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MT S M HNH TUYN TUYN DNG

TRONG PHN TCH KINH T


1. M hnh cn i lin ngnh (m hnh Input Outphut ca Leontief)
M hnh Input Output ca Leontief (cn gi l m hnh I/O) cp n vic
xc nh mc tng cu i vi sn phm ca mi ngnh sn sut trong tng th
nn kinh t. y khi nim ngnh c xem xt theo ngha ngnh thun tu sn
xut. Cc gi thit t ra xy dng m hnh nh sau:
Mi ngnh sn xut mt loi hng ho thun nht hoc sn xut mt s
hng ho phi hp theo t l nht nh (coi mi t hp hng ho theo t l c
nh).
Cc yu t u vo ca sn xut trong phm vi ngnh c s dng theo t
l c nh.
Trong nn kinh t hin i, vic sn xut mt loi hng ho no (output) i
hi s dng cc loi hng ho khc nhau lm nguyn liu u vo (input) ca
qu trnh sn xut v vic xc nh tng cu i vi sn phm ca mi ngnh sn
xut trong tng th nn kinh t l quan trng n bao gm:
- Cu trung gian t pha cc nh sn xut s dng loi sn phm cho qu
trnh sn xut
- Cu cui cng t pha nhng ngi s dng sn phm tiu dng cho qu
trnh sn xut hoc xut khu, bao gm cc h gia nh, nh nc, cc t chc
xut khu,..
Xt mt nn kinh t c n ngnh sn xut, ngnh 1, 2, 3, , n. thun tin
cho vic tnh chi ph cho cc yu t sn xut, ta phi biu din lng cu ca tt c
cc loi hnh ho dng gi tr, tc l o bng tin. Tng cu v sn phm hng
ho ca ngnh i (i = 1, 2, , n) c k hiu v xc nh bi:
x
i
= x
i1
+ x
i2
+ + x
ik
+ b
i
(i =1, 2, , n) (*)
y:
x
ik
l gi tr sn phm ca ngnh i m ngnh k cn s dng cho qu trnh sn
xut ca mnh (gi tr cu trung gian).
b
i
l gi tr sn phm ca ngnh i dnh cho nhu cu tiu dng v xut khu (gi
tr cu cui cng)
Tuy nhin trong thc t ta thng khng c thng tin v gi tr cu trung gian
x
ik
, nhng ngi ta li ch ng trong vic xc nh t phn chi ph u vo ca
sn xut. K hiu a
ik
l t phn chi ph u vo ca ngnh k i vi sn phm ca
ngnh i, n c tnh bi cng thc:
k
ik
ik
x
x
a
(i, k = 1, 2, ... , n)
Ch rng:
1 a 0
ik
<
v y gi thit a
ik
l c nh i vi mi ngnh sn
xut i (k =1, 2, ... , n). Ngi ta cn gi a
ik
l h s chi ph u vo v ma trn A =
[a
ik
]
n x n
c gi l ma trn h s chi ph u vo (hay ma trn h s k thut).
Gi s a
ik
= 0,4 c ngha l sn xut ra 1 ng gi tr sn phm ca mnh,
ngnh k phi chi 0,3 ng mua sn phm ca ngnh i phc v cho qu trnh
sn xut.
t

,
_

,
_

n
2
1
n
2
1
b
. . .
b
b
b ;
x
. . .
x
x
X
Ta gi X l ma trn tng cu v b l ma trn cui cng. Khi , t ng thc
(*) thay x
ik
= a
ik
x
k
chng ta c

'

+ + + +
n , . . . . , 2 , 1 i
b x a . . . x a x a x
i n i n 2 2 i 1 1 i i
Hay biu din di dng ma trn :

,
_

,
_

1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

n
2
1
n
2
1
n n 2 n 1 n
n 2 2 2 2 1
n 1 1 2 1 1
n
2
1
b
. . .
b
b
x
. . .
x
x
.
a . . . a a
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a . . . a a
a . . . a a
x
. . .
x
x
Tc l X = AX + b (**)
T (**) ta c (E A)X = b
y, E l ma trn n v cp n. Nu E A kh nghch th
X = (E A)
-1
b (***)
Cng thc (***) c gi l cng thc tnh ma trn tng cu. Ma trn E A
c gi l ma trn Leontief. Nh vy nu chng ta bit ma trn h s k thut A
v ma trn cu cui cng th s xc nh c gi tr tng cu ca cc ngnh sn
xut.
V d 1. Gi s nn kinh t c hai ngnh sn xut : ngnh 1 v ngnh 2 c ma trn
h s k thut l
1
]
1

1 , 0 4 , 0
3 , 0 2 , 0
A
. Cho bit gi tr cu cui cng i vi sn phm
ca ngnh 1 v ngnh 2 theo th t l 10, 20 t ng. Hy xc nh gi tr tng cu
i vi mi ngnh.
Gii :
K hiu

,
_

2
1
x
x
X
l ma trn tng cu ; vi x
1
l gi tr tng cu ca ngnh 1, x
2
l
gi tr tng cu ca ngnh 2.
Theo gi thit ma trn cu cui b c dng :

,
_

2 0
1 0
b
Theo cng thc tnh ma trn tng cu (***) ta c X = (E A)
-1
.b
Ta c
1
]
1

1
]
1

1
]
1


9 , 0 4 , 0
3 , 0 8 , 0
1 , 0 4 , 0
3 , 0 2 , 0
1 0
0 1
A E
v
( )
1
]
1



8 , 0 4 , 0
3 , 0 9 , 0
6 , 0
1
A E
1
Do

,
_

,
_

1
]
1

3 / 1 0 0
2 5
2 0
1 0
.
8 , 0 4 , 0
3 , 0 9 , 0
.
6 , 0
1
X
Vy gi tr tng cu ca ngnh 1 l x
1
= 25 t ng
Gi tr tng cu ca ngnh 2 l x
2
= 100/3 t ng
V d 2. Gi s trong mt nn kinh t c 3 ngnh sn xut: ngnh 1, ngnh 2,
ngnh 3. Bit ma trn h s k thut l:
1
1
1
]
1

3 , 0 4 , 0 1 , 0
2 , 0 3 , 0 2 , 0
2 , 0 1 , 0 4 , 0
A
vi gi tr cu cui cng i vi sn phm ca tng ngnh th t l 40, 40 v 110
(n v tnh: nghn t ng). Hy xc nh gi tr tng cu ca tng ngnh sn
xut.
Gii:
Ta c
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1


7 , 0 4 , 0 1 , 0
2 , 0 7 , 0 2 , 0
2 , 0 1 , 0 6 , 0
3 , 0 4 , 0 1 , 0
2 , 0 3 , 0 2 , 0
2 , 0 1 , 0 4 , 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
A E
V
1
1
1
]
1



40 , 0 25 , 0 15 , 0
16 , 0 40 , 0 16 , 0
16 , 0 15 , 0 41 , 0
.
2 , 0
1
) A E (
1
Vy ma trn tng cu c xc nh bi

,
_

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

,
_

3 0 0
2 0 0
2 0 0
1 1 0
4 0
4 0
.
4 0 , 0 2 5 , 0 1 5 , 0
1 6 , 0 4 0 , 0 1 6 , 0
1 6 , 0 1 5 , 0 4 1 , 0
.
2 , 0
1
x
x
x
X
3
2
1
Vy gi tr tng cu ca cc ngnh 1, 2, 3 ln lt l x
1
=200 t ng, x
2
= 200
nghn t ng v x
3
= 300 nghn t ng.
2. M hnh cn bng th trng n hng ho c lin quan
Gi s chng ta nghin cu th trng bao gm n hng ho c lin quan: hng
ho 1, 2, , n. Khi nim ny c hiu l khi gi ca mt mt hng no thay
i th n khng nhng nh hng ti lng cung (
i
S
Q
) v lng cu (
i
D
Q
) ca
bn thn mt hng , m cn nh hng n gi v lng cung, lng cu ca
mt hng cn li. Ngi ta thng biu din s ph thuc ca lng cung v
lng cu vo gi ca cc mt hng ho bi hm cung v hm cu nh sau:
) P ,..., P , P ( S Q
n 2 1 i S
i

) P ,..., P , P ( D Q
n 2 1 i D
i

i = 1, 2, 3, , n
y, P
1
, P
2
, , P
n
k hiu theo th t l gi ca hng ho 1, 2, ... , i, ... , n
M hnh cn bng th trng n hng ho c lin quan c xc nh bi:

'

n . . . , , 3 , 2 , 1 i
Q Q
i i
D S
Nu gi thit cc
i i
D S
Q , Q
(i =1, 2, 3, ... , n) c dng tuyn tnh th m hnh trn
chnh l mt h gm c n phng trnh v n n s P
1
, P
2
, ..., P
n
.
Gii h phng trnh trn ta tm c b gi cn bng th trng:
) P ..., , P , P ( P n 2 1
Thay vo
) Q ( Q
i i
D S chng ta thu c lng cu cn bng th trng:
) Q ..., , Q , Q ( Q
n 2 1

V d 3. Cho bit hm cung, hm cu ca th trng hai loi hng ho nh sau:


1 S
P 3 2 Q
1
+
; 2 1 D
P P 2 8 Q
i
+
2 S
P 2 1 Q
2
+
; 2 1 S
P P 11 Q
2
+
y:
2 1
S S
Q ; Q
l lng cung hng 1, hng 2
2 1
D D
Q ; Q
l lng cu hng 1, hng 2
P
1
, P
2
l gi ca hng ho 1, hng ho 2
Khi th trng cn bng hy thit lp h phng trnh tuyn tnh vi n s P
1
v
P
2
. Xc nh gi v lng cn bng ca hai mt hng.
Gii
Thit lp phng trnh

'

'

+ +
+ +

'

5 P
3 P
P P 1 1 P 2 1
P P 8 P 3 2
Q Q
Q Q
2
1
2 1 2
2 1 1
D S
D S
2 2
1 1
Vy b gi cn bng l ) 5 ; 3 ( ) P ; P ( 2 1
Lng cu cn bng l

'

+
+
9 P 2 1 Q
7 P 3 2 Q
2
2
1
1
V d 4. Xt th trng gm 3 hng ho gm ch, caf, cacao c hm cung v hm
cu tng ng nh sau:
3 1 D 1 S
P P 20 Q ; P 10 Q
1 1
+
(ch)
3 2 D 2 S
P P 2 40 Q ; P 2 Q
2 2

(cafe)
1 3 2 D 2 3 S
P P P 10 Q ; P 3 5 Q
3 3
+ +
(cacao)
Hy thit lp m hnh cn bng th trng ca 3 loi hng ho trn. Xc nh
gi v lng cafe trng thi cn bng th trng.
Gii
Thit lp m hnh:

'

+
+
+

'

1 5 P 4 P P
4 0 P P 4
3 0 P P 2
Q Q
Q Q
Q Q
3 2 1
3 2
3 1
D S
D S
D S
3 3
2 2
1 1
Xc nh gi v lng cu cn bng th trng cafe ta c
3
56
Q ;
3
28
P
2
2
3. M hnh cn bng thu nhp quc dn
Xt m hnh cn bng thu nhp quc dn dng n gin, vi cc k hiu: Y
l tng thu nhp quc dn, G l chi tiu chnh ph, I l u t v C l tiu dng
ca cc h gia nh.
y, chng ta gi thit chi tiu chnh ph v u t l c nh G = G
o
v I =
I
o
cn chi tiu h gia nh c dng tuyn tnh:
C = aY + b (0 <a <1; b> 0)
M hnh cn bng thu nhp quc dn c dng h phng trnh tuyn tnh gm
hai phng trnh 2 n s Y v C:

'

+
+

'

+
+ +
b C a Y
I G C Y
b A Y C
C I G Y
o o o o
Gii h bng quy tc Cramer chng ta xc nh c mc thu nhp cn bng
v mc tiu dng cn bng ca nn kinh t:

'

+ +

+ +

a 1
) I G ( a b
C
a 1
b I G
Y
o o
o o
Tip theo xt m hnh trong trng hp thu nhp chu thu vi thu sut t%
thng biu din di dng thp phn. Khi thu nhp sau thu l:
Y ) t 1 ( tY Y Y
d

v hm chi tiu c dng: C = aY
d
+ b = a(1 t)Y + b
Nu xt m hnh cn chu nh hng bi yu t xut khu X v nhp khu N.
Khi m hnh c dng

'

+
+ + +
b Y ) t 1 ( a C
N X C I G Y
o o
Trong X v N c th biu bin l hm ca Y hoc l gi tr c nh cho
trc. Do vy chng ta vn bin i a m hnh v h gm hai phng trnh n Y
v C.
V d 5. Cho bit C = 0,80Y
d
+ 250, I = I
o
, G = G
o
, Y
d
= (1- t)Y ( t l thu sut
thu nhp)
a) Xc nh mc thu nhp quc dn v chi tiu cn bng
b) Tnh mc thu nhp quc dn v chi tiu cn bng vi I
o
= 150 ; G
o
= 500
(n v : t VN) v t = 0,15
Gii
u tin xc nh m hnh cn bng

'

+
+

'

+
+ +
2 5 0 C Y ) t 1 ( 8 , 0
I G C Y
2 5 0 Y 8 , 0 C
C I G Y
o o o o
a) Thu nhp quc dn v chi tiu cn bng l

'


+ +


+ +

) t 1 ( 8 , 0 1
2 5 0 ) I G ) ( t 1 ( 8 , 0
C
) t 1 ( 8 , 0 1
2 5 0 I G
Y
o o
o o
b) Vi I
o
= 150 ; G
o
= 500 ; t = 0,15 ta c

'



+ +



+ +

5 , 2 1 6 2
3 2 , 0
6 9 2
) 1 5 , 0 1 ( 8 , 0 1
2 5 0 ) 5 0 0 1 5 0 ) ( 1 5 , 0 1 ( 8 , 0
C
5 , 2 8 1 2
3 2 , 0
9 0 0
) 1 5 , 0 1 ( 8 , 0 1
2 5 0 5 0 0 1 5 0
Y
4. M hnh IS LM
Dng m hnh IS LM phn tch trng thi cn bng ca nn kinh t chng
ta xem xt c hai th trng hng ho v tin t. Mt trong nhng yu t quan
trng nh hng n c hai th trng ny l li sut r. Mc tiu ca chng ta l
phi xc nh c mc thu nhp quc dn v li sut trng thi cn bng.
Xt th trng hng ho vi cc yu t gm chi tiu chnh ph G = G
o
. Chi tiu
h gia nh C = aY + b (0 <a <1; b>0) (hoc C = a(1-t)Y +b ; t l thu sut thu
nhp) u t I = k lr (k, l > 0)
Y = C + I + G
o
= aY + b + k lr +G
o

(1 a)Y + lr = b + k + G
o
(1)
(1) gi l phng trnh ng IS
Xt th trng tin t vi cc yu t:
Lng cu tin L = L(Y, r) = mY nr (m, n > 0) v lng cung tin M = M
o
(c nh trc). Phng trnh cn bng ca th trng tin t c dng:
o
M nr mY M L
(2)
(2) c gi l ng LM
xc nh mc thu nhp quc dn v li sut cn bng Y v r chng ta
thit lp h phng trnh 2 n Y v r c gi l m hnh IS LM:

'


+ + +
o
o
M n r m Y
G k b l r Y ) a 1 (
Gii h ny ta c

'

+
+ + +

+
+ + +

m l ) a 1 ( n
) G k b ( m M ) a 1 (
r
m l ) a 1 ( n
l M ) G k b ( n
Y
o o
o o
V d 6. Xt m hnh IS LM vi
C = 0,6Y + 35
I = 65 r
G = G
o
L = 5Y 50r
M = M
o
a) Xc nh mc thu nhp quc dn v li sut cn bng: Y v r
b) Tnh Y v r khi G
o
= 70; M
o
= 1500 (nghn t VN)
Gii
a) Phng trnh ng IS:
Y = C + I + G
o
= 0,6Y + 35 + 65 r +G
o

0,4Y + r = 100 + G
o

Phng trnh ng LM: o o
M r 50 Y 5 M L
Gii h phng trnh

'


+ +
o
o
M r 5 0 Y 5
G 1 0 0 r Y 4 , 0
ta c

'

+ +

2 5
M 4 , 0 G 5 5 0 0
r
2 5
M G 5 0 5 0 0 0
Y
o o
o o
b) Vi G
o
= 70 v M
o
= 1500 ta c

'


+ +

+ +

1 0
2 5
2 5 0
2 5
M 4 , 0 G 5 5 0 0
r
4 0 0
2 5
1 0 0 0 0
2 5
1 5 0 0 3 5 0 0 5 0 0 0
2 5
M G 5 0 5 0 0 0
Y
o o
o o
Ti liu tham kho
1. L nh Thu (ch bin), Ton cao cp cho cc nh kinh t - Phn 1, NXB
HKT Quc dn, 2008.
2. Nguyn Huy Hong (Ch bin), Ton cao cp - Tp 1 (i s tuyn tnh),
NXB Gio dc Vit Nam, 2009.
3. Alpha C. Chiang ,Fundamental Methods of Mathematical Economics, Mc.
Graw Hill Book Copany, 1984.