilization rate. VAD voice frame detection/compression technologies: A data compression technology. It deletes the mute frames from the voice, removes synchronization, control, and fill-in bits that are useless in IP mode from the voice frames, and adds the HDLC frame header to the effective information frame to form the HDLC frame. This greatly reduces the bandwidth needed for voice transmission. Abis HDLC channel: For the Abis TDM, the Abis HDLC channel is a kind of newlyintroduced transmission resources, and is carried over the E1/T1 channels without reconstruction of the operator’s transport network. The HDLC data frames, a kind of data stream similar to IP packets, are transmitted over the channel. The channel is a kind of shared resources, and is shared among many subscribers. Statistical multiplexing on the HDLC channel: This technology supports multiplexing the data in user planes, RSL, and OML of multiple BTSs and TRXs into one or multiple HDLC channels. The total bandwidth of the logical links of the BTSs and TRXs is larger than the bandwidth of the shared physical layer. This demonstrates the efficiency of the statistical multiplexing. When allocating the HDLC transmission resources, the system automatically calculates the required bandwidth of the HDLC channel according to the configurations of the BTSs. The bandwidth can also be adjusted manually. The GBSS equipment provides traffic statistics to display the utilization rate of the HDLC channels. If the utilization rate is too low, you can add carriers or BTSs to the HDLC channel. If the utilization rate is too high, you can reconfigure the bandwidth of the HDLC channel. Huawei BSS equipment can dynamically adjust the HDLC links according to the information reported by the BTSs, including link status, HDLC channel congestion status, HDLC link load rate (available bandwidth), port status of the interface board in the BSC, and dynamically manage the transmission resources.
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Benefits: The function can save the transmission resources of the Abis interface. By adding extra BSC interface hardware and upgrading the BSC and BTS software, the operator can improve the resource utilization rate of the Abis interface by 30%–40%, without reconstruction of the transport network. Under certain conditions, one E1 channel can carry 24 full-rate carriers or 21 half-rate carriers.

7.7. GBFD-8402 Hub BTS in HDLC Mode
Function Description: The convergence node is referred to as a Hub BTS. The BTS under the Hub BTS is referred to as a leaf node. The Hub BTS processes data in HDLC frame format. The occupied Abis timeslot is referred to as an HDLC channel. The function, together with the Abis interface transmission optimization function, detects and compresses the data to be transmitted of a BTS and the lower-level leaf BTSs, encapsulates the data into HDLC frames, converges the data on the HDLC channel, and finally forwards the data. This can improve the utilization rate of Abis resources between the Hub BTS and the BSC. Huawei BSS equipment can dynamically adjust the HDLC links according to the information reported by the BTSs, including link status, HDLC channel congestion status, HDLC link load rate (available bandwidth), port status of the interface board in the BSC, and dynamically manage transmission resources.

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TRX BTS1 TRX
Benefits: The function can save the transmission resources of the Abis interface. By adding extra BSC interface hardware and upgrading the BSC and BTS software, the operator can improve the resource utilization rate of the Abis interface by 30%–50%, without reconstruction of the transport network.

HD LC1

TRX

BTS2

8. Ciphering

TRX BTS3

DLC2 H

8.1. GBFD-3501 A5/1 Ciphering Algorithm
Function Description: A5/1 ciphering algorithm ciphers the voice data and the packet data transmitted in the air interface, which can ensure the security of the user information. The ciphering flow is as follows:  MSC sends a command "Cipher Mode CMD" to BSC.  BSC decides to choose the A5/1 ciphering algorithm according to the supporting capability of the MS for the ciphering algorithm, MSC command and the BTS's supporting capability for the ciphering algorithm, and then notifies BTS about the choice.

TRX

C3 DL H

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 BSC sends the command "Ciphering Mode CMD" to MS to notify it the choosing of A5/1 ciphering algorithm.   After receive the command "Ciphering Mode CMD", MS responses a message "Ciphering Mode CMP" and then starts to transmit data using A5/1 ciphering mode. After receive the "Ciphering Mode CMP" from MS, BSC reports message "Cipher Mode CMP" to MSC.

Benefits: All the voice information and signaling information transmitted in the air interface are ciphering by the A5/1 ciphering algorithm. The security of the network is ensured.

8.2. GBFD-3502 A5/2 Ciphering Algorithm
Function Description: A5/2 ciphering algorithm ciphers the voice data and the packet data transmitted in the air interface, which can ensure the security of the user information. The flow is as follows:  MSC sends a command "Cipher Mode CMD" to BSC.  BSC decides to choose the A5/2 ciphering algorithm according to the according to the MS's supporting capability for the ciphering algorithm, MSC command and the BTS's supporting capability for the ciphering algorithm, and then notifies BTS about the choice.  BSC sends the command "Ciphering Mode CMD" to MS to notify it the choosing of A5/2 ciphering algorithm.  After receive the command "Ciphering Mode CMD", MS responses a message "Ciphering Mode CMP" and then starts to transmit data using A5/2 ciphering mode.  After receive the "Ciphering Mode CMP" from MS, BSC reports message "Cipher Mode CMP" to MSC.

Benefits: All the signaling information and voice information transmitted in the air interface are ciphering by the A5/2 ciphering algorithm. The security of the network is ensured.

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8.3. GBFD-3503 A5/3 Ciphering Algorithm
Function Description: A5/3 ciphering algorithm ciphers the voice data and the packet data transmitted in the air interface, which can ensure the security of the user information. The ciphering flow is as follows:  MSC sends a command "Cipher Mode CMD" to BSC.  BSC decides to choose the A5/3 ciphering algorithm according to the supporting capability of the MS for the ciphering algorithm, MSC command and the BTS's supporting capability for the ciphering algorithm, and then notifies BTS about the choice.  BSC sends the command "Ciphering Mode CMD" to MS to notify it the choosing of A5/3 ciphering algorithm.   After receive the command "Ciphering Mode CMD", MS responses a message "Ciphering Mode CMP" and then starts to transmit data using A5/3 ciphering mode. After receive the "Ciphering Mode CMP" from MS, BSC reports message "Cipher Mode CMP" to MSC.

Benefits: All the voice information and signaling information transmitted in the air interface are ciphering by the A5/3 ciphering algorithm. The security of the network is ensured.

9. Short Message Service Cell Broadcast 9.1. GBFD-3601 Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (TS23)
Function Description: The Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) is a teleservice (TS23) that can periodically broadcast messages to all the MSs in a specified area. The MSs can receive the broadcast messages continuously or discontinuously according to the system configuration. The typical application of this function is to provide the weather information and traffic information.
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SMSCB allows broadcasting the short message to all MSs in certain areas. These areas may be one or several cells, or even the entire PLMN. The short messages from Cell Broadcast Centre (CBC) are managed and dispatched by the CDB of the BSC. And then BSC forwards the messages to BTS. Then, BTS broadcasts the messages to all the MSs in a scheduled interval. The cell broadcast database (CDB) receives and stores the short messages from CBC. It dispatches and transmits the short messages, and responds to the query of CBC. The cell broadcast function supports the MSs to use the DRX mode to receive the cell broadcast messages. The BSC needs to send the scheduling messages to support the DRX mode. MS can read concerned short messages in less time by reading the scheduling messages, thus minimizing power consumption. The cell broadcast supports the flow control for the BTS. The transmit sequence of the short messages in each cell is dispatched by CDB but are actually transmitted by BTS. Each TRX of BTS maintains one message buffer and sends the short broadcast messages periodically to MSs through the specified channel. When the BTS cannot send the messages out in time, it will report this asynchronous state to BSC in the form of load indication message. By controlling the flow of the broadcast messages, CDB can balance the cell broadcast system to maximally satisfy the requirement of sending the broadcast messages.

Benefits: With this function, the operators can promote the value-added services such as weather forecast, stock information, traffic information to increase the revenues.

9.2. GBFD-3602 Simplified Cell Broadcast
Function Description: Function Description: The Short Message Service Cell Broadcast (SMSCB) function is performed to broadcast short
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messages to all MSs in one or several cells, or even in the entire PLMN. The MSs can receive the broadcast messages continuously or discontinuously according to the system configuration. Usually there is a Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) responsible for managing and scheduling the SMSCB. Huawei Simplified Cell Broadcast function is performed through a built-in cell broadcast processing module in the BSC without a CBC, thus reducing equipment costs. Huawei simplified cell broadcast function is performed to broadcast messages such as the cell name, weather forecast, and social commonweal messages. The following describes the details of these functions:
 Information broadcast function: broadcasting messages such as the BTS name, cell

name, weather forecast, or any character string, with a maximum length of 80 bytes.  Information timing broadcast function: sending cell broadcast messages at specified

intervals during a specified period of time.  Information management function: On the M2000 MML client, you can use the MML

commands to start or stop sending the broadcast messages in specified cells or all cells, or stop sending a specified cell broadcast message. In addition, you can use the MML commands to query the cell broadcast status.  In any period of time, a maximum of 16 cell broadcast short messages can be

simultaneously sent in a cell.

10. maintainability 10.1.GBFD-4701 Semi-Permanent Connection
Function Description: In some circumstance, the BSS equipment is required to provide semi-permanent connections to transmit information, such as the business hall information, BTS AC power supply alarm information, and other maintenance information. Generally the bandwidth of semi-permanent connections is not highly required. The bandwidth of most semi-permanent connections is 64 kbit/s, that is, one E1 timeslot.
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A semi-permanent connection is configured. It is used to transmit the information collected from the E1 timeslots at the receiving end to the E1 timeslots at the transmitting end through timeslots. The collected information is transparently transmitted in the timelsots inside the GBSS. When the configuration for the semi-permanent connection remains unchanged, the paths carried on the timeslots are permanently reserved. The following figure shows the timeslot transmission.

Timeslot exchange of Semi permanent connection

The GBSS provides semi-permanent connections at four rates: 8 kbit/s, 16 kbit/s, 32 kbit/s, and 64 kbit/s. The timeslot paths carrying semi-permanent connections use E1 interfaces as access points in the BSS. The GBSS can perform timeslot transmission through interface boards. It can converge the semi-permanent connections of multiple BM subracks to a specific E1 transmission link. Then the collected maintenance information can be transmitted to external network devices through this E1 transmission link in a centralized manner. The GBSS can also use a timeslot exchanging device (also called DXX) to insert and extract useful information to be transmitted GSM BSS can implement two semi-permanent connections. One is between BTS and BSC. The other is between MSC and BSC. Huawei’s GSM BSS supports to set up the semi-permanent between any two points as shown below
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Semi-permanent connection between BSC and BTS

MSC

BSC

Other newwork system

Other newwork system

Semi-permanent connection between MSC and BSC

Benefits: With the semi-permanent connection, the operator can transmit the information such as BTS AV power supply alarm, maintenance information and other information. It can avoid the repeat of assigning IP, which facilitates the maintenance and networking.

GBFD-6401 End-to-End MS Signaling Tracing Function Description: As the communication network becomes increasingly complicated, it is more and more difficult to locate the service faults in MSs. You can detect the section where the faults occur only when
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the information about the whole process of one MS is collected. Using the end-to-end MS signaling tracing function, you can collect the information about the specified MS if required. The function uses only a few system resources and enables you to trace faults in a specific network element. Thus you can troubleshoot the faults effectively. After a task of tracing an MS is created in the HLR, the HLR sends a tracing activation message to the MSC/VLR where the MS locates. When the traced MS initiates services, the MSC notifies the BSC to perform tracing. When the MS is switched to a new MSC/VLR, location update is initiated. Then the HLR sends a tracing activation message to the new MSC/VLR and the tracing task of the original MSC is complete. When receiving a message for starting tracing tasks from the MSC, the BSC traces information about all the interfaces and then saves the information to the BAM. The information is saved as a .tmf file, which is used for interface tracing on the BSC6000 LMT. The file can be browsed through the function of interface tracing review on the BSC6000 LMT. When browsing the information about the traced MS, you can choose time segments for the browse and choose the message element identification to be viewed through a message filter window. The BSC6000 supports a maximum of 64 tasks (including single-MS signaling tracing, interface signaling tracing, and end-to-end MS signaling tracing tasks) to be traced. There should be at least 16 end-to-end MS signaling tracing tasks. When creating an end-to-end MS signaling tracing task, determine whether the total number of tasks reaches the upper limit if the number of existing end-to-end MS signaling tracing tasks reaches or exceeds 16. If the total number does not reach the upper limit, you can create more tasks. If the total number reaches the upper limit, creating tasks fails.

Benefits: Using the end-to-end MS signaling tracing function, you can completely record the service activities of an MS. The record messages cover all the network elements involved in the service. Through these messages, you can successfully detect the source of the fault. If you define a proper object, you can obtain effective location information without using many processing and transmission resources of the system during the entire tracing process.
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11. Satellite Transmission 11.1.GBFD-3901 Satellite Transmission over Abis Interface
Function Description: The satellite transmission enables the operator to provide services on the mountainous area, farflung area, isolated island and other areas that the conventional transmission cannot reach. Satellite communication is the development and the special form of microwave communication. It is a supplement and backup of the conventional communication means. Satellite communication features wide coverage, fine mobility, and flexible link calling. It is little affected by the landform. Meanwhile, it has the problems such as delay, jitter, and bit error, which makes the Abis interface of ordinary GSM equipment not support satellite transmission. Because the link lease is very expensive and the quality is particularly sensitive to environment, the solution of Abis interface transmission by using satellite transmission should be positioned for the emergency communication and for the special areas where the ordinary transmission means is dissatisfactory. The star networking mode is usually adopted for the satellite transmission. Under the satellite Transmission over Abis interface, the voice quality can reach the normal voice quality. However, because the satellite transmission has transmission delay, the voice has some delay too under the satellite transmission. BSC supports satellite transmission on Abis interface between BSC and BTS, the maximum delay allowed on G-Abis interface is 800 ms. Allowing EDGE cells to use the satellite transmission on the Abis interface. The overall bidirectional delay of the G-Abis interface must be less than 1s.

Benefits: The operator can use this function to deploy BTSs and provide service in the area where the
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conventional means is hard to reach.

11.2.GBFD-3902 Satellite Transmission over A Interface
Function Description: With this function, the operator can deploy network in the area where the conventional transmission cannot reach. The operator can deploy the BSS in the isolated island or a small area. The Abis interface adopts the terrestrial transmission or satellite transmission. Then the A interface adopts the satellite transmission to connect the BSS to the CN. Huawei also provide the A interface monitoring function. It can monitor the circuit usage of the A interface. Thus, the operator can adjust the bandwidth of the circuit in the A interface to save the cost. The satellite transmission can also be used to provide service for emergency communications or hot spots.

Benefits: The operator can use this function to deploy the BSS system and provide service for the area that the conventional transmission is hard to reach.

11.3.GBFD-3903 Satellite Transmission over Ater Interface
Function Description: With this function, the operator can deploy network in the area where the conventional transmission cannot reach. With this function, the TRUA unit can be placed in the CN side. Thus, the circuit of the A interface can use 4:1 compression, which can greatly reduce the required bandwidth of the A interface circuit.
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Huawei also provide the A interface monitoring function. It can monitor the circuit usage of the A interface. Thus, the operator can adjust the bandwidth of the circuit in the A interface to save the cost.

Benefits: The operator can use 4:1 compression to save the cost for A interface circuit. The operator can deploy the BSS network for the emergency communications or in the area where the conventional transmission cannot reach.

11.4.GBFD-3904 Satellite Transmission over Pb Interface
Function Description: With this function, the operator can deploy network in the area where the conventional transmission cannot reach. The packet service has strict requirements on the delay. The Huawei’s GSM BSS supports the satellite transmission over Pb interface, which enables the GSM BSS to provide packet service under the satellite transmission mode.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can provide packet service under the satellite transmission mode.

11.5.GBFD-3905 Satellite Transmission over Gb Interface
Function Description: PCU supports satellite transmission on Gb interface between PCU and SGSN, the maximum delay allowed on Gb interface is 800 ms.
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12. Hierarchical access 12.1.GBFD-6001 Resource Reservation
Function Description: This function can reserve the channel resource for the users with high priority to meet the special requirements of the high-end users. For the user with high priority, set the TCH full rate number first. In this way, when assign channels for the users with highest priority, the system ensures that the occupied channel number + the idle full rate TCH number = the set reserved channel number. A user with high priority needs to be configured with needed TCH FR channels. In each channel assignment, if the priority of the user is equal to or more than the defined high priority and the reserved channels is sufficient, GBSC directly assign the reserved TCH FR channels. If all the reserved channels are assigned, GBSC perform the preemption flow according to the eMLPP rule. if the priority of the user is lower that the highest priority, the system checks whether the occupied channel number + idle channel number > the reserved channel number. If YES, the system initiates the normal call flow. Otherwise, the system initiates the queue and eMLPP flow. The handover is initiated before the preemption. The operator can define the highest priority and the required channel number and channel type for the users with highest priority according to actual need.

Benefits: This function enables the operator to implement different channel assignment strategies for the users with different priorities, thus improving the revenue. With this function, the channel resources can be assigned based on the user priority, which can meet the special requirement for the high-end users. This function can be used together with eMLPP function, which can better improve the user benefits and satisfaction.
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12.2.GBFD-5001 Enhanced Preemption(EMLPP)
Function Description:

Multi

Level

Precedence

and

Enhanced Multi-Level Precedence and Pre-emption (eMLPP) allows a user to initiate calls with different priorities. The network side takes different channel assignment strategies for the users according to the priorities. If the network is congested, the cal with higher priority is served preferably. The eMLPP function needs the support of MS to ensure that the user can initiate calls with different priorities under different situation. The normal conversation of the users with higher priority is ensured by preemption, queue, directed retry, and forced handover. Preemption: MSC determines whether the preemption is allowed. MSC sends the assignment request or handover request to the BSC to notify it whether the preemption is allowed. If the preemption is allowed and the BSC enables the eMLPP function, BSC hands over the call with the lowest priority to its neighboring cell through forced handover. The release resources are assigned to the call with higher priority. If the eMLPP function of BSC is disabled, BSC directly releases the resource of the users with lower priority to ensure the call of the users with higher priority. Directed retry: BSC determines whether the directed retry is allowed. When the cell has no idle traffic channel and the cell allows directed retry, the call is handed over from SDCCH to the TCH of the neighboring cell. Queue: MSC determines whether the queue is allowed. MSC sends the assignment request or handover request message to the BSC to notify it whether queue is allowed. When the cell has no idle traffic channel and the MSC allows queue, BSC places the TCH request into the queue, when there are idle TCHs, the TCH is assigned to the waiting call in the queue. The eMLPP function can improve the network capacity and improves the satisfaction of the user in busy hour. It is a supplementary of the load sharing solution.
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Benefits: This function can provide different classes of services for the users with different priorities. It improves the QoS for the high end users and improves the satisfaction of the users.

13. LCS 13.1.GBFD-5401 NSS-based LCS (Cell ID + TA)
Function Description: Location services (LCS) is a series of services based on locating the position of users in a certain accuracy range, such as location of emergency call or position information of users for value-added services. LCS should reach the specified quality of service (QoS), such as the required accuracy and latency. Huawei supports NSS-based Cell ID+TA location scheme of serving mobile location center (SMLC). The location precision of this scheme is about 500 meters.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can provide location services to increase revenue.

13.2.GBFD-5402 BSS-based LCS (Cell ID + TA)
Function Description: Huawei BSS can implement the BSS-based CELL+TA mobile location service. Cell ID + TA location is to use current parameter TA to estimate the distance between MS and BTS, thus improving the location precision on the basis of Cell ID. Huawei BSC integrates the Service Mobile Location Center (SMLC). The interface between BSC and SMLC is an internal interface. The location precision of this scheme is about 500m.
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Benefits: With this function, the operator can provide location services to increase revenue.

13.3.GBFD-5403 Simple mode LCS(Cell ID + TA)
Function Description: Huawei BSS support the simple mode LCS. Through the calculation of location information, the Huawei BSC can directly transmits the location result to the BSC6000 Local Maintenance Terminal. Based on the existing user tracing, the CGI, TA, longitude and latitude of the cell, azimuth, and error can be provided.

Benefits: The LCS service can be launched and the service revenues can be increased.

14. Power Control Algorithm 14.1.GBFD-7601 HUAWEI III power control algorithm
Function Description: HUAWEI III power control algorithm is new algorithm. It supports the interpolation of the measurement report and has dual threshold. The power control is based on the quality and the frequency hopping gains are introduced. The data configuration is simple and flexible. The uplink and downlink power control is detached. Thus the correctness of power control is improved and the stability and efficiency of the algorithm is guaranteed. The power control processing has the following procedures: Interpolating the filter processing in the measurement report Launching the quality-focused requirement for power control based on the receive level and quality Delivering the power control command. For power control processing, the new Huawei power control algorithm uses
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the following techniques to enhance the efficiency and correctness of the power control effectively. Dual-threshold power control algorithm uses the following strategies: Adjusting the power step based on the receive level: The ultimate goal of power control is to obtain good speech quality at a minimized level. The transmit power cannot be too low because of the external interference and the instability of the radio link. Therefore, the Huawei power control algorithm uses the dual-threshold power control strategy so that the receive level can possibly be within the scope of the dual threshold. Adjusting the power step based on the receive quality: The change in the receive quality is generally related to the interference. The major interference in GSM is the intra-frequency interference during frequency reuse. The interference is mutual. The increase in the power of a call is equivalent to the enhancement of interference in another call. The following case should be avoided: If the power of the first call is increased, the interference in a second call is enhanced so that the receive quality of the second call gets poor. To gets a better quality, the transmit power of the second call may be increased. By analogy, the group effect may occur. The threshold of the receive quality is also set to a dual threshold. If the receive quality is within the threshold band, adjusting the transmit power is not required. If the receive quality is beyond the threshold band, adjusting the transmit power is required. For the power adjustment caused by quality-related reasons, use a fixed step to avoid oscillation. Quality-based power control: After the receive quality is converted into Carrier-toInterference Ratio (CIR), the effective receive signal strength is estimated based on the receive level and quality in the measurement report. The actual power control amplitude is calculated based on the effective receive signal strength and the transmit power. Frequency hopping gains: After the frequency hopping (FH) is activated, the call can bear a lower CIR. Therefore, targeting the receive quality, the power control algorithm introduces different FH gains based on different FH frequencies. After the FH gains are introduced, the power control amplitude becomes more accurate and the average transmit power is reduced. Thus the intra-network interference can be greatly reduced. Detachment of uplink and downlink power control: The detached configuration of power
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control step in upward and downward directions enable flexible and fast power control based on the actual situation on the network. When the uplink (or downlink) signal quality or the receive quality becomes poor immediately, the power control can be performed in upward direction quickly. Thus call drop can be avoided. Flexible configuration of the threshold: The corresponding quality threshold is configured based on the service type. Thus optimized configurations targeting different services can be realized.

Benefits: The interference on the entire network decreases and the capacity increases. The speech quality is enhanced and the transmit power of the BTS is reduced for power saving purpose.

14.2.GBFD-7101 BTS power lift for handover
Function Description: When the level decreases quickly, handover is triggered. In this case, the power control algorithm may not adjust the power of an MS and a BTS in time, thus the MS cannot receive handover commands from the BTS. Thus call drops occur. This function can quickly adjust the transmit power of the BTS to the maximum before the BTS sends a handover command to the MS; thus avoiding call drops caused by the fast decrease in the level.

Benefits: This function has the following Benefits:  Reducing the number of call drops caused by handover  Increasing the success rate of handover  Improving the quality of the received signals
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 Increasing the revenue of operators

15. IP transmission 15.1.GBFD-8601 Abis over IP
Function Description: The Abis over IP function allows the operator to construct an IP network between the BSC and the BTS, and benefit from the low-cost IP network construction, operation, and maintenance. The Abis over IP function provides FE and GE interfaces and supports the IPv4 protocol. The BSC connects to the BTS through a LAN or WAN, depending on the location of the BSC and BTS. The Abis over IP function supports active/standby mode and load sharing mode, and enjoys very high reliability. The GBSS equipment realizes the following QoS mechanism, and provides end-to-end QoS assurance. Physical bandwidth sharping: The GBSS equipment limits the burst network traffic through the buffer and token bucket. When the packet transmission speed is too high, it puts the packets in the buffer, and then transmits the packets in the buffer evenly according to the token bucket policy. Priority mapping: The equipment adopts a certain rule to identify packets of various services, classifies the packets, assigns priorities to these packets, and associates them with the corresponding traffic control and resource allocation mechanism. The equipment decides the traffic control action according to the current network conditions. Congestion management: Network congestion occurs when the speed at which the packets arrive at the network equipment is larger than the transmission capability of an interface. When network congestion occurs, the voice service subscriber has the feeling that the voice quality is deteriorating; the data service subscriber has the feeling that the network transmission speed is decreasing. When viewing the statistics of the interface board, you may find that the number of
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discarded packets is increasing. Network congestion aggravates packet transmission delay and delay jitter. Too high delay may trigger packet retransmission. Serious network congestion wastes a large quantity of network resources. Unreasonable resource allocation may lead to resource deadlock and consequently system collapse. Increasing the network bandwidth is a direct means for solving network resource shortages. Besides, preventive mechanisms, including tail drop and weighted random early detection (WRED), must be taken to prevent the occurrence of network congestion. When network congestion occurs, the system adopts queue scheduling policies, such as priority queue (PQ) or weighted round robin (WRR) to solve the problem.

Benefits:  Adapts to the development trend (all-IP) of the future transport layer and future protocol development trend.  The Abis interface has the features of high bandwidth and low cost, and is no longer a factor restricting the BSC capacity.  The low IP network construction cost, short construction period, and easy maintenance effectively reduce the operator’s CAPEX and OPEX.

15.2.GBFD-8602 A over IP
Function Description: The A over IP function allows the operator to construct an IP network between the BSC and the MSC. Because the A interface protocol has not been standardized yet, the interface must be connected to Huawei softswitch. The A over IP function provides FE and GE interfaces and supports the IPv4 protocol. The BSC connects to the MSC through a LAN or WAN, depending on the location of the BSC and MSC. The networking mode can be direct connection or router networking. After the IP technologies are applied on the A interface, it is unnecessary to conduct interconversion between the GSM voice codes and 64 kbit/s PCM codes. Therefore, the BSS
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equipment does not realize the TC function. The TC function is realized in the MGW. Huawei BSS equipment extends the A interface protocol. Supporting the TrFO function, the BSS equipment can reduce the coding event count and improve the voice quality. Because the GSM network reconstruction must be done step by step, in some scenarios, TDM/IP dual-bearer networking may become necessary. Huawei BSS equipment supports both TDM and IP protocol stacks, that is, it can adopt different bearing modes between the BSC and the MGW. In addition, it can adopt different bearing modes between the BSC and different MGWs. The A over IP function supports load sharing among interface boards, thus having very high reliability. Huawei GBSS equipment provides the A over IP with a QoS assurance mechanism, which is the same as that of the Abis IP transmission, to realize end-to-end QoS assurance.

Benefits:  The IP transmission complies with future evolution requirements of the 3GPP protocol, and protects the future equipment investment.  The IP transmission features high bandwidth and low cost, allowing the operator to develop new services quickly.  The low IP network construction cost, short construction period, and easy maintenance effectively reduce the operator’s CAPEX and OPEX.  Supporting the TrFO function, the BSS equipment reduces 4 voice CODEC events, saves TC resources, and improves voice quality.

15.3.GBFD-8603 Gb over IP
Function Description: The Gb over IP function enables the operators to create IP transmission between the PCU and the SGSN and to increase transmission modes. Thus the operators can fully utilize the characteristics of IP transmission and save the transmission cost. The function can simultaneously support two end-to-end communication modes between the
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PCU and the SGSN: frame relay (FR) and IP network. The NS module chooses different uplink and downlink handling processes based on transmission modes. The FR uplink and downlink handling process is performed according to the existing implementation mode. For the network transmission mode, the uplink and downlink handling process of the IP network is used. With the growth of the packet data services, the requirement for the Gb bandwidth increases. The function enables the IP header to be compressed and the data over the Gb interface to share the transmission bandwidth. Thus the transmission efficiency is enhanced and the transmission cost is reduced. After the characteristics of the function are used, the Gb interface maintenance commands of the system become simple, the maintenance process is simplified, and the fault location and troubleshooting methods are diversified.

Benefits:  Reduces the cost of network investment.  Adopts IP transmission to simplify the network maintenance, and reduce operation cost and maintenance expense.  Adopts IP transmission to increase the bandwidth of the Gb port. As a result, the Gb port no longer restricts the subscriber’s bit rate.  Facilitates the provisioning of the SGSN pool function.

16. 2G/3G Interoperability 16.1.GBFD-4301 GSM/WCDMA Interoperability
Function Description: GSM/WCDMA interoperability refers to the handover and roaming of dual-mode MSs between the GSM network and the WCDMA network. Huawei GSM BSS supports the handover and roaming of dual-mode MSs between the GSM network and the WCDMA network. The handover and roaming include the following situations: (1) In idle mode, an MS roams from a GSM system to a WCDMA system. (2) In idle mode, an MS roams from a WCDMA system to a GSM system. (3) In busy mode, an MS is handed over from a GSM system to a WCDMA system.
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(4) In busy mode, an MS is handed over from a WCDMA system to a GSM system. Roaming in idle mode: Through PLMN reselection, an MS can be handed over from a GSM network to a WCDMA network, or from a WCDMA network to a GSM network when there is no signal in the WCDMA network. To enable a WCDMA MS to be automatically handed over from a GSM network to a WCDMA network when it enters the coverage of a WCDMA network, you can set different PLMNs for the WCDMA network and GSM network and set the WCDMA network to HPLMN in the USIM. The selection of a GSM network or a WCDMA network can be determined by the network operator. Usually the WCDMA MSs preferentially select the WCDMA network. The PLMN reselection can be scheduled on the MS. The reselection time can be determined by the operator. To inform the MS about the WCDMA neighbor cell information, the GSM BSS needs to add the WCDMA neighbor cell description to the system information. The system information 3 is modified to indicate whether the system information 2 quarter exists. The system information 2 quarter, including cell reselection, measurement, and report information, is added. A WCDMA MS can be handed over to a GSM neighbor cell through system reselection when the WCDMA signal is weak. CS domain handover in busy mode: Handover from WCDMA network to GSM network: During the inter-RAT handover, if the MS needs to handle only CS services, the CS domain handover from a WCDMA network to a GSM network is performed. When receiving the handover request from the MSC, the BSS works with the MSC to implement the handover based on the resource situation. Handover from GSM network to WCDMA network: For the handover from a GSM network to a WCDMA network, if the GSM cell has WCDMA neighbor cells, the measurement control information is sent through the system information. The dual-mode MS measures the WCDMA network on the idle timeslot and reports the measurement result. The BSC determines whether to initiate the inter-RAT handover according to the measurement result. In a GSM cell, when the MS enters the dedicated mode, it needs to reconstruct the neighbor cell list according to the system information on the SACCH. SI5, SI5bis, and SI5ter provide the information about the neighbor GSM cells. The MEASUREMENT INFORMATION message provides the information about the WCDMA neighbor cells. The WCDMA cell information is obtained through the measurement report from the MS. The WCDMA cell information is used for the handover decision. According to the measurement report, when the WCDMA cell handover criterion is met, the inter-RAT handover is triggered. The GSM system decides whether to initiate a handover according to the WCDMA neighbor cell information and the WCDMA neighbor cell level in the measurement report. If the GSM system decides to initiate the handover, it issues a WCDMA cell handover command. The follow-up signaling procedure is implemented under the control of the MSC.
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PS domain interoperability: Huawei GBSS does not support PS domain handovers. The interoperability between the WCDMA and the GPRS/EDGE is achieved through cell reselection by the GSM SGSN, WCDMA SGSN, and HLR.

Benefits: This function enables the MS to roam and be handed over from the WCDMA network to the GSM network. This can solve the problem of insufficient coverage in the early stage of the WCDMA network. With this function, the GSM network can smoothly evolve to the WCDMA network, thus protecting the operator's investment.

16.2.GBFD-4302 GSM/TD-SCDMA Interoperability
Function Description: GSM/TD-SCDMA interoperability refers to the handover and roaming of dual-mode MSs between the GSM network and the TD-SCDMA network. Huawei GSM BSS supports the handover and roaming of dual-mode MSs between the GSM network and the TD-SCDMA network. The handover and roaming include the following situations: (1) In idle mode, an MS roams from a GSM system to a TD-SCDMA system. (2) In idle mode, an MS roams from a TD-SCDMA system to a GSM system. (3) In busy mode, an MS is handed over from a GSM system to a TD-SCDMA system. (4) In busy mode, an MS is handed over from a TD-SCDMA system to a GSM system. PS domain interoperability: Huawei GBSS does not support PS domain handovers. The interoperability between the TDSCDMA and the GPRS/EDGE is achieved through cell reselection by the GSM SGSN, TDSCDMA SGSN, and HLR.

Benefits: This function enables the MS to roam and be handed over from the TD-SCDMA network to the
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GSM network. This can solve the problem of insufficient coverage in the early stage of the TDSCDMA network. With this function, the GSM network can smoothly evolve to the TDSCDMA network, thus protecting the operator's investment.

17. Cell Reselection of PS Domain 17.1.GBFD-6301 Intra BSC Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)
Function Description: Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC) means that the network notifies the MS about the neighboring cell information in advance to fast the cell reselection speed. Thus, the time of data transmission interruption due to cell reselection is reduced. NACC is a function introduced in the Release 4 protocols. It supports the MS:  To notify the network side when the MS decides to implement cell reselection  To delay the cell reselection to let the network side to send the neighboring cell information message NACC does not control the MS to implement the cell reselection while it can assist the MS to implement the cell reselection. It fasts the cell reselection.

Benefits: The time of data transmission interruption due to cell reselection is reduced, thus improving the user satisfaction. The system transmission bandwidth is reduced because the system information is obtained in the original cell as possible as it can be.

17.2.GBFD-9801 Packet SI status(PSI)
Function Description: When the MS implements the request for acquisition of system information by sending Packet SI Status message to network, PCU sends the missing SI messages in one or more instances of
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the PACKET SERVING CELL DATA message for that mobile station on PACCH.

Benefits: The function together with the NACC can reduce the time of data transmission interruption resulting from cell reselection, thus improving the customer’s satisfaction. The acquisition of system messages in the source cells can reduce required transmission bandwidth.

18. Qos 18.1.GBFD-9901 Streaming QoS(GBR)
Function Description: Providing Streaming QoS (GBR) to support streaming and PoC service Streaming Media and PoC Service. This function Improving the radio resource allocation policy of the system: 1) for the MS supporting GBR, the resources are allocated according to the bandwidth negotiated by the network and the MS. 2) For the MS that does not support GBR, the resources are allocated in the BEST EFFORT mode. It works with the SGSN and the MS to establish, modify and delete the PFC, and provides the function for querying specific MSPFC. (This function requires that both the MS and the SGSN support the PFM/PFC procedure, and the license at the PCU side is required). According to the radio environment of the air interface, the air interface resources are dynamically allocated to the MS to ensure that the bandwidth is not less than the GBR. When the air interface resources are insufficient, the system notifies the SGSN.

18.2.GBFD-9902 ARP(Allocation/Retention Priority)
Function Description:
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If the PFM process is activated, the PCU can obtain the PFC correctly. When the service type is interactive , the processing is performed according to the priority (1, 2, or 3) defined in the ARP if the ARP field exists. If the service type is interactive and the service meets the THP conditions, assign values to the blocks on the assigned channels based on the three priority levels. The processing is performed according to the priority (1, 2, or 3) defined in the ARP if the following conditions are met:  e If it is not one of the previous two cases, perform processing according to the best effort process.

18.3.GBFD-9903 THP(Traffic handle Priority)
Function Description: If the PFM process is activated, the PCU can obtain the PFC correctly. When the service type is interactive, the processing is performed according to the priority (1, 2, or 3) defined in the ARP if the ARP field exists. If the service type is interactive and the service meets the THP conditions, assign values to the blocks on the assigned channels based on the three priority levels. The processing is performed according to the priority (1, 2, or 3) defined in the THP if the following conditions are met:  The ARP field does not exist.  The service type is interactive.  The THP is valid. If it is not one of the previous two cases, perform processing according to the best effort process.

Benefits: Through the function, the operator can configure the QoS data in the HLR for every subscriber
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according to the subscriber’s requirements on upload/download speed. As a result, the subscriber with higher requirements on data service can occupy more bandwidth and enjoy higher download speed and better quality of service. The function is applicable to the GPRS and EGPRS data subscribers. The function possesses the following advantages:  High-end subscribers can enjoy higher download speed, while low-end subscribers are subject to speed restriction.  The operator can set more flexible charging policies.  The network resources can be put into full play.

19. GPRS/EGPRS 19.1.GBFD-4101 GPRS
Function Description: Huawei GPRS system is evolved from the GSM system by adding GPRS Support Node (GSN) and Packet Control Unit (PCU) and upgrading the software. GPRS provides data service for the moving subscribers. The Huawei PCU is external. It connects to BSC through Pb interface. GPRS uses open structure, and can implement smooth upgrade. The standard interfaces ensure the compatibility of the equipment. GPRS supports QoS and dynamic allocation of radio resources. At the same time, the flexible networking and configuration can save large amount of investment cost for the operators. M900/M1800 GPRS provides rich packet services, such as,  Mobile Internet access  E-commerce, including e-bank, e-currency  Group management  remote control/test  Service reservation system, such as, hotel, theater, flight reservation  Services base on group-call, such as, stock information broadcasting The BSS GPRS mainly has the following three functions:
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 Radio link management  Radio resource management  Providing route for the packet data The GPRS radio link management function includes setting up, maintaining and releasing the radio link. The radio resource management function includes coding/decoding, configuring, multiplexing the radio packet channel, switchover between the circuit traffic channel and the packet traffic channel, controlling the access of the MSs to solve the channel contention, assigning channel for MSs according to the requested QoS. The GPRS system also provides routing function to transmit the packet data to the SGSN and receives the downlink data from SGSN as well. Huawei GPRS supports the following functions:  Sending packet system information  A/B/C three GPRS terminal modes  Radio Link Control (RLC) acknowledged mode and non-acknowledged mode  CS1/CS2/CS3/CS4 four coding schemes  NC0 Network control mode  Network operating mode I, Network operating mode II, and Network operating mode III  QoS, assignment, paging, flow control  Dynamic conversion between TCH and PDCH  Packet access High efficient G-Abis interface: M900/M1800 GPRS BSS uses 16 kbit/s link on the G-Abis interface. When the CS-3 and CS-4 coding schemes are used, the rate of one PDCH is 15.6 kbit/s and 21.4 kbit/s respectively. Therefore, if the radio channel is mapped onto the terrestrial channel, one PDCH shall be mapped onto two 16 kbit/s links if it uses the CS-3 and CS-4 coding schemes. Huawei GPRS BSS adopts dynamic additional sub-timeslot technology to solve the transmission of the CS-3 and CS-4 on the G-Abis interface. The dynamic additional sub-timeslot technology is to assign a static 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot and a dynamic 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot on the G-Abis interface for each PDCH using CS-3 or CS-4. The dynamic additional sub-timeslot technology has the following features:
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Any idle 16 kbit/s on the G-Abis interface can be used as additional 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot. The additional sub-timeslot can be attached to different main timeslot within the same site. The additional sub-timeslot does not need to be the neighbor of the main timeslot. The data packet is packed and unpacked through software, which avoids the upgrade of hardware due to different product specifications. Dynamically assigning the TCH on the Abis interface can reduce the cost of the transmission on the Abis interface, which further reduces the O&M cost of the equipment.

Benefits: With this function, the operator can provide packet service for the user, thus promoting the image of the operator. As the same time, it increases the revenue of the operator and improves the ratio of the packet service in the entire mobile services.

19.2.GBFD-10001 Network operation mode I
Function Description: Circuit paging on PCCCH and PACCH  As to NMO I, circuit paging is sent on PCCCH and PACCH, if cell is configured with PCCCH Circuit paging with different IDs  Support circuit paging with such IDs as IMSI, TMSI and TLLI

Benefits:  Benifit to CS paging and PS paging cooperating  Improves the satisfaction of subscribers.  Increases the revenue of the operator.

19.3.GBFD-8901 CS-3/CS-4
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Function Description: Support CS-3 and CS-4 coding scheme without the need of hardware upgrade.

Benefits:  Adopts CS3/CS4, and improves the GPRS service rate.  Improves the packet service performance for areas where the EGPRS is not supported.  Improves the satisfaction of subscribers.

19.4.GBFD-4201 EGPRS
Function Description: The Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is the evolution of the GSM. It greatly improves the data rate of the GSM. EDGE includes a set of enhancement standards for the GSM interface. It enables the GSM network to bear the 3G services. EDGE includes EGPRS and ECSD. The EGPRS is an enhancement of the current GPRS system. It improves the rate of the data channel. EGPRS improves the transmission capability of the single timeslot through adding the 8PSK modulation on the Um interface. It bundles multiple timeslot to improve the transmission capability of a single user. Huawei EGPRS has the following features: MCS1–MCS9 Huawei support all nine code schemes for EGPRS, in both uplink and downlink directions. See below for details. Code schemes for EGPRS
Scheme Cod e Rate Heade r Code Rate Modulat ion RLC Blocks Per Radio Block (20ms) Raw Data Within One Radio Block Famil y BCS Tail Paylo ad H C S Data Rate kbit/s

MCS9

1.0

0.36

8PSK

2

2 x 592

A

2 x 12

2x6

8

59.2

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MCS8 MCS7 MCS6

0.92 0.76 .49

0.36 0.36 1/3

2 2 1

2 x 544 2 x 448 592 544 + 48

A B A 2 6

54.4 44.8 29.6 27.2

MCS5 MCS4 MCS3

0.37 1.0 0.85

1/3 0.53 0.53 GMSK

1 1

448 352 296 272 + 24

B C A

22.4 17.6 14.8 13.6

MCS2 MCS1 NOTE:

0.66 0.53

0.53 0.53

1

224 176

B C

11.2 8.8

the italic captions indicate the padding.

Incremental redundancy and link adaptation EGPRS adopts two link quality control methods: Link Adaptation (LA) and Incremental Redundancy (IR). The incremental redundancy uses software bit combination to increase the data rate. It initially uses a coding with very less error protection. When information is received incorrectly, additional coding is transmitted and then soft combined in the receiver with the previously received information. Soft-combining increases the probability of decoding the information. This procedure will be repeated until the information is successfully decoded. Huawei support incremental redundancy both for downlink and uplink directions. EGPRS code scheme dynamic adjustment This is a link adaptation mode similar to standard GPRS. The system can dynamically adjust the EGPRS code scheme basing on BEP report from the mobile and BLER information, in order to achieve the best transmission result. Dynamical additional sub-timeslot The dynamic additional sub-timeslot technology can well solve the transmission of the CS-3 and CS-4 on the G-Abis interface. The dynamic additional sub-timeslot technology is to assign a static 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot and a dynamic 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot on the G-Abis interface for each PDCH using CS-3 or CS-4. EGPRS BSS can support the MCS3–MCS9 without upgrading the hardware of BTS, BSC, and
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PCU. At the same time, the multiplexing of the G-Abis interface is maximally improved. Thus, the investment on the G-Abis interface transmission equipment is saved. The assignment strategies of 16 kbit/s sub-timeslot are shown below: Number of 16 kbit/s timeslot on the Abis interface Coding scheme
MCS1–MCS 2 MCS3–MCS 6 MCS7 MCS8–MCS 9

Assigned 16 kbit/s timeslot on Abis interface
1 2 3 4

The dynamic additional sub-timeslot technology used by M900/M1800GPRS BSS displays the following features:  Any idle sub-timeslot of the G-Abis interface can be used as additional sub-timeslot, so that each has maximum utilization.  Within a same site address, the additional sub-timeslots can be dynamically attached to various main timeslots to enhance the utilization ratio of this sub-timeslots according to statistical multiplexing rules.  The locations of the additional 16kbit/s sub-timeslots are relatively flexible. They do not have to be adjacent to the main 16kbit/s sub-timeslot.  It packs and unpacks the data packets through software to avoid hardware upgrading  Multiplexing of the GPRS and EGPRS MSs  The EGPRS and GPRS mobile stations (MSs) can be multiplexed to the same EDGE PDCH. The EGPRS MS uses MCS encoding, and the GPRS MS uses CS encoding.

Benefits: The operator can use the current frequency spectrum to provide high-speed packet service, thus increasing the revenue.

19.5.GBFD-3101 PDCH Dynamic Adjustment
Function Description:
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This function can reduce the congestion of PDCH and reduce the affection of initial configuration of PDCH on the system performance. To support the GPRS service, two types of channels are introduced: static PDCHs and dynamic PDCHs. Static PDCHs are used for packet service only. Dynamic PDCH is initialized as a TCH and controlled by BSC. When the static PDCHs are not enough, the PCU will apply for dynamic PDCHs from the BSC. When the PCU get control authority of TCHs, dynamic PDCHs are used for packet service. On the contrary, if TCHs are insufficient, the BSC can request dynamic PDCHs from the PCU. When the BSC is in control, the dynamic PDCHs serve as TCHs. The dynamical adjustment of PDCH takes cell as unit. When BSC get control authority of dynamic channels, dynamic channels will use as TCHs. When channels types have be changed, BSC sends command to BTS to configure the TCH as TCH and BSC updates the internal channel table.

Enhancement: GBSS7.0 With the development of the GSM network, the proportion of data services to the total services becomes large in such an increasing way that data services need to be satisfied as much as possible in some cases. The Huawei PCU equipment supports the configuration of PDCH priorities: preferred CS domain, preferred PS domain with a low priority, and preferred PS domain with a high priority. In the case of the preferred PS domain with a low priority, the dynamic PDCHs are not preempted. In the case of the preferred PS domain with a high priority, the PS domain can preempt the TCHs.

GBSS8.0
Overall Dynamic PDCH Conversion: Except for static PDCH, all the other channels can be converted in real time based on the data service and the voice service. If required, TCH can be converted to PDCH for the PS service. When the voice service is not busy, more PDCHs are available. This can alleviate the transmission rate decrease due to PDCH multiplexing.
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This flexible mechanism can greatly improve the channel utilization and optimize the distribution of PDCHs and speech channels. The planning of this function is relatively simple and you only need to expand the capacity if required.

Benefits: The estimation of the packet traffic is hard for the operator. The function can effectively improve the channel usage, reduce the maintenance and configuration task and increase the revenue of the operator. The circuit service has the priority to obtain the channel than the packet service. The PCU releases the dynamic PDCH when there are too many idle PDCH.

19.6.GBFD-10002 Gb Over Frame
Function Description: The Gb interface provides the connection between the BSS and the SGSN to transfer the cell management and routing area handover information, and to transfer data between the MS and the SGSN. The traditional Gb interface uses the frame relay transmission mode to provide the logical link connection. Data is transferred through the Network Service Virtual Connection (NS-VC). NS-VC is the Permanent Virtual Channel (PVC) in frame relay. Huawei GBSS supports the E1/T1 transmission mode or the frame relay transmission mode. Multiple PVCs can be configured between the BSS and the SGSN. Huawei GBSS manages these PVCs and supports loading sharing among them.

Benefits: This function supports the traditional transmission mode of the Gb interface and is compatible with the core network equipment on the existing network.

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20. Performance Speedup Features for EGPRS 20.1.GBFD-9201 11-Bit EGPRS Access
Function Description: This feature supports the uplink packet access of an EGPRS-capable MS. The EGPRS-capable MS originates an EGPRS PAKCET CHANNEL REQUEST on a CCCH, requesting an uplink packet access. The EGPRS MS can access the network at phase 1 to shorten the first access delay.

20.2.GBFD-9202 Immediate Assignment Function Moved down to the BTS
Function Description: Through the optimization schemes such as pre-distributing the resources, the immediate assignment function will be moved down to the BTS to shorten the access delay of GPRS/EGPRS.

20.3.GBFD-9203 Extended Uplink TBF
Function Description: The uplink TBF is released by the network. After the uplink data of an MS is transmitted, the uplink TBF will be held for a period of time. During the period, if the MS has uplink data, the data is transmitted directly and no uplink TBF is required. Therefore, the overheads for establishing the uplink TBF are saved and the delay for transmitting uplink data is shortened. The extended uplink TBF requires the support of MSs.

20.4.GBFD-9204 Dynamically Adjusting the Uplink MCS Coding
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Function Description: According to the uplink measurement report from the BTS, this feature dynamically adjusts the uplink MCS coding to quickly adapt the changes in the quality of the air interface and to improve the uplink throughput rate.

20.5.GBFD-9205 Dynamically Adjusting the RRBP Frequency
Function Description: According to the actual status of the uplink and downlink TBFs, this feature dynamically adjusts the RRBP frequency to speed up the establishment of uplink TBF on the downlink TBF.

20.6.GBFD-9206 Packet Uplink Assignment Taken Over by the BTS
Function Description: The establishment of uplink TBF in the downlink TBF is initialized in the PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK message (including the uplink packet channel request) on the PACCH. During the establishment of downlink TBF, if establishing uplink TBF is required, a channel request message can be transmitted on the PACCH. Then the BTS side directly assigns packet channels, which are pre-assigned to the BTS side by the PCU, and performs the corresponding resource dispatching. At the same time, the BTS transmits the previous messages to the PCU for processing. Finally, the PCU instead of the BTS takes charge in the dispatching of uplink blocks. If the function is enabled, the packet assignment message is directly transmitted by the BTS. Thus the time of message transmission through the BSC is saved and the time delay of connection decreases. The function can decrease the time delay of the PING and increase the corresponding KPI of the PS domain. Thus the customer may be more satisfied and the revenues of the operators may increase.
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Benefits:  Reduces the delay.  Improves the KPI of the PS domains.  Improves the quality of experience (QoE) for subscribers.  Increases the revenue of the operator.

21. Enhanced Function of EGPRS Resource Management 21.1.GBFD-9301 Enhanced Function of EGPRS Resource Management
Function Description: The enhanced function of EGPRS resource management contains the type of preferred channel, inter-carrier and inter-channel load balancing, and channel dispatching.

21.2.GBFD-9302 Type of Preferred Channels for Packet Services
Function Description: If the EGPRS/GPRS services are activated, the function supports multiple packet channel priority levels so that the operators can implement diversified strategies for the operation of data services. The following table lists the types of the GPRS/EGPRS channels:
SN Type of Preferred Channel GPRS channel Common EGPRS channel Definition For the GPRS service only For the services GPRS and EGPRS The EGPRS and GPRS services have the same priority. You can use the switch to control whether the EGPRS downlink and the GPRS uplink can multiplex the PDCH simultaneously. The EGPRS service has a
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Remarks

1 2

3

EGPRS

The channel is preferentially used
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preferred channel

4

EGPRS dedicated channel

by the EGPRS service. When the channel is completely idle, the GPRS service can use it. If the EGPRS service, however, needs to seize the channel, the GPRS service should release the channel. (The EGPRS and GPRS services cannot multiplex the EGPRS preferred channel.) For the EGPRS service only

higher priority than the GPRS service. The throughput of data services can be increased.

Timeslot-level dedicated channels are supported. The EGPRS user rate is guaranteed. The EGPRS dedicated channel is especially suitable for the important applications such as service presentation hall, Olympic stadiums, and highend office buildings.

The EGPRS dedicated channels can be configured into static channels only. The other three preferred channels can be configured into static channels or dynamic channels.

Benefits: By adding service channel types, the function can satisfy the operator’s requirements for defining various policies to increase operation revenues.

21.3.GBFD-9303 Load Sharing
Function Description: If the loads over channels are imbalanced owing to the establishment or release of the TBF, the MSs that are on the channel with heavy load can be transferred to the channel with light load. Thus load sharing is realized and the single-user rate increases. When an MS accesses or releases channels, the system can adjust the load distribution between carriers according to the load distributed on different carriers.

Benefits: The function can improve the utilization of channels, and increase the service rate.

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21.4.GBFD-9304 Channel Dispatching
Function Description: When the system assigns PDCHs: For the GPRS service, the GPRS channels are preferentially assigned. Then the common EGPRS channels are assigned and finally the EGPRS preferred channels are assigned. For the EGPRS service, the EGPRS dedicated channels are preferentially assigned. Then the EGPRS preferred channels are assigned and finally the common EGPRS channels are assigned. The case that the GPRS end users use the uplink channel and the EGPRS end users use the downlink channel is prohibited. The co-timeslot of EGPRS and GPRS can occur on only the common EGPRS channels. The system can avoid the case that the EGPRS downlink and the GPRS uplink multiplex PDCHs through the switch "whether the system allows the EGPRS downlink and the GPRS uplink to multiplex the same channel". If you want to eliminate the possibility of EDGE/GPRS cotimeslot, do not configure common EGPRS channels.

Benefits: The function can reduce the probability of channel multiplexing for the EGPRS service and the GPRS service. This can improve the EGPRS service rate, enhance network performance, and improve the QoE for subscribers.

21.5.GBFD-9401 EDA(Extended Dynamic Allocation)
Function Description: With the widespread application of PS domain, the customer becomes concerned about the bandwidth of the uplink. For the GPRS and EGPRS services, the bandwidth of the downlink is generally wider than that of the uplink. However, there are exceptions. For example, an Email of larger size is transmitted through GPRS/EGPRS. In this situation, the requirement for the
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bandwidth of the uplink is high. The EDA function can enable an MS to be assigned with four timeslots on the uplink so that the high requirement for the bandwidth of the uplink can be met. The function is based on the uplink dynamic allocation. The BSC assigns multiple uplink timeslots for the MS. The MS listens to all the assigned PDCHs. When the MS hears the USF that is assigned to it on the assigned PDCH, the MS can use the uplink block corresponding to this PDCH and the uplink block corresponding to the PDCH that is assigned with a greater timeslot number. If the MS can transmit uplink blocks, it need not listen to the following assigned channels. Therefore, the MS can use more uplink channels than those in the case of uplink dynamic allocation. The uplink extended dynamic allocation needs the support from the MS. The MS will indicate whether it supports GPRS uplink extended dynamic allocation and EGPRS uplink extended dynamic allocation through the message containing the information about radio access capability.

Benefits:  Helps to improve the uplink rate.  Realizes the transmission of large data traffic on the uplink.  Improves the subscriber’s satisfaction.

21.6.GBFD-9501 Channels

Adaptive

Adjustment

of

Uplink

and

Downlink

Function Description: The adaptive adjustment of uplink and downlink channels refers to the dynamic adjustment of the number of uplink and downlink timeslots for a GPRS/EGPRS MS based on the uplink and downlink flow of the service data. The function introduces the intermediate state of the timeslot configuration mechanism. The function is beneficial for the bidirectional interactive services (for example, POC and highspeed buffer storage of web pages) whose uplink and downlink timeslots are imbalanced owing
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to various reasons. In phase-I access mode, the TBF starts to be transmitted. The support capability of the network on the MS cannot be confirmed. Thus, one timeslot is used on the uplink, which is unfavorable for the uplink service whose IP packet is large. If the function is used, the intermediate state can be reached immediately and the service performance can be enhanced. The function can be used together with the EDA function so that four timeslots and one timeslot can be used on the uplink and downlink respectively. For some uplink and downlink service applications, the performance is affected by the one timeslot on the downlink. The intermediate state is available and the service performance is enhanced in the intermediate state. Therefore, the 3+2 timeslot configuration on the uplink and downlink can be realized easily. Thus the performance of the packet services is enhanced and the customer is more satisfied.

Benefits:  Helps to improve the uplink rate.  Improves the channel utilization efficiency.  Improves the subscriber’s satisfaction.

22. Power reduce 22.1.GBFD-4801 Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)
Function Description: Discontinuous transmission (DTX) can reduce the transmit power of BTS and MS. This can reduce the co-channel disturbance in the radio interface and the sensitivity of the GSM voice signal to the error in the radio interface. DTX includes Voice Activity Detection (VAD) and Silence Descriptor (SID). In addition, to ensure the continuity of the service, the system automatically generates the comfortable noise. Voice Activity Detection (VAD): When TRAU detects through VAD that the data received from MSC contains no voice information, it clears the voice flag bit in the TRAU frame. After

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recognizing the flag bit, BTS disconnects the downlink till the flag bit is set. When TRAU receives the uplink frame, it also discriminate the SID flag. If the SID flag is set, it means the MS is in the transmission intermittent period. Silence Descriptor (SID): the noise coding flow is the same as the voice signal coding flow. The SID frame also experiences the channel coding, interleaving, ciphering and modulation and then it is turned into the field containing the noise messages and sent out in eight continuous burst, just as the voice frame does. Comfortable noise: When receive the uplink frames, the TRAU judges the SID flag. When the SID is set, it means the MS is in the intermittent period. To make the listener feels that the GSM provides continuous service for it, the TRAU inserts comfortable noise in the uplink link. TRAU uses DTX to reduce the transmit power of BTS and MS. This further reduces the cochannel interference of radio interface and extends the standby time of MS. At the same time, the receiving MS generates the comfortable noise to make the user feel that the communications is continuous when the receiving MS detects it is in the DTX mode.

Benefits: This function reduces the power consumption of the BTS and MS, reduces the interference within the system, and reduces the inter-modulation within the BTS. Viewed from the whole network, the co-channel interference is reduced. Thus, the network capacity is improved.

22.2.GBFD-4802 Discontinuous Reception (DRX)
Function Description: DRX means that the MS monitors the messages in the specified timeslots according to the system configuration. This reduces the power consumption of the MS and improves the standby time of MS. If the MS in the idle mode chooses a cell as its serving cell, it can monitor the paging message in the cell. The DRX is introduced to reduce the power consumption of MS.

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HUAWEI GSM BSS8.0 Function Description

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That is, each mobile users (corresponding to an IMSI) corresponds to a dedicated paging group. Each paging group corresponds to a paging sub-channel of the cell. MS can calculate its paging group according to the last three bits of IMSI and the configuration of the paging channels of serving cell. In the idle mode, the MSs of a paging group only listens the paging messages on the fixed paging sub-channel (during this period, it can also monitor the receiving level of the BCCH of the non-serving cell) and ignores the paging messages in other paging sub-channels or even shuts down some hardware components. This can reduce the power consumption of MS. But it must be ensured that the necessary network message measurement task is implemented within a certain period. The number of the paging sub-channel of each cell can be calculated according to the CCCH type, BS AG BLKS RES (in the 51 multiframe, some are used for AGCH), BS PA MFRMS. (1) CCCH includes AGCH and PCH. The main function of CCH is to send immediate assignment message and paging message CCCH can be borne by a physical channel or multiple physical channels. CCCH can share a physical channel with SDCCH. The combination of the CCCH in the cell is determined by the parameter CCCH CONF. The setting of CCCH CONF shall be consistent with the real situation. When the cell has only one TRX, it is recommended that the CCCH shares a physical channel with SDCCH (at this time, there are three CCCH message blocks). (2) Sometimes, the paging traffic in a LA is heavy, one physical channel cannot meet the requirement. Therefore, the GSM specifications specify that the BCCH TRX can be configured with multiple CCCHs, but the CCCHs can only be configured on timeslot 0, 2, 4, and 6.

Benefits: This function can reduce the power consumption of MS and extend the standby time of MS.

23. Fast Move Coverage
2011-12-2 All Rights Reserved
HUAWEI CONFIDENTIAL

NO.192 page, All 193 pages

HUAWEI GSM BSS8.0 Function Description

secret

23.1.GBFD-10101 AFC(Automatic Frequency Correction)
Function Description: Automatic Frequency Correction (AFC) is a BTS frequency correction algorithm designed for the fast-moving MS. This algorithm ensures reliable radio links and high speech quality when the MS moves at a speed of 500 km/h. According to Doppler frequency offset principle, the frequency of the signals sent by the fastmoving MS offsets. The frequency offset information depends on the moving speed and direction of the MS. The BTS digital signal processor uses special equalization algorithm to estimate the phase difference between the standard frequency and the GMSK signal sent from the fast-moving MS to the BTS, and to estimate the real-time difference between the standard frequency and the frequency of each received burst in real time. The RX working frequency of the BTS is corrected based on this real-time difference to improve the decoding performance of the physical uplink in the fast moving condition, thus improving the physical transmission performance and reliable connections between the fasting moving MS and the BTS.

Benefits: This function is performed to improve the decoding performance of the physical uplink in the fast moving condition, thus improving the physical transmission performance and reliable connections between the fasting moving MS and the BTS. AFC enables the system to support the fast-moving (higher than 500 km/h) telecommunication environment. It serves as the basis of the frequency offset handover algorithm for fast-moving MSs.

2011-12-2

All Rights Reserved
HUAWEI CONFIDENTIAL

NO.193 page, All 193 pages

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