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CONTENTS

M Z7K T YX\ [Z T ^ O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O
O~> # ^ K  [$ TWV ”T K Y ^ „TWV (T ^ .  \ K V # O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O
H ”T „T [ V YX\ V [ K—[ VUV: ‰K T YX\ ^uT   \ Y „T [ V O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O 
O  O e T ^.^‚T ZLY „T [ V K*P`K [ V K KNZ7K ‹Y . –K T ^ K O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O 
O  O  ‹YI T š&K P K ^ O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O 
O c Q ^ „T —Y K ^ [  K „T ‰K ^ YX\ K ^¬TWV ¥T K Y ^ „TWV O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O 
O c O~> „T \ T LTWV 0^ K  "T ¥T ‰K V^‚T [ V YX\gY V YX\ ^uT ^ Ž[ Y ‹Y K T ^ „T „T ‰K O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O
SUT \Œ K Q ^ YXZXZ ­[XY O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O
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AAO~O e># V –[K ?  ['„TT [ ‰V [ O¡VA O˜ZO¡68O˜7 O¡”O˜T Y O˜–O—YO˜ O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜OO
AO  AO  K—O~> ILYX\ T # ¥^ T NK [ ? [K ‰? [ [V A ‰;[ [ V A K7¥\gT ILY YX\ ‹T Y# O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜OO
AO  O e HY \–gK V K K £Y ––K KDVY g!^ ”T –YKD;Y ^ K [ VK YPIo\ YK # T Y „O˜T [ O˜V O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜OO
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S ­Y K ?[ TWVV ¥K T „^‚T [T V K¡K**K P`P`K K +e$¨O˜YO¡IK O˜ŽO¡[ 5O˜;O˜Y „O¡T [ O˜V/ O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜OO
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AAOO b JK ^‚3K T ]# VVKY VL­^u[ T ) K ^.Y ^ „TO˜[ VO¡RO˜[ O¡VLO˜^uT  O˜K O—‹Y O˜„T [O¡V O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜OO
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O e O~> {Y K Q ^ ‰[  K7\O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O  
O e O e –KI T Q ^}S [  K7\¦O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@>
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O e O  –KI T Q ^ T  \ Y %‰[  K?\JO˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@ e 
O e O c SUT \Œ K Q ^r^   Y –K<‰ [  K?\O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@ e 
O  K—ILYX\ T ¥ T N[ K ? [ ‰ [ VA ‰ [  K7\ ^ O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@  
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O  O e –KI T Q ^ ‰ [  K7\ ^ O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@ 
^   Y –K<‰  [  K?\ O˜Q ^ O˜O—O˜ O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@ 
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O  O  SUT \Œ K Q ^ ‰ [  K7\0O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@ 
cO  OO c K=OO~c> E K*Ž Q [ 5‰K K –Q ¤^K*Ž ‰[ S 5[ ‰[   K K?K? \N\ + ; V:O˜[ ‰O˜K7KO—\TO˜O˜YXO¡O¡\NO˜O˜‰ O¡O¡[ O˜O˜K?O˜O˜\ / O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O—O—O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O—O—O—O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O˜O˜O‘O‘O‘>D>D>D@@@ ccc 
O c O e JK ^uT ]V Z ­[ K ^.^ O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@  
O b M  T; Y (O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O‘>D@gA 
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CONTENTS

O e O e K ~O > ? [Q¥TY ‰ \ [ V+ KA ‰O / [  ‰K?[\ ^  K7O˜\ O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O®O®>?>?>>@@
O e O e SUT \Œ K Q ^ ‰[  K7\UO—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O®>?>g> 
O «K V K ‹YX\ T ^ L^.^‚T [ V O¡O˜O—O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O˜O—O˜O¡O˜O¡O˜O®>?> e
OO cb E K ^&K¡ H\ ^ V YXY \ V^uT ^ O˜T ^ O¡LO˜^.^‚O¡T [ O˜V O—O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O˜O˜O—O—O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O¡O¡O˜O˜O®O®>?>?>> b
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Section 1.4. Historical Background 

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K.Z7? 4 [–KDT TW^ YXV "\ T _+G[ A KV + –[¦K(TY  Y T {­K Y\ KVVY I TW‰ M¥V KY V T >YXK \ ?^ Yb:.I/ OT¥ T !K / ^ V Y V Y KšZ [­Y [?^ŠI^*K K ^ ‰ $ K Y T VŸ Y _ [ K T `K K K.4” Z7V[K $ ‰ T ‰T K ^ K T.V  YX^ \ ^  .\ KY ”V "T K _ ^ K Y[T ^.V ^&;„ TWV[‰  K [ K7 \ ^^‚_JT  Y V [¤\ Y Y T KK 
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Section 1.5. Numerical Simulations     

     

   

      

    

  

   

  

 

  
     

 
 

     

 

 

  

   

   

      

  

     

     

    

    

    

  

 

   

 
  

 



  

 



 

        

   

 

 

    

  


    

   

      

  

       

   

  

  

 

       

 

 
  

    



 

    

  

     

    

 

 

  

   

 

  

 

 
 
  

    

 

   

  

     

   

 

 
 

    

    
    
   
  

 
   

     

   

 

  

  

  

    

 
      

  

    

 

   

 
     

     

        



       

  

   

  

  

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K K YX\NY+ I T T ^ ¡$¨Y Y VV  Y ”T Y–K V K Z YX­K \W^.OW> ^* –K A /JT ^ ^ YX.Zg¥ZXT \ K T K   Y [ V [ K\ K}Z Y–I [ T DK OM^Š^r# V TWV $ K ?T T YX\  Kš\ Y \ „T T [ 7VLT ^ ‰K‰K Y YX \ T ^ [ Z7[^  Y –^ŠK ^*( ‰TWV K [
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[ K ‰ ^ K¤[$ Z V T IoY K K7–Kg\ O Y KUY IT [m\ Y ‰; [K g V T ˜YT ^}T ^ ; [YX$ \ŒPY–Y V K TWV K [ –K*Ž [ –K K V Y[ I NT T }Z7Y [ ^ Y [ V g/NKT ^ [ ILV K YILK ‹Y T „T K:YXK \P Y  ^ YX\$ T [ \Œ
\ T [  ?T Kš YX‰ZXK Z –YX[J\4 T — [$Y K7–\ Y KTWV ) + V?[ T VLK ^ K ~[*IoY Y „T [?VT KIL[K ,ILK []­\[* ‰IK K<V Ž[ Y ­K[Y¥VOH^ P Y [ V V ILK  K ^ VK?^‚\ T _PT /  OS;{KNK YV ^Š^*K  _ } Y TZ 4„TIL[ K7V \ [ T Y Y K^
YT ^ T Y  ^Š^*[ $ ‰^mK TWV˜TWV ^ Y‰ K K‰­ILK K7^ \ KD[ Y T ˜K Y ^ ^ ‰Kš[  \ TK? \W?O(T  # V K –V KDYXK \ TWV _ K K  [Y$=I T [ _ \ T  K(? T \  T  ;7T K YX‰\ K  [YX$ \ T ^˜Y –TWKDV Y T ^ K Y $4YX[¤\ yZ $ Y Y^ K
­? K ”\ [T [ LV ^gA Y Vž O=TW# VV ??TT ^^ YY ^^ KK T }K T ^ $ \ T ‚ [K \ K . YXV?\ TWV  \ Y Y „T [ VL[ ^H \ K<[  V  [ \ŒŸ[Y¨$ILKY  K 4 [7ILK ,[ Y  V[9 $ \ T  T ? T ž –KDTWYXVL\^uT T  K ^uTWV [$ K ^ Y K^
IK?\ [ T T ^—V [ [ V „TWV [ L^ Y V=”T P`K –K V  ­[' K YX\  \ Y K  O

Chapter 1. Introduction 

    
 
  
 
   

  

     

  

      

   

  

      

   

 

   

   

 


   

  

  

 
    

        

    

     

 

  



       

 

  

 

   
  
     

  
 
  
   

 
  

  

  

 
     

 
      

 
   
    

 

  
  

   

 
 
  

    

  
 
  

 

  

 

  

   



  

 
      

 

 

 

  
        

 

- L­['^ „ HT )]VQK [ T K +XRK*K Y4oYY uNLK ^ ZgK \ YK,V[ K  M¥^*Y VYXm\ > ^  .\Y A K/ O T ^ Y V K KŽ[ –; K g^ [VK Y K7Y \‚[K? -†K ^ uYAK ^. $^*[ T $‰K TWVK.4 –K KY ‰^ Kš[ PKIK?^  \\ [K"[K"$ IT K TD^ O . RV YŽ [ \ K ‚.KV X¥V Y YY VVK?  \ M¥_ Y YXKV \Œ
UZ# –KK¡^ ^ K"K*K KX4 V  Z7Y K ^ „TT [ ‰V”KY _ V YX7K \”T K^ ­IK -5T^ K K:K Y V T ^ K –K K ^*^K ‰YX\ [\ ^^ VL[ ^ –^ [‹Y Y K K  K Y Y ? Z7[”–K [K ­^&K A  T\ ^—^ [ V [gVK^& ( Y [ ‘-5YK Y VTWV!+ K S  TWV7Y TŽ?„[ T ^ YXK \ V\ YY[ VVTWV ¥Y T „MX4T I[ Y K VLVV^  gC^ .KO  V >:# V   \ K :V / K O 
[$ 4$ K –K K ^ Y‰ KCdCG$ ?T \ K¬Y ^uT } ZX\ K‰Y V YX\ ^‚T ^ Y V1 K; [ VL^ ‹Y K K ¥T P`K –K V K T ^ IK ¦\ Y KXO£Hr\ ^ [ _
[$4V [ K V K Y V T  4$ [ VK  K [  K [T$ ^ [\ {T  Y 7 V T  }Io$ YXT \  K˜[ K ­[®ILK K7T \ }[ ZgT \ K‰K [ V Y K „T [ .Vš:T ^  Y \ K V GY O  \  O T K ^ K –K ^& \ ^ [ V K Y V 
     

   

  

  

   

 

 

 
 

      

   

  

  

 

  

  
 
  

    

  

  
 
  

    
  

  
  

       

 

 

    

    

 

 
         

  

    
 
     

            

 

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Section 1.6. “Integral” Models  

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Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis 

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3

Section 3.8. Questions 

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Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis

12.00
11.00

10.00

Re10^3

9.00


8.00
7.00
6.00
5.00

4.00

3.00
2.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

8.00

9.00

10.00

Time [sec]
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Transition
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3#3

Section 3.8. Questions

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9 # = TC

3 Š 0 w¥yNx Ch‡/021

vy

M Z¤W Y O…^)O r KH JXcIJ^‚2~

p>qsrXt
ubv wsxTy{|~
z }€€B€‚}1ƒ tj„…u =a†.‡ uˆ[‰‹ŠŒvu

Chapter 4. Fundamentals of Pipe Flow

1

x ‡6*

! 0 v y * q>H . Š 0 wyNx =A8 x/! * } yNx%Š’u)Š>. ‡ yv q 06* xvr ƒ Š>y7 Š/Š 0 yNx%Š Š ‡21 9 . q *@*C…‡/021 yNx%Šru)Š *@* !
u!Š 9 . q **C v *
`Yacb `Yk m
9 # = C
d
8 xTŠ<u!Š * v * y ‡/0 pXŠ3pXqŠ pTv Š 0 y HKqu pTvup2!/. ‡ ulp>q 021 !v y…p ‡/0 ƒ Š 1 Š…< 0 Š 1 ‡6*
9 # = BC 
b X f e
8 x¥v * ŠJC"! ‡ yv q 0 v * 7 ubv yGy Š 0 HKqu ‡ p>q 06* y ‡/0 y 1 Š 06* v y]t Q q67 ‡/021 ‡ pXq 0S* y ‡/0 ypŒu!q *@** Š/pNyv q 0=58 x%Š Q q67
‡u y Šv * ŠW
T r¥u!Š ** Š –
1 ‡6* 
b g
9 # =# C
8 xTŠVpŒu!q **U* Š/pXyv q Œ0 ‡ . ‡ u!Š ‡ qFIH p%vu!pF!:. ‡ uIv *  b 
 b  f   } ! * v 0 wŠJC"! ‡ yv q 0?9 # = # C ‡/061* ! ƒ * yv y;!Tyv 0 w
v yhv 0 y q’ŠJC"! ‡ yv q 0 9 # = TC tv ŠF. 1:*
`Yacb Xd    fe  3 
9 # = _BC
8 x%Š<ŠSC3! ‡ yv q 7
0 9 # = B_ C* xTq67 * yNx ‡ yyNxTŠ u!ŠJC"¥! vu!Š 1 r¥u)Š *@* B! u!Š 1 v G Š¥u!Š 0 pXŠ }`Ya } v *‡ Hz! 0 pXyv q 0 q>H f 
1
6
0
*
7 xv pŒx Š>, q yNu ‡ y Š * yNx%ŠyNu!ŠF, Š 061 q3! * ŠWG Š/pXyVyNxTŠ 1 v ‡ , Š>y Š¥u›x ‡6* q 0 yNx%Š Q q67 u ‡ y Š =I8 xTŠ. Š 0 wyN x } q 0
yNxTŠ3qyNxTŠu x ‡/021 } x ‡6* ,?! * x. Š *@*^* v w 0 v ‚< p ‡/0 y›ŠWG Š/pNyaq 0 yNx%Š Q q67 u ‡ y Š =
8 x%Š<r¥q67 Š¥u‚7 xv pŒx u!ŠJC"! vu)Š * y q 1 uKv %D Š?yNxv * Q q67 v * wv %D Š ƒ t
9 # = B C 
b 

g

76

8 x%Š * Š ŠJC"! ‡ yv q 0S*‹‡ !u ŠDTŠut v-,r¥qu)y ‡/0 yv 0 yNxTŠ ! 021 Šu * y ‡/061 v 0 w Ny xTŠ–ŠTpXq 0 q",htjq>Hu!
‡/061 7Vv-.(. ƒ Š * y;! 1 v Š 1 v 0 x ‡ r/y Šu @B@ v 0 , qu)Š 1 ŠXy ‡ v-. *T=
8 x%Š<r¥q67 Š¥uAv 0 y Š¥u, * >q HlyNx%Š3wŠ>q", ŠXyNubv p ‡ .‚r ‡ u ‡ ,QŠXy Š¥u *V‡/061 Ny xTŠ Q 6q 7 u ‡ y Šv * wv D%Š 0

0:0 Š¥u 1 Š * v w 0

b ! 

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9 # = BC

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8 xv * v * ŠWT ‡ ,‹r:. Š# = ‚ =
P8QSRUTVSW=XZY6[‚
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 Y W

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Section 4.4. Typical Components in the Runner andVent Systems

Y

0

yNx%Š–p ‡ . p2!/. ‡ yv q 06* qFHayNx%Š u! 0:0 Š¥u›yNxTŠ 1 v Š–p ‡6* yv 0 w¡Š 0 wv 0 Š/Š¥u¤Š 0 p>q3! 0 y Šu ƒ Š * v 1 Š–yNxTŠ * yNu ‡ v w‚x/y<r¥vr¥Š
xv pŒx 7 ‡6*1 Š ‡ . y’v 0 yNxTŠr¥u!ŠWDv q3! *Y* Š/pXyv q 0 ƒ !Ty‹qyNxTŠuV%v 061 q>HQpXq",r¥q 0 Š 0 y */= 8 xTŠ * Š¡pXq3,‹r¥q 0 Š 0 y *
v 0 2p .(! 1 Š…yNx%Š ƒ Š 061 } ˆpXq 0/0 Š/pNyv q 0a‡/021 y ‡/0 wŠ 0 yv ‡ .>w ‡ y Š } 6 u)Š/w3!/. ‡ usw ‡ y Š 8 } yNx%ŠaŠ;T%y Š 021 Š 1 p>q 0/0 ŠTpNyv q 0
‡/021 WŠ T
r /‡ 0S* v q 0>K p>q 0 yNu ‡ pXyv q 0{9 v 0 p2.(! 1 v 0 w yNx%Š ‡ ƒ u!
r/y–ŠWT
r ‡/0S* v q 0>K p>q 0 yNu ‡ pXyv q 0¥CX= -0 yNxv * * ŠTpNyv q 0 ‡
wŠ 0 Šu ‡ . 1 v * Fp ! ** v q 0 q 0 yNx%Šfwqq 1 1 Š * v w 0 r¥u ‡ pNyv p>Š HKqu…yNxTŠ 1 v GŠ¥u!Š 0 yp>q3,r¥q 0 Š 0 yv * ru)Š * Š 0 y Š 1I= )
* Šr ‡ u ‡ y Š?p¥x ‡ rTy Š¥u v *^1 Š 1 v p ‡ y Š 1 y q<yNxTŠy ‡/0 wŠ 0 yv ‡ .‚u! 0:0 Š¥u 1 !%ŠQy qfv y * pXq",r/. v p ‡ yv q 0=

7

*,+ *,+10 

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021 v * pŒu!Š ‡ y Š 1 ƒ ŠTp ‡ ! * Š ‡ pŒx ‡/0 wBŠQv 0 yNxTŠ?, q3, Š 0 y;!/, ‡/061 yNxTŠ Q q67 r ‡ yGy Š¥u 0=
yNx%Š ƒ Š 061 y q ŠSC3!v D ‡ . Š 0 ypXq 021 !¥v y?. Š 0 wyNx =58 xv * p>q 0 DTŠu * v q 0 r¥u!q 1 !ŒpXŠ *
‡21 ŠJC"! ‡ y Šfu)Š * !/. y * v 0*o‡ , Š<p ‡6* Š * 7 xv-. Š’v 0 q¥yNx%Š¥u›v y,?v wsxTyv 0 yNu)q 1 !%p>Š . ‡ u)wBŠ¥u Š¥u]u)qu =8 x%Š V 0 q67. Š 1 wBŠ
qFH…yNxv *?‡ p/p2!
u ‡ pXtfqFH›yNx¥v * p>q 0 TD Šu * v q 0 v * %D Š¥u)t . v-,?v y Š 1 ƒ ŠTp ‡ ! * Š=. v-,?v y Š 1 * y;! 1 t7x ‡ D%Š ƒ Š>Š 0 p ‡ u]u)tjq3!Ty
HKqudyNxTŠ’pŒx ‡ u ‡ pXy Š¥ubv * yv pqFH Q q67 * v 0 1 v Š’p ‡6* yv 0 w = u)q", yNx%Š. v-,3v y Š 1 v 0 HKqu, ‡ yv q 0 yNx%Š ‡ !TyNx%quAq>H yNx¥v *
ƒ qq3Vhw ‡21 Šu)Š 1 v y * Š>ŠF,~yNx ‡ y…v y…v * u)Š ‡6* q Œ0 ‡ ƒ . Šhy qp ‡ u]u)tQyNxv * p>q 0 TD Šu * v q 0 KH qu1yNx%ŠQp ‡ . p2!/. ‡ yv q 06* qFHE. v C"!¥v 1
, Š>y ‡ . Q q67 u)Š * v * y ‡/0 p>Š 7 xv-. Š v 0 yNx%Š ‡ vu K . v C"!¥v 1 , ŠXy ‡ .R,?v T%y;!
u)Š7v yH ‡ u^HGu!q3, ‡21 ŠSC3! ‡ y Š = ‰‹qu!Š>q>DTŠu }
6 x%q3. Š 8 q>H¤q3!
uIV 0 q67. Š 1 wŠ‹qFH yNx%Š’w ‡6* Q q67 v 0 TD Š 0 y * t * y Š>, ‡ u)ŠYH ‡ uI, qu)Š . ‡ u)wBŠ = n ŠW%D Š¥u)yNx%ŠF. Š ** } KH qu ( / !   & 0 &( N $zk  (  
yNx%ŠhŠ 0 wv 0 Š>ŠuKv 0 w’r:!
u]r¥q * Š ‡ yAyNxv *E* y ‡ wŠQv y * Š/ŠF, yNx ‡ y * q3, Š qFHyNxTŠ Š¥u]u)qu * 7Vv-.(.¥p ‡/0 p>ŠF.%Š ‡ pŒxq¥yNx%Š¥u ‡/061
yNx%ŠŠ 061 u)Š * !/. y V
7 v-.(. ƒ Š,?Œ! pŒx ƒ ŠXyGy Šu =
x%Š?u!Š * v * y ‡/0 p>ŠQv 0 yNx%Š ƒ Š 

0 wv 0 Š>Š¥u *50 qu, ‡ (. . t–pXq 0 D%Š¥u)y

cross section

v w3!
u)Š# = 

R

θ

8

) * NV Š>y_pŒx3qFHAyNxTŠ
$N

ƒ Š

061 v 041

v Šp 6‡ * y v 0 w

8

x%Š * ¥p xTŠ>, ‡ yv p q>H ‡ ƒ Š 061 pXq3,4, q 0 . t! * Š 1 v 091 v Š¤p ‡6* yv 0 w?v ** x%q67 0 v 0 v w"!Bu!ŠE# = ‚=8 x%ŠVu)Š * v * y ‡/0 p>Š
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yNx%Š ƒ Š 0211= ‰‹qu!Š>>q DTŠu } 7 
Š 7V-v .(. ‡6*@* !:, Š’v 0 yNxv *1 v * p2! *@* v q 0 yNx ‡ y 1 q67 0S* yNu)Š ‡ , ‡/021 !
r * yNu!Š ‡ , 1 q 0 q¥y
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I
1
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0 yNx%Šfru ‡ pXyv pXŠ3y q 1
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y Š ‡ p¥x¥v 0 w } WŠ TŒp>Š ** v D%Š /‡ 0 3w . Šap /‡ 0 ƒ 9
Š HK3q ! 021 yNx
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k  0 $ '   &" 0 &! 0 $  &!

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8

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Chapter 4. Fundamentals of Pipe Flow

h$)

wŠ>q", ŠXyNubv p ‡

GH?(N ON <KG BMLI?(N
0:0 Š/pXyv q 0 u!Š¥r¥u * Š 0 y ?‡ * r:. v yhv 0 

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yNxTŠ<u!

yNxTŠ’u!Š * v * y /‡ 0 Xp Š‹v 0‹‡ ƒ Š

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021

xTŠ<u!Š * v * y Š 0 Xp Š

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0 Š3qFHAyNxTŠY! 061 v * vu ‡ ƒ . Š?Š>. ŠF, Š 0 yhv * yNxTŠ<u! 0/0 Šu * t * y Š>, v *I* ! 1:1 Š 0 p¥x ‡/0 wŠv 0 yNx%ŠpXq 021 !¥v pXy ‡ u!Š ‡= 0
* q", Šjv 0S* y ‡/0 p>Š’yNxTŠ>t ‡ u)Šjv 0 ŠWD%q 1 Š ƒ . Š =M Š 7Vv-.(. 1 v ** p2! *@* x%q67 y q 1 Š * v w 0f‡/061 7 x ‡ y ‡ u)Š’yNx%Š ƒ Š>yGy Š¥u
1 Š * v w 0 qsrTyv q 06* 7Qx¥v p¥x ‡ D ‡ v-. ƒ . ŠHKqu.yNxTŠ?Š 0 wv 0 Š/Š¥u = 

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pXq 0:0 Š/pXyv q 0 x ‡6* y q ƒ Š ‡21/1 Š 1 v 0 ‡ H ‡6* xv q 0 * v-,?v-. ‡ u¤y q Š>. Š/pXyNuKv p ‡ .Au!Š * v * y ‡/0 pXŠ¡v = Š = ŠWD%Š¥u)t u)Š * v * y ‡/0 pXŠ
x ‡6* y q ƒ Š ‡21/1 Š 1 r:. ‡ v 0 . t y qyNxTŠ¡y qy ‡ .¤u!Š * v * y ‡/0 p>Š =+8 x%Š¥u!Š ‡ u)Š , ‡/0 t7yNxv 0 w * yNx ‡ y<p>q 0 yNuKv ƒ !Ty Šjy q
yNxTŠ u!Š * v * y ‡/0 pXŠ ƒ Š * v 1 Š * yNx%Š u)Š/w3!/. ‡ u. Š 0 wyNx } v = Š = ƒ Š 061:* } Š;Tr ‡/06* v q 0S* } pXq 0 yNu ‡ pNyv q 0S* Š>y_p =) .(.yNx%Š * Š
pXq 0:0 Š/pXyv q 06*…‡ u)Š3q>H * Š¥ubv Š * y t
r¥Š =  

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u)Š =  p2VNŠ¥u)y 9  p2VNŠuy † >† C
1 Š>, q 06* yNu ‡ y Š 1 yNx ‡ yayNx%Š x%Š ‡ yayNu ‡/06* HKŠu v * v 06* v w 0 v <‚p ‡/0 y v 0 yNx%Š 1 !Bu ‡ yv q 0 qFHdyNxTŠ?<‚.(. v 0 w q>HAyNx%Š‹p ‡ D¥v y]t }
‡/061 yNxTŠu)Š…HKqu)Š?yNx%Š?y ŠF,r¥Šu ‡ y;!
u!Š3qFHAyNxTŠ. v C"!¥v 1 ,QŠXy ‡ .p ‡/0 ƒ Š ‡6** !/, Š 1 ‡ .(, q * yapXq 06* y ‡/0 y 1 !
uKv 0 w<yNxTŠ
<‚.(. v 0 w r¥Š¥ubv q 1 9 7 xv pŒxjv 0 , q * yQp ‡6* Š * v * ,4!%p¥x=. Š *@* €€ ,?v-.(. v * ŠTpXq 061:*C>=)R*|* !%p¥x } yNx%Š * q3. v 1 v <‚p ‡ yv q 0
v * v 06* v w 0 v <‚p ‡/0 y 9 yNx%Š . v C"!¥v 1 , ŠXy ‡ . 1 Š 06* v y]t<p¥x ‡/0 wŠ * . Š ** yNx ‡/0 € =
v 0 yNx%Š–u! 0:0 Š¥u C yNx%Š¥u!ŠWHKqu!Š } yNxTŠ
ƒ
Q
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0
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a bja  b a  b
9 # =† C
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q67 Š…TD Šu[yNxTŠy q¥y ‡ .1r¥u!Š *@* !Bu!ŠY. q ** v * p>q3,r¥q * Š 1 q>HHGu!q3, ‡ .(.yNx%Š * , ‡ .(.‚r¥u!Š ** !
u)ŠY. q **
a a b a a   a  a   kd
9# = € C 
D%Š¥u)t * v 0 w". Šru)Š *@*
! u!Š5. q *@* p ‡/0 ƒ ŠQ7 uKv yGy Š ‹0 ‡6*
a
b  gh
9 # = TC
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ŠXy_p =^ vu * y } . Š>y * . qq"V ‡ y›yNxTŠ * Š¥ubv Š * pXq 0:0 Š/pXyv q 0 9 * Š>Š v w"B! u!Š# = C>= 7QxTŠu)Š/$

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Section 4.5. Putting it all to Together

y q ‡21:1f‡ s< w3!
u!Š ‡/021 pŒx ‡/0 wŠ‹v y 

v w"!Bu!Š# = "$

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Chapter 4. Fundamentals of Pipe Flow

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Chapter 5. Flow in Open Channels

Fl

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Chapter 5. Flow in Open Channels

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Chapter 7. pQ2 Diagram Calculations

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4 QXU<MF587 ZX29x• ” v T vtW<M `5 _’*=5Es-“367E5

Chapter A. What The Establishment’s Scientists Say

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Section A.4. Referee 3

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Chapter A. What The Establishment’s Scientists Say

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