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BTS 1

BTS 3

BTS 2

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GSM-900 System Specifications

Ø Frequency Range : 890 MHz to 915 MHz for Uplink


935 MHz to 960 MHz for Downlink.
Ø Uses FDM / TDMA technology for Downlink / Uplink.

Ø 124 Reusable Spot frequencies of 200 kHz bandwidth each.

Ø Each Spot Frequency carries 8 Time slots for Traffic/Signalling.

Ø Separate Logical Signalling & Traffic channels.

Ø Compatible to ISDN & PSPDN.

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Global System for Mobile

Ø New rapidly expanding & successful technology.


Ø Fully Digitized technology for better speech quality.
Ø Available in almost every part of the world.
Ø Fully compatible with existing Fixed Line Network.
Ø Single number operation with World wide Roaming.
Ø Very well defined interfaces makes truly open system
Ø Encryption of user information
Ø Available versions, GSM 900, 1800 & 1900

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GSM Network Architecture
OMC

SMSC

BTS 1
AUC

HLR
BTS 3 BSC MSC EIR

VLR

VMSC
NSS
BTS 2
BSS

PSTN N/W
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Mobile Station (MS)

Ø Mobile Station consist of two units


Mobile Hand set Subscriber Identity Module

Mobile Hand set is one of the most complicated SIM is a removable module goes into the mobile
GSM device. It provides user the access to the handset. Each SIM has unique number called
Network. Each handset has unique identity no. International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI).
called IMEI. It has built in Micro-computer & memory into it.
It contains the ROM of 6 to 16KB,RAM of 128 to
256 bytes and EEPROM of 3 to 8KB
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Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Ø BTS has a set of Transceivers to talk to MS. Antenna


Arrangement BTS
Ø One BTS covers one or more than one cell.

Ø Capacity of BTS depends on no of Transceivers.

Ø BTS is connected to BSC via A’bis interface.

Ø Transmission rate on A’bis is 2 Mbps (G.703).

Ø Interface between MS & BTS is called Air I/f.

Ø Transmission rate on Air interface is 13 Kbps.

Ø BTS controls RF parameters of MS.

Ø Each TRx has 8 TDMA channels to carry Voice & signalling.


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Base Station Controller (BSC)

Ø BSC controls several BTSs.


BSC
Ø BSC manages channel allocation, & Handover
of calls from one BTS to another BTS.

Ø BSC is connected to MSC via A interface.

Ø Transmission rate on A I/f is 2 Mbps (G.703).

Ø Interface between BSC & BTS is called A’bis I/f.

Ø BSC has database for all of its BTS’s parameters.

Ø BSC provides path from MS to MSC.

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Mobile Switching Centre (MSC)

Ø MSC is heart of the entire network connecting Fixed line network to


Mobile network.

Ø MSC manages all call related functions and


Billing information.

Ø MSC is connected to HLR & VLR for subscriber


identification & routing incoming calls.

Ø MSC capacity is in terms of no of subscribers.

Ø MSC is connected to BSC at one end and Fixed


Line network on other end. MSC
Ø Call Detail Record (CDR) is generated for each & every
call in the MSC.
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Visiting Location Register (VLR)
MSC

VLR

Ø Active Subscriber is registered in VLR.

Ø It has temporary data base of all the active


subscribers used for their call routing.

Ø HLR validates subscriber before registration.

Ø MSC ask VLR before routing incoming call.

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Home Location Register (HLR)
MSC

HLR

Ø All Subscribers data is stored in HLR.

Ø It has permanent data base of all the registered


subscribers.

Ø HLR has series of numbers for all subscribers.

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Authentication Centre (AUC)
MSC

AUC
HLR

Ø Authentication is a process to verify the subscriber SIM.

Ø Secret data & verification algorithm are stored in to the


AUC.

Ø AUC & HLR combined to authenticate the subscribers.

Ø Subscriber authentication can be done on every call, if required.

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Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
MSC

EIR

Ø All subscriber's mobile handset data is stored in EIR.

Ø MSC asks mobile to send it IMEI & then checks it with


data available in EIR.

Ø EIR has different classification for mobile handsets


like, White list, Grey list & Black list.

Ø According to category the MS can make calls or can be


stopped from making calls.
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Operation & Maintenance Centre (OMC)

OMC
Ø All the network elements are connected to OMC.

Ø OMC monitors health of all network elements &


carry out maintenance operation, if required.

Ø OMC link to BTSs are via parent BSC.

Ø OMC keeps records of all the faults occurred.

Ø OMC can also do Traffic analysis.

Ø OMC may prepares MIS Report for the network.

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VMSC & SMSC

MSC

SMSC VMSC

Ø Voice Mail Service Centre : To provide Voice Mail service.

Ø It has database for all the VMS subscribers & also stores voice
messages for them.

Ø Short Message Service Centre : To provide text message service.

Ø To send short messages from mobile to another mobile subscriber.


Messages can also be sent by Manual Terminal connected to SMSC.

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Call Processing in GSM … 1

Mobile Originated Call

BSC MSC PSTN N/W


BTS

Ø Mobile originated calls goes to BTS first & then to BSC.

Ø BSC forwards this call to MSC.

Ø MSC does authentication & call routing as per dialed digits.

Ø If it the call to another mobile subscriber then the process for that
call is same as Mobile Terminated Call as shown in next slide.

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Call Processing in GSM … 2

Mobile Terminated Call

BSC MSC PSTN N/W


BTS

Ø Mobile terminated calls comes to MSC first, where HLR/VLR inquiry


is carried out and as per information the MS is paged in suitable BSC.

Ø BSC forwards this page to all children BTS where actual paging is done.

Ø After BTS gets response from Mobile it allocates channel for this call.

Ø After end of the call BTS informs BSC & MSC.

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Road Map of Mobile Data Communications

2G 2.5G 3G

T 3G
E
C
H EDGE
N
O GPRS
L
O HSCSD
G 9.6 Kb/s
Y
1999 - 2000 - 2001 - 2002
TIME
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Next Generation Services Requirements
GSM Mobile service started in India with 2nd Generation service
Capabilities, which supports voice & low speed circuit switched
data.
To support ever increasing demand of the customers many more
advanced services are getting developed on GSM or other digital
mobile platforms. A few of them are listed below :
ü High Speed Packet Switched Data Connectivity
ü Multimedia applications

ü High Speed Remote Corporate LAN Access

ü Web Browsing, E-mail, fax, wireless imaging

ü Video Telephoney and TV broadcasting

ü Blue Tooth Services


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Present Mobile Services & Technology

GSM (Phase 2) SERVICES :


u Voice Services
u FAX & Data Services upto 9.6 Kbps , Short Message services
Limitations : Only circuit switching is possible,
Spectral Efficiency is low
Data Rate is limited to 9.6 Kbps

HSCSD (GSM Phase 2+) SERVICES :


Ø Normal Data rate enhanced upto 57.6 Kbps
Ø Typical applications :
Internet on mobile, Mobile LAN, Wireless real time Applications,
File Transfer
Limitations : Only circuit switching is possible,
Spectral Efficiency is low
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Efficient Spectrum Utilization in GPRS

One time slot statically assigned


Time slot dynamically assigned

7 GPRS
Rescource usage in Cell

3 Circuit Switched Traffic


2

Time
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Next Generation Services & Technology …1
GPRS SERVICES :
u Offer Data services upto 170 Kbps
u Optimized protocol for packet switched data.
u Typical application :
Internet on mobile, File transfer, Wireless LAN, Remote control &
Monitoring of Real time application, etc.
~ Good Spectral Efficiency & Low Delay

EDGE SERVICES :
Ø Offer Data services upto 400 Kbps.
Ø Voice over Packet switched network.
Ø Supports IP based application.
Ø Typical application :
Internet on mobile, Mobile LAN, Video Phone, Wireless real time
Applications, File Transfer
~ High Spectral Efficiency & Higher Data rates
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Next Generation Services & Technology …2
3G (UMTS) SERVICES :
u Offer Data services upto 2 Mbps
u Voice over Packet switched IP based network.
u It can offer data rates as per requirements from 64 Kbps to
2 Mbps in rural or urban environment.
u Typical application :
Speech (symmetric) - teleconferencing & voice mail
Message (asymmetric) - SMS, E-mail, etc.
Switched data (symmetric) - low speed LAN, Internet, etc.
Medium multimedia (asymmetric) - E-commerce, LAN, Internet,
public messaging, etc.
High multimedia (asymmetric) - Video clips, on-line shopping,
fast LAN & Internet
High interactive multimedia (asymmetric) - Video Telephony,
Video conferencing

~ Good Spectral Efficiency & Low Delay,


~ Complete mobility to the user.
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Next Generation Services & Technology …3
The following is the comparison of Present & Next Generation
Services.
Parameter GSM EDGE
Modulation Gaussian MSK 3π/8-8PSK
Bit Rate 270.833 Kbps 812.499 Kbps
Channel Bandwidth 200 KHz 200 KHz
Gaussian prefilter, Linearized
Pulse shaping
BT = 0.3 GMSK pulse
Non-linear,
Modulation type Linear
Constant envelope
The next generations will offer more services on the Mobile
Terminals. However at the same time it requires more spectrum
for its effective implementation & to support subscriber growth.

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