An Overview of the History, Science & Health Benefits of Alkaline Ionised Water

Compiled by Water for Health Ltd.

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Index
1. Introduction 2. Brief History of Alkaline Ionised Water 3. Science of Alkaline Ionised Water 3.1 Water, The chemistry of life. 3.2 Water, the universal solvent 3.3 Polarity of water molecules 3.4 Oxidation-reduction reactions 3.5 Acids and Bases 3.6 What is pH? 3.7 Importance of balancing pH 3.8 Oxygen: Too much of a good thing? 3.9 Antioxidants block dangerous oxidation 3.10 Water, the natural solution 4. How to make alkaline ionised water? 4.1 Electrolytic Process 4.2 Mineral Processes 5. The application of ionised water in the treatment of disease. 5.1 Cardiovascular Disease 5.2 Diabetes 5.3 Cancer 5.4 Gastro - Intestinal System 5.6 Kidney Problems 5.7 Osteoporosis 5.8 Obesity 5.9 Skin Complaints 6. Summary APPENDIX 1 – Different types of Water Ioniser APPENDIX 2 – Frequently Asked Questions APPENDIX 3 – Recommended Reading References 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 13 14 15 16 16 17 18 18 19 20

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Important Note
This booklet has been compiled to give interested parties information on alkaline ionized water. It is produced purely for education purposes and no medical claims are stated or implied By Water for Health Ltd. We are keen that the many health benefits of good hydration and its contribution to proper body pH balance are appreciated by as many people as possible. Please feel free to pass this booklet on to anyone you think might benefit, the only condition being that you pass it on unchanged in its entirety. The compilation copyright is retained by Water for Health Ltd. Roddy MacDonald Managing Director - Water for Health Ltd www.water-for-health.co.uk

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1. Introduction Good hydration is fundamental to health. Our bodies are composed of approx 70% water so it is essential to keep ourselves hydrated. The dilemma for many people is, “What is the best water to drink?” There are concerns about drinking tap water due to it potentially containing low levels of toxins such as heavy metals, pesticide residues, hormonal residues and pharmaceutical drug residues. There is also the potential problem arising where source water could have low levels of humic acid compounds that are difficult to remove in water treatment and when chlorinated can produce trichloromethanes (THM’s). These THM’s are regarded as being potentially carcinogenic. Consequently many people have elected to drink bottled water or to install undersink filtration equipment such as reverse osmosis systems or using water distillers. Although these options overcome many of the potential problems of drinking tap water they are not without their downsides. There is increasing concern about drinking bottled water, primarily due to the environmental impact of production and disposal of plastic bottles and transporting water long distances. There is also the concern about possible leaching of the plastic into the water. Reverse Osmosis systems and water distillation system; although very effective at removing pollutants have also got their downside. With the reverse osmosis system a significant amount of water goes to drain, which is becoming increasingly expensive and is not particularly environmentally desirable. However the main concern viewed by several health practitioners is that this sterile water is not good to be ingested long term. It has been said that drinking this type of water can remove beneficial minerals from the body. Also when it is purified and allowed to stand it can absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere which is the reason why this water becomes acidic, which is not what our bodies need. So the dilemma is how we can be assured that the water we drink is the best type of water to drink to properly hydrate our bodies and help to eliminate wastes and toxins. Good water should be free of pollutants and contain beneficial minerals. However good water should also have the ability to purify the blood, strengthen the immune system and help to counteract harmful free radicals. Water has been proven to have many beneficial health promoting properties. The information in this booklet gives an overview of ionised water, its history of use, the science behind it, the type of health issues that people have found it to be beneficial for and a resume of some of the ways that this water can be produced. At one time ionised water could only be produced by electrolysis but now natural mineral blends are being used to have a similar effect on water with the resultant effect of bringing alkaline ionised water with antioxidant properties within the reach of everyone. If the science of ionised water is of no interest to you then proceed to sections 4 and 5 of this booklet to learn more about making alkaline ionized water and some of the health benefits that have been attributed to it.

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2. Brief History of Alkaline Ionised Water Alkaline ionised water is made by electrically splitting filtered tap water into alkaline ionic water and acid water. Water ionisers were first developed in Japan in the early 50's and experiments were first conducted on plants and animals. Full scale development started in 1954 by several Japanese agricultural universities on the effects of alkaline ionic water, especially acid water, on plants. Today, nursery farmers that supply cut flowers use acid water to keep flowers longer before delivery to the flower shops. Experiments on the human body were subsequently carried out. Through lengthy experimentation by medical doctors in Japan, much valuable data was collected and it was concluded that alkaline ionised water made with water ionisers was nontoxic and alleviated many symptoms of adult diseases. The first commercial alkaline ionised water ionisers were available in Japan in l958. In l960, a group of medical doctors and agricultural doctors in Japan formed a special medical and agricultural research institute, and they had annual meetings to report their findings. Finally, in January 15th, 1966, this type of alkaline ionic water ioniser was approved as a health improvement medical device by the Health and Rehabilitation Ministry of the Japanese Government. Japanese-made alkaline ionised water ionisers were first introduced to Korea in the 70's, and today they are also approved as medical devices by the government of South Korea. Korean-made household units were first introduced into the United States in l985 and a toxicity test was conducted by an independent testing laboratory in LA on April 14, 1986. The test found no toxicity in the alkaline ionised water generated by the water ioniser. This testing was done according to FDA specified methods. As a result of this research water ionisers have been increasingly accepted in both the Far East and in Western societies. Manufacturing of water ionisers is now principally carried out in Korea where there are currently 20 manufacturers producing in excess of 1million water ionisers per year. In recent years there has been extensive research carried out, again primarily in Japan and Korea into using the natural properties of certain minerals to give water similar properties as electrolytic water ionisers do. This has resulted in a new range of products to give consumers the health benefits of alkaline ionised water without the need for electricity. Much of this work has been popularised in the East through the research work of Professor Won H Kim, an ex Oxford graduate, who is regarded in Korea as being the foremost authority on the therapeutic use of mineral alkaline ionised water.

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3. Science of Alkaline Ionised Water 3.1 Water, The chemistry of life. Life on earth is totally dependent on water. A high percentage of living things, both plant and animal are found in water. The bodies of all living organisms are composed largely of water. Between 70 and 90 percent of all organic matter is water. The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that support life take place in a water medium. Water not only provides the medium to make these life sustaining reactions possible, but water itself is often an important reactant or product of these reactions. In short, the chemistry of life is water chemistry. 3.2 Water, the universal solvent Water is a universal, superb solvent due to the marked polarity of the water molecule and its tendency to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water molecule, expressed with the chemical symbol H2O, consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. Standing alone, the hydrogen atom contains one positive proton at its core with one negative electron revolving around it in a three-dimensional shell. Oxygen, on the other hand, contains 8 protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons revolving around it. This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter O surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of paired electrons. The single hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen are the key to the chemistry of life because this is where hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a water molecule, or split to form ions. Hydrogen tends to ionise by losing its single electron and form single H+ ions, which are isolated protons since the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A hydrogen bond occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared with another electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks an electron. 3.3 Polarity of water molecules In a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to the oxygen atom. But because the oxygen atom is larger than the hydrogen's, its attraction for the hydrogen's electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are drawn closer into the shell of the larger oxygen atom and away from the hydrogen shells. This means that although the water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative charge. The shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are closer to the oxygen, take on a small electropositive charge. This means water molecules have a tendency to form weak bonds with water molecules because the oxygen end of the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive. A hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the oxygen of its own molecule, can form a weak bond with the oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the oxygen end of a molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends of other molecules. Because water molecules have this polarity, water is a continuous chemical entity.

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These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilising the shape of many of the large molecules found in living matter. Because these bonds are weak, they are readily broken and re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The disassembly and re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in essence the chemistry of life. To illustrate water's ability to break down other substances, consider the simple example of putting a small amount of table salt in a glass of tap water. With dry salt (NaCl) the attraction between the electropositive sodium (Na+) and electronegative chlorine (Cl-) atoms of salt is very strong until it is placed in water. After salt is placed in water, the attraction of the electronegative oxygen of the water molecule for the positively charged sodium ions, and the similar attraction of the electropositive hydrogen ends of the water molecule for the negatively charged chloride ions, is greater than the mutual attraction between the outnumbered Na+ and Cl- ions. In water the ionic bonds of the sodium chloride molecule are broken easily because of the competitive action of the numerous water molecules.

As we can see from this simple example, even the delicate configuration of individual water molecules enables them to break relatively stronger bonds by converging on them. This is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a natural solution that breaks the bonds of larger, more complex molecules. This is the chemistry of life on earth, in water and on land. 3.4 Oxidation-reduction reactions Basically, reduction means the addition of an electron (e-), and its converse, oxidation means the removal of an electron. The addition of an electron by reduction stores energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an electron, oxidation, liberates energy from the oxidised compound. Whenever one substance is reduced, another is oxidised.

To clarify these terms, consider any two molecules, A and B, for example. When molecules A and B come into contact, here is what happens: B grabs an electron from molecule A. Molecule A has been oxidised because it has lost an electron. The net charge of B has been reduced because it has gained a negative electron (e-).

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In biological systems, removal or addition of an electron constitutes the most frequent mechanism of oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction reactions are frequently called redox reactions. 3.5 Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in water. A base (alkali) is a substance that decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in other words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-. The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is measured in terms of a value known as pH, which is the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions: pH = 1/log [H+] = -log [H+] 3.6 What is pH? On the pH scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on the alkaline end, a solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At pH 7, water contains equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions. Substances which have pH greater than 7 are alkaline because they contain a higher concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log scale so a change of one pH unit means a tenfold change in the concentration of hydrogen ions. 3.7 Importance of balancing pH Living things are extremely sensitive to pH and function best (with certain exceptions, such as certain portions of the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly neutral. Most interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH of about 6.8.

Blood plasma and other fluids that surround the cells in the body have a pH of around 7.3. Numerous special mechanisms aid in stabilising these fluids so that cells will not be subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which serve as mechanisms to stabilise pH are called buffers. Buffers have the capacity to bond ions and remove them from solution whenever their concentration begins to rise. Conversely, buffers can release ions whenever their concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to minimise the fluctuations in pH. This is an important function because many biochemical reactions normally occurring in living organisms either release or use up ions. 3.8 Oxygen: Too much of a good thing? Oxygen is essential to survival. It is relatively stable in the air, but when too much is absorbed into the body it can become active and unstable and has a tendency to attach itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of healthy cells. The chemical activity of these free radicals is due to one or more pairs of unpaired electrons. It is estimated that 2% of the oxygen we normally breathe becomes active oxygen, and this amount increases to approximately 20% with aerobic exercise. Such free radicals with unpaired
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electrons are unstable and have a high oxidation potential, which means they are capable of stealing electrons from other cells. This chemical mechanism is very useful in disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide and ozone which can be used to sterilize wounds or medical instruments. Inside the body these free radicals are of great benefit due to their ability to attack and eliminate bacteria, viruses and other waste products. Problems arise, however, when too many of these active oxygen molecules, or free radicals, are produced in the body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them genetically. These active oxygen radicals steal electrons from normal, healthy biological molecules. This electron theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and is believed to be a major cause of degenerative disease. Because active oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is essential to scavenge this active oxygen from the body before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we can find an effective method to block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen, then we can attempt to prevent disease. 3.9 Antioxidants block dangerous oxidation One way to protect healthy tissue from the ravages of oxidation caused by active oxygen is to provide free electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralising their high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting with healthy tissue. Research on the link between diet and cancer is far from complete, but there is evidence that what we eat may affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some foods seem to help defend against cancer, others appear to promote it. Much of the damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food may come about because of an oxidation reaction in the cell. In this process, an odd ball oxygen molecule may damage the genetic code of the cell. This leads naturally to the theory that the intake of natural antioxidants could be an important aspect of the body's defence against cancer. Substances that are believed to inhibit cancer include vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and glutathione (an amino acid). These substances are reducing agents. They supply electrons to free radicals and block the interaction of the free radical with normal tissue. 3.10 Water, the natural solution There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet, especially rich in antioxidant materials such as vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good for us. However, these substances are not the best source of free electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy tissue by active oxygen. Alkaline ionised water is a better solution to the problem of providing a safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. This reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to donate to active oxygen, has a better reduction capability over most other antioxidants in food or vitamin supplements. Also the molecular weight of reduced water is low, making it fast acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very short time.

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4. How to make Alkaline Ionised Water? 4.1 Electrolytic Process Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is approximately neutral on the pH scale of 0 to 14. When measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter, its redox potential is approximately +200 to +300 mV. Typical bottled waters have ORP values in the range of +100 to +200mV. Because they have a positive redox potential they can acquire electrons and oxidize other molecules. Reduced Ionised Water, on the other hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -100 to 250 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen. A typical Ionised Water unit is slightly taller and thicker than a large dictionary on end. It is an electrical appliance connected to your kitchen water supply to perform electrolysis on tap water before you drink it or use it in the kitchen for cooking or cleaning.

The water inlet to the ioniser is either through a special attachment that connects to the tap and diverts water through the ioniser or alternatively many of the models can be connected directly to the mains water inlet leading to the sink tap. Inside the Ionised Water unit, the water is first filtered through activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes into an electrolysis chamber equipped with platinum-coated titanium electrodes where electrolysis takes place. Cations, positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to create cathodic water (reduced water). Anions, negatively charged ions, gather at the positive electrode to make anodic water (oxidized water).

Through electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an excess amount of electrons (e-), but the cluster of H2O is reduced in size from about 10 to 13 molecules per cluster to 5 to 6 molecules per cluster. The reduced water comes out of the ioniser tap, and the oxidized water comes out of a separate hose leading into the sink. You can use the reduced water for drinking or cooking. The oxidation
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potential of the oxidized water makes it a good sterilising agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or kitchen utensils, and treating minor wounds. After electrolysis of the water inside the Ionised Water unit, reduced water comes out of the cathodic side and oxidized water comes out of the anodic side. Compare these measurements of four types of water: tap water before electrolysis, bottled water, reduced water and oxidized water. Reduction – Oxidation (Redox) Potential Water Type Tap Water Bottled Water Reduced Water Redox Potential +200 to +300mV +100 to +200mV -100 to -300mV pH 7 7 9 What it Means Slight Oxidation potential Slight oxidation potential Strong reduction potential contains a mass of electrons that can be donated to free radicals. Strong oxidation potential, a shortage of electrons giving it the ability to oxidize and sterilise

Oxidised Water

+400 to +600mV

4

Traditionally most people judge the properties of water from the standpoint of pH, in other words water is acidic or alkaline. However oxidation reduction potential is probably more important than pH due to the ability of reduced water to help to neutralise harmful free radicals. The pH of tap water is about pH 7, or neutral. When tap water is electrolyzed into Ionised Water, its reduced water has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of about 4. Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium hydroxide or make acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen chloride, you will find very little change in the ORP values of the two waters. On the other hand, when you divide tap water with electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as much as +/- 500 mV. By electrolysis you can obtain reduced water with negative potential that is good for the body. 4.2 Mineral Processes Up till recently most of the systems on the market used to produce alkaline ionised water were electrolytic systems. In recent years there has been an increasing number of mineral based water ionising systems available. They have the advantage of being less expensive, portable and give the water good energy. These mineral based systems use natural minerals which when in contact with water make it alkaline and also produce hydrogen. They include minerals with more ionising effect than hydrogen such as magnesium (Mg) calcium (Ca) and lithium (Li). Calcium and Lithium are very good at making water with a good structure but unfortunately react too violently with water. On the other hand Magnesium releases electrons as it dissolves in water as shown: Mg + 2 H20 -> Mg2+ + 2OH- + H2 (H- + H- ->H2) The water turns alkaline by forming OH-, and hydrogen (with active hydrogen being formed at the same time) lowering the water’s ORP to give it a power to eliminate active oxygen.

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Magnesium unfortunately has several shortcomings. It is relatively poor at making water structure condensed compared to that of calcium and its effect on water makes it bitter unlike calcium. Its efficiency to react with water for producing alkaline ionised water and hydrogen gradually reduces. In order to make up for these weak points, magnesium’s physical properties have been improved by making special alloys which sustain for a long time its ability to diffuse in water and produce hydrogen with alkaline water. Other ways can be combined as well: ceramics based on calcium, special minerals which stabilise active hydrogen, natural rocks which make water structure compact as well as increasing water’s solvency, and minerals which can bring about catalytic action. Doing this makes water abundant with hexagonal water (smaller clusters of molecules), supplements the taste, maintains the eliminating power against reactive oxygen species for a long time, and puts in good energy. Mineral alkaline reduced water has the weakness of needing an occasional acid-cleansing because its hydrogen-producing power decreases after a while, but its simplicity and portability makes it an alternative to systems producing electrolyzed water. It also has the advantage of containing very good energy in comparison to electrolyzed alkaline water. Many of the mineral based systems combine various minerals including natural minerals such as tourmaline and jade which are reputed to give far infrared energy which has known therapeutic benefits. Interestingly Professor Won H Kim has stated that natural mineral alkaline ionised water showed anti-cancer effects as well as suppressive power against metastasis during animal experiments using mice. Furthermore, it revealed an ability to eliminate active oxygen within cells along with increasing immune functions. More importantly, levels of blood sugar, triglycerides, and cholesterol were lowered in mice with diabetes and obesity; possibilities were seen for treatments of these diseases or ensuing complications. Mineral based systems are now used in a wide number of applications. Because of no requirement to use electricity they are used in portable personal ionisers, so that people can enjoy the benefits of ionised water wherever they are. They are also used in undersink filters, in jug filter cartridges and in cartridges which can be used after filtration systems and particularly reverse osmosis systems where they can help to overcome the principal limitation of reverse osmosis water, in that they put back into the water beneficial minerals.

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5. The application of ionised water in the treatment of disease. Leading scientists and health practitioners have stated that the majority of the western population are suffering the effects of acidosis in body tissues which is believed by many to be the prime cause of degenerative disease. Modern lifestyles, diets, stress and environmental pollution all contribute to an excess acid load. Dr Theodore Baroody in his book ‘Alkalize or Die’ states ‘the countless names attributed to illness do not really matter. What does matter is that they all come from the same root cause…too much tissue acid waste in the body.’ Excess tissue acid waste manifests itself in fatigue, inflammation, reduced immunity and premature aging. In the informative book ‘The Acid Alkaline Food Guide’ by Dr Susan E Brown and Larry Triveri Jnr they list the following conditions amongst several others which are attributed to chronic low grade metabolic acidosis in the body. • • • • • Loss of calcium in the urine, the dissolution of bone and the development of osteoporosis. The loss of potassium and magnesium stores from the body, with a resulting tendency towards hypertension and inflammation, as well as the pain associated with inflammation. Suppression of growth hormone, insulin like growth factor, and other pituitary hormones causing suboptimal tissue renewal and hormone dysfunction. Accelerated aging from accumulated acid waste products. Increased production of free radicals- unstable molecules that cause cellular damageresulting in the worsening of pain and inflammation, and the lowering of immune capacity. Increased risk of kidney stone formation Decreased efficiency of cellular ATP energy production, causing impaired cellular function and, eventually, impaired organ function. Encouragement of the growth and spread of naturally occurring yeast and fungi, which thrive in an acid terrain. Creation of a mild form of hypothyroidism (low thyroid function) and a chronic overproduction of the stress hormone cortisol, resulting in various negative effects on the body. Sub optimal liver detoxification, potentially causing a build up of toxic residues in the body.

• • • •

The list of specific diseases that have been connected with excess tissue acid waste and the damage done by harmful free radicals is extensive and includes the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Cardiovascular disease including the build up of cholesterol deposits High Blood Pressure Diabetes Cancers Hypothyroidism Osteoporosis Arthritis Kidney Problems Gastro Intestinal Inflammation Skin problems including eczema Gout Candida infections
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Drinking alkaline ionised water is beneficial for any health complaint where there is excess tissue acidity and damage being caused by free radicals. It helps to neutralise the harmful acidic wastes and flush them out of the body. It also neutralises unstable free radical molecules by supplying electrons. It also supplies additional oxygen to the cells where oxygen levels are low due to the excess acidity. There are a number of specific diseases where researchers and health practitioners have proven that drinking alkaline ionised water is beneficial. Some of these include: 5.1 Cardiovascular Disease Our bodies are naturally wonderfully engineered; when our blood pressure is elevated or if we have high levels of cholesterol deposited in our vascular system it is our body’s natural compensating mechanism for a deficiency. Increasingly many natural practitioners are pointing at acidosis as being the root problem. Our blood has a buffer of sodium bicarbonate to neutralise acid wastes from our cells as waste products of our metabolism. When this alkaline buffer level is depleted then we suffer from the problems of acidosis. According to Sang Whang in his book Reverse Aging ‘Dr Kancho Kunimaka, one of the pioneers of alkaline water treatment in Japan, states that virtually without exception, patients with high blood pressure have an acidosis condition. He has many successful clinical trials where acid free high pH alkaline water lowered blood pressure. There are several plausible explanations for this phenomenon. Since the higher pH blood contains excess oxygen, the heart doesn’t have to work so hard. Another factor may be that the viscosity of the higher pH blood is low so that the heart does not need to pump as hard. A further reason may be that the calcium ions in alkaline water may be dissolving plaque and cholesterol build up in the artery walls, thus opening up the passage’ He further states ‘If your blood pressure is always high, chances are that your arteries are getting narrow and it will take a long time, possibly a year or more, for that blood pressure to come down by means of alkaline water. It takes time to dissolve plaque and cholesterol build up but eventually it will work. This slow process has no side effects. It lowers blood pressure by eliminating the very causes of the high blood pressure.’ Acid waste in the blood is believed to make scratches in the inside of the blood vessels. The body’s defence mechanism is to patch these injuries to the blood vessel walls with fatty plaques to prevent life threatening leaks. Hence it is extremely important to reduce this acidic condition by neutralising excess acid wastes. Professor Won H Kim in his book Water of Life; a cure for your body says ‘Irregular blood circulation can be called the beginning of all adult-onset ailments. The major cause for this comes from acidic waste materials which get piled up on vascular walls or clog capillary vessels. Crucial organs need a smooth supply of blood, but piled up waste on walls makes vessels get narrower. This coupled with clogged capillaries, results in raised blood pressure to supply blood. This is the general principle behind occurrence of hypertension. Alkaline reduced water resolves hypertension originating from residues of waste on vascular walls. Alkaline reduced water does more than just decrease the acidic wastes by alkalising the blood: it is effective for hypertension because its superior power to conduct surface activity can dissolve waste matter stuck to vascular walls’
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The conventional medical approach of using medication to control blood pressure and lower cholesterol levels does not address the underlying problem. Unfortunately these medications also tend to increase the acidic load on the blood. 5.2 Diabetes Dr Robert Young in his book pH Miracle for Diabetes says ‘looking through the lens of New Biology, it becomes clear that diabetes is not a disease of the pancreas or the beta cells therein. Rather, it is the result of a pH imbalance in the fluids of the body- systemic acidosis- that interferes with the optimum functioning of the cells they surround. Beta cells surrounded by acids do not or cannot produce sufficient insulin. Acids destroy insulin receptor sites on the cellular membrane so body cells cannot properly use the hormone. Diabetic symptoms – which can include frequent urination, extreme thirst, ravenous hunger, weight loss, extreme fatigue, muscle wasting and life threatening ketoacidosis- are all a result of the body attempting to regain or maintain the delicate pH balance of the blood tissues. Other scientists have come to a similar conclusion that the underlying cause for adult onset diabetes is due to an underlying acidosis condition. Sang Whang says in his reverse Aging book ‘A shortage of calcium ions in the body impairs the production and the release of the insulin hormone. This eventually leads to an acidic blood condition. Clogged blood vessels caused by excess protein build up also impair pancreatic function. Alkaline water by supplying calcium in an ionised form and by helping prevent excess protein build up can help prevent and heal this condition.’ Professor Won H Kim relates an interesting experiment that was carried out by Korean TV who undertook an investigation into the merits or otherwise of alkaline ionised water. One of the areas of investigation was to look at its use for the treatment of diabetes. He says ‘I did a clinical experiment with diabetes patients at a hospital in Southern Choongchung province. This study was done by dividing up patients in critical condition (to the point they had to receive insulin injections) up into two groups. The first group continued receiving insulin shots as usual, and the other group was told to stop the treatment and only drink alkaline reduced water. Because we had a tight shooting schedule, the second group was actually hospitalised to immediately observe the effects of drinking 5 litres of water every day. Before even one month passed, the water-drinking group’s blood sugar level amazingly decreased in contrast to that of the insulin-injection group. The patients who were half heartedly participating at first elatedly drank the water more faithfully, after personally experiencing improved complexion and health. Daily changes in blood sugar level were inconsistent in the case of the patient group getting insulin shots, but the alkaline reduced water-drinking patients had stability. This extraordinary result signifies alkaline reduced water does not only show short-term effectiveness like insulin, but also can ultimately cure diabetes.’ Although it is probably premature to say that drinking alkaline reduced water is a cure for adult onset diabetes there is a growing body of opinion that believes that addressing the underlying acidosis problem by diet, controlling stress etc you will make a huge impact on the problem. Drinking alkaline ionised water with its ability to neutralise acidity and counteract harmful free radicals is a very important part of this protocol.
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5.3 Cancer When the blood becomes acidified it becomes thicker and is able to transport less oxygen and nutrients to the cells. When the cell becomes deprived of oxygen it either dies or adapts to this oxygen deprived environment by becoming malignant. Cancer cells can live in this oxygen deprived environment because they obtain their energy from fermentation, a process that is carried on without oxygen. It continually grabs available nutrients, depriving healthy cells of available nutrients leading to their death. The extracellular fluids of cancer cells tend towards acidity. The focus of many doctors has been to create conditions that will not favour the proliferation of cancer cells: conditions that will allow more oxygen to get to the cells. Professor Felicia Kliment in her book ‘The Acid Alkaline Balance Diet’ says ‘Clearly, the prevention of cancer should begin with removing from the body acidic wastes that turn normal cells into cancerous ones. If an individual is being treated for cancer, the removal of acidic wastes generated by toxic chemotherapy could prevent a recurrence.’ In his book Hidden Truth of Cancer Keiichi Morishita says ‘if the blood develops a more acidic condition, then our body inevitably deposits these excess acidic substances in some areas of the body such that the blood will maintain an alkaline condition. As this tendency continues, such areas increase in acidity and some cells will die. Then these cells themselves turn into acids. However, some other cells may adapt to this environment. In other words, instead of dying- as normal cells do in an acidic environment- some cells survive by becoming abnormal cells. Malignant cells do not correspond with brain function or with our own DNA memory code. Therefore, malignant cells grow indefinitely and without order. This is cancer.’ In Japan and Korea they have found very encouraging results by treating cancer patients with alkaline ionised water. They have shown that it results in the reduction of cancer cell proliferation. There have been various theories why this is the case. It is said that cancer cells cannot proliferate in hexagonally structured water. It is also said that that it could be having an inhibitory effect on the effect of telomerase an enzyme that can restore telomere, DNA at the end of cancer cells chromosomes. Similarly the effect of cancer suppression could be due to the neutralisation of damaging free radicals and alkaline waters contribution towards changing the pH in the cell environment. Sang Whang points out ‘When you drink alkaline water you are drinking water with excess oxygen, not in the form of O2 but in the form of OH- which is very stable because it is mated with positively ionised alkaline minerals. Two of these hydroxyl ions can form a water molecule H2O and give out one oxygen atom. The alkaline mineral is used to detoxify poisonous acid compounds and when that happens the hydroxyl ion is freed to supply excess oxygen to the cells to prevent the development of cancer.’ 5.4 Gastro - Intestinal system The effects of excess acidity can be evident from one end of our gastro intestinal system to the other. It can manifest as acid reflux at the very beginning of our digestive tract through to constipation or colitis at the other extremity. In between problems such as ulcers, gallstones and inflammatory intestinal problems are all linked directly or indirectly with increased tissue
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acidity. The digestive tract is critically important to all our bodily functions so it is vitally important to our health and longevity to keep it working optimally and that means correcting acid alkali imbalances. If the digestive tract presents an over acidic environment it will provide an ideal host to opportunist harmful bacteria and fungi which are believed to be the root cause of many health problems. This is primarily due to their ingestion of your nutrients and leaving their toxic acidic wastes in your body. Consequently an improvement in the correct pH balance of the digestive tract will not just alleviate gastro intestinal problems but will have impacts, often significant, in other areas. Professor Won H Kim points to the fact that the oxidation reduction potential of the digestive tract reduces along the length of it from +150mV in the stomach to -250mV in the colon. If this becomes disrupted it will result in imbalance of the microflora and one of the prime indicators will be stenchy stools. He concluded that drinking alkaline reduced water helps to maintain the ORP balance in the gastro intestinal tract. He further points out that one of the first effects of drinking alkaline ionised water, and particularly water that was ionised by minerals resulted in the reduction of constipation, which of course has a beneficial effect in removing toxic acidic wastes more quickly from the body. Sang Whang points out when referring to hyperacidity, indigestion, gas and nausea that these symptoms are caused by too much acid. He says ‘Suppression of acid by means of alkaline water will help to alleviate and prevent these acidrelated intestinal and stomach disorders including ulcers.’ 5.6 Kidney Problems As the level of acidity rise in the body, this puts particular stress on the kidneys increasing the potential for kidney disease. Consequently drinking alkaline water helps to neutralise this acidity and reduce the strain on the kidneys. Sang Whang in his book Reverse Aging points out his understanding of the cause of kidney stone formation and the role alkaline ionised water can play. He says ‘Kidney stones are formed in the kidneys, originally starting as tiny specks of solid substance. As more material clings to the first speck, it gradually builds into a solid object. The substances are made out of phosphates, urates etc. They are salts of phosphoric acid and uric acid generally combined with calcium and/or magnesium. They are formed in the kidneys because the environment is too acidic. These salts are acidic salts. Although calcium and magnesium are in the salts, they are there to soften the poisonous effects of uric acid and phosphoric acid. Some people mistakenly believe that kidney stones are formed because there is too much calcium. That is not true. The best proof is that the calcium compound will dissolve in acidic urine while the kidney stones will not. If you add calcium into the bladder and lower the acidity of the urine, kidney stones will dissolve. Drinking alkaline water will prevent the kidney stones from forming to begin with, and even after formation, it can dissolve them. Because urine is acidic and so are most of the other waste products, any extra calcium that your body doesn’t need will be dissolved and discarded by the urine. In the process, it will help dissolve kidney stones, if any. There is no need to worry about too much calcium consumption’.
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5.7 Osteoporosis Our skeletal system is a bank of alkalising minerals, particularly calcium. If the blood is acidified calcium is taken from the bones to maintain blood pH. There is now increasing evidence that there is a direct connection between low grade acidosis and osteoporosis. Dr Susan Brown, an osteoporosis expert and co author of the book The Acid Alkaline Guide says ‘Around the world, the incidence of osteoporotic fractures varies by at least thirty fold, with low trauma fractures- the hallmark of osteoporosis –being rare in cultures that follow diets and lifestyle patterns conducive to proper acidalkaline balance. A variety of population-based studies now document the association between a high intake of base- forming food stuffs and bone health. The beneficial effect of fruit and vegetables is evident not only in premenopausal, perimenopausal, postmenopausal and elderly womenthose at the greatest risk of osteoporosis- but also in growing girls and men. Furthermore, a large cross-cultural survey indicated that those countries with the lowest incidence of hip fracture also have the lowest consumption of acid-producing animal protein, and, usually a consumption of vegetable protein that exceeds their intake of animal products. Of course, the diets enjoyed by these cultures are very different from the typical Western diet, which is high in acid-forming animal proteins, and low in base-forming pH balancing foods.’ Prolonged drinking of alkaline water can help to reduce acidity and maintain blood pH without the need for the body to deplete bones of calcium. 5.8 Obesity There are two specific characteristics that appear to be common to most people suffering from obesity. Firstly their body hydration levels are much lower than they should be and secondly they are suffering the effects of excess acidity. Dr Robert Young, biochemist and author of the pH Miracle range of books has said ‘ you are not overweight; you are overacid’ When someone is ingesting a very high residual acid load diet the body stores these excess metabolic acids in fats away from our vital organs as a life preserving mechanism. Otherwise these acids would damage our organs and put a huge stress on the kidneys. Consequently drinking alkaline water has got several positive effects on the bodies of obese people. Firstly its superior hydrating powers help to hydrate the body and bring hydration levels into proper balance. Secondly it helps to neutralise stored acids and gently flush them out of the body without causing damage to the kidneys. As a consequence of body pH coming more in balance the body will gradually shed the excess fat. This approach to weight loss, combined of course with a suitable alkalising diet and exercise programme will work naturally to reduce weight with all the consequent benefits of increased energy and better functioning of bodily systems. 5.9 Skin Complaints In the Far East alkaline electrolysed water has been used fairly extensively in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Sufferers drinking alkaline water and applying the acid water from the water
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ioniser externally have experienced very good results. Professor Won H Kim states ‘Upon analysis of blood in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, there was a higher level of unsaturated fatty acid than in people with healthy skin. Unsaturated fatty acid gets transformed into lipid peroxide by active oxygen, and this resulting substance in turn gets multiplied within the body. What follows is a variety of impediments such as atopic dermatitis. In cases of people whose constitution has much unsaturated fatty acid in their blood, even more lipid peroxides are formed when active oxygen increases. This leads to the conclusion if we can reduce the amount of active oxygen being produced by the human body, symptoms of atopic dermatitis will be alleviated. If alkaline reduced water (containing an ability to eliminate active oxygen) is continually used, any excessive active oxygen can be removed. It will show treatment effects for various diseases caused by active oxygen, in addition to atopic dermatitis.’ In addition to the specific health complaints listed above drinking alkaline water is useful to alleviate many other problems including arthritis, gout, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, asthma, allergies and of course to generally boost the body’s immunity. It is a natural approach to better health that can provide huge dividends.

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6. Summary Although drinking alkaline ionised water is not the panacea to every health complaint its extended use would make a significant difference to reduce the incidence of our current epidemics of diseases; cancer, cardiovascular problems, diabetes and osteo-problems. It would also immensely improve the quality of life for many people who suffer pain and inflammation. The heightened immunity that drinking alkaline ionised water can bring will help the body better deal with disease. It will help to promote higher levels of energy as the body’s systems come better into balance. Not so many years ago the only choice people had to be able to have alkaline ionised water was investing in an electrolytic system. These were deemed to be expensive by many people. However new advances in this field, using mineral based systems has brought alkaline ionised water within everyone’s budget. Also some new systems are much more portable allowing people to drink this health promoting water wherever they are. In the appendix you will find a selection of the different types of devices that you can now buy in Europe to give you the benefits of alkaline ionised water. We trust you have found this information useful to give you more of an insight into what something as simple as drinking water can do for your health. Please do pass the information to anyone you feel might find it helpful. There are an increasing number of books written on the subject of acid alkaline balance and we have included a selection in the appendix. If this brief booklet has stimulated your interest you might like to look further into these. Probably Dr Robert Young has popularised the whole theory of the need for alkalising more than any other researcher through his various books and newsletters. The following is a comment of his which is probable a fitting conclusion to this booklet. ‘If someone asked me what was the one thing I could do to enjoy better health, then the answer is simple Drink Alkaline Ionised Water.’

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Appendix 1
Different types of Water Ionisers Electrolytic Water Ionisers An electrolytic water ioniser is connected to your electricity supply and either connected to your tap by means of a diverter fitting or connected to the mains supply coming to your kitchen cold water tap. The water passing into the ioniser is first filtered to remove impurities and then passes into the ionising chamber. In the ionising chamber the water is split into alkaline and acidic water streams. Under normal operation the acidic water flows to drain, but is very good to use as a disinfectant or for external body use. The alkaline water is used for drinking and cooking. A typical ioniser will give a flow of approx 1.5 litres per minute of alkaline ionised water. Under-sink Ionising Water Filters These filters are similar to normal filters systems except they have special ionising minerals included in one or more of the cartridges. Typically these are 4 stage filtration systems, with the first filter removing sediment, the second filter using carbon to remove chlorine and dissolved organic compounds, the third filter using special natural minerals to alkalise the water, giving it antioxidant properties and reducing the cluster size and the final filter to improve water taste. Inline Filters The convenient way for people who have got an existing built in filtration system, whether that is a carbon filtration system or a reverse osmosis system to then transform this water into mineralised alkaline ionised water is to add an alkalising cartridge. These types of cartridge typically treat between 5,000 and 10,000 litres of water before needing exchanged. An ideal way for those with existing filters to have the further benefit of alkaline ionised water. Portable Water Ionisers There are a few devices available that allow you to drink alkaline ionised water wherever you go. So you can take them to work, take them while exercising or take them on holiday with you. You never need to be without the water that is beneficial for your health. The minerals in these portable water ionisers need to be cleaned on a weekly basis with special cleaner to keep the minerals active. The Alkalark pictured opposite is an example of a portable water ioniser.

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Jug Filters Jug filters commonly in use typically use activated carbon to remove chlorine and dissolved organics such as pesticide residues together with ion exchange resins to remove hardness. However these filters do leave the filtered water fairly acidic. The pH range after filtration is typically in the order of 5 to 5.5. Now it is possible to get jug filter cartridges which remove chlorine and dissolved organics and also change the water into ionised alkaline water typically raising the pH to between 8.5 and 9.5. These filter jugs are a very effective and cost effective way to get all the benefits of alkaline antioxidant water. Filter cartridges typically last 2 to 3 months because the minerals have antibacterial properties. Please note these filters do not remove lime scale.

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Appendix 2
Frequently Asked Questions How much water should I drink every day? As a general guideline the average person should drink 2 litres per day of water. Dr Batmanghelidj in his book Water & Salt suggested that it is advisable to drink 35ml of water for every kg of body weight to compensate for loss through urination, respiration and perspiration. (e.g. if you are 90 kilos (200lbs) you should drink 3 litres. It is important that if you are drinking larger amounts of water that you take advice from your health practitioner to ensure you have proper electrolyte balance. Should I introduce alkaline ionized water gradually into my daily regime? Some people may experience slight detoxifying symptoms, such as nausea or slight headaches when they first begin drinking ionized water. It is best to start slowly and gradually increase the amount of ionized water you drink on a daily basis. Are there any cautions about drinking alkaline ionized water? The majority of people when they begin drinking alkaline ionized water feel increased levels of energy and mental clarity. However since ionized water is absorbed quicker into the body tissues it is important that when you take medication you take it with ordinary filtered water and not with alkaline ionized water which could speed up absorption. What type of water can I use to produce alkaline ionized water? You may connect built in ionizers, both electrolytic and mineral built in systems to your cold water feed pipe to your sink tap. This will filter and ionize the water. With portable ionisers you can use either mains supply water or bottled water. Some of the portable ionizers filter the water some don’t so if they do not filter the water it is best to use filtered or bottled water. Can I store water after it has been ionized? Ideally you should drink ionised water within 12 hours. The pH of the ionized water will gradually reduce with storage and the oxidation/reduction potential will increase. Ionized water should be stored in a sealed vessel in the refrigerator. Can I cook with ionized water? Yes, you can cook with ionized water: some people say that the taste of food is improved with cooking in alkaline ionized water. Is it OK to give children alkaline ionized water? Yes it is excellent water for children to drink. Professor Won H Kim in his book states that drinking alkaline ionized water is very beneficial for expectant mothers providing much needed alkaline minerals. Is it OK to give alkaline ionized water to livestock and pets? Yes, alkaline ionized water is ideal for pets and other livestock.

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Appendix 3
Recommended Further Reading

1) pH miracle pH Miracle by Dr ROBERT YOUNG. This book is Dr Young's foundational guide to the importance of optimum pH balance. It gives an overview of the causes of excess acidity and suggestions on diet to improve balance. 2) pH miracle for weight loss pH miracle for weight loss by Dr Robert Young. In this book Dr Young looks at the impact of acidity on excess weight and illustrates how an alkaline diet can result in dramatic reductions in weight and general health improvement. 3) pH miracle for diabetes pH miracle for diabetes by Dr Robert Young. This book gives a detailed plan for people suffering from TYPE1 and TYPE 2 diabetes by alkalizing the blood. The book includes case studies of people who overcame diabetes by implementing Dr Young's alkaline dietary recommendations. 4) Reverse Aging Reverse Aging by Sang Whang, Scientist and Inventor. This book is an interesting perspective of the aging process and its direct relationship to excess acidity in the body. Sang Whang attributes his own health improvement to be due to drinking alkaline water. 5) The Acid Alkaline Diet Guide The Acid Alkaline diet guide by Christopher Vasey N.D., An excellent introduction to acid- alkaline balance, its importance and steps you can take to attain optimal balance. 6) The Acid Alkaline Balance Diet An Innovative Program for Ridding Your Body of Acidic Wastes - by Felicia Drury Kliment. The Acid-Alkaline Balance Diet explores this exciting new treatment in alternative medicine. 7) Water & Salt Water and Salt: Your Healers from within - by Dr F Batmanghelidj. This is a follow up book to his best seller Your body’s many cries for water. This book gives lots of examples of the problems that are caused by dehydration and how you can use water to give immense therapeutic benefit. 8) The Acid and Alkaline Food Guide The Acid-Alkaline Food Guide is an excellent resource for people who want to widen their food choices. Written By Dr Susan Brown and Larry Triveri Jnr it gives an excellent overview of the effects of metabolic acidosis and steps you can take to neutralise the harmful effects of increased acidity. 9) Alkalise or Die . Written by naturopathic doctor Theodore A. Baroody this book gives a good overview of the effects of excess acidity and dietary recommendations to bring pH back into balance. 10) Acid & Alkaline. This book by Herman Aihara looks at the whole concept of acid/alkaline balance and how this integrates the concepts of both Western & Eastern health science.

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References

Aihara H. (1986) Acid and Alkaline. Chico: George Ohsawa Macrobiotic Foundation. Haysahi, Dr H, Director, Water Institute Japan- Ionized Water Article (2000) Baroody T. A, (1991). Alkalise or Die. Waynesville: Holographic Health Press Batmanghelifj F. (2003). Water & Salt: Your Healers From Within. Norwich: Tagman Worldwide Ltd Brown E. & Trivieri L. (2006) The Acid Alkaline Food Guide. New York: Square one Publishing. Kliment F. D. (2002) The Acid Alkaline Balance Diet. New York: Mc Graw Hill. Kim W.H. (2005). Water of Life: A Cure For Our Body (English ed.). Korea: Onmire,Inc. Vasey C. (2006). Acid Alkaline Diet For Optimum Health. Vermont: Healing Arts Press Wang S. (2006). Reverse Aging. Miami: JSP Publishing Young R. (2002). pH Miracle: Balance Your Diet Reclaim Your Health. New York: Warner Books Inc.

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