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1st International Symposium of Geology and Geophysics Students
• Production Geoscience and Hydrocarbon Systems
Code I210 Title & Authors Abnormal formation pressure estimation according to well logging data by taking into account dynamic thermal field Ivan Deshenenkov*, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas The influence of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of elongated volcanoes through analogue modeling Sam Poppe*, Matthieu Kervyn de Meerendre, Patric Jacobs, University of Ghent Diagenetic evolution of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate plays from central-east Romanian Moesian Platform Petre Maria*, University of Bucharest Impacting factors on the thermomechanical behavior of dolostones upon calcinations I205 Diana Ciobanete*, Andrei Panaiotu, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest Potentiality of Marwit El-Sweiqat quartz deposits, Eastern Desert, Egypt as a source of high purity quartz (HPQ)- Geological interpretation and technical applications Ahmed Mohamed Zayed*, Kazakh national technical university named after K.I. Satpayev Salt structures and formation in the Precaspian basin Abd Elmaksoud Ashraf Sobhy*, "K.I. Satpayev" Kazakh National Technical Uuniversity

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Title & Authors A new possibility for the estimation of the hydrocarbons generated by the source rocks using the diagraphies of the well geophysics Balan Cătălin*, Mihai Şaramet, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi Lakebed structures in front of the Selenga Delta, Lake Baikal, Russian Federation

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Myriam Cuylaerts*, Lieven Naudts, Marc De Batist, Ghent University, Oleg Khlystov, Limnological Institute Irkutsk Structural mapping and Sedimentological observation of Yasamal Valley. Application for the reservoir characterization of the offshore oil-fields Rufat Mirzayev*,Ibrahim Mustafayev, Azer Hasanov, Narmina Huseynova, Orkhan Huseynov, Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Mukhtar Garadaghi,Imperial College Preliminary time lapse analysis of Moving Source Profile (MSP) data at the CO2SINK project site, Ketzin, Germany Can Yang*, Christopher Juhlin, Uppsala University, Nicoleta Enescu, Uppsala University & Vibrometric, Calin Cosma, Julia Götz, Vibrometric, Stefan Luth, GFZ

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Title & Authors Is the Getic Basin a Foreland Basin? Alexandru Lăpădat*, Babeş-Bolyai University, Radu Olaru, Roxana Duduş, Gabriela Şerbănescu, Victor Barbu, OMV Petrom Geophysical model of the Tertiary basin between Cacak and Kraljevo (Western Serbia) Ana Mladenovic*, University of Belgrade The influence of salt diapirs on the Rusi-Cenade fault and the tectonics of the Southeastern part of the Transylvanian basin Ranete Emilia*, Girneata Nina, Corneliu Dinu, Ioan Munteanu, University of Bucharest The interpretation of gas chromatography datas from VAB 1 borehole (Danish Sector of the North Sea) FrenŃescu Vlad*, Ianuş Ciprian, Chirilă Gabriel, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi The Western Black Sea Basin architecture, during Miocene - Quaternary times, Romanian offshore Ioan Munteanu*, Corneliu Dinu, University of Bucharest

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Abnormal formation pressure estimation according to well logging data by taking into account dynamic thermal field

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ivan Deshenenkov*, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas

Determination of temperature factor effects on abnormal pressure on logging data calculation. New formation pressure prediction technique is developed. The introduction of the correct temperature adjustment to well logging methods while formation pressure calculation.

Summary High technological and economic performance while drilling and deep wells (max. 200 words): development can be achieved in case of correct prediction and estimation of
AHFP zones. This research is devoted to the development of the abnormally high formation pressure (AHFP) zones determining innovative technique on well logging data. The method is based on changes in dependences of clays physical properties in AHFP zones. Abnormal pressure predicting methods in the thickness of sedimentary rocks are based on the pattern of rocks properties changes as a result of compaction in the process of sediments accumulation. The author investigates the thermal field formation in the vicinity of the borehole. Dynamics of the thermal field during drilling, well cleanout and well shutdown is studied. The author determines temperature factor effects on the accuracy of abnormal pressure on well logging data calculation. A modified «normally clay compacted curves» technique is developed. It involves the introduction of the correct temperature adjustment to electrologging curves before the line of normal clay compaction tracing. By this modified «normally clay compacted curves» technique, abnormal pressures and pressure coefficients of anomaly in sediments of Bazhenov formation (Sredne-Nazymskoe and Galyanovskoe oil fields) were calculated for the analyzed area.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

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Abnormal formation pressure estimation according to well logging data by taking into account dynamic thermal field
Ivan Deshenenkov, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas Introduction This research is devoted to the development of the abnormal high formation pressure (AHFP) zones determining innovative technique on well logging data. The method is based on changes in dependences of clays physical properties in AHFP zones. It takes into account the nonsteady thermal field in the vicinity of the borehole. Normal pressure is formation pressure which is due to the presence of fluids (water, hydrocarbons) in pore spaces of the rock matrix (hydrostatic pressure of fresh or salt water). It can be considered as an open hydraulic system where pressure can easily communicate through the formation pores. Abnormal pressure is any geopressure that is different from the established normal trend for the given area and depth. The presence of hydrocarbons in reservoirs, the rate of sedimentation, deposition and compaction of sediments (especially clayey sediments) as well as tectonic activities (faults, salt diapirs, etc.) are main origins for the generation of abnormal pore pressure. AHFP represent a serious threat for the well and its staff maintenance while deep wells drilling and development. Erroneous identification of AHFP intervals, incorrect suppression of high-energy formation leads to washing fluid absorption and, consequently, to unexpected kicks and blow outs and severe accidents. Formation pressures can be the major factors affecting drilling operations. Unfortunately, formation pressures can be very difficult to locate and to quantify precisely where unusual or abnormal pressures exist. Proper detection and evaluation of formation pore pressures will help in more effective overall well planning, including: safe and economical selection of casing interval; proper engineering of equipment to minimize potential hazards (e.g. pipe sticking), to minimize magnitude of well kicks; optimisation of penetration rates under controlled drilling mud conditions; formation damages minimizing. Thus, high technological and economic performance in drilling and deep wells development can be achieved in case of correct prediction and estimation of AHFP zones. Evaluation of formation pore pressure (or formation pore gradient) is fundamental and the basis for many engineering works. The theory of abnormal pressure prediction methods Undercompaction of shales leads to abnormal formation pressures. If a quick sedimentation process does not give enough time for the interstitial water to escape, or, if the normal porosity compaction process is prohibited by not letting the fluids in the pore spaces escape, the rock matrix (shales) cannot increase its grain-to-grain contact; therefore its compaction is not completed and the shales are undercompacted. In such pressure system fluids are not free to expel from the pores. The total overburden load continues to increase with sedimentation; the rock matrix can no longer carry its burden; the fluids in the pores of the rock begin to support part of the overburden, resulting in higher than normal fluid pressures [V.M. Dobrinin et al., 2004]. According to these reasons abnormal pressure predicting methods in the thickness of sedimentary rocks are based on the pattern of rocks properties changes as a result of compaction in the process of sediments accumulation. Physical properties of pure clays, used as an indicator of pore pressure, are determined by its compaction degree. Clayey rocks containing deposits with AHFP are less sealed and have higher porosity in comparison with similar rocks with normal pore pressure [V.M. Dobrinin, 1978]. This dependence is linear. Temperature correction or reduction to constant temperature of rocks is carried out while using temperature coefficients included in equations. Temperature correction contribution is very significant. Physical parameters depend on rocks density and as a result of porosity. This dependence of clayey rocks is the basis of various identifying and estimation by abnormal pressures methods.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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There are following methods for AHFP zones predicting: equivalent depths method; «normally clay compacted curves» technique; compression curve method. Normally clay compacted curves technique features and dynamic thermal field simulation Let’s consider «normally clay compacted curves» technique more closely. The following steps are necessary to estimate the formation pressures: the normal trend is established by plotting the logarithm of shale resistivity vs. depth, the top of the pressured interval is found by noting the depth the plotted points diverge from the trend (Fig. 1) then the pressure gradient at any depth is found as follows a) the ratio of the extrapolated normal shale resistivity to the observed resistivity is determined and plotted; b) the formation pressure is found (Fig. 2). Factors determining changes in physical properties of pure clay rocks are changes of clay mineral composition and temperature. However, the impact of changes in clay mineral composition at depths of more than 2000-2500 m (in AHFP zones) is nonessential. Temperature has a significant contribution to the calculation of reservoir pressure [A.I. Ipatov et al., 2006]. The innovative method is based on «normally clay Fig. 1 Clay compaction curve compacted curves» technique. According to this technique normalized to the temperature t1. abnormal pressure is the sum of normal pressure and abnormal Normally clay compacted curves: component. The equation for abnormal pressure calculation 1-in studying sequence; 2normalized to the temperature t1 on includes the clays resistivity in normal compaction zone, clays the depth h1; 3-AHFP zone; 4 and 5 resistivity in abnormal pressure zone and temperature correction. In zone of normal clay compaction, where - continuation normally clay reservoir pressure is equal to the hydrostatic one, normally compacted curves in AHFP zone. clay compaction curve is plotted. Clay resistivity deviations from normally clay compaction curve shows abnormal pressures zones. Temperature correction is traditionally calculated according to the geothermal gradient. Nevertheless, the real thermal field in the borehole can differ greatly from stationary geothermic data. Therefore, thermal field in the borehole was simulated. Also the distribution of the temperature over time after flushing out of well was surveyed within the radius of the well logging methods (Fig. 3).

Fig. 2 Empirical correlation of formation pressure gradients vs. ratio of normal pressure.
1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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The author investigates the thermal field formation in the vicinity of the borehole. Dynamics of the thermal field during drilling, well cleanout and well shutdown is studied. The author determines temperature factor effects on the accuracy of abnormal pressure on well logging data calculation. A modified «normally clay compacted curves» technique is developed. It involves the introduction of the correct temperature adjustment to the electrical logging curves before tracing the line of normal clay compaction.

Fig. 3 Temperature variation over time in the radial direction after flushing out of well. RDLL – transmission distance of the deep lateral log, RSLL – transmission distance of the shallow lateral log. Formation pressure prediction innovative technique In the first stage electrical logging curves (normal resistivity log or lateral log) lead to constant temperature (for example 20 ºC). As a result, resistivity changes depend with depth only on the value of the actual stress. It should be noted that temperature corrections are introduced using software package «Kamerton» and a specially developed algorithm. Then, pure clays are determined in geological column by spontaneous potential maximum data. After, normally clay compaction curve is drawn in interval of 450-550 meters by electrical logging curves - normal resistivity tool or lateral device. In last stage abnormal pressures and pressure coefficients of anomaly in sediments of Bazhenov formation are calculated. The AHFP calculation algorithm was realized in the «Kamerton» program. It was found that pressure gradient in formation, in other words pressure in the lower-lying formation, is higher than in the cover one. Pressures for Bazhenov formation are calculated as averages between pressures in underlying and overlying sediments. Investigated intervals (above and below the zone of AHFP) were determined after drawing of normally clay compacted curve. Then pressures were calculated using special «Kamerton»’s algorithm. Pressures were estimated as average from Bazhenov formation pressure curves.

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By this modified «normally clay compacted curves» technique, abnormal pressures and pressure coefficients of anomaly in sediments of Bazhenov formation (Sredne-Nazymskoe and Galyanovskoe oil fields) were calculated for the analyzed area. Results and conclusions: 1. Formation of thermal field in the vicinity of the borehole was investigated. 2. Temperature factor effect on the accuracy of abnormal pressure calculation using well logging data was estimated. 3. Innovative method AHFP calculation, based on changes in dependences of clay physical properties in AHFP zones and taking into account nonsteady thermal field in the vicinity of the borehole was developed. 4. Maps of abnormal pressures gradients and abnormal pressure coefficients in sediments of Bazhenov formation were constructed (Fig. 4).

a

b

Fig. 4 Pressure gradients map (a) and abnormal pressure coefficients map (b) in sediments of Bazhenov formation Galyanovskoe oil field.

References Dobrinin, V.M. [1978] Abnormal high formation pressure prediction methods. Nedra, Moscow, 138 Dobrinin, V.M., Vendelshtein, B.Yu., Kozhevnikov, D.A. [2004] Petrophysics (rock physics). Nedra, Moscow, 256 Ipatov, A.I., Kremenetsky, M.I. [2006] Geophysical and hydrodynamic control of oil and gas fields. Oil and gas, Moscow, 359

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The influence of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of elongated volcanoes through analogue modeling

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Sam Poppe*, Matthieu Kervyn de Meerendre, Patric Jacobs, University of Ghent

Application of analogue modeling on elongated volcanoes to enhance the insight of the volcano-tectonic structure of Mt. Cameroon volcano

Analogue modeling of elongated volcanoes with distinction of the different volcano-tectonic structures on the simulations, future perspectives

Summary Analogue modeling of elongated volcanoes can be used to study the (max. 200 words): influence of gravitational spreading and magma intrusion into these volcano
cones. Intrusions are seen to diminish the expression of deformation structures associated with spreading. A huge amount of information can be obtained by image analysis of images acquired during the simulations, e.g. deformation velocity and direction, different zones of deformation types on a cone. After controlling the correct scaling of the simulations, a relation can be found between simulated structures and field evidence of deformation at natural volcanoes. Beside this analogue modeling method, satellite images and even field work is needed to obtain the goal of enhancing the knowledge of volcano-tectonic structures. Beyond the field of volcanology, analogue modeling can be a useful method to understand tectonic structures and find a solution for current problems in basin dynamics, reservoir geology, sedimentology and deformation structures in general.

Topic:

Structural geology, Tectonics

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The influence of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of elongated volcanoes through analogue modeling
Sam Poppe, Matthieu Kervyn de Meerendre, Patric Jacobs, University of Ghent Introduction Volcano deformation can be studied by analogue modeling in the lab. Gravitational spreading and magma intrusions are the two most important geological processes deforming active volcanoes that can be reproduced in the lab. The principle of analogue modeling has been used to simulate intrusion-induced deformation at circular volcanic cones by intruding golden syrup in a sand and plaster mixture consisting of an horizontal layer with a circular cone on top of it (Kervyn et al., 2009). In this project, a new experiment series was carried out during 3 weeks in October 2009 at the Mercator & Ortelius Research Centre for Eruption Dynamics at Ghent University1 to simulate deformation at Mount Cameroon (MC) in Cameroon (West Africa), an elongated shield volcano. The volcano-tectonic structures and processes affecting Mt Cameroon, connected to ‘the Cameroon Hot Line’, are poorly known (Mathieu et al., in review). Therefore, a VLIR Own Initiative project aims at enhancing the knowledge of the volcano activity and as such reduce the risks for the population in the MC area. Field observations and LANDSAT satellite images are used as the base for model-nature correlation (Mathieu et al., 2010 in review). Methods and data collecting A mixture of quartz sand (0.1-0.5 mm) and dry plaster (<50µm) in a ratio of 70-30% (S&Pmixture) serves as an analogue for brittle continental rock from the upper crust and the volcanic cone (Kervyn et al., 2009). A basal ductile layer such as a sedimentary substratum is simulated by a silicone layer (viscosity = 4x104 Pa.s). Building up a cone above a layer of silicone causes the cone to spread laterally under gravity. The experiment involves a silicone layer covered by a flat brittle S&P layer of even thickness (0.5 cm) on which an elongated S&P cone is built up, using the geometric properties of Mt. Cameroon i.e. height: 9 cm, short axis: 22 cm and long axis: 40 cm. The elongation ratio of 0.5-0.6 is used to match the shape of MC, as observed on satellite images. Magma intrusion is simulated by intruding golden syrup (viscosity: 136-156 Pa.s at 2018.5°C) from an opening below the cone, without the sedimentary layer analogues. Different intrusion apertures are used in order to obtain different intrusion geometry. Circular apertures simulate slow intrusion rates (weeks, months) forming magma chambers whereas small rectangular apertures simulate fast intrusion rates (hours, days) e.g. dyke shaped features (Kervyn et al., 2009). Combining the two setups provides insights into the interaction of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of the elongated cone. A digital camera takes vertical images of the experiment surface at a defined time interval (2-4 minutes) enabling quantitative analysis of horizontal deformation through image processing. Different types of intrusion shape are observed in nature and can be simulated in the experiments. An experimental setup with a rectangular intrusion opening (0.5x1.6 cm) is called ‘Dyke initiation’. For the combination of spreading and intrusion, the silicone layer above the rectangular aperture is perforated. After putting the deformed cone with the intrusion in a freezer for several hours, the frozen golden syrup intrusion can be excavated and the morphology of the intrusion imaged. After analysis, these images are used to relate different intrusion types to different patterns in deformation structures, fractures, folds etc. Image analysis The images are pre-processed in Adobe Photoshop to enhance surface texture enabling to analyze the deformation velocity and direction during the entire duration of an experiment. An application in the mathematical program Matlab was designed to extract surface deformation through texture correlation between images (Delcamp et al., 2009). The output data are then visualized in illustration programs.

1

In the context of an apprenticeship in the third Bachelor in Geology

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The final result of such an analysis is a figure displaying horizontal deformation velocities using a color scale and orientated arrows indicating the direction of the horizontal deformation. Such ‘mappings’ can give information on specific areas of significant higher or lower deformation, or preferences in direction of deformation on the cone. Dimensionless Π-parameters Analogue models are the most useful when they are scaled and thus compared quantitatively compared to natural cases, e.g. MC. To control the correct scaling of the experimental setup, different dimensionless Π-parameters can be defined for geometric, kinematic and dynamic parameters. The focus of the project was set on the geometric and kinematic scaling, defining four dimensionless ratios controlling the system geometry and one ratio describing the balance between the gravitational deformation velocity and the intrusion rate. Similar values of each dimensionless Π-parameter were obtained for experiments and the natural case of MC, ensuring relevance of the experimental observation for the natural case.. Results Spreading simulations lasted 2-3 hours. Early on, two fractures parallel to the summit ridge form on the long flanks. Each of these deep listric faults is associated with a secondary antithetic normal fault on the opposite cone flank. Movements along these faults induce summit ridge subsidence and preferential basal spreading along the short cone axis. The lower flanks of the cone show a pattern of graben structures and triangular horsts. Along the summit and across the short flanks one main rift zone is observed, because of the preferential spreading orientation. A fold and thrust belt is formed at the base of the long flanks. We interpret this as the result of the spreading cone load, pushing the silicone layer forward. This belt can extend more than ten centimeters from the cone base to the edge of the simulation surface. Image analysis (Fig. 1) shows that horizontal deformation takes place preferentially in the direction of the short cone axis, with the largest deformation velocity measured in the centre of the lower long flanks (2-3mm.min-1). Deformation is asymmetric, with more deformation in the western than in the eastern part, probably due to small variations in the thickness of the substratum layers. The silicone layer displays several ridges and folds that are located beneath the most important surface fractures or folding zones.

Fig.1 Deformation field for spreading simulation with cone base marked scale bar represents 10 cm – color scale in mm.min-1

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In a typical intrusion experiment with ‘dyke initiation’, inflation of one flank is observed after a few minutes. Two faults form on the upper flank, parallel to the summit ridge. The western fault soon becomes inactive, while the eastern one continues to be active. Inflation of this flank goes on, while a secondary parallel fault forms near the primary one. Deformation remains limited to the central part of this eastern flank, forming a complex structure of little fractures. Eventually the upper part starts to subside and causes the whole middle part of the summit ridge to collapse, with the inactive fault as western edge. The result is a subsided central part of the upper flanks and summit ridge and an inflated area of the lower eastern flank, with local instabilities. Golden syrup extrusion takes place near the zone of maximum surface deformation and the experiment is stopped. The extrusion point is at the edge of the subsidence area. The frozen intrusion shows a dyke shape 2 cm thick, 5-6 cm high and 5-7 cm long. Image analysis reflects the inflation zone on the eastern flank with high deformation velocities (3 mm.min-1). The subsided area shows no horizontal deformation on the analysis, as expected from the experiment observations presented above. In the combination of spreading and intrusion with ‘Dyke initiation’ two parallel primary faults form, each one related to an antithetic fault on the opposite upper long flank (Fig. 2). The whole zone around the summit ridge subsides with formation of several terraces, while secondary fractures appear on the lower cone flanks. Inflation of the lower flanks is clearly visible and causes the graben and triangular horst structures to be less well expressed and intense than in the simple spreading model. This is because the intrusion actively pushes the cone flanks outwards, which leaves less space for grabens to form. This process has been observed by Lecorvec & Walter (2009). The double rift zone at the short cone flanks is as present as in spreading simulations. A chamber-like 3 cm thick intrusion shape elongated perpendicular to the long cone axis is observed. On the combination simulation, analysis of short time intervals is useful to study the evolution of the deformation field at different stages of the simulation. Figure 2 shows the total deformation analysis for the whole simulation duration. The deformation velocity on the middle and lower flanks is high in the beginning of the simulation, directed outwards along the short cone axis whereas the summit ridge undergoes almost only vertical subsidence and no horizontal movement. The higher velocity in the northern part of the cone shows that the golden syrup intruded more in the northern than in the southern part.

Fig. 2 Vertical combination simulation image for ‘Dyke initiation and deformation field for the combination simulation with ‘Dyke initiation’ Discussion The combination of spreading and intrusion shows features that can be related to volcanotectonic deformation structures as observed in the field. Intrusion shape influences the deformation structures seen at the substratum surface. The number of graben and triangular horsts vary according the intrusion type and emplacement rate. Cone flank inflation is systematically observed, due to accommodation of intruded syrup volume. The intrusion pushes away the ductile silicone layer from underneath the cone base. This ductile layer is folded because of this stress. The fold and thrust belt is less extensive in the combination simulations, in contrast to the experiments where only spreading affects the volcano deformation.

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The processes and structures observed in experiments can all be observed to some extent at MC on the volcano cone itself or in the surrounding deformed area (Mathieu et al., 2010 in review). We can state that the analogue modeling has given a more extensive insight into the deformation processes and structures and how they appear at a volcanic cone. The evolution of this type of volcanic analogue experiments towards modelisation of complex structures in sedimentary basins or other tectonic structures is possible. The methodology used in this research project can therefore be extended to structural geology of petroleum reservoirs or tectonic settings that are hard to understand in the field. The results illustrate the relevance and application possibilities of these analogue simulations being wider than generally expected. Analogue modeling is currently mostly used in the field of sedimentology, to characterize the deposition of sediments in water flows or basins, but a large range of possible applications is yet to be investigated. For the particular case of MC and other similar elongated volcanoes, more simulations need to be processed to be able to extract significant conclusions. This project is only the first step towards full characterization and modeling of volcano-tectonic deformation at this poorly known volcano. Xray tomography, a technique currently being developed at Ghent University, offers the potential to image the internal structure of volcano analogue models to obtain a better insight into the deformation processes and related structures. Conclusions Analogue modeling can be used to study the influence of gravitational spreading and magma intrusion into elongated volcanoes. After controlling the correct scaling of these simulations, a relation can be found between simulated structures and field evidence of deformation at natural volcanoes. Intrusions are seen to diminish the expression of deformation structures associated with spreading. A huge amount of information can be obtained by image analysis of images acquired during the simulations, e.g. deformation velocity and direction, different zones of deformation types on a cone. Beyond the field of volcanology, analogue modeling can be a useful method to understand tectonic structures and find a solution for current problems in basin dynamics, reservoir geology, sedimentology and deformation structures in general. References Delcamp, A., Van Wyk de Vries, B., James, M.R.[In revision 2008] Relationships between volcano gravitational spreading and magma intrusion. In revision for Journal of Volcanology and

Geothermal Research
Kervyn, M., Ernst, G.G.J., Van Wyk de Vries, B., Mathieu, L., Jacobs, P. [2009] Volcano load control on dyke propagation and vent distribution: insights from analogue modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, B03401 Le Corvec, N. & Walter, T.R. [2009] Volcano spreading and fault interaction influenced by rift zone intrusions: insights from analogue experiments analyzed with digital image correlation technique. J. Volc. Geoth. R., 183, 170-182 Mathieu, L., Van Wyk de Vries, B., Holohan, E.P., Troll, V.R. [2008] Dykes, cups, saucers and sills: analogue experiments on magma intrusions into brittle rocks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 271, 1-13 Mathieu, L., Kervyn, M., Gerald, G.G.J.[in review 2010] Field evidence for flank instability, basal spreading and volcano-tectonic interactions at Mt. Cameroon, West Africa, in review for Bulletin of Volcanology Merle, O. & Borgia, A. [1996] Scaled experiments of volcanic spreading, J. Geophys. R., 101, 13,805-13,817 Poppe, S. [2009] Influence of spreading and intrusion on the deformation of elongated volcanoes using analogue modeling, with application on Mt. Cameroon, Cameroon. Unpublished apprenticeship report in the third Bachelor in Geology, Ghent University

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Diagenetic evolution of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate plays from central-east Romanian Moesian Platform
Petre Maria, University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Diagenetic features, the evolution of the porosity and permeability, and reservoirs geometry.

Geometry extension, paragenetic relationship between diagenetic processes.

Summary Romanian Moesian Platform contains many plays located in carbonate rocks. (max. 200 words): This study focused on diagenetic features, understanding the evolution of the
porosity and permeability and on reservoirs geometry extension. The rock samples were collected by PETROM S.A from several drillings from the eastern and central part of Moesian Platform. Rock samples have been cut into slabs, polished and investigated through methods as UV fluorescence, cathodoluminiscence and stained peels. The main microfacies identified, after petrographic investigations were: wackstone-packstone, bio-intraclastic, grainstone, algal mudstone, bioclastic wackstone and dolostone. All these suggest shallow water enviroments. We concentrated on the main aspects of the diagenesis and of the effect recorded in carbonate rocks in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous. After several observations of the rock samples under microscope we could identify the cementation pattern specific for each petroliferous structure from the central-east part of Moesian Platform. In conclusion, during the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous,happened successive cementation and dissolutions followed by burial diagenesis. After that, the basin was inverted and the platform was karstified possibly during the Cretaceous time. The geometry of the reservoirs resulted beeing tabular.

Topic:

Petrology

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Diagenetic evolution of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate plays from central-east Romanian Moesian Platform
Petre Maria, University of Bucharest Introduction Moesian Platform is an undeformed part of the East European margin and covers the southern part of Romania and northern part of Bulgaria, being confined between the Carpathian and Balkan Mountains. The Romanian part of the Moesian Platform contain many plays located in carbonate rocks, starting with Triassic (Middle and Upper), passing through Jurassic (Middle and Upper), Cretaceous and ending with Miocene carbonates. This study was focused on diagenetic features and history of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous reservoir rock samples collected from several drillings, because such approach was never applied before and it has an impact on the understanding of the evolution of the porosity and permeability of the reservoirs as well as on their geometry and lateral/vertical extension. Samples and methods Samples used for this study have been given by PETROM S.A. and they come from oil-fields located in the east and central part of Moesian Platform: Creţeşti, Urziceni, Dumbrava, Butimanu, Coşereni-Urziceni, Videle, Mihăileşti, Ungureni and Ciureşti structures. Rock samples have been cut into slabs and polished and studied first with undistructive methods (ultraviolet fluorescence, cathodoluminescence) and later stained peels was prepared and studied under microscope. 1. UV Fluorescence. We used a special microscope – HUND H600 AFL50 to study the fluorescence emitted by minerals or fluid inclusions after being subjected to UV light (longwave UV – 385-420 nm). Calcite is fluorescent only through the contained impurities like Pb, Mn, uranil ion or organic matter. 2. Cathodoluminescence. A cold cathode device (CL 8200 MK3) mounted on a Nikon polarized microscope was used. The working conditions were: vacuum of 0.5 Torr, 15-17 kV current tension and 350-400 mA current intensity. In carbonate minerals the luminescence is generated if activator ions (Mn2+, REE) exist inside the minerals. 3. Staining the slabs with Alizarin red S and potassium ferricyanide in acidic solution and then making peels on acetophane proved to be a good method to study the cementation pattern and the Redox conditions in the pores. Red colors indicate the presence of Ca2+ ions and blue color indicates the Fe2+ in the calcite, while no color indicate Mg2+. Results Based on petrographic investigations, several microfacies have been identified: bioclastic wackestone-packstone, bio-intraclastic grainstone, algal mudstone, bioclastic wackestone, dolostone. They all suggest shallow water environments during sedimentation, and this is in agreement with previous studies (Dragastan et al., 1973; Vinogradov & Dragastan, 1975; Costea et al., 1978; Paraschiv, 1979). All these studies were focused on microfacies description and age determination, leaving unstudied the diagenetic evolution of these rocks. So, we studied mainly different aspects of the diagenesis and the effects recorded in the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate rocks. Using cathodoluminescence and microscopy of stained peels (Fig. 1) we could identify the cementation pattern specific for each oil-field and then we could correlate them laterally to identify the common features over specific for the entire carbonate platform (Fig. 2).

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Fig. 1 Examples from the burial cementation evolution using cathodoluminescence (left) and from selective dolomitization using stained peels (right). Diagenetic processes Marine cementation Dolomitization Burial cementation Pressure dissolution Karstification, vadose silt and infiltration Recrystallization Fissures, tectonic Fig. 2 Paragenetic relationship between diagenetic processes affecting the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonate plays from Moesian Platform Conclusions The shallow water carbonate platform (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) from central-east Moesian Platform suffered successive cementation and selective dissolutions characteristic for shallow marine diagenetic environments, followed by burial diagenesis with late cementation under anoxic conditions and pressure dissolution after which the basin was inverted and the platform was intensively karstified maybe during the mid Cretaceous time. A second burial diagenetic event was followed by tectonic fracturation (Tertiary). The plays are thus complex, characterized by karstic and tectonic fracture porosity sealed by Cretaceous glauconitic and clayey pelagic limestone. Main architecture of the reservoirs is given by tectonic compartments of a platform dominated by tabular geometries or locally shoals and reefs. Acknowledgements I would like to thank Conf. Dr. Cristina Panaiotu for the great support and for all the advices during the entire research project. References Costea I., Comşa D., Vinogradov C., 1978. Microfaciesurile cretacicului inferior din Platforma. Moesică. St. Cerc. geol., geofiz., geogr., Geol., 23/2: 299-311. Sindiagenesis Anadiagenesis Telodiagenesis

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Dragastan O., Mutiu R., Vinogradov C., 1973. Zonele microfaciale si limita Jurasic-Cretacic in Carpatii Orientali (Muntii Haghimas) si Platforma Moesica. St. Cerc. geol., geofiz., geogr., Geol., 18/2: 509-533. Paraschiv D., 1979. Platforma Moesică şi zăcămintele ei de hidrocarburi, Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, Bucureşti. Vinogradov C, Dragastan O., 1975. Microfacial study of the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits from the central part of the Moesian Platform, Romania. Rev. Roum. Geologie, 19: 105-118.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Impacting factors on the thermomechanical behavior of dolostones upon calcinations

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Diana Ciobanete*, Andrei Panaiotu, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest

Textural, petrogenesis and chemical composition analysis of dolostones and their influence on the thermomechanical behavior upon calcination The presence of fluid inclusions as a major factor in the thermomechanical properties during calcination

Summary Untill now, the crystal size was accepted as a major factor in calcination of (max. 200 words): dolostones: the larger the crystal size, the lower the resistance to
decrepitation. This is not entirely true, many metamorphic dolostones with medium-coarse crystal size having better thermochemical properties than fine grained sedimentary dolostones. The reason for this could be related to the shape of crystals and their bounding inside the crystalline aggregate, the amount and type of fluid inclusions, or the presence of impurities or organic matter, aspects emphasized through textural and petrogenesis analyses, chemical composition (X-Ray fluorescence), cathodoluminiscence and UV fluorescence studies.

Topic:

Petrology

19

Impacting factors on the thermomechanical behavior of dolostones upon calcinations
Diana Ciobanete, Andrei Panaiotu, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest
Introduction It is generally accepted that during calcinations of dolostones, the larger the crystal size, the lower the resistance to decrepitation (Boyton, 1980). However, this statement is not always true and the practice showed that many metamorphic dolostones with medium-coarse crystal size have better thermomechanical properties than some fine grained sedimentary dolostones. The reason for that is yet unknown, could be related to the shape of crystals and their bounding inside the crystalline aggregate, or the amount and type of fluid inclusions, or even to the presence of impurities or organic matter. The aim of this study is to investigate different types of dolostones and to compare them with the thermomechanical properties upon calcination. Several naturally occurring dolostone types were selected: three metamorphic dolostones and five dolostones formed by diagenetic replacement of limestones. The choice was based on decision to employ dolostones that represented the wide range that occur in nature in terms of chemical composition, textural aspects and petrogenesis. Methods used The selected samples have been investigated as follows: • petrographic analyses using transmitted light optical microscopy under polarized light on thin sections and stained peels, to emphasise the textural parameters (dimension, morphology of dolomite crystals, fluid inclusions, porosity, internal structures and components) • cathodoluminescence and UV fluorescence studies on polished slabs to depict the crystal’s zonation, cementation pattern and presence of the organic matter • chemical composition determined by X-ray fluorescence • thermomechanical decrepitation determined on calcined cubes of 3cm after 200 cycles of mechanical shocks. Description of selected samples Met-V = Proterozoic dolomarble from Romania. This was selected due to its constant high purity (MgO between 20-21%, SiO2 and Al2O3 are bellow 0.2%) and crystallinity (crystals around 100 µm), low porosity and dense crystalline structure (2.8 g/cm3). The texture is xenotopic with tightly packed anhedral dolomite crystals and with slightly undulatory extinction under cross polars. No fluid inclusions or zonations. Low decrepitation values (<30% fines). Sed-C = Silurian dolostone from Michigan basin. Two units have been sampled from this chemically pure dolostone: (a) coarse grained and high porosity dolostone; (b) fine-medium grained and lower porosity. Texture is planar (euhedral) with rhombic zoned crystals having inclusion rich core (Fig. 1 B), initial structure being completely obliterated especially in the coarse grained unit, while the finemedium grained unit has still preserved some of the original structures and particle shapes (Fig. 1 C). Specific gravity: 2.6-2.8 kg/cm3. Decrepitation degree is much higher (>50%) in the coarse unit. Sed-M = Silurian dolostone from Ohio. This is a high purity dolostone (MgO 20-21%, SiO2< 0.2%), has high porosity and medium-coarse crystal size. Texture is planar (euhedral to subhedral) with many rhombic zoned crystals (inclusion-rich core and inclusion-free rims) well developed along the pores’ margins; the initial structure was almost completely destroyed. Specific gravity: 2.0-2.7 g/cm3. Decrepitation degree is high (>50%) independent on the texture. Sed-E = Carboniferous dolostone from Belgium. Chemical quality dolostone (MgO 19-21%, SiO2 0.2-0.5%) with variable crystal-size from fine grained (often with mimetic replacement structure) to medium and even coarse grained. Texture is always planar (euhedral to subhedral) dominated by rhombic zoned crystals with inclusion-rich and non-luminescent core and inclusion-free and dull

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luminescent rims (Fig. 1 D). Specific gravity: 2.6-2.7 g/cm3. Decrepitation degree is high (>30%) slightly dependent on the texture.

Sed-T = Triassic dolostone from Slovakia. Mainly two types of dolostone occur at this site: (a) dark colour fine grained dolostone and (b) coarse grained dolo-breccia. Breccia has lower MgO content (15-20%) while the fine grained dolostone has higher and constant MgO content (19.5-20.5%). The fine grained unit preserves very well the initial allochemic and fenestral structures, where dolomicrite is combined with planar euhedral cement. Breccia contains large dolo-clasts encompassed into coarse grained spar calcite cement. Both coarse dolomite crystals and calcite from breccia’s cement contain fluid inclusions. Specific gravity: 2.7-2.8 g/cm3. Decrepitation degree is high (>50%) independent on the texture. Sed-S = Triassic dolostone from Turkey. In fact this is a pure limy-dolostone with only 18% average MgO, generally quite fine-grained and often the initial stromatolitic structures is well preserved. Texture is always planar (euhedral to subhedral) where crystals are larger and dolomicrite inside the stromatolitic layers. No fluid inclusions observed. Specific gravity: 2.7-2.8 g/cm3. Decrepitation degree is quite low (>30%) slightly dependent on the texture: more decrepitation where stromatolitic structure was preserved.

A

B

C

D

Fig. 1 Microphotographs from the investigated dolostones (scale bar=0.3mm). A. Dolomarble (MetV) with planar-subhedral texture showing a mixture of large twined calcite and dolomite crystals (crossed polars). B. Sedimentary dolostone (Sed-C) with planar-euhedral texture showing fluid inclusion distribution and zonation (parallel polars). C. Sedimentary dolostone (Sed-C) with original structure preserved (parallel polars). D. Sedimentary dolostone (Sed-E) with planar-euhedral texture and zoned dolomite crystals under cathodoluminescence.

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3.00 2.90 2.80

specific gravity (g/cm3)

2.70

Met-V
2.60 2.50

Sed-C Sed-M Sed-E Sed-T Sed-S

2.40 2.30 2.20 2.10 2.00 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

fines <5mm (%)

Fig. 2 Decrepitation data versus specific gravity for all studied samples Conclusions The samples studied in this work are not comprehensive of the wide variety of dolostones available, also the studies are only in their preliminary stage, but even so, the results found suggest that: • chemistry of dolostone has no impact on the thermomechanical behaviour of dolomitic lime; • general fears about metamorphic dolostone should be discarded, here it is shown that some metamorphic dolostones produce low amount of fines upon calcination • one major factor impacting the thermomechanical behaviour of dolostone seems to be the texture, more the shape of crystals and their packing than the crystal size, despite previous explanation that internal crystal strain of large crystals is major factor (Harrel et al., 2006); • inclusion-free dolostones have a good resistance to thermal shock, but very different mechanical strength (Fig. 2) which seems to be dependent on the crystal shape – the more euhedral crystals the less resistance to mechanical shocks after calcinations; • inclusion-rich dolostones decrepitate very much after calcinations and mechanical shocks (Fig. 2), maybe due to internal cracks and strain resulted from decrepitation of fluid inclusions. References Boynton, R. S., [1980]. Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone. John Wiley & Sons: New York. Harrel, J.A., J.G. Dunn, J.W. Welshimer, [2006]. Effect of crystal size on dolomite decrepitation in glass furnaces. Glass Technology - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. 47, 188-192.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Potentiality of Marwit El-Sweiqat quartz deposits, Eastern Desert, Egypt as a source of high purity quartz (HPQ)Geological interpretation and technical applications
Ahmed Mohamed Zayed*, Kazakh national technical university named after K.I. Satpayev

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Evaluation of some Egyptian quartz deposits and searching for new sources of high purity quartz (HPQ) Geochemical, thermal, and petrophysical characteristics of Marwit ElSweiqat quartz deposits, as well as their techical qualifcations

Summary Geochemical studies revealed that Marwit El-Sweiqat quartz deposits exhibit (max. 200 words): high degree of purity (very pure) owning to their silica content which has an
average about 99.83%. They also have low content of Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O and K2O. They display a remarkable petrophysical characteristic (high mechanical resistance and low water absorption values) and thermal behavior. All these qualifications nominate the quartz deposits of Marwit El-Sweiqat area as a potential source of high purity quartz (HPQ), and
qualify them, even without beneficiation or with minor beneficiation, to be used in hi-tech industries such as Aluminum alloy, Ferrosilicon alloy and silica glass

industries, as well as silicon metal industry for solar cell productions.

Topic:

Mineralogy, Petrology, Geochimistry

23

Potentiality of Marwit El-Sweiqat quartz deposits, Eastern Desert, Egypt as a source of high purity quartz (HPQ)- Geological interpretation and technical applications
Ahmed Mohamed Zayed*, Kazakh national technical university named after K.I. Satpayev Introduction High purity quartz, i.e. quartz with extremely low concentrations of impurities, is a rare commodity that only forms under geological conditions where a narrow set of chemical and physical parameters is fulfilled. Untreated, naturally occurring quartz with less than 50 ppm of impurities is qualified as high-purity quartz (R.B. Larsen et al., 2000). Good qualities of HPQ must incorporate a minimum of structural impurities. The most important structural impurities in quartz structure are Al, Ti, Fe, Ge, Li, Na, K, B, P, Ca and H, as well as Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Pb, Rb and U but with lower abundance. For some industrial applications, low Fe and B contents are imperative (e.g. in photovoltaic cells for solar panels) whereas some Ti may be tolerated. Other applications primarily require low Ti-concentrations and other applications are mostly concerned with low concentrations of Li. In evaluating the quality of quartz, distinguishing between structural impurities, solid and liquid inclusions is imperative. Structural impurities, on the contrary, can only be partially removed by time-consuming and expensive dressing techniques; therefore, it is the concentration of these elements that ultimately distinguishes high-purity quartz bodies from inferior quality occurrences. When quartz is identified as HPQ, it obtains very attractive prices and is applied in the communications industries and other high-technology sectors that currently are under rapid expansion. Industrial agencies forecast a solid 5-20 % annual growth in the demand for high purity granular quartz and predict a near exhaustion of its raw materials. Together with environmental problems in the main quartz producing districts, a coming shortage in the supply of HPQ is implied. By far the largest proportions of HPQ (maybe as much as 90 %) come from granite pegmatites in the Spruce Pine district, North Carolina. Parallel with foreseeable production shortages of HPQ, the semiconductor industry plans at least 15 more years of development of more powerful silicon chips that depends on the productions of thicker thus more HPQ demanding silicon metal-oxide wafers. Also imposing higher demands is the fact that the production of HPQ-demanding photo voltaic devices, i.e. solar cells is forecasted to expand rapidly in the future. All these challenges triggered the geologists to search for new sources of high purity quartz. Geology of Marwit El-Sweiqat area This area is situated in the Central part of the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The quartz body of the area appears as large quartz vein. This quartz is hosted by a large mass of pink granite. The quartz has a sharp contact with the country rocks. The quartz body occurred as irregular body or very large quartz vein of variable width. The quartz body is characterized by the homogeneity in its composition and appears as a milky white quartz mineral (Fig. 1). The quartz body is strongly fractured (Fig. 1), which may facilitate the mining processes. The dimensions of quartz body of this area were calculated as 90 m (width) X 50 m (height) X 350 m (length) X 2.65., which meet geologic resource approximately 4,173,750 tons.

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Fig. 1 Photograph showing one of the extraction faces of milky white fractured quartz of Marwit ElSweiqat area. Looking due N. Geochemical, thermal, and petrophysical characteristics of Marwit El-Sweiqat quartz deposits The chemical composition, thermal, and petrophysical properties of raw quartz is the most important starting investigations serving as bases for assessing both the quality of a deposit and the potential uses of the raw materials contained therein. The results will be helpful in the first classification of the quartz deposits that are suitable for industrial uses as raw materials without any treatment or after beneficiation. On the other hand, the presence of impurities or undesirable materials will propose the methods of beneficiation in order to enhance the uses of the mineral. a) Chemical analyses: A total of 5 chemically analyzed representative quartz samples are given in table (1). Table 1: Results of XRF analyses of five quartz samples, Marwit El-Sweiqat area.
Sample № SiO2 TiO2 A12O3 Fe2O3 MnO MgO CaO Na2O K 2O P 2O 5 L.O.I V Cr Co Ni Cu Zn Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Ba Nd MS1 99.72 < 0.01 0.05 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.14 <1 3 <1 7 6 5 3 <1 <1 5 <1 <1 21 MS2 MS3 Major oxides (%) 99.78 99.91 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.017 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 < 0.01 0.06 0.04 Some trace elements (ppm) <1 <1 3 2 5 2 3 2 6 4 6 3 2 2 <1 <1 <1 <1 4 3 <1 <1 <1 <1 16 7 MS4 99.92 < 0.01 0.037 0.019 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.06 <1 2 2 2 3 3 2 <1 <1 3 <1 <1 6 MS5 99.83 < 0.01 0.04 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.075 <1 3 3 5 6 5 3 <1 <1 4 <1 <1 19

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Yb Pb Th U

10 5 7 4

16 5 8 4

6 3 3 3

5 3 3 3

13 5 7 4

Table (1) shows that, the SiO2 content ranges from 99.72 to 99.92 % with an average content 99.83 %, TiO2 content is < 0.01 %, Al2O3 content ranges from 0.03 to 0.05% with an average content 0.04, Fe2O3 content ranges from 0.01 to 0.019 % with an average content 0.01 %, and CaO from 0.004 to 0.017% with an average content 0.008 %. From the above chemical results it is clear that, the quartz deposits of Marwit El-Sweiqat are compared to the very pure (SiO2 ≥ 99.5 %) quartz deposits of M. A. Ezzeldin (2007). Therefore these composite quartz materials, without treatments, match well the requirements of the following industries: Aluminum alloy industry [Si minimum 98 wt%, Fe maximum 0.02-0.05 wt% and Ca from 0.015-0.3 wt % (www.Elkem.com/ product Data Sheet)], Ferrosilicon alloy industry [SiO2 > 98%, Al2O3 < 0.4%, Fe2O3, CaO and MgO ≤0.2% (www.psranawant.org)], silica glass industry [SiO2 > 99%, TiO2 ≤ 0.1%, Fe2O3 ≤0.02% and the Loss in Ignition ≤ 0.5% (www.psranawant.org)] and silicon metal industry for solar cell productions [SiO2 > 99.8%, Al2O3 < 0.1%, Fe2O3 < 0.04%, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O3 < 0.01% (www.Elkem.com/ product Data Sheet)]. b) Thermal behavior: Three quartz samples of Marwit El-Sweiqat were subjected to differential thermal analysis (DTA) to detect their thermal behavior versus thermal gradient. The results of thermal analyses are given in table 2. Table 2: Results of thermal analyses of tree quartz samples, Marwit El-Sweiqat area.
Sample №. MS1 MS2 MS3 Mineral constituent % Major Minor Quartz ….. Quartz ….. Quartz ….. Total loss Wt. due to heating up to 1000° С 0.142% 0.063 % 0.137%

Table 2 shows that the mineral constituent of the samples is quartz with total loss on ignition due to heating up to 1000°C ranging between 0.063 to 0.142 %. The DTA curve of the studied samples indicates that the quartz is of α-type where, the endothermic peaks on the curve show that the temperature ranges between 572.74°C to 573.56°C. (Fig.2)

Fig. 2 Differential thermal analyses (DTA) curves showing the thermal behavior of two selected quartz samples and change of α-quartz to β-quartz at Marwit El-Sweiqat area.

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c) Petrophysical measurements: Two quartz samples represents the quartz of Marwit El-Sweiqat, were measured to determine some petrophysical properties such as water absorption, stress and mechanical resistance (Table 3). Table 3: The results of petrophysical properties (water absorption, stress and mechanical resistance) of three analyzed quartz samples of Marwit El-Sweiqat area.
Sample №. MS1 MS2 Water absorption wt % 0.06 0.05 Stress kg/cm2 101 101.4 Mechanical resistance kg /cm2 1976.6 2033.5

The petrophysical properties results of the analyzed samples of quartz body of Marwit ElSweiqat area indicate its suitability in the manufacture of artificial ornamental stone. Conclusion Geochemical studies revealed that Marwit El-Sweiqat quartz deposits exhibit high degree of purity (very pure) owning to their silica content which has an average about 99.83%. They also have low content of Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, Na2O and K2O. They display a remarkable petrophysical characteristic (high mechanical resistance and low water absorption values) and thermal behavior. All these qualifications nominate the quartz deposits of Marwit El-Sweiqat area as a potential source of high purity quartz (HPQ), and qualify them, even without beneficiation or with minor beneficiation, to be used in hi-tech industries such as Aluminum alloy, Ferrosilicon alloy and silica glass industries, as well as silicon metal industry for solar cell productions. References Ezzeldin, M. A. [2007] Studies on the technical qualifications of some quartz deposits in the Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ph.D. Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University. Al Azhar University, Faculty of Science, Geology Department. 160 p Larsen, R.B., Polve, M., Juve G. [2000] Granite pegmatite quartz from Evje- Jveland, trace element chemistry and implications for the formation of high-purity quartz. NGU Bull, 436, 57-65 www.Elkem.com/ product Data Sheet www.psranawant.org

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Geophysical model of the Tertiary basin between Cacak and Kraljevo (Western Serbia)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ana Mladenovic, University of Belgrade

gravity, geomagnetism, basin study, remote sensing

Geological and geophysical model of the basin was made; an origin of the positive Bouguer anomaly was proposed

The research has been done with the task of determining geophysical and Summary (max. 200 words): tectonic characteristics of the Tertiary basin between Cacak and Kraljevo, in

order to develop subsurface model of the basin. In respect to defined tasks, analyses of gravity and geomagnetic maps and Landsat 7 satellite image have been done. It was determined that the basin was made of Tertiary and Quaternary sediments, which are 800 – 1200 meters thick. Basis of these sediments is made of serpentinite and serpentinized peridotite. Also, an origin of positive Bouguer anomaly, which is situated in western part of the investigated area, was proposed. Two families of ruptures are dominating on the investigated area. First family, of the northwest-southeast stretch is one by which basin has been formed. The second family, of the southwestnortheast stretch, is one by which eruption of andesite has been done.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

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Geophysical model of the Tertiary basin between Cacak and Kraljevo (Western Serbia)
Ana Mladenovic, University of Belgrade Introduction Complex geophysical investigations give third dimension to standard geological investigations of some area. A combination of gravity and geomagnetic data can significantly improve the knowledge of the real characteristics of regional structures and subsurface composition, and is one of the advantages of geophysical research. The aim of this research was the development of subsurface model of the Cacak-Kraljevo basin, with special emphasis on the determination of composition and origin of positive Bouguer anomaly, which occurs on the western edge of the basin. Pursuant to the order, the task was to identify the geophysical and tectonic characteristics of basin, by analyzing maps of: Bouguer anomalies, anomalies of the vertical component of the geomagnetic field and by analyzing the satellite image from the Landsat 7 mission. The investigated area is located in western Serbia, and includes sheets Cacak (K 34-5) and Kraljevo (K 34-6) of the General geologic map of Serbia (figure 1). The central part of the investigated area is Cacak-Kraljevo basin, which is formed between mountain Jelica in the southwest, and dacite-andesite Kotlenik massif in the northeast. Southern parts of the terrain are in the area south of Ibar and Zapadna Morava and belong to the northern branches of the Goc and the Stolovi mountains. On the northwest terrain extends to the southeastern parts of the Rudnik mountain, which is connected to massif of the Kotlenik range.

Fig. 1 Physical setting of the investigated area Geological setting of the investigated area is complex. Generally, eight major geological units can be defined (figure 2). Metamorphic rocks from Paleozoic are the oldest rock formation on this area. According to the grade of metamorphism, they belong to the green schist facies. Sediments from Triassic are located in the northeast edge of the Jelica mountain. They are represented by limestone, dolomitic limestone and limestone with chert. Ophiolitic complex is divided into two stratigraphic units: one from Jurassic and one from Cretaceous. Jurassic ophiolites are northwest – southeast direction, and are presented by ultramafites, gabbro and diabase. Cretaceous ophiolites are presented by arenites, clays and marls, mafites and rarely ultramafites. There are two complexes of flysh, which are composed of the same rocks, but are parts of the different geotectonic units – Drina-Ivanjica Element and Vardar Zone. Rocks of which complexes of flysh are made are: conglomerate, limestone, limestone with marl, marls, sandstone and clays. Dacite-andesite volcanic formation from Tertiary is
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situated in the central part of the terrain. It is part of the Kotlenik – Rudnik volcanic complex. It is made of tuffites, dacites and labrador andesites, and rarely basalts. Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are made of sandstone, conglomerates, sandy limestone, marls and clays. In tectonic view, the investigated area is situated on the contact of two geotectonic units – Western Vardar Ophiolitic Unit on the east, and Drina – Ivanjica Element on the West (Schmid et al 2008), and this contact can be seen on the Jelica mountain. Two regional normal faults of the northwest-southeast direction are dominating the investigated area. On the end of Cretaceous, the basin has been formed along these faults (Novkovic, Terzin 1957).
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7445 7450 7455 7460 7465 7470 7475 7480 7485 7490

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Fig. 2 Geologic map of investigated area. Legend: 1 – metamorphic rocks from Paleozoic; 2 – serpentinite and serpentinized peridotite; 3 – basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks; 4 – limestone from Triassic; 5 – flysh of Drina-Ivanjica Element; 6 – flysh of Vardar Zone; 7 – dacite-andesite volcanic formation; 8 – Tertiary and Quaternary sediments.

Materials and Methods The survey was conducted in two phases, which implied analyses and interpretation of geological data, and drafting, analyses and interpretation of gravity and geomagnetic maps. Analysis of geological data consisted of analysis of satellite image and interpretation of tectonic fabric. This phase was carried out using visual methods of Remote Sensing, whereby the entire attention towards defining the position of regional structures for a given area of research. For better insight of the extending of faults and their mutual relations, a much wider area was observed. For the analysis of regional structures, Landsat 7 satellite imagery was used. It was given as a color composite, formed of channels 7, 5 and 4. Spatial resolution of the imagery was 30 times 30 meters. The imagery were passed through all stages of preprocessing and enhancement, which, as subsequent analysis and interpretation, was made in the software package MicroImages TNTmips, in the Remote Sensing and GIS Center on the Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade. As a database for determining the gravity characteristics of the terrain, gravity base from the Department of Geophysics on the Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade, was used. On the basis of measurement data on 2044 points, a map of Bouguer anomalies was made. To eliminate the influence of shallow subsurface bodies, a filtering by Haning filter by step 2, was made. By analysis of the geological setting and by using a method of Parasnis, a calculation of the average density of rocks on the investigated area, was made. It is 2400 kg/m3. Also, a second derivative of the gravity
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acceleration in the vertical direction, i.e. vertical gradient, was calculated. Data from this map was used to correlate with data obtained by analysis of satellite imagery. Geomagnetic database from the Department of Geophysics on the Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade was used. On the basis of measurements data on 1600 points, a map of vertical component of geomagnetic field was established. Data, obtained from geomagnetic measurements, were filtered by using a method of extension field up, with the step two, in order to eliminate the influence of shallow subsurface bodies. Results and discussion Analysis and interpretation of gravity and geomagnetic data was primarily focused on the western edge of the Cacak-Kraljevo basin. Also, analysis and interpretation of geophysical data for areas with unexpected geophysical response was performed. Tectonic fabric, designated by satellite imagery analysis, was also included in the interpretation, as a supplement to the tectonic data from General geological map. Gravity characteristics of the investigated area were observed on the Bouguer anomaly map, shown in Figure 3. Geomagnetic characteristics are shown in Figure 4.
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Fig. 3 Map of Bouguer anomalies, filtered with Haning filter, step two In the central part of the investigated area a transition from the area with negative values of Bouguer anomalies (minimum is -35⋅10-5 m/s2) to the area with positive values (maximum is +30⋅10-5 m/s2), can be seen. This transition can be interpreted as a vertical fault, which divides rocks with great difference in density. Since this transition couldn’t be seen on the geomagnetic map so clearly, it is proposed that the sources of the Bouguer anomalies are situated at grater depths. The minimum of Bouguer anomaly value is situated in the area of Kraljevo. According to this, it was proposed that the Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are the thickest in this area, and that their thickness decreases in the northwestern direction. However, a source of positive Bouguer anomaly, which is situated in the western part of the basin, is much more questionable. According to the interpretation from literature (Starcevic 1991), a causer of this anomaly is an ultrabasic igneous body, which is located on a depth of 800 meters. But, in this case, a positive magnetic anomaly would be situated in the same area. However, in this investigated area, a geomagnetic anomaly with negative values is present. In order to solve the origin of this positive Bouguer anomaly, three procedures were performed: forming a map of regionals and residuals; interpretation of the vertical gradient map of the gravity acceleration and it’s correlation with the interpretation of satellite imaging; and correlation of gravity and geomagnetic data.

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Fig. 4 Map of anomalies of vertical component of Earth’s magnetic field According to the map of regionals, it was concluded that the cause of positive Bouguer anomaly is a body with regional dimensions. In the area of the observed positive anomaly, values of residual are also positive, which implies that the total value of Bouguer anomaly in this area comes from joint effect of regional structure and several smaller, local structures. To approach a solution for this anomaly, it was decided to develop a geophysical model, and thus, quantify dimensions and gravity and geomagnetic characteristics of the body that causes this anomaly. Based on geophysical modelling and detail consideration of the geological structures, it was suggested that the cause of the positive Bouguer anomaly is ophiolitic melange from Jurassic. In consideration of nature of the melange, it is assumed that this melange has zones with the pronounced change in magnetic characteristics, which explains the weak negative magnetic anomalies caused by high density rocks. Conclusion Geophysical and geological characteristics of the investigated area are determined by designing, analysing and interpreting of Bouguer anomalies and vertical component of Earth’s magnetic field maps, as well as by analysing and interpreting of satellite imagery. Geophysical characteristics are caused by geological structures of the terrain. Mostly, anomalies were matched with expected values. By modelling of geophysical and tectonic data, an origin of positive Bouguer anomaly, which is situated on the western edge of the basin, is proposed. In order to determine size and composition of this body, it is necessary to do detailed gravity and geomagnetic research, as well as drilling, which would determine composition of the body that causes positive gravity anomaly. Acknowledgements I thank my professors Radmila Pavlovic, Ivana Vasiljevic, Branislav Trivic and Vladica Cvetkovic, and colleagues Milica Pesic and Dragana Petrovic, for help and support during the research. References Dimitrijevic, M. [2001] Dinarides and the Vardar Zone: A short review of the geology. Acta Vulcanologica, 13, 1-8 Novkovic, M., Terzin, V. [1957] Geoloski prikaz zapadno-moravskog tercijarnog basena. Fond strucne literature Zavoda za geoloska i geofizicka istrazivanja, Beograd Schmid, S. et al. [2008] The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaride orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 101, 139-183

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Salt structures and formation in the Precaspian basin
Abd Elmaksoud Ashraf Sobhy*, Kazakh national technical university named after K.I. Satpayev Introduction Precaspian basin is a term refers to the basin that is approximately 600 km across from west to east and is underlain by Kungurian salt at the northern end of the Caspian Sea (Fig. 1). Deformation of a thick sequence of Permian salt dominated the history of the basin, and two main phases of salt deformation can be distinguished in the Permian–Triassic and Jurassic–Neogene. In the Permian–Triassic phase, Kungurian salt was already deforming in the east, whereas Kazanian salt was still accumulating in the center of the basin. Salt structures evolved through several stages in deformation zones that were driven basinward by sediments prograding from and the southern margins in turn. The second, Jurassic–Neogene phase, involved the development of a basinwide network of polygonal faults above the salt. Throughout this history, the passive growth of huge salt massifs by slow continuous deposition of surrounding sediments characterized the center of the basin.

Fig. 1 Location map of the Precaspian basin showing locations of seismic and geologic sections, salt overhangs, and oil and gas fields. Salt formation in Permian During the late Artinskian to early Kungurian (268–265 Ma, Early Permian), thick deepwater clastic fans were deposited, the sediment being derived from erosion of a continent to the southeast. In Kazanian time (258–253 Ma, Late Permian), a cyclic succession of thin halite beds interbedded with shales accumulated until the total evaporite succession reached a thickness of about 4.5 km in the center of the basin. Erosion of the north-south–trending Ural Mountains to the east profoundly influenced Permian to Triassic sedimentation and consequent salt tectonics in the east of the Precaspian basin. Thus, while Kazanian salt was still accumulating in the center and western part of the basin, clastic sediments sourced from the Ural Mountains were prograding westward into the basin. Loading of the salt by these prograding sediments had downbuilt several rows of inclined walls of Kungurian salt basinward from the eastern margin of the basin by the end of the Permian. Meanwhile, a series of salt rollers having steeply dipping basinward flanks developed beneath the footwalls of down-tobasin, normal, syndepositional faults. The faults define the half graben along the southeastern margin of the Precaspian basin as their overburden glided downslope.

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At the same time, more symmetrical salt walls hundreds of kilometers long developed in thicker salt beneath the slope along the northern and western flanks of the basin. The reliefs of these salt walls increase progressively from 3 to 5 km basinward, reflecting both basinward thickening of the salt and thin-skinned lateral compression near the toe of the slope. Most of the salt sequence on the northern and western shelves remained essentially passive, but some underwent Late Permian through Triassic down-to-the basin faulting and block rotation, where the slope instability propagated backward. Salt formation in Triassic During the Triassic, the South Emba shear zone trended west- southwest–east-northeast along the southeastern margin of the Precaspian basin and now sinisterly offsets by about 60 km both a preJurassic deformation front in the west and folds along the western margin of the Urals in the east (Volozh et al., 1999). Reverse faults associated with thick-skinned Ural transpression propagated upward from beneath salt walls that were already inactive and alongside asymmetric salt walls that were still growing The source of terrigenous sediments prograding an arcuate depositional shelf into the basin migrated from the east to the southeast from Late Permian through the Triassic (Volozh et al., 1996). Existing salt structures increased in relief as slope progradation rapidly downbuilt zones of successively younger salt structures basinward. Reverse faults associated with thick-skinned Ural transpression propagated upward from beneath salt walls that were already inactive and alongside asymmetric salt walls. Crestal sag basins between salt cusps suggest lateral extension (Vendeville and Jackson, 1992). Salt formation in Jurassic During the Early Jurassic (Hettangian and Sinemurian, 208–198 Ma), another wave of salt diapirism migrated into the basin, now from the southern boundary. Upper Triassic–Middle Jurassic disconformity but is expressed as an angular unconformity in the vicinities of still-active salt structures. Some Late Permian to Early Triassic pillows of Kungurian salt deflated to drive diapirs that surfaced in association with Jurassic growth faults. The salt formed a pillow from Middle Permian through Triassic times after the salt structure immediately to the west had already surfaced. Rapid deposition of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous nonkinematic strata buried the extruded salt sheet at Kum, but subsequent deposition reactivated and upbuilt the diapir feeding it and also led to the allochthonous salt sheet upbuilding a salt pillow (Talbot, 1998). The Precaspian basin was always closed, and salt extrusions there had no open continental slope toward which they could gravitate. The current geometry of the approximately 1800 salt structures known in the Precaspian basin. Salt structures form an unusually high proportion of the area of the Precaspian basin, particularly at the Jurassic subcrop, which is generally less than 2 km deep. Polygonal Faults and Jurassic–Paleogene Deposition A pattern of polygonal grabens and half grabens connects preexisting salt structures throughout most of the basin (Fig. 2) and is interpreted here as having initiated during the Early Jurassic (Cimmerian) uplift and the extrusion of large volumes of salt withdrawn from depth during the consequent hiatus. Jurassic to Paleogene sediments that buried starved salt structures are post kinematic and flat lying with a uniform thickness between 2.1 and 2.5 km.

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Fig. 2 Part of the Precaspian basin showing normal faults offsetting base Cretaceous. The faults in the laterally isotropic polygonal network display a wide range of orientations and degrees of connectivity. Complex polyhedra defined by faults are typically 5–20 km across and involve strata having regional dips and thicknesses between 2.1 and 2.5 km. Line balancing along profiles having a wide range of orientations indicates that lateral extension across the faults averages approximately 5% in all horizontal directions. The faults are curved in plan and more or less listric in section. Fault pairs defining a graben are seldom symmetric. Some converge downward to intersect near the base of the Jurassic (which can be thrown by as much as 0.6 km). We attribute the polygonal fault system in the Precaspian basin to gravity having reactivated large salt structures that still had the potential for growth in smaller structures when they were buried further. Although it involves apparently brittle faults, the polygonal pattern is like the shallow levels of spoke patterns of gravity overturn modeled in ductile materials by (Talbot et al. 1991). In every other documented example of the polygonal fault system, polygonal normal faults near the top boundary directly overlie polygonal uplifts near the bottom boundary. This implies simple prismatic polygonal movement cells; very different from the complex spokes movement patterns modeled in very unstable sections by Talbot et al. (1991), in which polygons near the top boundary are offset half a wavelength from those near the bottom boundary.

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Conclusions The Precaspian basin lies north of the present-day Caspian Sea and is underlain by Kungurian salt. The basin infill is divided into three major sedimentary sequences: subsalt strata, salt, and salt overburden. The subsalt sequence contains Riphean through Lower Permian strata punctuated by unconformities. The subsalt sequence has a complex depositional history dominated by carbonate reefs and clastic fans. The overburden of salt consists predominantly of terrigenous Upper Permian through Neogene strata. Gentle unconformities at Upper Permian–Triassic, Jurassic–Miocene, and Pliocene–Quaternary divided the overburden into three structural levels. The location of 1800 structures attributed to movements of Permian salt determined structures in the overburden. These are distinguishable into a variety of styles representing different stages of growth, mainly as a result of two main phases of movement of the salt driven by differential loading by its overburden in a closed basin. References Talbot, C. J. [1998] Extrusion of Hormuz salt in Iran, in D. J. Blundell and A. C. Scott, eds., Lyell: The past is the key to the present: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 143, p. 315 334. Talbot, C. J., H. Schmeling, P. Ro¨ nnlund, H. Koyi, and M. P. A. Jackson [1991] Diapiric spoke patterns. Tectonophysics, 188, p. 187 201. Vendeville, B. C., and M. P. A. Jackson [1992] the fall of diapirs during thin skinned extensions. Marine and Petroleum Geol ogy, 9, p. 354 371. Volozh, Yu. A., A. V. Sinelı´nikov, and V. G. Groshev [1996] Stratigraphy of Mesozoic Cenozoic deposits in the salt dome basin of the Peri Caspian depression. Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 4, p. 409 415. Volozh, Yu. A., M. P. Antipov, Yu. G. Leonov, A. F. Morozov, and Yu. A. Yurov [1999] Structure of the Karpinsky Range. Geo. tectonics, 33, p. 24 38.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

A new possibility for the estimation of the hydrocarbons generated by the source rocks using the diagraphies of the well geophysics
Balan Cătălin*, Mihai Şaramet, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

This paper proposes a new method for the estimation of the quantities of hydrocarbons generated by the source rocks within the sediment basins.

Using this method one can estimate the quantity of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the sources rocks.

Summary This paper proposes a new method for the estimation of the quantities of (max. 200 words): hydrocarbons generated by the source rocks within the sediment basins. The
estimation algorithm is based generally on the conditions presented by Passey et al., (1990) and Şaramet et al. (2010). In order to facilitate the understanding of the proposed method we choose to study the case of Bilca gases deposit located within the Brodina perimeter, Suceava County. Using this method one can estimate the quantity of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the sources rocks. This method uses the diagraphies of the geophysical well logging. In order to compute the TOC content, it is necessary to establish in lab conditions the value of thermal alteration index (TAI) for the specific rock. This determination can be made quickly through the palynological analysis of the transmitted light by the organic matter; this kind of analysis does not require great technical and financial efforts.

Topic:

Petroleum geology, Structural geology, Tectonics

37

A new possibility for the estimation of the hydrocarbons generated by the source rocks using the diagraphies of the well geophysics
Balan Cătălin*, Mihai Şaramet, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi Introduction This paper proposes a new method for the estimation of the quantities of hydrocarbons generated by the source rocks within the sediment basins. The estimation algorithm is based generally on the conditions presented by Passey et al., (1990) and Şaramet et al. (2010). In order to facilitate the understanding of the proposed method we choose to study the case of Bilca gases deposit located within the Brodina perimeter, Suceava County (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 The location of the Bilca 1, Bilca 2 borehole The wells Bilca 1 and Bilca 2 located within the Suceava Plateau (Fig. 2), have opened the sedimentary formations from the foredeep zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The well Bilca 1 intercepted Buglovian and Kossovian sedimentary formations, while the Bilca 2 well intercepted only in Bulgovian sedimentary formations.

Fig. 2 The location of the Bilca gases deposits

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Discutions and results Using the geophysical diagraphies obtained from the gamma ray recordings and the times obtained from the sonic log, there have been identified four stratigraphic sequences (fig.3). In the second sequence, superposing the sonic log over the resistivity log, we pointed out an arenitic body which defines the „Bilca gases deposits” (Bilca sandstone, fig. 2). At the same time, we observed from the study of the seismic profiles that the Bilca 1 and Bilca 2 wells have opened the same gas deposit(Fig. 3 and Fig. 4).

Fig. 3 The overlap of the Gamma Ray log over seismic profile highlighting stratigraphic sequences Afterwards, there has been a contract between the „Al. I. Cuza” University and the S.C. Falcon Romania S.R.L which identified palynomorphs within the clays under- and overjacent the gases deposit. It was assigned to the organic matter an thermal alteration index (TAI) whos values are bethween 2 and 3. This index suggests the stage of gases generation. In order to estimate quantitatively the possible content of total organic carbon of the clays, denoted by TOC we have used the method proposed by Passey et al., 1990. This method is based on the diagraphies of the geophysical well logging. This method allowed us to obtain a log of the total organic carbon content. We obtained in this way an average of the initial surface values (TOC0 on the surface) of 0.95%, and an average of the actual values (TOC) from the neighborhood of the Bilca deposit of 0,4 % The difference between these values ∆TOC=TOC0-TOC=0.95-0,4 =0.55 %, transformed in kilograms organic carbon (OC) per ton of rock is: (1)

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∆TOC= 10 Kg OC/tonă · 0.55 % = 5.5 Kg OC/tonă. Next, after Saramet et al. (2010), we used the formula (3) in order to determine the quantity of expelled hydrocarbons: ∆HC/mrs = 10 · fex · TOC0 / 0,85 =10 · 0.57 · 0.95 / 0,85= 6.37 [mg HC/ g rocă] where fex represents expulsion factor which is defined by the formula (4): fex = 1–TOC / TOC0=1–0.4 / 0.95 = 0.57

(2)

(3)

(4)

Fig. 4 The Bilca gases deposits intercepted by Bilca 1 and Bilca 2 boreholes Conclusions Using this method one can estimate the quantity of hydrocarbons generated and expelled from the sources rocks. This method uses the diagraphies of the geophysical well logging. In order to compute the TOC content, it is necessary to establish in lab conditions the value of thermal alteration index (TAI) for the specific rock. This determination can be made quickly through the palynological analysis of the transmitted light by the organic matter; this kind of analysis does not require great technical and financial efforts. References: Saramet, M., Raducanu, R., Catuneanu, O., Chirila, G. [2010] Genetic potential of the Histria petroliferous basin, Proceedings of the The 4th IASME / WSEAS International Conference on GEOLOGY and SEISMOLOGY [2010] (GES '10), Cambridge, UK, February, 23-25.

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Passey, Q. R., Creaney, S., Kulla, J. B., Moretti, F. J., Stroud, J. D. [1990] A Practical Model For Organic Richness From Porosity and Resistivity Logs", AAPG Bull. Raportul de cercetare ştiinţifică nr. 14849/2004 întocmit de Univ „Al. I. Cuza” din Iaşi şi firma S. C. FALCON România S.R.L.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Lakebed structures in front of the Selenga Delta, Lake Baikal, Russian Federation

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Myriam Cuylaerts*, Lieven Naudts, Marc De Batist, Ghent University, Oleg Khlystov, Limnological Institute Irkutsk

Research at the lakebed structures in Lake Baikal.

First detailed bathymetry record of Lake Baikal, which led to the discovering of new lakebed structures.

In the summer of 2009, a joined Russian-Belgian multibeam survey was Summary (max. 200 words): performed, in order to obtain high-resolution bathymetry of the lakebed of

Lake Baikal. The data obtained during this survey cover about two-third of the lake, including the South and Central Baikal Basins and the Selenga Delta Accommodation Zone. The data reveal new interesting information about the lakebed and in this paper the lakebed structures discovered in front of the Selenga Delta are discussed. The studied area is completely covered by the multibeam data and almost completely by sidescan data. Most of the lakebed structures are found in water depths of about -750 to -1230m within the gas-hydrate stability zone. The structures occur in two different zones; two structures in the deeper, southern, part of the basin and two located in the shallower part of the basin more to the north. Based on its round to elliptical morphology of the bottom elevated structures and their appearance on the sidescan images, we believe that these structures are probably mud volcanoes. Furthermore there is a depression present south of the Selenga Delta in shallower water depths resembling a pockmark.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

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Lakebed structures in front of the Selenga Delta, Lake Baikal, Russian Federation
Myriam Cuylaerts, Lieven Naudts, Marc De Batist, Ghent University, Oleg Khlystov, Limnological Institute Irkutsk Introduction Lake Baikal is located in the central part of the tectonically active Baikal Rift Zone in South– Central Siberia and lies between 52° to 56°N latitude and 104° to 110°E longitude. It is more than 650 km long and 50 km wide on average (Scholz and Hutchinson, 2000) and world’s deepest (-1637 m) and most voluminous lake (23000 km³), with approximately 20% of the liquid fresh water reserve worldwide. Lake Baikal can be sub-divided into three deep basins, the South (SBB, -1423 m deep), Central (CBB, -1637 m deep) and North (NBB, -890m deep) Baikal Basin, which are separated by two structural highs: the Academician Ridge Accommodation Zone between the NBB and CBB and the Selenga Delta Accommodation Zone between the SBB and CBB (Atlas of Baikal, 1993). Van Rensbergen et al. (2002) and Klerkx et al. (2006) described the occurrence of methane venting structures in respectively the Southern and Central Baikal Basin. These methane seeps occur where the base of the hydrate stability zone shallows, due to an elevated heat flow and give rise to short lived mud volcanism. A mud volcano is hereby defined as a positive feature constructed mainly of mud (argillaceous material) and other sedimentary constituents that are extruded on the lake floor and that periodically or continuously vents semi-liquid mud, including water, oil and gas. The ejected material forms typical circular to elongated structures, with a broadly cylindrical form. The data obtained during a joined Russian-Belgian multibeam survey in the summer of 2009, which covered about two-third of the Lake, now reveal interesting new information about the lakebed. This paper focuses on the lakebed structures present in the SBB west of the Selenga Delta. Data acquisition and processing The used Multibeam Echo Sounder is a SEABEAM 1050, which is able to collect bathymetric and backscatter data with beams as narrow as 3 degrees and a swath width of 120 degrees in a depth range up 3000 meter water depth. A complete fan contains 108 beams in total. The operating frequency is 50 kHz. The system employs two transducer arrays, port and starboard, both capable of transmitting and receiving. During this survey, the arrays were installed on a mobile bracket that was installed on the bow of the ship. A first cleaning of the multibeam data was performed on the ship, with HDPedit. Afterwards the cleaned data were further processed with the HDPpost, to correct for sound velocity from CTD cast and other correction files (tide, ship parameters, projection parameters), in order to calibrate the data. A second phase of cleaning was done with Fledermaus (IVS-3D) that was also used for data gridding. The sidescan sonar data are recorded with a 30 kHz SONIC sonar. The fish was dragged at 100 to 150 m above the lakebed, which resulted in an image of about 0.9 km at each side of the track line. The SONIC probe was also equipped with a 5 kHz subbottom profiler. The recorded subbottom profiles have a penetration depth of 50 to 100 m, which is ideal to image cross sections of small bottom features. Results Our area of interest is completely covered by the multibeam data and almost completely by the side scan mosaic (Fig. 1). Most of the lakebed structures (P1-4) are found in the deeper part of the basin, at depths of about -750 to -1230 m. Furthermore there is an interesting depression (P5) in the shallower part of the lake. Most southern there is the structure P1, at 105.6099°E, 52.0577°N (Fig. 2). This is an elongated structure, with steeper flanks at the south and east sides and more gentler flanks at the north and west sides. The structure has a length of 400 m and a width of 275 m. Its elevation ranges between 10 and 15 m, depending on the depth of the surrounding lakebed. The top of the structure is flattened, but slopes gently towards the southeast. The flat top forms a plateau of with a diameter of

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about 50 m. The structure is also visible on the side scan mosaic, where it is characterized by a spot with very low tonality (Fig. 3).

Fig. 1 - Bathymetry map with the locations of the studied structures and right also the sidescan mosaic

Fig. 2 - Detail map and 3D image of the structure P1

The second structure in the deep part of the basin, P2, is located at 105.6833°E, 52.0588°N (Fig. 3). It is a more or less circular structure, with a diameter of about 200 m. The height of the structure is 12 m. P2 has also a small crater with a depth of 2m. On the sidescan mosaic, P2 is, just as P1, a patch with a lighter tonality. Structure P3 is located at 105.7299°E, 52.1875°N and is clearly visible on the multibeam as well as on the side scan mosaic (Fig. 3 and 6). The structure is elliptical, with a length of 350 m and a width of 200 m. It has a height of about 7 m. On the sidescan mosaic it is an elliptical patch, with a lower tonality than the surrounding layers. Interesting is that the area around the structure has a speckled aspect, what indicates that it is a rather rough surface.

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Fig. 3 - Detail of the sidescan mosaic, showing the structures P1 and P2

Fig. 4 - Detail map of the structure P2

Fig. 5 - Detail map of structure P3

Fig. 6 - Detail of the sidescan mosaic showing the structures P3 and P4

P4 is an elongated conical structure, located at 105.8085°E, 52.1742°N, which is superposed on a slope (Fig. 7). It has a length of about 475 m and a width of 300 m. The top is flattened in the length, but appears rather steep in the width. The height is about 25 m. On the sidescan mosaic, it is expressed as a patch of low tonality, indicating high backscatter values. P7 is a more or less round depression with a diameter of 120 m, located at 105.9804°N, 52.1234°E (Fig. 8). Its maximum depth is 10 m below the surrounded lakebed.

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Fig. 7 - Detail map of structure P4

Fig. 8 - Detail map of the depression P5

Conclusions Based on the overall shape of these structures and the fact that mud volcanoes also occur mud in other parts of Lake Baikal, we believe that these bottom elevated structures are probably mud volcanoes, originated by the seepage of methane to the lakebed Another argument is that the structures show a typical low tonality on the side scan images, which is also observed at much of the other mud volcanoes present in Lake Baikal. The depression at the other hand may be a pockmark, formed by the expulsion of fluids (mainly methane), which eroded the lake bed and left a depression. It is clear that this new data reveal a lot more of the lakebed of Lake Baikal then was known before. It is not proven yet whether or not these new features are real mud volcanoes, but with this new data and detailed view of the lakebed, determining areas of interest for new surveys will be a lot easier. In order to recognize these structures as real mud volcanoes, there is however still need for seismic investigations and sediment coring. References Klerkx, J., De Batist, M., Poort, J., Hus, R., Van Rensbergen, P., Khlystov, O., Granin, N. [2006] Tectonically controlled methane escape in Lake Baikal. Advances in the Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, 203-219. Scholz, C.A., Hutchinson, D.R. [2000] Stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Selenga Delta Accommodation Zone, Lake Baikal Rift, Siberia. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 89, 212228. Scientific Council [1993] Atlas of Baikal. Federal Agency of Geodesy, Maps of Russia, Moscow. Van Rensbergen, P., De Batist; M., Klerkx, J., Hus, R., Poort, J., Vanneste, M., Granin, N., Khlystov, O., Krinitsky, P. [2002] Sublacustrine mud volcanoes and methane seeps caused by dissociation of gas hydrates in Lake Baikal. Geology, 30(7), 631-634.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Structural mapping and Sedimentological observation of Yasamal Valley. Application for the reservoir characterization of the offshore oil-fields
Rufat Mirzayev*,Ibrahim Mustafayev, Azer Hasanov, Narmina Huseynova, Orkhan Huseynov, Azerbaijan State Oil Academy;Mukhtar Garadaghi, Imperial College Identify poor reservoir quality reasons in offshore oil-fields of South Caspian Basin using surface data (outcrops) integrated with subsurface data.

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Summary The outcrops of the Absheron Peninsula provide some of the best structural (max. 200 words): and sedimentological analogues for hydrocarbon fields in the South Caspian
Basin, offshore Azerbaijan. The observations and measurements with subsequent analysis of the data collected from the outcrops in Yasamal Valley located 10 km SW of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan Republic, paved the way to the integrated study of reservoir characterization of the offshore fields. Specifically, it helped reveal the uncertainty related to patchy distribution of poor reservoir quality areas which could not be readily explained by lithological or sedimentological changes. Measuring the structural formation dips and azimuths of the plunging anticline and mapping them along with porosity and permeability information supported the correlation between the deformation bands and poor reservoir quality in the bending areas of the structure. The results of the fieldwork included the digitized 3D visualization of plunging anticline using Google Earth software and sedimentological description of the main producing stratigraphic units. Moreover, immediate application and the value of the project followed from the integration of the aforementioned fieldwork results and interpretation of subsurface data including curvature maps from seismic data, logs and core images. This conjoint analysis of surface and subsurface data played a key role in reducing the uncertainty associated with poor reservoir quality and future reservoir target optimization of production and injection wells.

Topic:

Petroleum geology, Structural geology

47

Structural mapping and Sedimentological observation of Yasamal Valley. Application for the reservoir characterization of the offshore oil-fields
Rufat Mirzayev, Ibrahim Mustafayev, Azer Hasanov, Narmina Huseynova, Orkhan Huseynov, Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Mukhtar Garadaghi, Imperial College

Introduction The outcrops of the Absheron Peninsula provide some of the best structural and sedimentological analogues for hydrocarbon fields in the South Caspian Basin, offshore Azerbaijan. The observations and measurements with subsequent analysis of the data collected from the outcrops in Yasamal Valley located 10 km SW of Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan Republic (Fig. 1), paved the way to the integrated study of reservoir characterization of the offshore fields. Specifically, it helped reveal the uncertainty related to patchy distribution of poor reservoir quality areas which could not be readily explained by lithological or sedimentological changes. Measuring the structural formation dips and azimuths of the plunging anticline and mapping them along with porosity and permeability information supported the correlation between the deformation bands and poor reservoir quality in the bending areas of the structure. The results of the fieldwork included the digitized 3D visualization of plunging anticline using Google Earth software and sedimentological description of the main producing stratigraphic units. Moreover, immediate application and the value of the project followed from the integration of the aforementioned fieldwork results and interpretation of subsurface data including curvature maps from seismic data, logs and core images. This conjoint analysis of surface and subsurface data played a key role in reducing the uncertainty associated with poor reservoir quality and future reservoir target optimization of production and injection wells.

Fig. 1 Azerbaijan Location (www.graphicmaps.com) Field Work Physical features Yasamal is comprised of several hills and valleys of different scales (Fig. 2). The total area of the valley is more than 50 km2, but only parts of it have geological significance. Yasamal is superelevated compared to the surrounding terrain: Baku and most of the Absheron peninsula are below sea level (-5;-10 m), whereas Yasamal is on average 100 m above sea level. The topographical range is ≈ 300 m. There are 4 lakes in the area. The vegetation is rather sparse: mostly dry grass. The wildlife on the contrary quite abundant: foxes, rabbits, poisonous snakes, 5 cm spiders, etc. The degree of exposure varies greatly.
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The south of the anticline is a world-class exposure about 1 km2; areas in the North (NW in particular) are very poorly exposed, and creeks are the single source of the geological data.

Fig. 2 Views of the Yasamal Valley-study area Stratigraphy Yasamal Valley is unique for its sedimentary geology, as well as opportunity to observe hydrocarbon-bearing and producing rocks exposures over a great area. Companies’ and scientists’ interest towards the valley is due to its being analogous to the ACG giant oil and gas field. The names of the units used in the study are classified and widely used in the literature since the beginning of the 20th century. The stratigraphic record of the YasamalLokbatan area (as well as the majority of the Absheron peninsula) is dominated by the Productive Series (PS) – large group of formations named so because of the vast quantities of oil produced from this rock sequence throughout the whole of Azerbaijan (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3 Geological Map of the East Absheron Peninsula (© BP Exploration) The total thickness of the PS sediments is about 3000 m, but only parts of it are outcropping in the mapping area. The two major suites that are observed, and can be distinguished with relatively high confidence level (despite absence of fossils) are the Balakhany and Sabunchy suites. There is also a remote evidence of the Surakhany suite, but it wasn’t the part of this study, as its exposures are very much limited and localized (western road). The thickness of Balakhany Suite is 350-400 m, whereas Sabunchy is about 300 m thick. Balakhany in turn can be subdivided in 6 units: they are numbered from 5 to 10. Differentiating within the Balakhany unit is crucial for the subsurface petroleum geologists, as only few of the subunits possess the necessary reservoir properties. As a part of the project, an attempt has been made to differentiate the Balakhany subunits based on the depositional environment analysis and the sand/shale content. Balakhany 10 and older rocks, due to poor exposure and access difficulties, as well as lack of study, weren’t subdivided, and therefore

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Older Sediment Unit or N/C (not classified) is often used for it in the mapping area. The main problem of drawing boundaries within Balakhany is the similarity of the rocks of each of the subunits. The boundaries are very subtle and are often argued about. Both Balakhany and Sabunchy were deposited in Early Pliocene (about 4.5 ma). There are no macrofossils found in both of these units, and all the dating and paleontological analysis is lab-based, and thus isn’t a part of this study. Another technique used to date the units was tying everything to the one major sandstone package which many sedimentologists agree to classify as Balakhany 8. Mapping the plunging anticline In order to understand the fold geometry (along with direct in field and map analysis) a number of cross-sections and stereonet plots has been comprised. The fold is roughly striking NNW, with its both limbs exposed and stretching in the same direction: the valley is a more or less straight horizontal section through the anticline. The Eastern and Western limbs are substantially different. The Eastern limb (Limb 1) is far better exposed and studied. It is dipping normally in the SSE, gradually becoming overturned (various way-up criteria used – ripples, mudcracks, mudchip conglomerate, etc.) towards the North, and then changing back to Normal above 4470050 N. There is also dip reversal within the limb laterally – a few dips changing from overturned to normal towards the hinge. The Western limb (Limb 2) is less complex, and composed of beds normally dipping West at various angles, with general trend of steepening towards North (Fig. 4)

Fig. 4 Satellite image of the valley with measured dips placed (Yellow and Red dips measured during the study by Mukhtar Garadaghi and Ibrahim Mustafayev; blue by Dr. Ken McCaffrey, © Durham University)

Integration with subsurface data and application in giant oil-field development The map of the Yasamal anticline observed systematic deformation bands at or proximal to the bending areas of the structure which coincided with the low permeability intervals measured from the outcrops. The core data and images obtained from one of the appraisal wells drilled offshore also confirmed the “fracture-looking” like features (granulation seams), which very well correlated to the field pictures from the outcrop analogues (Fig 5). The deformation bands on the core images obtained under UV light were the reason for low porosity (grain crashing) and low permeability values measured as part of the routine core

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analysis in the laboratory. These observations and conclusions were supported by the log measurements and interpretation in one of the crestal offshore well drilled into the bending area (along the hinge line of the structure) characterized by high density (low porosity) and hence low permeability rocks in the reservoir section. The reservoir rock quality was degrading towards the hinge line of the anticline where the maximal bending and deformation of the rock occurred (Fig 6)

Fig. 5 Granualtion seams (left-core images under UV light, right – field pictures near the bending area)

100m 400

70m 340 m

50m from hinge 250m from shoe

Good Quality reservoir Poor Quality

Well Az

Well A

Fig. 6 Gas injection well drilled into the crest of the structure showing degradation of the reservoir properties towards the hinge line. Green shaded are is the surface of the top of the reservoir filled with oil and the red shaded represents the gas cap. The seismic well section is imposed for comparison with the amplitudes along the crest of the structure Acknowledgments: I would like to thank BP Caspian Exploration for sponsoring the project and providing technical support throughout the study. Special thanks to Mukhtar Garadaghi for letting me use his BSc thesis research for majority of the technical results presented in this abstract References: Ali-Zade, A. A., S. G. Salaev, and A. I. Aliev [1985] Scientific Assessment of Hydrocarbon Prospects in Azerbaijan and the South Caspian and the Direction of Exploration Work, 250 pp., Elm, Baku. Mukhtar Garadaghi [2007] The Sedimentological and Structural Analysis of the Yasamal Valley, Baku, Azerbaijan. Imperial College

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Preliminary time lapse analysis of Moving Source Profile (MSP) data at the CO2SINK project site, Ketzin, Germany

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Can Yang*, Christopher Juhlin (Uppsala University), Nicoleta Enescu (Uppsala University & Vibrometric), Calin Cosma (Vibrometric), Julia Götz, Stefan Luth (GFZ) Time lapse analysis of MSP data, and recognize injection CO2 movement at Ketzin site. Synthetic and real MSP data created to monitor injection CO2 at Ketzin site, Germany.

Moving Source Profile (MSP) data (baseline and repeat) were acquired in Summary (max. 200 words): conjunction with CO2 injection at the Ketzin site, Germany. Synthetic MSP

data were generated for before and after CO2 injection with the 2D finite difference method, and using velocity models derived from borehole logging and lithology information. Analysis of synthetic receiver gathers before and after CO2 injection shows that significant amplitude changes should be observed at and below the CO2 injection layer. Such changes are also observable on real raw MSP data. Based on these observations, the MSP method seems suitable for monitoring CO2 injection. First break time alignment and match filtering were applied on the real baseline and repeat MSP data to avoid near-surface variations and random noise between the two surveys. Migration profiles from both real data sets were compared. Amplitude differences at reservoir level were observed on Line 7, the results being consistent with the full 3D seismic time-lapse results over the injection site.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

52

Preliminary time lapse analysis of Moving Source Profile (MSP) data at the CO2SINK project site, Ketzin, Germany

Can Yang*, Christopher Juhlin (Uppsala University), Nicoleta Enescu (Uppsala University & Vibrometric), Calin Cosma (Vibrometric), Julia Götz, Stefan Luth (GFZ) Introduction
The CO2SINK project located in Ketzin, west of Berlin, started in April 2004 and is the first onshore pilot CO2 storage study in Europe. Gaining operational field experience for on land geologic storage of CO2 was one of the goals of the project. Detailed seismic studies have been carried out at the site as an important component of the project. Both surface and borehole seismic surveys (Juhlin et al., 2007) were used to map the geological structure in the area and for time-lapse monitoring of the injected CO2. Main objectives of time-lapse seismic studies are imaging CO2 movement in the injection reservoir, detection of leakage and quantification of CO2 saturation, if possible. We present here results from baseline and repeat MSP seismic data acquisition, modeling and processing, and show preliminary monitoring images for injection of CO2 into the reservoir.

MSP data acquisition
Baseline MSP data acquisition were recorded in the observer well Ketzin 202 using a geophone string with 8 levels at depths extending from 470m to 540m, and 7 shot lines (584 source points) on the surface (Figure 1), in the end of November 2005. The shot point interval was 12m, and receiver station interval was 10m. The seismic survey lines had near offsets of 147m to 247m to the injection borehole. In mid-September 2009, a repeat MSP survey was acquired with just one receiver, at depth 470m, because technical limitations for borehole access through a lubricator. Some shots were skipped, due to poor field conditions. Acquisition parameters are shown in Table 1. Near surface conditions varied between the two surveys, as did random and injection generated noise, resulting in differences between the baseline and repeat surveys observable in the raw shot gathers.

Fig. 1 Location of the MSP shot lines (red). Only lines 6 / 7 (blue) are reported on in this abstract. Locations of the observation (OW) and injection (IW) wells are also shown. Receivers were placed in well Ketzin 202 (OW2).

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Table 1. Acquisition parameters for baseline and repeat seismic survey. Parameter Value Receiver station 10m/8 (one channel for repeat data) spacing/channels Receiver depth range 470m to 540m (470m for repeat data) Source point spacing Number of source points (7 lines) Length of survey lines Geophones Sampling rate Decoded length Source 12m V1 84 V2 84 V3 86 V4 20 V5 126 V6 68 V7 80 V1 996m V2 996m V3 1014m V4 228m V5 1500m V6 804m V7 947m V19 531m V20 540m 3 component R8XYZ-cg geophone chain 0.25 ms (1 ms for repeat data) 3s VIBISIST-1000 Impact energy (joule):2500 Impact frequency(blows/min):340-680 Operating Weight(kg):2200

MSP data modeling and processing
Synthetic MSP data were generated by a 2D finite difference code using velocity models from borehole well logging and lithology information (Figure 2). The difference in the injection layer can be observed in Figure 3, as amplitude changes at ~325ms. Also, on the real raw repeat receiver gather of line 6, clear amplitude changes appear at the injection layer. Results from baseline and repeat MSP data on line 7 are presented. The main processing steps were: (1) pre-processing, (2) wavefield separation and (3) migration. Bulk static shifts were applied to the baseline and repeat data to compensate for source delays. First break time alignment and match filtering were applied. Geometrical spreading compensation, hodogram analysis and median filtering for wavefield separation were then applied, followed by bandpass filter and trace balancing. Image point VSP migration (Cosma et al., 2010) was used to map the data.

Fig. 2 Synthetic models before and after CO2 injection. An anhydrite layer (K2) and injection layer are marked.

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Fig. 3 Synthetic MSP receiver gather at 470m depth before and after injection, and difference between each other. The anhydrite layer (K2) and injection layer are marked. Time lapse analysis
About 20,000 tons of CO2 had been injected at the time of the repeat survey. The most pronounced event on the MSP sections is the K2 reflection, originating from a 12-20m thick high velocity anhydrite layer. The CO2 injection reservoir is located about 160m below the lowest geophone. Distinct changes in the difference images appear at the level of the injection (Figure 4). At this time it is difficult to quantitatively assess the changes, as more work is required to control the relative adjustment of amplitudes between the two surveys. The preliminary results shown here are from the MSP surveys only and conclusions regarding the location and migration of injected CO2 will only be drawn by corroborating all independent studies and information available in the area. A more detailed synthetic data analysis of the MSP surveys can be useful to quantify the changes and as aid for data interpretation.
K2

Injection layer

Baseline-line7 View from South

Repeat-line7 View from South 3D View from below

Fig. 4 Baseline and repeat migrated images for MSP line 7 (Left). After subtraction, the largest amplitude differences appear at the injection layer (Right). 3D surface seismic amplitude difference map is shown in blue. Conclusions
Baseline and repeat MSP data were acquired in 2005 and 2009, with nearly the same geometry and source, but different number of receivers. After first break alignment and match filtering, nearly the same processing steps were used to produce baseline and repeat migrated sections. It is clear that

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significant amplitude changes can be observed at the CO2 injection level. A preliminary difference map of the 3D time lapse surface shows that the MSP data can image the CO2 with high resolution. MSP surveys can be used to produce quick results on CO2 migration near the injection borehole during injection.

Acknowledgements
The CO2SINK project is financed by the European Commission, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, research institutes and industry (RWE, Schlumberger, Shell, Statoil and Vattenfall), under project No. 502599. Can Yang would also like to thank the China Scholarship Council for providing him with a scholarship for his PhD studies.

References Cosma, C., Balu, L. and Enescu, N. [2010] 3D VSP Migration by Image Point Transform. Geophysics, accepted. Juhlin C., Giese, R., Zinck-Jørgensen, K., Cosma, C., Kazemeini, H., Juhojuntti N.,Luth, S., Norden, B., and Förster, A. [2007] 3D baseline seismics at Ketzin, Germany: the CO2SINK project. Geophysics, 72, 121–132.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Is the Getic Basin a Foreland Basin?

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandru Lăpădat*, Babeş-Bolyai University, Radu Olaru, Roxana Duduş, Gabriela Şerbănescu, Victor Barbu, Csaba Krézsek, OMV Petrom

Interpretation of the Miocene.structural and sedimentary evolution of the western Getic Basin. Structural and sedimentary evolution of the western Getic Basin based on data reinterpretation from wells and seismic.

Summary The Getic Basin was described as the foreland of the Carpathians starting (max. 200 words): with the Paleogene (Săndulescu, 1984), but the presence of Paleogene to
Early Miocene strike-slip deformations (Maţenco et al., 1997, Răbăgia & Maţenco, 1999, Schmid et al., 2008) suggested a different evolution of the Southern Carpathians foreland. Seismic and well data were use for the interpretation of the Miocene structural and sedimentary evolution of the western Getic Basin. Stratigraphical succesion was reinterpreted using biostratigraphical data and lithological correlation. Based on this, on the southern and northern rim of the basin, pakages of ruditic siliciclastics, thickening towards the faults interpreted, were assigned to the Early Burdigalian. This indicates a major extensional fault network in Burdigalian, many of these faults inverted during Mid Miocene. Burdigalian deposits continue with salt and shallow-marine sandstones, that overlaps the Early Burdigalian graben shoulders. Burdigalian extensional faults and the conglomerates related, denote a major transtensional tectonic activity in the western Getic Basin, coeval with the movement and the rotation of the Carpathian units along the north-western corner of Moesia (Schmid et al., 2008). The foreland-type evolution of the Getic Basin started only in MidMiocene when the Burdigalian faults were inverted and the Getic basin was detached and thrusted over Moesia to the south.

Topic:

Tectonics

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Is the Getic Basin a Foreland Basin?
Alexandru Lăpădat, Babeş-Bolyai University, Radu Olaru, Roxana Duduş, Gabriela Şerbănescu, Victor Barbu, Csaba Krézsek, OMV Petrom
Introduction The Getic Basin, situated south of Southern Carpathians, is a mature region for hydrocarbon exploration. Săndulescu (1984) described it as the foreland of the Carpathians starting with the Paleogene. The presence of Paleogene to Early Miocene strike-slip deformations was discussed, among others, by Maţenco et al. (1997); Schmid et al. (1998, 2008), Răbăgia and Maţenco (1999); Kräutner & Krstic (2002), Tărăpoancă et al. (2007). The objective of this paper is to interpret the Miocene structural and sedimentary evolution of the western Getic Basin. We benefit from the database of OMV Petrom S.A., which consists of several hundred kilometers of 2D and 3D seismic and a large number of wells. There were used more than 100 wells and were reinterpreted the stratigraphic succession using biostratigraphic data. Data from geological maps of the northern border of the Getic Basin have been integrated in the regional interpretation. Three regional seismic sections were constructed on the follow alignments: Section 1 (Fig 1 A): Ilovăţ - Ciovarnăşani, Section 2 (Fig 1B): Brădiceni – Câlnic – Mătăsari, Section 3 (Fig 1C): Săcelu – Scoarţa – Ţicleni, which are representative for the structural style of the western Getic Basin. Data Analysis Several major thrust faults of Mid Miocene age are observed in the seismic sections. One of these faults represents the southern tip of the Inner Carpathians, which can be traced along the Ciovârnăşani – Câlnic – Scoarţa – Colibaşi lineament. In the north, several wells intercepted the Inner Carpathians: the Mesozoic of the Getic nappe and one well sampled Sinaia flysch-like facies, possibly part of the Severin nappe. In Fig. 1A (e.g. Ciovârnăşani), the Inner Carpathians completely override the Getic Basin and are thrusted over the Moesian platform. In other sections, to the east (e.g. Câlnic on Fig. 1B), the Inner Carpathians override only the Getic Basin. In the Ţicleni area (Fig. 1C) a more than 4 km thick coarse sediments package with an internal salt horizon located in the hangingwall of a Mid Miocene thrust has been penetrated by several wells. The conglomeratic succession beneath the salt was considered Eocene, but we assigned it to the Early Burdigalian based on the presence of a foraminifera assemblage with Globigerinoides trilobus. Seismic data shows the conglomerates thicken towards the Mid Miocene thrust plane (Fig. 1C). This suggests the Mid Miocene thrust was a major extensional fault in the Burdigalian which controlled the deposition of the conglomerates. Other wells, mainly located along the northern rim of the Getic Basin (e.g. Ciovârnăşani, Câlnic, Voiteşti, Săcelu and Ciocadia) also contain thick packages of Burdigalian siliciclastics. Typically, these start with red alluvial conglomerates with metamorphic and magmatic clasts of Carpathian origin and fine upwards into shallow marine sandstones. Some of the Mid Miocene thrust faults may be interpreted as inverted Burdigalian extensional faults (Fig. 1). We mapped the outline of these faults and constructed a structural model for the Burdigalian of the western Getic Basin (Fig. 2). The fault network suggests a major Burdigalian transtensional basin that widens to the east. The extensional fault network seems to converge towards the west into a few extensional faults. The orientation of the fault network in the Getic Basin fits with other faults located further to the north, in the Southern Carpathians. Sedimentation in the Burdigalian Getic Basin started with reddish conglomerates (Early Burdigalian), which likely represent coarse-grained alluvial fans. These conglomerates have a clear syn-tectonic character, i.e. thicken toward the major extensional faults at the northern and southern border of the basin. The alluvial fans locally are covered by salt, which suggests the onset of the marine transgression in the basin. The transgression continues in the Late Burdigalian and sedimentation overlaps the Early Burdigalian graben shoulders. This may be exemplified by shallow-

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marine sandstones, which onlap to the south the pre-Neogene unconformity of Moesia (e.g. Bibeşti – Bulbuceni area) to the south, and the Mesozoic of the Getic nappe to the north. Discussions and conclusions The conglomerates deposited during the Burdigalian in a relative short period of time (~5 m.y.) indicate major transtensional tectonic activity, coeval with the movement and the rotation of the Carpathian units along the north-western corner of Moesia (Răbăgia & Maţenco 1999; Schmid et al., 2008). The opening of the Burdigalian Getic Basin towards the north-east was probably synchronous with orogen parallel extension in the South Carpathians and related Danubian core-complex formation (Schmid et al. 1998, Maţenco et al., 1999). Our analysis indicates during the Burdigalian the western part of the Getic Basin functioned as a transtensional basin developing on the sheared distal margin of Moesia. The Burdigalian faults of the western Getic Basin are part of an extensional splay, which develops from the Timok fault to the south and runs parallel to the Cerna-Jiu fault system. The foreland-type evolution of the basin started in the Mid Miocene. By that time the extensional faults were highly inverted and the Getic Basin was detached and thrusted over Moesia to the south. The youngest deformation of the Getic Basin is related to minor post-Sarmatian strike-slip movements (Dupont-Nivet et al., 2005). Acknowledgements I am grateful to OMV Petrom to allow publishing proprietary data. I’d like to thank my colleagues from the Exploration Department, OMV Petrom, for their continuing support and for sharing their vast knowledge and experience. I gratefully acknowledge Stuart Bland for thick-skinned interpretation in Ticleni. Heiko Oterdoom, Henning Grothkopp, and Adriana Răileanu are acknowledged for the constructive reviewing of this paper. References Dupont-Nivet, G., Vasiliev, I., Langereis, C., Krijgsman, W., Panaiotu, C. [2005] Neogene tectonic evolution of the southern and eastern Carpathians constrained by paleomagnetism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 374-387. Kräutner, H.G., Krstić, B. [2002] Alpine and Pre-Alpine structural units within the Southern Carpathians and the Eastern Balkanides, Proceedings of XVII. Congress of Carpathian -Balkan Geological Association Bratislava, September 1–4 2002. Geologica Carpathica 53 Special Issue Maţenco, L., Zoetemeijer, R., Cloetingh, S., Dinu, C. [1997] Lateral variation in mechanical properties of the Romanian external Carpathians: inferences of flexure and gravity modelling. Tectonophysics 282, 147-166. Maţenco, L. & Schmid, S., [1999] Exhumation of the Danubian nappes system (South Carpathians) during the Early Tertiay: inferences from kinematic and paleostress analysis at the Getic / Danubian nappes contact. Tectonophysics 314, 401-422. Răbăgia, T. & Maţenco, L., [1999] Tertiary tectonic and sedimentological evolution of the South Carpathians foredeep: tectonic vs eustatic control. Marine and Petroleum Geology 16, 719-740. Săndulescu, M. [1984] Geotectonica României.Ed Tehnică, Bucharest, 450 pp. Schmid, S., Berza, T., Diaconescu, V., Froitzheim, N., Fügenschuh, B. [1998] Orogen – parallel extension in the South Carpathians. Tectonophysics 297, 209-228. Schmid, S., Bernoulli, D., Fügenschuh, B., Maţenco, L., Schefer, S., Schuster, R., Tischler, M., Ustaszewski, K. [2008] The Alpine – Carpathian – Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units. Swiss J. Geosciences, 1-45. Tărăpoancă, M., Ţambrea, D., Avram V., Popescu B. [2007] The geometry of the south leading Carpathian thrust line and the Moesia boundary : the role of inherited structures in establishing a transcurent contact on the concave side of the Carpathians. In Lacombe O. et al (eds.) Thrust belts and foreland basins, 369-384. Springer, Berlin.

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Fig. 1A ( S1 in Fig. 2 ) – This intepreted seismic section is showing the thrust of the Carpathian units over the Moesian platform. Lower Burdigalian deposits are override by Mesozoic basement of the Getic nappe.

Fig. 1B (S2 in Fig. 2) – Intepreted seismic section showing the widening of the Early Burdigalian basin towards east. Thrust fault form Mătăsari was interpreted according with the Ţicleni thrust.

Fig. 1C (S3 in Fig. 2) – Thickening of the Burdigalian toward the Ţicleni Mid Miocene thrust fault suggest an extensional function during Early Miocene. In N the normal faults are detached by the Mid Miocene thrust fault, when are probably inverted.

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Fig.2 Sketch with the reconstruction of the Getic Basin during Early Miocene. Seismic sections intepreted in Fig. 1 are showned. Scale is variable here.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The influence of salt diapirs on the Rusi-Cenade fault and the tectonics of the Southeastern part of the Transylvanian basin

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ranete Emilia*, Girneata Nina, Corneliu Dinu, Ioan Munteanu, University of Bucharest

Identification of tectonic activities which may have been influenced by salt.

The influence of the salt deposits on the Trasylvanian Basin. Case study of Rusi-Cenade fault.

Summary The evolution of the Transylvanian basin from Miocene (Middle to Late) is (max. 200 words): connected with the major tectonic events recorded by the history of
sedimentation. The major tectonic events happened during Late Sarmatian and Post-Pannonian are believed to be linked to the reactivation of the Badenian systems. The basin was uplifted during Pliocene, and 500 m of sediments were eroded. The paper is studying the effects the salt had on the sedimentary evolution of the basin. Starting with the Late Oligocene, the evolution of the Alpine-Carpathian orogen, met with periods of time when it was isolated and sometimes had a limited connection with the episutural and perisutural basins from Tethys. During Mid Miocene and Late Miocene, the intracarpathic basins formed aquatic bioprovinces, but each of the basin with a separate tectonic evolution.

Topic:

Tectonics

62

The influence of salt diapirs on the Rusi-Cenade fault and the tectonics of the Southeastern part of the Transylvanian basin
Emilia Ranete, Girneata Nina, Corneliu Dinu, Ioan Munteanu, University of Bucharest Introduction The Transylvanian basin is a major sedimentary basin, an area of about 20000 square km, formed in the interior of Carpathian orogen which is also the Northern, Eastern and Southern limit of the basin (fig.1). The Western limit is represented by Apuseni mountains which delimitates the Transylvanian basin from the Pannonian basin. Despite their close vicinity, the numerous modern studies revealed important differences in their tectonic evolution and structure, the main one being that the Pannonian basin is primarily a back-arc extensional basin, no such structures can be found in the Transylvanian one (Ciulavu et al., 2000). In addition to the fact that any Tertiary tectonic processes are missing from the studied area the low heat flow (42mw/m2), the high topography (600-800m) the thickness of the crust (27-45km) and the major Middle Miocene basin subsidence, of minimum 2 km, makes the existence of the basin a mystery among geoscientists today. Despite the fact that many studies and research projects have been done in the area, the Middle Miocene subsidence of the basin still has not been explained, and it's still a matter left for further research among geoscientists today.

Fig. 1 The localization of the Rusi-Cenade fault and the seismic profile we have used to interpret the structural geology of the area. The age of the Transylvanian basin is consider to be Late Cretaceous, Senonian in the Northern Part and earlier, Cenomanian in the South, postdating the major episode of Carpathian deformation. The close relation between the basin and the Carpatian orogen evolution is also suggested by the continuation of the Carpathain and Apuseni structures, under the sedimentary fill of the basin, which is the basement of the basin. The sedimentary infill is believed to be accumulated in N-S to NE-SW trending subsiding sub-basins (Ciupagea et al., 1970). The sedimentary succession of the basin starts with Upper Cretaceous deposits (Ciupagea et al., 1970; Paraschiv, 1979) and ends in Upper Miocene (Pannonian) deposits.

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Our study focuses on the deformations patterns from the Southern part of the basin, were Early Badenian extensional structures can be recognized, filed with evaporites deposits, which have been later on involved in halokinetic processes, resembled in diapiric structures, large folds and thrust faults. One such fault is Rusi-Cenade fault, which crops out (fig.1) in the Southern part of the basin. The continuation in depth of this fault is reveled interpreting seismic lines in correlation with wells, drilled for gas reservoirs. The Rusi-Cenade fault is a SW vergent thrust. The direction changes from roughly E-V to NV-SE (fig.1). Due to subsequent uplift and erosion of the entire basin, more than 500 m, according with Sanders (2002), no syn-kinematics sediments can be found. This makes difficult to establish the precise age of deformation. Considering that in NE the salt formations are above the fault (as seen in fig.2), afterwards, the salt formation going under the limit of the fault.

Data and methodology The investigation of the area has been done with the help of a number of wells and seismic profiles drawn out in order to study the area for oil and gas deposits.
As shown in fig. 2, the Rusi-Cenade thrust fault is placed in the North Eastern part of the basin and it’s the only one in the area which outcrops. Due to this fault the salt deposits (the top of the salt deposits being marked with red on the interpretation) have been moved in front of the fault. There have been numerous kind of theories that say that the salt tectonics play a very important role in the tectonics of the entire basin. From what we have seen and studied, and judging by the placement of the stratigraphy in the area, the Rusi-Cenade fault is actually younger than the salt deposits (Lower Badenian), its formation may be linked to the salt tectonics. The Sarmatian deposits consist of sandstones and marls, and the Hadereni tuff (marked with green in fig.2 ). We have also observed that the reverse faults system located around the Rusi-Cenade one, don’t outcrop and we can also see that the salt deposits located in the easternmost part of the seismic profile, are placed on the faults, suggesting that the system is younger than the salt deposits, their formation may or may not be linked to the activity of the Rusi-Cenade one.

Fig. 2 The interpretation of the seismic profile we have shown in Fig.1

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Conclusions

We can’t be sure of the exact age of the Rusi-Cenade fault, since there are no sin-kinematic deposits which we can observed and therefore studied, this being due to post-kinematic uplift, and subsequent erosion (300-500 m according to Sanders). However since Pannonian folded deposits are trapped under the thrust, we can make an approximation to Upper PannonianPliocene times. The geometry of fault is controlled both by salt movements which act as a decolement level and also by previous presumly Early Badenian extensional structures (fig.2) which act like a ramp.
Aknowledgements We would like to thank ROMGAZ for providing us with the data they have gathered in their wells and kindly giving us a few of their seismic profiles. We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Ing. Corneliu Dinu and Ing. Drd. Ioan Munteanu for their help and support provided while writing this paper. References Ciulavu, D., Dinu, C., Szaka´cs, A., Dordea, D. [2000] Neogene kinematics of the Transylvanian Basin, Romania. AAPG Bulletin, 84 (10), 1589–1615. Ciupagea, D., Pauca, M., Ichim, T. [1970] Geology of the Transylvanian Depression in Romanian, Acad. R.S.R, Bucharest, 256 pp. Paraschiv, D. [1979] Romanian Oil and Gas Fields. Institutul de Geologie si Geofizica Studii Tehnice si Economice Seria A, (13), Bucharest, 382 pp. Sanders, C.A.E., Huismans, R., van Wees, J.D., Andriessen, P. [2002] The Neogene history of the Transylvanian Basin in relation to its surrounding mountains. EGU Stephan Mueller Special Publication Series, 3, 121–133.

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Title:

The interpretation of gas chromatography datas from VAB 1 borehole (Danish Sector of the North Sea)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Frenţescu Vlad*, Ianuş Ciprian, Chirilă Gabriel, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi

Summary Steering a well requires the identification of lithology changes, reservoir (max. 200 words): contacts and reservoir quality. These requirements are met through
traditional mud logging techniques, evaluating lithology, porosity and fluid type through penetration rate, drilled cuttings, fluorescence and gas responses. Chromatographic gas ratios provide an extra dimension to geosteering wells, through accurate determination of reservoir fluid changes and contact points, providing a technique where contacts are strictly fluid based, with no corresponding lithology changes required for the LWD gamma tool to work. The use of gas chromatography helped us to steer the well through zones of oil production potential with much more reduced costs than wireline logging costs. Another important advantage is that GC provides us real time datas about the reservoir. Certainly GWD is the fastest and cheapest method to use in the determination of reservoir fluid type.

Topic:

Petroleum geology

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The interpretation of gas chromatography datas from VAB 1 borehole (Danish Sector of the North Sea)
Frenţescu Vlad, Ianuş Ciprian, Gabriel Chirilă, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi Introduction Reservoir productivity can be significantly increased by drilling horizontal wells through zones of optimum reservoir quality. Steering a well requires the identification of lithology changes, reservoir contacts and reservoir quality. These requirements are met through traditional mud logging techniques, evaluating lithology, porosity and fluid type through penetration rate, drilled cuttings, fluorescence and gas responses. Chromatographic gas ratios provide an extra dimension to geosteering wells, through accurate determination of reservoir fluid changes and contact points, providing a technique where contacts are strictly fluid based, with no corresponding lithology changes required for the LWD gamma tool to work. Valdemar Field The primary objective of VAB-1 well was to evaluate and drain the Lower Cretaceous oil accumulation on the eastern flank of the Valdemar North Jens structure (Fig 1). The planned horizontal production section was positioned in the Middle and Upper subdivisions of the Tuxen Formation. A secondary objective was to appraise the reservoir quality and the extent of the oil accumulation, in the Sola and Tuxen Formations towards the south of the Valdemar, North Jens structure, by means of a pop-up section at the end of the well.

Fig. 1 Location of the Valdemar Field (Evans et al., 2003) This depositional sequences in the Danish and southern Norwegian sectors of the Central Graben, Tuxen Formation is characterized by a heterogeneous succession of interbedded coccolith chalks and marlstones (Ineson,1993a). This formation is an important and often overlooked hydrocarbon play (Ineson,1993b). Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries have been made in the Tuxen Formation at the Valdemar Field, and at the nearby Adda Field which is presently under development.

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Method Gas chromatography (GC) – specifically gas–liquid chromatography involves a sample being vaporized and injected onto the head of the chromatographic column. The sample is transported through the column by the flow of an inert gaseous mobile phase. The gas trap steers the mud with a high speed, rotating agitator (figure 3), releasing the gases within the mud for analysis. The gases are then drawn to the logging unit by a sample pump and analysed. Gas composition is determined by the use of a thermal conductivity Gas Chromatograph (Varian CP 9400 type), which allows for continuous high-speed analysis of C1 to C5 and CO2, every 30 seconds (fig. 2). In figure 2, with red line are presented heavy gases (C3, IC4, NC4, IC5, NC5) and with blue line light components (C1, C2, CO2). Recording of background gases, liberated gases and produced gases were monitored for use in formation and safety evaluations. Gas concentrations are reported in % of volume of sample for the total gas, and ppm (part per million) of sample volume for the chromatograph methane to pentane breakdown. The moisture from the gas line is removed using CaCl2 or Glycol. The gas line is used to transport the gas from the gas trap to TGD (Total Gas Detector) and Gas Chromatograph. After the analysis made by the Gas Chromatograph, the obtained data is transferred to a server and will be plotted to a computer screen.

Fig. 2 Gas chromatogram resulted using Varian CP 9400 Chromatograph Fluid characterization can be made with a number of different ratio techniques. The chromatographic gas ratios most applicable to real-time analysis and geosteering are the Wetness, Balance and Character ratios published by Haworth et al., (1985). The chromatography is high speed in order to provide the necessary depth resolution and accurate contact and zonal definition. The examples shown in this paper are with an analysis time, methane through pentane, of less than 30 seconds. In addition, the gas ratios must be calculated real-time so that reservoir fluids are characterized as drilling proceeds. The ratios used for geosteering (proposed by Haworth, 1985) are: Wetness Ratio, Balance Ratio and Character Ratio. Wetness Ratio (Wh) = [(C2+C3+C4+C5)/(C1+C2+C3+C4+C5)] x 100 Balance Ratio (Bh) = [(C1+C2)/(C3+C4+C5)] Character Ratio (Ch) = (C4+C5)/C3

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Fig. 3 Gas system for extraction and analysis of the gas from drilling fluid Discussions and results Obtained results for Wetness Ratio, Balance Ratio and Character Ratio from the VAB 1 well have been plotted in figure 4. We consider that only data from 8220 ft MDRT (measured depth from rotary table) to 15550 ft is important for our study. This because the hole was horizontally drilled in order to traverse the Tuxen Formation (figure 5). Tuxen Formation is considered main reservoir and Sola Formation is the secondary one for the Valdemar Field. Few drilling problem have been encountered at 11140 ft, 12140 ft, 13540 ft and 15850 ft MDRT. At the mentioned depth four faults have been found and the drilling mud was partially lost and the afferent gas for chromatographic analysis was also lost.

Fig. 4 Type of produced hydrocarbons From approximately 9700 ft MDRT the bit started to drill into an oil bearing formation until 10250ft. At this depth we encountered a gas and condensate bearing formation and we steer the well downwards in attempt of avoiding this zone. The steer was too severe and because of that, from 10350 ft we have entered into a zone with heavy or residual oil. Anyway, from 10450 ft the course of the well was reestablished into a zone of oil production potential. At the depth of 11300 ft the drilling was taking place in a zone of gas and light oil. This "steering the well game" had happened until 15550 ft MDRT helping us to set the corresponding measured depths of GOC and OWC. In the graph presented in figure 4 we can see the oil bearing formations situated between: 9700ft - 10250ft, 10450ft - 11300ft, 12650ft - 13150ft, 13450ft - 13700ft, 13980ft - 15200 ft, 15300ft - 15550ft. These zones were proposed for being fractured in order to extract the oil.

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The use of gas chromatography helped us to steer the well through zones of oil production potential with much more reduced costs than wireline logging costs. Another important advantage is that GC provides us real time datas about the reservoir. Certainly GWD is the fastest and cheapest method to use in the determination of reservoir fluid type.

Fig. 5 The VAB 1 trajectory and main faults. Drawings were made using Digimap and Surfer 8.0 software. Acknowledgements Authors wish to thank to International Logging and Maersk Oile Og Gas for provided datas. References Brumboiu, A.,O., Hawker, D., P., Norquay D., A., Wolcott, D., K. [2000] Application of Semipermeable Membrane Technology in the Measurement of Hydrocarbon Gases in Drilling Fluids, SPE 62525, SPE/AAPG, Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, June 2000. Evans, D., Graham, C., Armour, A,. Bathurst, P. [2003] The Millennium Atlas: Petroleum Geology of the central and northern North Sea. The Geological Society of London Graversen, O. [2002] A structural transect between the central North Sea Dome and the South Swedish Dome: Middle Jurassic–Quaternary uplift/subsidence reversal and exhumation across the eastern North Sea Basin. Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 196, 67–83. Hawker, D., P. [2000] Membrane Technology Quantifies Gas in Drilling Muds, American Oil and Gas Reporter, 43, 12, November 2000. Hawker, D., P. [1999] Datalog’s internal Hydrocarbon Evaluation and Interpretation manual, 2.0. Haworth, J., H., Sellens, M., P., Gurvis, R., L. [1984] Reservoir Characterization by Analysis of Light Hydrocarbon Shows, SPE 12914. Haworth, J., H., Sellens, M., P., Whittaker, A. [1985] Interpretation of Hydrocarbon Shows using Light (C1-C5) Hydrocarbon Gases from Mud Log Data, AAPG V69 No 8, August 1985. Hawker, D., P. [1999] Direct Gas in Mud Measurement at the Wellsite, Petroleum Engineer International, 72, September 9. Ineson, J., R., [1993a] The Lower Cretaceous chalk play in the Danish Central Trough. 175-183 in Petroleum Geology of Northwest Europe: Proceedings of the 4th Conference. PARKER, J R (editor). (London: The Geological Society of London.) Ineson, J., R., [1993b] Rotliegend (Lower Permian) of Denmark. in Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse Service Report, No. 36, 1-29 p (Copenhagen: Geological Survey of Denmark)

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Abstract Submission Form
Title: Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the North-Westhern BlackSea self, in Pontian times

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered: Summary (max. 200 words):

Ioan Munteanu*, Corneliu Dinu ,University of Bucharest

Arhitecture of the Wester Black Sea Basin, romanian offshore, during Miocene-Quaternary times Conection between sea leve drop, sediment influx and gravitational sliding

Development of gravitational sliding

During the Paleogene–Pliocene, mountain building processes in the Alpine– Carpathians domain caused the separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean part of the Tethys basin. During the Miocene, Carpathians tectonics induced a further fragmentation of the Paratethys, the eastern branch being spatially overlap three sub-basins: Dacic, Black Sea and Caspian.In the Black Sea, Neogene sea level fluctuations and Alpine tectonics are responsible for periods of massive sedimentation followed by sediment starvation and/or significant erosion, with important volumes of sediments being transported basinwards. As a result, the Neogene section on Romanian self consists only of Badenian-Sarmatian, Meotian?Pontian and Dacian, Romanian-Quaternary series, separated by regional unconformities (fig.2 and 3). The first one is also the lower limit of Miocene deposits. The second one represents the Middle and Upper Miocene boundary. During Upper Miocene Pliocene times three important erosional surfaces can be trace on seismic lines (fig.2 and 3).

Topic:

Petroleum geology, Structural geology, Tectonics

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The Western Black Sea Basin architecture, during Miocene-Quaternary times, Romanian offshore
Ioan Munteanu, Corneliu Dinu, University of Bucharest The Northward subduction of Neotethys ocean, from Triassic to Miocene, lead to the formation of a numerous back-arc basins behind island-arcs. After the final subduction and subsequent continental collision took place, the back-arc basins are also affected by inversion. This is also the case of the Western Black Sea Basin, which begin his evolution in Mid Cretaceous times (Gorur, 1988, Dinu et al., 2005), extensional structures being reported from Turkey to Romanian self. On Romanian self this extension continues till Early Sennonian. From Sennonian to Early Palaeogene times this area develops as a passive margin, with development of thick carbonatic successions. The passive margin evolution was interrupted in Late Eocene, when final subduction of Intra-Pontide ocean, and subsecvent continental collision took place in Pontides area (Gorur et al.1988), leading to general inversion of previous extensional structures, all over the Black-Sea basin. In particularly on Romanian self important inversion took place in Oligocene-Lower Miocene period, although Late Eocene inversion structures can also be found, with small offset and amplitude. During the Paleogene–Pliocene, mountain building processes in the Alpine–Carpathians domain caused the separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean part of the Tethys basin. During the Miocene, Carpathians tectonics induced a further fragmentation of the Paratethys, the eastern branch being spatially overlap three sub-basins: Dacic, Black Sea and Caspian. In these semiisolated basins, which were occasional connected to the main Tethyan realm, marine to brackish or fresh water sediments containing endemic faunas were deposited. This makes the stratigraphic correlation difficult and sometimes ambiguous. Neogene geochronology for Romanian onshore is identical with that used for the Dacic Basin. In the Black Sea, Neogene sea level fluctuations and Alpine tectonics are responsible for periods of massive sedimentation followed by sediment starvation and/or significant erosion, with important volumes of sediments being transported basinwards. As a result, the Neogene section on Romanian self consists only of Badenian-Sarmatian, Meotian?-Pontian and Dacian, RomanianQuaternary series, separated by regional unconformities (fig.2 and 3). The first one is also the lower limit of Miocene deposits. The second one represents the Middle and Upper Miocene boundary. During Upper Miocene Pliocene times three important erosional surfaces can be trace on seismic lines (fig.2 and 3). Data and methodology Our study focus on the post-Oligocene structural and sedimentological evolution of the Romanian shelf area, based on Romanian oil industry data consisting of more than 6000 km of reflection seismic profiles situated on the shelf and continental slope. In addition to that depth and lithostratigraphic data from 60 boreholes located on the shelf have been used to calibrate the seismic profiles. The interpretation was made using Petrel software. During the interpretation several important horizons and faults have been mapped and correlated. Sequence stratigraphy methodology was also use to establish system-traks, and of course sea level variation during Mio-Pliocene times.

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Fig.1. Map of base of Miocene deposits. The black lines shows the location of fig.2 and 3. Note also the increase in depth in the South-East direction.

Conclusions Our study revealed that important subsidence and eastward basin tilting took place after Middle Miocene times. The Upper Miocene-Pliocene succession is affected by gravitational sliding and expansion which resembled in formation of normal faults, shore-wards and related thrust fault sea-wards (fig.3.). Such structures develop just on the Northen part of Roamanian self (fig.3), where Miocene sediments are thicker (probably related with high sunbsidence rate and also high influx of sediments, fig.1) . No such structures can be found to the South (fig.2). The gravitational sliding took place in two phases, both of them seem to be related with sea level drop, which induced slope instability and gravitational sliding with developing of normal faults and associated thrust fault. The first generation of faults seems to be related with sea level drop, during Messinian salinity crisis, since these faults are truncated under Upper Pontian/Middle Pontian unconformity (Intra Pontian Unconformity). The second phase of normal faults seems to correlate with sea level drop during Pliocene.

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Fig.2. Interpreted seismic line, in the Souther part of Romanian self (for location see fig.1). Note that the Miocene-Pliocene is not affected by gravitational sliding. Note also high amount of subsidence during Pontian times (Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene).

Fig.3. Interpreted seismic lines over the Northern part of Romanian self. Note the presence of gravitational faults. The blue line represents the limit between Upper and Lower-Middle Pontian (Miocene/Pliocene boundary). See fig.1 for location. (Figure modify after D. Tambrea, 2007).

Acknowledgements This work was done in research program, 312/2007, founded by CNCSIS. We also want to thanks Schlumberger, Bucharest office, for providing the Petrel software. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., [2005]. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410 (1–4), 417–435. Gorur, N., [1988]. Timing of opening of the Black Sea basin. Tectonophysics 147, 242– 262. Tambrea, D., Sindilar, V., Olaru, R., [2000]. The Pontian from the Romanian continental shelf of the Black Sea. Rom. Oil J. 7 (1), 9– 20. Tambrea D., [2007]. PHd-Thesis (in romanian), University of Bucharest.

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1 International Symposium of Geology and Geophysics Students
• Seismic Processing and Near Surface Engineering
Code Title & Authors Searching for a Roman Villa and Prehistoric Flint Mines in Kanton Zürich I101 Aaron Girard*, Mitch Jie-A-Looi, Jenneke Bakker, Fabien Momot, IDEA-League I102 Heavy metals in recent sediments of the Djerdap Lake Nevena Andrić*, University of Belgrade I103 Grain size of loess, palaeosol and their paleoclimatic implication Daniela Dimofte*, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest I104 Waste dumps stability problems in the context of environmental protection. Case study – E.M. Petrila waste dump Alexandru Balint*, University of Petroșani I105 Magnetic pollution and content of heavy metals in soils and vegetation of Kyiv Iryna Stakhiv*, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

st

Code I106

Title & Authors Application of the seismic interferometry on the background noise recorded in the Mizil area (Romania) Andreea-Cristina Grosu*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest New techniques to analyse waveform similarity

I107

Maximilian Scholze*, Karsten Stürmer, Jörn Kummerow, S.A. Shapiro, Free University Berlin Array-forming in seismic interferometry Mirela Spita*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest

I108

I109

Variation of crust’s thickness using PKP waves residual times Mihai Furnică*, Ioana Stan, University of Bucharest

I110

Analysis of the coherent noise from passive land seismic data Calin Elena Andreea*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest MT soundings in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden

I111 María de los Ángeles García Juanatey*, Juliane Hübert, Ari Tryggvason, Uppsala University

Code I112

Title & Authors Multiple attenuation – key part of seismic data processing in the Black Sea Region Vladislav Angelov*, University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”

I113

Multiple attenuation using the Radon filter Alexandru Nastase*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest

I114

Geological engineering study of the clay, salt and granitic rocks for the disposal of spent fuel in Romania Marian Popescu*, Cristian Mărunțeanu, University of Bucharest

I115

Mapping of magnetic susceptibility of soil and bark in Kyiv city (Ukraine) Iryna Slobodyanyk*, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Searching for a Roman Villa and Prehistoric Flint Mines in Kanton Zürich

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Aaron Girard*, Mitch Jie-A-Looi, Jenneke Bakker, Fabien Momot, IDEALeague Define the archaeological interest of two sites in Kanton Zürich, Switzerland for the Zürich Archaeological Society to categorize and confirm results from aerial photographs using archaeogeophysical techniques. Archaeological explorations of two types of sites in Switzerland by students for the purpose of archaeological exploration and student learning.

Summary Kanton Zürich has many archaeological sites that are not categorized, and (max. 200 words): require further mapping. Students from ETH Zürich and the IDEA-League
used various geophysical methods on two different types of sites to both categorize the sites and learn about the geophysical methods. For the first site, GPR and magnetic measurements were taken, resulting in a map of at least one structure and surrounding area of a Roman villa, circa 2000 years ago. The second site involved refraction seismic, electrical resistivity tomography and EM31 measurements in 2D geometries to map the region around a possible Neolithic flint mine. The results showed the possible geologic regimes but not actual evidence of mines due to the nature of the measurements. The benefit to the students of ETH and the IDEA-League was not only the archaeological mapping but the experience of several geophysical methods at different types of sites.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

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Searching for a Roman Villa and Prehistoric Flint Mines in Kanton Zürich
Aaron Girard, Mitch Jie-A-Looi, Jenneke Bakker, Fabien Momot, IDEA-League Introduction Kanton Zürich is well known for its Roman ruins and various archaeological sites, most of which are near to the surface. Many of these sites are partially visible from aerial photographs and previously known from various historical documents (Nagy, 2009a). However, they generally sit on private land and cannot be excavated without valid cause such as danger from construction. The primary goal at both of the chosen sites was to define the archaeological interest for the Zürich Archaeological Society because they are not in places requiring excavation yet need to be categorized. As most of the students involved in the project have little to no near surface geophysical experience the secondary goal was to teach students the processes of these geophysical methods. Field Data – Site Description Roman settlements abounded circa 2000 years ago, and in some places these have been excavated. As an introduction to the site, the Roman baths at Gutshof bei Seeb were visited to explore the setup of a similar excavated Roman villa that might resemble others in the region. Currently the region consists of small villages and farmland, with the Zürich airport in close proximity. Since excavation and preservation of all known or expected archaeological remains is neither desirable nor possible, the primary goal of archaeogeophysical prospecting is to identify and categorize these sites preserved in the ground to protect them from destruction by building activities. The site in this project was chosen because it has shown evidence to have a villa under some farmland in a series of aerial photographs. The main reason for the fieldwork at the second location, the Lägern, was to look for remains of Neolithic flint mining. Flintstone has been mined from 14,000 BC (Nagy, 2009b) and because of its strength it was mainly mined to produce tools. The mines were made by digging at the side of the hill or at the surface. The Lägern consists of limestone covered with a thick package of later deposited sediments where it is thought that these mines exist, having been later filled by uphill sediments. In this site, the goal is identify geological interfaces at which an earlier mining has potentially taken place. Methods and Data Collection Geophysical methods are an efficient tool for evaluating geologic and anthropogenic subsurface structures. Near surface geophysical methods are very diverse in their nature, and several different methods were used during this exploration. It is known from Aitken (1961) that magnetic anomalies are associated with archaeological ruins, and Vaughan (1986) has proven that ground penetrating radar (GPR) is also a functional tool in archaeological geophysics. With the prior understanding of the regions, the exploration areas could be focused with dense magnetic and GPR measurements. At the Roman villa site, magnetic measurements were taken in various different 50/50 meter grids (section 2 was extended 25 meters) and spacing of 1 meter with two cesium magnetometers G-858 from EG&G Geometrics that were separated by 1 meter to halve the acquisition time. The same areas were then measured with grids covering the desired areas, this time with line spacing of 0.4 meters, using a pulseEKKO 100 GPR system with 250 MHz antennae. Neolithic flint mines at the Lägern site are in a Limestone formation that protrudes from the surface of a steep slope with sediments covering the area with the current mine area. The overlying sediments have filled in the mined holes in the limestone formation, leaving pits filled with sediments that have different properties from limestone. Both the acoustic and electric properties of the sediments vary from the limestone, allowing the use of both refraction seismic and electrical measurements to find the potentially mined areas. Measurements at the Lägern site were taken with three geophysical methods. Seismic measurements were made in two dimensions down the slope with a Geometrics Geode system using 72 geophones at 2 meter spacing, with 40 shotgun sources at 4 meter spacing. Along the same profile with the same spacing, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements were made with GeoTom equipment using a Wenner array. The line was extended downhill to fully utilize the 100 available electrodes. Lastly, electromagnetic measurements were made with an EM31 using both horizontally coplanar loops (HCPL) and vertically coplanar loops (VCPL) along the same profile and spacing. Data Processing Processing for the magnetic, seismic, ERT and EM31 data was done in Matlab using codes designed by ETH Zürich students. The GPR processing involved a Matlab script from the manufacturer to
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remove the antennae effects from the data before it could be input into the ETH Matlab program. The data was first organized to reverse every other line to account for bi-directional acquisition. The zero-time of each trace was shifted, and then a linear exponential gain function was applied before the envelope of each trace was calculated. Each line was squeezed or stretched to match the odometer, and 0.4m x 0.2m (line spacing) bins were made for the cumulative map. The deeper, noise dominated areas below 50 ns were removed because the estimated depth of penetration of the GPR is 2 meters, and the velocity of the site was 0.1 m/ns, as calculated from the zero offset traces. Figure 1 shows an example of an anomaly at 30 ns, or 1.5 meters, after the gain function application but prior to the envelope calculation. Six GPR areas were measured over the survey area and put together using GPS coordinates, as shown in figure 2, left side.

Fig. 1 Sample cross section of a processed GPR line, showing an anomaly at 1.5 meters depth (30 ns) at distance 50 meters. This cross section is line 10 of section Grp2.

Magnetic data processing required matching the GPS measurements to be matched to the Swiss grid system, and the removal of heading errors and the diurnal variations, which had been measured at a base station some 100 meters away with an identical device. The resulting eight plots of magnetic data were combined using GPS coordinates and are shown in figure 2, right side. At the Lägern site, anthropogenic effects were not ruins or remnants left from people, but holes in the ground that would have been filled with surrounding sediments after the flint mines were no longer used. The site is on a hill, meaning that topographic effects needed to be accounted for, which was done from the GPS measurements. After the removal of bad shots and receivers from the refraction seismic dataset, a Matlab program supplied by ETH was used to plot and pick the first breaks from every shot. The direct wave arrived after the refracted waves because the topsoil had a velocity of 200-500 m/s, meaning that the first break was from the refracted waves along the limestone, which has a much faster velocity, with a maximum of about 3000 m/s. An initial velocity model from 300-3000 m/s was used for the inversion. The process and inversion was done after Lanz et al. (1998) by using the first break travel times (t), the initial slowness model estimate (s) and a matrix L defining each raypath in each cell, allowing the inversion to be: and running 20 iterations to obtain an estimated slowness model, which was then converted to velocity. The ERT measurements were processed in a similar inversion scheme in Matlab. After the removal of bad datapoints the topography was added to the pseudosection. The non-linear inverse problem was solved iteratively using a finite-element method by minimizing the discrepancy between the data and the model response, normalizing the standard deviations. However, this problem is an ill-posed problem requiring the use of smoothing operators (Constable et al., 1987) or a-priori information (Jackson, 1979). The smoothing parameters were used with the inclusion of an a-priori model, which was improved with each inversion. Lastly, the EM31 data required only the topography to be included and to be converted from apparent conductivity to apparent resistivity so that it could be compared to the ERT measurements. Results Combining the information from the two measurements over the Roman villa site shows good correlation in the area over the aerial photograph, but leaves some ambiguity in the area to the north. Magnetic measurements resulted in many small and random anomalies, which are assumed to be remnants of farming equipment left behind in recent history. There is some linear correlation in sections P1 and P2 of figure 2, right side which could be the representation of an extended wall from the site of the villa, in section 2008 measurements in figure 2, both sides. The feature in sections Grp1 and Grp2 of the GPR are uphill from the villa site, and show what could be a drainage ditch for water. There are also some linear
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representations of interest that are interpreted to be walls as well. The largest magnetic anomaly in P6 correlates to the large GPR anomaly in section Grp1, which has been interpreted as a retaining wall from the drainage ditch, most likely made from a different material at a different time. The site probably will not benefit from excavation, but the layout is now known.

Fig. 2 GPR (left) and magnetic (right) maps over the Roman villa. Each survey area is labeled in order of acquisition.

At the Lägern site, the resulting velocity model, in figure 3 on the left, 3000 shows a region of high velocity in the region expected to have limestone, but is 710 overall inconclusive. The high velocity 2500 region is inconsistent with the geology of the area, most likely due to the nature of 2000 670 the refraction seismic method, which can only be used in areas with increasing 1500 velocity with depth. There is most likely Height some strong effect from the limestone [m] 1000 being discontinuous in the area, meaning that the electric methods have an 500 advantage at this site. 140 0 70 The ERT measurements clearly Distance [m] show the higher resistivity along the topographically flat area within a few Fig. 3 Refraction seismic velocity model of the flint mines at meters from the surface. When Lägern, in m/s incorporated with the three parallel lines, these can easily be interpreted as pit mines that have filled with the surface sediments over time. The topography also shows the whole area to be somewhat settled with respect to the surrounding, also indicating possible flint mining. The small hill to the right could be a dumping site for tailing, explaining why it is currently possible to find flint within a few centimeters of the surface. Results from the EM31 are comparable to the ERT results, but only as a confirmation. The surface resistivity increases in a regular fashion in comparison to the deep resistivity downhill from the mines (fig. 4, middle section) but is more
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Fig. 4 EM31 plots (top) and Electrical resistance tomography inversion (bottom) maps of the flint mines at the Lägern. Two black lines show depth of estimated VPCL (shallow) and HCPL (deeper) penetration.

variable where the mines are expected (fig. 4, section 2). With the 2D techniques used in this field session there is most likely no representation of the mining activities shown. Conclusions Around the world, archaeological remains are in places that are not practical to dig up or in places that can be considered for historical sites. Geophysical methods can quickly give important information about the archaeological sites without disturbing the surface, thus leaving the archaeological remains preserved. Depending on the type of target, whether it is a manmade or merely an anthropogenic disturbance of the area, there are many types of measurements that can be carried out to accurately survey the site to assist in making a decision to retain or excavate an archaeological site. In our field campaign we used the geophysical methods available to map and categorize these sites while learning about the theory, applications and limitations of each method for use in future geophysical applications. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Patrick Nagy at the Archaeological Society of Kanton Zürich for arranging the sites and allowing us to present this work. We would like to thank Marian Hertrich and the Geophysics department at ETH Zürich for arranging the project, use of the field equipment, and assistance with the data analysis. References Aitken, M.J., [1961] Physics and Archaeology. Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY. Constable, S.C., Parker, R.L., and Constable, C.G. [1987] Occam's inversion: A practical algorithm for generating smooth models from electromagnetic sounding data. Geophysics, 52, 3, 289-300. Jackson, D.D. [1979] The use of a-priori data to resolve non-uniqueness in linear inversion. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 57, 1, 137-157. Lanz, E., Maurer, H., Green, A.G., [1998] Refraction tomography over a buried wasted disposal site. Geophysics, 63, 4, 1414-1433. Nagy, P. [2009a] Prehistoric flint mines at the Lägern. Archaeological Society of Kanton Zürich, Presentation. Nagy, P., and Roth, M. [2009b] Villa Rustica. Archaeological Society of Kanton Zürich. Presentation. Vaughan, C.J., [1986] Ground-penetrating radar surveys used in archaeological investigation. Geophysics, 51, 3, 595–604.
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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Heavy metals in recent sediments of the Djerdap Lake

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Nevena Andrić, University of Belgrade

The aim of this study was determination of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) in the Djerdap lake surface bottom sediments and elevation of anthropogenic influence. It was investigated sediment fractions below 0.063 mm As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn using ICP-MS as a method.

Summary The lateral distribution of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn were examined in (max. 200 words): recent sediments collected from Djerdap lake. Samples were taken along the
right lake side from Pek mouth to Kusijak which represents a flooded right side of Danube, where sediments have been deposited since 1972 what considered them as anthropogenic. The collected sediment samples were devided by sieving into fraction below 0.063 mm and analysed by ICP-MS. In order to evaluate anthropogenic influence on sediment, samples were compared to borehole samples from mouth of the Sava into Danube, which were not exposed to anthropogenic alteration. The X-ray diffraction detected the presence of several clay minerals, that seem to be the major host of heavy metals in sediments. Concentrations of heavy metals showed same trend to sulphur content. It indicates their association with the sulphides. Analyses of recent sediments from Djerdap Lake plot within one standard deviation of the average Quaternary value indicated strong anthropogenic infuence. At all stations content of Cu, Cd and Zn in sediments were higher compared to Quaternary values. At Golubinje stations, concentrations of all heavy metals were higher then Quaternary, probably influenced by waste water incidents (Majdanpek).

Topic:

Geochemistry

81

Heavy metals in recent sediments of the Djerdap lake
Nevena Andrić, University of Belgrade Introduction Sediments are important carriers of heavy metals in the environment and reflect the current quality of the system. Lakes are strongly influenced by the natural and human characteristics of their catchments. The river close to an urban centre has the opportunity to be influences by anthropogenic source such as industry, waste waters, industrial waste, mining operations, agricultural activities, sewage, smelters, etc. Heavy metals in aquatic systems are usually predominantly associated with sediment (Förstner, 1983). Most heavy metals are bound in the fine-grained fraction (<63µm) mostly because of its high surface area grain size ratio and humic substance content (Moore et al. 1989) where they have a potentially greater biological availability than those in the larger (2 mm-63 µm) sediment fraction (Everaat & Fischer 1992). Therefore, the concentration of metals in sediment is generally a more sensitive and accurate indicator of contamination of an aquatic system. Description of the study area The Djerdap Lake is situated in Djerdap Gorge on Danube River. It was constructed in 1972 for electric power generation. The presence of dam of this artificial lake affected additionally the river flow distribution, the basin system transformation, and hence the deposition of recent sediments on right lake side, which may be considered as anthropogenic. The Danube river, with a catchment area of about 817 000 km2, carries sediments very different from those exposed in neighboring areas. It includes the territories of 19 countries. The Danube passes by numerous large cities, including four national capitals; Vienna, Bratislava, Budapest, and Belgrade. The bank of Danube river is location where a significant amount of different types of industry. The river received a significant amount of various industrial waste and house hold discharge from residential areas. There are numerous mines and smelters (Baden-Württemberg district in Germany, Bleiberg-Kreuth in Austria, Celje in Slovenia, Bor and Majdanpek in Serbia, etc.), refineries (Duna, Pančevo, Novi Sad, etc.), flotation waste water incidents (Majdanpek, Moldova, Baia Mare, etc.) on Danube coast and its tributaries, that have left a fingerprint in chemical composition of the Djerdap lake sediments. The objective of this study was determination of spatial distribution of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) in the Djerdap lake surface bottom sediments. It has been, also, determined other sediment properties, mineralogy, Eh, pH and sulphur, as a main factors controlling present concentration of heavy metals in Djerdap lake sediments. Aiming an internal „reference sample” eight sites were chosen near mouth of the Sava River into Danube (Belgrade). Sediments from bareoreholes are similar to investigated sediments in term of grain size, mineralogy and major element content. Geochemical analysis of eight boreholes samples, was used to define Quaternary values and compared to analysis of recent samples from Djerdap Lake, to assess potential anthropogenic influence. Materials and methods The sampling was done from 10 sites, on the places were the water flow is slowing and near mouths of its confluents. The location of sampling points are showed in (Fig. 1).The stations were situated along the right lake side which cover flooded area where sediments were deposited since 1972. The samples were collected with Ekman grab from the top 15 cm of the sediment layers which are defined as the surface bottom sediments. Samples were dried and sieved to a fraction below 0.063 mm, which was used for chemical analysis. The samples were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine mercury, zinc, copper, arsenic, and cadmium and lead concentrations. Sulphur was analyzed by silica analysis. Chemical analysis were done in ACME analytical laboratories ltd – Vancouver, Canada. The pH was measured in 1:2.5 sediment to water ratio by using a Towa DKK HM-20P pH meter. The suspension was allowed to stand overnight prior to pH determination. The electrical conductivity was measured in the saturation extract of the sediments, using a Towa DKK CM-21P EC
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meter.Mineralogy of fraction below 0.010 mm was carried out by X-ray powder diffraction on samples from (Donji Milanovac, Reškovica, Golubinje Tekija, Kladovo and Kusijak). Work was done on a PHILIPS PW 1710 diffract meter under following general conditions: Cu radiation, CuKα= 1,54178 Å, U = 40 kV, I = 30 mA.

Fig. 1 Schematic map, showing the locations of sampling sites within the investigated area 1. Mouth of the river Pek; 2. Velika Orlova; 3. Lepenski Vir; 4. Boljetin river; 5. Reškovica; 6. Donji Milanovac; 7. Golubinje; 8. Tekija; 9. Kladovo; 10. Kusjak. Results and discussion Surface lake sediments are composed of dark clayey silt. Sediment fractions below 0.010 mm form Reškovica, Golubinje, Donji Milanovac, Tekija, Kladovo and Kusijak have similar mineralogy. Dominated minerals are quartz and clay minerals. Clay minerals are represented with hydromicas, smectites and mixed-layer clay minerals; those are likely to be major host of heavy metals in sediments. Clay minerals have low crystallinity with domination of hydromicas. According to the lateral distribution, concentration of heavy metals in sediments varied between stations. In general, investigated heavy metals have same trend along the lake, with lesser variations. There are 3 high heavy metals picks (Golubinje, Lepenski Vir and near Pek mouth), in comparison to values at other stations. Variations of absolute heavy metal concentrations, generally, reflected variations in sulphur content along the lake. This result is consistent with the tendency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, As and Cd to be associated with the sulphides. The highest Pb and As amounts are determined at Golubinje station. The concentrations of Cu, Hg, Zn, Cd and sulphur are also higher compared to other stations. These values arise, probably, from Porečka reka (river), according to the geological background of river drainage system and accidental leaching of flotation waste water form mine Majdanpek. Probably, the depositional environment becomes more suited to the accumulation of heavy metals towards the 7 km distal station Golubinje. Highest concentration of Cu, Zn, sulphur (0.62 wt. %) and comparatively to other stations high concentrations of Pb, As and Cd on mouth of the river Pek, are probably related to weathering of sulphide-bearing rocks in its drainage system. At the Lepenski Vir Hg and Cd reached the highest values. Boljetin and Reškovica stations are mouths of rivers where the Danube influence is not so significant, what is showed by low heavy metals contents. Analyses of recent sediment samples were plotted within one standard deviation of the average Quaternary value. From the study observation, the concentrations of Cu, Cd and Zn were higher compared to Quaternary values in sediments at all stations (Fig.2). It indicates that the main source of these metals enrichment came from anthropogenic input. An exception is Golubinje, where

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contents of all investigated metals have modern values greater than Quaternary values plus one standard deviation. At this station water flow has low energy what manage deposition of fine grain sediments as potential retention place for heavy metals. Sediments are mainly composed of clay minerals, which can be potential sorption places for heavy metals. The enhanced Pb concentration found in the surface sediments were, probably, deposited by usage of leaded gasoline in boats and also emissions from automobiles consuming leaded petrol. Values for arsenic are below standard on all sampling sites, except on Golubinje.
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1. 2.

concentrations (ppm)

Zn

Standard

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

sampling site
concentrations (ppm)
1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Cu

Standard

sampling site

concentrations (ppm)

6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Cd

Standard

sampling sites

Fig. 2 Concentration of the Cu, Zn and Cd in the surface sediments of Djerdap Lake compared to Quaternary values

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Conclusion The data indicate the continuous accumulation of heavy metals in the bottom sediment system, which is associated with the sedimentation of material carried by Danube water. Plot with one standard deviation of the average Quaternary value indicates that recent sediments of the Djerdap Lake are influenced by anthropogenic input of heavy metals from distant industrial cities situated on the Danube coast, as well as near the lake coast. Geological background of the lake confluents and their drainage systems are, partly, a possible source of natural input of heavy metal.

References Everaat, J.M., Fischer, C.V. [1992] The distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in the fine fractions of surface sediments of the North Sea. The Netherlands Journal of Sea Research, 29, 323331. Jović, V., Vasić, N., Milovanović, D., Gajić, V. [2008] Geochemical and sedimentological characteristics of recent sediments as ecological parameters for water quality of lower flow of the Danube in Serbia. Ecologica- special edition, 15, 71-86. Milenković, N., Damjanović, M., Ristić, M. [2005] Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in Sediments from the Iron Gate (Danube River), Serbia and Montenegro. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14, 781-787. Moore, J.N., Brook, E.J. & Johns, C. [1989] Grain size partitioning of metals in contaminated coarse– grained floodplain sediment, Clark Fork River, Montana. Environment Geology and Water Research, 14, 107-115. Förstner, U., Wittman, G. T. W. [1983] Metal Pollution and the Aquatic Environment. Springer Verlag, Amsterdam.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Grain size of loess, palaeosol and their paleoclimatic implication

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Daniela Dimofte, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest

In the present study were assessed several parameters that allow reconstitution of Late-Quaternary environmental and climatic change in the region Mircea Voda. Granulometric analysis of loess-palaeosol sequence from Mircea Voda reflect a major climate change and local changes in wind intensity, all this are very well correlated with magnetic parameters.

Summary Loess deposits preserve a potentially important and detailed archive of (max. 200 words): Pleistocene climate change. The study site is located near the village of
Mircea Vodă, which is situated in the Dobrogea-plateau (SE Romania) at about 15 km from the River Danube. The section is ~26 m thick; it comprises six well-developed palaeosols (stratigraphic nomencelature: S0-S5, with S0 representing the Holocene soil) and intercalated loess layers (L1-L6), with no apparent evidence for remarkable hiatuses. Samples were collected at 10 cm interval from Mircea Vodă section. Chemical treatment and grain-size measurement are two key steps in grain-size analysis. The purpose of chemical treatment is to isolate discrete particles within the sample, and to provide an evenly dispersed suspension of discrete particles. The chemical extraction procedure has proven to be a substantial source of measurement error if it is not done properly (Lu and An, 1997). The treated samples (with H2O2 for removal of organic matter; with HCl at pH 4 for removal of carbonates and dispersed with hexametaphosphate) were measured for grain size distributions with a Horiba laser instrument (LA950) at Sedimentology Laboratory from the University of Bucharest. Granulometric analysis of loess-palaeosol sequence reflect a major climate change and local changes in wind intensity, all this are very well correlated with magnetic parameters.

Topic:

Sedimentology

86

Grain size of loess, palaeosol and their paleoclimatic implication
Daniela Dimofte, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest
Introduction Loess deposits preserve a potentially important and detailed archive of Pleistocene climate change. Although a variety of loess characteristics (such as magnetic susceptibility and grain size) can be studied as proxy record for palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment, the deposits can only be fully understood, and their significance evaluated, once a robust chronological framework is established. Indeed, it is well known that terrestrial archives may be incomplete, and an increasing body of evidence demonstrates that the rate of loess accumulation may vary considerable both within a stratigraphic unit and between equivalent units at different localities (see e.g. Frechen et al., 2003; Roberts, 2008). The study site is located near the village of Mircea Vodă, which is situated in the Dobrogeaplateau (SE Romania) at about 15 km from the River Danube. The section is ~26 m thick; it comprises six well-developed palaeosols (stratigraphic nomencelature: S0-S5, with S0 representing the Holocene soil) and intercalated loess layers (L1-L6), with no apparent evidence for remarkable hiatuses. Grain size analysis Chemical treatment and grain-size measurement are two key steps in grain-size analysis. The purpose of chemical treatment is to isolate discrete particles within the sample, and to provide an evenly dispersed suspension of discrete particles. The chemical extraction procedure has proven to be a substantial source of measurement error if it is not done properly (Lu and An, 1997). The treated samples (with H2O2 for removal of organic matter; with HCl at pH 4 for removal of carbonates and dispersed with hexametaphosphate) were measured for grain size distributions with a Horiba laser instrument (LA950) at Sedimentology Laboratory from the University of Bucharest. As well as for magnetic susceptibility measurements, samples on which grain size analysis was carried out were collected at 10 cm interval from Mircea Vodă section. Variations in the magnetic susceptibility are equivalent to the alternations of loess and palaeosol layers, with high magnetic susceptibility corresponding to weathered palaeosol layers and low magnetic susceptibility corresponding to the loess layers. The grain-size distribution is very consistent with the magnetic susceptibility variations – the pedogenic fraction (<5 µm) is concentrated in the layers exhibiting high magnetic susceptibility and the airborne fraction (>16 µm) is concentrated in the layers with lower susceptibility values (Fig. 1). Throughout the entire section, the airborne dust (silt and fine sand above 16 µm) is present in large amount (generally over 50%). The pedogenic processes which involve hydrolysis of silicate minerals leading to formation of new clay-sized minerals (< 5 µm) can also be seen throughout the entire section with values always above 10% in the loess layers and values above 20% in the paleosol layers, suggesting that even during loess deposition, weak pedogenesis was present. Larger amount of clay-sized material was observed in lower part of the section. The grain-size fractions usually selected for OSL dating: fine silt, coarse silt and fine sand material are present in substantial amount in the loess layers (above 10%, above 30% and above 10% respectively). This shows that the wind transportation competency was quite high at the time of loess deposition. Most of the grain-size distributions in the loess layers are bi-modal or even three-modal distribution, reflecting multiple sources of the clastic material (Fig. 2).

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Fig.1 Schematic representation of the sampled section showing the loess and palaeosol units, the magnetic susceptibility values and OSL sampling points as well as different grain-size fractions abundance as function of depth: pedogenic clay fraction (<5 µm), airborne fraction (>16 µm); fine silt (4-11 µm), coarse silt (35-50 µm) and fine sand (63-90 µm)
8

6

Frequency (%)

4

L4
2

L2 L3 L1

0 1 10 100

Grain-size (µm)

Fig.2 Grain-size distribution characteristic for different loess layers, showing the bi-modal aspect of the granulometric curve The coarse silt and fine sand material could have proximal source, while the fine and medium silt could have a distant source. Such bimodal sources have been also suggested by recent geochemical investigations on the loess section from Mircea Vodă (Buggle et al, 2008). They
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discussed about a local sedimentary source from the sand dunes fields along the lower Danube alluvium and a second source from the Ukrainian glaciofluvial deposits. We cannot confirm whether that the fine silt fraction originated from Ukrainian deposit, but certainly from a distal source wherefrom was transported by long term suspension.

Fig. 3 Grain Size distribution divided into classes Size distribution of samples from the loess-palaeosol sequence from Mircea Voda (Fig. 3) can drawn some conclusions about how the transport of dust particules and the evolution of loess during postdepositional pedogenesis: 1. The airbone silt (16-32 µm and 32-64 µm) is pervasive. That means the loess is the fundamental material who was affected by alteration and pedogenic processes in interglacial periods. 2. The arenitic fraction (64-125 µm) is present in frequencies over 5% in the loess levels. It is more abundant in L1 and L2 then in other loess levels. Another particularity is the pulsating nature of these fractions suggesting abundance variation of wind transport capacity during glaciar periods. 3. The fraction >125 µm is present only in the loess levels and represent storm sand. 4. The fraction 2 µm is present only in palaeosol levels and is generated only by pedogenic processes. This fraction highlights moments of maximum alteration and pedogenic processes, showing the presence of appropriate early palaeosols. 5. The fraction 2-4 µm is now reflected in palaeosols and loess, but of course with different frequencies. This demonstrates that there is a weak pedogenesis and in the glacial periods, but dust could not be stabilized and preserved.

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Conclusions The section from Mircea Voda comprises six well-developed palaeosols (stratigraphic nomencelature: S0-S5, with S0 representing the Holocene soil) and intercalated loess layers (L1-L6), with no apparent evidence for remarkable hiatuses. Granulometric analysis of loess-palaeosol sequence reflect a major climate change and local changes in wind intensity, all this are very well correlated with magnetic parameters. The sedimentation rates obtained using the fine and coarse-grained quartz are reasonable consistent, they cover different absolute time-ranges and, by consequence, conflict on the precise timing of the change in sedimentation rate. Indeed, the ages obtained using fine-grained quartz suggest that the rate of loess accumulation varied during the last glacial period.

References Buggle, B., Glaser B., Zoller L., Hambach U., Markovic S., Glaser I., Gerasimenko A., [2008]. Geochemical characterization and origin of Southeastern and Eastern European loesses (Serbia, Romania, Ukraine), Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 1058–1075. Frechen M., Dodonov A.E., [1998]. Loess chronology of the Middle and Upper Pleistocence in Tadjikistan. Geologische Rundschau 87, 675-684. Frechen, M., Oches, E.A., Kohfeld, K.E., [2003]. Loess in Europe – mass accumulation rates during the Last Glacial Period, Quaternary Science Reviews 22, 1835-1857. Lai ZP, Wintle A.G., Thomas S. G., [2007]. Rates of dust deposition between 50 ka and 20 ka revealed by OSL dating at Yuanbao on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 248, 431-439. Lu, H.Y., An, Z.S., [1997]. The influence of pre-treatment to grain-size analysis results of loess. Chinese Science Bulletin 42, 2535– 2538. Mauz B., Packman S., Lang A., [2006]. The alfa effectiveness in silt size quartz: New data obtained by single and multiple aliquot protocols. Ancient TL, vol 24, No 2, 47-52. Roberts H.M., [2008]. The development and application of luminescence dating to loess deposits: a perspective on the past, present and future, Boreas, Vol. 37, pp. 483–507. Timar A., Vandenberghe D., Panaiotu E.C., Panaiotu C.G., Necula C., Cosma C. and Van den haute P., [2010]. Optical dating of Romanian loess using fine-grained quartz. Quaternary Geochronology, doi: 10.1016/j.quageo.2009.03.003.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Waste dumps stability problems in the context of environmental protection. Case study – E.M. Petrila waste dump

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandru Balint, University of Petrosani

Calculate the slopes stability reserve for the E.M. Petrila mining waste dump by using Geo Tec B software, specialized in geotechnics. Modeling the mining waste dump’s geometry and calculating the stability factor for each slope individually by using the software mentioned above.

Summary Landslides are geodynamic phenomena of reestablishing the natural balance (max. 200 words): for natural and anthropic slopes and represent for a long time ago an
economical, historical and environmental issue. For anticipating and controlling the landslides it is calculated the assurance degree of the slopes expressed by the “stability factor”. The factors that determine the landslides are: geological and hydrogeological, natural mechanics and geomechanics, anthropogenic, hydrometeorological, seismic and biotic factors. The present paper work aims to analyze the stability factor for the waste dump E.M. Petrila and identify the measures needed to be taken in order to prevent landslides.

Topic:

Geotechnics, Environmental engineering

91

Waste dumps stability problems in the context of environmental protection. Case study – E.M. Petrila waste dump
Ioan Alexandru Balint, University of Petrosani Introduction Landslides are geodynamic phenomena of reestablishing the natural balance for natural and anthropic slopes and represent for a long time ago an economical, historical and environmental issue. For anticipating and controlling the landslides it is calculated the assurance degree of the slopes expressed by the “stability factor”. The factors that determine the landslides are: geological and hydrogeological, natural mechanics and geomechanics, anthropogenic, hydrometeorological, seismic and biotic factors. The present paper work aims to analyze the stability factor for the waste dump E.M. Petrila and identify the measures needed to be taken in order to prevent landslides. General presentation of the waste dump E.M. Petrila The dump was created in the purpose of storing the sterile rocks derived from mining and coal washing works. From 2002, Petrila processing plant is closed and now in the waste dump only sterile from the underground mining works is deposited. The transport and the storage of the sterile are made by using cableway, the dumping perimeter being right near the mining perimeter. The dump worked with 5 dumping lines: 1st, 2nd and 3rd lines (which were taught to the administrative authorities), 4th line (which is in conservation) and the 5th line (which is the active line). The land occupied by the dump has an area about 86 hectares and the altitude of the plateau has a value between maximum +745,46 meters and minimum between 670 – 720 meters. The dumping on the active line began in the year 1977 and the sterile is dumped continuously until near the turning point where is an interruption of about 15 – 20 meters long (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 Dumps at Petrila

The active branch’s geometry is presented in table 1. Lengths Inferior Upper platform [m] platform [m] 1582 1560 Widths Inferior platform [m] 30-137 Heights [m] 16-25 Slope angle [o] 20-50o

Upper platform [m] 15-101

Table 1. The active branch’s geometry

Geotechnical and hydrogeological features of the foundation rocks The direct foundation is composed by soil, which was not removed before dumping the sterile. The soil’s thickness varies in the dumping perimeter between 2 and 5 meters. Knowing the geotechnical and hydro geological features is important in choosing the location, establishing the development work, designing and building the dump. The direct foundation, the soil, has relatively low resistance characteristics, which can determine plastic deformation and moderate subsidence of the base land, while the fundamental base consists in rocks which have superior resistance characteristics, offering good conditions for stability in case of static requests.

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Stability analysis results The stability analysis for the 5th line E.M. Petrila has been made using the software specialized in geotechnics Geo Tec B. The values used in the stability analysis for both cases, material in natural moister and saturation limit moisture, are presented in table 2. Table 2. Physical and mechanical features used in the stability analysis
Natural moister Rock type Volumetric weight γnat, (kgf/m3) 1780 1810 Cohesion c, (kgf/cm2) 0,40 0,3 Angle of internal friction φ (degree) 16 23 Saturation moister Volumetric weight γsat, (kgf/m3) 1930 1930 Cohesion c, (kgf/cm2) 0,18 0,21 Angle of internal friction φ (degree) 15 18

Dump material Soil

Considering the dump’s geometric configuration and the base land’s form, for the 5th line the stability analysis have been made considering that the slide may occur after cylinder -circular surface contour. In order to determine the slopes stability reserve, the dump’s geometry was modeled using the software mentioned above (fig. 2-6) calculating the stability factor for each slope individually. It is mentioned that the stability analysis does not consider the pore water pressure, because the material being grainy with a high permeability, a fast gravitational drainage of the water in the waste dump may occur. Due to analysis the dump’s behavior at rainfall conditions, has been determined and calculated the physical and mechanical parameters of the waste in different conditions of humidity, the calculation values being then chosen after the data processing presented in table 3.
Section T1 – T1 T2 – T2 T3 – T3 T3 – T3 T4 – T4 Slope Northern Northern Northern Southern Northern H (m) 16,50 16,41 19,40 15,10 25,08 α (degree) 33,46 30,33 25,15 50,05 33,1 Natural moisture Fellenius Janbu 1,77 1,83 2,28 2,39 1,69 1,75 1,36 1,55 1,29 1,34 Bishop 1,79 2,30 1,81 1,38 1,33 Saturation moisture Fellenius Janbu 1,02 1,06 1,38 1,42 1,10 1,15 0,78 0,85 0,82 0,86 Bishop 1,05 1,40 1,20 0,82 0,86

Table 3. Stability analysis results

Fig. 2 Cross section T1-T1, Northern slope, saturated moisture

Fig. 3 Cross section T2-T2, Northern slope, saturated moisture

Fig. 4 Cross section T3-T3, Northern slope, saturated moisture

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Fig. 5 Cross section T3-T3, Southern slope, saturated moisture

Fig. 6 Cross section T4-T4, Northern slope, saturated moisture Following the results in the stability analysis the following conclusions could be drawn: the stability analysis had as object artificial slopes with heights between 15.1 and 25.08 meters and slope angles between 25.15° and 50.05° on the northern and southern flank; for all the analyzed sections, in terms of using the physical and mechanical features in natural moisture, the stability coefficient has values even bigger than 1.3 which is recommended; in terms of a material with a saturated moisture, only the north slope T2-T2 has a stability bigger than 1.3 as for the rest of the slopes the coefficient indicates instability or balance limit; the northern slope from the section T1-T1 (s = 1.02 by Fellenius) and the northern slope from the section T3-T3 (s = 1.10 by Fellenius) are at balance limit; the slopes that become instable for a material with saturated moisture are the southern slope from the section T3-T3 (s = 0.78 by Fellenius), the possible sliding surface being determined by the step, and the northern slope from the section T4-T4 (s = 0.82 by Fellenius), the slope with the biggest height (25 meters) and a slope angle of 33°; analyzing the 3rd, 4th and 5th figures the slide surfaces shape and position of the sliding surfaces it can be seen that in the case of a material with high humidity, the critical sliding surface is closer to the slope, having a shorter length and leading to a smaller sliding body.

-

-

Measures to stabilize the dump Counting the base land’s characteristics, the dump’s shape and the factors that influence the stability, the analysis made for the slopes of the 5th line of Petrila dump considered that most probably the landslide will occur after cylinder-circular surfaces, the phenomena affecting the northern and southern slopes of the dump. Some stability issues may occur in case of a humidity growth, at saturation limit, worsening the rocks resistance characteristics. In this case the stability reserve is reduced with about 33 – 43 %, depending on the particular geometry of each slope. The slide phenomena may occur if the humidity of the dumped material is coming close to the saturation limit on the northern and southern slope. In reality, the dumped material can’t reach the saturation limit because of the high permeability, which allows a fast natural drainage of the water. To continuously ensure the dump’s stability the next measures are required: 1. The condition α < αo, which means that the slope angle (α) should be shorter that the natural slope angle of the dumped material (αo). 2. The correlation between the slope’s angle (α) and the slope’s height (h) for a growth of the stability with 30 %. 3. Reducing the negative effect of water on the rock’s resistance characteristics by leveling the platforms and assuring the water’s drainage slopes, the water’s collecting and management work outside the dump’s perimeter.

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4. The draining of wetlands from the base of the southern slope so it can assure the submission of the sterile material by the lateral extension of the dump. 5. The gullies cancellation from the northern and southern slope, by filling them with material. 6. Permanent leveling and compacting the depositing areas with bulldozers 7. The accommodation of the platforms at the angular and return stations, by leveling the dumped material. 8. Assure uniform slopes for the leek of water from the dump and surroundings. Measures for environmental protection For protecting the environmental factors from the areas affected by the presence of the dumps, several measures must be taken: a) Measures which stop the pollution of underground and surface waters. This problem isn’t met at Petrila dump because there are small amounts of infiltrating waters, they are not leaking in the rivers and don’t contain noxious. Problems of infesting the water appear only from the abandoned municipal landfill without conservation measures, dump which is near the turning point of the 5th line. b) Measures to avoid entrainment of material from the dump by rivers. There are no water courses between the 2 lines so it can not be possible. The only entrainments of material are because of the water flowing from the slopes on the gullies formed by erosion. The cancellation of these gullies and assuring some slopes of the dumping platforms on the north side, leads to the avoidance of these entrainments. c) Measures to avoid entrainment of dust particles by the main winds. It is not a problem in this case even if the dump is build by increasing its original height, because the material has a big granulation. Dust is formed from the rock’s disintegration and alteration and that’s why some revegetation measures are recommended to be carried out in the inactive areas of the dump. Conclusions The waste dumps represent engineering works, sometimes with large sizes and the landslides that may occur can generate serious consequences on the industrial and civil structures from their influence zone and they have a negative impact over the environment. Therefore in this work I have analyzed the stability of the E.M. Petrila dump considering that in drained conditions, this is stable, but in case of water’s pressure growth in some areas of the dump the danger of landslides may occur. Based on carried out tests and field observation, in the end of the work several ways to prevent the landslides and to protect the environment are proposed. Acknowledgements I want to thank to Prof. Ph.D. Eng. Maria Lazar for offering the software used in order to determine the stability factor and for teaching me how to use it and to Ph.D. Eng. Florin Faur for guiding me and helping me during the entire research project and for teaching me how to think like an engineer. References Rotunjanu, I. [2005] Natural and artificial slope stability (in Romanian). Ed. INFOMIN – Deva Băncilă, I. ş.a [1980 - 1981] Engineering Geology (in Romanian). I and II Vol. Ed. Tehnică Bucureşti Galustian, E.I. ş.a [1990] Experience of high waste dumps construction on hilly areas. (in Romanian). Gornâi Jurnal no.2.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Magnetic pollution and content of heavy metals in soils and vegetation of Kyiv

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Iryna Stakhiv*, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

The main objective of the research is to study relatonships between magnetic parameters and contents of heavy metals in urban soils and vegetation. A characteristic feature of the research is using leaves as accumulation surfaces for magnetic dust that is deposited from urban air.

Summary Anthropogenic influence, mainly due to urban and industrial activities and (max. 200 words): traffic exhaust, may affect urban topsoil and leaves via atmospheric
contamination and solid waste. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were conducted on 10 urban topsoil and leaves samples from the city of Kyiv. High intensities of magnetic susceptibility were detected in the majority of the samples. The contents of heavy metals Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn show significant correlations with magnetic susceptibility. The present study shows that magnetic susceptibility measurements is fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive method for the detection of contaminated leaves and soils.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics, Environmental Engineering

96

Magnetic pollution and content of heavy metals in soils and vegetation of Kyiv
I.R.Stakhiv, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Introduction City air basin is strongly contaminated with dust, containing magnetic particles and heavy metals (Evans and Heller, 2003). Anthropogenic magnetic minerals and heavy metals can accumulate in topsoil and on plants` surfaces from atmospheric deposition by sedimentation of industrial and vehicular particulate matter emissions. The magnetic results were analyzed together with heavy metal concentration data to investigate if magnetic susceptibility could serve as a proxy measure of heavy metal contamination in urban topsoil. The strong relationship of magnetic susceptibility with heavy metal contamination has been proven by combined analyses of chemical and magnetic data (Heller et al., 1998). Fly ashes contain a certain quantity of ferromagnetic particles. The most considerable source of fly ashes is combustion of natural fuel which can contain up to 10% of ferromagnetic oxides (Kapicka A. et al., 2000), that arise as an end-product of high-temperature transformation of iron sulphides (mainly pyrite). The particles of anthropogenic origin have specific morphology and can be distinguished from natural grains. Magnetic thin particles mainly represent themselves grains of the wrong form which contain different quantity of magnetite and hematite, depending on type of fuel and temperature of combustion (Matzka, J. et al., 1999). Magnetic minerals which turn out as a result of combustion of automobile fuel and deleting metal details of cars it mainly magemite and metal iron with the sizes of grains 0,1-0, 7 microns (Muxworthy, A. et al., 2002). It is established, that solid particles in urban air collect essential negative influence on health of the person (Pope, III, C. A., et al. 2002). Depending on the size of grains and atmospheric conditions anthropogenesis ferromagnetic together with the rest of atmospheric dust particles are transported by air ways and are deposited on a soil, accumulated up on the components of a vegetative cover. Under certain conditions the magnetic parameters dependent on concentration ferromagnetic (such as a low-frequency magnetic susceptibility) can act as indicators of level of atmospheric pollution deposition. Theoretical background In the conditions of the city environment with the use of magnetic methods it is possible to provide effective monitoring of anthropogenic influence of different enterprises (powerplants, mountain-extracting, metallurgical, etc.), and also cars and vehicles. Positive results of many works have induced us to search for effective environmagnetic technologies for control of ecological state in the city of Kyiv. It is also important to study dynamics of accumulation of anthropogenic pollution of soils and green vegetation of different areas of the city. A characteristic feature of the research is using leaves as accumulation surfaces for magnetic dust that is deposited from urban air. Quantity of a magnetic material, settled in the trees and buildings, is inversely proportional to distance from a pollution source. While the old particles are washed off, on their place the new ones are settled. Thus certain equilibrium concentration on a surface (Flanders, et al., 1994) is established. In aerosol magnetic particles associate with heavy metals, such as zinc, cadmium and chrome (Georgeaud, et al., 1997) and with mutagen organic substances. It poses major health hazards. Concentration of heavy metals in soils often reaches critical values which exceed maximum concentration limits of harmful elements and negatively influence growth of vegetation. So, one of the main tasks of environmagnetic studies is to investigate relationships between magnetic parameters and contents of heavy metals. Potential correlation could be expected on the basis of the proved existence of same particlescarriers of anthropogenic ferrimagnetics and heavy metals which are transported by air ways from a source to a sedimentation place. Airborne pollution with ferromagnetic minerals and heavy metals is observed, first of all, in surface soil horizons. Anthropogenic magnetite is considered to be the source of isomorphic ally replaced heavy metals which slowly arrive to a ground during the destruction of a mineral.

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Site description According to data of the Ministry of environmental protection of Ukraine, the main sources of air pollution in Kyiv are cars and vehicles. In Kyiv the automobile transport gives 83,4 % of all harmful emissions in atmosphere. According to the Central geophysical observatory the dirtiest air in Kyiv is on Bessarabka, Moscow square, Lesia Ukrainka Boulevard, and Victory square and around metro station “Sviatoshyn". The vegetation of park zones passes exhaust gases on 100 meters deep into parks. So, the territory of the Kyiv city agglomeration is the reference object of the researches directed on developing ecomagnetic technology for monitoring of an ecological condition of city environment. Methods and data collecting The research included studying of magnetic properties of vegetation and soils. For more information about air pollution in the city of Kyiv we have chosen 10 points in different districts of the city. Sampling points were located in sites with different intensity of transport traffic, and on various distance from industrial enterprises emitting anthropogenic magnetic particles. The point in Feofanija park zone, on city suburb, is chosen as the background one. In each point we collected leaves from chestnut tree (Castanea vulgaris) monthly from April till October in 2007 and 2008 years. Samples of leaves from July and September 2007, and also 25 samples of soils from Kyiv megalopolis were measured on spectrophotometer and bulk contents of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb were defined. Data processing and results Averaging data about magnetic susceptibility from 10 points for each month, we have found out, that accumulation of magnetic pollution by city leaves submits exponential law (fig. 1). In all sampling points significant increase of χ was observed during sampling period. The exception in some places was made by summer samples which have shown lower values χ, than in the previous month. We assume that it is connected with pollution washing off by heavy summer rains which in 2007 were observed in July, and in 2008 - in June.
300 250 200 150 100 50 0 april may june july august september october

2008 2007

Fig. 1 Increase χ leaves the chestnuts of Kyiv during the vegetation period Definition of those metals which contents correlate with macroscopical magnetic parameters, such as a magnetic susceptibility, is one of the basic tasks of environmental magnetism. Such correlative relations are basic for magnetic monitoring of an ecological condition in the city. Previous

x*10 (m /kg )

-9

3

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investigations using methods of geochemical mapping (Zaritskij et al., 1991) established elements contaminating soils of Kyiv. They are Cu, Sn, Pb, Zn, Ag, N і, Cr, V, Co, Mo. At the central part of the city the characteristic rise in concentrations of Nі, V, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn was found. Authors consider industrial enterprises to be the main polluters of the air basin. We managed to establish presence of reliable correlation relations of magnetic susceptibility with four of them - Nі, Pb, Cu, Zn (fig. 2). About concentrations of other elements we did not have enough reliable analytical data.
50 45

60

50
40

Χ*10-8 (m3/kg)

30 25 20 15 10 5 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 y = 13,7528054 + 0,949688047*x n=25, r = 0,7434, p = 0,00002

Χ*10-8 (m3/kg)

35

40

30

а

20

b
y = 8,56534993 + 0,65202932*x n=23, r = 0,6524, p = 0,0010;

10

0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Content of Ni (mg/kg)
60 60

Content of Pb (mg/kg)

50

50

y = 10,3907797 + 0,219443552*x n=18, r = 0,6050, p = 0,0078

40

Χ*10-8 (m3/kg)

30

Χ*10-8 (m3/kg)

40

20

c
y = 8,54226366 + 0,519375295*x n=23, r = 0,5436, p = 0,0073

30

d
20

10

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

10 20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Content of Cu (mg/kg)

Content of Zn (mg/kg)

Fig. 2 Correlation between χ and content of Ni (a), Pb (b), Cu(c), Zn(d)

Attempt to investigate accumulation of anthropogenic heavy metals by leaves of chestnuts of a city of Kyiv in 10 points for the two-month period has yielded following results. Magnetic susceptibility has grown up in 3,4 times. Considerable increase of Zn content (in 1.5 times) and Nі content (in 2.5 times) in leaves was found. Contents of other elements have not changed essentially. We conclude Zn and Nі to be mostly actively settled from anthropogenic aerosols. Conclusions The magnetic susceptibility of the soils is the sensitive indicator of environment components of the Kyiv city agglomeration. Significant correlations of magnetic susceptibility with contents of Nі, Pb, Cu, Zn are reliable preconditions of application of environmagnetic technologies for the control of an ecological condition in the city of Kyiv. The leaves are the satisfactory accumulator of magnetic pollution and allow studying dynamics of its accumulation. It is important, that bulk magnetic susceptibility of samples of leaves can be successfully measured by accessible commercial devices.

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Acknowledgements We want to thank Prof. Anatolij Samchuk (Institute of geochemistry and mineralogy of the National Academy of Sciences) for heavy metals analysis and Dr. Kseniya Bondar for the great support in the entire research project. References Evans, M.E. and Heller, F. [2003] Environmental Magnetism. Academic Press, San Diego, London, Burlington. Flanders, P. J. [1994] Collection, measurement and analysis of airborne magnetic particulates from pollution in the environment. Jornal of Applied Physics, 75, 5931-5936. Georgeaud, V. M., Rochette, P., Ambrosi, J. P., Vandamme, D., & Williamson, D. [1997] Relationship between heavy metals and magnetic properties in a large polluted catchments, the Etang de Berre (South France). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 22(1–2), 211–214. Kapicka A., Jordanova N., Petrovský E. and Ustjak S. [2000] Magnetic stability of power-plant fly ash in different soil solutions. Phys. Chem. Earth (A), 25, 431−436. Matzka, J., & Maher, B. A. [1999] Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves, identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates. Atmospheric Environment, 33, 4565– 4569. Muxworthy, A., Schmidbauer, E., & Petersen, N. [2002]. Magnetic properties and Mossbauer spectra of urban atmospheric particulatematter, a case study from Munich,Germany. Geophysical Journal International, 150, 558–570. Pope, III, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., Ito, K., et al. [2002] Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 1132–1141. Strzyszcz Z., Magiera T. and Heller F. [1996] The influence of industrial immisions on the magnetic susceptibility of soils in Upper Silesia. Stud. Geophys. Geod., 40, 276−286. Zaritsky, A.I, Lysyany N.N, Abramis A.Y. [1991] Geochemical aspect sostoyaniya heologicheskoy sredu Kyivskoi promushlenno – horodskoy ahlomerazii. Geol. Zh., № 2, S.34-42. (in Russian)

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

100

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Application of the seismic interferometry on the background noise recorded in the Mizil area (Romania)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Andreea-Cristina Grosu*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest

Retrieve the seismic signal from the background noise recorded in passive seismic surveys using the seismic interferometry.

The obtaining of P-wave reflections in the absence of earthquakes.

Summary The seismic interferometry is known as a method used to retrieve the seismic (max. 200 words): signal from the background noise recorded in passive seismic surveys. In this
paper, we present the results of the application of seismic interferometry on a passive seismic dataset recorded in April 2009 in the Mizil area (Romania). The main purpose of this study was to retrieve the seismic signal from the background noise using the seismic interferometry. The studied area is located in the vicinity of the active seismic area Campulung-Fagaras-Sinaia. The measurements were done using two Geodes with 24 1C channel each; the recording length was 6 hours and the time sampling interval was 1 ms. The input data to seismic interferometry are represented by pre-processed passive records of 4 s length, meaning normalized records which contain only the background noise without surface waves. The seismic interferometry was applied in two steps namely, the crosscorrelation and stacking of the time samples with the same positive and negative arrival times. The responses show horizontal events which can be thought as P-wave reflected waves, based on their apparent velocities and frequency contents.

Topic:

Applied geophysics

101

Application of the seismic interferometry on the background noise recorded in the Mizil area (Romania)
Andreea Grosu*,Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest Introduction The term interferometry refers to the study of interference phenomena between pairs of signals in order to obtain information from the differences between them. The principal mathematical operation used to study the interference is the crosscorrelation of the pairs of signals, therefore the mathematical operation used in interferometry is convolution. The seismic interferometry is the principle of generating new seismic records by crosscorrelating existing ones (Draganov, Wapenaar and Thorbecke, 2006). The first version of this principle was proposed by Claerbout (1968) and it was known as “acoustic daylight imaging”. He demonstrated that, in case of a horizontally layered medium, the reflection response can be synthesized from the autocorrelation of its transmission response. In general, the input data to seismic interferometry are represented by passive seismic records, where the seismic sources are different natural sources (e.g. earthquakes and microearthquakes, activity of geothermal reservoirs etc). By crosscorrelating the ambient background seismic noise between two stations, we can extract the Green’s function between them. The ambient noise can be used as input data to interferometry in order to retrieve the reflected waves (Draganov et al., 2006). The P-wave to S-wave conversion can be analyzed, via interferometry, using passive seismic data recorded with downhole arrays (Mehta et al., 2007a, 2007b). Another application of interferometry is the extraction of the Rayleigh waves from ambient noise (Shapiro and Campillo, 2004). Nowadays, the seismic monitoring of the oil-bearing structures is a common procedure done in the studies for oil exploration and exploitation. This type of monitoring can include, also, the recording of the ambient noise. The analysis of such data using the seismic interferometry can give information about the structural parameters, such as the P-wave and S-wave velocities and shearwave-splitting coefficient (Miyazawa et al., 2008). From an applicative point of view, the seismic interferometry steps are the crosscorrelation (an operation used to detect the traveltime difference of the recorded waves between the pair of receivers) and the stacking (integration over all sources). The seismic interferometry can be applied on two- and three-dimensional seismic data. Description of the studied area and the passive data acquisition A passive seismic survey was performed in the Mizil area (Romania) (Fig. 1). This survey had two main goals namely, the use of seismic interferometry to retrieve the seismic signal (P-wave arrivals) from the background noise and, the second one, to demonstrate that the passive seismic surveys can be used to cover the gaps between the active seismic reflection profiles. The passive seismic data acquisition was done near an active seismic reflection profile, in order to have a control of the results of the passive data analysis. One of the sources of the recorded seismic energy is represented by the intense seismic activity that characterizes the Vrancea-Campulung-Sinaia zone.

Fig. 1 Passive seismic study position (yellow circle) and active seismic study (white line, SS_N – SS_S) towards Mizil city; DN – national road, CF – railway
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The passive recordings were done using 1C geophones planted on two orthogonal profiles, 24 geophones/profile, spaced at 2.5 meters. The position of the profiles was designed in this way in order to be helpful in the surface wave identification. The autosaving was done after 1s and the time sampling interval was 1 ms; the total length of the passive measurements was 6 hours.

Passive seismic data analysis
The analysis of the passive seismic data consists in a several steps that have to be followed. First, the whole dataset is converted from the Geometrics format in the SEG-Y format using an algorithm provided by Geometrics. Then, the records with arrivals given by non-natural sources (e.g. cars, trains) were identified and selected in order to be avoided from the further analyses. Due to the problems related by the access in the field, the passive recordings were done at about 2 km southward from a railway track. The passing time of each train was written in the navigation file in order to be used during the data analysis. The results showed that the seismic interferometry cannot be applied on passive records which contain surface waves. Examples of raw passive records are displayed in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2 Raw passive seismic record for in-line (left) and cross-line (right) direction The seismic interferometry was applied in two steps namely, the crosscorrelation and stacking of the time samples with the same positive and negative arrival times. The passive seismic records required a data pre-processing before the computation of the seismic interferometry responses such as: energy normalization for a time window equal to the length of the analyzed records (4 s, 40 s and 100 s), splitting the passive records in windows of 4 s (meaning one window in case of records of 4 s long, 10 windows for records of 40 s and 25 windows for records of 100 s), tapering in time using time windows of 100 ms. Three different passive records were analyzed. In Figure 3, we displayed the responses of the cross-correlation done using records with time length of 4 s, 40 s and 100 s. The remaining noise seen after cross-correlation is better attenuated using a greater number of time windows of 4 s. The seismic interferometry responses are displayed in Figure 4. The quality of these responses was improved by applying a band-pass frequency filter of 10, 12, 24, 26 Hz and f-x deconvolution, having f_min = 12 hz and f_max = 24 Hz. The filtered seismic interferometry responses show the presence of a group of horizontal events which occur at about 0.75 s, 1.5 s, 2 s, 2.3 s. These events are clear on the interferometry responses obtained using input records of 4 s, 40 s and 100 s. Conclusions The seismic interferometry was applied on a passive seismic dataset with the purpose to retrieve the seismic signal (reflected P-waves) from the background noise recorded in the Mizil area (Romania). The method was applied on selected raw records, meaning records without surface waves

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Fig. 3 Cross-correlation responses for trace length of 4 s (up, left), 40 s (up, right) and 100 s (down) generated by the surface sources (e.g. cars, trains). The interferometry responses were computed using input records of 4 s, 40 s and 100 s. We used records with different lengths in order to study the effect of the record length on the interferferometry responses. As expected, the noise attenuation is higher when the length of the analyzed passive record is higher. The horizontal events seen on the interferometry responses can be considered reflected P-waves due to their characteristics (apparent velocity and frequency content). Acknowledgements The authors thank to Dr. Deyan Draganov for his help during data acquisition and processing.

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Fig. 4 Filtered seismic interferometry responses for trace length of 4 s (up, left), 40 s (up, right) and 100 s (down) References Claerbout, J.F., [1968] Synthesis of a layered medium from its acoustic transmission response, Geophysics, 33, p. 264 – 269. Draganov, D., Wapenaar, K., Thorbecke, J., [2006] Seismic interferometry: Reconstructing the earth’s reflection response, Geophysics 71(4), p. S161 – S170. Mehta, K., R. Snieder, and V.Graizer, [2007a] Downhole receiver function: A case study: Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 97, p. 1396–1403. Mehta, K., R. Snieder, andV.Graizer, [2007b] Extraction of near-surface properties for a lossy layered medium using the propagator matrix: Geophysical Journal International, 169, p. 271–280. Miyazawa, M., Snieder, R., Venkataraman, A., [2008] Application of seismic interferometry to extract P- and S-wave propagation and observation of shear-wave splitting from noise data at Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada, Geophysics 73(4), p. D35 – D40. Shapiro, N. M., and M. Campillo, [2004] Emergence of broadband Rayleigh waves from correlations of the ambient seismic noise: Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L07614.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

105

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

New techniques to analyse waveform similarity

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Maximilian Scholze*, Karsten Stürmer, Jörn Kummerow, S.A. Shapiro, Free University Berlin

Defining a robust measure for multiplets based on waveform similarity and differential travel times.

We introduce two new parameters and show how to characterise multiplets and how to identify error-prone data using these parameters.

Summary (max. 200 words): We introduce two parameters to analyse the similarity of close seismic

events. The first is an extension of the normalised cross correlation coefficient (composite correlation measure, CM), and the second parameter depends on differential arrival times (composite differential arrival time measure, TM). TM quantifies the separation of pairs of seismic events. The relationship between TM and interevent distance delta-r is derived, and theoretical TM-delta- r-distributions are calculated for different sourcereceiver geometries. We find that a combined analysis of the three parameters CM, TM and delta-r is practical for identification of time measurement errors and mislocations. The envelope of the CM-TM plot delineates event pairs with the same source mechanism (multiplets). We define an area around this envelope in order to account for uncertainties. Therefor we develop a approaches to obtain a proper measure of this area.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

106

New techniques to analyse waveform similarity
Maximilian Scholze, Karsten St¨ rmer, J¨ rn Kummerow, S.A. Shapiro, Free University Berlin u o

Introduction
The cross correlation coefficient is widely used in seismology to quantify the waveform similarity, e.g. between the seismograms of two events recorded at the same station. It is applied to improve the accuracy of differential arrival times (e.g., Rowe et al. (2002), Schaff et al. (2004)), to define clusters of seismic events (e.g., Aster and Scott (1993), Arrowsmith and Eisner (2006), Baisch et al. (2008)) or estimate interevent distance (Israelsson (1990), Menke (1999); see also the contribution by Kummerow in last years phase report). Plots of correlation coefficients as a function of interevent distance are often contaminated by location errors. This is the motivation in the present study to define a robust measure, which characterises the separation between earthquakes. Our approach is performed in the time domain and therefore eliminates the dependency on an often inadequate velocity model.

Method
The normalised cross correlation function cij (t) between two seismogram traces ui (t) and uj (t) is defined as cij (t) = ui (t ) uj (t − t) dt u2 (t′ )dt′ × i
′ ′ ′ 1 2

(1)

u2 (t′ )dt′ j

The maximum absolute value of cij (t) is generally referred to as the cross correlation coefficient Cij = max[|cij (t)|]. It is a convenient measure of waveform similarity. The values range between 0 (no similarity) and 1 (identical waveforms). The cross correlation coefficient Cij can be calculated for the complete seismograms or separately for specified time windows (e.g. P and S time windows). If we now consider k = 1, ..., M seismic stations, then a composite correlation measure, CM , can be defined by
M M P k=1 k Cij × k=1 S k Cij
1 2M

CMij =

(2)

k with the maximum correlation coefficient P |S Cij for event pair ij at station k and P or S time window, respectively. The range of values for CM is between 0 and 1, where 1 expresses identical seismogram traces for events i and j on all receivers. To be independent from localisations we further define a differential time measure of arrival time differences, T M , as follows M S k ti

T Mij

=
k=1

1−

− k tS − k tP − k tP j i j tnorm

1 M

(3)

with normalised time tnorm , which we chose as the maximum possible travel time difference tS − tP between receivers and grid point in the model. tnorm = max tS − tP
S|P k ti S|P − k tj

(4)

S − P differential arrival times can, e.g., be measured by cross correlation of the two seismograms. The values of T M range from 0, if the differential travel time is equal to tnorm , and 1 in case that the differential travel times to every event pair ij are identical for each station.

Synthetic modelling
Hence T M is based on differential travel time measurement a relationship between T M and interevent distance ∆r can be derived. Figure 1 left shows a schematic source receiver geometry. For such a case a simplified expression for T M is found under the assumption of constant velocity. This leads to:
M

T Mij

=
k=1 M

−1 v −1 (k ri −k rj ) − vP (k ri −k rj ) 1− S tnorm
1 M

1 M

=
k=1

1 − f · ∆rij · |cosβ|

(5)

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f is a constant factor for one event pair ij. (vP − vS ) (6) vS · vP · tnorm Equation 5 shows that T Mij depends on f , ∆r and the source-receiver geometry (|cosβ|). From this we can conclude that T M cannot be assigned an explicit value for ∆r. f=

Figure 1 schematic source receiver geometry for one receiver and two events (Event 1 and Event 2). Instead we expect that T M varies against the cosine of the source receiver geometry controlled opening angle β. We decided to model synthetic source receiver geometries in order to study the behaviour of T M on different geometries. It appears to be reasonable to assume constant velocities for the model and a spherical source geometry. Receivers are placed randomly on the surface. The normalisation term tnorm is set as the maximum possible travel time within the model, see equation 4. T M will be calculated for all event pairs N . Figure 2 shows the result of the modeled data in a T M − ∆r density plot. As shown in equation 5 the T M values for a specific value of ∆r depends on the cosine of the opening angle β which results from the source receiver geometry. In addition all T M values for a certain ∆r are arranged within a linear upper and lower envelope. The upper envelope represents those T M values with the highest source receiver angle β the lower envelope match with the lowest values for β correspondingly. Apparently there is a clear density distribution between the envelopes. This arises from the shape of the event cloud as from its position regarding the receivers.

Figure 2 Synthetic modelled T M data. Left: Linear alignment of receivers, red crosses. Events, blue dots, are arranged in a ball at 10km depth. Right: Density T M − ∆r plot. A linear distribution within the T M value range can be observed, high density values are shown as red squares. Figure 1 right a) shows a source receiver geometry where the cosines of the angle β is equal to 0 and the travel time is nearly equal. Therefore the upper envelope of the T M − ∆r plot represents those events with the highest opening angle. In figure 1 right b) the contrary case is shown, the differential travel time is maximal and the cosine of the opening angle is equal to 1. Those cases represent the lower envelope. As a result we obtain from modeling, that a plane receiver array is the most adequate receiver array design. In this case the array averages the opening angles, thus the effect of source-receiver-geometry is minimised and comparable dataset is recorded. Since the values for T M plot against the interevent distance ∆r within linear bounds we conclude, that localisation dependent T M − ∆r plots are helpful to detect time measurement or localisation errors.

Real data example
We calculate T M and CM for localised microseismic data recorded at the West Fissure Fault System in Northern Chile, see Kummerow et al. (2008). Waveform similarity is high for most events (CM > 0.7). First we compare the obtained real data with the results from the T M modelling. The T M − ∆r plot (figure 3 left) reproduces essentially the same results from the synthetic modelling. Most data points plot within the upper and lower envelope. As we examine a preselected cluster with a maximum interevent distance of ∼ 700m those events which plot outside the bounds seem to be error-prone. 1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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Figure 3 T M as function of interevent distance ∆r. The left plot features the unsorted data. The right plot shows the sorted data using the criterion of the upper and lower envelope.

Error analysis
The event pairs plotting below the lower bound feature a time measurement error. Thus the T M values tend to be too low. Furthermore some event pairs plot above the upper envelope. These events denote mislocations and poorly resolved locations because the value for the interevent distance ∆r appears to be too high. The CM − ∆r plot features an upper bound resulting from scattering. With increasing interevent distance the values for CM tend to decrease (Kummerow (2009)). Those events plotting above the upper bound exhibit a localisation error as the cross-correlation works accurately. Therefor, the interevent distance has to be too large. In order to obtain more accurate data we applied a sorting procedure. We analised the frequency of events taking part in event pairs which plot outside the envelopes. If an event is exceptionally often part of a such event pair (more than 8 times in this case), this event will be removed. As a result only a few events are error-prone. After this sorting procedure the remaining event pairs accord with the upper and lower bound in the T M − ∆r plot, see figure 3 right. It becomes apparent that the maximum interevent distance reduces to ∼ 450m after applying the sorting procedure. A total amount of 11 error-prone events were eliminated. The original data set contains 120 events.

A statistical approach to identify multiplets
Assuming, the dataset is free from errors after sorting, we apply our approach to the dataset by plotting the resulting CM −values of event pairs against the resulting 1 − T M −values and define the upper envelope as mul-

Figure 4 Left: Event pairs (dots) and their corresponding CM–TM values. Mutliplets are events located within the multiplets interval (red circles). Right top: cumulative sum of event pairs in dependence to δ. Right bottom: The corresponding first derivation of the envelope function for the cumulative sum of event pairs in dependence to δ. A maximum peak is clearly visibly at δ = 0.035 = 3.5% 1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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tiplet line. Hence pairs of multiplets should plot along this line. To soften this criterion we introduce an interval around the multiplet line that we call δ−interval. A doublet is then defined as an event pair having a CM − T M value located in this interval around the multiplet line (ML). The resulting multiplet interval (MI) can be described as M I = M L ± δM L (7) Due to the fact the transition between being a multiplet and not being a multiplet is quite continuous, it is not possible to define a general δ−interval. We try to find a statistically based definition of this interval by having a closer look to this parameter. A larger δ−value results in a larger number of multiplets. To find an optimal δ−interval one need to account for the following tradeoff: more events having a poor similarity or less events having a strong similarity, respectively. Therefor we analyse the statistical behavior of the cumulative sum of CM − T M values at increasing δ−values. We count the number of considered event pairs within a certain multiplet interval, determined by δ. The maximum gradient of the cumulative number of event pairs as a function of δ defines the best δ−value. The result of this approach is shown in figure 4 right. We obtain as δ a value of 3.5% corresponding with the peak of the 1st derivation. The advantage of this approach is its simplicity and the automated picking of an optimized value for δ. The application of the estimated δ−interval leads to the result shown in figure 4 left. Event pairs fulfilling the criterion of plotting within that δ–interval are marked by red circles. At high CM − T M values we observe a more dense distribution of event pairs, consistent with the standard definition of doublets (e.g., Baisch et al. (2008)). They have a high waveform correlation and are located very close to each other. Nevertheless, on the upper right side of this plot, one can see numerous events within the defined multiplet interval, having a much lower T M −value (higher 1 − T M value). A lower T M −value is caused by a larger interevent distance between two correlated events. This supports our assumption that events can be similar, even if they are separated by a larger distance.

Conclusion and Outlook
We define a composite correlation measure, CM , and a composite arrival time measure, T M . The relation between T M and interevent distance ∆r is derived. Plots of CM (∆r), T M (∆r) and CM (T M ) are useful to identify errors in time measurements, poorly resolved locations and location errors. The envelope of CM (T M ) can be considered as a diagnostic tool to identify event pairs as doublets in the sense that they have the same source radiation pattern. This definition characterises event pairs as a doublet even if they originate at different positions of a fault segment. ∆r may be larger than a quarter of the dominant wavelength λ, which is often taken as the criterion for a doublet definition (e.g., Baisch et al. (2008) and references therein). We present a statistical approach to define multiplets as event pairs located in a certain multiplet interval determined by a heuristic parameter δ. Our long term target is to develop a semi– or fully automated software for analysing microseismic datasets regarding the presence of multiplets and their physical meaning.

Acknowledgments
We thank the sponsors of the PHASE consortium for supporting the research presented in this paper.

References
Arrowsmith, S. and Eisner, L. [2006] A technique for identifying microseismic multiplets and application to the Valhall field, North Sea. Geophysics, 71, V31–V40. Aster, R. and Scott, J. [1993] Comprehensive characterization of waveform similarity in microearthquake data sets. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 68(4), 1307–1314. Baisch, S., Ceranna, L. and Harjes, H. [2008] Earthquake cluster: What can we learn from the waveform similarity? Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 98(6), 2806–2814. Israelsson, H. [1990] Correlation of waveforms from closely spaced regional events. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 80, 815–832. Kummerow, J. [2009] Earthquake location based on waveform similarity and application to a microseismic dataset. Tech. rep., Annual Phase Report, 2008:13−22. Kummerow, J., Salazar, P., Wigger, P., Asch, G. and Moser, D. [2008] Microseismicity related to the West Fissure Fault System, North Chile. Expanded abstracts, D013., EGU annual meeting 2008, Vienna. Menke, W. [1999] Using waveform similarity to constrain earthquake locations. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 89(4), 1143–1146. Rowe, C., Aster, R., Borchers, B. and Young, C. [2002] An automatic, adaptive algorithm for refining phase picks in large seismic data sets. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 92, 1660–1674. Schaff, D., Bokelmann, G., Ellsworth, W., Zanzerkia, E., Waldhauser, F. and Beroza, G. [2004] Optimizing correlation techniques for improved earthquake location. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am., 94(2), 705–721. 1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Array-forming in seismic interferometry

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mirela Spita*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest

The main objective is to retrieve the seismic signal from the background noise recorded in passive seismic measurements. The presence of the surface waves can be reduced by the use of arrays with 12 elements.

Summary The seismic interferometry uses the background noise recorded in passive (max. 200 words): seismic surveys as input data. The interferometry analysis consists in the
performing of two steps, namely the computation of the cross-correlation between each master trace, selected from the passive seismic record, with all traces from the same record and the stacking of the samples with the same positive and negative times. Recent results obtained in the use of the seismic interferometry show that the presence of the coherent noise can destroy the interferometry responses. One way to attenuate this type of noise is to compute the array responses based on single-sensor normalized passive recordings.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

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Array-forming in seismic interferometry
Mirela Spita, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest Introduction Receiver arrays are used to attenuate the coherent noise seen on land seismic data. For decades, the array response was computed using hard-wired arrays directly in the field. Modeling results showed that the array responses computed using single-sensor recordings perform better coherent noise attenuation (Panea, 2007). In addition, the use of single-sensor recordings in arrayforming allows a data pre-processing, such as static corrections, which protect the seismic signals (reflections) during the computation of array responses and improve the results of others processing algorithms, for example velocity analysis (Panea, 2009). The seismic interferometry uses the background noise recorded in passive seismic surveys as input data. The interferometry analysis consists in the performing of two steps, namely the computation of the cross-correlation between each master trace, selected from the passive seismic record, with all traces from the same record and the stacking of the samples with the same positive and negative times. Recent results obtained in the use of the seismic interferometry show that the presence of the coherent noise can destroy the interferometry responses. One way to attenuate this type of noise is to compute the array responses based on single-sensor normalized passive recordings. Design of array-forming Having single-sensor recordings as input data to array-forming, the array responses can be obtained by summing a number of traces equal to the desired number of array elements and, then, spatial resample the output at the desired group interval (Fig. 1). The space between the array elements is chosen so that the surface waves will not be affected by spatial aliasing, while the size of the group interval is chosen so that the seismic signal (reflections) will not be spatially aliased.

Fig. 1 Responses for arrays with 5 elements, spaced at dx, and group interval of 2dx Description of the passive seismic data acquisition The input data to seismic interferometry are represented by single-sensor passive recordings. The passive measurements were done in April 2009 in the Mizil area (Romania), located in the vicinity of the active seismic Campulung – Fagaras – Sinaia zone (Fig. 2). One of the purposes of this study is to retrieve the seismic signal (P-wave arrivals) from the recorded background noise by using the seismic interferometry. The passive measurements were done using 2 Geodes with 24 1C channels/Geode, the geophone spacing was 2.5 m; the length of the passive measurements was 6 hours, the seismic data were sampled in time at 1 ms. The passive seismic profile was located near an active seismic profile recorded during ’90 in the studies required by the oil exploration. In general, the passive seismic measurements are performed in areas where the information about the seismic reflectivity is provided by the active seismic reflection surveys; in this way, we can compare the reflections seen on the interferometry responses with those seen on the time seismic sections. Application of seismic interferometry on array responses We display in Figure 3 one example of passive record which contains a group of surface waves characterized by apparent velocities of 160 – 200 m/s. Different arrays were tested in order to obtain the best surface wave attenuation. The responses of arrays with 5, 9 and 12 elements are

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Fig. 2 Location of the passive (yellow circle) and active (white line) seismic surveys in the vicinity of the Mizil town displayed in Figures 3a,3b. The best noise attenuation is obtained using an array with 12 elements; this good attenuation is sustained by the image of the (f, k)-amplitude spectrum (Fig. 4). The analyzed record contains arrivals affected by spatial aliasing, due to the distance of 2.5 m used between geophones in the field (Fig. 4). The aliased energy is well attenuated by array-forming with 12 elements. We displayed in Figure 5 the interferometry response obtained having a normalized passive record as input data; here, the master trace is the 24th trace chosen from the analyzed record. The presence of the surface waves are responsible for the dipping events seen on this response. The interferometry works better on records which contain the responses of arrays with 12 elements (see Fgure 5).

Fig 3a Normalized passive record (left) after array-forming with 5 (right) elements

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Fig. 3b Normalized passive record after array-forming with 9 (left) and 12 (right) elements

Fig. 4 (f, k)-amplitude spectrum of the normalized passive record (up, left) after array-forming with 5 (up, right), 9 (down, left) and 12 (down, right) elements

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Fig. 5 Interferometry responses computed using normalized record (up, left) after array-forming with 5 (up, right), 9 (down, left) and 12 (down, right) elements Conclusions The seismic interferometry is used to retrieve the seismic signal from the background noise recorded in passive seismic measurements. The efficiency of the use of interferometry is affected by the presence of the surface waves generated by the activity of surface sources (passing cars). The best attenuation of such noisy arrivals was provided by the use of arrays with 12 elements. Having array response, obtained using 12 elements, as input data, the interferometry response shows a group of horizontal events which can be considered as seismic reflections. Acknowledgements The authors thank to Dr Deyan Draganov for his help during passive data acquisition and processing. References Panea, I. [2007] The use of single sensors in seismic data acquisition, processing and interpretation. PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 178 p. Panea, I. [2009] Array forming in the presence of phase variations. The Leading Edge, February, 260 – 264.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Variation of crust’s thickness using the PKP waves residual times

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mihai Furnică*, Ioana Stan, University of Bucharest

Determining regional crust thickness

Use of the PKP residuals times in order to determine crust thickness

Study of the crust thickness is based on the difference between the theoretical Summary (max. 200 words): and the observed arrival time of PKP phases (PKPdf phase propagates

through Earth’s Inner Core, PKPbc and PKPab phases are passing through Earth’s Outer Core). The behavior of residual times is assumed to be caused in crust due to difference between the IASP91 velocity model and the actual velocity layering of Earth’s crust. The phenomenon was studied at Romanian and Swiss stations, results being correlated to the actual tectonic setting of each area.

Topic:

Earth’s physics

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Variation of crust’s thickness using the PKP waves residual times
Mihai Furnică, Ioana Stan, University of Bucharest Introduction Since the early twentieth century, PKP (P’) waves have been used to study Earth’s core (Lehmann, 1936; Gutenberg and Richter, 1938). The method is based on the difference between the theoretical and the observed arrival time of PKP phases (PKPdf phase propagates through Earth’s Inner Core, PKPbc and PKPab phases are passing through Earth’s Outer Core). The behavior of residual times is assumed to be caused in crust due to difference between the IASP91 velocity model and the actual velocity layering of Earth’s crust. Method, Data Analysis and Results Digital broad-band and short-period data was available online at IRIS DMC. 4 events between 01.01.2008 and 31.12.2009 were selected, having magnitudes greater than 6, focal depths greater than 570 km and teleseismic distances between 144 and 159°. Recordings of these events were obtained from 25 stations in Switzerland and 28 stations and a micro-array in Romania (Figure 1) in order to perform the analysis. A further examination of the available recordings reduced the number of the stations to 23 in Switzerland and 22 in Romania and the microarray for the final analysis, due mainly to high noise level. Theoretical travel times of the PKP phases were computed using IASP91velocity model implemented within TTIM software (Buland and Chapman, 1983; Kennet and Engdhal, 1991). The software used for data processing was PITSA (Scherbaum and Johnson, 1992). Several tools provided by this software were used in a sequence of the following steps: first, a transformation of the wave-form from broad-band to short-period Fig. 1 Position of Romanian stations on a satellite view

Fig. 2 1st trace – unfiltered waveform, 2ndtrace – pole zero filter applied to raw waveform, 3rd trace – Butterworth band-pass filter applied to raw waveform, 4th trace – Butterworth band-pass filter applied to pole zero filtered waveform

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Fig. 3 PKPdf, PKPbc, PKPab phase picking

was made using a pole-zero filter and a zero-phase Butterworth band-pass filter (0.5s–5s) was applied to the recording (Figure 2). PKPdf, PKPbc and PKPab phase picking was performed (Figure 3) and the residual times were calculated. These residuals are used to determine any anomalous zones in terms of layer thickness assuming that differences between the theoretical model and the actual phase arrivals are caused by thickness variation and not by miss-calculation of each layer’s characterising velocity. Arrival times for the three phases were plotted against distance (Figure 4) in order to be compared with the theoretical time-distance diagram. It can be easily observed that data points follow linear trends for each data set, all converging in the point corresponding to the smallest distance value, this being a validation of the data quality (observed arrivals follow the theoretical pattern) (Figure 4). Still, anomalous values can be observed on the chart, associated with layer thickness different to IASP91 model. These points are actually the data of interest for this study, reflecting local crust structure. The two data sets were split according to geographic position, with the purpose to make an appropriate statistical analysis. In consequence, two histograms were created (one for Romanian stations and one for Swiss stations) (Figure 5), showing the distribution of the residuals over each perimeter.

Fig. 4 Time – distance plot

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Fig. 5 Histogram for the 2 data sets. a) Romanian, b) Switzerland

Obtained data were interpolated using Kriging method, this resulting in two variation maps of the residual times (Figure 6, 7)

Fig. 6 Interpolated data of residual times for Romanian stations
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Conclusions Using the accepted velocity value for the upper crust (5.8 km/s for the upper crust and 6.5 km/s for the lower crust) the maps shown in figure 6 and 7 can be interpreted as variation maps of crust’s thickness in terms of deviation from the mean value considered in IASP91 model (20 km for the upper crust and 25 km for the lower crust). It can be observed that in mountain areas (Figure 6), the residual time values are bigger than those obtained at stations placed at lower elevations, the phenomenon being generated by excess of crust in the upper mantle. The difficulty with this study is that stations are spread apart, and there isn’t a coherent setting to help determinate a realistic model. It can be observed that on the Romanian residual’s map (Figure 7), the high positive difference between the observed and the calculated arrival time can be correlated to a zone which lowers the crust-mantle boundary. The negative residuals calculated in VRI station might be associated with a rupture in the north-east part of the slab. Acknowledgements The author would like to thank Prof. Dr. Marian Ivan from the University of Bucharest for all the support. References Buland, R., Chapman, C.H., [1983] The Computation of Seismic Travel Times. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 73, 83-107. Kennet, B.L.N, Engdhal, E.R., [1991] Travel Times for Global Earthquake Location and Phase Identification. Geophys. J. Int. 105, 429-465. Scherbaum, F., Johnson, J., [1992]. Programmable Interactive Toolkit for Seismological Analysis (PITSA). IASPEI Software Library, vol. 5.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Analysis of the coherent noise from passive land seismic data

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Calin Elena Andreea*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest

A passive seismic survey had two main goals namely, the use of seismic interferometry and, to demonstrate that the passive seismic surveys can be used to cover the gaps between the active seismic reflection profiles. The application of the seismic interferometry and to verify if the passive seismic surveys can be used as a laterally extension of the active seismic surveys.

A passive seismic survey was performed in the Mizil area (Romania). This Summary (max. 200 words): survey had two main goals namely, the use of seismic interferometry to

retrieve the seismic signal (P-wave arrivals) from the background noise and the second one, to demonstrate that the passive seismic surveys can be used to cover the gaps between the active seismic reflection profiles. The seismic interferometry works well if the passive seismic records are not affected by strong surface waves; therefore, these types of records are neglected in the application of the interferometry. But, the surface waves carry useful information that can be extracted after their analysis. The phase velocity– transformation is used to obtain dispersion images in which the phase velocity is represented as a function of frequency.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

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Analysis of the coherent noise from passive land seismic data Calin Elena Andreea, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest Introduction A passive seismic survey was performed in the Mizil area (Romania). This survey had two main goals namely, the use of seismic interferometry to retrieve the seismic signal (P-wave arrivals) from the background noise and the second one, to demonstrate that the passive seismic surveys can be used to cover the gaps between the active seismic reflection profiles. The seismic interferometry works well if the passive seismic records are not affected by strong surface waves; therefore, these types of records are neglected in the application of the interferometry. But, the surface waves carry useful information that can be extracted after their analysis. The phase velocity–transformation is used to obtain dispersion images in which the phase velocity is represented as a function of frequency. Description of the studied area and the passive data acquisition The acquisition of the passive seismic data was performed in the Mizil area (Romania), which is located close to the active seismic Vrancea-Campulung-Sinaia zone (see Figure 1). The continuous seismic activity which take place in this area provide available data that can be analyzed in order to obtain information about the seismic reflectivity and the elastic parameters. The epicenters are displayed in Figure 1. The passive seismic data acquisition was done on April 24, 2009. The main purpose of this study was to use seismic interferometry in order to retrieve the reflections from the ambiental noise (Panea et al., 2009). The recording of the passive seismic data was performed using two Geode (Geometrics) with 24 channels/each. The continuous measurements were done for 6 hours. The sources of the recorded energy are natural (e.g. earthquakes) and artificial (e.g. cars, trains etc). Because of the land works, the geophones were planted at about 2 km away from a railway line, which represented the main source of the strong surface waves seen on the passive seismic records. Some records contain surface waves generated by passing cars, occasionally, at distances of tens of meters from the spread of geophones. The data acquisition software was installed on a laptop that was connected to an electrical generator, placed at more than 250 m away from the spread of geophones. The electrical generator did not touch directly the soil surface, in order to avoid the introduction of its small vibrations into the ground. The geophone spacing was 2.5 m and they were placed along two orthogonal directions; one was parallel with the railway line, named the inline direction, and the other one was perpendicular on it, named the cross line direction. The quality control of the records was done directly in the field. In this way, we could verify if the measurements were done properly. As a result of the data acquisition step, the passive seismic dataset contain about 6 Gb of data saved in the Geometrics format (.dat).

Figure 1. Epicenters of the shallow and intermediate earthquakes occurred in the VranceaCampulung-Sinaia zone during April 2009

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Surface wave analysis The analysis of the passive seismic data consisted in a several steps that have to be followed. First, the whole dataset was converted from the Geometrics format in the SEG-Y format using an algorithm provided by Geometrics. Then, the records with arrivals given by non-natural sources (e.g. trains, cars) were identified and selected in order to be used for the surface wave analysis. There are two types of surface waves seen on the passive records, namely waves generated by far away sources (e.g. trains, see Figure 2-up), considered strong sources, and waves generated by closer sources (e.g. cars, see Figure 3-up), considered small sources. These types of sources have an effect on the surface wave parameters (amplitude, frequency, phase velocities etc). The representation in the (t, x)-domain give information about the apparent velocity of the surface waves and the (f, k)amplitude spectrum representations can be used for the estimation of their frequency content (see Figures 2-down and 3-down).

Figure 2. Normalized passive record from inline (up, left) and cross-line (up, right) direction represented in the (t, x)-domain and the (f, k)-amplitude spectrum for inline (down, left) and crossline (down, right) direction, the source is far-away from the spread of geophones The surface waves are known as dispersive waves, meaning that their velocities are a function of frequency. In surface wave analysis, the phase velocity – frequency transform is used to compute the dispersion curve, which can give us information about the S-wave velocities. The phase velocity is known as the speed at which phases travel or, another definition, the velocity of each frequency. The phase velocity curve, known as dispersion curve, is the graph of phase velocity representing with frequency and velocity. In Figure 4, we displayed the dispersive energy images obtained using the 2D spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) algorithm, which make use of the Bessel function. The phase velocity-frequency transform was applied for a maximum offset of 60 m and a maximum frequency of 25 Hz. The phase velocity curve reflects the averaged velocity model beneath receiver array.

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Figure 3. Normalized passive record from inline (up, left) and cross-line (up, right) direction represented in the (t, x)-domain and the (f, k)-amplitude spectrum for inline (down, left) and crossline (down, right) direction, the source is closed to the spread of geophones In case of the surface waves generated by the passing car, the phase velocities vary different with respect to frequencies for inline and cross line directions. Looking at the dispersive energy image obtained for the inline direction, the phase velocity is almost constant with the increasing of frequency, while for the cross line direction it shows a variation of tens of m/s with the increasing of frequency (see Figure 4, down). For both directions, the phase velocity values are small, approximately 200 m/s. The picked amplitude values range between 0.75 and 0.9. The dispersive energy images obtained for the surface waves generated by a passing train are different from those displayed in Figure 4-up. The presence of strong surface waves on both records, for inline and cross line directions, can be responsible for the linear variation of their phase velocity with frequency. The phase velocity values increase with frequency until about 600 m/s and the picked amplitude values range between 0.6 and 0.8.

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Figure 4. Dispersive energy in the phase velocity – frequency representation for the inline (up, left) and cross line (up, right) direction with far-away sources and for the inline (down, left) and cross line (down, right) direction for closed sources Conclusions The passive seismic study was done having two main purposes namely, the application of the seismic interferometry in order to obtain information about the reflectivity from the studied area and to verify if the passive seismic surveys can be used as a laterally extension of the active seismic surveys, knowing how expensive is an active seismic data acquisition. The passive seismic dataset contains many records with strong surface waves given by the presence of artificial sources (e.g. trains, cars etc); these records will be neglected during the application of the seismic interferometry. The analysis of these surface waves can bring us information about the velocity values that characterize the very shallow geological layers. Based on their apparent velocity and frequency values, an active seismic survey can be designed such that the recorded arrivals will not be affected by spatial aliasing. If an active data acquisition is desired to be performed using geophone arrays, the array parameters can be easily determined, increasing the effectiveness of array-forming. Therefore, an active seismic survey is good to be designed after the recording and analyzing of passive seismic dataset in the studied area, which will give us some of the required designing parameter. References Analysis of the surface waves present on the passive seismic data recorded in the Mizil area (Romania), I. Panea, A. Bocin, V. Mocanu, 2009, submitted to The Leading Edge SEG

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

125

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title :

MT soundings in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden.

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

María de los Ángeles García Juanatey*, Juliane Hübert, Ari Tryggvason, Uppsala University

Achieve a better understanding of the geological structures in the area facilitating the later construction of 3D and 4D models. Derivation and interpretation of two new resistivity models from MT data.

Summary The present study was carried out in part of one of the richest mining districts (max. 200 words): of Sweden. As mining and exploration has been conducted on the area for
over 100 years, renewed efforts are aimed to locate deeper deposits. In the frame of a 4D geologic modeling project, two new perpendicular MT profiles were acquired together with reflection seismic data. Since the structural geology of the area is complex and no clear strike direction can be determined, only the determinant was inverted. The resulting inversion models have RMS of 1.17 and 1.52. The interpreted reflectors from the seismic line parallel to one of the profiles were introduced in the inversion process improving the RMS of the resulting model. The obtained resistivity models give valuable information that helps to delineate the extension in depth of the main geological units in the area and confirms and better defines the presence of a deep conductive structure that has been interpreted as a structural basin of Bothnian Basin affinity.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

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MT soundings in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden
María de los Ángeles García Juanatey*, Juliane Hübert, Ari Tryggvason, Uppsala University Introduction Sweden is a country with a mining history of several hundred years and it is placed among the leading miners in Europe, particularly for its production of gold, silver, copper, lead and iron ore. The present study was carried out in the area of the Kristineberg mine, located in one of the richest mining districts of Sweden: the Skellefte District. The mine is one of the deepest in Sweden (today below 1250m) and consists of volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) ore deposits with polymetallic ore (containing zinc, copper, lead, gold and silver), copper ore and gold ore. As mining and exploration has been conducted on the area for over 100 years, renewed efforts are aimed to locate deeper deposits. Realizing that a better understanding of the geological structures and evolution of the area are necessary in order to succeed in exploration, a pilot 3D geologic modeling project was carried out in the Kristiniberg mining area (Tryggvason et al. 2006, Malehmir et al. 2009, Hübert et al. 2009). This project demonstrated how several geophysical methods (reflection seismic, magnetotelluric and potential fields) can be successfully combined to derive a 3D geological model. Particularly, Hübert et al. (2009) show how the joint interpretation of magnetotelluric (MT) and reflection seismic data can be of great help in the understanding of the geological structures of the area. MT is a passive electromagnetic method in the frequency domain sensitive to resistivities, thus complementing the information provided by reflection seismics. Inspired by these results a joint research project between industry and academia (4D Modelling: http://www.ltu.se/tkg/avd/Geovetenskap/d24245?l=en), aims to improve and extend the pilot model previously derived in Skellefte District. It is in the frame of this project that new MT and reflection seismic data was acquired in 2008. Data acquisition and processing Along two perpendicular profiles, 17 broadband MT sites (see Fig. 1) were installed where also reflection seismic data were recorded (Dehghannejad et al. submitted). One of the profiles is directed N-S consisting of 10 MT sites at approximate spacing of 500 m, while the other is on the EW direction with seven new sites and spacing of about 1 km. All five MT channels were recorded in all sites with three different sampling modes: 3000 Hz, 1000 Hz and 20 Hz.

Fig. 1 Geological map of the Kristineberg mining area including acquired MT sites In general, sites along the N-S profile have fairly good quality data. For sites along the E-W profile the influence of noise increases as they get closer to the mine and the Kristineberg town. The

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obtained transfer functions after the time series processing are in the range of 700 Hz to 200 s and their main features can be seen in Fig. 2, where the transfer functions of two representative sites are shown. The general behavior of the apparent resistivities is a constant decay from 105 m to less than 1 m, indicating a deep conductive feature. Phases rise very high getting close to 90º at 10 Hz and sometimes even higher. From the phase behavior of the impedance tensor it becomes evident that the data set will be very difficult to interpret under 2D assumptions.

Fig.2 Typical MT transfer functions for this study. Apparent resistivities and phases. Inversion From the phase behavior of the transfer functions and the geology of the area, one can expect that the underground structures are not 2D. The strike analysis of the MT data does not show a consistent strike direction along the profiles making it very difficult to hold 2D assumptions. Therefore, only the determinant was inverted as it has a less distorted behavior in 3D environments (Pedersen and Engels, 2005). The inversions for both profiles were carried out with REBOCC, a reduced basis Occam inversion (Siripunvaraporn and Egbert 2000). The starting models were a homogeneous halfspace of 1000 m and the resulting inversion models have an RMS of 1.17 for the N-S profile and 1.52 for the E-W profile, considering error floors of 90% on apparent resistivities and 2.8º on phases. The interpreted reflectors from the seismic line parallel to the N-S profile were introduced in the inversion process, improving the RMS of the resulting model. The main features of the inversion model for the N-S profile (see Fig. 3) are a highly conductive feature at depth (CI) extending along all the profile at 2.5 km depth in the south, 1 km in the center and at 1,5 to 2,5 km to the north; a resistor to the south (RI) extending from the surface to 2,5 km depth; and a surface conductor (CII) between stations MT103 and MT105 reaching 500 m depth. The model along the E-W profile also shows the strong deep conductor (CI) between 1 and 1.5 km depth to the west dipping to the East, appearing below site MT207 at 4.5 km; and a big resistor to the East (RII) extending below sites MT204 to MT207 down to 3 km. Interpretation In accordance to surface geological observations and the geological map of the area, links can be drawn between the conductivity structures observed in the inversion models and the main geological units of the area. Sites MT103 and MT104 are on top of the metasediments very close to the contact with the volcanic rocks (see Fig.1). It is known that along this contact very conductive graphitic shales can be found, probably giving rise to CII. Sites MT204 to MT207 are on top of the Viterliden intrusion and it is very likely that RII is mapping its extension. Concerning CI, a similar feature can be found in a subparallel profile to our N-S profile located to the west of the study area (Hübert et al. 2009). Hübert et al. (2009) associated the deep conductor to a structural basement of Bothnian Basin affinity.

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Fig. 3 Resistivity model for profile N-S Conclusions Two perpendicular profiles of MT data were acquired in the Kristineberg mining area. The determinant inversion of the data resulted in two stable resistivity models that can be geologically interpreted. The addition of reflection seismic information to the inversion process improved the results by decreasing the RMS. The obtained resistivity models give valuable information that helps to delineate the extension in depth of the main geological units in the area and the presence of a deep conductive structure is confirmed and better defined. Acknowledgments We thank Luleå University of Technology, Geovista, Boliden AB and Lunding Mining for their collaboration and support. References Dehghannejad, M., Juhlin, C., Malehmir, A., Weihed, P., [submitted] Reflection seismic imaging of the uppermost crust in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden. Hübert, J., Malehmir, A., Smirnov, M. Y., Tryggvason, A., Pedersen, L. B., [2009] MT measurements in the western part of the Paleoproterozoic Skellefte Ore District, Northern Sweden: A contribution to an integrated geophysical study. Tectonophysics, doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.06.011 Malehmir, A., Thunehed, H. and Tryggvason, A. [2009] The Paleoproterozoic Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden: Results from integrated 3D geophysical and geologic modeling, and implications for targeting ore deposits. Geophysics, 74, B9−B22 Pedersen, L. B., Engels, M. [2005] Routine 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data using the determinant of the impedance tensor. Geophysics, 70, G31-G41 Siripunvaraporn, W., Egbert, G. [2000] An efficient data-subspace inversion for 2D magnetotelluric data. Geophysics, 65, 791-803 Tryggvason, A., Malehmir, A., Rodriguez-Tablante, J., Juhlin, C. [2006] Reflection seismic Investigations in the Western Part of the Paleoproterozoic VHMS- Bearing Skellefte District, Northern Sweden. Economic Geology, 101, 1039−1054.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Multiple attenuation – key part of seismic data processing in the Black Sea Region

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Vladislav Angelov, University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski”

Multiple attenuation in seismic data processing

Different ways of multiple attenuation in the Northern Shelf of Bulgarian Black Sea

The key part of a successful processing of seismic offshore data is the Summary (max. 200 words): multiple attenuation. The Black Sea and especially the Bulgarian northern

shelf regions are following that rule. In the oral presentation I will provide information about the multiples, their occurrence, classification and methods for attenuation. The presentation includes practical examples of attenuation with different methods, like attenuation in different domains – F-K and parabolic Radon domain and more sophisticated methods like the SurfaceRelated Multiple Elimination and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection. The examples will include both seismograms and stacked sections of profiles from the Northern Shelf of the Bulgarian Black sea.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

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Multiple attenuation – key part of seismic data processing in the Black Sea Region
Vladislav Angelov, University of Mining and Geology “St. Ivan Rilski” Introduction In the last couple of years, mankind’s needs of fuels have been enormously growing. The main sources of energy for decades have been the natural resources and especially oil and gas. Due to the fact that these resources are exhaustible and the prognosis that the current reserves will be adequate to the growing needs only for few more decades, based on their current level of use, huge investments in exploration and prospecting of new oil and gas fields are needed. A main part of that exploration is taking the seismic methods. In this high-tech era, a good processing of the seismic data can almost do wonders. That is why the seismic data processing is vital for every oil and gas exploration project. When working with marine data from all around the world, in almost all cases, the key part to a successful processing is the good multiple attenuation. The Black Sea region of Bulgaria is a typical example of that. The good knowledge of multiples’ genesis and methods for attenuation is a must for every seismic geophysicist. Theory and models As a rule seismic data processing software assume that all the energy registered as seismic signal has only one reflection below the surface. However in practice the acoustic waves can reflect several times below the surface, changing their direction of propagation. That is how multiple waves occur (fig.1).

Fig.1 Primaries have only one reflection upwards (green lines), multiples have at least one reflection downwards (yellow lines). In order to attenuate multiples as much as possible, one needs to know everything about their characteristics and categorization. Multiples have some very distinctive properties that help the geophysicist mark them off from the primaries. One of those properties is their periodicity – if any seismic event is repeating on regular intervals and its amplitudes are changing periodically, it is very likely for it to be a multiple event. Other typical characteristics of the multiples are the increasing dips of seismic events – if a reflector has a certain dip, multiples generated from this reflector can be distinguished by their increasing dips with time. Another way to distinguish primaries from multiples is by searching for zones of conflict – sometimes seismic events that seem to be multiples cut across other events with completely different behavior compared to the overlying layers – this is other good approach to recognize multiples. There are two main ways for multiple classification. The first one is by their shallowest downward reflection – in that case two main types of multiples are marked off – surface related multiples and internal multiples (fig.2).

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Fig.2 Surface related multiple (A) and Internal multiple (B). The second way to categorize multiples is by the length of their period – long period multiples are the ones that have completely different arrival times, compared to the primaries and short period multiples are the ones that arrive almost at the same time as the primaries (fig.3).

Fig.3 Long period multiple (A) and Short period multiple (B). Data processing and results A seismic profile from an offshore survey in Bulgaria was chosen for the multiple attenuation studies. This profile contains typical primary reflection events for the Bulgarian Black Sea Region along with typical multiple reflections. The primary data processing and presentation was done using ProMAX Software, by Landmark/Halliburton. On a representative seismogram from the marine survey, by their different characteristics were distinguished primary and multiple reflections (fig.4)

Fig.4 Seismogram from Offshore Marine Survey Different tests for multiple attenuation methods included attenuation using velocity differentiation, attenuation in F-K domain, attenuation in parabolic Radon domain and attenuation with more sophisticated methods like Surface-Related Multiple Elimination (SRME) and Wave-Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) (fig.5).

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Fig.5 Multiple attenuation examples in F-K and parabolic Radon domains. A typical marine workflow includes almost all of the above listed methods for multiple attenuation. A suitable sequence and combination of them was chosen, so that a very high level of attenuation can be achieved. In this case, methods using transformation of the data in various domains were found to be very useful, as the multiples that are observed tend to project into different parts of the targeted domain, compared to the primaries. An example can be given from the parabolic Radon domain attenuation – after applying suitable NMO correction to the data, the multiples are mostly undercorrected. This is an excellent prerequisite for attenuation in the parabolic Radon domain. After transformation and interactive analysis a suitable mute region is determined and a model of the multiples is obtained. Then the model is subtracted from the input data and a reasonable attenuation is achieved (fig.6).

Fig.6 “Clear” Seismogram with attenuated multiples A quality control stacking is done after every step in the multiple attenuation process. The visual QC of stacked data is an excellent proof for the reliability of these processes. Another good quality control of the attenuation of multiples is the velocity analysis (fig.7).

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Fig.7 Velocity Analysis before and after Multiple Attenuation Conclusions This study has proven that multiple attenuation is a key part of the seismic data processing in the Black Sea Region and especially the northern part of the Bulgarian shelf. The main processes that aim to attenuate multiples, like attenuation in Radon domains, SRME and WEMR, seem to be quite useful and are giving excellent results. Multiple elimination in marine surveys is critical for other parts of the processing like velocity and mute analysis and especially for good execution of pre- and post-stack migrations and vital for the other steps of the seismic exploration, like the interpretation of the processed data. Acknowledgements I would like to thank REXIMseis Ltd. for the provided documents and seismic data, which were used in this abstract. I want also to thank Eng.Ivan Pavlov for offering the seismic processing software and the unquestioning support in the creation of this work. References Verschuur, D. [2006] Seismic Multiple Removal Techniques. EAGE Publications Yilmaz, Ö. [2001] Seismic Data Analysis: processing, inversion and interpretation of seismic data. Society of Exploration Geophysicists

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Multiple attenuation using the Radon filter

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandru Nastase*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest

The main objective is to attenuate the multiples using the Radon filter

Better results were obtained using different time gates during filtering

Land and marine seismic reflection data contain multiply waves due to the Summary (max. 200 words): presence of geological interfaces characterized by large acoustic impedance

contrasts. These type of seismic arrivals, considered noisy arrivals in the seismic reflection surveys, have to be removed during the data processing otherwise their presence will create false horizons on the stacked section, that can be interpreted as false geological interfaces. Several algorithms were proposed for the multiples attenuation. Most of them make use of the Radon transform. In this paper we present the results of the Radon filtering, which was applied on a land seismic dataset in order to attenuate one multiple generated by a strong primary reflection. The analyzed dataset was recorded with the purpose to obtain new information about the geological structure from the studied area. The Radon filtering was applied on the time interval where the strong multiple appear. The efficiency of the filtering was increased by a data pre-processing performed in order to increase the signalto-noise ratio of the analyzed records. Going further with the data processing, we obtained two stacked sections, with and without multiples, used to compare the filtering efficiency.

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

135

Multiples attenuation using the Radon filter
Alexandru Nastase*, Panea Ionelia, University of Bucharest Introduction Land and marine seismic reflection data contain multiply waves due to the presence of geological interfaces characterized by large acoustic impedance contrasts. Several algorithms were presented in the literature for multiple wave attenuation. The software packages used in industry for seismic data processing contain one or more such algorithms. Each of them has a variable accuracy depending on the quality of the analyzed data (e.g. poor or high signal-to-noise ratio of the seismic records). The Radon filter makes use of the generalized Radon transform, which is considered a tool for detecting parameterized shapes in an image (Hendriks et al., 2005). The Radon transform is a mapping between the image and parameters spaces. A discrete Radon transform was proposed by Cary (1998) in order to deal with operator aliasing and truncation artifacts. The noise elimination using the Radon transform was discussed by Russell et al. (1990). In this paper we apply the Radon filter on a land seismic dataset which contain strong multiples. This filtering required a data pre-processing in order to obtain records with clear multiples. How the Radon filter works? The simplest scheme for the application of the Radon filter contains two steps, namely the modeling of synthetic data with multiples and, then, their substraction from the analyzed seismic record. The Radon filter uses processed seismic traces sorted into Common-Depth-Point (CDP) gathers; it can be applied before or after the normal move-out correction of the CDP-gathers. We displayed in Fig. 2 a synthetic CDP-gather which contains two events, a primary and a multiple wave. Since one seismic event can be characterized by its apparent velocity and frequency content, the modeling of the multiple wave can be done based on this two parameters; the acoustic impedance contrasts were neglected during the modeling, therefore the wavelet amplitude is equal to 1 for both events. The modeling parameters are given in Fig. 1. The Radon filtering consists in the substraction of the synthetic record with multiple only from the record with both events (primary and multiple waves). If the approximated values for the frequency content and velocity which characterizes the multiple waves are correct, the modeling will provide multiple waves similar with those contained by the analyzed record. For our example, since we analyzed synthetic data, we modeled a similar multiple wave, based on the known modeling parameters. Next, we could perform a very good attenuation of the multiple wave by subtracting both records, one with primary and multiple waves and the other one with multiple only (see Fig. 2).

Modeling parameters Number of single sensors Single sensor spacing Time sampling interval Number of time samples 1st layer thickness 1st layer velocity Wavelet type Frequency

Values 120 25 m 4 ms 375 400 m 2200 m/s Ricker 36 Hz

Fig. 1 Modeling parameters used to generate the CDP-gather

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Fig. 2 Synthetic seismogram before (up, left) without desired signal (up, right) and after (down) the Radon filtering

Analysis of seismic data with multiples The Radon filtering was applied on a land seismic dataset recorded using the active seismic reflection method. The purpose of the seismic reflection survey was to bring new information about the geological structure present in the studied area, information that can be used to update the existing geological models. In the last decade, the term “active seismic method” is used in order to make a difference between the active and passive seismic surveys. An active seismic survey uses artificial sources to generate the seismic energy (e.g. dynamite, Vibroseis, sledgehammer etc). In a passive

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seismic survey, the seismic energy is generated by natural sources (e.g. earthquakes, volcanic activity etc). The analyzed seismic data were recorded using 120 receiver arrays, having a number of 12 elements/array; the receiver spacing was 25 m. The time sampling interval was 1 ms, meaning a Nyquist frequency of 500 Hz; the total length of the seismic measurements was 4 s. The seismic energy was generated using source arrays with almost 1 kg dynamite/array. The depth source was 3 m and the spacing between two consecutive source arrays was 50 m. The receiver and source arrays were used for data acquisition in order to attenuate the coherent noise represented by surface waves. This type of noise was not affected by spatial aliasing due to the chosen array parameters; the spacing between array elements was 2.08 m. The use of Radon filtering required a data pre-processing in order to attenuate the noise as much is possible from the analyzed CDP-gathers. The processing flow contained the steps described in Fig. 3. In Fig. 4, we displayed an example of CDP-gather before and after the Radon filtering. The primary wave that appears at 0.9 s generated a multiple wave at about 1.8 s; the filtering applied for the time interval of 1 – 2 s could attenuate well the multiple. Going further with the stacking of traces, we obtained a stacked time section without clear multiples (see Fig. 5).

Processing steps SEG-Y input Time resampling 2D land geometry Compute and apply static corrections

Parameters yes 4 ms yes Replacing velocity = 1800 m/s Final datum = 220 m f-k filter accept Spiking/predictive deconvolution Minimum phase Band-pass filter 12 – 50 Hz Amplitude corrections yes Trace muting top CDP sorting yes Fig. 3 Processing flow used to prepare the seismic data for the Radon filtering

Fig 4 CDP-gather with (left) and without (right) multiples

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Fig. 5 Stacked section with (left) and without (right) multiples

Conclusions The seismic reflection data can contain multiple waves due to the presence of the geological interfaces characterized by large acoustic impedance contrasts. In general, the multiples attenuation can be done during the velocity analysis but, at the same time, it is possible to attenuate some of the primary reflections. One efficient way to attenuate the multiples contained by the analyzed seismic dataset is to use the Radon filtering. Its application requires a good processing of the seismic data, meaning a protection of the primary waves and good attenuation of the remaining surface waves seen after arrayforming. On our dataset, the Radon filter was applied only on the time interval where the strong multiple was seen, meaning 1 – 2 s; its primary reflection appears at about 0.9 s. By comparing the CDP-gathers before and after filtering, we notice that the strong multiple seen around 1.8 s was very well attenuated. Going further with the stacking of data, we obtained a stacked section without multiples. Acknowledgements The authors thank to Prospectiuni SA for providing us the access to real seismic data and seismic data processing software “ProMAX”. References Cary, P.W., [1998]. The simplest discrete Radon transform, Expanded Abstracts, SEG Annual Mtg. Hendriks, L., van Girkel, M., Verbeek, P.W., van Vliet, L.J., [2005]. The generalized Radon transform: Sampling, accuracy and memory considerations, Pattern recognition, 38(12), p. 2494–2505. Russell, B., Hampson, D., Chun, J., [1990]. Noise elimination and the Radon transform. Part 1, The Leading Edge, 9, p.18. Russell, B., Hampson, D., Chun, J., [1990]. Noise elimination and the Radon transform. Part 2, The Leading Edge, 9, p.31.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

139

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Geological engineering study of the clay, salt and granitic rocks for the disposal of spent fuel in Romania

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Marian Popescu*, Cristian Marunteanu, University of Bucharest

The purpose of this study is to provide a complex analysis of the geological formations suited to host a repository for high radioactive wastes The study intends to be the first step in order to project the new deposit for high level waste, by finding the most appropriate geological formation

Summary Common opinion today is that the only practicable way for the disposal of (max. 200 words): hazardous waste is in deep-laying bedrock deposits. A set of general site
selection criteria for spent nuclear fuel were developed, and are presented and discussed in this paper. As we know, the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda raises also the problem of storage of the high radioactive wastes. Four widespread geological formations in Romania appropriate as geological barriers for underground disposal (salt, granite, clay and green schists) were analyzed, and sites were proposed on the basis of the geological criteria defined for each one. A geological disposal system provides a unique level and duration of protection for high-activity long-lived radioactive waste. The concept takes advantage of the capabilities of both the local geology and the engineered materials to fulfill specific safety functions in complementary fashion providing multiple and diverse barrier roles. This study has revealed that the most suitable geological formation for the disposal of the high level waste is represented by the clay rocks. Other geological formations could also be considered as candidates for radioactive waste disposal. In the next period, more detailed research by different methods should be carried out for final decision making.

Topic:

Geological engineering

140

Geological engineering study of the clay, salt and granitic rocks for the disposal of spent fuel in Romania
Marian Popescu, Cristian Mărunţeanu, University of Bucharest
Introduction Beginning the activity in 1996, the nuclear power plant from Cernavoda raises also the problem of storage of the radioactive wastes. When we speak about spent fuel, we speak about high radioactive level wastes. So, from this point of view, we have to consider the importance of a safety geological formation. A set of general site selection criteria for spent nuclear fuel were developed, in which three geological formations wide spread in Romania and appropriate to underground disposal (salt, granite, clay) were analyzed and were proposed sites on the basis of the geological criteria defined for each one (Mărunţeanu et al., 2007). I. Disposal in salt rock massifs Comparing with other geological formation, rock salt seems to be one of the most suitable medium for constructing waste disposal openings. As a result of its plasticity, the salt rock is practically impermeable and due to its favorable geomechanical properties the salt rock remains stable or ductile over long periods of time. In Romania there are more than 190 salt deposits in different geological and tectonical conditions providing also a good experience in salt mining. The salt deposits in Romania are hosted mainly in the Carpathian Orogen (the outermost Carpathian units) and in the Transylvanian Basin. Excepting the salt deposits well known by extraction mining works, the characteristics of the deep salt deposits are provided by drilling information and especially by gravimetric and seismometric data. The Transylvanian Neogene molasse depression develops above the Inner Carpathian deformed units and their post-tectogenetic covers. There are Middle and Upper Miocene and Pliocene formations with a practically continuous salt layer in the Lower Badenian, layered generally on the Dej Tuff (Visarion et al., 1976). In the central part of the Transylvanian Depression (gas-bearing domes zone) the salt develops as deep (2-4 km) pillow structures, most of them constituting cores of the gas-bearing domes. The thickness of the salt is 100-200 m in the syncline zones between domes and doubles or trebles in the dome structures. In the Carpathian Orogen area, the more contrasting tectonic conditions determined the fragmentation of the salt layers by lateral or vertical distribution as diapiric bodies. The salt massifs develop generally accompanying Moldavides-Subcarpathians units (Marginal Folds and Subcarpathian nappes) in the spreading area of Burdigalian and Badenian deposits (Popescu & Radan 1976, Marinescu & Mărunţeanu, M. 1990). The salt concentrates in thick bodies, but with a limited horizontal surface and intense tectonized. Salt massifs selection criteria A. Seismic criterion. Although the seismic activity is not a significant problem in the design of underground facilities, the intense seismicity of the Vrancea region (Eastern Carpathians) require the designer to consider particular seismic conditions. The seismic intensity of the selected area should be less than 7. B. Tectonic criterion. Major faults, especially the active faults in the recent tectonic movements (such as intramoesian fault or Peceneaga-Camena fault), must be avoided. The salt massifs should be structurally homogenous and with little tectonic activity. According to the seismic criteria and to the considerations on the tectonic pattern of the salt structures, only the salt massifs from Transylvanian Depression have been selected.

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C. Size and shape of the salt body criterion. Shapes of prospective host bodies of salt should be pillow or stock diapir, these forms being relatively isotropic concerning stress, transmissivity and other pertinent properties and offering appropriate shapes for buffer zones. The minimum required surface of the salt body at 500-1000 m depth should be 1.5 km2 and the thickness should be at least 500 m. D. Depth criterion. The depth of the repository should be sufficient to separate the repository from any surface process (extreme conditions of scour or erosion) or long-term geological movements, such as diapirism. The Dutch studies on salt bodies conclude that any salt body less 540 m bellow surface is potentially imperiled by future glacial erosion during the next 100,000 years (diapiric salt rise of 40 m, local fluvial erosion of 50 m, local melt water incisions of 450 m). Some of the salt domes may still rising at rates of 0.3 mm/year or more and may be accelerated by the overburden of an ice sheet. The daylight diapirs show generally higher rates of diapiric rise and should be avoided. According to the results of the Gorleben site German investigation, even the worst-case scenario would not affect a waste repository several hundreds meters bellow the cap rock (Bornemann & Fischbeck 1986). Under these conditions the minimum depth of the repository should be 500 m, with 300 m thickness of the salt caprock and 200 m thickness of the covering rocks and the maximum depth should be 1000-1200 m for mining reasons. E. Virgin state of the salt massif criterion. No area with present or past salt extraction should be considered as a geological site for radioactive wastes. This restriction rests on the consideration of disturbance of the natural stress and hydrogeological regime in consequence of present or past underground development and exploitation, the abandoned mines being progressively deteriorated. On the other hand, the potential attractiveness to future salt extraction must be very low, especially for economic reasons (depth too high). This criterion eliminates all the salt massifs opened by mining works. According to these geological criteria six salt massifs located in the Transylvanian Depression have been selected. One characteristic section through one of the selected salt structures is included (Fig 1)

Fig.1 Salt: cross section through Transylvanian Basin II. Disposal in granitic rock massifs Granite bedrock, as well other crystalline rocks, is a very hard, strong and resistant to weathering material, providing also an adequate shielding against radiation and heat produced by the

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radioactive waste. Studies carried out on granites in different countries (e. g. Finland-Loviisa, Sweden Stripa and Aspo projects, Switzerland-Grimsel site) shows permeability down to 10-9 m/s in sound rock but much higher in fracture zones. Because the only possible release mechanisms of radionuclides are dissolution and transport in a fissural flowing groundwater, the basic understanding of fracture-forming mechanism, as well as 3D stress-related changes in aperture and extension of discontinuities is of great importance for the understanding of groundwater flows. The results obtained from the surface, even using sophisticated geophysical methods and drilling equipment, cannot offer always an accurate image of the fracturing degree of the massif in view to determine weather it is suitable for the storage of radioactive wastes. Seventeen of the most important granitic massifs in Romania and their characteristics have been analyzed, as follows: - Southern Carpathians: Susita, Tismana, Cerna, Retezat, Buta, Petreanu, Vârful Pietrii, Muntele Mic, Sfardinu, Cherbelezu, Ogradena, Poneasca, Bocsa-Ocna de Fier; - Western Carpathians: Highis, Vlădeasa (Muntele Mare); - Eastern Carpathians: Ditrău; - Dobrogea: Măcin; Granitic massifs selection criteria A. Seismic criterion. By the reason described in the case of salt massifs, the same seismic criterion should be used. Excepting Măcin granitic massif, most of the massifs are located in accepted seismic zones. B. Size and shape of the granite body criterion. Granitic massifs of great extent, occurring in forms like batholith or laccolith should be considered, generally the dimensions increasing as the depth increases. All the studied granitic massifs have surface dimensions of hundreds of km2. C. Petrologic and structural homogeneity criterion. Massive structure, equigranular texture, low degree of fracturing, no major tectonic activity and little influence of the surrounding rocks are favorable features generally occurring in the core of the granitic massifs, which is thus preferable for the radioactive waste disposal. In this way, Vf. Pietrii massif shows a very good homogeneity in its central part. D. No area adjacent to a major dam site criterion. The flooding of a large area, the added water load on the reservoir floor and the introduction of water to great depth determine the granitic massifs that localize hydrotechnical systems to be avoided. Because of this criterion the massifs Muntele Mic (with Bistra-Poiana Mărului system), Petreanu (Râul Mare-Retezat system), Susita (Lotru system) and Cerna (Cerna-Motru-Tismana system) have been eliminated. E. No area with subsurface mining criterion. Some granitic massifs opened by present or past mining works should be avoided, for example Dognecea and Ocna de Fier known by their ore deposits. The resulting selected granitic bodies according to these criteria are Vârful Pietrii, Highis and Bocsa. The Măcin massif could also be considered if the proximity to the nuclear plant is prevalent with some of the geological criteria. III. Disposal in clay rocks A sedimentary sequence can be used for the final storage of radioactive waste only if it satisfies the following natural conditions: - Is located in an untectonized area, for as little as possible affected by accidents plicative or tears; - Consists of rocks of which items should not exceed 0.125 mm; - Presents lithologic and size uniformity throughout the thickness; - It is located between roughly 500 and 1000 m under the surface;

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- Presents as a low permeability, etc; Lutites, class size with grain size less than 0.125 mm, are an excellent repository for final disposal of any hazardous waste (Fig. 2).

Fig.2 Geological profile through one of the selected clay’s structure Conclusions The most hazardous and long-lived radioactive wastes such as spent nuclear fuel and highlevel waste must be contained and isolated from humans and the environment for many tens of thousands of years. A geological disposal system (Fig. 3) provides a unique level and duration of protection for high-activity long-lived radioactive waste. The concept takes advantage of the capabilities of both the local geology and the engineered materials to fulfill specific safety functions in complementary fashion providing multiple and diverse barrier roles. This study has revealed that the most suitable geological formation for the disposal of the high level waste is represented by the clay rocks. In the next period, more detailed research by different methods should be carried out for final decision making.

Fig. 3 Deep geological disposal concept References Bornemann, O., Fischbeck, R., [1986]“Ablaugung und Hutgesteinsbildung am Salzstock Gorleben”, Zeitsch. Deutsche Geol. Ges., 137, 71-83, Hannover Marinescu, F., Mărunţeanu. M. [1990] “La paléogéographie au niveau du sel badénien en Roumanie”, Geol. Zb.-Geol. Carpath., 41, 1, Bratislava Mărunţeanu, C., Ioniţă, G., Durdun, I. [2007] “The suitable geological formations for spent fuel disposal in Romania”, WM’07 Conference, Tucson, AZ Popescu, B., Radan, S. [1976] “East Carpathians Miocene molasse and associated evaporites”, Guidebook serie, 15, Inst. Geol. Geofiz. Bucureşti Visarion M., Polonic, P., Mehmed, E. Ali. [1976] “Contributii la studiul formelor structurale ale sării din Depresiunea Transilvaniei”, St. tehn. econ., Seria D, 11, 26-29, Bucureşti

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Title:

Mapping of magnetic susceptibility of soil and bark in Kyiv city (Ukraine)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Iryna Slobodyanyk*, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

Implementation of magnetic susceptibility studies for express diagnostics and monitoring of ecological conditions of Kyiv
Environmagnetic mapping using magnetic susceptibility of tree bark and soils

is conducted in Kyiv.

Environmagnetic studies include measurements of magnetic properties of Summary (max. 200 words): soils, vegetation and dust. Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ) of 260

samples of soils and tree skin, collected from the same points in western half of Kyiv, is measured. To represent the results of investigations were constructed magnetic maps of western half of the city. The data set, represented as susceptibility maps, is analyzed applying ArcGIS software. The most magnetic and thus the most contaminated soils were found near districts with heavy traffic and areas around power plants. Magnetic susceptibility of tree bark better reflects the urban air pollution, because the only source of magnetism of the tree bark is anthropogenic pollution. The result shows the high sensitiveness of magnetic susceptibility of vegetation to the change of concentration of anthropogenic contamination.

Topic:

Geological engineering, Environmental engineering

145

Mapping the magentic susceptibility of soil and bark in Kyiv City (Ukraine)
Iryna Slobodyanyk, University of Kyiv Introduction The major achievement and also a global problem of nowadays is the rapid industrial growth, which negatively affects the urban environment. It makes scientists to search for new methods for effective control of environmental conditions of the city. One of these methods is environmagnetic mapping (M. Evans, F. Heller 2003). Theoretical background Environmagnetic studies include measurements of magnetic properties of soils, vegetation and dust. Magnetic enhancement, which is observed in the city, is caused by particulate matter emitted in the air by vehicular traffic and industry. In Europe, assessment of anthropogenic pressure is actively implemented on magnetic susceptibility measurements of soil cover, which is greatly enhanced in industrially polluted areas (M. Evans, F. Heller 2003, E. Petrovský et al., 1999). Areas of high values are confined to the roadside and industrial zones. Magnetic component of this pollution is formed as a result of fuel combustion, friction of moving parts, wear of exhaust pipes, etc. Soil magnetic susceptibility in cities shows 100 times increase as compared to rural areas (E. Petrovský et al., 1999). Study area In Kyiv the main negative influence on atmosphere condition is derived from factors successfully indicated by environmagnetic studies. Air is mainly polluted by heavy traffic, cars and vehicles emit 83, 4% of harmful dust according to annual report of Ecological control department of the Ministry of protection of natural environment of Ukraine. The list of the most hazardous enterprises according to the version of ru.wikipedia. org. opens by the large power plants and incineration plants. According to data of Central Geophysical Observatory of the Ministry of Emergency situations of Ukraine the most polluted air is on Bessarabka, Moscowska square, Lesya Ukrainka Boulevard, Peremogy square and near the metro station “Svyatoshyn”. The most non-polluted air is on Nauky prospectus, Hydropark and National Expocenter of Ukraine. Thus the average rates of many harmful substances here range from 1 to 1.5 limit concentration that is higher than normal background. Exhaust gases penetrate throw vegetation in park zones on 100 meters deep inside. Consequently, the territory of Kyiv city megalopolis is the reference site, for developing environmagnetic technology of monitoring of ecological condition in large city. Methods and data collecting We investigated the spatial distribution of the magnetic susceptibility of natural components. The peculiarity of our investigation is using of tree bark as an accumulation surface of dust pollution. 260 soil and bark samples were collected from the same places in western half of the city. Bark was sampled as a ring from the trunk at a height of 1, 2 m from the ground; soils were taken from the steam flow zone of trees. In laboratory bark samples were measured on kappabridge KLY-2 (Geofizyka, Czech Republic), and mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χ *10-8 m3/kg) was calculated. Soils were measured on Bartington MS2B equipment, on two frequencies (0, 47 and 4, 7 kHz) and allow determining frequency dependence of magnetic susceptibility (kfd) as:

k fd (%) = (k lf − k hf ) / k lf * 100%
Where klf and khf - low- and high - frequency magnetic susceptibility respectively. The kfd is sensible to super paramagnetic particles content (size of <30nm).

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Data processing and results Mass-specific magnetic susceptibility indicates concentration of ferrimagnetic minerals in the components of natural environment. Magnetic spherules, derived from vehicular and industrial emissions, were found in city soils (M. Evansa and F. Heller 2003, E. Petrovský et al., 1999). Concentration of spherules in soils reliably reflects city air basin pollution. As a result of study we found that soils χ in Kyiv varies from 7*10-8 to 260*10-8 m3/kg and χ of bark – from 3 * 10-9 to 1500 * 10-9 m3/kg. It should be noticed that urban soils are often artificial. It is not always possible to estimate anthropogenic component in soil magnetism. Measuring χ of tree bark we avoid this complication, because magnetism of vegetation is fully controlled by dust particles, settles on plant`s surface. Statistical distribution of soil and bark magnetic susceptibility follows logarithmically normal law (Fig. 1). It is the evidence of significant ecological differentiation of city districts.
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
50 45 40 35 30

Number of points

Number of points

25 20 15 10 5

a

b

0

191

381

572
-9

763
3

953

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1525

0 7 31 55 79 103 127 150 174 198 222 246 269 293

Χ*10 (m /kg)

Χ*10-8 (m3/kg)

Fig.1 Histograms of χ distribution composed on bark (a) and soil (b) samples The maximal values of χ of soils and tree bark were observed near industrial areas and highways. Minimal values are characteristic for forest areas and large park zones. Magnetism of the soil of Kyiv is controlled by anthropogenic factors. Dependence (Fig. 2) testifies about it. The linear correlation (Fig. 2) exists between magnetic susceptibility and frequency dependence kfd (r = -0.55). It means that strongly magnetic soils, saturated with anthropogenic emissions, are characterized by lower kfd values. Soils, with natural magnetic background have relatively low magnetic susceptibility and higher kfd. To represent the results of investigations were constructed magnetic maps of western half of the city. Sites with heavy anthropogenic impact and areas affected by industrial pollution are allocated on these maps. The most magnetic and thus the most contaminated soils were found near Poshtova, Europejska areas and at some areas nearby Khreshchatyk Street. An industrial zone near Vydubychi metro station, were the large power plant is situated, is also expressed on susceptibility map as a spot of high values (Fig. 3). Magnetic enhancement is observed near large highways. Environmental magnetic mapping based on the soil measurements have shown a low levels of anthropogenic pollution in areas outside of the city and away from the roads (Fig. 3). Besides anthropogenic factors, landscape conditions also affect magnetic susceptibility of soils. The soils from higher sites in forest area are characterized by similar values of magnetic susceptibility, as soils from the neighbouring living districts. However, we must notice, that the magnetic background of artificial soils of the city are often unknown.

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12 y = 7,10332491 - 0,0594782437*x n=117, r = -0,55, p < 0,000 1

10

8

kfd (%)

6

4

2

0

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Χ*10-8 (m3/kg)

Fig. 2 Relationship between χ and kfd of soils from Kyiv

Fig. 3 Map of distribution of the magnetic susceptibility of the soil Magnetic susceptibility of tree bark (Fig. 4) better reflects the urban air pollution, because the only source of magnetism of the tree bark is anthropogenic pollution. Maximum values of magnetic susceptibility are observed in the industrial zones in eastern part of Holosiivska area, on the right bank of the river Dnipro, near Vydubychi metro station and in the centre of the city, where car traffic is traditionally intensive. The areas along Stolychne highway, around Peremogy square and Vokzalna, Kontraktova, Poshtova squares are also characterized as polluted. Lower values of the magnetic susceptibility were observed near Sophiivska, Lvivska, Lybidska, Moscowska, Lukyanіvska squares. Holosiivsky Forest and Pechersk Botanical Garden are characterised by minimum values of bark magnetic susceptibility.

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Fig. 4 Map of distribution of the magnetic susceptibility of the bark Conclusions Thus, we see that magnetic susceptibility of trees bark better describes degree of anthropogenic influence on city environment then magnetic susceptibility of soil.

The result shows the high sensitiveness of magnetic susceptibility of vegetation to the change of concentration of anthropogenic contamination.
Acknowledgements This research has been supported by Kyiv City State Administration. References Evans M., Heller F. [2003] Environmental magnetism. Principles and Applications of Enviromagnetics. – International Geophysics series, 86, Elsevier science (USA), 299. Petrovský E. and Ellwood B.B. [1999] Magnetic monitoring of air-, land- and water pollution. In: Maher B.A. and Thopson R. (Eds.), Quaternary Climates, Environments and Magnetism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 279−322.

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1 International Symposium of Geology and Geophysics Students
• Paleontology, Sedimentology, Mineralogy
Code I301 Title & Authors The structure and function of the “Cephalic Fields” in the Osteostraci (Vertebrata; Agnatha) Mihai Dumbrava*, Adriana Constantinescu, University of Bucharest I302 New data on the Holocene vegetation history in Rodnei Mountains, North Romania Anca Geanta*, Babes-Bolyai University I303 The study of mineral inclusions in kyanite large crystals in micaschist of Sebes Mountains (Steaua region) Romania Mihailescu Matei*, Marin Seclaman, University of Bucharest I304 Rietveld refinement of stibnite (Sb2S3) crystal structure Şeclăman Alexandra Cătălina*, University of Bucharest I305 Biostratigraphical data of the Pannonian deposits from Beočin (Serbia) Emilian Neagu*, University of Bucharest

st

Code I307

Title & Authors A Petrographical Study of the Lithic Tools from Petreşti Archaeological Site (Romania) Filipescu Rodica*, Babeș-Bolyai University Boulders of Limestone analysis from Sard Conglomerates Formation, Transilvanian Basin Izabela Maris*, Nicolae Anastasiu, University of Bucharest Facies analysis of the meotian deposits from Dacian Basin, Romania: sedimentary environments reconstruction Gabriel Alexandru Ivan*, Ovidiu Iacob, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest Lower Cretaceous microfossils in the urgonian limestone from Brad area, Perşani Mountains (central, sector) Alexandru Vlad Marian*, Babeş-Bolyai University New data on the sedimentary facies and micropaleontology from Pucioasa (DâmboviŃa County)

I308

I309

I310

I311 Botond Szabo*, Răzvan Bercea, Gheorghe Iordache, Szabolcs Szekely, Sorana PetruŃa, Sorin Filipescu, Ramona Bălc, Emanoil Săsăran, Babes-Bolyai University

150

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The structure and function of the “Cephalic Fields” in the Osteostraci (Vertebrata; Agnatha)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered: Summary (max. 200 words):

Mihai Dumbrava*, Adriana Constantinescu, University of Bucharest

The presentation of a new interpretation of the cephalic fields of the Osteostracan agnathans, and their function The reinterpretation of the soft anatomy of the fields and their use in detecting and pinpointing of pressure wave events
The Osteostraci (Vertebrata: Agnatha ), a primitive group of jawless vertebrates known from the Early Silurian to the Late Devonian, possess structures unique in their aspect among all vertebrate groups. Although this group is known from the time of Aggasiz, their peculiar cephalic structures have been something of a puzzle with respect to their soft anatomy, while the soft anatomy of the skull is otherwise very well known in the group, with more complex structures such as the nervous and circulatory systems being thoroughly resolved. The function of the cephalic fields is still unknown, although current opinions favor the sensory function interpretation. It is this function which is regarded as a most probable interpretation of these structures, although others such as Stensio’s “electric fields” still are supported by, admittedly meager, evidence. A new reconstruction of the underlying soft anatomy of the osteostraci cephalic shields is proposed, as well as inferred evidence of their function and an interpretation for the progressive reduction of thee structures as encountered within the group, changes which culminate in the Tremataspididae. It is hypothesised by the author that the soft anatomy of the fields gave the posibility of identifing the source and direction of a pressure wave event and thus it is regarded as a sensory organ. The visible change in the structure of the fields, from primitive states as encountered in the Tremataspidae, to more advenced forms, such as the Cephalaspidae is considered as an effect of the competitive pressure from more advanced gnathstome predators competing for the same ecological niches as the nectonic osteostracans. This view is supported by the sensory function interpretation, as the particular shape and position of the fields would have been more effectibe at detecting pressure wave events from above, as is to be expected in the case of a benthic animal.

Topic:

Paleontology

151

The structure and function of the “Cephalic Fields” in the Osteostraci (Vertebrata; Agnatha)
Mihai Dumbrava, Adriana Constantinescu, University of Bucharest

Introduction The Osteostraci (Vertebrata: Agnatha ), a primitive group of jawless vertebrates known from the Early Silurian to the Late Devonian, possess structures unique in their aspect among all vertebrate groups. Although this group is known from the time of Aggasiz, their peculiar cephalic structures have been something of a puzzle with respect to their soft anatomy, while the soft anatomy of the skull is otherwise very well known in the group, with more complex structures such as the nervous and circulatory systems being thoroughly resolved. The function of the cephalic fields is still unknown, although current opinions favor the sensory function interpretation. It is this function which is regarded as a most probable interpretation of these structures, although others such as Stensio’s “electric fields” still are supported by, admittedly meager, evidence. A new reconstruction of the underlying soft anatomy of the osteostraci cephalic shields is proposed, as well as inferred evidence of their function and an interpretation for the progressive reduction of thee structures as encountered within the group, changes which culminate in the Tremataspididae. Historic models of the cephalic fields Although well-known before, it is only in 1918 that Wiman compared the cephalic fields of the osteostraci with the nervous sacs of the Acipenseridae. In 1927, Stensio suggested that the cephalic fields possessed electric organs similar to those present in the torpedo rays and skates, most notably in the genus Torpedo, although some authors have regarded them as defensive organs (Denison, 1951). Bohlin (1941) suggested that the associated Sel (sensory or electro-motor nerves that originate from the labyrinth cavity and exit onto the lateral and dorsal sensory fields) canals could have lodged organs similar to the “Ampullae of Lorenzini”. Westoll (1945) proposed the existence of organs similar to those of the lateral line sensory system in fishes but which have attained a hypertrophied state. Watson (1954), Robertson (1954), Jarvik (1965a) considered the cephalic fields to be the precursors of the stato-acoustic organs of the Petromyzontiformes. This opinion is further reinforced by Janvier (1977) who acknowledged the findings of Hagelin (1974) who discovered that the extant Petromyzontiformes posses the same number of ciliate sacs (5) as that of the osteostraci Sel canals. In 1977, Whiting provided new arguments in favor of the electric organ hypothesis. It is the author’s opinion that from all the various hypotheses mentioned above, the one expressed by Watson (1954) is the most accurate, and it is the purpose of the present work to expand and refine his interpretation while at the same time providing arguments against the electric organ interpretation. General structure of the fields and their variation among the various groups The cephalic fields of the osteostraci are, apart from the orbits and nasohypophyseal opening, the most easily discernable structures on the dorsal side of the head shield. Two of these fields, called the “lateral fields”, lie on each side of the head usually following the contour of the outer border, while a third, the “dorsal field”, and lies on the top-most portion of the head shield, behind the nasohypophyseal opening between the orbits. They have the appearance of small depressions in the head shield, dropping usually less than a millimeter to a flat surface covered with the impressions of the various blood vessels of the subaponeurotic vascular plexus. Also on the floor of the fields are a series of openings, much wider in diameter than the associated blood vessels, these opening represent the terminations of the Sel canals which originate from the labyrinth cavities. In life, these fields were covered by a remarkable mosaic of platelets which have the same histological structure as the rest of the head shield. These platelets, which are only occasionally found together with the head shield, formed a very close fitting cover for the underlying fields, to the extent that in life there would not have been any visible

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opening of these areas to the surface. Their close fitting nature as well as their easy disintegration upon the death of the animal suggests that they were only loosely attached to the head shield and that their underlying structures were soft fragile organs, as already pointed out by Watson (1954). These observations lend support to the idea that this mosaic of platelets was held together either by a thin underlying membrane or by connecting tissue at the edges of the platelets. The extremely small space between the platelets, as seen in some very well preserved specimens from Great Britain, would seem to support this idea. Between the roof of the covering platelets and the floor of the fields there is usually a space of less than 0.1mm. As noted above, on the floor of the depressed area of the cephalic fields there are some peculiar openings for the exits of the Sel canals. These canals are the largest structures related to the central nervous system. There are five such canals issuing from the vestibular cavity of the semicircular organs, each moving outward toward the lateral fields and branching into smaller canals before ending on the floor of the field depression. The Fig.1 Cephalaspis sp. Fig. 2 Detail of the surface of the vestibular cavity shows showing the position of the right lateral field (from very small longitudinal protuberances lateral fields covering Stensio, 1932) platelets of the lateral fields that are medially oriented towards the and squamation of the body Sel canals. Although Jarvik (1965a, (from Stensio, 1932) 1980) does not agree with the existence of these enlargements of the vestibular cavity, suggesting that in fact they are produced by the torsion of the Sel canals as they approach the vestibular cavity, Janvier (1981a) has conclusively shown that these enlargements are real life features and have been found in numerous specimens that were prepared using acid etching, a technique which is more precise then serial sectioning. It is the author’s opinion that these enlargements suggest a separation between the Sel canals at their very origin inside the vestibular cavity. If this is an accurate interpretation, it contradicts Watson’s original idea that any pressure wave incident on the head would cause a localized compression of the covering platelets of the fields that would be equalized by the expansion of the ones. We propose here that each of the Sel canals were independent of the others, each being responsible for the detection of any pressure waves on their respective portion of the lateral field, without any internal connection to the others. Apart from the Fig. 3 Camera lucida drawing of enlargements seen in moulds of the vestibular cavities, there is a natural mould of the internal also a logical biological reason for such a setting: any damaged surface of the vestibular cavity, portion of the field would be rendered inactive while at the same showing the proximal time the rest would still be able to function, a situation which enlargements medial to the Sel would not be possible if they were interconnected, the internal canals (modified after Janvier 1985) pressure of their containing endolymph being lost throughout the length of the damaged field. The osteostraci form a very compact group; although their external features may vary quite considerably among the different groups, their morphology being very consistent. Fig. 4 Development of the “lateral fields” and associated Sel
canals in the Osteostraci: A (Tremataspis), B (Darmuthia), C (Witaaspis), D (Procephalaspis) (modified after Denison, 1951) 1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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In the Tremataspidae, stratigraphically the oldest group, the lateral fields are always small and subdivided in all of the 4 subfamilies; the number of Sel canals supplying them varies between 3 and 5, in most cases markedly shortened. The lack any pectoral sinuses and consequently, that of the pectoral fins, as well as the overall cylindrical shape of their bodies indicate that the tremataspids were free swimming, nectonic animals. The aberrant Sclerodontidae have very short lateral fields, the supplying canals are few, the first two not being subdivided, with a strong possibility that the posterior two canals were united for a portion of their length. The Atealaspidae have moderately long lateral fields extending far anteriorly, but because of the absence of cornual processes and the shortening of the head shield, these could not have extended much posteriorly. The number of canals supplying the fields varies within the group, the first two canals always being subdivided. The triangular cross-section of their head shield and body indicates a benthic lifestyle. The Cephalaspidae present the most extensive development of the lateral field sensory system, their lateral fields being greatly elongated, and the canals highly subdivided. The greatly flattened aspect of their bodies and the development of their pectoral fins to a larger degree than in any of the older groups suggest that they have been very well adapted to a benthic existence. The Kieraspidae have lateral fields of moderate length, curving inwards posteriorly, the first two canals being undivided or only slightly separated. The temporal coincidence between the general trends of development of the lateral fields and associated canals, and the transition from nektonic to benthic modes of life that occurred in the evolutionary history of the osteostraci (Stensio, 1932), seems to indicate a particular relationship between lifestyle and the size of the fields (fig. 5). This transition from nectonic to benthic habit is also paralleled by the appearance and evolutionary radiation of the gnathostome vertebrates, animals which were mostly nectonic predators (Janvier, 1996). It is therefore safe to hypothesize that the transition from nectonic to benthic was most likely caused by competitive pressure from more highly evolved animals occupying the same ecological niche. Sensory function of the “cephalis fields” With the exception of one hypotesis, Stensio (1932), the vast majority of research carried out on the osteostraci has come to the conclusion that the cephalic fields had a sensory role Bohlin (1941), Watson (1954), Robertson (1954), Janvier (1985). The actual process by which these organs derived their sensory input from the environment has however been a question still left open, apart from from Watson (1954), who explained at length their probable method of operation. Given the large size of the associated Sel canals, as well as their position with respect to the semicircular canals it is difficult to see how these canals could have carried large nerves along their length. Also, the particular structure of the fields themselves, which in life were not open to the surface in any way supports the view of Watson (1954), Janvier (1985) that the Sel canals were in fact filled with endolymph, the presence of which has been documented recently by Sahney and Wilson (2001), as the most likely explanation for the presence of extrinsic infillings found in very well preserved specimens of Cephalaspids from Canada. An even stronger argument against the “electric fields” hypothesis was raised by Cory, who pointed out that even if the fields did lodge some form of electric organ capable of generating any voltage, it would have been enveloped in a bony insulator, so that any charge generated would not have been
the evolution of the lateral fields

Fig. 5 Stratigraphical distribution of the main Osteostracan groups and

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able to escape. In the opinion of Watson (1954), the fields functioned as pressure wave detectors, an opinion also shared by the author, but with a different interpretation of the mode of operation. The canals supplying the fields originate within the labyrinth cavity of the semicircular canals and are separate, as inferred from fig. 3, where the enlargements which represent different Fig. 6 Propagation of a pressure wave event along the lateral and dorsal partitions for each canal fields (wave event at 45° to the Z axis) can be seen. Their distal portions were probably flattened and o their upper portion rested the covering platelets of the lateral fields. When a pressure wave acted upon the covering platelets, it would redistribute the endolymph from the underlying pad and cause a bulging of the proximal enlargements in the labyrinth cavity. Being separate, as the pressure wave traveled along the field, it would continue to act upon the other covering plates and transmit its effect in a row to the vestibular cavity (fig. 6). The presence of 3 such fields on the head would provide three-dimensional information about the direction of the pressure wave. There constant position, two on the periphery and one on the apex of the shield would allow the triangulation of any pressure event. This view is supported by the much reduced size of the fields in nectonic forms, where such a system would not provide any information on pressure wave events coming from below. At the same time, in benthic forms, such as Benneviaspis, the fields are very well developed, a situation which would be favorable for a benthic animal, who could expect any predators to come from above and not below. References: Bohlin B. [1941] The dorsal and lateral cephalic fields in the Osteostraci. Zoolgica Bidr Uppssala, 20, 543 – 544. Cory L. [1955] The So-Called Electric Organs of Ostracoderms. The American Naturalist, 89, 177 – 178. Denison R. H. [1951] Evolution and classification of the Osteostraci. Fieldiana Geology, 11 (3), 157 194 Hagelin L.O. [1974] Development of the membranous labyrinth in Lampreys. Acta Zoologica Stockholm, 220p Janvier P. [1985] Les Cephalaspides du Spitsberg. Cahiers du Paleontologie (CNRS), 244p [1996] Early Vertebrates. Oxford University Press, New York, 393p. Robertson G. M. [1954] The nature of the so called electric organs in ostracoderms. Proceedings of the Iowa academy of Sciences, 61, 598 – 603. Sahney. S & Wilson M. [2001] Extrinsic labyrinth openings imply open endolymphatic ducts in lower Devonian Osteostracans, Acanthodian, and putative Chondrichtians. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 21(4), 660 – 669. Stensio E. A. [1932] The Cephalaspids of Great Britain. British Museum (Natural History), 220. Watson D.M.S. [1954] A consideration of Ostracoderms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 238, 1 – 25. Wiman C. [1918] Uber gehirn und Sinnesorgane bei Tremataspis. Bulletin of the Geological Institute, University of Uppsala, 16, 86 – 96.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

New data on the Holocene vegetation history in Rodnei Mountains, North Romania

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Anca Geanta, Babes-Bolyai University

The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of Holocene vegetation history in Rodnei Mountains, N Romania, based on the analysis of a peat profile located at 1810 m altitude. The pollen analysis of the site show a similar vegetation history with other sites in the Eastern Carpathians, with some differences due to the higher altitude and less inhabitation.

Summary Pollen analysis from a peat sequence 1.85 m long taken from Gargalau, a (max. 200 words): high altitude site in Rodnei Mountains (Northern Romania), is used to
reconstruct the postglacial vegetation history in the region. Because radiocarbon dating was not yet possible for the Gargalau site, we chose to compare the palynologic data from this site with the data obtained from Poiana Stiol, a nearby site, where the sequence was dated. This correlation was aimed towards a better understanding of Holocene events in Rodnei Mts. region. The vegetation record starts in Preboreal and covers the entire Holocene. The vegetation dynamics are mainly consistent with other palynological data from Romania, with slight differences due to the higher altitude and to the geographic position.

Topic:

Paleontology

156

New data on the Holocene vegetation history in Rodnei Mountains, Northern Romania
Anca Geanta, Babes-Bolyai University Cluj-Napoca Introduction This study contributes to the knowledge of Holocene vegetation history in Rodnei Mountains, N Romania, through the analysis of a peat profile located at 1810 m altitude. The sampled site, is located on a left side tributary of the Bistrita Aurie creek under Gargalau Saddle, just aside of the Rodnei Mts main ridge, (47°34'24.87"N, 24°48'9.49"E) (Fig.1). Present-day vegetation at the site belongs to the Carpathian Floristic Province, within the subalpine vegetation level (Ciocârlan, 2000), including genera and species such as Carex, Vaccinium myrtillus, Rhododendron myrtifolium. The site is an oligotrophic peat bog nested in a large depression and surrounded by mountain pines (Pinus mugo). Rodnei Mts. belong to the Central-European, Eastern Carpathian vegetation province, within the euro-siberian region (Coldea, 1990). Endemic species are present, some of them considered by Pop (1929) as glacial relicts. The geographic location of Rodnei Mts. and the E-W orientation of the main ridge provide a moderate continental climate with slight North-Atlantic influences.

Fig. 1 Location of the sites Gargalau and Poiana Stiol, in the National Park Rodnei Mountains. Sampling and analysis methods The bog is now drained by a creek which opens a 1.85 m peat outcrop, also exposing 0.5 m of weathered host rocks at its base. We sampled the peat using metallic U-shaped profiles (50 x 8 x 4 cm), after removing the fallen cover. The sediment cores were described in detail prior to subsampling. Subsamples for pollen analysis were taken 10 cm apart in the profiles. However the size of the samplers, much larger than an usual corer, may provide a much better resolution. The sample preparation followed a standard procedure: acetolysis in the case of peat and flotation in a heavy liquid (ZnCl2) for clay samples. Microscope thin sections were prepared from the residue and scored for pollen. A minimum of 250-300 grains of tree pollen were counted for each sub-sample, except when pollen concentration was low. The nomenclature for vascular plants follows Flora Europaea (Tutin et al., 1964–80). Pollen diagrams were prepared using the GpalWin software (Goeury, 1997). The frequencies of pollen for each taxon were calculated as percentages of the total sum (AP+NAP). For ecological

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reasons the spores were excluded from the pollen sum. In the pollen diagram (Fig. 2) pollen values lower than 0.5% are represented by dots. For the interpretation of the pollen record we used the pollen zones method (Birks, 1986). A relative chronology was established by comparing the pollen profile with another one from the close vicinity (Poiana Stiol, 1540 m altitude), which was dated by Tantau (2003). Results Lithostratigraphy A simplified lithological column of the analyzed sequence appears in the left part of the pollen diagram (Fig. 2). The lowermost part of the sequence consists of bluish clay with metamorphic schist fragments. The upper part of the sequence consists of brown peat. Palynology From the 1.85 m of the Gargalau sequence that we analyzed, 21 samples were extracted and 69 taxa identified. The pollen diagram we obtained shows the relative frequency, i.e. the frequency of each taxa as percentage of the pollen sum (Fig. 2). In the pollen diagram we excluded the pollen of Cyperaceae and the monolete spores from the total sum. Based on vegetation dynamics and frequency of the main taxa, 11 pollen zones were separated, covering the entire Holocene period. The Preboreal period was characterized by open forests with Pinus and Picea and the establishment of Ulmus, Tilia and Corylus. During the Boreal the vegetation was dominated by Picea, Pinus, Ulmus and Alnus. The optimum of Corylus is characteristic to the Atlantic period. Dense forests dominated by Picea, Corylus and Carpinus are present in the Subboreal. Ulmus, Fagus and Alnus were also common. In the last period, the Subatlantic, the vegetation was dominated by Picea, Fagus and Abies.

Fig. 2 Simplified pollen diagram for Gargalau site

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Discussion and conclusions Over the last decade, C14 dating allowed a better correlation of vegetation dynamics and climate events in the Romanian Carpathians. Correlation of the results from the studied site, Gargalau, with previous data from Poiana Stiol (Fig. 3) provides a better understanding of Holocene climate events in the Rodnei Mts. The vegetation dynamics is consistent with data from other Romanian sites, with slight differences due to the higher altitude and geographic position. The present study deepens our knowledge of vegetation history in Rodnei Mountains (Eastern Carpathians). That is why we wish to continue this study and to perform radiocarbon measurements in order to better correlate the data with other sites in Eastern Carpathians. Our data allowed us to conclude that after Younger Dryas the vegetation in Rodnei Mts. was dominated by boreal “open” woodlands. The few mesothermophilous taxa are making a slow but steady entrance. The steppe vegetation characteristic to the Late Glacial is slowly losing ground, yet Poaceae and Artemisia are still a constant presence in Preboreal. Picea, Pinus, Betula and Alnus responded rapidly to the climatic changes in the beginning of Holocene, being main constituents of the forests. DATES C14 Poiana Stiol POLLEN ZONES Poiana Stiol j i h 2170±30 > g 3510±35 > 4210±35 > 4870±55 > 5950±40 > 7840±45 > 8660±60 > a 9220±45 > f e d c b g f e d c b a PB AT BO h SB POLLEN ZONES Gargalau k j i SA

Biostratigraphy

Fig. 3 Comparison between chronology and pollen zones from Poiana Stiol (Tantau, 2003) and Gargalau sites (SA – Subatlantic, SB - Subboreal, AT - Atlantic, BO - Boreal, PB - Preboreal). The dynamics of mesothermophilous deciduous trees is well recorded in all studied sequences from the Eastern Carpathians and follow a classic model for Romania. Ulmus here played a pioneer role in the expansion of the forests, before Fraxinus and Quercus (Tanţău et al., 2003, 2006, 2009). The mixed oak forests’ evolution (Quercetum mixtum: Fraxinus, Quercus and Tilia) in Rodnei Mts. is not continuous and their participation in the overall forests is minor, both during the Preboreal period and after that.

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Picea dominated the regional vegetation since the Boreal period. The expansion of Corylus took place later, in the Atlantic period. All these events occur earlier in Poiana Stiol than in Gargalau, due to the difference in altitude between the two sites. In Romania the Carpinus forests appear before those of Fagus, unlike the rest of Europe. Among the anthropic indicators, the Subatlantic is marked by a higher frequency of cereals, Secale, Cannabis and Plantago lanceolata pollen (the latter especially in Poiana Stiol). Another event linked to human influences during the same period of time is the expansion of Fagus and Abies. We can assume that grazing was dominant, the high altitude not being favorable to agriculture. Acknowledgements The author wishes to thank Lect. Dr. Ioan Tantau and Lect. Dr. Tudor Tamas for their help and support in all the stages of this work. References Birks H.J.B. [1986] Numerical zonation, comparison and correlation of Quaternary pollenstratigraphical data. Berglund, B.E. (ed.): Handbook of Holocen paleoecology and paleohydrology, Chicester, p. 743-774. Boşcaiu N., Lupşa V., Olos E., Pînzaru Ghe. [1983] Aspecte din trecutul vegetaţiei munţilor Rodnei. Rezervaţia naturală Pietrosul Rodnei la 50 de ani de la înfiinţare. Lucr. Simp. aniv., 2-4 sept. 1982, Cluj-Napoca, Acad. R.S.R., Fil. Cluj-Napoca, p. 232-249. Ciobanu, I., Diaconeasa, B., Şuteu, Ş. [1972] Analize de polen în unele mlaştini de turbă din zona sudică a Masivului Rodnei, Contributii Botanice, Cluj, p. 37-43. Coldea, Ghe. [1990] Muntii Rodnei-Studiu geobotanic, Editura Academiei Române, Bucureşti Goeury C. [1997] GpalWin: gestion, traitement et représentation de la paléoécologie. XV-ème Symp. de l’A.P.L.F., sept. 1997, Lyon, p.31. Pop, E. [1929] Analize de polen în turba Carpaţilor Orientali (Dorna-Lucina), Bul. Grăd. Bot., Cluj, 9, (3-4), p. 81-210. Tanţău, I. [2003] Recherches pollenanalytiques dans les Carpates Orientales (Roumanie). Histoires de la végétation et de l’impact humain. Thèse de doctorat, Université Aix-Marseille III et Université Babes-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca. Tanţău, I. [2006] Histoire de la vegetation tardiglaciaire et holocene dans les Carpates Orientales (Roumanie), 200 p., Presa Universitară Clujeană, Cluj-Napoca. Tanţău, I., Fărcaş, S. [2004] Chronologie de l’histoire de la végétation holocène de Monts Rodnei (Carpates Orientales). Contribuţii Botanice, 39: 241-250. Tanţău, I., Reille, M., Beaulieu, J.L. de, Fărcaş, S., Gosla,r S., Paterne, M. [2003] Vegetation History in the Eastern Romanian Carpathians: pollen analysis of two sequences from the Mohoş crater. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 12: 113-125. Tanţău, I., Reille, M., Beaulieu, J.L. de, Fărcaş, S. [2006] Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation history in the southern part of Transylvania (Romania): pollen analysis of two sequences from Avrig. Journal of Quaternary Science, 21(1): 49-61. Tanţău, I., Reille, M., Beaulieu, J.L. de, Fărcaş, S., Brewer, S. [2009] Holocene vegetation history in Romanian Subcarpathians. Quaternary Research, 72: 164-173. Tutin, T.G. et al. [1964-80] Flora Europaea, vol 1 (1964); vol 2 (1968); vol 3 (1972); vol 4 (1976); vol 5 (1980). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The study of mineral inclusions in kyanite large crystals in micaschist of Sebes Mountains (Steaua region) Romania

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mihailescu Matei*, Marin Seclaman, University of Bucharest

New model of mineral stability PT diagram.

New vision on the reactions that took place in the time of Sebes Mountains metamorphism and it proposes a new model of Sebes metamorphism

This paper binges a new vision on the reactions that took place in the time of Summary Sebes Mountains metamorphism. A special attention is accorded to the (max. 200 words): reactions between kyanite’s large crystals and garnet and rutile included in kyanite. The study of inclusions can reveal clear facts about the moment of mineral blastesis. Due to previous study we can be sure that the Sebes Mountains metamorphism is a polycyclic one, the second phase of the metamorphism erasing almost all traces of the first one. Crystals with inclusions can be considered very important small scale petrographic systems and studying the kyanite large crystals and the inclusions we can say what made them grow at such large dimension, and we can bring in a new model and a new theory of Sebes Mountains metamorphism. The new model we propose in this paper includes a partial melt of granitoid composition rock, following the reaction: Plagioclaz + Quartz + Biotite + Muscovite = Liquid (hydrated melted rock) Sillimanite + Garnet ± Rutile ± Staurolite. The blastesis of large crystals of kyanite was allowed because there was no mineral opposition in the melted rock. The paper studies the reactions between kyanite and its mineral inclusions and we could tell for sure the origin of the chemical elements which are involved in the reactions of the second phase of metamorphism.

Topic:

Mineralogy

161

The study of mineral inclusions in kyanite large crystals in micaschist of Sebes Mountains (Steaua region) Romania
Matei Mihailescu, Marin Seclaman, University of Bucharest Introduction This paper binges a new vision on the reactions that took place in the time of Sebes Mountains metamorphism. To do this there have been taken samples of micaschist from Steaua region, on the right slope on Strei Valley. A special attention is accorded to the reactions between kyanite’s large crystals (5cm to 50cm large crystals) and garnet and rutile included in those large kyanite crystals. The study of inclusions can reveal clear facts about the moment of mineral blastesis. Due to previous study we can be sure that the Sebes Mountains metamorphism is a polycyclic one, the second phase of the metamorphism erasing almost all traces of the first one. Crystals with inclusions can be considered very important small scale petrographic systems. Studying those small scale systems we can make an opinion about the events that influenced the texture and mineral composition of the rock. Studying the kyanite large crystals and the inclusions we can say what made them grow at such large dimension which is a rare fact in metamorphic rock, and we can bring in a new model and a new theory of Sebes Mountains metamorphism. The new model we propose in this paper includes a partial melt of granitoid composition rock, following the reaction: Plagioclaz+Quartz+Biotite+Muscovite=Liquid (hydrated melted rock)Sillimanite+Garnet±Rutile±Staurolite. The blastesis of large crystals of kyanite was allowed because there was no mineral opposition in the melted rock. The paper studies the reactions between kyanite and its mineral inclusions and we could tell for sure the origin of the chemical elements which are involved in the reactions of the second phase of this polycyclic metamorphism. Until present time, there is no other similar model, based on inclusions study, proposed for any metamorphic rock in Romanian sector of the Carpathian Mountains and is too little studied in the world. Location and Petrography The studied area is located in the central-west part of Sebes Mountains of Sebes-Lotru series of Middle Carpathians (Fig.1), in the “Steaua” area (Fig2), in Hunedoara county.

Fig.1 Sebes-Lotru series

Fig. 2 Steaua Area

The metamorphism of Sebes-Lotru series took place in the time of Dalslandian orogeny(840my, Rb-Sr). Is a barrovian type metamorphism with pressure between 4 and 11 Kba and temperature between 450-700°C.(Savu, Breza, Hartopanu - 1978) Petrography of micaschist Kyanite large crystals bearing micaschist is the most common rock in the studied area and the mineral composition is mostly of micas of various dimension, quartz and frequently garnet, apatite, plagioclase feldspar, staurolite and opaque minerals as pyrite and ilmenite. Some of those minerals are extremely large, the rock having porphyroblastic texture, garnet and staurolite occurring frequently in those kyanite bearing rocks.

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Methods of study. Sample collecting There were collected samples from six points across the Steaua area, all samples consisting in kyanite and garnet bearing micaschist. The size of kyanite large crystals varies between 1cm and 10cm with garnet inclusions and dark color due to fine crystallized rutile inclusions. Optical study Twenty thin sections were studied and we found five principal mineral reactions(Fig.3.a,b,c,d,e) and one double mineral reaction(Fig.3.f.). Kyanite>Muscovite, Garnet>Muscovite, Kyanite>Chloritoide, Staurolite>Muscovite, Rutile>Ilmenite and Garnet+Kyanite=Muscovite+Chloritoide.

Fig. 3a

Fig. 3b

Fig. 3c

Fig. 3d

Fig. 3e Fig. 3f Fig. 3a Kyanite>Muscovite, Fig. 3b Garnet>Muscovite, Fig. 3c Kyanite>Chloritoide, Fig. 3d Staurolite>Muscovite, Fig. 3e Rutile>Ilmenite, Fig. 3f Garnet+Kyanite=Muscovite+Chloritoide Atomic balance and difference of volume We used the next formulas: Volumetric: ∆Vol = Volume.cm 3 Neosome − Volume.cm 3 Paleosome Procentual: 

 Neosome  ⋅ 100  − 100 | Results are published in Fig.4.  Paleosome 
Reacţia Ky-Ms Grt-Ms Str-Ms Ky-Cltd Ru-Il Ky-Mrg O=ct(%) Ti=ct(%) 31 43.6 44.4 57.3 68.42 68.42 44.7 44.7 21.2 Fig. 4 Results of volume difference calculus Al=ct (%) 109.7 -20.22 88.34 57.3 Si=ct(%) 4.86 19.65 -16.29 57.3

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The double reaction Garnet+Kyanite=Muscovite+Chloritoide Garnet Muscovite – Constant Aluminum

3( Mg , Fe, Ca) 3 Al 2 Si3O12 − − > 2 KAl 3 Si3O10 * (OH ) 2 3( Mg , Fe, Ca ) 3 Al 2 Si3O12 + 2 K + 3Si + 2(OH ) − − > 2 KAl 3 Si3O10 * (OH ) 2 + 16O
Volumetric: ∆Vol = 280cm 3 Ms − 351cm 3 Grt = −71cm 3 Kyanite Chloritoide – Constant Aluminum

2 Al 2 SiO5 − − > ( Mg , Fe) 2 Al 4 Si2 O10 * (OH ) 4 2 Al 2 SiO5 + 2( Mg , Fe) + 4(OH ) − − > ( Mg , Fe) 2 Al 4 Si 2 O10 * (OH ) 4
Volumetric: ∆Vol = 140cm 3 Cltd − 89cm 3 Ky = 51cm 3 Ratio

71cm 3 = 1.4 51cm 3
Reaction 1.4(2Kyanite)+3Garnet=1.4Chloritoide+2Muscovite

2.8 Al 2 SiO5 + 3( Mg , Fe) 3 Al 2 Si3O12 − − > 1.4( Mg , Fe) 2 Al 4 Si2 O10 * (OH ) 4 + 2 KAl 3 Si3O10 * (OH ) 2
Results are published in Fig.5. Element Paleosome Neosome Balance Al 11.6 11.6 0 Fe,Mg 9 2.8 -6.2 Si 11.8 8.8 -3 O 50 34 -16 K 0 6 6 (OH) 0 9.6 9.6 Fig. 5 Results of atomic balance for the Garnet+Kyanite=Muscovite+Chloritoide double reaction RX fluorescence analyses We analyzed three samples of micaschist in which the kyanite is totally replaced by muscovite to find traces of calcium. If this calcium exists in the system there must be margarite (Calcium Mica) formed on kyanite in the same way as muscovite formed. The analyses indicated presence of calcium and our supposition of margarite existence in micaschist was confirmed. Margarite is the only mineral stabile in studied micaschist which can contain calcium. Even we can not see margarite do to its fine crystallization we can tell for sure that studied micaschist contain margarite. Conclusions 1. All reactions that took place in the time of metamorphism of Sebes Mountains are isocore reactions, excepting Ky>Ms reaction which could have a 5% volume growth if the silicon remains constant. 2. The traces of the first metamorphic episode are almost erased, the only relict mineral since the first metamorphic episode being the first generation of muscovite which shows some textural orientation. 3. The growth of kyanite at such large scale happened due to partial melting of the initial granitoid composition rock. 4. The muscovitization of kyanite, garnet and staurolite begins one the rock is cooling and re solidify. 5. The chloritoidization of kyanite is due to first reactions of muscovitization which expels iron and magnesium needed for those second reactions. 6. Potassium comes from the hydrated melted rock. 7. Calcium can have the same origin as the potassium but it can be the result of muscovitization of a calcium garnet.
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Based on Hartopanu-1994 PT diagram(Fig.6) we expanded the Sebes Mountains domain of metamorphism to reach pressures over 12 Kba and over meltdown temperature limit. The stability metamorphic domain was extended to be placed across the limit staurolite/chloritoide. The direction of second metamorphic episode on PT diagram follows way back the direction of the first metamorphic episode, reaching the chloritoide stability field.(Fig.7)

Fig. 6 Hartopanu 1994 PT diagram

Fig. 7 New PT diagram for Sebes Mts. and Steaua area

References J.M. Pickering, A.D. Johnston [1998] Fluid-Absent Melting Behavior of a Two-Mica Metapelite: Experimental Constraints on the Origin of Black Hills Granite. Journal of Petrology, 10, 1787–1804. C.A. Geiger, A. Feenstra [1997] Molar volumes of mixing of almandine-pyrope and almandine spessartine garnets and thecrystal chemistry and thermodynamic-mixing properties of the aluminosilicate garnets. American Mineralogist, 82, 571–581. Emm. Baltatzis, C. Katagas [1981] Margarite pseudomorphsa fter kyanite in Glen Esk, Scotland. American Mineralogist, 66, 213–216. I. Stelea, G. Stelea [1995] Margarite in Dynamically Metamorphosed Micaschists in the Cibin Mts, South Carpathians. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy, 76, 51-59 I. Stelea [1994] Gneiss Domes in the Sebeș-Lotru Series, Sebeș Mountains. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy, 76, 143-148. V. Iancu [1982] Metamorphism and Deformațion - Further Indicațions in Establishing the Lithostratigraphic Succesion of Polycyclic Formațions. IGG LXIX/5, 21-30. I. Hârtopanu, M. Conovici, I. Stelea, G. SăbĂU [1989] Chloritoide-Bearing Blastomylonites in thE Cibin Mts: General and Structural Significances - Dări de Seamă - Institutul de Geologie și Geofizică, 74, 209-222. I. Hârtopanu [1986] Problems of the Metamorphic Zonality in the South Carpathians and the Apuseni Mts. (ROMANIA), Mineral Parageneses, Theophrastus Publications. H. Savu, T. Berza, I. Hârtopanu [1978] Precambrian in the Romanian Carpathians, A. South Carpathians. Romanian Journal of Petrology - Guide to Excursion. I. HârtopanU [1994] Polymetamophyc Evolution of Sebeș-Lotru Series(South Carpatians) as Result of the Aluminium Silicate-Bearing Metapelites Study. Romanian Journal of Petrology, 76. I. Hârtopanu [1982] Semnificația Rocilor cu Minerale Al2SiO5 (Disten, Andaluzit, Sillimanit) în Cristalinul Carpaților Meridionali. S. Caroline, B. Philippe, G. Denis, C. Ramon, D. Herve [2006] From granitoid to kyanite bearing micaschist during fluid-assisted shearing (Ile d'yeu, France). International Journal of Earth Sciences, 95, 2-18.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Rietveld refinement of stibnite (Sb2S3) crystal structure

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered: Summary (max. 200 words):

Şeclăman Alexandra Cătălina, University of Bucharest

The refinement of the stibnite (Sb2S3) structure using the Rietveld method, from Xray powder diffraction data.

The first successful Rietveld refinement of a mineral, from X-ray powder diffraction data, done in Romania
Stibnite is the antimony sulfide, and is one of the end terms of the StibniteBismuthinite isomorph series. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group is Pnma. The stibnite samples used originated from the Băiuţ mine, Maramureş, Romania. The quality of the samples was pristine. The Rietveld method is the most reliable possibility of calculating the parameters and the fractional atomic coordinates of a mineral phase from X-ray powder diffraction data (R. A. Young, 1995). This paper presents a new set of parameters and fractional coordinates that define the Stibnite structure.

Topic:

Mineralogy

166

Rietveld refinement of stibnite (Sb2S3) crystal structure
Şeclăman Alexandra Cătălina, University of Bucharest

Introduction Together with the chemical composition, the crystal structure represents a key element in understanding and predicting the physical properties of a given material. The Rietveld method is among the most accessible ways of calculating the unit-cell parameters and the atomic coordinates of a mineral phase from X-ray powder diffraction data (Young, 1995). This alternate possibility has gained more support in the last two decades, because it has some advantages over single-crystal methods whereas the hardware needed is generally more affordable and has a wider versatility range (Jenkins et al, 1997). The paper explores the actual reliability of the Rietveld refinement for determining sulfide crystal structures using powder diffraction data achieved under routine conditions. Stibnite – Sb2S3 – is orthorhombic, space group Pnma. Its crystal structure (Scavnicar, 1960) consists of [Sb4S6]n chains parallel to the c axis. Each antimony atom within a chain is coordinated by five sulfur atoms forming a square pyramid.

Data collection The stibnite samples used in this study are from Băiuţ mine, Maramureş, Romania. The powders were prepared from large crystals, through fine grinding. The data collection was done using a PANalytical X’Pert Pro MPD diffractometer fitted with an X’Celerator detector, which allows for very short acquisition times. Several measurement settings were used in an effort to find highest quality data possible. The final data collection was set with the following parameters: 2θ range: 5 - 90o, 0.01o steps and 30 seconds acquisition time per step. The scan was continuous and a standard Cu X-ray source was used. Pre-refinement data processing Pre-refinement data processing consisted in the removal of the background (Fig. 1). This was done using the dedicated PANalytical High Score software.

Fig. 1 A- the measured diffractogram, B-the diffractogram after the removal of the background

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The Rietveld refinement The Rietveld refinement is a method by which through a series of mathematical calculations a theoretical diffractogram is created and modified until it matches the measured data set (Young, 2002). The new parameters now defining the theoretical diffractogram are the parameters which define the newly refined structure. In order to create the theoretical diffractogram the parameters and atomic coordinates described by Lundegaard et al. (2003) – at normal values of temperature and pressure – were used. The Rietveld refinement was performed using the General Structure Analysis Software (GSAS) ExGUI. After approximately 300 refinement cycles, the residual value R has reached a minimum of 0.1387 beyond which no further improvements could be done. The general fit between the experimental and calculated diffractograms can be observed in figure 2.

Fig. 2 The calculated diffractogram, the measured data and the difference between them at the end of the refinement

Results and interpretation The value of 0.1387 of the R parameter is considered to be a good value and indicates a good refinement. The newly obtained unit-cell parameters of the structure are: a = 11.197438 b = 3.799043 c = 11.121890

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The new atomic fractional coordinates are listed in Fig. 3. Atom Sb1 Sb2 S1 S2 S3 x 0.970759
(0.000485)

y 0.25
0

z 0.173010
(0.000591)

Uiso*100 10.584
(0.377)

0.648710
(0.000603)

0.25
0

0.964601
(0.000529)

11.667
(0.428)

0.795816
(0.001811)

0.25
0

0.309911
(0.002087)

13.464
(1.453)

0.432419
(0.002242)

0.25
0

0.878710
(0.002174)

13.153
(1.642)

0.630721

0.25

0.555870

8.143

(0.001717) 0 (0.001585) (1.322) Fig. 3 The fractional atomic coordinates of the refined structure of stibnite. Standard deviations in parentheses.

The standard deviations for each atomic coordinate are small, thus showing that the errors of the refinement were in normal ranges. The y parameters correspond to special positions and remained unchanged through the refinement. Using the refined parameters and atomic coordinates the structure was represented using ATOMS software (figure 4).

Figure 4 The crystal structure of stibnite resulted from the Rietveld refinement of the X-ray powder diffraction data. Comparison with the crystal structure by Lundegaard et al., 2003 is shown (faded).

Conclusions The Rietveld refinement is the pinnacle of powder diffractometry in terms of its usefulness in mineralogical research. This paper is a first attempt to resolve crystal structures using X-ray powder
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data achieved through routine techniques. Though not ideal, the results are however, incentive and prove that the method is well within reach for a variety of undergraduate research studies. The results can further be improved through longer acquisition times (50 seconds) per step. Acknowledgments I would like to thank professor Gh. Ilinca and professor B. Soare for their support in apprehending the basic operating techniques of the X-ray powder diffraction machine and for assistance during refinement. References Jenkins R., Snyder R.L. [1996] Introduction to X-ray powder diffractometry Hunter B.A., Howard C.J. [2000] A computer program for Rietveld analysis of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns Young R.A. [2002] The Rietveld Method, Oxford University Press, 300 pg. Lundegaard L F, Miletich R, Balic-Zunic T, Makovicky E. [ 2003] Equation of state and crystal structure of Sb2S3 between 0 and 10 GPa, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 30 463-468 Scavnicar S. [1960] The crystal structure of stibnite. A redetermination of atomic positions. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 114, 85-97.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Biostratigraphical data of the Pannonian deposits from Beočin (Serbia)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Emilian Neagu, University of Bucharest

Biostratigraphical reconstitution for the Pannonian stage, in the Pannonian Basin, in the Beočin quarry (Serbia), by analysing the micro and macrofauna The evolution of both macro and microfauna in the late Miocene, in Beo čin, Serbia

The Pannonian is a stage of the late Miocene, encounted in in the Pannonian Summary (max. 200 words): basin, in Central Paratethys. Beočin’s Pannonian (Beočin area it’s located in north-western Serbia), has the Maeotian and Sarmatian as correspondents for the Dacian basin, in Romania. The Pannonian basin starts its existence after tectonic uplifts in the Carpathian system, in the early late Miocene, separating the basin from the Paratethys, now in the east. Early Pliocene represents the end of the so called Lake Pannon, because of its isolation from the rest of the Paratethys, even from the Dacian basin, with wich it had multiple conexions in its 6 million years history. The isolation leads to a change of environment and the disappearance of the marine life in the Pannon lake-sea. The marshland environment and the brackish sediments flux make semnificant changes in the life content of the basin. Few species of the earlier sea-like basin survive, other species, like ostracodes entered the area. In a biostratigraphic point of view, Upper Pannonian represents an important increase of the ostracode fauna, as a number of species and individuals, but also the decrease of older ostracode species.

Topic:

Paleontology, Stratigraphy

171

Biostratigraphical data of the Pannonian deposits from Beočin (Serbia)
Emilian Neagu, University of Bucharest

Introduction More than 300 biostratigraphic samples have been collected from the Pannonian deposits exposed in the Beočin quarry (north of the Fruška Gora Mountains, south-west of Novi Sad village, Serbia). Beocin’s Pannonian has the Maeotian and Sarmatian as correspondents for the Dacian basin, in Romania. Methods used For the biostratigraphy of the Pannonian deposits of Beočin, there were used outcrop samples, from the quarry near placed. The collected samples were then prepared for the analyses, by washing away a semnificativ lithyc part. The remaning fragments (including the paleontologic content), would have been then analysed under a binocular microscope, the paleontologic fraction being separated by the lithyc one and placed in special micropaleontologic sampling cells. The reconnaissance of the species wad done using specific abridgements. Description of selected samples The Pannonian basin starts its existence after tectonic uplifts of the Carpathian system, in the early late Miocene, separating the basin from the Eastern Paratethys. The isolation leads to a change of environment and the disappearance of the marine life in the “Pannon lake-sea”. The marshland environment and the brackish sediments flux make significant changes in the life content of the basin. Few species of the earlier Sarmatian s. str. sea-like basin survive, other species entered the area from the inland water bodies. The sediment filling of the new created basin will end in early Pliocene, because of its last isolation from the rest of the Paratethys. The Pannonian deposits from the analyzed section rich up to 200 m, being represented by fine grained sediments, mostly whitish marls. All sampled intervals are very rich in brackish ostracod fauna, the Candonidae group being the most dominant. Have been recognized so far all ostracod zones separated in the Upper Pannonian (Serbian substage): Typhlocyprella lineocypriformis Zone, Serbiella sagitosa Zone, Hemicytheria croatica Zone and Amplocypris abscissa Zone. There are also evidences for the presence of the Lower Pannonian (Slavonian substage). As we mentioned the Candonidae group is very well represented by species like Candona (Typhlocyprella) lineocypriformis Krstić, C. (Fabaeformiscandona) arcana Krstić, C. (Caspiolla) alasi Krstić, C. (Typhlocypris) flexidorsata Krstić, C. (Serbiella) sagitossa Krstić, C. (Sinegubiella) illyrica Krstić, C. (Reticulicandona) reticulata (Méhes), C. (Zalanyella) rurica Krstić, C. (Typhlocyprella) ankae Krstić, C.(Lineocypris) caudalis Krstić, C. (Lineocypris) dorsobrevis Krstić, C.(Typhlocypris) beogradica Krstić, C. (Thaminocypris) symetrica Krstić. These candonidae are associated with Amplocypris acuta Krstić, A. major Krstić, A. abscissa (Reuss) (Fig. 1), Cypria servica Krstić, C. dorsoconcava Krstić, Hungarocypris auriculata (Reuss), H. hieroglyphica (Méhes) (Fig. 2), Stenocypria sp., Xestoleberis sp., Cytherura moravica Pokorny, Hemicytheria croatica Sokać, H. dubokensis Krstić, Cyprideis spinosa Sokać, C. sp., Loxoconcha granifera (Reuss), L. stevanovici Krstić, L. rhombovalis, L. hodonica Pokorny, L. sp., Leptocythere sp. This ostracod assemblage is representative for the deeper part of the Pannonian Basin and they have the origin on the sarmatian species that could adapt to more brackish conditions. Some taxa come also from the inland fresh water bodies invading the Pannon Lake where they joined proper conditions for a high diversification. In a biostratigraphic point of view, Upper Pannonian represents an important increase of the ostracode fauna, as a number of species and individuals, but also the decrease of older ostracode species. The mollusk fauna is better represented in the middle part of the section. The number of species is low, but at some levels can be observed a high abundance of individuals. The most common bivalves are represented by Congeria banatica R. Hoernes, Congeria cf. navicula Andrusov, Limnocardium syrmiense, Paradacna lenzi R. Hoernes, Pisidium sp, Provalenciennesius sp, Undolotheca pancici (Brusina) , Radix velutina (Desh,) and Hydrobia sp.

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Conclusions The study over the Beočin in the late Miocene, Pannonian stage, marked out the consequences of an isolated environment over the macro and especially the microfauna, changing sealike basin live. Because the water was brought now only from the mainland, and with brackish sediments, this was exchanged with more brackish live forms, invading the formed lake. References Edit Babinszki, Emő Márton, Péter Márton and László Ferenc Kiss [2007] Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 252, Issues 3-4, 3 September 2007, 626-636,. Edit P. Frenzel, I. Boomer, U. Schudack and J.-P. Colin, Ostracodology - linking bio- and geosciences in the marine realm. Acknowledgements I want to thank the Department of Geology and Palaeontology from the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics and particularly to conf. dr. ing. Marius Stoica for providing the samples and all the necessary equipment for the study.

Example of two of the major species of ostracods encounted in Beočin’s Pannonian

Fig. 1 Amplocypris abcissa (Reuss)

Fig. 2 Hungarocypris hieroglyphica (Méhes)

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

A Petrographical Study of the Lithic Tools from Petreşti Archaeological Site (Romania)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Filipescu Rodica, Babes Bolyai University

A mineralogical and petrological study of the lithic tools, done in order to establish the constituent rock types and to identify possible source areas for the raw materials. An interdisciplinary study of applied mineralogical and petrographical data in the field of archaeology.

Summary The present study focuses on ten tools, recovered from the archaeological (max. 200 words): site within Petresti village, Alba County. The objects were submitted for a
mineralogical-petrological study, with macroscopical and microscopical investigations to establish the constituent rock types and, furthermore, to identify possible source areas for the raw materials. The tools are made of hard rocks, middle sized, very well polished and all but one has a similar shape. Based on these characteristics, the objects belong to the historicallynamed axe-hammers category while for the truncheon-shaped one, a decorative purpose is presumed. A dominant microgranular structure is revealed, with few porphyric, and a massive texture. Predominantly their colours are dark (grey, brown, black), but in three cases light colours can be observed. Microscopically, all three genetical rock types (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary) were used as a raw material in the manufacturing process. The most part of the raw material (metamorphic and sedimentary rocks) used for the tools was either brought by Sebes river, which springs from the Southern Carpathians (Cindrel Mountains), or it was present at the site.

Topic:

Petrology

174

A Petrographical Study of the Lithic Tools from Petreşti Archaeological Site (Romania)
Rodica Filipescu “Babes Bolyai” University Introduction and archaelogical data Interdisciplinary studies in geoarchaeology and archaeometry have a long history, of several tens of years, worldwide. In Romania they are at the beginning, but developing extremely fast. The first steps towards applying mineralogical and petrographical data in the field of archaeology were made by Eugen Stoicovici in the 80s (Horga, 2008). Recently, several complex petrographical and geochemical studies on ancient lithic tools from various national archaeological sites were performed (e.g. Mârza, 1995, 1997; Mârza and Maxim, 1995; Lazar et al., 2007; Lazar, 2008; Horga 2008; Nagy-Korogy et al., 2009), in order to constrained possible sources for the raw material. The present study focuses on ten tools, recovered from the archaeological site within Petresti village, 4 km south from Sebes, and now in custody of the Sebes Town Museum. The objects belong to a Neolithical culture, which borrows its name from the Petresti village, dated between 2400 – 2100 B.C., (Vlassa, 1976) and famous mainly for its painted ceramics. The objects were submitted for a mineralogical-petrological study, to establish the constituent rock types and, furthermore, to identify possible source areas for the raw materials. Samples and methods Nine samples (SB 2, SB 50, SB 51, SB 52, SB 67, SB 71, SB 72, SB 73, SB 80) are axehammers, while one (SB 44) is a truncheon with three bumps, in agreement with the typical functional objects for Neolithic man (simple axe, truncheon, fighting axes and hammers; Comşa, 1982). All ten lithic tools were investigated macro-and microscopically: a) In order to determine the shape, size and colour of the objects, macroscopical investigations with the naked eye or with a magnifier were performed. b) For microscopical investigation, small parts of the lithics were obtained by water coring with a tiny electrical drill (10 mm in diameter) to a maximum 15 mm depth. These were used for thin section preparation, analyzed through use of a Nikon Eclipse E200 Pol microscope, while photo-images were captured with an attached digital camera. Through this method, mineralogical and petrographical (structure and texture) features of the samples were established. Macroscopical and microscopical features of the lithic objects The lithic objects were tooled through polishing, a highly developed technique of stone handling, for those times and known since the beginning of the Neolithic (Comşa, 1982). The axehammers have a very well polished surface, most of them reflect almost a perfect symmetry with the axial spring and a very good positioning of the taper aperture with regards to the left and right sides. This ten tools have different colours and sometimes different shapes: 1) Metamorphic rocks were established through study on 5 samples taken from 5 lithic objects: Lithic tool SB 44: a) Macroscopic – a truncheon with three bumps and a centered perforation (12,2 x 11,9 x 11,8 cm,), that has a white colour with green shades, a microgranular structure, a massive texture and small cones on its surface (Fig.2a) b) Microscopic – a sericite-chlorite schist that is made of chlorites, sericite and opaque minerals. The crystals are set in a parallel direction, a typical texture for schists, in general (Fig.2b,c) Lithic tool SB 50: a) Macroscopic - a perforated axe-hammer (8,5 x 5,1 x 4,9 cm) with a grayish colour, is one of the most polished pieces. Its structure is microgranular and its texture massive. b) Microscopic – a metapsammite, a sandstone maybe, transformed due to the surrounding heating of the earth’s crust.The rock is mainly composed of quartz. In the samples there were identified also minerals of epidote and opaque minerals. All of them are linked through a matrix. Lithic tool SB 51: a) Macroscopic - an axe/pecker (7,9 x 5 x 5,7 cm) made of a microgranular, massive rock, with lateral bumps in the middle area and a thinning-out towards it’s edges. The object’s colour is black with slightly blue and grayish shades.

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b) Microscopic – a serpentinite, an ultra basic and tough rock, also composed of secondary carbonates, iron oxides and hydroxides, chlorite, opaque minerals developed in straps, anthophyllite and cummingtonite (2 magnesium amphiboles). Lithic tool SB 72: a) Macroscopic - a perforated axe-hammer (10,3 x 5 x 2,7 cm) is also dark brown in colour, but has a very well polished surface. b) Microscopic – hornfels with quartz, mainly, but also epidote and opaque minerals. Lithic tool SB 73: a) Macroscopic - a perforated axe-hammer (7,7 x 4,3 x 3,8 cm) has a grayish – green colour, with a very well polished surface and impact marks. b) Microscopic – a serpentinite, rich in serpentine fibers (crisotil and antigorit), secondary carbonates and iron oxides and hydroxides. 2) Igneous rocks were established through study on 3 samples taken from 3 lithic objects: Lithic tool SB 2: a) Macroscopic – a perforated axe-hammer (11,2 x 4,9 x 6 cm) of a black colour with brownish shades, has microgranular structure and a massive texture. On it’s surface one can see several chopped parts, especially in the blade’s area and impact traces. b) Microscopic – a diorite, an igneous profound rock, with an intermediate composition. The identified minerals were: plagioclase feldspar, epidote, green hornblend, opaque minerals, and very few quartz crystals. On the phenocryst of feldspars’ surface one can see the traces of some clays, sericite and epidote. The rock’s structure is holocrystalline. Lithic tool SB 71: a) Macroscopic – a perforated axe-hammer (8,8 x 4,8 x 4 cm) is dark brown in colour. In the rock’s body one can see white phenocrysts that give a porphyritic look. b) Microscopic – andesite with hornblend made of phenocrysts of plagioclase feldspar with traces of clay and sericite minerals on its surface, quartz and opaque minerals. The rock’s structure is porphyritic and the matrix that links all the crystals is made of small pieces of the already named minerals and volcanic glass. Lithic tool SB 80: a) Macroscopic – a perforated axe-hammer (11,2 x 7,2 x 7,1 cm) is the biggest object of all and has a white – creamy colour. When touched, it gives an impression of a slightly powdery rock, but it is really hard and with clear impact and scratching marks (Fig.3a). b) Microscopic – a basaltic andesite with pyroxenes, plagioclase feldspars with clay minerals, interstitial K-feldspars, quartz and opaque minerals. This thin section is a very good example of the ophitic structure (Fig.3b,c). 3) Sedimentary rocks were established through study on 2 samples taken from 2 lithic objects: Lithic tool SB 52: a) Macroscopic - a perforated axe-hammer (9,9 x 5,1 x 3,1 cm), of a white colour, with a microgranular structure and a massive texture, but which is lighter than the other lithic tools (Fig.1a). b) Microscopic – a chemical precipitation limestone, a very homogenous rock, with plenty of pores, made of carbonates, allogenic quartz, iron oxides and hydroxides, opaque minerals, muscovite and very little volcanic glass (Fig.1b,c). Lithic tool SB 67: a) Macroscopic - a perforated axe-hammer (9,9 x 6 x 6 cm), has a grayish colour with yellow shades and the aperture is better centered than in the case of the other objects and thus it looks more symmetric. b) Microscopic – a sandstone with quartz and feldspar, pennine, epidote, augite, very small crystals of muscovite, iron oxides and hydroxides and a few lithic fragments. The minerals are linked together by a silica matrix.

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Conclusions The petrographical and mineralogical study of ten Neolithic objects dug from the archaeological site within Petresti village, Alba County, was performed in order to describe the tools, to determine the constituent rock types, and to give the first insights to possible raw material sources. The tools are made of hard rocks, middle sized, very well polished and all but one has a similar shape. Based on these characteristics, the objects belong to the historically-named axehammers category (Iuliu, 1992), while for the truncheon-shaped one, a decorative purpose is presumed. A dominant microgranular structure is revealed, with few porphyric, and a massive texture. Predominantly their colours are dark (grey, brown, black), but in three cases light colours can be observed. Microscopically, all three genetical rock types were used as a raw material in the manufacturing process: igneous (diorite, andesite with hornblend and basaltic andesite ) – three objects, metamorphic (sericite-chlorite schist, metapsammite, serpentinite, hornfels with quartz) – five tools and sedimentary (chemical precipitation limestone, sandstone with quartz and feldspar) – two objects. In order to identify possible raw source materials for the investigated lithic objects, the geological structure of the area was studied. According with the geological map, Orastie sheet (1:200.000), it can be noticed that not all the rock types identified as raw material in the study can be found around Petresti village. The area is mostly covered with Holocene sediments. In the northern parts of Petresti, there are Neogene limestones, sandstones, marls, tuffs and gypsum, while in the southern parts metablastic migmatites, sericite-chlorite schists, micaschists and paragneisses are present. Therefore, knowing the petrographic nature of the ten tools, it can only be concluded that most part of the raw material (metamorphic and sedimentary rocks) was either brought by Sebes river, which springs from the Southern Carpathians (Cindrel Mountains), or it was present at the site. The exact structural units delivering the raw material have to be investigated in the future. A more problematic issue is to constrain the source of the igneous rocks, because no possible adjacent areas were identify. References Comşa, E. [1982] Neoliticul din România, ed. Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucureşti. Cornelia Lazar [2008] Studii mineralogice asupra unor artefacte litice si ceramice din colectia Muzeului Tarii Crisurilor, Oradea, Unpublished PhD thesis, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj Napoca. Horga, M. [2008] Studii geoarheologice asupra ceramicii şi materialului litic din situri localizate în judeţul Bistriţa Năsaud, Unpublished PhD thesis, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj Napoca. Iuliu, P. [1992] Cultura Petreşti, ed. Museion, Bucureşti, p.205. Lazar, C., Ghergari, L., Ionescu, C. [2007] Petrografia şi mineralogia unor unelte slefuite din situl neolitic de la Suplacu de Barcau). Nimphaea, XXXIV, p. 5-37. Oradea. Nagy-Korodi, I., Weiszburg, T., Szakmany, G., Ionescu, C., Varga, G. & Kasztovszky, Z. [2009] Neolithic polished axes from NW Romania (Micula, Satu Mare County) – a mineralogical, geochemical and petrographic study. In: Ionescu, C., Bedelean, H. & Hoeck, V. (eds.), Geology for society: Education and cultural heritage. Studia Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Geologia, Sp. Is., p. 91-92. Vlassa, N. [1976] Neoliticul Transilvaniei III, [s.n], Cluj Napoca, p. 127-140. Geological Map of Romania [1968] 1:200.000, Orăştie Sheet, Geological Institute of Romania, Bucharest.

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a) b) c) Fig. 1 Sample SB 52: a) Macroscopic image; b) Microphotograph (1N) – carbonates, allogenic quartz (Q), iron oxides and hydroxides, opaque minerals and volcanic glass; c) Microphotograph (N+)

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 2 Sample SB 44: a) Macroscopic image; b) Microphotograph (1N) - chlorites, sericite and opaque minerals; c) Microphotograph (N+)

a)

b)

c)

Fig. 3 Sample SB 80: a) Macroscopic image; b) Microphotograph (1N) – pyroxenes (Px), plagioclase feldspars (Fp) with clay minerals, interstitial K-feldspars (FsK), quartz (Q) and opaque minerals; c) Microphotograph (N+)

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Boulders of Limestone analysis from Sard Conglomerates Formation, Transilvanian Basin

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Izabela Maris*, Nicolae Anastasiu, University of Bucharest

Studying the composition of main facies, sedimentation processes and products for the area in question Identifying the source area and paleoclimate reconstruction for the Upper Cretaceous outcrop located near Alba Iulia

Summary Sard formation is located near the town of Alba Iulia, on Ampoi Valley, in a (max. 200 words): geological region located on the boundary between the Southern Apuseni
Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin, a region with a special tectonic evolution. The purpose of this study is to bring new informations about sedimentological evolution and sedimentological features of the Sard Formation and to try to identify the potentials source areas and the reconstruction of sedimentological history in this region, during Upper Cretaceous – Paleogene time.

Topic:

Sedimentology

179

Boulders of Limestone Transilvanian Basin

analysis

from

Sard

Conglomerates

Formation,

Izabela Maris, Nicolae Anastasiu, University of Bucharest Introduction The importance of this study derives from the wide variety of petrographical Sard conglomerate formation, from Ampoi Valley, which constitutes a basis for reconstruction of source areas for sedimentary basins associated with depressions in the South Apuseni Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin. This study tries to identify source areas for conglomerates components and to reconstruct the sedimentological history of the area developed in the sedimentary basins from South Apuseni Mountains and Transylvanian Basins. Theory and models In this region are exposed a several formations belonging, of a structural, Apuseni Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin. The first formations are situated in the Metaliferi Mountains where Fenes Nappe outcrops (Bleahu, 1981, Sandulescu, 1984), and second formations belong sedimentary coverd of Transylvanian basin. Metaliferi Mountains are organized in the transilvanide tectonics units (Sandulescu, 1984). Fenes Nappe deposits are represented by volcano - sedimentary formations (Sandulescu, 1984) which consist of. sedimentary rocks with flysh and wildflysh character, massive limestone rocks and igneous rock bodies. Transylvanian Basin is limited to the north and east of the Carpathian Mountains and to the west of Apuseni Mountains. It is a basin with molasic sedimentation, whose evolution began in Upper Creataceous and continued in Palaeogene, followed by an uplift during the Neogene time (Andreescu, 2002 ; Demetrescu 2001).

Field data – site description
Sard formation (Fig. 1), is know in literature as: reddish clastic complex (Elias and Mamulea, 1958); continental red Formation (Dimian & Dimian, 1963); red clastic facies (Antonescu 1973); Bozes formations ( Bleahu, 1981) Upper Maastrichtian Continental facies (Grigorescu, 1987) and is typical of a fluviatile depositional system (braided rivers), characterized by numerous internal bars where coarse sediments are stored temporarily. Incomposition of this formation can be distinguished: 10 facieses:six rudites facieses (ortho and para conglomerates polimictics), three arenites facieses (fine to medium arenites) and a silts (red silts). Arenites and rudites facieses filling the channel. The reddish silts, with pedogenetics levels and plants traces representing overbank deposits. The fauna content from Sard Formation is rare and is dominated by bones fragments from the Cretaceous vertebrates (Maastrichtian): dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles (Weishampel, Jianu, Csiki and Norman, 2003).

Fig. 1 Lithostratigraphyc units from Metaliferi Mountains (by Codrea, 2005)

180

Association fauna of this formation is similar to Cretaceous fauna from Hateg Basin, which may lead to a correlation of deposits of both sedimentary basins (Transylvanian Basin and Hateg Basin) (Codrea, 2005). Methods and data colecting To analyzed as the formation was necessary following methods of analysis: • lithological analysis - to determine the mineralogical categories, composition of sedimentary rocks (particles / binder), color, compaction degree, deformation degree (cracks, microfractures) and watering degree (chemical deterioration) • textural analysis - grains size, grains shape, sorting • optical study on thin sections and polished surfaces Data processing and results Were analyzed in terms of size, morphometrical and petrographical features a total of 37 boulders of limestone, taken from different conglomeratic levels. Boulders dimensions vary between 5 and 12.7 cm., From granulometrical point of view, the boulders belongs to gravel category. From morphometrical point of view the boulders are situated in cylindrical – spherical category (Zing, 1954). Petrographic study of limestone boulders identified the shallow water limestone (Dunham, 1962), like: bioclastic with foraminifera mudstone, bioclastic with foraminifera wackestone; peloidal packstone; intraclastic packstone; crystalline limestone. Because the study area is located in a region that took place several tectonic events that have changed the paleogeographic configuration during Jurassic, Cretaceous and Neogene time, the boulders study was necessary to identify the limestone source areas, making of comparison with carbonate rocks of the surrounding areas. Some of the identified facies (wackestone / packstone with foraminifera, are found on the north - east frame of the Trascau Mountains, from Upper Jurassic age (Sasaran, 2006). For the rest of carbonate facies have not been found yet possible occurence. Conclusions Sard formations, located on Ampoi Valley, consisting of intercaltion of conglomerates, sandstones and reddish silts, is a continental formation, which belongs to a braided depositional system. In this formation an emphasis was put on trial conglomerates and especially limestone boulders of their constitution, to identify possible source areas. Part of buckets study could be related to carbonate formations belonging Trascau Mountains, while the other side could not establish the instances, this is going to be done in further investigation. References Anastasiu, N. [2007] Sisteme depozitionale, Editura Academiei Romane, Bucuresti. Codrea, V., Dica, E.P. [2005] Upper Cretaceous - lowermost Miocene lithostratigraphic unit exposed in Alba Iulia – Sebeş – Vinţu de Jos area (SW Transylvanian basin), Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, 50 (1-2), 19 – 26. Săsăran, E., Bucur, I., Prica, I. [2001] Microfacies and microfossils in Upper Jurassic limestones from Cheile Turenilor Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, XLVI, 2, 2001, 35-52. Sandulescu [1984] Geotectonica Romaniei, Ed. Tehnica, Bucucuresti, 335.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Facies analysis of the meotian deposits from Dacian Basin, Romania: sedimentary environments reconstruction

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Gabriel Alexandru Ivan*, Ovidiu Iacob, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest

Elaboration of depositional model for the meotian deposits from Dacian Basin, Bistriţa Valley, Vâlcea county, Costeşti and Foleşti villages. Interpretation of these deposits in terms of deltaic and shoreface environments

Summary The objective of the study is to elaborate the depositional model for the (max. 200 words): meotian deposits from Dacian Basin, area located on Bistriţa Valley, Vâlcea
County, Costeşti and Foleşti villages. On grain-size and structural criteria, 7 sedimentary facies were separated: G gn – Gravel normally graded, GyS gn/l/s – Gravelly sandstone normally graded / laminated / stratified, S m/gn – Sandstone massive normally graded, S l/gn – Sandstone laminated/normally graded, Sx – Sandstone cross stratified, M/S l – Mudstone/Sandstone laminated couples, M – Mudstone laminated. This shows accumulation from fluidal unidirectional and oscillatory currents in deltaic and shoreface environments. At the Costesti, the lithological log represent a coarsening up sequence of 50 meters in thickness with sandy facies in the base and gravel in the top, interpreted as delta front – sand bars with oblique stratification at large scale and distributary channels at the top side – suggesting progradation processes. The Folesti section having 20 meters in thickness is composed from sandstone cross-stratified (swalley cross stratification) which indicates the shoreface zone. Two small sedimentary basins were identified, separated by an exposed anticline faulted structure. In the northern basin, at Costeşti, the deltaic system was supplied from North. In the South at Folesti the shoreface system had a southern source for the clastic material.

Topic:

Sedimentology

182

Facies analysis of the meotian deposits from Dacian Basin, Romania: sedimentary environments reconstruction
Gabriel – Alexandru Ivan, Ovidiu Iacob, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest Introduction The objective of this study is to reconstruct the sedimentary envinronments for meotian deposits from Dacian Basin located on Bistriţa Valley, Vâlcea county, Costeşti and Foleşti villages (Fig.1). In this sector is present a transpresiv structure “flower like” (Răbăgia et al., 2009), knowed in the classic romanian literature as Govora – Ocnele Mari Anticline (Săndulescu, 1984), affected by intra-burdigalian and intra-sarmatian faults. In the central part, burdigalian, badenian and lower sarmatian deposits are cropping out, while, in the flanks, the younger deposits - Middle Sarmatian to Pliocene.

Fig. 1 Costeşti and Foleşti outcrops

Methods The principles and algorithm of the facies analysis were used, that consists in separation and interpretation of the depositional facies and facies associations. In addition, grain size analyses and petrographycal analysis were made. Results On grain-size and structural criteria, 7 sedimentary facies (Fig. 2) were separated: G gn – Gravel normally graded, GyS gn/l/s – Gravelly sandstone normally graded / laminated / stratified, S m/gn – Sandstone massive normally graded, S l/gn – Sandstone laminated/normally graded, Sx – Sandstone cross stratified, M/S l – Mudstone/Sandstone laminated couples, M – Mudstone laminated. This shows accumulation from fluidal unidirectional and oscillatory currents in deltaic and shoreface environments.

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Fig. 2 Sedimentary facies

At the Costesti, the lithological log (Fig. 3) represent a coarsening up sequence of 50 meters in thickness with sandy facies in the base and gravel in the top, interpreted as delta front – sand bars with oblique stratification at large scale and distributary channels at the top side – suggesting progradation processes. The Folesti section (Fig. 4) having 20 meters in thickness is composed from sandstone cross stratified (swalley cross stratification) which indicates the shoreface zone.

Fig. 3 Costeşti litological log

Fig. 4 Foleşti litological log

Theodoxus Stefanescui gastropods association indicates fresh to brackish water environment. From petrographycal point of view, the sandy fraction is represented by lithic and sublithic sandstone. In the Costesti outcrop were found alochemic carbonatic structures like ooids. At Folesti were found heavy minerals associations (amphiboles, pyroxenes, magnetite, ilmenite). The gravelly fraction is represented by clast-supported and matrix-supported conglomerates with metamorphic rock fragments (gneiss, quartzites, eclogites and pegmatites), and sedimentary rock fragments (J3 – K1 limestones, sandstones and marls). This indicates that the source of the sediments was orogenic type, similarly to the metamorphic basement and sedimentary cover of the Getic Nappe.

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In the both outcrops, but mostly in the Costeşti area, are specific the diagenetic structures like selective calcite cementation. The paleocurrents directions suggests a source area from the North for the Costesti deltaic system situated into the micro-basin at the north of the “flower” transpresive structure (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5 Depositional model. Nord is in the left side. The cross section after Răbagia et al. (2009)

The sandstone oblique stratified from Folesti is deeped to the north, indicating a southern source. From this reason we can considered that at the south of the „flower” transpresive structure Govora – Ocnele Mari, existed probable another ”flower” structure to provide sediments to Foleşti micro-basin. Conclusions Two small sedimentary basins was identified, separated by an exposed anticline faulted structure. In the northern basin, at Costeşti, a deltaic coarsenig up seqence was identified . In the South at Folesti is specific a shoreface association, having a southern source of the clastic material. References Rabagia, T., Matenco, L., Cloetingh, S. [2009] submitted for publication. The balance between tectonics and sedimentation in highly oblique collisional settings: a case study from the South Carpathians and their foreland. Tectonophysics. Sandulescu, M. [1984] Geotectonica României (translated title: GeoTectonics of Romania). Ed. Tehnica, Bucharest, 450 pp.

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Title:

Lower Cretaceous microfossils in the urgonian limestone from Brad area, Perşani Mountains (central, sector)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandru Vlad Marian, Babeş-Bolyai University

Description of the Urgonian limestones, (biota, matrix/sediment and cement) from a micropaleontological point of view.

The micropaleontological and microfacies inventory of the urgonian type limestone from the central sector of Perşani Mountains.

The lower Certaceous limestones, presenting the urgonian type of Perşani Summary (max. 200 words): Mountains outcropping on the Brad hill and in the region upstream of the

Valea Comana contain a large veriety of microfosils (foraminifera -icluding encrusting forams and orbitolinids-, fragments of sponges, corals, rudist bivalves, annelid worms, echinid fragments, microbial crusts and dasycladaleans and red algae) distributed in tree majore types of microfacies (floatstone, coarse bioclastic packstone, bioclastic wackestone and wackestone-packstone).The environment indicated by the biota, sediment and cement consists of a shallow subtidal carbonate platform.

Topic:

Paleontology

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Lower Cretaceous microfossils in the urgonian limestone from Brad area, Perşani Mountains (central, sector)
Alexandru Vlad Marian, Babeş-Bolyai University Introduction The studied area is located in the central part of Perşani Mountains. As a part of the Eastern Carpathians, Perşani Montains have a complicated nappe structure (Patrulius et al., 1966; Săndulescu, 1976). The Cretaceous limestones belong to the neoautochtonous (postectonic, sensu Săndulescu, 1976) cover of the Transylvanian nappe or to the paleoautochtonous (cf. Patrulius et al., 1966). Microfacies and microfossils In this study we present preliminary results on the limestones outcropping on the Brad hill and in the region upstream of the Valea Comana . The Urgonian limestones are generally massif, of frequently redish color, and contain requienid rudists, corals, bivalves, gastropods and orbitolinids (Fig. 1).

Fig.1 Polished surface presenting the Urgonian limestone type. Coral patch-reefs (Fig. 2) and coarse bioclastic granstone to rudstone formed probably in a more external environment.

Fig.2 Polished surface of a chaetetide sponge and a coral.

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Three main type of microfacies can be separated: 1) Bioclastic wackestone and wackestone-packstone, with fragments of sponges, corals, rudist bivalves, annelid worms, echinid fragments, foraminifera (icluding encrusting forams and orbitolinids), Bacinella nodules, dasycladaleans and red algae (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3 Bioclastic wackestone and wackestone-packstone view in thin section. 2) Coarse bioclastic packstone, with coral fragments, rudist bivalves and gastropods, echinid fragments, Bacinella nodules and other microbial crusts (mostly on corals and rudists, Fig.4).

Fig. 4 Coarse bioclastic packstone view in thin section 3) Floatstone with corals, gastropod and rudist fragments, dasycladalean algae and orbitolinids (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5 Floatstone view in thin section Grainstone-packstone, and coarse bioclastic grainstone/rudstone are less frequent.

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The micropaleontological assemlage consist of foraminifers and calcareous algae. The foraminifers are represented by Charentia cuvillieri NEUMANN, Coscinophragma cribrosa REUSS, Everticyclammina hedbergi (MYNC), Sabaudia minuta (HOFKER), Nezzazatinella sp., Vercorsella sp., small textulariids, Mesorbitolina minuta (DOUGLASS) and Mesorbitolina texana (ROEMER) (Fig.6, Pic.5). Among calcareous algae, we identified frequent dasycladaleans [(Anisoporella? cretacea (DRAGASTAN) (Fig.6, Pic.2 and Pic.6), Triploporella carpatica BUCUR (Fig.6, Pic.4) Triploporella cf. marsicana PRATURLON , ?Triploporella sp., Neomeris cretacea STEINMANN, Neomeris sp. (Fig.6, Pic.2), Terquemella sp.)] and red algae [(“Solenopora”-Parachaetetes sp. (Fig.6, Pic.3), Polystrata alba (PFENDER), Sporolithon rude (LEMOINE)]. The microproblematica Coptocampylodon fontis PATRULIUS, Lithocodium aggregatul ELLIOTT and Bacinella irregularis RADOICIC were also identified (Fig.6, Pic.1).

Fig. 6 Pic. 1. Bacinella irregulari and Lithocodium aggregatum encrusting a rudist fragment. Pic. 2. Anisoporella? cretacea (DRAGASTAN). Pic. 3. Parachaetetes asvapatii PIA. Pic. 4. Triploporella carpatica BUCUR. Pic 5 Mesorbitolina minuta DOUGLASS, and Sabaudia minuta (HOFKER). Pic 6. Anisoporella cretacea (DRAGASTAN)

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Conclusions The facies types and associated biota also indicate a shallow water environment, moslty shallow subtidal (external as well as internal part of the carbonate platform). The two orbitolinid foraminifera indicate a Late Aptian age for the Urgonian limestone in the studied region. Acknowledgements The study was financially supported by the CNCSIS grant 1330. References Patrulius D., Popa-Damioan E., & Dimitriu-Popescu I. [1966] Seriile mezozoice autohtone şi pânza de decolare Transilvană în împrejurimile Comanei (Munţii Perşani). Anuarul Comitetului Geologic, XXXV, 397-434. Săndulescu M. [1976] La corrélation du troncon oriental avec celui méridional des Carpates roumaines. Dări de Seamă, Institutul de Geologie şi Geofizică, LXII/5, 177-194.

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Title:

New data on the sedimentary facies and micropaleontology from Pucioasa (Dâmboviţa County)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Botond Szabo*, Răzvan Bercea, Gheorghe Iordache, Szabolcs Szekely, Sorana Petruţa, Sorin Filipescu, Ramona Bălc, Emanoil Săsăran, BabeşBolyai University To identify the sedimentary facies outcropping in Bizdidel Valley and to estimate its age and paleoenvironmental setting based on microfossil assemblages. Our study has demonstrated the presence of deep marine environments with turbiditic complexes along the Bizdidel Valley.

Summary The sedimentological, tectonic and biostratigraphic aspects of Bizdidel (max. 200 words): Valley where investigated along the riverside. A general description of the
depositional system has been made for the interval ranging from the Late Cretaceous to Middle Miocene, with emphasis on the Fusaru and Pucioasa formations. Microfossil assemblages were studied in 41 samples, and processed in order to obtain foraminiferal assemblages and calcareous nannoplankton. The sedimentological features clearly indicate a dominant deep marine depositional system in a foreland basin. We identified diverse planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, characteristic for the Late Cretaceous to Early Miocene in the Carpathian region. Our study revised the biozonation and improved the biostratigraphy of the southernmost part of the Tarcău nappe and Pucioasa Formation.

Topic:

Paleontology, Sedimentology

191

New data on the sedimentary facies and micropaleontology from Pucioasa (Dâmboviţa District)
Botond Szabo, Răzvan Bercea, Gheorghe Iordache, Szabolcs Szekely, Sorana Petruţa, Sorin Filipescu, Emanoil Săsăran, Ramona Bălc; Babeş-Bolyai University Introduction Field studies conducted in the Bizdidel Valley near Pucioasa (Fig. 1) in the fall of 2009 tried to identify the sedimentary facies of the Pucioasa formation, and, furthermore, to estimate its age and paleoenvironmental setting based on microfossil assemblages. The sedimentological, tectonic and biostratigraphic aspects of Bizdidel Valley where investigated with more than 60 samples, collected along the riverside. A general description of the depositional system has been made for the interval ranging from the Late Cretaceous to Middle Miocene, with emphasis on the Fusaru and Pucioasa formations.

Fig. 1 Geological map of the studied area showing the sample locations (after Ştefănescu et al., 1988) and position of the studied section on the map of Romania

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Material and methods Sediment samples were petrographically and sedimentologically described, then processed by standard micropaleontological methods. The position of the samples was marked using a GPS device and every observation point was photographed using a digital camera. Sedimentary structures and tectonic features were carefully observed. Approximately 500 g of sediments per sample were collected for the micropaleontological study. Microfossil assemblages were studied in 41 samples initially weighting 250 g each. The samples were dried at 40-50oC and then boiled with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). The micropaleontological residue was recovered from a 63-µm sieve. The microfossils (mostly foraminifers and a few radiolarians) were observed at the binocular microscope and the most significant specimens were photographed using a JEOL JSM 5510 LV scanning electron microscope at the Babeş-Bolyai University. Calcareous nannoplankton was also processed by standard techniques and photographed using a polarizing microscope. Results After the field examinations we could gather very important data on the depositional system of the formations outcropping along the Bizdidel Valley. Fandeltas and proximal to distal submarine channel-levee systems where identified in the Fusaru and Pucioasa formations. The sedimentological features clearly indicate a dominant deep marine depositional system in a foreland basin. The foraminiferal assemblages at the northernmost part of the studied section clearly reveal a Late Cretaceous age. The presence of large agglutinated foraminifera Nothia excelsa (Grzybowski, 1898), Kalamopsis grzybowskii (Dylazanka, 1923), Conglophragnium irregularis (White, 1928) suggest a deep marine turbiditic oxic environment; the planktonic foraminifera Globotruncana arca Cushman, 1926 and Rugoglobigerina rugosa (Plummer, 1926) point towards a Maastrichtian age. The calcareous nannoplankton associations also indicate a post Campanian age (CC 18 Broinsonia parca parca Biozone). The deep marine settings persisted during the Paleogene, with oxic and slightly oligotrophic conditions. The presence of the planktonic foraminifer Subbotina angiporoides Hornibrook, 1965 indicates an Upper Eocene age. Approximately 30 species of calcareous nannoplankton support an Upper Eocene age (Fig. 2), respectively the NP19 Istmolithus recurvus Biozone. The identified agglutinated foraminifera are large (long living in an oligotrophic environment). The benthic foraminiferal assemblages that indicate an ?Oligocene to Early Miocene age thrived in a hypoxic marine environment. The planktonic foraminifera, such as Globigerinoides quadrilobatus (d’Orbigny, 1846), are characteristic for the Miocene. The presence of Sphenolithus belemnos (NN3) and Helicosphaera ampliaperta (NN4) in the calcareous nannoplankton assemblage support the Lower Miocene age. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated the presence of deep marine environments with turbiditic complexes along the Bizdidel Valley. Oxic bottom waters were characteristic for the Late Cretaceous and Paleogene, while hypoxic conditions with significant deltaic (organic) input were dominant during the Oligocene and Early Miocene. We identified diverse planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, characteristic for the Late Cretaceous to Early Miocene in the Carpathian region. Our study revised the biozonation and improved the biostratigraphy of the southernmost part of the Tarcău nappe and Pucioasa Formation. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to OMV Petrom for funding this study and to the members of the exploration division – Heiko Oterdoom, Radu Olaru, Csaba Krézsek, and Victor Barbu - for the professional advice and support. Reference Ştefănescu, M., Ghenea, C., Papaianopol, I., Ghenea, A., Mihăilescu, N., Ivan, V., Munteanu, T., Ştefănescu, M., Munteanu, E. [1988] Geological map of RSR, scale 1:50.000, sheet 128d Pucioasa (in Romanian).

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Plate (Fig. 2) 1-8. Late Cretaceous microfossils 1. Nothia excelsa (Grzybowski 1898) - 1 sample B10 2. Conglophragmium irregularis (White 1928) - sample B08 3. Paratrochamminoides deflexiformis (Noth 1912) - sample B02 4. Macroglobigerinelloides multispinus (Lalicker 1948) - 4 sample B07 5. Globotruncana arca Cushman 1926 - sample B01 6. Rugoglobigerina rugosa (Plummer 1926) - sample B06 7. Heterohelix striata (Ehrenberg 1840) - sample B06 8. Nasselarid radiolarian 9. Spumellarid radiolarian 10-16. Late Eocene foraminifera 10. Nothia excelsa (Grzybowski 1898) - sample B03 11. Ammodiscus cretaceus (Reuss 1845) - sample B03 12. Annectina grzybowskii (Jurkiewicz 1960) - sample B05 13. Glomospira glomerata (Grzybowski 1898) - sample B05 14. Reticulophragmium rotundidorsatum (Hantken 1875) - sample B03 15. Subbotina praeturrilitina Blow & Banner 1962 - sample B03 16. Globigerina praebulloides Blow 1959 - sample B03 17-23. Early Miocene foraminifera 17. Ammodiscus miocenicus Karrer 1877 - sample B14 18. Glomospira charoides (Jones & Parker 1860) - sample B56 19. Nonionella stella Cushman & Moyer 1930 - sample B57 20. Virgulinella pertusa (Reuss 1861) - sample B57 21. Bulimina elongata d’Orbigny 1846 - sample B64 22. Bolivina beyrichi carinata Hantken 1875 - sample B64 23. Globigerinoides quadrilobatus (d’Orbigny 1846) - sample B56

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Fig. 2: Plate

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1st International Symposium of Geology and Geophysics Students
Poster Session
Code
P01

Time

Title & Authors

15:15 Marmarosh Klippen Belt in the structure of Eastern Carpathians Mykhaylo Yaremovych, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS, Ukraine Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, Eastern Mediterranean: a 15:30 contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project Tiffany Piercey*, Jeremy Hall and Ali Aksu, Selin Akhun and Günay Çifçi, Memorial University NL & Dokuz Eylül University 15:45 Petrified wood from Căprioara Valley, Feleacu, Cluj Mirela Dumitrescu, Stănilă Iamandei, Eugenia Iamandei, Babes-Bolyai University (1), National Geological Museum (1),Geological Institute of Romania (1) 16:00 Seismological Analysis of the Hellenic Arc

P02

P03

P04

Camil Badulescu*, Cristiana Stefan, Marina Simon, Mihai-Cosmin Stoica, Teodora Merezeanu, University of Bucharest
P05 16:15 The Crystal chemistry of ludwigite from Ocna de Fier, Romania

Andreea Dumitru, University of Bucharest

Code
P06

P07

P08

P09

P10

Title & Authors 3D Modeling Reveals New Details of Geological Structure of Nikolaevskoye Oil Field, 9:15 Krasnodar Region, SW Russia Manushkina Alena, Kuban State University Facies and biota of an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous shallow water carbonate platform 9:30 from Vâlcan Mountains Mihai Michetiuc*, Camelia CatincuŃ, Babes-Bolyai University Structural-petrographical study of the southern side of Mount San Petrone, Alpine 9:45 Corsica, France Ermete Tondella, University of Turin Correlation of the weathering forms identified on the western portal of CârŃa Cistercian 10:00 Monastery (Romania) with exposure Mihăilă Anamaria, Babeş-Bolyai University The Effect of Diagenesis on Porosity, Permeability, and Acoustic Velocities in a Middle 10:15 East Carbonate Reservoir
Ahmed Abed Hassan*, Sandra Vega, The Petroleum Institute, United Arab Emirates

Time

P11

P12

Contribution of well logging and seismic studies in defining the hydrocarbon characteristics on the Lower Miocene Rocks Gulf of Suez, Egypt Moataz Barakat*, El-Gendy, Tanta University & TU Berlin Hydrogeological aspects for groundwater forming and possibilities for their multi–purpose 10:45 usage in the basin of karst spring Petnica Dejan Nešković, University of Belgrade 10:30

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Code
P13

P14

P15

Title & Authors Metamorphic rocks of the East Carpathians: representative example for mineral11:00 fluidological research of metamorphogenous-hydrotermal ore-genesis formations Roman Bondar, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS, Ukraine Peridotite nodules and xenoliths in the Paleogene alkali basalts from the Muncelu Mare11:15 Muncelu Mic area (Poiana Ruscă Mountains - Romania) Alexandra-Mihaela Giurgiu*, Roxana-Adela Grindean*, Babeş-Bolyai University Identification and evaluation of water-bearing formations using complex borehole 11:30 geophysical investigations in Cernavoda area (Romania)
Mihai Simionescu*, Cristina Corban, Bogdan Mihai Niculescu, University of Bucharest

Time

P16

11:45

Nitrate as a representative for agricultural contaminants: Sorptive behaviour in chalk aquifers Fathy Abdalla, South Valley University, Moataz Barakat*, Tanta University & TU Berlin

Code P17

Time Title & Authors 13:30 The Early Jurassic flora from the waste dump of Pit I, Anina
Mircea Ovidiu Bogdan Savescu*, Andreea Madalina Zaharia, University of Bucharest

P18

P19

P20

13:45 New paleomagnetic results from the South Harghita volcanic area (Romania) Mădălina Visan*, Institute of Geodynamics “Sabba Stefănescu”, Teodora Merezeanu, Andrei Panaiotu, Cristian Panaiotu, University of Bucharest Microfacies and microfossils of the Upper Tithonian-Berriasian limestone in the Pietrele 14:00 Bulbuci klippes (South Apuseni Mountains, Romania) Camelia CatincuŃ*, Mihai Michetiuc, Babes-Bolyai University Mapping updates for the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous limestones from Hodobana14:15 Gârda Seacă area (Bihor Mountains) Valentin TURI*, University of Bucharest, Emanoil SĂSĂRAN, Ioan I. BUCUR, BabeşBolyai University Time
15:00

Code
P21

Title & Authors
Evaluation and improvement of the equilibrium state of a massive to strengthen existing buildings and for the design of new construction on Olimpia Tennis Courts, Braşov

P22

P23

P24

Alexandra Munteanu*, Florica Stroia, University of Bucharest Studies on some xenoliths from Neogene intrusive bodies from the Bârgău Mountains 15:15 (East Carpathians) Boglárka Mercedesz Kis*, Emilia Mosonyi, Babeș-Bolyai University Microfacies and microfossils of the Lower Cretaceous limestone from Pădurea Craiului 15:30 (Apuseni Mountains), Fâşca-CâlăŃea area Mariana AncuŃa Hebriştean, Babes-Bolyai University 15:45 Quality groundwater quartered in deposits alluvial of along river Jijia Mich Lia, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi

197

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Marmarosh Klippen Belt in the structure of Eastern Carpathians

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mykhaylo Yaremovych, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine

Ukrainian Carpathians, Marmarosh Klippen Belt.

Summary The results of tectonic and geologucal data research of Marmarosh Klippen (max. 200 words): Belt were analised. It is stressed of the importance role of integrated
research, including study of facial changes and facial nature of formations of this zone, detailed mapping of folded and discontinuous structures, further development of stratigraphic schemes of region, draw an analogy with evenaged sediments and similar to genesis formations of neighbouring regions, as in Ukraine and in Romania.

Topic:

Petroleum geology, Structural geology, Tectonics

198

Marmarosh Klippen Belt in the structure of Eastern Carpathians
Mykhaylo Yaremovych, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine Introduction Carpathians belong to the Alpine bended structures of Europe. Within Ukraine is only a part of the Eastern Carpathians, which stretched on 250 km and borders with the East European platform. One of the peculiarities of the structure of Ukrainian Carpathians is expansion of a original tectonic element – Marmarosh Klippen Belt, which was first highlighted by D. Andrusov. It analogues outside Ukraine is not clearly established. This zone presented by located narrow strip and extends to the general direction of the Carpathian more than 100 km. Marmarosh massif is a jut of the pre-alpine crystalline rocks, that are overlie by Paleozoic–Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. In Ukrainian part are it presented by north-western ending, and forming two fragments: Chyvchyn and Dilove parts. Massif has covering structure. Its characteristic feature is availability of rootless outliers of various rocks such as rocks of the same massif. These outliers form the so-called "cliff" or "clips", the problem of origin which is one of the most discussion in the Carpathian geology. We review the geological situation and the basic ideas of Marmarosh Klippen Belt forming. Geological position and the problem of the Marmarosh Klippen Belt forming The peculiarity of this zone is the development of pre-Alpine metamorphic and TriassicJurassic sedimentary rocks, unusual to neighboring flysh tectonic zones. According to the published tectonic map of Ukrainian Carpathians, this zone consists of two tectonic covers – Monastyrets and Vezhanka and which have northern vergency (Fig.1). Vezhanka cover approach in northerly direction on Flysch Carpathians, in some places, with of Marmarosh massif completely on Rakhiv cover. Monastyrets cover approach in the north-west on Marmarosh massif or on Vezhanka cover. From the mid south-west side on Monastyrets cover formation of Pienin tectonic unit are approach (Kruglov, Ed. S., Tsypko, A. K., 1988).

Fig.1 Tectonic units of Ukrainian Carpathians (by Gnylko)

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According to stratigraphic scheme (Stratigraphy..., 1993), section of Vezhanka cover consist of Soymul (Upper Albian-Cenomanian), Pukhiv (Turon-Maastricht), Jarmuth (Maastricht), Metovo (Palaeocene-Eocene), Lugy or Dusyno (Oligocene) suites. Rootless outliers of various, including metamorphic rocks, which form strictly speaking "klips", distributed only whitin terrigenous formation of Soymul suite. Monastyrets cover by flysch of Sushmanets (Early-Middle Eocene) and Dragovo suites (Middle-Upper Eocene) are represented. In formations of Marmarosh Klippen Beld are widely shown melange, tectonic breccia, cleavage, boudinage, schistosity of rocks. According to one of the most common standpoints, the "clips" is olistolithes whitin Lower Cretaceous olistostrome formation of Soymul suite (Kruglov, 1988). They are represented by large (up to 1 km and more) olistolithes with a large amount of smaller blocks of Triassic carbonate rocks, Jurassic and neokomian and “exotic” rocks (ultrabasites and granitoids). Matrix of olistostrome consist of small-grained terrigenous formations of Cretaceous age. Over the olistostrome formations lie marl of Pukhiv suite (Upper Cretaceous) and Paleocene sediments. By V. Chernov (Chernov, 1972), most of the limestone blocks of the Soymul suite has the bioherm origin. He believed that age of organic limestones is not Upper Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous (Barremian-aptian). So, they are even-aged with them containing terrigenous rocks and form facies organic constructions of, so-called, urgon type. According to the views of S. Byzova (Byzova, 1972), whitin Marmarosh Klippen Belt are olistolithes and formations of tectonic origin. Its structure is complicated by nappes and everted anticlines, which clenched between adjacent thrusts. And most “clips” are as olistolithes and bioherms in flysh formations of Lower Cretaceous. The availability of numerous discordance unconformity, the presence of conglomerates and "wild flish" testify to the high mobility zone during Cretaceous and Paleogene. By V. Hain (Hain et al., 1972) Marmarosh Klippen Belt are formation type of tectonic melange. In this interpretation given the primary role covering dislocation of north vergency that accompanied the formation of melange. These dislocations complicated by overthrusts, steep longitudinal and transversal thrusts and discharges. In this case, the structure of this zone submit authors as peculiar complicated horst, composed of a series of covering nappes. According to one of the most common standpoints, the "clips" is olistolithes whitin Lower Cretaceous olistostrome formation of Soymul suite (S. Kruglov, 1988). They are represented by large (up to 1 km and more) olistolithes with a large amount of smaller blocks of Triassic carbonate rocks, Jurassic and neokomian and “exotic” rocks (ultrabasites and granitoids). Matrix of olistostrome consist of small-grained terrigenous formations of Cretaceous age. Over the olistostrome formations lie marl of Pukhiv suite (Upper Cretaceous) and Paleocene sediments. Conclusions One of the conditions for further researches of Marmarosh Klippen Belt is integrated research, including study of facial changes and facial nature of formations of this zone, detailed mapping of folded and discontinuous structures, further development of stratigraphic schemes of region, draw an analogy with even-aged sediments and similar to genesis formations of neighbouring regions, as in Ukraine and in Romania. With a thorough analysis of Marmarosh Klippen Belt can eventually obtain more reliable understanding of its nature and place in structure of the folded Carpathians. References: Vyalov O. S. [1981] History of geological development of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 177. (In Russian) Chernov V G. [1972] The problem of structure and origin of core of Marmorosh clips of Soviet Carpathians. Herald of Moscow University, 2, 23-36. (In Russian) Byzova S. L. [1972] To tectonic of core of Marmarosh clips. Herald of Moscow University , 2, 36-44. (In Russian)

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Slavin V .I., V. E. Hain, S. G. Rudakov [1972] On tectonic of Marmarosh clips core nature and its Regulation in the structure of the Soviet Carpathians. Herald of Moscow University , 2, 44-56. (In Russian) Byzova S.L., Beyer M.A. [1974] Main tectonic peculiarity of the Soviet part of Flysh Carpathians. Geotectonics, 6, 81-96. (In Russian) Stratygrafic scheme of phanerozoic formation of Ukraine for geological maps of new generation. Kiev [1993]. Kruglov, Ed. S., Tsypko, A. K. [1988] Tectonic of Ukraine.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title: Authors and affiliations: Main objectives:

Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, Eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project
Tiffany Piercey*, Jeremy Hall and Ali Aksu, Memorial University NL, Selin Akhun and Günay Çifçi Dokuz Eylül University Establishment of a stratigraphic framework using the deep exploration wells, and the using the lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data in order to delineate a firm time outline for the sedimentary sequences. Determination of the structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Outer Cilicia Basin through interpretation of high resolution seismic images and by mapping the faults. Identification and mapping various seismic stratigraphic sequences associated with the Göksu delta and the delivery of sediments from the Göksu River. This project attempts to use source-to-sink systems to help delineate the interaction between continental plateaux and tectonic/climatic interactions.

New aspects covered:

The Central Anatolian Plateau occupies a large part of the small AegeanSummary (max. 200 words): Anatolian microplate, which is in the early stages of collision, as the African

and Eurasian Plates collide (Figure One). Fifteen million years of plateau development are recorded in onland basins not yet eroded, and the complementary subsidence is recorded in offshore basins and in deltas forming along their margins (Hall 2008). This project is a component of the Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP), whose goal is to acquire a quantitative understanding of the complete tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes controlling the topographic development of orogenic plateaux by using the Central Anatolian Plateau as a case study. The VAMP project is an example of a source-to-sink study of uplift, erosion, transport and deposition. My project focuses on the sink of the sediment eroded from the Central Anatolian Plateau and deposited in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The VAMP addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin. Structural Geology, Tectonics

Topic:

202

Neogene sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin, Eastern Mediterranean: a contribution to the TopoEurope VAMP project
Tiffany Piercey, Jeremy Hall and Ali Aksu, Memorial University, St. John’s, NL, Selin Akhun and Günay Çifçi Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, Turkey

Summary
The Central Anatolian Plateau occupies a large part of the small Aegean-Anatolian microplate, which is in the early stages of collision, as the African and Eurasian Plates collide (Fig. 1). Fifteen million years of plateau development are recorded in onland basins not yet eroded, and the complementary subsidence is recorded in offshore basins and in deltas forming along their margins (Hall 2008). This project is a component of the Vertical Anatolian Movements Project (VAMP), whose goal is to acquire a quantitative understanding of the complete tectonic, geomorphic and climatic processes controlling the topographic development of orogenic plateaux by using the Central Anatolian Plateau as a case study. The VAMP project is an example of a source-to-sink study of uplift, erosion, transport and deposition. My project focuses on the sink of the sediment eroded from the Central Anatolian Plateau and deposited in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The VAMP addresses the Neogene uplift of the Taurides and the Central Anatolian Plateau. While terrestrial studies are focused on erosion in the sediment source area, and deposition within the Turkish landmass, our marine work is intended to provide a history of deposition in one of the ultimate sinks: the eastern Mediterranean. In particular, we are mapping the distribution in space and time of sediment deposited from the Göksu River into the Cilicia Basin.

Fig. 1 Eastern Mediterranean plate tectonics and plate motions relative to a fixed Eurasian plate. (HA- Hellenic Arc, CA- Cyprus Arc, Cb- Cilicia Basin, AnB- Antalya Basin, AK- Anamur-Kormakti zone, MKF- Misis– Kyrenia Fault)

Study Area and Field Data The Cilicia Basin (denoted Cb in Figure One) lies between the southern coast of Turkey and the northern coast of Cyprus in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The Göksu River runs 260 kilometres in length through southern Turkey. It drains the onland Mut Basin and the Central Tauride Mountains and develops a large delta, the Göksu Delta, on the edge of the Cilicia Basin (Fig. 2). The study

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Fig. 2 Bathymetry and simplified topography of the Cilicia Basin and environs (from IBCM) involves seismic reflection profiles which fan outward from the Göksu Delta, in order to study the sequence stratigraphy and the sedimentation history of the sediment transported by the Göksu River. The high resolution marine seismic reflection profiles processed and interpreted in this research come from a dataset which was collected in August 2008 by a collaborating research team from Memorial University of Newfoundland and Dokuz Eylul University in Turkey. At this time, 2500 km of multi-channel seismic lines were recorded running out from the Göksu delta, with two tie lines running across the survey (Fig. 3).

Discussion
Interpretation of the available industry seismic reflection profiles show that during the Miocene the northeastern Mediterranean, including the Cilicia Basin, experienced regional compression, which resulted in the formation of a broad and arcuate fold-thrust belt extending from the Taurides in the north, across the Troodos ophiolite complex into the Cyprus Arc in the south. Two prominent culminations were developed: one was located along the Misis-Kyrenia Fault Zone, another developed in the Amanos-Larnaka-Troodos Fault Zone. Stratigraphic and structural relationships demonstrated that the late Pliocene-Quaternary Cilicia-Adana Basin complex evolved as an asymmetric piggyback basin on the hanging-wall of the south-verging Misis-Kyrenia thrust culmination. Detailed mapping demonstrated that the S/SE-directed contraction culminated in the latest Miocene, and is followed in the early Pliocene by a progressive transition to partitioned contraction and extension related to the initiation of strike slip along the eastern Anatolian Transform Fault and its marine extensions. The shift in kinematics is expressed by the development of major NE-SW trending (Inner Cilicia Basin) and E-W trending (Outer Cilicia Basin) steep faults with extensional separations bounding the Pliocene-Quaternary basins. These basement-rooted faults are incompatible with the contractional regime that existed in this part of the basin complex during the Miocene, and signal the onset of a regime with partitioned stress in the region.

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Fig. 3 Location map showing the position of multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and exploration wells (S= Seyhan, K= Karataş) in Cilicia and Adana Basins

Conclusion The 2008 seismic reflection profiles showed that within the Cilicia Basin a linked extensional-contractional fault system developed, which is detached at the base of the Messinian evaporites. The extensional fault system in the Inner Cilicia Basin is characterized by imbricate fans of listric normal faults. A complementary contractional fault system is developed in Outer Cilicia Basin and is characterized by a thinner Pliocene-Quaternary cover overlying a relatively uniform salt substrate. Here a series of salt-cored growth folds are commonly associated with thrusts of variable vergence. This specific project is meant to outline the relationship between the tectonic evolution and the sedimentary history of the Outer Cilicia Basin. References Aksu, A.E., Calon, T.J., Hall, J., Mansfield, S. and Yasar, D. [2005b] The Cilicia - Adana Basin complex, Eastern Mediterranean: Neogene evolution of an active fore-arc basin in an obliquely convergent margin. Marine Geology, 221, 121-159. Biju-Duval, B, and L Montadert [1977] Structural History of the Mediterranean Basin. Paris. Editions Technips. Dewey, J.F., et al. [1986] Shortening of continental lithosphere: the neotectonics of Eastern Anatolia a young collision zone. Collision Tectonics, Geological Society Special Publication, 19, 3-36 Hall, J. [2008] NSERC SRO Grant Proposal – Source-to-Sink Project. Memorial University of Newfoundland. Mansfield, S. [2006] Neogene Tectonic and Sedimentary Evolution of the Outer Cilicia Basin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Diss. Memorial Univ. Sengor, AM.C., Gorur, N., Saroglu, F. [1985] Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. Society of Economic Palaeontologists and Mineralogists, Special Publication, 37, 227-264.

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Title:

Petrified wood from Căprioara Valley, Feleacu, Cluj

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mirela Dumitrescu*, ”Babeş Bolyai” University, Stănilă Iamandei, National Geological Museum, Bucureşti, Eugenia Iamandei, Geological Institute of Romania, Bucureşti Revisal of the list of fossil flora from the early Sarmatian of Feleacu Hill, as compiled by Givulescu (1997). Identification and description of two new species of fossil wood in the areal of Căprioara Valley, Feleacu, Cluj.

Summary Mid-Miocene Feleacu Flora was revised by Givulescu (1997) after some (max. 200 words): older descriptions of leaf or fruit imprints of Staub (1883, 1891), Szadeczky
(1917) and Givulescu (1957-1995) and comprises species of: Pinus, Sequoia, Abies, Palaeocarya, Daphnogene, Laurophyllum, Ulmus, Platanus, Ace, Fraxinus, Phragmites, Cyperites and Phyllites. It was interpreted as coming from a mesophytic, lowland forest, of warm temperate climate. However the small number of described taxa don’t permit to obtain reliable paleoclimatic conclusions. Last years studying some fossil wood from the same area, Petrescu (2003) has identified some Conifers (Sequoioxylon, Pinuxylon) and Dicots (Quercoxylon, Laurinoxylon, Ebenoxylon, Rhisocaryoxylon). Recently, we have identified by paleoxylological study a new taxon, as a species of Tetraclinoxylon (paper in press), which had a large distribution within the Carpathian area (Iamandei et al., 2000-2008), and also a new species of Rhysocaryoxylon (study in progress) as an equivalent form of the extant Juglans – a walnut tree. These forms can be added to the list of the revised Feleacu Flora of Givulescu confirming the previous paleogeographical, paleoecological, and paleoclimatical conclusions.

Topic:

Palaeontology

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Petrified wood from Căprioara Valley, Feleacu, Cluj
Mirela Dumitrescu, Babes – Bolyai University of Cluj Napoca, Stănilă Iamandei, National Geological Museum, Bucureşti, Eugenia Iamandei, Geological Institute of Romania, Bucureşti Introduction A new fragment of petrified wood collected by one of us (3) within the Feleacu Hill area, close to Cluj-Napoca, was submitted to a paleoxylotomical study in order to identify the original tree. Found within litoral - neritic sediments considered to be Early Sarmatian of age, in Valea Căprioarei (=Deer valley), in the southwestern part of the Feleacu Hill, where the bedrock is composed of marly to sandy clays with intercalated sands-sandstones with sandy concretions and conglomeratic levels, overlaying the sediments of the terminal Badenian, probably with a gap of sedimentation.

Fig. 1 Location of the Fossiliferous Cluj-Feleacu Area on the map. (fragment of IGR Geological map 1:200000, Cluj sheet.)

These sedimentary deposits are characterized by a brackish mollusk fauna, and here it is the revised list from Givulescu (1997): Irus (Papirus) gregarious gregarious, Cerastoderma vindobonense vindobonense, Gibula (Rolandiana) picta, Gibula (Gibula) pusilla, Pirenella picta picta, Cerithium (Thericium) rubiginosum rubiginosum, which indicate the relative age of early Sarmatian. Additionaly, brackish foraminifers and fish remains have been described from here.
Some vegetal taxa have been described on Feleacu Hill, from the previously discussed Sarmatian formation, from levels with plant remains as leaf or fruit imprints, by Staub (1883, 1891), Szadeczky (1917) and Givulescu (1957-1995). The old locations were not identified, but Givulescu (1997) recognized that he, personally, has collected samples from different locations along the ClujNapoca – Turda road, from some small stone quarries, difficult to localize now. Anyway, all the taxa previously described were revised by Givulescu (1997), resulting a list of small mixed flora – named by him Feleacu Flora, comprised of: Cystoseirites partschi Sternberg, Pinus hepios Unger, Pinus felekiensis Staub (small branch), Sequoia abietina (Brogn.) Knobloch, Abies cf. alba Miller, Palaeocarya macroptera (Unger) Mai, Daphnogene polymorpha (Al. Braun) Ett., Laurophyllum sp., Ulmus pyramidalis Goeppert, Platanus cf. leucophylla (Brogn.) Knobloch, Acer tricuspidatum Brogn, Fraxinus sp. (samara), Phragmites oenginensis (Al.Braun), Cyperites senarius Heer, Phyllites sp. Petrescu (2003, p. 115) shows that he has collected and studied a lot of trunks from Căprioara valley, now found in the Paleontology Museum of UBB Cluj-Napoca, and has identified conifers (Sequoioxylon, Pinuxylon) and Dicots (Quercoxylon, Laurinoxylon, Ebenoxylon, Rhisocaryoxylon). This paper presents a new identified coniferous taxon based on the paleoxylotomical study of the new petrified wood, collected as small pieces, but all of them coming from a single petrified trunk. This new identified taxon is a species of Tetraclinoxylon, which had a large distribution within the Carpathian area as per Iamandei (et al., 2000-2008), and can be added as wood of Tetraclinis to the

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list of Feleacu Flora revised by Givulescu (1997). This identification confirms the previous paleogeographic, paleoecologic, and paleoclimatic conclusions of Givulescu (1992, 1997). Systematics Gymnosperms Family Cupressaceae RICH. (ex Bartling) Subfamily Cupressoideae RICH ex SWEET Genus Tetraclinoxylon GRAMBAST, 1951 Tetraclinoxylon romanicum IAMANDEI & IAMANDEI, 2000 Plate I, Figs. 1-9. Macroscopic description The studied material was collected from Valea Caprioarei, Southwestern part of Feleac Hill, from some littoral - nerritic sediments considered Early Sarmatian in age. Some pieces of silicified wood (fig. 2) of centimetric size, of light brownish color and fibrous texture. The studied material is now deposited within the Geological Museum of Department of Geology and Paleontology of UBB Cluj Napoca, under the no. 793. Microscopic description Growth rings distinct, marked by 2-5 or more rows of thicker-walled and radially compressed cells in the late wood. In the early wood enlarged thick-walled cells with round to oval lumina. The growthrings are wide and the transition is gradual. Resin ducts absent. Sometimes cracks at the ring boundary appear, most probably due to fossilization processes. The tracheids have a polygonal rounded cross section or slightly radially compressed especially to the latewood. Intercellular spaces in the early wood. The lumina of the vessels are round to elliptical relatively equal with diameters of 15-25 µm, smaller in the latewood: 8-12 µm.

Fig. 2 Studied petrified wood fragments (no. 793 in Geological Museum - UBB Cluj Napoca).

The aperture chamber is round of 2-4 µm the aperture is not visible due to the altered tracheidal wall as crassulae can be guessed. Occasionally a wavy contour of the tangential wall molding the pitting can be observed. The tracheids have a polygonal rounded cross section or slightly radially compressed especially to the latewood. Intercellular spaces in the early wood.

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Wood parenchyma - in cross section appear as few, dispersed within transitional wood or in short discontinuous uniseriate tangential lines to the late wood, usually with dark resins. Details in longitudinal sections difficult to observe, due to bad preservation of the structure. Medullary rays in cross section appear as rectangular parenchymatous cells full of resin compressed and deformed by the vertical tracheids of their strict vicinity. Tangentially, the rays are uniseriate, maybe with short biseriations, have 1-15 or more round cells high, but frequently 2-8. Affinities and discussions The comparison of the structure of our studied material made with the species already described from Carpathian area, either from the same locality with the holotype (Iamandei & Iamandei, 1999), or from other localities in Oltenia or in Suceava regions (Iamandei et al, 2001, 2008), or in Moldova Rep. (Iamandei et al. 2005, 2007) shows small xylotomical differences, that could also be considered as representing intraspecific variability (for example the variable frequency of the crassulae at our specimens), so we assign here studied material coming from Feleac Hill, near Cluj, from an Early Sarmatian from where Feleac Flora have been described (Givulescu 1997), to the formspecies Tetraclinoxylon romanicum IAMANDEI & IAMANDEI, 2000, as wood of a plant missing from the list of Feleac Flora. (Fig. 3, Plate I) Conclusions This paper presents a new identified plant based on the study of some pieces of petrified wood collected from the same place, and the same petrified trunk by a coauthor (3). It represent a petrified wood of Tetraclinis: Tetraclinoxylon romanicum IAM. & IAM., firstly described from this area, and can be added to the list of flora revised by Givulescu (1997) and Petrescu (2003), as characterizing the early Sarmatian Flora of Feleac. In some previous papers we showed that even the extant equivalent form has a restricted life area, the fossil genus lived during Cenozoic in Europe at least all around Paratethys (Iamandei & Iamandei, 2000, 2009; Iamandei et al. 2005, 2007), indicating a warm temperate paleoclimate, which progressively cooled, cause in the latest Pliocene this taxon disappeared at least from Carpathians (Givulescu, 1997 cited last Tetraclinis salicornioides (Unger) Kvaček remains as leaf imprints within Chiuzbaia Flora, Late Pontian-Early, and the climate progressively became excessive temperate to cold temperate at the end of Neogene but none identification East of Carpathians was made for the same age. Acknowledgements This work was supported by CNCSIS – UEFISCSU, project number PNII – IDEI code ID_441 (contract nr. 336/2007) and ID_584 (contract nr. 1074/2009). References Biondi, E., [1979]. Tetraclinoxylon anglonae: nova specie di legno fossile della Sardegna del nord. Boll. Soc. Sarda sci. nat. a.13: 204-215. Březinowá, D., Holý, F., Kužvartová, A. & Kvaček, Z., 1994. A silicified stem of Podocarpoxylon helmstedtianum GOTTWALD, [1966]. From the Paleogene site Kučlín (NW Bohemia). J. Czech Geol. Soc. 39: 221-234 Filipescu, S., [1999]. The significance of foraminifera from the Feleac Formation (Transylvania Basin, Romania). Studia Univ. Babes-Bolyai, Geologia, XLIV / 2, pag.125-128, Cluj-Napoca Gadek, P.A., Alpers, D.L., Heslewood, M.M. & Quinn, C.J., [2000]. Relationships within Cupressaceae sensu lato: a combined morphological and molecular approach. American Journal of Botany 87(7):1044-1057. Givulescu, R., [1997]. The history of the Tertiary Fossil Forests from Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş (Romania). Ed. Carpatica, Cluj Napoca, 172 pages, 27 pl. (with references 19571995 in p. 53) Grambast, L., [1951]. Tetraclinoxylon (Cupressinoxylon p.p.) boureaui n.gen.et n.sp., bois fossile du Chatien du Iamandei, S. & Iamandei, E., [2000]: Fossil Conifer Wood from Prăvăleni - Ociu, Metalliferous Mountains. Acta Paleontologica Romaniae, vol. II (1999): 201-212, 4 pl., Cluj-Napoca.

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Iamandei, S, Iamandei, E & Ionesi, V., 2005. Sarmatian fossil wood from from Fălticeni-Suceava region. An. Sci., Univ. «A.I.Cuza», Geologie, tom XLVII : 235-240, 2 pls., Iaşi. Kvaček, Z., Walther, H. & Buzek, C., 1989. Paleogene floras of W. Bohemia (CSSR) and the Weisselster Basin (GDR) and their correlation. Casopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 34(4): 385-401, Praha. Petrescu, I., 2003. Palinologia Tertiarului. Ed. Carpatica, 1-250, Cluj Napoca. Privé, C., 1973. Tetraclinoxylon vulcanense n.sp., bois fossile du Puy-de-Dome. C. R. du 96e Congres Nat. des Societes Savantes, Toulouse 1971, Section des Sciences, tome V:165-175, Paris. Staub, M., 1883. Tertiäre Pflänzen von Felek bei Klausenburg. M. K. földt. int. Evk. 6 : 263-274. Suciu, A.A., 2005. Preliminary data on the Sarmatian deposits from Lombi Hill (Popesti locality) NW from Cluj. Ann. Sc. Univ. “A.I. Cuza”, Iasi, Geologie, tom LI : 121-130. Süss, H., 1997. Tetraclinoxylon velitzelosi sp. nova. Ein neues fossiles Hölz aus tertiären Schichten des Versteinerten Waldes von Lesbos, Griechland. Feddes Repertorium, 108(5-6): 289-298. Szadeczky, Gy., 1917. Tuffatanulmániok Erdéliben. Muz. Füz. 3,2: 233-239. Fig. 3, Plate I 1-9, Tetraclinoxylon romanicum IAMANDEI & IAMANDEI, 2000, material, Sm.1, v. Caprioara – Feleac, Cluj - no. 793 in Geological Museum - UBB Cluj Napoca. 1-3. Cross section – distributions of thick-walled tracheids with rounded lumina, growth rings, ring boundaries, early wood, late wood, scattered parenchyma cells. 4-6. Tangential section – tangential minute pitting on tracheidal walls, short rays. 7-9. Radial section – radial abietinean pitting, homocellular rays, cupressoid cross fields.

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Fig. 3 Plate I. Tetraclinoxylon romanicum

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Title:

Seismological Analysis of the Hellenic Arc

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered: Summary (max. 200 words):

Camil Badulescu*, Cristiana Stefan, Marina Simon, Mihai-Cosmin Stoica, Teodora Merezeanu, University of Bucharest

Determining the stress and attenuation pattern of the studied area.

A better understanding of Hellenic Arc tectonic region from the seimological point of view.
The present study is meant to use integrated seismological methods in order to create an image of the tectonics in the Hellenic Arc region. SKS splitting was observed at ANTO and ISP stations in Turkey (Figure 1), and attenuation estimation was performed over a series of events originated in the area of the Hellenic Arc and recorded at stations in Africa and Canada. Also, centroid moment tensors of important earthquakes were determined and plotted. The results were correlated with stress data available in the region.

Topic:

Earth Physics

212

Seismological Analysis of the Hellenic Arc
Camil Badulescu, Cristiana Stefan, Marina Simon, Mihai-Cosmin Stoica, Teodora Merezeanu. University of Bucharest Introduction The present study is meant to use integrated seismological methods in order to create an image of the tectonics in the Hellenic Arc region. SKS splitting was observed at ANTO and ISP stations in Turkey (Fig. 1), and attenuation estimation was performed over a series of events originated in the area of the Hellenic Arc and recorded at stations in Africa and Canada. Also, centroid moment tensors of important earthquakes were determined and plotted. The results were correlated with stress data available in the region. Method, Data Analysis and Results Digital broad-band data was available online at IRIS DMC and AutoDRM. 179 events between 12.12.1998 and 31.12.2009 were selected, all having magnitude greater than 6, focal depths greater than 100 km and teleseismic distances between 85° and 116°, in order to perform SKS splitting analysis. A further examination of the available recordings determined us to pick for the final analysis 36 events for ISP station and 41 events for ANTO station, due to low signal-to-noise ratio, improper wave-form data and recording errors.

Fig.1 ISP and ANTO stations positioning and tectonic setting of the area

Arrivals of SKS, P and pP phases were checked with respect to travel times computed with IASP91 TTIM software (Buland and Chapman, 1983; Kennet and Engdhal, 1991). The software used for data processing was PITSA (Scherbaum and Johnson, 1992). A few tools provided by this software were used in a sequence of steps: first, a zero-phase Butterworth band-pass filter (3s–30s) was applied to the recording; next, the phases of interest were isolated with medium precision; for SKS analysis the particle-motion tool was used to examine the theoretical predicted quasi-elliptical polarization along the source-to-receiver path; this tool was also used to determine with high confidence the start and end of time-windows that had to be used in splitting analysis. This analysis was performed using two different approaches on the same time windows. The first one used the “ah_splitest2” software created by Levin et. al (1999), while the second one used the “SKS” software, developed by Marian Ivan (2000); the theoretical background of the shear-wave splitting algorithm is summarized in Appendix A of “SKS splitting observed at Romanian broad-band seismic network” (Ivan et al., 2008). There was good agreement between the two parameter sets, this being considered a validation of the computational method (the differences between the two sets were 6° for the fast axis direction φ and

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0.15s for the delay time δt). For ISP station two main splitting directions were determined - ~95° and ~176° with an average of ~107°; the results are statistically sustained as shown in Fig. 2a. The average delay time is 1.25s (Fig. 2b).

Fig. 2 a. Histogram of splitting directions computed for ISP station b. Histogram of delay time computed for ISP station

The delay time suggests that SKS phases recorded at this station travel through an anomalous anisotropic layer with a thickness of about 125 km, result obtained using the assessment that 1s of delay time corresponds to 100 km of anisotropic layer (Vinnik et al, 1992). The multiple splitting directions is correlated with the dependency of the polarization direction with the back-azimuth of the analysed event (Fig. 3) observed at this station; the phenomenon can be associated to the complex tectonic setting of the area, inferring the idea of dealing with slab anisotropy, subduction-induced mantle flow and Benioff plane associated polarization, all these phenomena being a function of the azimuths of ray paths.

Fig. 3 Splitting directions (y axis) plotted against back-azimuth angle (x axis)

At ANTO station the average azimuth of the fast axis is ~67° (Fig. 4a), with no further complications, this being induced by a regular mantle flow mechanism; the conclusion is sustained by

Fig. 4 a. Histogram of splitting directions computed for ANTO station b. Histogram of delay time computed for ANTO station

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the consistency of the results with the main direction of displacement of the North Anatolian Fault. At ANTO station, the average time shift between the two phases is ~0.7 s (Fig. 4b) which, assuming Vinnik's approximation, corresponds to a 70 km thick anisotropic mantle layer. For attenuation analysis, major events originated in the Hellenic Arc area were selected. In order to evaluate the attenuation factor Q in front of and behind the Hellenic Arc, analysed recordings were obtained from stations situated in Africa (DBIC, BOSA, TSUM, LSZ, SUR, LBTB, KMBO) and in Canada (YKW array). This analysis was based on the difference between the amplitude spectra of P an pP phases. The method is based on the assumption that the rays of the two phases are different under the hypocenter, as determined by calculus of the ray path using the take-off angle of each phase. In consequence, the spectral difference is associated only to the material underneath the generating point of the event. This allowed us to correctly determine the slope of the obtained spectral difference, this parameter being linked directly to the attenuation factor Q by the formula: Q = π (t2 - t1)/10.13540* χ where t2 is the pP wave arrival time, t1 is the P wave arrival time and χ is the determined slope. Data suggests high attenuation inside the volcanic Hellenic Arc, which can be easily correlated to the presence of low-density and rigidity material, as suggested by the velocity analysis performed in the area. This type of material can be placed somewhere in the upper-most mantle (0 - 40 km). High-Q values (low attenuation) are connected to the subduction of the African Plate; these zones where determined outside the Hellenic Arc, connected to the volcanoes spread along this tectonic feature. Previous studies performed in the area show an irregular distribution of the high-Q zones can be caused by the fragmentation of the subducting African slab. Conclusions The determined parameters were correlated with the centroid moment tensors determined for major earthquakes in the area (Fig. 5) (obtained online from Harvard University) and with stress data (Fig. 6) (obtained online from World Stress Map - GFZ Postdam). Concerning the splitting results obtained at ANTO station, the situation is pretty clear - mantle flow mechanism induced by the movement of the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault. At ISP station the situation is more complex, given the intersection of the Hellenic Arc and the Cyprus Arc. The main splitting direction is consistent with the stress data (Fig. 6). Still, a duplication of φ appears at this station (Fig. 5), the values having similar frequency of appearance and linear dependency to the backazimuth angle. More, these two splitting directions link to the centroid moment tensors of major events in the area (Fig. 5). Consequently, it can be concluded that SKS splitting in this area is influenced both by subduction induced and plate movement induced mantel flow and by large-scale crustal anisotropy, determined by the Benioff plane of the same subduction mechanism. Regarding the attenuation analysis, the results confirmed previous studies performed in the area, revealing the existence of high-Q zones, linked to the subducting African Plate and low-Q zones, linked to the volcanic apparatuses.

a.

b.

Fig. 5 Centroid moment tensors for major earthquakes in the area. In close-up: Splitting directions computed for ANTO station (a) and ISP station (b)

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Fig. 6 World stress data plotted on the general map along with other analysed data

Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Marian Ivan from the University of Bucharest for all the support, for the SKS splitting analysis software and for every constructive comment and suggestion. Digital data was obtained via WebRequest from IRIS DMC. Data processing was made with PITSA (Programmable Interactive Toolkit for Seismological Analysis - Scherbaum, F. and Johnson, J., 1992). Some figures were made using Generic Mapping Tool (Wessel and Smith, 1996). References Buland, R., Chapman, C.H., [1983]. The Computation of Seismic Travel Times. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 73, 83-107. Gripp, A.E., Gordon, R.G., [2002]. Young Tracks of Hotspots and Current Plates Velocities. Geophys. J. Int. 150, 321-361. Ivan, M. et al., [2008]. SKS splitting observed at Romanian Broad-band Seismic Network. Tectonophysics , doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.12.015. Kennet, B.L.N, Engdhal, E.R., [1991]. Travel Times for Global Earthquake Location and Phase Identification. Geophys. J. Int. 105, 429-465. Papazacos, B., C. Large Seismic Faults in the Hllenic Arc, [1996]. Annali di Geophysica vol XXXIX, n. 5 Scherbaum, F., Johnson, J., [1992]. Programmable Interactive Toolkit for Seismological Analysis (PITSA). IASPEI Software Library, vol. 5. Schmidt, C., van der Lee, S., Giardani, D., [2004]. Delay Times and Shear Wave Splitting in the Mediterranean Region, Geophys, J. Int., 159, 275-290 Vinnik, L.P., Makezeva, L.I., Milev, A., Usenko, A.Yu, [1992]. Global Patterns of Azimuthal Anisotropy and Deformations in the Continental Mantle. Geophys. J. Int., 111, 433-447. Wessel, P., Smith, W.H.F., [1996]. A Global, Self-consistent, Hierarchical, High-resolution Shoreline Database, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 8741-8743.

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Title:

The Crystal chemistry of ludwigite from Ocna de Fier, Romania

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Andreea Dumitru, University of Bucharest

The atomic structure and chemical composition of ludwigite is investigated in order to precisely establish its position in the ludwigite-vonsenite solid solution: Mg2Fe3+[BO3]O2 – Fe2Fe3+[BO3]O2, as well as the detailed cation distribution in the crystal structure. The present study provides the first atomic structure determination for ludwigite from Ocna de Fier, and reveals a high degree of structural order among Fe3+ and divalent cations. Experimental residual factors are among the best ever obtained for this mineral.

Summary 3+ (max. 200 words): Ludwigite (Mg,Fe)2Fe [BO3]O2, from the locus tipicus, i.e. in the skarn

deposits of Ocna de Fier, Banat is studied. The mineral is part of a mineralization occurring at the contact of Upper Cretaceous igneous rocks – “banatites” and Mesozoic limestones of the Ezeris-Carnecea synclinorium (Codarcea et al., 1957; Kissling, 1967; Vlad, 1974; Berza et al., 1998; Marincea, 1999). The atomic structure and chemical composition is investigated in order to precisely establish its position in the ludwigite– vonsenite solid solution: Mg2Fe3+[BO3]O2 – Fe2Fe3+[BO3]O2, as well as the detailed cation distribution in the crystal structure. Ludwigite is an important part of the mineralogical heritage of Romania. However, historical mineralogical information is mostly generic, with only few quantitative data available. The most important novelty of the current study is that it describes the first crystal structure determined on a sample from Ocna de Fier, thus allowing for better understanding of the mineral’s crystal-chemical features. This study is based on the investigations carried out at the Department of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences and at the Faculty of Chemistry, University of Turin, which generously offered analytical support for the preparation and analysis of three samples (odf1, odf2, odf3) through powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis.

Topic:

Mineralogy

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The crystal chemistry of ludwigite from Ocna de Fier, Romania
Andreea Dumitru, University of Bucharest
Introduction Ludwigite - (Mg,Fe)2Fe3+[BO3]O2, from the locus tipicus, i.e. in the skarn deposits of Ocna de Fier, Banat is studied. The mineral is part of a mineralization occurring at the contact of Upper Cretaceous igneous rocks – “banatites” and Mesozoic limestones of the Ezeris-Carnecea synclinorium (Codarcea et al., 1957; Kissling, 1967; Vlad, 1974; Berza et al., 1998; Marincea, 1999). The atomic structure and chemical composition is investigated in order to precisely establish its position in the ludwigite–vonsenite solid solution: Mg2Fe3+[BO3]O2 – Fe2Fe3+[BO3]O2, as well as the detailed cation distribution in the crystal structure. Ludwigite is an important part of the mineralogical heritage of Romania. However, historical mineralogical information is mostly generic, with only few quantitative data available. The most important novelty of the current study is that it describes the first crystal structure determined on a sample from Ocna de Fier, thus allowing for better understanding of the mineral’s crystal-chemical features. The scientific and technical support This study is based on the investigations carried out at the Department of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences and at the Faculty of Chemistry, University of Turin, which generously offered analytical support for the preparation and analysis of three samples (odf1, odf2, odf3) through powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Materials and investigation methods Part of the investigated samples belong to the mineralogical collection of the Department of Mineralogy, University of Bucharest. All collection samples originate in the Magnet quarry at Ocna de Fier. Other ludwigite samples were collected from abandoned mining waste dumps in the same area. Thus, no precise spatial relation with the host rock and host paragenesis could be determined. The mineral samples have been subjected to a complete mineralogical examination which included epi- and diascopic observations under polarized light, microprobe chemical analyses, as well as powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The powder X-ray diffraction analyses were carried out on a Philips diffractometer, using 40 KV, 20 mA and CoKα radiation (1.790905 Å). All examined samples were carefully examined under the binocular magnifying glass to ensure a high degree of mineral purity. In order to avoid maxima not pertaining to ludwigite, the experimental profiles were compared with theoretical (calculated) profiles of ludwigite, based on a sample from Crestmore, California, in the RETRIEVE-ICSD database. The crystal structure measurements were carried out on a Siemens P4 four-circle diffractometer, at 55 KV, 40 mA and using a graphite monochromator. A MoKα radiation with 0.71073 Å wavelength was used. Reflections were collected in a range of 2θ angles spanning between 2o and 65.21o with two standard maxima checked for every hundred of measured reflections. The chemical analyses were made on a SEM-EDS Cambridge Stereoscan 360 microprobe with an Oxford Link Pentafet analyzer. The data acquisition and the ZAF corrections were made with the INCA ENERGY 200 software. The analytical conditions were: 15 KV acceleration tension, 2 mA probe current intensity, 4µm electron beam diameter, 35 seconds acquisition time and 0.2 wt % detection limit. This study involved a significant volume of numerical and graphical processing for both chemical and diffractometric data. SHELX-97 (Sheldrick, 1997) as part of the WINGX package (Farrugia, 1999) was used for crystal structure refinement; LAZY PULVERIX (Yvon et. al., 1997) program was used for powder X ray diffraction simulation (in Debbye-Sherrer geometry); LPLOT (Rupp, 1989, unpublished) was used for graphic representation calculated diffractograms from LAZY PULVERIX; RETRIEVE-ICSD v2.01 (Bergerhoff and Brown, 1987; Brendt, 1996, unpublished) database was used for crystal data comparisons; POWDER X (Dong, 2000 unpublished) program was used for X-ray diffraction data analysis; CALCGEN (Ilinca, 1998, unpublished) – a “macro” language

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MS-EXCEL package was used for calculation of mineral formulas; CELREF v.3.0 (Altermatt and Brown, 1987, unpublished) was used for calculation of unit-cell parameters.

Data processing and results The chemical data obtained for Ocna de Fier ludwigite are given in Fig. 1. The data shows that samples consisted of an intermediate member of the ludwigite-vonsenite series with 89.845% participation of the magnesian end-member.
Fig. 1 EDS-MP chemical data of ludwigite from Ocna de Fier.
Fe2+ 6.7564 7.0260 6.7043 4.9043 6.3477 wt% Fe3+ 31.2076 31.1715 31.2120 31.4986 31.2724 Number of atoms in the basis of Mg+Fe2+=2 Mg Fe2+ Fe3+*) B*) O*) 1.7835 0.2165 1.0000 0.9352 3.5972 1.7746 0.2254 1.0000 0.9407 3.5889 1.7852 0.2148 1.0000 0.9331 3.6004 1.8443 0.1557 1.0000 0.9151 3.6272 1.7969 0.2031 1.0000 0.9310 3.6034

Sample Odf 1 – 1 Odf 1 – 2 Odf 2 – 3 Odf 3 – 1 Average

Mg 24.2239 24.0751 24.2504 25.2833 24.4581

B 5.6500 5.6766 5.6381 5.5801 5.6362

O 32.1621 32.0507 32.1952 32.7336 32.0354

*) calculated values

Unit cell parameters were refined on two samples (odf1 and odf3), in the Pbam space group setting. The results were close to each other, in accordance with the relatively similar chemical compositions (see Table 1): a 9.1400; b 12.4500; c 3.0500 Å; α, β, γ 90.00o, and a 9.2420; b 12.2800; c 3.0180; α, β, γ 90.00o, respectively. A slightly increased of Single crystal determination were conducted on 9749 reflections, -13 ≤ h ≤ 13, -18 ≤ k ≤ 18, -4 ≤ l ≤ 4, with maximum 2θ = 65.21o. 724 unique reflections were recorded, of which 175 were suppressed. The residual factors were R(int) = 0.0916 and R(sigma) = 0.0564. After corrections and refinement a residual factor of R1 = 0.0654 was obtained. The fractional coordinates of atoms and the thermal parameters are given in Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Atomic coordinates and thermal ellipsoid parameters for ludwigite (standard deviations are given in italic lettering; zero values signify constrained parameters, not used in refinement).
ATOM Mg1 Fe2 Fe3 Fe4 B O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 X 0.00000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.00214 0.00025 0.74007 0.00012 0.27426 0.00096 0.84988 0.00052 0.38361 0.00054 0.62411 0.00054 0.10967 0.00056 0.84985 0.00052 Y 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.27953 0.00020 0.38562 0.00009 0.35944 0.00064 0.04348 0.00040 0.07706 0.00042 0.14250 0.00038 0.14240 0.00039 0.23760 0.00040 Z 0.00000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 Sof 0.24224 0.00469 0.18395 0.00242 0.21798 0.00285 0.45035 0.00416 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 0.50000 0.00000 U11 0.00944 0.00197 0.01485 0.00118 0.01236 0.00132 0.00898 0.00059 0.02041 0.00445 0.01306 0.00258 0.01225 0.00260 0.00948 0.00242 0.01123 0.00249 0.01203 0.00255 U22 0.00954 0.00187 0.01123 0.00107 0.01045 0.00126 0.00999 0.00059 0.01159 0.00343 0.01348 0.00254 0.01367 0.00247 0.00980 0.00240 0.01453 0.00253 0.01317 0.00242 U33 0.00310 0.00167 0.00509 0.00096 0.00662 0.00114 0.00251 0.00051 0.00292 0.00315 0.00639 0.00210 0.00947 0.00225 0.00947 0.00235 0.00565 0.00225 0.00516 0.00222 U23 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 U13 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 0.00000 U12 - 0.00250 0.00116 0.00000 0.00067 0.00112 0.00079 0.00073 0.00042 -0.00422 0.00299 -0.00164 0.00190 0.00306 0.00188 0.00193 0.00170 0.00013 0.00181 0.00207 0.00180 Ueq 0.00736 0.00114 0.01039 0.00067 0.00981 0.00076 0.00716 0.00038 0.01164 0.00167 0.01098 0.00110 0.01180 0.00112 0.00958 0.00109 0.01047 0.00109 0.01012 0.00109

The crystal structure drawing, based on the above coordinates is given in Figure 3.

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Fig. 3 The crystal structure of ludwigite from Ocna de Fier. Projection perpendicular on z axis [001]. Triangles signify BO3 coordination groups, green sites: mixed Mg and Fe2+, dark violet sites: octahedrally coordinated Fe3+, blue sites: oxygen.

The crystal structure of ludwigite is characterized by the presence of [BO3] plane trigonal groups alternating with [Fe3+O6] octahedra. Both types of polyhedra are arranged after two glide planes parallel with the x and y axis, respectively. The mixed B and Fe3+ layers alternate with continuous [Me2+O6] octahedral layers, parallel to y axis, where Me represents mixed Mg and Fe2+occupacies. The divalent metal octahedra have in turn, an en echelon distribution. No trivalent cation occupancy could be determined in such layers. Conclusions Although Ocna de Fier is considered the locus tipicus for ludwigite, the investigated samples show the existence of a relatively homogeneous intermediate member of the ludwigite – vonsenite series Mg2Fe3+[BO3]O2 – Fe2Fe3+[BO3]O2, with an average participation of vonsenite of 10.155%. The present study provides the first atomic structure determination for ludwigite from Ocna de Fier, and reveals a high degree of structural order among Fe3+ and divalent cations. Experimental residual factors are among the best ever obtained for this mineral. The structural data derived from this determination, specifically the metal-oxygen interatomic distances, confirms the presence of a significant proportion of vonsenite. The abundant presence of a ludwigite-vonsenite member in the thermal and metasomatic contact aureole of the banatitic body from Ocna de Fier, among significant amounts iron oxides and silicates, reveal the strong ferrous character of the a high temperature metallogenic process. Acknowledgements The present work benefitted from support and advice of prof. Gheorghe Ilinca and Florentina Ilinca, University of Bucharest, prof. Gabriella Ivaldi, prof. Giovanni Ferraris and PhD student Marcella Cadoni from the University of Turin. Their help is gratefully acknowledged. References Berza T., Constantinescu E., Vlad Ş. [1998] Upper Cretaceous Magmatic Series and Associated Mineralisation in the Carpathian – Balkan Orogen. Resource Geology, 48, 291 – 306. Codarcea A., Kissling A., Kissling M. [1957] Asupra ludwigitului de la Ocna de Fier. Bull. St. Geol.Geogr. 3 – 4, II, 515 – 527; Farrugia L.J. [1999] WinGX Suite for Single Crystal Small Molecule Crystallography. J. Appl. Cryst., 32, 837-838.

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Kissling Al. [1967] Studii mineralogice şi petrografice în zona de exoskarn de la Ocna de Fier (Banat). 129 p., Editura Academiei R.S.R, Bucureşti. Marincea Şt. [1999] Ludwigite from the type locality, Ocna de Fier, Romania: new data and review. The Canadian Mineralogist, 76, 1343 – 1346; Sheldrick G.M. [1997] SHELXS-97 A computer program for crystal structure determination. University of Gottingen, Germany. Yvon K., Jeitschko W., Parthe E. [1977] LAZY PULVERIX, a computer program, for calculating Xray and neutron diffraction powder patterns. J. Appl. Cryst. 10, 73-74.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

3D Modeling Reveals New Details of Geological Structure of Nikolaevskoye Oil Field, Krasnodar Region, SW Russia

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Manushkina Alena, Kuban State University

The aim of this article is 3D modeling reveals new details of geological structure of Nikolaevskoye oil field and a comparison of old and newly obtained geometric parameters. This technique is not new, but in this area, it was applied for the first time and played an important role in further work with this Oil Field. Nikolaevskoye Oil Field is located in north-eastern part of the Krasnodar

Summary Region. Industrial oil bearing deposits associated with sediment formation (max. 200 words): GC, which has a regional distribution. The oil reservoir is characterized by a
simple geological structure, reservoir, crest, the whole area is underlain by bottom water reservoir. The small depth of the reservoir, high filtration properties of the reservoir is practically constant reservoir pressure determined the increased interest in its development.

Topic:

Petroleum geology, Structural geology, Tectonics

222

3D Modeling Reveals New Details of Geological Structure of Nikolaevskoye Oil Field, Krasnodar Region, SW Russia
Manushkina Alena, Kuban State University Introduction Nikolaevskoye Oil Field is located in north-eastern part of the Krasnodar Region. Industrial oil bearing deposits associated with sediment formation GC, which has a regional distribution. The oil reservoir is characterized by a simple geological structure, reservoir, crest, the whole area is underlain by bottom water reservoir. The small depth of the reservoir, high filtration properties of the reservoir is practically constant reservoir pressure determined the increased interest in its development. Theory and models Construction of three-dimensional digital geological models has now become one of the most important components of manufacturing processes in petroleum geology. Previously used method for constructing structural maps by hand, so-called "triangle method". In applying the method of triangles after the application of wells, determine the section stratoizogips and general analysis of the structure shall proceed to the actual construction of structural maps, based on linear interpolation. However, this method does not allow to accurately estimate the required geometry of the structure, in contrast to the program data and, consequently, to plan the further development of the deposit and to correctly evaluate the hydrocarbon reserves. The article presents results of modeling the structure of productive reservoirs of Nikolaevskoye oil field. In Paleocene the formation GK was productive, in top of which there is high resistance interlayer that allows with assurance to correlate а bed. Productive horizon GK is divided into two oilbearing beds: I and II, - with a simple geological structure and components of a single hydrodynamically linked object design. In this work, layers treated as a single reservoir. Productive deposits are composed of coastal-marine facies. The aim of this article is 3D modeling reveals new details of geological structure of Nikolaevskoye oil field and a comparison of old and newly obtained geometric parameters (Fig. 1, 2).

Fig. 1 Structural map on the roof of a permeable packs I formation GC (1987)

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Fig. 2 Structural map on the roof of a permeable packs I formation GK (2010) Methods and data collecting The result of the work was the structural model. Building a digital model implemented in the software complex Petrel firm Schlumberger. The main direction of modeling is the correct construction of structural and tectonic framework of well data (Fig. 3). Structural and tectonic framework was constructed by combining the structural surfaces on the top and bottom of the first and second objects of formation GC. Given the lack of logging material was not possible to obtain a discrete curve with values lithotypes wells deposits. For this reason, the construction of three-dimensional model of lithology change in the properties and vertical separation of layers of collectors in this work is not carried out. Because the deposit is characterized by simple structure and for data exploration and development drilling presence of disjunctive dislocations has not been established, then the model faults is not built.

Fig. 3 Structural-tectonic framework of the roof of the permeable part of the pack I formation GK in the 3D window Data processing and results As a result of the constructions specified the structure of the dome of the resevoir, which will allow the final stage to more accurately assess residual recoverable reserves. The resulting three-dimensional digital geological model taking into account the porosity, permeability, oil saturation and water saturation may serve as a basis basis for hydrodynamic modeling.
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The geological model of reservoir sediment formation GK is built on a grid of 50 x 50 m, with detailed geological theories vertical - 80 sections. Geometrical parameters of the geological model presented in Table 1. Table 1 - Geometrical parameters of the geological model Layer formation GK formation GK Year 1987 2010 268320 86 39 80 Number of cells Number of cells to I to J to K Dimensions model, km along the axis Х У Z 3,7 3,37 1,45 1,52 0,029 0,031 50 0,5 Cell size, m X, Y Z

Conclusions This method has very important practical significance in the calculation of hydrocarbon reserves, as obtained by establishing the structural 3D model allows the most accurate assessment of the initial geological reserves and, last but not least serve as a basis for correct design of extraction of residual oil. Acknowledgements I want to thank the chief of the laboratory of the geological modeling Scuba Dmitri, as well as my staff who have helped me in writing this work. References K.E. Zakrevskiy [2009] Geological 3D modeling. Moscow CPI " Mask ", 23-45. K.E. Zakrevskiy, D. M. Maisyk, V.R. Sirtlanov [2008] Quality 3D Models. Moscow CPI "Mask ", 16-23, 39-74.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Facies and biota of an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous shallow water carbonate platform from Vâlcan Mountains

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mihai Michetiuc*, Camelia Catincuţ, Babeş-Bolyai University

A better knowledge of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary deposits from Vâlcan Mountains. The present study provides information related to the microfacies, paleodepositional environments and micropaleontological associations of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones from Vâlcan Mountains.

Summary The Mesozoic carbonate deposits cropping out in the southern sector of (max. 200 words): Vâlcan Mountains have been approached form the sedimentological and
biostratigraphical point of view, defining lithofacies, fossil assemblages, and their paleoenvironmental significance. We have identified six microfacies types within these successions, each of them pointing to a specific depositional environment. These limestones were formed on a carbonate platform dominated by peritidal deposits, from subtidal (mainly bioclastic or bioclastic-peloidal grainstones with dasycladales, foraminifers and a wide range of bioclasts) to intertidal (fenestral limestones with frequent rivulariacean-type cyanobacteria) and supratidal (mudstone-wackestone characterized by a very scarce biodiversity). The age of these deposits (from Upper Jurassic to Berriasian-Valanginian - ?Hauterivian, and BarremianAptian) was assigned based on some foraminifers and calcareous algae associations. The identified micropaleontological assemblage is the reachest one identified in Vâlcan Mountains, and bring new arguments to dating the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones in this area.

Topic:

Sedimentology

226

Facies and biota of an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous shallow-water carbonate platform from Vâlcan Mountains
Mihai Michetiuc, Camelia Catincuţ, Babeş-Bolyai University Introduction Vâlcan Mountains are located in the western part of the Southern Carpathians. Except for some thin strips belonging to the Getic Nappe, this area is dominated by the cristaline and volcanic rocks of the Lower Danubian Napes (Berza et al., 1983), and by its Mesozoic cover (Fig. 1). The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits crop out on the southern border of Vâlcan Mountains and belong to the alpine cover of the Lainici Nappe (Berza in Balintoni et al., 1989). Draganescu (in Berza et al., 1989) assigned the entire limestone succession from the Lainici Nappe to the Oslea-Polovragi Limestone Formation.

Fig. 1 Tectonic map of the western part of the South Carpathians (after Seghedi et al., 2005) The present study provides information related to the microfacies, paleodepositional environments and micropaleontological associations of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous limestones from the Vâlcan Mountains, including significant data on the age of these deposits. Microfacies analysis We have identified six dominant microfacies types within these successions, each of them pointing to a specific depositional environment: 1: non-fossiliferous, fenestral, laminated mudstone; The most typical diagnostic features of this facies type are represented by the presence of some non-fossiliferous muds that gave birth to unstructured or finely-laminated, fine granular micrites, sometimes with microbial structures or rivulariacean-type cyanobacteria. Biodiversity is very low, microfossils being represented by ostracods and rare foraminifers. Some reworked bioclasts from the subtidal area may also be present. The sediment presents traits of subaerial exposure (Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 1) such as dessication structures (mud polygons), bioturbation (root structures), and also sintheritic structures. This features, along with the presence of an euhaline flora with Carophyta, indicates an supratidal environment. 2: fenestral wackestone/packstone-grainstone; This microfaices type is interlayered within the whole stratigraphic succession and is characteristic for the intertidal environment. One of the main characteristics of these deposits is represented by the presence of fenestral structures (Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 2). Based on the structural and textural features, two facies types have been separated: a) fenestrallaminated peloidal wackestone (formed in low hydrodynamic conditions) and b) fenestral peloidal packstone-grainstone (when the hydrodynamic conditions were high).

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The dominance of peloids and intraclasts associated with fenestral structure, the relatively scarce flora and fauna, as well as the micritization of bioclasts originating from normal marine environments indicate an intertidal environment for these deposits. 3: peloidal bioclastic packstone/grainstone; these limestone types are interlayered at several levels within the stratigraphic succession. This granular facies mainly consists of moderate- to well-sorted peloids with subangular to rounded morphologies, besides rare superficial ooids, micritic intraclasts and oncoids (Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 3). Micritised bioclasts are common. Abundant bioclasts are represented by gastropods, bivalves, echinoderms, benthic foraminifera, dasycladalean algae, cyanobacterial nodules (of Rivularia-type). The non-skeletal components, such as peloids, intraclasts, ooids, cortoids and oncoids, and mostly sparitic, or at least partly sparitic, groundmass are indicating a high energy subtidal environment. The diverse skeletal components, such as larger and smaller benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae indicate normal marine, well-oxygenated conditions. 4: wackestone/packstone with algae and foraminifera; these deposits, characterising the middle and upper part of the section, are formed by wackestone and wackestone–packstone, locally rudstone with very diversified paleontological assemblages: molluscs, benthic foraminifera, green algaes. At certain intervals, rudists took part to the colonization of the substrate forming a typical Urgonian-type facies. The sediment associated to this facies is represented by poorly washed packstone-grainstone with small foraminifera (miliolids, textulariids) and peloids. Another facies, associated with the rudist facies, is wackestone-packstone with algae and foraminifera. The main characteristic of this facies is the maximum diversification of organisms in mud-supported, sometimes bioturbated, matrix (Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 4). These microfacies types have been interpreted as being formed in the lower subtidal environment with low hydrodynamics. 5: wackestone/packstone with cyanobacteria; this microfacies is associated to the subtidal marine facies presented above and it is represented by peloidal wackestone/packstone with cyanobacteria and bioclastic packstone-grainstone with cyanobacteria. The diversity of flora and fauna is low, bioclasts being mainly represented by calcimicrobial structures of Bacinella or Lithocodium type and rivulariacean-type cyanobacteria (Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 5). Sometimes, these deposits contain a normal marine fauna with foraminifers, algae, echinids or rudists, associated to peloids and intraclasts. These facies with restrictive flora and fauna suggest their formation in subtidal environments with restrictive water circulation. 6: bioclastic packstone/ grainstone (bioclastic shoals); this facies dominates the upper part of the succession. The most typical carbonate particles included are bioclasts, represented by echinoderm fragments (sometimes more than 50%) of arenitic sizes and recrystallized fragments of molluscs (Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 6). Most bioclasts are coated, exibit micrite envelopes or are completely micritized. Besides, well-rounded to subangular peloids, micritic intraclasts, cyanobacterial nodules, rare foraminifera and dasycladalean algae are present. The echinid fragments are well-rounded and sometimes show synthaxial overgrowth cement. Some bioclasts show clear traces of subaerial exposure: micritizations, dissolutions and recrystallizations under the effect of meteoric waters. All these arguments led us to the conclusion that these limestones were formed in a marine environment with high hydrodynamics and represent bioclastic shoals from the platform margin area. Biostratigraphy Following the results of the micropaleontological study three associations of calcareous algae and foraminifera have been separated: 1. The first association points to an Upper Jurassic age and consists of the following foraminifera [Alveosepta jaccardi (SCHRODT) (Pl. 1, 7), Parurgonina caelinensis CUVILLIER, FOURY & PIGNATTI MORANO (Pl. 1, 8), Protopeneroplis striata WEYSCHENK, Kurnubia palastiniensis HENSON, and Neokilianina sp., Verneuilina sp.], and dasycladalean algae [ Megaporella boulangeri DELOFFRE & BEUN (Pl. 1,. 9) Clypeina sulcata (ALTH) (Pl. 1, 10) and Salpingoporlla annulata CAROZZI]. (see Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 1-18) 2. In the Berriasian-Valangian-?Hauteriviene deposits, a micropaleontological association consisting of foraminifers [Haplophragmoides joukowskyi (CHAROLLAIS, BROENNIMANN & ZANINETTI)(Pl. 1, 11), Bramkampella arabica REDMOND, Andrersenolina cherchiae (ARNAUDVANNEAU, BOISSEAU & DARSAC) (Pl. 1, 12), Mohlerina basiliensis (MOHLER), Vercorsella

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camposaurii (SARTONI & CRESCENTI), Montsalevia salevensis (CHAROLLAIS, BROENNIMANN & ZANINETT, Mayncina sp] and calcareous algae [Macroporella praturloni DRAGASTAN (Pl. 1, 13), Clypeina parasolkani FARINACCI & RADOIČIĆ (Pl. 1, 14), Salpingoporella circassa (FARINACCI & RADOIČIĆ) and Salpingoporella annulata CAROZZI] has been identified. (see Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 1-18) 3. The Barremian-Aptian association consists of the following foraminifers: Paracoskinolina? jourdanensis (FOURY & MOULLADE) (Pl. 1, 15), Montseciella arabica (HENSON) (Pl. 1, 16), Orbitolinopsis sp.?, Palaeodyctioconus actinostoma ARNAUD-VANNEAU & SCHROEDER, Palorbitolina sp., Paracoskinolina cf. maynci (CHEVALIER), Vercorsella scarsellai (DE CASTRO), Everticiclamina hedbergi (MAYNC), Pseudolituonella gavonensis (FOURY) (Pl. I, 6), Debarina hahounerensis (FOURCADE, ROUL, VILA), Neotrocholina fribourgensis GUILLAUME & REICHEL (Pl. I, 4), Sabaudia minuta (HOFKER), Nautiloculina broennimanni ARNAUDVANNEAU & PEYBERNES,. The association of calcareous algae consists of: Salpingoporella melite RADOIČIĆ, Salpingoporella muehlbergii (LORENZ) (Pl. 1, 18), Salpingoporella cf.cemi RADOICIC, Clypeina solkani CONRAD & RADOIČIĆ, Suppiluliumaella tuberifera (SOKAĆ & NIKLER), , Pseudoactinoporella fragilis CONRAD (Pl. 1, 17), Similiclypeina conradi BUCUR, Salpingoporella urladanasi CONRAD & PEYBERNES, Salpingoporella heraldica SOKAC, Salpingoporella cf. genevensis (CONRAD) and Falsolikanela danilove (RADOIČIĆ). (see Fig. 2, Pl. 1, 1-18) Conclusions We have identified six microfacies types within the Mesozoic carbonate deposits from Vâlcan Mountains. These deposits are characteristic for a peritidal carbonate platform. The deposits contain normal marine or restrictive marine facies deposited in low or high energy environments from the subtidal, intertidal and supratidal zones. A predominance of shallow water peritidal deposits in the Upper Jurassic and Neocomian, and a transition to more external platform margin deposits during the Barremian-Lower Aptian, can be observed. The studied deposits contain a diversified assemblage of benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae, many of the identified species being cited for the first time in this region. Three associations of algae and foraminifera have been separated. The first association is characteristic for the Upper Jurassic, the second points to a Berriasian-Valanginian (possibly also Hauterivian) age, while the third one is indicating the Barremian-Lower Aptian. A special mention is to be made on the orbitolinid Paracoskinolina? jourdanensis, species that clearly points to the presence of Lower Barremian deposits within the Urgonian limestone succession. The identified micropaleontological assemblages can also serve for comparisons with other Tethyan regions with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits. Acknowledgements: The study is a contribution to the CNCSIS project BD 413. We thank Prof. I.I. Bucur for scientific support. References: Balintoni, I., Berza, T., Hann, H. P., Iancu, V., Krautner, H. G. and Udubasa, A. [1989] Precambrian Metamorphics in the South Carpathians. Guide to excursion. 83 p., Institutul Geologic Geofizic, Bucureşti. Berza, T., Krautner, H. and Dimitrescu, R. [1983] Nappe Strucutre in the Danubian Window of the Central -South Carpathians. Analele Institutului Geologic Geofizic Român, 60, 31-38. Berza, T., Draganescu, A., Constantinescu, A., Constantinescu, D., Mateescu, G. and Vajdea, V. [1989] Studiul geologic-geofizic si prin teledetectie al masivului Vilcan in vederea evaluarii potentialului economic si orientarii activitatii de prospectiune. Raport arhiva I.G.R. Bucuresti.150 p. Seghedi, A., Berza, T., Iancu, V., Mărunţiu, M. and Oaie, G. [2005] Neoproterozoic terranes in the Moesian basement and in the Alpine Danubian nappes of the South Carpathians. Geologica Belgica 8(4), 4-19.

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Fig. 2 1-6 microfacias types; dessicaton structures with black pebbles (1), fenestral wakestone (2), peloidal bioclastic grainstone (3), bioturbated wackestone with green algae (4), wackestone/packstone with Bacinella (5), bioclastic packstone/ grainstone (bioclastic shoals) (6). 7-18 identified microfossils; Alveosepta jaccardi (7), Parurgonina caelinensis (8), Megaporella boulangeri (9), Clypeina sulcata (10), Haplophragmoides joukowskyi (11), Andrersenolina cherchiae (12), Macroporella praturloni (13), Clypeina parasolkani (14), Paracoskinolina? jourdanensis (15), Montseciella arabica (16), Pseudoactinoporella fragilis (17), Salpingoporella muehlbergii (18).

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Structural-petrographical study of the southern side of Mount San Petrone, Alpine Corsica, France

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ermete Tondella, University of Turin

Investigate how the metamorphic facies are preserved in this area. Connect metamorphic condition to the alpine deformation. Reconstruction of the general deformation sequence diagram of the exminated area.

The present bachelor thesis is linked to the Ph.D. program of Alberto Vitale Summary (max. 200 words): (XXIII doctorate cycle at Turin University) which is focused on the spotting of structures which could be referred to Ocean-Continent Transition Zones (OCT) in Alpine Corsica. The survey has been carried out in correspondence to the southern side of Mount San Petrone (the highest peak of Alpine Corsica), in particular along the ophiolitic ridge between Mount San Petrone, in the North, and Mount Calleruccio, in the South. In the first study phase it has been executed a geological survey which has produced an interpreted geological map to scale 1:10.000. Microscopic observations based on the notice of geometrical relations between each minerals allow to investigate and determine the different paragenesis and the sequence of metamorphic facies. In order to make feasible the reconstruction of the tectonic metamorphic history it has been used the method of deformation sequence diagrams.The microscopical study of some representative samples have let the reconstruction of a tectonic-metamorphic history of the examinated area. Morover, it has been distinguished one hercynian event previous to the alpine metamorphic evolution.

Topic:

Petrography

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Structural-petrographical study of the southern side of Mount San Petrone, Alpine Corsica, France.
Ermete Tondella, University of Turin

Introduction The present paper consists in a structural-petrographical study of a representative ophiolite sector located in Alpine Corsica (northwestern Corsica). The area analysed contains lithological units come from the jurassic oceanic Ligurian-Piedmont paleobasin. These rock associations give information about paleogeographical conditions in Alpine Tethys. The survey is completely carried out in the Calcschists with Green Stone Complex (Schistes Lustrés in french literature). Observations of mineralogical associations inside Calcschist (Shistes Lustrés in french literature), mainly in basalts, and structural analysis led to reconstruct metamorphism and deformation which have acted during the different metamorphic conditions. The reconstruction of the metamorphic history is possible from peak phase and during the retrograde history. In fact, traces of prograde metamorphism has been almost completely cancelled by more recent events. The final aim will be to obtain, using deformation sequence diagrams (M.A. Foster et al., 2008), the deformation-metamorphic history of this area. Theory and models Schist Lustrés complex represents a composite group of polimetamorphic units (Pmax= Blue Schist facies or Eclogitic, according to considered unit) that include giurassic ophiolites, oceanic coverings (Upper Giurassic-Cretaceous), and metasedimentary succession deriving from an original basement of transitional and continental crust. This rock association has undergone a change of temperature (T) and pressure (P) due to the subduction underneath the accretionary prism during the alpine orogenesis. It is known from geology literature that alpine corsian lithotypes have passed through several metamorfic facies comparable to the western alpine metamorphic path (M. Paperini, 2004). The first phase of prograde metamorphism is characterized by a low geotermal gradient of roughly 10°C/km (D. Ohnenstetter et al., 1976). Succeed afterwards a metamorphic peak with the higher values of pressure correspond to the eclogitic conditions and growth of garnet and omphacite. In corse ophiolites the lawsonite eclogite facies is stable. Subsequently to the pressure peak the retrograde process in blue schist facies takes place. It is underlined by the presence of egirine, crystallized around jadeitic pyroxene inside ophiolitic metabasites, associated with the presence of sodium amphibole (mainly glaucophane) and lawsonite. The retrograde phase ends in green schist facies. Field data – site description The search comprises field work including geological structural survey followed by the creation of a geological map (in scale 1:10.000) have been done. Besides, it has been executed sampling of representative lithotypes from three key-location of this area which are, from North to South, Aja Rossa, Punta Ventosa-Bocca al Prato area and Mount Calleruccio respectively. The laboratory analysis consists in cutting of rocks and successive microscopic observation of thirteen selected thin sections. The examinated zone is located in northern Corsica, in a central position of Alpine Corsica. This area shows a general foliation dip toward West, probably owing to the fact that it lies along the western side of Castagniccia anticlinal fold. Situated between Campodonico village (E) and San Lorenzo village (W), this area extends itself for roughly 13 km2 along the crest connecting Mount San Petrone to Mount Calleruccio. The height difference is of the order of 250 m.

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Methods and data collecting Microscopic observations based on the notice of geometrical relations between each mineral allow to investigate and determine the different paragenesis and the sequence of metamorphic facies. In order to make feasible the reconstruction of the tectonic metamorphic history it has been used the method of deformation sequence diagrams (M.A. Foster et al., 2008). Utilizing this describing approach and the suitable abbreviations (Table 1) it is possible to register both the growth of metamorphic minerals and deformation events. This configuration renders more clearly legible the deformation history and avoids some of the problems which could uprise utilizing the classical progressive enumeration. Sz S F Δ Scistosity due to simple shear with rotation of the axises of the strain ellipsoid Scistosity created by a pure shear without rotation of the axises of the strain ellipsoid Folding event involving the previous main foliation Static growth of specific mineral

Table 1: Symbols used for the structural description in thin section. Added to the before showed symbols, subscripts are written specifing in which metamorphic facies that precise deformation took place and, eventually, unusual minerals which grown up (example: FBS= folding event in blue schist facies, Sz Ecl Law= scistosity generated by simple shear in eclogitic facies and growth of lawsonite). Subsequently have made a deformation sequence diagram for each thin section, it is possible to compare all the deformation diagrams and find the general common evolution history of this portion of ophiolitic nappe. Data processing and results The field work allowed to create a interpretative-geological map in scale 1:10.000 (Fig. 1). The crop out sector in Mount San Petrone - Mount Calleruccio ridge is constitutes by a lithological complex group, characterized by ophiolitic rocks, sedimentary covering and continental basement.

Figure 1: Interpretative-geological map in scale 1:10.000. The legend is subdivided in continental, meta-ophiolithe and meta-sediment lithotypes.
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The microscopical observations (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) based on geometrical-chronological relations among these elements allow the metamorphic and deformative reconstruction of the studied sector. Basalts turn out to be the best lithotype which preserve in a better way different paragenesis thanks to its chemical features.

Figure 2: Section OF3118 a) Boudinated level of omphacite wrapped by a foliation of Gln+Chl+Ep. b, c) Dilatational sites in proximity of the omphacite boudin. Note that the crystal of glaucophane have recrystallized in optical continuity with green amphibole and albites [a, b): PPL; c) XPL].

Figure 3: Section OF3517 a) Crenulation cleavage materialized by a Gln+Chl+Ep+WM foliation subjected by folding events in epidote blue schist facies. b) Dilatational sites in proximity of fold hinges. c) Epidote has grown statically on the foliation [a, b, c): PPL]. In the following table (Table 2) the deformation sequence of each sample will be summarized. Sample OF 3132 OF 3118 OF 3523 OF 3517 OF 3528 OF 3502 OF 3535 OF 3531 Sz Ecl + VEcl + Prealpine Prealpine Prealpine SEcl + SzEcl S1Ecl + S2Ecl S1BS Sz BS Law + FBS + S2BS SGS + ΔGS ΔAb Eclogitic Facies Sz Ecl Law Sz Ecl Law? VEcl VEcl Blue Schist Facies SzBS Law + F SzBS Ep SBS Law SzBS Law SzBS FBS Ab Sz SGS Green Schist Facies ΔGS + VGS ΔGS ΔGS Ep ΔGS ΔGS Ep

Table 2: Summary of the deformation sequences and metamorphic history common to every thin section.

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Conclusion Microscopic observations allowed to distinguish four different metamorphic phases. The deformative history consists in a hercynian phase and three alpine events. The hercynian event is recognizable only in the pre-mesozoic basement. The garnet zoning (A.B. Vitale, in prep.) and relic foliations give evidence of its paleozoic origin. The alpine event in eclogitic facies is characterized by a development of a well observable foliation in rocks with glaucophane and veins of omphacite and garnet. The alpine event in blue schist facies is simultaneous to a development of two family of foliations and folding. At the end of the retrograde metamorphism an alpine event in green schist facies take place. In the rock studied, this facies is weak and it is testified by the static growth of Ab+Chl+Ep and late veins. The general deformative sequence is expressed by the following formula: Sz Ecl + VEcl + Sz BS Law + FBS + SGS + ΔGS Acknowledgements Thanks to my supervisor Roberto Compagnoni and Alberto Vitale for their help and explanations during this search. I want to thank also Marco Beltrando about his clarifications during the structural microscopy observation. References Foster, M.A., Lister, G.S. [2008] Tectonic sequence diagrams and the structural evolution of schists and gneisses in multiply deformed terranes. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 1–17. Ohnenstetter, D., Ohnenstetier, M., Rocci, G. [1976] Étude des métamorphismes successif des cumulates ophiolitiiJues de Corse. Bullettin de la Société Géologique de France, 7, 115-134. Paperini, M, [2004] Rilevamento geologico e analisi strutturale delle unità tettoniche alpine nella bassa Valle del Golo (Corsica Settentrionale). Pisa University. 180p. Vitale, B.A. [in prep.] Inherited Ocean-Continent Transition zones in deeply structured terranes: insights from Alpine Cirsica. Ph.D thesis XXIII doctorate cycle. Turin University.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Correlation of the weathering forms identified on the western portal of Cârţa Cistercian Monastery (Romania) with exposure

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mihăilă Anamaria*, “Babeş-Bolyai” University

Identification of main weathering forms on the western portal from Carta Cistercian Monastery, based on in situ investigations.

Identification of the weathering forms on the western portal and the source area for the sandstones used for the abbey.

Summary Carta Abbey was founded by the order of Cistercians at the beginning of the th (max. 200 words): XIII century. It played an important role in the life of medieval
Transilvania. The style of the monastery is early gothic, but the western façade and portal must have been finalized later on, as the portal shows mature gothic features. The Sarmatian sandstones from Fermelor Valley, near the village Colun, are supposed to be the source area for the raw material used for the monastery. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses confirmed this fact, as they are both litharenites with carbonatic cement and bioclasts. The research was focused on the western portal of the monastery. A standard mapping of the sandstone blocks and of the mortar types has been performed, including the numbering of each block. Based on in situ investigations, the most frequent weathering forms of the portal were identified: granular disintegration, break out, discoloration and biological colonisation in the lower part; the middle part is affected by winds and thus typical relief weathering appears and in the upper part crusts are formed, including those owing to biological colonisation.

Topic:

Mineralogy, Petrology, Geochemistry

236

Correlation of the weathering forms identified on the western portal of Cârţa Cistercian Monastery (Romania) with exposure
Mihăilă Anamaria, “Babeş- Bolyai” University Introduction At the beginning of the XIIIth century, the Order of Cistercians founded a monastery in Cârţa village (Fig. 1), Sibiu County (southern part of Transylvania, Romania). The impressive construction is not very well-known today and currently is in a state of ruin, but at the end of the XIIIth century it became one of the most imposing monastic architectural assembly in south-eastern Europe. The abbey played an important role in the political, cultural and artistic life of medieval Transylvania, influencing the history of Saxons, Hungarians and Romanians as it was located at the interference of Byzantine and Occidental cultural-religious influences (Busuioc von-Hasselbach, 2000).

Fig. 1 Location of the studied area

The style of the monastery is early gothic, but the western façade and portal must have been finalized later on (probably still before 1300), as the portal shows mature gothic features: the exquisite correspondence among the lateral profiles and those of the archivolt with a naturalistic gothic frieze decorated with leafs interposed between them, instead of the formerly capitals (Vătăşianu, 2001). The source area of the sandstone used is supposed to be located 12 km away, near Colun village, on Fermelor Valley (Fig. 1). The Sarmatian sandstones from Colun were analyzed both macroscopically and microscopically in order to compare them with the sandstones used for the abbey. The optical microscopy study shows that both rocks (Fig. 2, Fig. 3) are litharenites with carbonatic cement and bioclasts (foraminifera, red algae fragments), metamorphic quartz with undulatory extinction, and altered feldspars. The angular clasts reflect low hydrostatic constraints in the sedimentation environment.

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Fig. 2 Sample 23 Cârţa – the western façade, N+

Fig. 3 Sample 27 Colun – sandstone outcrop, N+

The research was further focused on the western portal of the monastery (Fig. 4), chosen because of its architectural importance and the use of dimensional building stones. A standard mapping of the sandstone blocks and of the mortar types has been performed, including the numbering of each block (Fig. 5).

Fig. 4 The western portal from Cârţa Monastery

Fig. 5 Mapping of sandstone blocks and mortar types

Based on in situ investigations, the most frequent weathering forms of the portal were identified, after Fitzner’s classification (Fitzner, 2002): The lower part is highly affected by granular disintegration (blocks 2.2, 2.3), break out (2.3, 2.4) and discoloration (2.3, 3.1, 3.2). Biological colonisation (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1) is related to capillary action. The middle part is visibly altered by winds, and thus typical relief weathering forms appear: alveolar weathering (5.2, 6.1), especially on the northern side and rounding and notching (4.5, 5.5). The upper part is dominated by intense biological colonization (12.1→12.12) and the formation of crusts (11.3, 10.9, 12.1→12.12) because of frequent exposure to precipitation. Most of the differences between the northern and the southern sides are noticeable in the middle and lower part of the portal. The most altered block is 2.2 and the alveolar weathering is highlighted on the block 5.2 (Fig. 6) and on the northern frieze (Fig. 7), probably because of the winds with foehn effect from the Făgăraş Mountains located to the south from Cârţa (Fig. 1).

Fig. 6 Block 5.2 of the portal

Fig. 7 Northern frieze of the portal

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More detailed investigations will be performed in the near future in order to accomplish a mapping of the weathering forms encountered, based on their intensities. Two additional mappings will follow, based on sound velocity and relative humidity tests. Acknowledgments I wish to thank for the financial support provided from programs co-financed by The SECTORAL OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT, Contract POSDRU 6/1.5/S/3 – „Doctoral studies: through science towards society". References: Busuioc-von Hasselbach, D. N. [2000] Ţara Făgăraşului în secolul al XIII-lea; Mănăstirea Cisterciană Cârţa. Fundatia Culturala Romana, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, I, 338, II, 363. Fitzner, B. and Heinrichs, K. [2002] Damage diagnosis on stone monuments – weathering forms, damage categories and damage indices. In Prikryl, R. & Viles, H. A. (ed.): Understanding and managing stone decay, Proceeding of the International Conference "Stone weathering and atmospheric pollution network (SWAPNET 2001)", Charles University in Prague, The Karolinum Press, 11-56. Vătăşianu, V. [2001] Istoria artei feudale în Ţările Române. Fundaţia Culturală Română, Centrul de Studii Transilvane, 1020 p.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The Effect of Diagenesis on Porosity, Permeability, and Acoustic Velocities in a Middle East Carbonate Reservoir

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ahmed Abed Hassan*, Sandra Vega, The Petroleum Institute

Studying the effect of different pore types on correlations of compressional, shear wave velocities, porosity, and permeability in carbonate rocks. Correlations of acoustic velocities and porosity, acoustic velocities and permeability, along with correlations of acoustic velocities and permeability.

Summary Carbonates are often heterogeneous and they present different pore types and (max. 200 words): textures. This heterogeneity is caused by the high susceptibility to diagenetic
alterations, which result in complex relations between geophysical and rock properties. Enhanced knowledge of such relations is useful for a better understanding of the rock physics models in carbonates which in turn are essential for more accurate seismic interpretation of the reservoirs.In this paper, we study correlations of compressional , shear wave velocities (Vp, and Vs, respectively) porosity, and permeability according to primary pore types (interparticle, and microporosity) and secondary pore types (moldic, and vuggy porosity). The samples used are 63 core plugs taken from four wells of a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir from lower Cretaceous in the Middle East. We found that rocks with predominant interparticle and microporosity display a good correlation (range of correlation coefficient: 0.71-0.91) of permeability-porosity, and acoustic velocity-permeability relationships. On the other hand, rocks with predominant moldic and vuggy porosity show low correlations and large scatter of permeability-porosity, and acoustic velocity-permeability, which could be due to the different pore sizes, shapes, and overall complexity in the pore network present in vugs and molds which are created by diagenetic overprints on the original sedimentary texture. .

Topic:

Applied geophysics, Earth physics

240

The Effect of Diagenesis on Porosity, Permeability, and Acoustic Velocities in a Middle East Carbonate Reservoir
Ahmed Abed Hassan and Sandra Vega, The Petroleum Institute
Introduction Carbonate rocks represent only 15% of the sedimentary rocks. However, carbonate reservoirs hold more than 50% of the world’s petroleum reserves (Vanorio et al, 2008). The characterization of carbonates remains challenging due to the high level of heterogeneity present in pore types and depositional texture. This heterogeneity is mainly caused by two factors. The first one is the high susceptibility of carbonates to diagenetic alterations such as compaction, dissolution, and cementation resulting in various types of pores including fractures, vugs, molds and causing alterations of the original mineralogy from aragonite and high Mg calcite to low Mg calcite and/or dolomite. The second factor contributing to heterogeneity of carbonates is the deposition in a wide range of depositional environments ranging from shallow lagoons, tidal flats, and marine platforms to deep marine settings resulting in different depositional textures with varying amounts of lime mud and different types of grains (e.g., skeletal and non skeletal). This heterogeneity in carbonates makes the relations between geophysical properties (e.g., acoustic wave velocities) and rock properties (e.g., porosity, and permeability) rather complicated. Enhanced knowledge of such relations is useful for calculating impedance models, and is essential for more accurate interpretation of seismic sections and acoustic logs of petroleum reservoirs (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993). In this paper, we study correlations of compressional and shear wave velocities (Vp, and Vs, respectively) with porosity and permeability as well as potential correlations of permeability and porosity according to primary and secondary pore types. Such correlations could potentially be used to improve models of rock physics in carbonates, and hence give better seismic interpretation of the petroleum reservoirs. The samples used in this study are 63 core plugs taken from four wells of a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir producing from lower Cretaceous Thamama group in the Middle East. Methodology Data of ultrasonic Vp and Vs, CT scans for the whole core plugs, helium porosity, and Klinkenberg-corrected nitrogen permeability of 63 core plugs was provided by a research commercial laboratory. Ultrasonic Vp and Vs were taken under differential pressure (difference between external confining pressure and internal pore pressure) ranging from 6.90 to 37.93 MPa during loading and unloading. In this paper, we focus on Vp and Vs taken under dry conditions and at a differential pressure of approximately 38 MPa, which simulates the reservoir pressure conditions. CT scan pictures were taken from three different directions; two longitudinal directions and one axial extreme. We performed standard sedimentological description on the hand specimen samples to identify their sedimentary texture. This was based on modified Dunham classification for carbonates (Dunham, 1962; Embry and Kolvan, 1971) which uses depositional texture (e.g., micrite versus grains content) and grain size to classify the rock. In addition, we recognized the dominant pore types by using the three different sections of the CT scans to give a better representation of the pore shape continuation. Pore types were classified to be either primary, or secondary. Primary porosity, which includes interparticle and microporosity, develops during the deposition of carbonate sediments. Interparticle pores are characterized by different grains forming a loose package with little cementation. Microporosity develops within the aggregate of rounded micro-crystals which form the micrite in carbonates. In this study, we define microporosity to be the porosity present in pores which are below the resolution limit of the CT scans. For example, if a sample has 30% helium porosity, and its CT scans do not show observable pores due to the resolution limit of the scan, then we consider it to be dominated by microporosity. Both interparticle and microporosity share similar petrophysical and acoustic behaviour (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993). Therefore, we considered rocks with predominant interparticle porosity and microporosity to be under one group which is primary porosity. On the other hand, secondary porosity, which includes moldic and vuggy porosity, develops
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mainly after deposition due to dissolution of grains with metastable mineralogy such as high-Mg calcite and aragonite. Moldic porosity is created after the complete dissolution of the skeletal grains composing metastable minerals, leaving the rock to be mainly composed a highly cemented frame. Vugs also form due to dissolution of metastable minerals in carbonates. Rocks with predominant vuggy and moldic porosity have high rigidity and share similar acoustic behaviour (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993; Eberli et al, 2003). Therefore, we recognized samples with both moldic and vuggy porosity under one group which is secondary porosity. Results and Discussion A majority of 70% of the studied samples have grain dominated texture ranging from packstone to grain and rudstone. The main skeletal grains present in the studied samples are rudists, and small to large algal lumps which represent the main bio-facies deposited in a shallow marine shelf during the early Cretaceous transgression, which flooded most of the Arabian Gulf at that time (Al Sharhan and Nairn, 2003). A smaller percentage of 14% of the samples are dense limestone which have very low porosity and permeability and hence represent poor reservoir potential. Also, 60% of the samples shows a predominant secondary porosity which is moldic and vuggy suggesting sever modifications of the original fabric by diagenetic overprints such as dissolution by basinal waters. The samples have a wide range of porosity which falls between 0.1 and 36 %. Permeability ranges over 6 orders of magnitude from 0.001 up to 1000 md. Correlations of permeability and porosity in carbonates are not straightforward, and are generally weak (Tiab and Donaldson, 2004). Factors affecting permeability and porosity relationships were shown to be related to fabric heterogeneity including different grain sizes, amount of metastable minerals present, the size and connectivity of the pores (Tiab and Donaldson, 2004). If found, reliable correlations of permeability and porosity are useful in predicting fluid flow from porosity measurements. In our study, we present correlation of permeability and porosity (Figure 1) using pore types as a discriminator.
10000 1000 100

Predominant pore types
Moldic and vuggy pores interparticle and microporosity Highly cemented, low porous

K (md)

10 1 0.1 0.01

Best fit for moldic and vuggy
Best fit for interparticle and microporosity

0.001 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

Best fit for highly cemented samples
24 26 28 30 32 34 36
38

Porosity (%)

Fig. 1 Permeability as a function of porosity with exponential best fitting functions. Samples with abundant interparticle and microporosity show a good correlation of K versus porosity. On the other hand, samples with predominant moldic and vuggy porosity show a poor correlation of K versus porosity and large scatter, which probably can be explained by the different shapes, aspect ratios, and overall complex pore network present in such samples. The results show that samples with predominant moldic and vuggy pore types have higher permeability values than samples with predominant interparticle and micropores. Micropores are mainly associated with mud supported textures such as mudstones and wackstones, which have lower

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permeabilities than grain supported fabrics (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993). On the other hand, the higher permeability of moldic and vuggy pores probably indicates that chemical alterations that occurred during diagenesis, which created molds and vugs by dissolution of metastable minerals, have increased the pore connectivity and hence improved the fluid flow potential of the reservoir. The opposite can happen, for example, oversaturated basinal brines in the reservoir can cause inorganic precipitation of calcitic cement in the pore spaces, resulting in a reduced porosity, and could potentially reduce the pore connectivity as well, and hence destroy reservoir quality. Our results also reveal a strong dependency of permeability on porosity for rocks with predominant interparticle and microporosity. The plot shows a directly proportional trend; an increase in porosity produces an increase in permeability. For the given porosity range (10-34%) and abundant interparticle and microporosity, the following best fitting function was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.82: K (md) = 0.0021e
0.2747porosity (%)

(1)

For low porous (0-6% of porosity), dense samples, we obtained the following best fitting trend with a correlation coefficient of 0.66: K (md) = 0.0008e0.3401porosity (%)

(2)

For the samples with abundant moldic and vuggy porosity, we obtained the following best fitting function with a low correlation coefficient of 0.31: K (md) = 0.2922e0.1901porosity (%)

(3)

The great scatter around the best fitting equation can be explained by the presence of different shapes, aspect ratios, and overall pore network complexity resulting from diagenetic overprints, which is present in the molds and vugs of the studied samples. Our samples show irregularly and spherically shaped vugs with different aspect ratios and connectivity of pore spaces, which perhaps produces a wide range of permeability for the same porosity value. Figure 2 displays a clear inverse trend between acoustic velocity and porosity with large scatter corroborating previous studies (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993; Eberli et al, 2003). Both Vp and Vs show an exponential best fitting trend with correlation coefficients of 0.86 and 0.81, respectively. Most of samples with predominant moldic and vuggy porosity show a positive departure from the best fitting equation and hence higher velocities than samples with predominant interparticle and microporosity. Previous studies (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993; Eberli et al, 2003) show that rocks with abundant vugs and molds have more grain to grain contact and have strongly cemented frame, which decreases the pore compressibility and hence provide higher stiffness and velocities. Also, we observe that the scatter present in the velocity-porosity plot decreases at porosities higher than 28%. Acoustic velocities of carbonates often show low correlations with permeability (Baechle et al, 2008). However, our results show that there is a good correlation of Vp and Vs versus permeability for samples with abundant interparticle and microporosity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.78 for Vs, and 0.86 for Vp. On the other hand, samples with abundant moldic and vuggy porosity show very poor correlation in velocity permeability plot. This could be due to the heterogeneity of pore sizes, shapes, and the complex pore network present in such rocks which were largely affected by diagenetic alterations.

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7

Vp, best fit= 5.9769e-0.0198 Porosity
Vs, best fit= 3.2924e
-0.0184Porosity

Predominant pore types
Moldic and vuggy porosity Interparticle and microporosity Highly cemented, low porous

6

Velocity (Km/s)

5

4

3

Vp Vs

2

1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

Porosity (%)

Fig. 2 Vp and Vs at ~38 MPa differential pressure as a function of porosity, showing with the exponential best fitting trends. The large scatter is due to the different pore types present in the rocks. This scatter diminishes at porosities higher than 28%. Conclusions This paper presented a study performed on 63 carbonate core plug taken from a Middle East carbonate reservoir to investigate potential correlations of porosity, permeability, and acoustic velocities based on the pore types. We found that rocks with predominant interparticle and microporosity display a good correlation of permeability-porosity, and acoustic velocity-permeability relationships. On the other hand, rocks with predominant moldic and vuggy porosity show poor correlations of permeability-porosity, and acoustic velocity-permeability, which could be due to the different pore sizes, shapes, and overall complexity in the pore network present in vugs and molds which are created by diagenetic overprints on the original sedimentary texture. Acknowledgments We are indebted to ADNOC, ADCO, PI, ADMA, ZADCO and the Oil R&D Sub Committee for their support and providing the data. References Al Sharhan, A. S. and Nairn, A. E. M. [2003] Sedimentary basins and petroleum geology of the Middle East, Elsevier science B.V., 590-598. Anselmetti, F.S. and Eberli, G.P. [1993] Controls on sonic velocity in carbonates. PAGEOPH, 141, 287-323. Dunham, R. J. [1962] Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture, in W.E. Ham, eds., Classification of carbonate rocks: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir, 108-121. Eberli, G. P., Baechle, G. T., Anselmetti, F. and Incze, M. L. [2003] Factors controlling elastic properties in carbonate sediments and rocks. The Leading Edge, 22, 654-660. Embry, A.F., and Klovan, J.E. [1971] A Late Devonian reef tract on Northeastern Banks Island, NWT. Canadian Petroleum Geology Bulletin, 19, 730-781. Tiab, D. and Donaldson, E.C. [2003] Petrophysics, Elsevier science B.V., 105-136. Baechle, G. T., Colpaert, A., Eberli, G. P. and Weger R. J. [2008] Effects of microporosity on sonic velocity in carbonate rocks. The Leading Edge, 27, 1012-1018. Vanorio, T., Scotellaro, C. and Mavko, G. [2008] The effect of chemical and physical processes on the acoustic properties of carbonate rocks. The Leading Edge, 27, 1040-1048

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Contribution of well logging and seismic studies in defining the hydrocarbon characteristics on the Lower Miocene Rocks Gulf of Suez, Egypt
Moataz Barakat*, Tanta University & TU Berlin, Nader El-Gendy, Tanta University

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Clarify the effect of structure and lithology distribution on the hydrocarbon reservoir characteristics on Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Contribution of seismic interpretation and well logging analysis to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentialities of lower Miocene.

The significant goal of this work is to evaluate the hydrocarbon potentialities Summary (max. 200 words): of the Lower Miocene Nukhul Formation in Abu Rudeis area by contribution of well logging and seismic interpretation which is located at the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez. This area and the neighbouring areas are covered by about 650 km of seismic lines, which belong to different surveys onshore and offshore. The seismic interpretation gives a design about the main structural setting. The migrated depth map indicates that the structure is considered as a plunging anticline structural nose bounded at its flanks by many faults. Clysmic fault is the main fault trend. The available log data were analyzed to determine the petrophysical parameters of the reservoir rocks. Litho-saturation and M-N cross-plots were constructed exhibiting the calculation of petrophysical parameters of the analyzed formation. The results of formation evaluation are illustrated vertically through lithosaturation cross-plots representing the well logging deduced parameters downwards with depth. The hydrocarbon potentialities are interpreted using the presentation of the estimated petrophysical parameters derived from the well logging analysis taken into consideration the influence of the structural setup and the effect of the tectonic setting on the reservoir characteristics in the study area.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

245

Contribution of well logging and seismic studies in defining the hydrocarbon characteristics on the Lower Miocene Rocks Gulf of Suez, Egypt.
Moataz Kh. Barakat*, Technical University of Berlin, Nader H. El-Gendy, Tanta University 1. Introduction The main goals of this study are to delineate the subsurface geological structures, identify the petrophysical parameters, clarify the effects of the structure and lithology on the distribution of petrophysical parameters and evaluate the hydrocarbon potentialities of Nukhul Formation in Abu Rudeis area which is located about 130 km south of Suez city at the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez (Fig.1). Seismic surveying was first carried out in the early 1920s. Seismic methods are widely applied to exploration problems involving the detection and mapping of subsurface structures and in the search for oil and gas. Three marine seismic surveys were carried out in the Abu Rudeis area. The first survey was completed in 1955 and the other two surveys were completed in 1959.Well log analysis is the best task for any well after drilling to detect the reservoir parameters like porosity, water saturation, etc. The volume of shale obtained from the gamma ray method gives reliable results. The lithology and porosity identification has been applied using different methods and techniques. The mineralogical components have been determined from cross-plotting different types of porosity. The porosity derived from sonic log is used in combination with that derived from neutron log to obtain the effective porosity. The results of formation evaluation are illustrated vertically through litho-saturation cross-plots representing the well logging deduced parameters downwards with depth.

Fig.1 Location map of the study area. 2. Stratigraphy and Structural Setting The Miocene rocks in the Gulf of Suez region represent the main hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs in Egypt and have a wide surface and subsurface distribution. The majority of the oil fields are producing from Miocene reservoirs. The general geology of the Gulf of Suez has been investigated by many workers for a long time, because of the presence of oil seeps in many localities. Publications in stratigraphy and sedimentology is by (Tewfik et al. 1992), in structure and tectonic (Saad et al. 1996) and in subsurface geology (Barakat 2003). 3. Seismic Studies The quality of the Miocene seismic is good, especially at the top of south Gharib, Belayim, Kareem, Rudeis and Nukhul Formations. The seismic lines showed a very good quality, where the tops are

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easily picked and mapped over the whole area. While the quality of the Pre-Miocene horizons is fair and sometimes poor due to main problems affecting on the Gulf such as multiples and diffractions. Also the re-processing of seismic data was done and achieved some improvement in the resolution of the Pre-Miocene horizons. As a result, the interpretation of Pre-Miocene horizons (Lower Senonian and Nubia horizons) was controlled most of the time by the interpretation of the Miocene horizons and Pre-Miocene well data. 4. Time and Depth Structure Maps The time structure map close to the top of Nukhul Formation was drawn after interpreted of many seismic lines. These seismic lines were taken in different direction. The interpretation of the seismic data consists of all operation such as the transformation of seismic reflection data into structural picture by the interpretation of some structure time map. Figure (2a) shows the structural time map to the top of the Nukhul Formation. The migrated depth structure map close to the top of the Nukhul Formation is indicated in (Fig.2b).Which was formed after the time-depth conversions, using the velocities obtained from the available well data. In this map the following criteria are observed: 1. Faulting Style 1. Fault (F1) is the main fault in the area and trending (NW-SE) direction. It is splitting the Rudeis area into up-thrown side including the northern part of Abu Rudeis area and down thrown side including the southern part of field (Mokhles et al.1992). 2. Fault closure in the western part of the study area cutting by fault (F2). 3. Plunging anticline in the northwest direction which is dissected and bounded by present fault (F2). 4. Faulted domal shape in the south-eastern part of the study area. 2. High and low structures 1. There are high and low structure formed by different faults, the structural pattern of the area are considered generally as a tilted fault block dipping in (NE-SW) direction and forming these high and low areas. 2. The area can be considered as tilted fault block dipping in NW direction and some of the high structures are closed on the up-thrown side of the fault and trend approximately in NW-SE direction, where these lows are located on the downthrown side of the fault. 3. An anticline feature is located on the up-thrown side of the major fault running NE-SE, and is dissected by several of N-S faults. A major fault is extending from Rudeis area to Ras Budran field in NW-SE direction.

(a) (b) Fig. (2a) Structural time map close to the top of the Nukhul Formation. Fig. (2a) Migrated depth map close to the top of the Nukhul Formation. 5. Well Logging Analysis The ultimate aim of well logging analysis is the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potentials of Nukhul Formation. The available log data analyzed to determine the shale volume (Fig.3), shale parameters

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(Fig.4). Litho-saturation cross-plot and M-N plot were constructed exhibiting the calculation of petrophysical parameters of the analyzed formation (Fig.5).

80 60 40 20 0 1000 100 10
Rt (Ohm.m)

G a m m a r a y ( A P IU )

100
G a m m a r a y ( A p lu )

80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40
Apparent neutron porosity ( l.s pu %)

1

0.1

G a m m a r a y ( A P IU )

100 80 60 40 20 0 3 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2
Bulk denisty (gm/cc)

100 80 60 40 20 0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Sonic transit time ( us/ft)

Fig. 3 shale volume
S o n ic t ra n is t t im e (u s / f t )

Fig. 4 shale parameters
120
B u lk d e n is t y (g m / c c )

1 0.9 0.8
M
Dol Gas L.S QZ

2
S.st L.S Dol

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20

2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3

S.st L.S Dol

0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 N 0.7 0.8

30

40

0

10

20

30

40

Apparent neutron prosity ( L.S pu%)

Apparent neutron prosity (L.S pu%)

Fig. 5 Litho-saturation cross-plot and M-N plot 6. Vertical Distribution of Petrophysical Results The vertical distribution of petrophysical parameters and lithology is presented in the form of analog. The analog consists of two tracks, one of them is responsible for fluid analysis and the other is for the formation analysis. The first track, to the right is the formation analysis and presents the distribution of porosity; various matrix fractions and shale volume taking in consideration that the sum of all constitutes are 100 %. The second track, to the left, reflects the distribution of different types of fluid (water, residual and movable hydrocarbons).The results of formation evaluation are illustrated vertically through litho-saturation cross-plots representing the well logging deduced parameters down-words with depth (Fig.6). This evaluation of reservoir potential can be used as a reliable basis to make the decision to either complete or abandon the well. It is also useful to isolate zones for possible future testing.

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Fig. 6 Vertical Distribution of Petrophysical Results of Nukhul Formation. 7. Concussion The major goals of this study are to delineate the subsurface geological structures, identify the petrophysical parameters, clarify the effects of the structure and lithology on the distribution of petrophysical parameters and evaluate the hydrocarbon potentialities of Nukhul Formation in Abu Rudeis area which is located about 130 km. south of Suez city in the eastern coast of the Gulf of Suez. On studying carefully the structure depth map it is observed that the accumulating sediments represent a simultaneous and similar response to contemporaneous subsidence and the present faults was probably accrued after completing the deposition. It is observed that the increasing of shale is accompanied with decreasing of porosity values. Usually saturation is controlled by porosity, where the more porosity the more hydrocarbons. The water and hydrocarbon saturations increase in reverse directions. 8. References Barakat, M. Kh. [2003] Petrophysical and Seismic Studies on the Lower Miocene Rocks in Abu Rudeis Area, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. M. Sc. Thesis, Fac. Sci., Tanta Univ., Egypt, 216 p. Mokhles, A., Fahmi, A., and Rizzi, C., [1992] Geology of Abu Rudeis-Sidri Field 11th EGPC Expl. Produc. Conf., Cairo, Egypt, p.352. Saad, H., Zinger, M., and Ghaly, A., [1996] The Regional Structural Trends, Their Patterns, and Association with Hydrocarbon Accumulation in the Off-shore South Gulf of Suez Area. , EGPC 13th Petrol. Conf., Cairo, pp. 97-120. Tewfik, N., Harwood, C., and Deighton, L., [1992] The Miocene, Rudeis and Kareem

Formations of the Gulf of Suez Aspects of Sedimentology and Geohistory., 11th EGPC Expl. and Prod. Conf., Cairo, Vol.1, p. 84-112.
1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

249

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Hydrogeological aspects for groundwater forming and possibilities for their multi–purpose usage in the basin of karst spring Petnica
Dejan Nešković, University of Belgrade

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

To present hydrogeological potentiality of karst aquifers in western Serbia, to emphasise capacity and reserves of quality groundwaters which are not fully
exploited yet.

Using an underground reservoirs as a long-term water supply solution.

The exploration was done in order to determine hydrogeological structures Summary (max. 200 words): and features of the terrain, with the purpose to determine conditions under

which groundwater are formed as well as form of their migration in that terrain. The interpretations of the results of well pumping experiments, which help in understanding of movement directions of groundwater, as well as the reserve rates were done. Chemical analysis of surface and groundwater in the research area was done, and was supposed to verify hydraulic connection of surface and groundwater. Terrain is made of limestone of Triassic age which are in the north part of the research area covered in sediments of Neogene age and in their contact the Petnica spring is situated. Waters of researched area belong to Hydrocarbonat – calcium waters of mild mineralization and increased asperity. In surface waters is possible to find increased concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium – ion, which is not the case in samples from wells. The waters entering the karst system by the means of rainfall and infiltration, are well over quantities that can be observed in the Petnica spring and the river Banja, which indicates the existence of semiclosed hydrogeological structure.

Topic:

Hydrogeology

250

Hydrogeological aspects for groundwater forming and possibilities for their multi–purpose usage in the basin of karst spring Petnica
Dejan Nešković, University of Belgrade Introduction The problem of resources for good water supply has become increasingly acute and considered from its various aspects. Very large amounts of good groundwater are contained in rocks of karst areas, which have a significant distribution on the territory of Serbia and over the world. These areas are scarcely populated due to their specific karst features, but this accounts for the rather good conservation of groundwater against pollution. The exploration of the basin of the Petnica spring in the western Serbia (Fig. 1) was done in order to determine hydrogeological structures and features of the terrain, and also with the purpose to determine conditions under which groundwater are formed as well as form of migration of groundwater in that terrain. Groundwater interception at discharge points is not economical, because the natural spring flows are the lowest when the water demand is the highest and vice versa. A partial or full groundwater balance can be provided by construction of underground reservoirs as structures for multi-purpose water utilization.
Fig. 1 Location of the researched area Methodology Geological characteristics, in terms of groundwork for detailed hydro-geological research, were taken from earlier researches done in this area (P. Mojsilović et al., 1975). Balance rate of groundwater was determined based on standard hydrological methods, by measuring discharge on springs, rivers and wells, acquiring data for precipitation and with use of empiric equations (Krešić, 1991). The interpretations of the results of well pumping experiments from existing wells, which help in understanding of movement directions of groundwater, were also done (Živanović, 2008). The feasibility of Petnica karst underground reservoir was analyzed in this research (Simić 1990). Chemical and bacterial analysis of surface and groundwater in the research area was done, and that analysis was supposed to verify hydraulic connection of surface and groundwater (Papić, 1986).

Fig. 2 3D Hidgoreological map of researched area
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251

Data analysis In terms of geological characteristics, terrain is made of limestone of Triassic age which are in the north part of the research area covered in sediments of Neogene age (clay, marls, and sand fractions) and in their contact the Petnica spring is situated (Fig. 2). Geo-electrical researches imply that there are several tectonic faults in this area (Fig. 3) (Komatina 2000).

Fig. 3 Schematic profile of researched area with existing wells From the hydrogeological aspect, there are two types of aquifers. First in Neogene sediments and the second in karst. Karst aquifer is formed in limestone of Triassic age that is well fractured and tectonically damaged, with high permeability. All springs and wells in researched area drain this aquifer. According to chemism, waters of researched area belong to Hydrocarbonate – calcium waters of mild mineralization and increased asperity (Fig. 4, 5). In surface waters is possible to find increased concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium – ion, which is not the case in samples from wells. This can be explained with existence of thick layer of Neogene sediments that represent barrier in this case.

Fig. 4 Trilinear diagram of the chemical composition
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Cl

Na+K

HCO3

Ca**

M 0.35

3 HCO94 Ca 71 Mg 26

SO4**

Mg**

Fig. 5 Pie diagram of the chemical composition On the grounds of observation of balance parameters, it is clear that the waters entering the karst system by the means of rainfall and infiltration are well over quantities that can be observed in the Petnica spring and the river Banja, or with the exploitation from wells, and therefore it is possible to speak about existence of semi-closed hydro-geological structure. It can also be suggested that some part of the groundwater flows into the River Kolubara basin. But, for this theory to be confirmed, it is needed to construct a complex hydro-geological model of groundwater flow. Conclusions According to the analytical results, the construction of underground karst reservoirs, in combination with small surface reservoirs for artificial recharge with the runoff from noon-karst areas, will dramatically increase the safe yield of groundwater. Usage of empiric calculations estimates that this aquifer currently can be exploited with 300 l/s of fresh water suitable for drinking and other purposes without overexploatation. In this moment, the maximal combined capacities of all wells that drain this aquifer are not over 40 l/s. In view of the proved quality of water to be tapped and the temperature (18 to 37oC) of artesian groundwater, it could be used for several purposes: domestic water supply, heating green houses, sports and recreation and house heating as in balneology. Several regional distribution systems are recommended to be supplied from underground reservoirs as a far better solution than the present legalized long-term water supply from surface reservoirs. This paper presents a modest contribution to the understanding of the hydrogeological features of karst terrains of western Serbia, those posses many quality groundwaters which are not fully exploited yet. In order to obtain more data about hydro-geological conditions in research area, it is necessary to conduct additional research using coloration experiment as well as to make a complex hydrogeological model. References Dragišić, V., Polomčić, D. [2009] Hydrogeological dictionary, Faculty of Mining and Geology – Belgrade Komatina, M. [2000] Study of exploitation well Pt-3 in Petnica, near Valjevo, Faculty of Mining and Geology – Belgrade Krešić, N. [1991] Quantitative karst hydrogeology, Science book, 57-148 Mojsilović, S., Filipović. I., Bakljajić, D., Đoković, I., Navala, M. [1975] Interpreter for basic geological map, sheet Valjevo. Institute for Geological and Geophysical research Papić, P. [1986] Practicum for hydrochemical researches, Faculty of Mining and Geology – Belgrade Simić, M [1990] PhD thesis, Faculty of Mining and Geology – Belgrade 210-343 Živanović, V. [2008] Study on reserves of natural mineral groundwater from wells Pt-3 and Pt-4 in groundwater source “Vujić Voda”, Faculty of Mining and Geology – Belgrade

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

253

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Metamorphic rocks of the East Carpathians: representative example for mineral-fluidological research of metamorphogenous-hydrotermal ore-genesis formations
Roman Bondar, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

The East Carpathians, Marmarosh massif, metamorphic rocks, fluid inclusions

Summary The results of study of fluid inclusions of metamorphic rocks of the (max. 200 words): Marmarosh massif were summed up. The results of fluid inclusions study in
different formations of rock-ore complexes of the Marmarosh massif determined the need to create a generalized model of metamorphogenhydrothermal mineral genesis within this important structural-facial unit of the Eastern Carpathians – as a prerequisite to the deposits and ore shows in this region.

Topic:

Petrology, Ore deposits

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Metamorphic rocks of the East Carpathians: representative example for mineral-fluidological research of metamorphogenous-hydrotermal ore-genesis formations
Roman Bondar, Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine The different-age complex of metamorphic formations of the Eastern Carpathians, whose metallogenic specialization by thermodynamic conditions determining the evolution of metamorphic facies and appropriate processes by broad development of various types of hydrothermal-metasomatic mineralization can not be left without attention. Marmarosh massif or the East Carpathians Crystalline-Mesozoic Zone is an important structural element of the Eastern Carpathians, which differs by the geological features from the other structural-facial zones of Carpathian fold belt, because the metamorphic rocks were formed under the influence of the medium- and low-metamorphic and metasomatic processes. The most important minerals within Marmarosh massif is gold-sulphide ores, ores of nonferrous metals, iron and manganese silicate-carbonate ores and subgraphite, polymetallic ores in barite-quartz-carbonate veinlet formations (Fig.1). Sulphide deposits and shows of ore can be divided into two broad groups: metamorphic sulphide deposits closely associated with metamorphic rocks (with the processes of their formation and transformation) and non-metamorphic deposits deposited both among metamorphic and effusive rocks of Cretaceous and Neogene age. Pyrite ores are presented by chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena and arsenopyrite. They contain much less native gold, tetraedrite, bournonite, bismutite, galenobismutite, altaite, hessite etc.

Fig.1 Map of distribution of the gold and sulphide ores within the limits of Marmarosh massif

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Native gold in metamorphic complexes is associated with carbonaceous-terrigenous formation of volcanogenous Tulgesh-Berlebash suite (Paleozoic) or with schistosity and metasomatism zones at contact of different metamorphic stages – Bretila-Bilyy Potik and RebraDilove suites (Proterozoic). Mineralization within Ditrau alkaline massif is represented by oxides, sulphides, carbonates, phosphates and subordinated – silicates and native elements. Alkaline rocks are associated with rare earth elements. The relationship between regional and local geological processes of mineral and ore genesis can be defined by research of fluid inclusions (temperature, pressure, chemical characteristics of mineral-forming processes). In the Ukrainian part of the massif for Saulyak gold deposit, a conclusion was made about medium-temperature mineral-forming conditions in the range within 280-120°C (Matviyenko et al., 1999): the upper limit of favorable conditions for gold deposition (280-260°C) may define the bottom (deepest) gold level columns, the lower (140-120°C) – the top columns. The preference of potassium-ion and carbonate-ion in the liquid-phase of fluids that formed the industrial types of ores, compared with barren formations (Kovalyshyn, Naumko, 2001). It was possible allocate to areas with prevalence in fluid inclusions of CO2 and N2 (quartz and carbonate in veins ore that are associated with gold from Saulyak gold deposit), N2 (quartz and barite from Kamin’ Klovka and Bilyy Potik ore shows,) or CH4 (barren quartz from rocks of BretilaBilyy Potik, Tulgesh-Berlebash, Rebra-Dilove suites), that testifies to the important role of carbonbearing compounds in the processes of mineral and ore genesis (Naumko et al., 2009). In the Romanian part of the massif it was established that the temperature of the formation of quartz veins with sulphide mineralization in chlorite and sericite schists from polymetallic deposit Lesul Ursului by fluid inclusions is 155-170°C, whereas for quartz from the carbonaceous schists – 115-120°C. Within deposit Fundul Moldovei homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions in quartz is within 100-165°C (Pomarleanu, 1971). For quartz from metamorphic paragneisses and amphibolites (Rodna mountains) homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions varies within 135-152°C, with a maximum range within 145-150°C, for amphibolites – 120-225°C and 175-180°C, respectively. Homogenization temperature for fluid inclusions in diopside is 188-236°C (Pomarleanu, 1971). For deposits-group Toroiaga-Birgau-Tibles (Baia Borşa), that to the Neogene volcanism related, temperature of mineral formation of chalcopyrite-sphalerite-sulphosalts mineralization is 250360°C (Borcos, Iosof, 1965). Fluid inclusions in apatite from Ditrau massif are homogenizing at temperatures 199-223°C (Marton et al, 2001) and are characterized by high salinity (about 23 NaCl eq. wt. %), while quartz (Tg = 170-212°С) salinity is about 6.5 NaCl eq. wt. %. Two-phase fluid inclusions in nepheline (Th = 196288°C) are moderately salt (NaCl content ranging from 10.73 eq. wt.% to 17.43 eq. wt.%). Given fragmented results of fluid inclusions study in different formations of rock-ore complexes of the Marmarosh massif determined the need to create a generalized model of metamorphogen-hydrothermal mineral genesis within this important structural-facial unit of the Eastern Carpathians – as a prerequisite to the deposits and ore shows in this region. References Borcos M., Iosof V. [1965] Some considerations on the mineralo-thermometry of sphalerites. Abstracts of 7th Congr. Carpatho-Balk. Ass., Sofia, 3, pp. 259–264. Idriceanu Tr., Erhan V. [1962] Cercetari paleogeotermometrice in zona mineralizata cu sulfuri complexe din cristalinul Carpatilor Orientali cuprinsa intre Valea Bistritei si Valea Moldovei I. Mineralizarile de la Gemenea. An. Sti. Univ. „Al. I. Cuza”, Iasi, Sect. II, VIII, 7–12. (In Romanian) Kovalyshyn Z. I., Naumko I. M. [2001] The peculiarities of fluid composition in gold ore mineralization within metamorphic rocks of north-western part among Marmarosh massif (Ukrainian Carpathians). Abstracts of Х Internatianal conference of thermobarogeochemistry – Aleksandrov: VNIISIMS, 85–88.

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Marton I., Gal J., Beno E., Fall A., Szabo Cs., Torok K. and Gal A. [2001] Fluid inclusions in apatite, quartz and nepheline from the Ditrau alkaline massif Transylvania (Romania): XVI ECROFI European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions, Porto, 291–293. Matkovskyy O.I. [1978] Estimation of temperatures of the metamorphic mineral formation by means of various methods of thermometry. In: Thermobarogeochemistry of the Earth crust and ore formations. М.: Nauka, 89–96. (In Russian) Matviyenko О., Matskiv B., Pukach B., Shklyanka V. [1999] Differentiation of gold and gas phase of the mineral-forming fluids in the formathion of Saulyak deposit (Rakhiv ore region): Abstracts of International scientific conference. Publishing house of the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 80–81. (In Ukrainian) Naumko І, Bondar R, Svoren Yo., Sakhno B. and Nechepurenko O. [2009] About peculiarities of the gaseous constituent of fluids of the metamorphogenous-metasomatic minerogenesis of rock-ore complexes of the north-west part of the Marmarosh massif (according by data of fluid inclusions research). Mineralogical Collection, 59, 2, 84-94. (In Ukrainian) Pomarleanu V. [1971] Geotermometria si aplicarea ei la unele minerale din Romania. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei RPR, 158. (In Romanian)

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Title:

Peridotite nodules and xenoliths in the Paleogene alkali basalts from the Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area (Poiana Rusc Mountains - Romania)
Alexandra-Mihaela Giurgiu*, Roxana-Adela Grindean*, Dr. Constantin Balica, Babeş-Bolyai University

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

To describe and point out the presence of both xenoliths and peridotite nodules in the alkali basalts from the Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area.

The presence of both peridotite nodules and xenoliths in the alkali basalts from the Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area.

The magmatic activity occurred in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains (the western Summary (max. 200 words): part of Romania) during late Cretaceous to Paleogene. Mârza and Egri

(1971) describe the peridotite xenoliths beared by these rocks as autoliths while Savu et al. (1997) describe them as mantle xenoliths. The Paleogene volcanic activity is represented by alkali basalts which actually contain both peridotitic nodules and mantle xenoliths. The source of these enclaves has a dual character: a local, magmatic source, resulting in the generation of the nodules cosanguine with the inital melt from the magmatic chamber, and a mantelic source for the peridotite xenoliths that show traces of the differentiation and enrichement in Na2O of the whole system. The rock has a porphyric texture with olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts . The brownish and greenish areas formed by the secondary products (chlorite, serpentine, biotite) suggest the alteration degree of the primary minerals. In the dark grey matrix consisting in glass, plagioclase feldspar and nepheline, there are also secondary minerals: calcite and zeolite veinlets.

Topic:

Petrology

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Peridotite nodules and xenoliths in the Paleogene alkali basalts from the Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area (Poiana Ruscă Mountains - Romania)
Alexandra-Mihaela Giurgiu, Roxana-Adela Grindean, Babeş-Bolyai University Introduction The magmatic activity occurred in the Poiana Ruscă Mountains (the western part of Romania) during late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The Paleogene volcanic activity is represented by alkali basalts (i.e. basalts and basanites, Kräutner, 1969) which form a dyke area oriented NW-SE. The basalts outcropping in Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area appear as six isolated bodies (Fig. 1). A K/Ar age of 29 My (i.e. Paleogene) was calculated by Lupu et al. (1986) for the basanites. Mârza and Egri (1971) describe the peridotite xenoliths beared by these rocks as autoliths while Savu et al. (1997) describe them as mantle xenoliths. Two theories for the geotectonic setting have been proposed, one of them considering that the rocks were formed within a hot spot environment (e.g. Rădulescu et al. 1993), while Savu et al. (1994) propose that the alkali basalts are emplaced in an intraplate environment.

Fig. 1. The distribution of the basaltic bodies from the Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area (Poiana Ruscă Mts.) Alkali basalts and the peridotitic "nodules" The rock has a porphyric texture with olivine and pyroxene phenocrysts. The olivine, as a primary crystallization mineral, is mostly idiomorphic with isometric and prismatic habitus. It is colourless and can be partially or totally transformed to chlorite and serpentine. Based on the color of the secondary products, different alteration processes can be identified: there are brownish or greenish areas were chlorite is present. The clinopyroxenes are idiomorphic (microliths or phenocrysts) segregated as consanguine (pyroxenic) nodules; rarely, individual ortopyroxene crystals can be identified. Brown biotite of secondary genesis is also present, mainly filling the cracks of the altered olivine crystals, and can be associated with chlorite, serpentine minerals and magnetite grains (Fig. 2). The Dealu Fântânii body has more plagioclase feldspars and it is poorer in pyroxene phenocrysts compared to the other bodies. The dark grey matrix consists of glass, pyroxene microliths and, rarely, plagioclase feldspars and nepheline. The pyroxene microliths are found in a vitreous mass or sometimes they are associated with plagioclase feldspars (partially or totally altered by calcite) or with nepheline (found between the pyroxene grains). No quartz xenocrysts have been identified.

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Fig. 2. Microscopic images of the alkali basalts from Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area. a – b. Porphyric texture of alkali basalts with phenocrysts of olivine and intergranular – intersertal groundmass ( a - 1N and b - N+; 35 x); c - Secondary biotite (bi) and chlorite (cl) filling the crack of altered olivine (ol) (1N; 45 x); d - Calcite (cc) and zeolites (ze) as secondary minerals in alkali basalts (N+, 60 X) Veinlets and nests of calcite and zeolites are present in the matrix. The zeolites are probably alkalic (i.e. natrolite, Savu, 1997), and are frequently associated with calcite and chlorite. Idiomorphic magnetite grains disseminated within the rock mass or included in olivine crystals or associated with pyroxene phenocrysts around the peridotitic "nodules" are also observed. The peridotitic nodules Three accepted theories regarding the genesis of the peridotite “nodules” present in the young basaltic rocks are currently accepted. Each of these theories is feasible from a petrogenetical point of view. Therefore, some authors consider that such terms as nodule and xenolith should be used differentially, according to their genetic meaning: the term nodule should be used when local segregation from the basaltic consanguine magma is involved while the term xenolith for the exact meaning of the notion. Distinction between the two can be made through a comparative mineralogical study.

Fig. 3. Microscopic images of the alkali basalts from Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area. Granular texture of nodule consisting of coarse grains of clinopyroxene (cpx) and olivine (ol) in alkali basalt (a - 1N and b - N+; 35 x)

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The microscopic study points out a high similarity between the ultrabasic nodules of the alkali basalts and the deep ultramafic rocks known as lherzolites (Fig. 3). Olivine and pyroxenes are the main participants as essential minerals. The chlorite and magnetite participate as secondary phases. These nodules are consanguine with basaltic magma, eventually becoming small centers of crystallization in the differentiated magma. Such process could explain the presence of the rim consisting of subhedral pyroxenes and associated opaque minerals surrounding the nodules.

Fig. 4. Projection of the alkali basalts from the Poiana Ruscă Mts. on the Ti-Zr diagram (Savu, 1997 ). WPL – withinplate lavas; MORB – mid-ocean ridge basalts; AL – arc lavas Peridotite xenoliths The peridotite xenoliths from the Poiana Ruscă alkali basalts, represent unmelted remnants of the magma source (Savu, 1997). The primary alkaline magma has a highly primitive character, generated, within continental intraplate environment according to Savu et al. (1994) under cratonization conditions and isostatic movements. It probably had a composition very close to that of the primitive mantle, a character supported by the CaO/Al2O3 ratio values of the Poiana Ruscă alkali basalts, with an average of 0.76 situated between the primitive mantle values (0.79-0.81) and that of garnet lherzolite, of 0.74 (Savu, 1997) (Fig. 4). During fractional crystallization, the magma became more rich in Na2O and melanephelinite dykes were formed. It cannot be excluded that during this evolution a certain influx of Na2O rich melts were involved in the differentiation process. The microscopic studies show a very distinctive structure of these xenoliths in the alkali basalts compared to nodules found in the same rocks. The core of these xenoliths consists of euhedral clinopyroxenes, partially altered to greenish aegirine, and colourless olivine present either as euhedral crystals or partially replaced by zeolites and aegirine. However the replacers’ pseudomorphical habitus overprint the geometry of the original mineral (Fig. 5). The dark grey matrix is represented by nepheline and alkaline zeolites (probably natrolite). Pockets and veinlets of chlorite are also noticed, which may support the theory of Na2O rich melts influx, that migrated through these channels and affected the central part of the xenoliths. The outer rim of the magmatic enclaves consists of the same euhedral pyroxenes. However, in the xenolith case the rim is larger both in its width and in the size of the pyroxenes which are not associated with opaque magnetite minerals. Conclusions Based on the mineralogical and textural differences between the peridotitic terms, and also on the relation of these peridotitic terms to the igneous alkali host rocks, we consider the source of these enclaves as having a dual character: a local, magmatic source resulting in the generation of the nodules consanguine with the initial melt from the magmatic chamber, and a mantelic source for the peridotite xenoliths that show metasomatic enrichment in Na2O of the whole system. Both nodules and xenoliths acted as crystallization centers during magma differentiation..

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Fig. 5. Microscopic images of peridotitic xenolith found in alkali basalts from Muncelu MareMuncelu Mic area (a - 1N and b - N+; 35x). cpx = clinopyroxene, ol = olivine, ze = zeolite The essential minerals in both nodules and xenoliths are represented by euhedral olivine and clinopyroxene phanerocrysts or microliths. The coupling of pyroxenes and opaque minerals (i.e. magnetite) is better marked in the rim of the peridotitic nodules whereas the xenoliths’ rim is roughly composed of clinopyroxene crystals. Conclusively, the alkali basalts from the Muncelu Mare-Muncelu Mic area (Poiana Ruscă Mts.) carry both peridotite nodules (autoliths, autoenclaves) − developed from a basaltic magma and consanguine in a protocrystallization process, and xenoliths − properly to the meaning of the term, of mantelic origin. Acknowledgements Dr. Constantin Balica, Dr. Nicolae Har and Dr. Marcel Benea are gratefully thanked for their support and guidance during the entire research project. References Downes, H., Vaselli, O., Seghedi, I., Ingram, G., Rex, D., Coradosii, N., Pecskay, Z., Pinarelli, L. [1995], Geochemistry of Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary magmatism in Poiana Ruscă – Romania. Acta Volcanologica, Pisa, 7, p. 209-217 Kräutner, F. [1969], Magmatites finales alcalines quaternaires dans la partie NE du massif de Poiana Ruscă. Rev. Roum.Géol. Géophys., Bucureşti, 13/1, p. 47-68 Lupu, M., Peltz, S., Boştinescu, S., Roşu, E., Krautner, H. G., Horvath, A., Mureşan, M., Mureşan, G., Bandrabur, T., Popescu, G., Nicolae, I. [1986], Harta geologică a României sc. 1:50 000, foaia Gurasada. Inst. Geol. Bucureşti Mârza, I., Egri, E. [1971], Consideratii genetice asupra nodulilor peridotitici din bazaltele alcaline de la Muncelu Mic-Muncelu Mare (MunŃii Poiana Ruscă).St.cerc.geol.geofiz.geogr.(geol.), 16/1, pp.95106 Rădulescu, D., Săndulescu, M., Boroş, M. [1993], Alpine magmatic map of Romania: An approach to the systematization of the igneous activity. Rev.roum.Géologie, 37, p.3-8 Savu, H., Tiepac, I., Grabari, G. [1994], A comparative study of the distribution of some major, trace and radioactive alements in several Paleogene and Upper Pliocene-Quaternary basalts and basaltandesites from Romania. Rom. J. Petrology, Bucureşti, 76, p. 91-100 Savu, H., Tiepac, C., Stoian, M. [1997], Origin of Paleogene alkali basalts from the Poiana Ruscă Mountains – Romania. Rev.roum.Géologie, 41, p.37-49

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Identification and evaluation of water-bearing formations using complex borehole geophysical investigations in Cernavoda area (Romania)
Mihai Simionescu*, Cristina Corban, Bogdan Mihai Niculescu,University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Geophysical analysis of the fractured/karstified geological formations that host the largest aquifer system in Romania. Application of a K-means clustering analysis for separating the geological formations into well-defined groups, according to their physical properties.

The most important aquifer system in Romania is located in the Upper Summary (max. 200 words): Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate formations from South Dobrogea

region. For the identification and exploitation of water-bearing intervals, three hydrogeological boreholes have been drilled to a final depth of 700 m and complex geological and geophysical investigations were carried out. For 1-Cernavodă borehole, lithological and paleontological analyses used drill cuttings collected at every meter of depth and cores extracted on selected intervals. In 2-Cernavodă and 3-Cernavodă boreholes, drill cuttings were collected every 5 meters for analyses. The main logs recorded were: standard electrical logs (16" Short Normal, 64" Long Normal and spontaneous potential), nuclear logs (total gamma ray and dual/compensated neutronneutron log), compensated sonic log and caliper log. For the automatic identification of the most probable fractured and/or karstified intervals, as well as the recognition of main geological formations and separation interfaces, an iterative statistical algorithm known as K-means clustering (MacQueen, 1967) was applied. After testing, the main aquifer levels were identified in the depth interval 639 - 688 m, the log interpretation suggesting an average porosity of 18%, with maximum values locally reaching 51%. Water salinity is about 200 ppm (NaCl equivalent), indicative of freshwater.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics (Borehole Geophysics)

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Identification and evaluation of water-bearing formations using complex borehole geophysical investigations in Cernavoda area (Romania)
Mihai Simionescu, Cristina Corban, Bogdan Mihai Niculescu, University of Bucharest Introduction Carbonate (limestone and dolomite) reservoirs are important exploration targets from the perspective of oil/gas and, also, groundwater reserves. In this respect, the most important aquifer system in Romania is located in the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate formations from South Dobrogea region. The porosity of carbonate rocks can be grouped into three types: connected porosity between the carbonate grains, vugs (unconnected pores resulting from the dissolution of calcite by water) and fracture porosity caused by tectonic stresses. These forms of porosity create a very complex path for fluids and, as well, have an impact on the response of geophysical logging tools. Most carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured, the fractures existing at all scales, from microscopic fissures to kilometer sized structures called fracture swarms or corridors, creating complex networks in the reservoir. Large fracture corridors can be significant flow routes for the fluids in carbonate reservoir, so knowing their position is critical for planning new wells and for simulating and forecasting reservoir production. Methods and data collecting In Cernavodă area, South Dobrogea, for the identification and exploitation of water-bearing intervals located mostly in Jurassic carbonate deposits, three hydrogeological boreholes have been drilled to a final depth of 700 m and complex geological and geophysical investigations were carried out (Neguţ et al., 2006). For 1-Cernavodă borehole, lithological and paleontological analyses used drill cuttings collected at every meter of depth and cores extracted on selected intervals. In 2Cernavodă and 3-Cernavodă boreholes, drill cuttings were collected every 5 meters for analyses. The lithological succession of the formations intercepted by 1-Cernavodă borehole is: 0-25 m - Quaternary deposits: Cobbles with elements of weathered Berriasian -Valanginian limestones (0-9 m) and Aptian gravels, followed by soft, dark clays and yellowish silty clays (9-25m); 25-32 m - Quartzose sands and gravels (Middle - Upper Aptian), with thin intercalations of kaolinite clays; 32-50 m - The carbonate complex I (Upper Berriasian - Lower Valanginian): bioclastic limestones with frequent recrystallization, pelsparitic limestones, calcarenites, calcareous or quartz sandstones, oolites, marls and marly limestones; 50-100 m - The complex of marls and polychrome clays (Purbeckian facies, Lower -Middle Berriasian): alternation of marls and greenish/violet clays, marly limestones, calcarenites, calcareous sandstones, oolites and fine clayey sandstones; 100-161 m - The carbonate complex II (Lower Berriasian): bioclastic limestones, detritic limestones, oolitic limestones, calcareous sandstones with intercalations of marls & marly limestones; 161-363 m - The evaporitic complex (Upper Tithonian): gypsum and massive anhydrites, with intercalations of clays and gypsiferous marls, oolites and micritic limestones with anhydrites; 363-700 m - The dolomitic complex (Kimmeridgian - Lower and Middle Tithonian): thick succession of partially or totally dolomitized limestones, fractured and karstified at certain levels. This complex represents the main target for groundwater exploration in the studied area. The geological analysis of drill cuttings for 2-Cernavodă and 3-Cernavodă boreholes evidenced the same lithological succession, with slightly different formations tops. Geophysical investigations were carried out by FORADEX S.A. - Bucharest, the main logs recorded being: standard electrical logs (16" Short Normal, 64" Long Normal and spontaneous potential), nuclear logs (total gamma ray and dual/compensated neutron-neutron log), compensated sonic log and caliper log. Neutron porosity curves were subsequently computed as a function of the ratio between the far and near detectors count rates. Data processing and results In all investigated boreholes, the main criteria which may be used for the qualitative identification of fractured and/or karstified intervals are: (1) sudden and strong hole enlargements

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indicated by the caliper log; (2) local decreases of the apparent resistivity on Short Normal and Long Normal curves; (3) abnormally high sonic transit time anomalies, occasionally exceeding the value of the transit time in mud filtrate / water, most likely due to cycle-skipping (first arrival of the refracted P-wave not detected correctly, because the signal's amplitude was too low); (4) local increases of the neutron porosity or local decreases of the Near and Far neutron count rates. A correlation between all these indicators at certain depth levels or intervals strongly suggests the presence of fractures, vugs or caverns. It should be mentioned that the sonic log can reveal only horizontal or inclined fractures, while the neutron log responds to the entire system of fractures (vertical, horizontal or inclined ones).

Fig. 1 Comparative results of the cluster analysis performed for 2-Cernavodă and 3-Cernavodă boreholes. Clusters shown in last tracks are defined by their mean and standard deviation values. Cluster nr. 1 (red) may correspond to fractured and/or karstified, possibly aquifer, intervals.

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Fig. 2 Optimal interpretation of the logs recorded in 3-Cernavodă borehole. Last three tracks show the measured and reconstructed logs and the user-assigned confidence bands (yellow shades).
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For the automatic identification of the most probable fractured and/or karstified intervals, as well as the recognition of main geological formations and separation interfaces, an iterative statistical algorithm known as K-means clustering (MacQueen, 1967) was applied. Essentially, the algorithm tries to group N data points into an imposed number of K clusters (K < N), each data point being assigned to a certain cluster by minimizing the within-clusters dispersion. Figure 1 presents the results of data clustering for 2-Cernavodă and 3-Cernavodă boreholes, using a number of six clusters and the following logs as input: gamma ray, Short Normal, Long Normal, sonic transit time and neutron porosity. Cluster nr. 1, associated with low apparent resistivity, highest sonic transit times and high neutron porosities, may be correlated with fractured and/or karstified intervals. The well-delimited cluster nr. 4 can be related to the evaporitic complex, which appears to be located on the depth interval 160.5 - 339.5 m in 2-Cernavodă borehole and on the depth interval 191.7 - 337.0 m in 3-Cernavodă borehole. Clusters 2, 3, 5 and 6 are correlated with the carbonate complex II and the dolomitic complex, cluster 6 corresponding to the most compact, low-porosity and resistive (up to 3440 Ωm) carbonate rocks. Figure 2 presents an optimal interpretation of the logs recorded in 3-Cernavodă borehole, carried out using the probabilistic Mineral Solver module from Interactive Petrophysics™ log interpretation software (SCHLUMBERGER, 2007). The 115 - 695 m depth interval was divided into three zones, to represent the carbonate complex II, the evaporitic complex and the dolomitic complex, each zone being interpreted using a distinct petrophysical model. Partial models were subsequently combined into a final interpretation model, whose validity may be checked by comparing the measured logs with the model's theoretical response logs. In addition, the interpretation's quality is reflected by the relatively low values of the total reconstruction error curve, at each depth level. The following parameters were used for the analysis: GRclean = 2 cps (the gamma ray background corresponding to clean formations), GRclay = 64 cps, ΦN,clay = 0.35, ∆tclay = 90 µs/ft, ΦN,water = 1, ∆twater = 190 µs/ft. Sonic log response was modeled using the Raymer-Hunt-Gardner (1980) algorithm, with matrix transit times ∆tlimestone = 49 µs/ft, ∆tdolomite = 44 µs/ft, ∆tgypsum = 53 µs/ft, ∆tanhydrite = 50 µs/ft. Due to the attenuation of sonic signal and the strong cycle-skipping effect in zones with secondary porosity, the computed effective porosity is overestimated if a large and constant weighting factor is assigned to the sonic log on the entire investigated interval. Consequently, a good confidence (low uncertainty) of 3 µs/ft was assigned to the sonic log if the measured transit times were ∆t ≤ 100 µs/ft and a very low confidence (high uncertainty) if ∆t > 100 µs/ft. For the gamma ray and neutron logs, constant uncertainties of 5 cps and, respectively, 0.05 (5%) were selected. Coclusions In Figure 2, the fractured and/or karstified intervals are indicated by the poorest reconstruction of the measured sonic transit time, this occurring mostly in the carbonate complex II (115 - 191.7 m) and in the dolomitic complex, especially at bottom hole, between 639 - 688 m depth. This agrees very well with the results of the cluster analysis. After testing, the main aquifer levels were identified in the depth interval 639 - 688 m, the log interpretation suggesting an average porosity of 18%, with maximum values locally reaching 51% (fractured and/or karstified zones). Assuming that the true resistivity of the formations is approximated by the Long Normal curve, the computed apparent formation water resistivity in the depth interval 639 - 688 m is around 25 m (median value). At the downhole temperature of 21 °C, this corresponds to a salinity of about 200 ppm (NaCl equivalent), indicative of freshwater. References MacQueen, J.B. [1967] Some Methods for Classification and Analysis of Multivariate Observations. Proceedings of 5th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Berkeley, University of California Press, 281-297. Raymer, D.S., Hunt, E.R., Gardner, J.S. [1980] An improved sonic transit time-to porosity transform. 21st Annual Meeting, Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA), Paper P. SCHLUMBERGER [2007] Interactive Petrophysics™. Users Manual, version 3.4.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Nitrate as a representative for agricultural contaminants: Sorptive behaviour in chalk aquifers

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Fathy Abdalla, South Valley University; Moataz Barakat*, Tanta University & TU Berlin

How to deal with the high degree of complexity and heterogeneity in fractured media. The process of sorption as an important retardation mechanism in fractured porous media, concerning the assessment of landfills and water quality.

Summary The major problem encountered in characterizing fluid movement and solute (max. 200 words): transport in fractured media is how to deal with the high degree of
complexity and heterogeneity in these media. Great attention has been drawn to the process of sorption as an important retardation mechanism in fractured porous media, especially concerning the assessment of landfills and water quality in fractured aquifers. In order to gain a better understanding of the sportive behavior of nitrate as a representative for agricultural contaminants compared to various hydrogeological tracers we conducted several batch experiments using Danish chalk samples. The results of these experiments clearly showed that, in all batch experiments linear sorption isotherms were observed and therefore de-scribed with Henry isotherms indicating low sorption capacities. Those low sorption capacities of chalk is due to low contents of clay minerals, organic carbon and iron oxides. According to the results of batch experiments, nitrate could be considered as a quasi ideal tracer in chalk.

Topic:

Hydrogeology

268

Nitrate as a representative for agricultural contaminants: Sorptive behaviour in chalk aquifers
Fathy Abdalla, South Valley University & Moataz Barakat, TU Berlin Introduction The major problem encountered in characterizing fluid movement and solute transport in fractured media is how to deal with the high degree of complexity and heterogeneity in these media. Great attention has been drawn to the process of sorption as an important retardation mechanism in fractured porous media, especially concerning the assessment of landfills and water quality in fractured aquifers. In order to gain a better understanding of the sportive behavior of nitrate as a representative for agricultural contaminants compared to various hydrogeological tracers we conducted several batch experiments using Danish chalk samples. The results of these experiments clearly showed that, in all batch experiments linear sorption isotherms were observed and therefore de-scribed with Henry isotherms indicating low sorption capacities. Those low sorption capacities of chalk is due to low contents of clay minerals, organic carbon and iron oxides. According to the results of batch experiments, nitrate could be considered as a quasi ideal tracer in chalk. Soils and aquifers contain abundant material, especially colloidal-sized particles (< 2 µm) such as clays, organic matter, iron and aluminium oxides and hydroxides which are able to sorb chemicals from water. The sorption isotherms can be linear, concave, convex or a complex combination of all of these shapes. The most common sorption isotherms are Henry, Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms (Domenico and Schwartz 1990) (Fig. 1). To get the necessary information on the sorptive behaviour of nitrate and various hydrogeological tracers within fractured porous media batch laboratory experimental procedures as well as details regarding the data evaluation is presented. In batch experiments, nitrate, lithium, uranin, eosin and pyranin were used to determine the distribution coefficients and retardation factors in the Danish chalk matrix.

Fig. 1 Equilibrium sorption isotherms.

The sorption behaviour of nitrate, lithium, uranin, eosin and pyranin (sorbate) in Danish chalk (sorbent) were studied by means of batch tests. The chalk samples were pulverized to a particle size of 0.2 mm. This size was selected in order to prevent a diffusion limited sorption and to reach equilibrium by making the external surface area to be much larger than the internal surface area (Xu and Wörman 1999). Following O’Connor and Conolly (1980), who reported that the distribution coefficients decrease with in-creasing solute concentration in batch tests, a powder: solution ratio of 1:

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4 (2.5 g chalk powder to 10 mL tracer solution) was chosen. This ratio yielded reproducible distribution coefficients. The initial concentrations vary between 0.01 and 10 mg/L for the organic dye tracers (eosin, uranin and pyranin), between 1 and 50 mg/L for lithium, and between 1 and 250 mg/L for nitrate. Each sorption isotherm in-volved four to eight interim points. The suspensions (chalk powder and tracer solution) were filled in vials and shaken at a constant room temperature (20 to 2°C) for about 72 hours. Uranin, eosin and pyranin were stirred in darkness to avoid a photochemical decay of the tracers. After the shaking process the suspensions were separated into their dissolved and particulate components by centrifugation (3000 cycle/min) for 45 min. For measuring reasons, the samples were filtered with a 0.2 µm membrane filter before analysis. The amount adsorbed by the chalk powder Cs can be calculated as the difference in mass of the solute in solution before the test Co and in solution at equilibrium CL. The graphical plot of adsorbed concentration Cs as a function of dissolved concentration CL gives the adsorption isotherm.

Cs =

(C o − CL )Vb
mt

Vb mt

volume of solute solution (10 mL) [L3] weight of dry chalk powder (2.5 g) [M]

In all batch experiments linear sorption isotherms were observed and therefore described with Henry isotherms (Fig.1). An overview of the determined distribution coefficients (Kd) together with the respective correlation coefficients (R2) is given in Table 1. As expected from the high purity and low contents of clay minerals, organic carbon and iron oxides of the Danish chalk, all substances tested show low sorption capacities with Kd values between 0.0019 and 0.003 L/g. The correlation coefficients R2, given in Tab. 1 proof the excellent fit of the experimental isotherms with the Henry model.

100

10

Sorbed concentration CS [µg/g]

Exp. data CS=0.0027CL

1

0,1

0,01

1E-3 1 10 100 1000 10000

Equilibrium solution concentration CL [µg/L]

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100

Sorbed concentration Cs [µg/g]

10

Exp. data CS = 0.0025 CL

1

0,1 10 100 1000 10000

Equilibrium solution concentration C L [µg/l]

Fig. 2 Sorption isotherms for eosin (up) and uranin (down) both fitted with the Henry model (symbols are the measured values; the solid lines represent the least squares fit). Table 1. Distribution coefficient Kd and correlation coefficient R2 for nitrate, lithium, uranin, pyranin and eosin in Danish chalk. Henry-Modell Tracer Nitrate Eosin Uranin Pyranin Lithium Kd [L/g] 0.0019 0.0027 0.0025 0.0027 0.0030 Correlation Coefficient R2 0.99926 0.99902 0.99985 0.99928 0.99969

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to express their deep and sincere appreciation to Prof. B. Reichert, Bonn University, for guidance, helpful advice, supervision and support during this work. REFERENCES Bansemer, K. [2000] Sorption und Diffusion in Geklüfteter Poröser kreide. Diplom Thesis, Geological Institute, Bonn University, Bonn, Germany. Domenico, P.A. and Schwartz, F.W. [1990] Physical and chemical hydrogeology. John Wiley and Sons, INC. 824 pp.

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O'Connor, D.J. and Connolly, J.P. [1980] The effect of the concentration of adsorbing solids on the partition coefficient. Water Research, 14, 1517 - 1523. Witthüser, K.T. [2001] Untersuchung zum Stofftransport in geklüfteten Festgesteinen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Matrixdiffusion. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Germany Witthüser, K., Reichert, B, and Hötzl, H. [2003] Contaminant transport in fractured chalk: Laboratory and field experiments. Ground water , 41 (6), 806-815 Xu, S. and Wörman, A. [1999] Implications of sorption kinetics to radionuclide migration in fractured rock. Water Resour. Res. 11 (35), 4329-3440.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Liasic flora from sterile dump of Pit I, Anina, Resita Basin

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Săvescu Mircea Ovidiu Bogdan*, Andreea Madalina Zaharia, University of Bucharest

We studied the inventary files and we review this collection because it will be made a database and we had to know if every sample coresponds with it's inventar file. A review over the fossils for updating ( if necessary) the gender or the species

Summary The main point of view of this article is highlighting the existence of the (max. 200 words): Early Jurassic flora from Pit I, hardly represented by a big number of species
like: Neocalamites, Zamites schmideli, Pterophyllum, Ptilophyllum, Gingkoale, Equisetites, Nilssonia, Cladoplebis denticulate. Their fossil impressions are well preserved. The principal cause of material sampling and it's inventory of this collection is to make us understand more easily the environment in which their lived in and the interactions of the flora with other microorganisms, so, a better understanding of the entire ecosystem. The Early Jurassic carbogenerating flora, generated a big coal reservoir that was exploited since 1960’s until 2006, when because of the bad economically random was stoped. The sample material was taken from the steril dump of Pit I, from Anina in Resita Basin, also known as Garliste steril dump. The material we used needed mechanical procedures, as washing the sample for a good review, and by using the binocular and the electronic microscope this material could be defined and determinated.

Topic:

Paleontology

273

The Early Jurassic flora from the waste dump of Pit I, Anina
Mircea Ovidiu Bogdan Savescu*, Andreea Madalina Zaharia, University of Bucharest
Introduction The Resita Basin, known as well as Resita- Moldova Noua sedimentary zone, is located in the South Carpathians (Fig. 1). It’s limits are given by Resita town in North, the Danube and Moldova- Noua town in South, Valiug Bozovici Depression in East and in west side with the Sasca Gornajak Nappe and the Supragetic Units, along the Oravita Line. The Liasic flora from Resita Basin, comparing with the Danubian Units, has a higher degree of preservation and it frequently contains cuticles or in situ spores. (Popa,1994)

Fig. 1 - Geological structure of Romania (simplified) (Popa, 1994) Geology In Resita Basin we can find Upper Paleozoic deposits and Mesozoic deposits. Upper Paleozoic deposits are represented by: the Variscan molasses, represented by Resita and Cidanovita Formation. Resita formation represents the Upper Carboniferous and has three members: The Doman member, the Lupacu Batran member and Lupac member. Ciudanovita formation (Permian) has two members: Garliste and Lisava Members. (Popa,1994) Mesozoic deposits are represented by several formations from Lower Jurassic to Upper Cretaceous. The Liasic is detritic, with the Steirdorf formations (Fig. 2) and Dealu Zanei formations. Because the flora we’ve studied belongs to Steirdorf Formations we will concentrate our study on it. The Steirdorf formations represent the productive formations for the Liasic coal extraction within the whole Resita basin.

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No 3

Member Uteris

General lithology

2

1

Black bituminous shales, fine black sandstones Valea Tereziei Sandstones of all types, clays ( refractory, coaly, etc.), coal, microconglomerates, conglomerates Budinic Conglomerates, Alluvial fans microconglomerates, sandstones and rare clay lens Fig. 2 - Stratigraphy of the Steirdorf Formation (Popa, 1994)

Depositional environments Euxinic, anoxic deep lake or possible marine origin Fluviatile (possible both braided and meandered), marsh, back swamp, flooding plain, lake

Anina is the most important Liasic plant locality in the Gettic Nappe due to the diversity of Liasic plants and to their remarkable degree of preservation. The majority of the mining works in Anina town are underground exploitation horizons, with the exception of the Ponor open cast mine, occurring in the southern part of the town. (Popa,1994) Over the years, from Anina were collected, from underground exploitations and quarries, many species of plants. Waste deposits dumps were sampled as well. Popa’s collection, determined and inventoried, from main’s pit sterile dump is owned today by the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics and is exposed in the Geology and Paleontology Museum. The collection, from the waste dump contains the species Cladophlebis cf. denticulate, Cladophlebis denticulate (Osmundaceae), Ginkgo (Ginkgoales), Equsetites sp., Nilssonia (Dipteridaceae), Pagiophyllum sp., Phlebopteris angustiloba, Phlebopteris woodwardii, Ptilophyllum sp., Zamites sp., Zamites schimedilii, rachises and roots. Still, we have briefly described the characteristics of the species found in the waste dump. Order: Cycadeoidales Species: Zmites schimdeli (Brogniart) Harris J-K Pinnate fronds with a smooth rachis, at the top are inserted a variable number of pinnae. The pinnae are lanceolata with a symmetrical base, the edge is full with an acute apex. Ribs are parallel with the edge. Order: Gincoaceae Species: Ginkoides, Linee J-Act Trees can reach 15-20 feet with the crown strongly branched with two types of branches: long and short. Leaves are connected with a long, smooth petiole to the width sheath. Radial ribs start from the petiole and are dichotomyc divided several times reaching distal edge. Order: Filicales Species: Cladophlebis denticulate, Brongniart, 1849, T-K This species was probably a tree of several meters high with bipinnate fronds, straight rachis having a prominent, longitudinal and axially ridge. Midribs are oblique inserted to the secondary rachis and the secondary veins are once divided dichotomously, the division occurring in the first half of secondary veins.

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Order: Equisetales Species: Neocalamites sp., Halle, 1908, T- Jinf. The plant has a cylindrical stem with 1-3cm in diameter. At nodes, acicular leaves of a few cm in length are disposed, leaving acicular impressions. Striae are disposed only longitudinal, not alternative. Cones are disposed on lateral branches. Order: Equisetales Species: Equisetites sp., (Sternberg 1883) Linne The plant has a straight and underground stem. The leaves are lanceolata, approx. 80 per node. Cones are apical attached with long sporangia, axially fixed. Order: Cycadeoidales Species: Pterophyllum, Brongniart, 1928, J-K Pinnate fronds with wide rachis that supports in the top long pinnules with expanded and symmetrical base. The apex is attenuated. Ribs are parallel and they can divide dichotomously, reaching the top. Conclusions After cleaning and rearranging Popa’s collection from Pit I, Anina, the authors concluded there is no need of making new inventory files as the old ones were very good. Jurassic flora from Pit I is well preserved, being represented mainly by compressions and impressions but also permineralization. This flora has a very important significance in fitostratigraphy and palaeoecology. The waste dump is now protected by law for it’s wealthy of flora. Acknowledgements We want to thank Ms. Mihai E. Popa for the support and for letting us to use the equipment we needed (microscope, inventory files, photo camera, books etc.). We also want to thank Ms. Zoltan Csiki for the help he gave us in using some programs. References Bucur, I. [1997] Formatiuni Mesozoice din Zona ReşiŃa Moldova - Nouă ( Muntii Aninei si estul Muntilor Locvei). Editura Presa Universitare Clujeana Codarcea, A. [1940] Vues nouvelles sur la tectonique du Banat meridional et du Plateau de MehedinŃi. D.S. Inst. Geol. Rom. Damian, R., Dragastan, O., Popa, M. [1997] Paleobotanica si Palinologie. Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti Givulescu, R. [1998] Flora fosila a Jurasicului inferior de la Anina. Editura Academiei Romane Mutihac, V. [1990] Structura geologica a teritoriului Romaniei. Ed. Tehnica, 419pp. Mutihac, V., Stratulat, M.I. and Fechet, R.M. [2004] Geologia României. Editura Didactică şi Pedagogică, Bucureşti Nastaseanu, S., Badaluta, A. and Bitoianu, C. [1985] L' etude geologique des formations de charbon dans le Bassin Sirinia (Banat), a l'exclusion de Cozla. Analele Univ. Bucuresti, 47-54 Popa, M.E. [2003] Geological heritage values in the Iron Gates Natural Park, Romania. In: M. Patroescu (Editor), ICERA 2003. Ars Docendi Publishing House, Bucuresti, pp. 742-751 Popa, M.E. and Van Konijnenburg - Van Cittert, J.H.A. [2006] Aspects of Romanian Early Middle Jurassic palaeobotany and palynology. Part VII. Successions and floras. Progress in Natural Sciences, 16, 203-212 Preda, I., Culda, V. and Badaluta, A., Streanga, V. [1985] La flore liassique de Pregheda (Banat). Analele Universitatii Bucuresti, XXXV, 71-75

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Raileanu, G., Grigoras, N., Oncescu, N. and Plisca, T. [1963] Geologia zacamintelor de carbuni cu privire speciala asupra teritoriului R.P.R. Editura Tehnica, Bucuresti, pp. 220-225. Săndulescu, M. [1984] Geotectonica României. Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti. Semaka, A. [1961] Uber die pflanzenfuhrenden Liassischten Rumaniens (II. Danubikum). Neues Jb. Geol. Palaontol., Mh Semaka, A. [1965] Zur Kenntnis der Nilssonia orientalis-Flora in den Sudkarpaten. Acta Palaeobotanica Polonica, VI(2), 27-39 Semaka, A. [1970] Geologisch-Paleobotanische Untersuchungen in S.O. Banaten Danubikum. Memorii, XI, 1-79 Vakhrameev, V. [1991] Jurassic and Cretaceous floras and climates of the Earth. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

New paleomagnetic results from the South Harghita volcanic area (Romania)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Madalina Vişan*, Institute of Geodynamics “Sabba S. Stefănescu”, Teodora Merezeanu, Andrei Panaiotu, Cristian Panaiotu, University of Bucharest

Paleomagnetic study of volcanic rocks from the Harghita Mountains

New paleomagnetic results, implication for the evolution of volcanism

We present new paleomagnetic results from the South Harghita volcanic Summary (max. 200 words): area. Base on detail AF and thermal demagnetizations we established that magnetic polarity is normal in 39 sites and reversed in 22 sites. Distribution of magnetic polarities in the South Harghita Mountains is in agreement with the K-Ar ages of the volcanism. Our results are compatible with the accepted model of gradually migration of volcanic activity from north to south between 5 Ma and 0.3 Ma. Area mean direction based on 53 sites has 356°declination and and 64°inclination. This result shows the absence of important vertical axis rotation during the last 4 Ma. The pattern of mean paleomagnetic declinations in the last 4 Ma around the bending area of the East Carpathians is compatible with the present day velocity GPS data which show intense deformation only in external part of the bending area.

Topic:

Earth Physics

278

New paleomagnetic results from the South Harghita volcanic area (Romania)
Mădălina Vişan (Institute of Geodynamics “Sabba Ştefănescu”), Teodora Merezeanu, Andrei Panaiotu, Cristian Panaiotu (University of Bucharest)

Introduction The East Carpathians Mountains contains Neogene to Quaternary magmatic rocks of highly diverse composition - large volumes of calc-alkaline magmatic products (basalts, basaltic-andesites, andesites, dacites, rhyolites) and sporadic small volumes of alkaline magma types (alkali basalts, basanites, shoshonites, lamproites) - that were generated in response to complex microplate tectonics including subduction followed by roll-back, collision, subducted slab break-off, rotations and extension (Seghedi et al, 2004). Based on the spatial distribution, temporal evolution and geochemical features (Seghedi et al, 2004), Neogene magmatism in the Carpathian-Pannonian area can be divided into more segments, which include the South-Eastern segment from Calimani (North) to the norther part of the South Harghita Mountains. This part is characterized by the presence of large amounts of calc-alkaline rocks formed between 10 and 3.5Ma. After this period, the activity continued south-eastwards into the South Harghita area, in which activity started (ca. 3 - 0.03Ma), with contemporaneous eruption of calc-alcaline, shoshonitic and alkali basaltic. Previous paleomagnetic results from the South-East segment are from 4-6 Ma old volcanic rocks (Pătraşcu, 1976). In the South Harghita Mountains only several sites are reported: 3 sites in the northern part of the area (Pătraşcu, 1976) and two sites in the southern part (Michailova et al., 1983). The present paleomagnetic study is focussed on the last 5 Ma of volcanic activity in the South Harghita Mountains. Sampling and methods The oriented samples were collected from 68 sites (Fig. 1) distributed in various volcanic rocks from the South Harghita Mountains (andesites, basaltic andesites, dacites and shoshonites). They were obtained using a portable drill and oriented using both a magnetic and solar compass. Up to three standard 25x22mm cylinder specimens resulted from each core. Magnetic mineralogy was identified using the variation of magnetic susceptibility (MS) with the applied field and temperature. Field dependence was measured with a MFK1-A kappabridge (AGICO) applying a field variation between 5A/m and 700 A/m. Thermal change of the magnetic susceptibility during a heating-cooling cycle from room temperature to 700°C in argon was investigate using an AGICO CS-3 apparatus coupled to the MFK1 kappabridge. The structure of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of pilot specimens was studied using both alternating field (AF) demagnetization and thermal demagnetization. The remanent magnetizations measurements were made with a JR-6A Dual Speed Spinner Magnetometer. . Demagnetization data were analysed using Remasoft 3.0 software (Chadima and Hrouda, 2006). On orthogonal demagnetization diagrams, individual magnetizations were identified as linear segments in both horizontal and vertical projections defined by three or more demagnetization steps. Characteristic directions were determined using principal component analysis. All accepted linear segments have maximum angular deviation (MAD) values of less than 5°. The method of Fisher, assuming circular distribution of individual magnetization directions about a true mean direction, was employed to estimate site-mean directions and associate statistics.

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Fig. 1 Location of sampling sites: blue circle = normal polarity; red circle = reversed polarity. Map according to Odorhei geological map (1:200000).

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Results Both the variation of magnetic susceptibility with the applied field and with temperature show that main magnetic minerals are (low) titanomagnetite and magnetite. The structure of the NRM was identified successfully both by AF and thermal demagnetizations. Some samples are characterized by a very small viscous overprint removed up to 20 mT or 250°C. After the removal of this component vector, demagnetization plots show a linear decay toward the origin. The characteristic remanent magnetization was identified successfully in all samples. Normal polarity was identified in 39 sites, 22 sites have reversed polarity and 3 sites have intermediate directions (Fig. 2). We rejected 4 sites because they donnot follow the criteria for selecting data of Tauxe et al. (2003).

Fig. 2 Distribution of site mean directions: full dot = positive inclination; open dot = negative inclination. Conclusions Distribution of magnetic polarities in the South Harghita Mountains is in agreement with the K-Ar ages of the volcanism (Pecskay et al., 2006). Our results are compatible with the accepted model of gradually migration of volcanic activity from north to south. Area mean direction based on 53 sites is: declination = 356° and inclination = 64°. This result shows the absence of important vertical axis rotation during the last 4 Ma. Mean paleomagnetic declinations (Pătraşcu, 1976; Dupont-Nivet et al., 2005; this study) in the bending area of the Carpathians (thick arrows) and GPS horizontal velocities (van der Hoeven et al., 2005) are plotted in Fig. 3. Overall the pattern of mean paleomagnetic declinations in the last 4 Ma is compatible with the present day velocity GPS data which show intense deformation only in external part of the bending area. Acknowledgements We want to thank Dr. Cristian Panaiotu (Paleomagnetism Laboratory, University of Bucharest) for the great support in the entire research activity. This project was supported by CNCSIS grant 974/2007 and grant 937/2007.

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Fig. 3 Mean paleomagnetic declinations and GPS data in the south-eastern Romania References Chadima, M., Hrouda, F.[2006] Remasoft 3.0 a user-friendly paleomagnetic data browser and analyzer. Travaux Géophysiques, XXVII, 20-21. Dupont-Nivet, G., Vasiliev, I,, Langereis, C., Krijgsman, W., Panaiotu, C. [2005] Neogene tectonic evolution of the South and East Carpathians constrained by paleomagnetism. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 236, 374-386 Pătraşcu S. [1976] Paleomagnetic study of some Neogene eruptive formations in the CălimaniGurghiu-Harghita Mountains (Romania). Rev. Roum. de Geologie Geophysique et Geographie, 20, 51-63 Michailova, N., Glevasskaya, A., Tsykora, V., Neştianu, T., Romanescu, D. [1983] New paleomagnetic data for the Călimani, Gurghiu and Harghita Volcanic Mountains. An. Inst. Geol. Geofiz., LXIII, 101-111 Pecskay, Z., Lexa, J., Szakacs, A., Seghedi, I., Balogh, K., Konecny, V., Zelenka, T., Kovacs, M., Poka, T., Fulop, A., Marton, E., Panaiotu, C., Cvetkovic, V. [2006] Geochronology of Neogene magmatism in the Carpathian arc and intra-Carpathian area. Geologica Carpathica, 57, 6, 511-530. Seghedi, I., Downes, H., Szakács, A., Mason, P., Thirlwall, M., Rosu, E., Pécskay, Z., Marton, E., Panaiotu, C. [2004] Neogene–Quaternary magmatism and geodynamics in the Carpathian–Pannonian region: a synthesis. Lithos, 72, 117–146. Tauxe, L., Constable, C., Johnson, C. L., Koppers, A. A. P., Miller, W. R., Staudigel, H. [2003] Paleomagnetism of the southwestern U.S.A. recorded by 0–5 Ma igneous rocks. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 4(4), 8802, doi:10.1029/2002GC000343 van der Hoeven, A.G.A., Mocanu, V., Spakman, W., Nutto, M. Nuckelt, A., Matenco, L., Munteanu, L., Marcu, C. and Ambrosius, B. A. C. [2005] Observation of present-day tectonic motions in the Southeastern Carpathians: Results of the ISES/CRC-461 GPS measurements. Earth and Planet. Sc. Lett., 239, 177-184

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Microfacies and microfossils of the Upper TithonianBerriasian limestone in the Pietrele Bulbuci klippes (South Apuseni Mountains, Romania)
Camelia Catincuţ*, Mihai Michetiuc, Babeş-Bolyai University

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

To determinate the age of the calcareous klippes from South Apuseni mountains, in order to establish the relations between them and the wildflisch deposits, and the reconstruction of their depositional settings. The present study provides important information concerning the biostratigraphy and microfacies of the Pitrele Bulbuci klippes.

Summary The carbonate breccia that form the isolated blocks called Pietrele Bulbuci, (max. 200 words): represent fore-reef slope deposits. Microfacies, biotic composition, a high
contribution of binding and baffling organisms (algae, sponge and microproblematica) indicate a source area characterized by bioconstructions situated at the edge of a carbonate platform. Four types of carbonate microfacies were distinguished: coral-microbial boundstone, bindstone (algal microbial crusts), lithoclastic-bioclastic rudstone and bioclastic-intraclastic packstone/grainstone. Based on micropaleontological assemblage consisting of algae and foraminifera we assigned to these calcareous blocks Late Tithonian-Early Berriasian age.

Topic:

Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

283

Microfacies and microfossils of the Upper Tithonian-Berriasian limestone in the Pietrele Bulbuci klippes (South Apuseni Mountains)
Camelia Catincuţ, Mihai Michetiuc, Babeş-Bolyai University Introduction and geological framework The wildflisch sequences within the Mesozoic deposits from Southern Apuseni Mountains contain frequent calcareous klippes. They represent structural elements essential for the formation of these deposits, and the Bulbuci klippes, described below, are good examples of such elements. Pietrele Bulbuci are located on a small peak situated on the left side of Ampoi Valley just few kilometers East of Zlatna (Fig.1).

Fig. 1 Location of the studied area. 1. Location of the studied section (Pietrele Bulbuci); 2. Feneş Nappe; 3. Valea Mică-Galda Nappe; 4. Bozeş Nappe; 5. Căpâlnaş-Techereu Nappe; 6. Metamorphic rocks; 7. Magmatic rocks; 8. Cenozoic sedimentary formations. The calcareous klippes belong to Valea lui Paul Formation (Bleahu & Dimian, 1967) included in Feneş Nape (Lupu M., 1975). This formation, Uppermost Albian–Cenomanian in age, was described from the western part of Presaca Ampoiului Village and has a predominant detrital, coarse grained character. The main lithologic type consists of grey, weakly lithified sandstones grading into sands (Bleahu et al., 1981). We studied the three isolated limestone blocks situated at the altitude of about 550 meters. The largest block is about 78 meters in hight and is surrounded by two smaller limestone blocks. They are composed of a poorly sorted limestone breccia. The clasts forming the breccia have a white-grey color, angular to rounded shapes and dimensions ranging from sand grains to pebbles. The deposits are usually clasts supported but sometimes they are embedded in a reddish or greenish argillaceous matrix. The microfacies study of breccia clasts reveals the existence of four microfacies types: (1) coral-microbial boundstone; (2) bindstone (algal microbial crusts); (3) lithoclastic-bioclastic rudstone; (4) bioclastic-intraclastic packstone/grainstone. (1) Coral-microbial boundstone. Bioconstructions are made mainly by corals, which are usually associated with various encrusting organisms such as red algae, bryozoans, foraminifera [Coscinophragma cribrosa (Reuss), Acruliamina sp.], and microproblematica [Koskinobulina socialis CHERCHI & SCHROEDER, Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera (RAINERI), Lithocodium aggregatum ELLIOTT, Bacinella sp.] (Pl. I, . 1). Beside corals, low growing communities such sponges, bryozoans, microproblematic organisms [Crescentiella morronensis (CRESCENTI),

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Radiomura cautica SENOWBARI-DARYAN & SCHAFFER], red algae (Solenopora sp.) and rare dasycladalean algae (Linoporella sp.) contribute to the trapping of the sediment. The matrix between the bioconstructions is represented by microbial crusts (which bound the intra-reefal sediment), finegrained peloidal packstone (probably also of microbial origin) and bioclastic peloidal grainstone with foraminifera, green algae, gastropods, echinoderm fragments and Crescentiella morronensis (CRESCENTI). These deposits were subject to subaerial exposure proven by the dissolution voids bordered by drusy cements and filled with vadous silt. Sometimes the center of this voids was filled with gravitational micritic sediment containing fresh water fauna with ostracods. (Fig. 2, Pl. I) (2) Bindstone (microbial crust). Biogenic crusts have an important role in the stabilization of the substrate and are the most common elements contributing to the formation of bindstones. Bindstones are formed by two biogenic crust types having different composition: (a) Micritic crusts and (b) “Festooned” crusts (Bradner et al., 1991). (Fig. 2, Pl. I) (a) The micrite crusts are important constituents of the reef rocks and are characterized by irregular thin micrite laminae separating packstone areas consisting of very small peloids, sometimes also ooids and small intraclasts (Pl. I, Fig. 2). Micritic crusts are generally attributed to algal or bacterial activity (e.g. Pomoni-Papaioannou et al., 1989). (Fig. 2, Pl. I) (b) “Festooned” crust bindstones where interpreted as partially induced by bacteria and fungi (Bradner et al., 1991).They are defined by a festoon-shape and generate large biogenic structures consisting of irregular, interrupted thin micrite laminae and thicker sparite areas. (3) Lithoclastic bioclastic rudstone. This microfacies consist of carbonate lithoclasts and isolated bioclasts (Pl. I, 3). The lithoclasts are angular, have varying dimensions and chaotic arrangement. They are represented by reef derived material such as coral/sponge boundstones, microbial crusts, microbial peloidal packstone-grainstone, bioclastic peloidal grainstone, and by packstone/wackstone with sponge spicules and calpionellids. The isolated fossils are represented by fragments of corals, sponges, bryozoans, echinoderm fragments, bivalves, gastropods and microproblematica.(Fig. 2, Pl. I) This facies also presents characteristics of a meteoric diagenesis (dog-tooth cement). (4) Bioclastic intraclastic packstone/grainstone. The most typical carbonate particles included in this facies are bioclasts, represented by corals, bivalves, brachiopods, crab fragments, echinoderm fragments (often with sintaxial cement), foraminifera, dasycladalean green algae and the microprolematicum Crescentiella morronensis (very common) (Pl. I, 4). Besides, peloids and intraclasts consisting of peloidal microbial packstones, broken crusts and cyanobacterial nodules are present. These grains were cemented by an early marine acicular-isopachous cement, the remaining pore space being occluded by drusy cement. Most of the bioclasts appear dissolved, recrystallized and marginally micritised under the effect of meteroric waters. All this arguments led us to the conclusion that these deposits were formed in an open marine environment and probably represent bioclastic shoals from the platform margin. (Fig. 2, Pl. I) Age of the calcareous klippes The following micropaleontological association has been identified in the limestone pebbles forming the breccia: foraminifera [Andersenolina alpina (LEUPOLD) (Pl. I, . 5), Andersenolina cherchiae (ARNAUD-VANNEAU, BOISSEAU & DARSAC), Lenticulina sp., Andersenolina sp., Trocholina sp. (Pl. I, 6), Neotrocholina sp., Protopeneroplis ultragranulata (GORBACHIK), Protopeneroplis striata WEYNSCHENK (Pl. I, . 7), Charentia sp. (Pl. I, . 8), Nautiloculina sp. (Pl. I, . 9), Everticyclammina sp., Charentia cuvilieri NEUMANN (Pl. I, . 10), Mohlerina basiliensis (MOHLER) (Pl. I, . 11), Coscinophragma cribrosa (REUSS)], green algae [Griphoporella jurassica (ENDO) (Pl. I, . 12), Clypeina sulcata (ALTH) (Pl. I, . 13), Salpingoporella pygmaea (GUEMBEL) (Pl. I, . 14), Salpingoporella annulata CAROZZI, Neoteutloporella socialis (PRATURLON), Linoporella sp. (Pl. I, . 15), Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera (RAINERI)], microproblematica [Crescentiella morronensis (CRESCENTI), Diversocallis sp., , Bacinella sp., Radiomura cautica SENOWBARI-DARYAN & SCHAFFER, Labes atramentosa ELIAŠOVA, Koskinobulina socialis CHERCHI & SCHROEDER, Lithocodium aggregatum ELLIOTT], calpionellids (Calpionella sp., Calpionella alpina LORENZ (Pl. I, 16)), serpulids (Mercierella dacica DRAGASTAN) and crab fragments (Carpathocancer sp.). (Fig. 2, Pl. I)

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The assemblage of calcareous algae and foraminifera is relatively rich and suggest an Upper Tithonian-Berriasian age. Conclusions The studied limestone klippes exhibit clasts-supported, poorly sorted limestone breccia consisting of angular and rounded clasts of different sizes. The microscopic study of the clasts reveals the polimictic character of the breccia, the limestone pebbles containing four facies associations: coral-microbial boundstone, bindstone (algal microbial crusts), lithoclastic-bioclastic rudstone and bioclastic-intraclastic packstone/grainstone. The interpretation of microfacies types shows that the pebbles were eroded from a bioconstructed (coral-microbial boundstones and bindstones) or bioacumulated platform margin (bioclastic shoals) and from the upper slope (rudstones and possibly some of the bindstones).This eroded and reworked material was transported by gravity flow processes and deposited somewhere on the upper slope. The age of the limestone pebbles that forms the klippes is Late Tithonian-Berriasian. Acknowledgements The study is a contribution to the CNCSIS project BD 409. We thank Professor I.I. Bucur for scientific support. References Bleahu, M. and Dimian, M. [1967] Studii stratigrafice şi tectonice în regiunea Feneş-Ighiel-Intregalde (Munţii Metaliferi). Dări de Seamă ale Şedinţelor, LIII(1)[1965-1966], 282-304. Bleahu, M., Lupu, M., Patrulius, D., Bordea, S., Ştefan, A. and Panin, S. [1981] The Structure of the Apuseni Mountains. Guide to excursion B3, Asociaţia Geologică Carpato-Balkanică, Congresul XII, 107 . Bradner, R., Flügel, E. and Senowbari-Darian, B. [1991] Microfacies of carbonate slope boulders: indicator of the source area (Middle Triassic: Mahlknecht Cliff, Western Dolomites). Facies, 2, 279296. Lupu, M. [1975] Einige Bemerkungen zur Tektonik des sudlichen Apuseni-Gebriges. Revue Roumain de Geologie, Geophys et Geographie, Geologie, 19, Bucureşti. Pomoni-Papaioannou, F., Flügel, E. and Koch, R. [1989] Depositional environments and diagenesis of Upper Jurassic subsurface sponge and Tubiphytes reef limestone: Altensteig 1 Well, Western Molasse Basin, Southern Germany. Facies, 21, 263-284. Fig.2: Facies types and some microfossils of Pietrele Bulbuci klippes 1. Boundstone with corals incrusted by bryozoans; sample 211. 2. Micrite crusts with irregular thin micrite laminae separating packstone areas with small peloids, sample 201. 3. Lithoclastic-bioclastic rudstone; sample 225A. 4. Bioclastic-intraclastic grainstone with Clypeina sulcata; sample 205I. 5. Andersenolina alpina (LEUPOLD); sample 210. 6. Trocholina sp.; sample 201. 7. Protopeneroplis striata Weynschenk; sample 215. 8. Charentia sp.; sample 217. 9. Nautiloculina sp.; sample 217. 10. Charentia cuvilieri Neumann; sample 214. 11. Mohlerina basiliensis (MOHLER); sample 226. 12. Griphoporella jurassica (ENDO); sample 214. 13. Clypeina sulcata (ALTH); sample 205I. 14. Salpingoporella pygmaea (GUEMBEL); sample 217. 15. Linoporella sp.; sample 285. 16. Calpionella alpina LORENZ; sample 203A.

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Fig. 2 1-16: Facies types and some microfossils of Pietrele Bulbuci klippes

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Mapping updates for the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous limestones from Hodobana-Gârda Seacă area (Bihor Mountains)
Valentin Turi, University of Bucharest, Emanoil Săsăran, Ioan I. Bucur, Babeş-Bolyai University

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

New data regarding the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous limestones from Hodobana and Garda Seaca area (Bihor Mountains). Modifications to the map of outcropping Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous limestones from the study area.

Summary The study was focused on the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous limestones (max. 200 words): from Hodobana and Garda Seaca region. Based on micropaleontological
associations identified in the collected samples, we were able to determine that the Upper Jurassic limestones from this region have a larger outcropping area than it was previously mapped on the 1:50 000 geological maps.

Topic:

Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

288

Mapping updates for the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous limestones from Hodobana-Gârda Seacă area (Bihor Mountains)
Valentin TURI, University of Bucharest, Emanoil SĂSĂRAN & Ioan I. BUCUR, Babeş-Bolyai University In the Hodobana - Gârda Seacă area, from the Bihor Mountains (Fig. 1), the outcroping formations belonging to the Mesozoic cover of the Bihor Unit are represented by Triasic detritic and carbonatic deposits, a detritic Lower Jurassic succesion and Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous limestones (Bleahu et al., 1980; Dimitrescu et al., 1977). Our research focused on the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous limestones. These limestones were studied along the Gârda Seacă, Hodobana, Sohodoale, Hoanca Fileştilor and Pojarului Valleys, as well as on Vârtopaşului, Crestătura and Chicera Hills.

Fig. 1 Location of the study area shown by the red arrow The age of the limestones was established based on micropaleontological assemblages. The Upper Jurassic limestones from Hodobana-Gârda Seacă area contain foraminifera (Fig. 2, 6-12) [?Alveosepta sp., Andersenolina alpina (LEUPOLD), Andersenolina sp., ?Charentia sp., Coscinophragma sp., ?Everticyclammina sp., Kurnubia palastiniensis HENSON, ?Kurnubia sp., Labyrinthina mirabilis WEYNSCHENK, Mohlerina basiliensis (MOHLER), Neokilianina rahonensis (FOURY & VINCENT), Parurgonina caelinensis CUVILLIER, FOURY & PIGNATTI MORANO, ?Parurgonina sp., Pseudocyclammina lituus YOKOYAMA, ?Pseudocyclammina sp., Redmondoides lugeoni (SEPTFONTAINE)], dasycladalean and other green algae (Fig. 2, 1-5) [Campbelliella striata CAROZZI, Clypeina sulcata (ALTH), Salpingoporella annulata CAROZZI, Salpingoporella pygmaea (GÜMBEL), Salpingoporella sp., Nipponophycus ramosus YABE & TOYAMA, Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera RAINERI], rhodophyta (?Solenopora sp.), rivulariacean-type cyanobacteria, and microproblematica [Bacinella irregularis RADOIČIĆ, Lithocodium aggregatum ELLIOTT and Crescentiella morronensis (CRESCENTI)]. The Lower Cretaceous limestones from Hodobana contain a micropaleontological assemblage with foraminifera (Fig. 3, 6-10) [Coscinophragma sp., Charentia cuvillieri NEUMANN, Everticyclammina hedbergi (MAYNC), Everticyclammina sp., Neotrocholina sp., Nezzazatinella sp., Montseciella arabica (HENSON), Paleodictyoconus sp., Palorbitolina lenticularis (BLUMENBACH), ?Palorbitolina sp., Paracoskinolina? jourdanensis FOURY & MOULLADE, Pseudolituonella gavonensis FOURY, Sabaudia minuta (HOFKER), Trocholina sp., Troglotella incrustans WERNLI & FOOKES and Vercorsella sp.], dasycladalean algae (Fig. 3, 2-5) [Falsolikanella danilovae (RADOIČIĆ), ?Linoporella sp., Neomeris cretacea STEINMANN, Neomeris sp., Salpingoporella melitae RADOIČIĆ, Salpingoporella muehlbergii (LORENZ), Salpingoporella pygmaea (GÜMBEL), Suppiluliumaella elliotti BAKALOVA, Suppiluliumaella sp. and Terquemella sp.], rivulariacean-type cyanobacteria, rhodophyta [Marinella lugeoni PFENDER (Fig. 3, 1) and ?Solenopora sp.], and microproblematica (Bacinella irregularis RADOIČIĆ and Lithocodium aggregatum ELLIOTT).

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Fig.2 Upper Jurassic algae (Foto 1-5) and foraminifera (Foto 6-12) 1 - Campbelliella striata CAROZZI; 2 - Clypeina sulcata ALTH; 3 - Salpingoporella annulata CAROZZI; 4 - Salpingoporella pygmaea GÜMBEL; 5 - Nipponophycus ramosus YABE & TOYAMA; 6 - Andersenolina alpina LEUPOLD; 7 - Kurnubia palastiniensis HENSON; 8, 9 Labyrinthina mirabilis WEYNSCHENK; 10 - Neokilianina rahonensis FOURY & VINCENT; 11 Parurgonina caelinensis CUVILLIER, FOURY & PIGNATTI MORANO; 12 Pseudocyclammina lituus YOKOYAMA.

Fig.3 Lower Cretaceous algae (Foto 1-5) and foraminifera (Foto 6-10) 1 - Marinella lugeoni PFENDER; 2 - Suppiluliumaella elliotti BAKALOVA; 3 - Terquemella sp.; 4 - Neomeris cretacea STEINMANN; 5 - Salpingoporella pygmaea (GÜMBEL); 6 - Montseciella arabica (HENSON); 7 - Palorbitolina lenticularis (BLUMENBACH); 8 - Everticyclammina hedbergi MAYNC; 9 - Mayncina sp.; 10 - Coscinophragma sp.

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From field observations, as well as from thin sections and polished slabs analyses we conclude that a part of the Triasic (Ladinian) and Lower Cretaceous limestones from Gârda Seacă-Hodobana region, delimited on the Geological Maps 1:50 000, Sheets b, d (Poiana Horea and Avram Iancu) (Bleahu et al., 1980; Dimitrescu et al., 1977), belong in fact to the Upper Jurassic carbonate succession (Fig. 2). Kimmeridgian-Tithonian limestones are cropping out on Sohodoale Valley on aproximately 1.5 km upstream from the confluence with Hodobana Valley. These limestones are deposited in a high energy subtidal environment, as well as, most probably, in a shallow-water intertidal environment. The succesion continues with Barremian-Aptian limestones (Fig. 4) developed in Urgonian facies, with different organisms generating bioclasts. The rudists are important bioclasts producers, in comparison with corals and sclerosponges. The last two groups generated bioconstructions, but these are not important elements of the Urgonian limestones.

Fig.4 Lower Cretaceous bioclastic limestones 1 - Wackestone-packestone with rudist, corals and sclerosponges fragments; 2 - Bioclastic rudstone with gastropods, corals and rudist fragments; 3 - Rudstone with rudists incrusted by Lithocodium aggregatum ELLIOTT.

The samples colected from Hoanca Fileştilor and Gârda Seacă Valleys contain a micropaleontological assemblage that points to the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age, with reef bioconstructions (Fig. 5, 1 & 2), oncoidic limestones (Fig. 5, 3) and their associated facies, typical for Crişanului Valley Formation (nom. corr.) and Albioara Formation (sensu Dragastan et al., 1986).

Fig.5 Upper Jurassic limestones 1, 2 - Coraligen bioconstructions (boundstone); 3 - Oncoidic-bioclastic grainstone-packestone with foraminifera and green algae.

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Fig.6 Geological map compiled from Sheets b & d, 1: 50 000 (Poiana Horea and Avram Iancu) (Bleahu et al., 1980; Dimitrescu et al., 1977) - with modifications for Upper Jurassic limestones outcroping area. 1 - Quaternary deposits, 2 - Arieseni Nappe, 3 - Gârda Nappe Bihor Unit: 4 - Lower Cretaceous limestones; 5 - Upper Jurassic limestones; 6 - Lower Jurassic detritic formations; 7 - Medium Triasic limestones; 8 - Medium Triasic limestones, breccia, sandstone and shales; 9 - Anisian dolomites and Werfenian - Lower Anisian detritic formations; 10 - Upper Precambrian - Lower Cambrian metamorphites; 11 - Kimmeridgian - Tithonian limestones identified in this study; 12 - Limit uncertain outside studied areas.

Acknowledgements The study is a contribution to the research project founded by CNCSIS, grant ID 561. References Bleahu M., Bordea S., Bordea Josefina, Mantea Gh., Dimitrescu R. [1980] Harta Geologică 1:50 000, Foaia 56b, Poiana Horea. Editura Institutului Geologic. Dimitrescu, R., Bleahu, M. & Lupu, M. [1977] Harta Geologică 1:50 000, Foaia 56d, Avram Iancu. Editura Institutului Geologic. Dragastan O., Purecel R. & Brustur T. [1986] – The Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous formations from the Bihor Mts. – central-southern sector (Northern Apuseni). Analele Universităţii Bucureşti, Geologie, XXXV, p.57-70, Bucureşti.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Evaluation and improvement of the equilibrium state of a massive to strengthen existing buildings and for the design of new construction on Olimpia Tennis Courts, Braşov
Alexandra Munteanu*, Florica Stroia, University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

An issue like landslides appears today as an important and obvious environmental problem which requests a careful and complex approach of which results must end up at a fast and efficient solving of the problem. The study highlights problem areas in terms of stability since excavation of slope for construction of buildings produced geological load of the slope which became unstable.

Summary Landslides are rock, earth, or debris flows on slopes due to gravity. They can (max. 200 words): occur when the stability of a slope changes from a stable to an unstable
condition and can depend on the angle of slope. A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors, acting together or alone: natural causes of landslides or aggravated by human activities. For the slope stability a factor of safety is calculated by dividing the forces resisting movement by the forces driving movement with Fellenius and Bishop mathematical equations. Geotechnical mapping of the surface reveal the existence of filling layer composed of construction debris dating from the years 1880-1886. The existing buildings were unstable because their foundations have not been embedded in bedrock, but in filling layer that reached 4 m thick. The primary considerations for foundation support are bearing capacity and settlement. The slope became unstable since excavation for construction of buildings produced geological load and has been amplified by the existence of anthropogenic and natural sources of water.It was made the design of a stable structure of a stable slope.

Topic:

Geological engineering, Geotechnics, Environmental engineering

293

Evaluation and improvement of the equilibrium state of a massive to strengthen existing buildings and for the design of new construction on Olimpia Tennis Courts, Braşov
Alexandra Munteanu, Florica Stroia, University of Bucharest Introduction An issue like landslides appears today as an important and obvious environmental problem which requests a careful and complex approach of which results must end up at a fast and efficient solving of the problem. The geotechnical investigation of landslides benefits of a significant improving of the data acquisition, processing and interpretation techniques. The integrated interpretation of many datasets, each belonging to a different investigation method, proved to be the optimum solution for high quality results in the condition of relatively small investments in the data acquisition stage. In this study the investigation methods of landslides were made at surface and subsurface using geotechnical methods. Theory and models Landslides are rock, earth, or debris flows on slopes due to gravity. They can occur when the stability of a slope changes from a stable to an unstable condition and can depend on the angle of slope (MărunŃeanu C., Stănciucu M., Ciupercă L., Berceanu V., 1999). A change in the stability of a slope can be caused by a number of factors, acting together or alone: natural causes of landslides or aggravated by human activities. For the slope stability a factor of safety is calculated by dividing the forces resisting movement by the forces driving movement with Fellenius and Bishop mathematical equations: Fellenius:

F

sF

=

τ τ

f e

=

1

τ

[c + (τ − u )tgϕ ]

e

Σ[
Bishop:

F

sB

=

c b + (G − u b )tg ϕ ] mα Qa Σ G sin α + R
i i i i i i i i

where

mα = cos α (1 +

tgαtgϕ

F

) (Băncilă I.

sF

et. al., 1981). The primary considerations for foundation support are bearing capacity and settlement. Bearing capacity is the ability of the site soils to support the loads imposed by buildings or structures. Settlement occurs under all foundations in all soil conditions, though lightly loaded structures or rock sites may experience negligible settlements. For heavier structures or softer sites, both overall settlement relative to unbuilt areas or neighboring buildings, and differential settlement across the site, can be concerns. Of particular concern is settlement which occurs over time, as immediate settlement can usually be compensated for during construction (Stroia F.,2000). Depending on the technological needs a deep foundation was executed with bearing capacity calculated on piles: R = k (

mp
3

v

A + UΣ m4

f l)
i i

and where was made direct foundation of

retaining wall the settlement was calculated with s i = 0,8

σ z * ho
i

i

Ei

(Stroia F.,2000).

Field data – site description The site is located in the largest depression intramontane of tectonic origin from Romanian Carpathians, formed at the end of Levantine period (Pliocene) and the beginning of Quaternary era, named Braşov Depression (Săndulescu M., 1984). Brain area was developed in the Quaternary

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holocene proluvial-coluvial and alluvial deposits which have been shaped by Bârsa, Ghimbăşelul, Graftul, Timişu Sec and Târlungul rivers. In this study we meet the deluvial-coluvial deposits generated by western slope’s limestone of Tâmpa Mountain. At surface we can find cohesive rocks like: clay, silty clay, sandy clay to lateral. If we go deep we can find limy debris having interspaces filled with clayey material and the native rock represented by the Stramberg limestone (age: tithonic-kimmeridgian). Geotechnical mapping of the surface reveal the existence of filling layer composed of construction debris dating from the years 1880-1886. The existing buildings were unstable because their foundations have not been embedded in bedrock, but in filling layer that reached 4 m thick (Neolitos Company, 2006). Methods and data collecting Geotechnical investigations provide an efficient tool for characterizing surface and subsurface geology. Subsurface exploration usually involves soil sampling and laboratory testing of the soil samples retrieved. Were collected 15 boreholes down to a maximum depth of 6 m, survey drilled in a dry system with disturbed and undisturbed samples according to Romanian Standards. On the samples taken from the drillings geotechnical laboratory physical and mechanical tests were executed such as: the grain size analysis and Odometer tests were made with samples taken from test borings with a mechanical digger. Data processing and results The factor of safety for geotechnical profile no.5 was calculated with Microsoft Office Excel and designed with AutoCAD Software (fig.1). Here we can see the filling layer and clay.

Fig.1 - Geotechnical profile no.5: F13-F14-F11 For this study we took two cases: one when the area isn’t affected by the existing buildings and the second case when the area is affected by the load exerted by the buildings (fig. 2).

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Fig. 2 - The factor of safety for geotechnical profile no.5: F13-F14-F11, case 2 Bearing capacity was calculated for the drill no.2 (fig.3).

Fig. 3 – Bearing capacity for drill no.2 The settlement was calculated for the retaining wall with Microsoft Office Excel and designed with AutoCAD Software (fig.4).

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Fig. 4 – The settlement calculated for the retaining wall Conclusions The study highlights problem areas in terms of stability since excavation of slope for construction of buildings produced geological load of the slope which became unstable. This has been amplified by the existence of anthropogenic and natural sources of water. It was made the design of a stable structure of a stable slope. Supporting wall is potentially unstable and it must be reinforced with indirect foundations to reach in bedrock. Acknowledgements I want to thank Prof. Florica Stroia for the great support in the entire research project and to Prof. Marius MocuŃa for offering his help in the factor of safety determination. The data acquisition stage was provided by the Neolitos Company, Braşov. References Băncila I., Florea M.N., Fota D., Georgescu M., Lazăr L., Mocanu Gh., Moldoveanu T., Munteanu Al., Privighetoria C., Zamfirescu F. [1980-1981] “Engineering geology”, Technical Publishing, Bucharest Botea E., Manoliu I. [1973] “Geotechnic”, Institute of Constructions Bucharest Florea M.N [1983] “Rock mechanics”, Technical Publishing, Bucharest MărunŃeanu C., Stănciucu M., Ciupercă L., Berceanu V. [1999] “Engineering geology(practical)”, University Publishing, Bucharest Neolitos Company [2006] “Geotechnical Project”, Braşov Preda I. [1965] “Engineering geology”, Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing Bucharest Săndulescu M. [1984] “Geotectonics of Romania”, Technical Publishing, Bucharest Stroia F., Stănciucu M. [1993] “Rock mechanics(practical)”, University Publishing, Bucharest Stroia F. [1993] “Marine geotechnical and coastal engineering” Course notes, University Publishing, Bucharest Stroia F. [2000] “Rock mechanics- sandy clayey rocks and physical and mechanical properties” Course notes, University Publishing, Bucharest.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Studies on some xenoliths from Neogene intrusive bodies from the Bârgău Mountains (East Carpathians)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Boglárka Mercedesz Kis*, Emilia Mosonyi, Babeș-Bolyai University

The analysis of some igneous and metamorphic xenoliths from Bârgău Mountains, to elucidate magma evolution, xenolyth assimilation and origin of opaque minerals. New aspects covered are the mineralogical study of reaction coronas between xenoliths and host rock, and the origin of opaque minerals.

We studied xenolyths of cognate and enalogenous type from two igneous Summary (max. 200 words): outcrops from the Bârgău Mountains. The presence of opaque mineral

inclusions and sieve structures suggests that there had been a mixing process between two different kind of magma. Opaque minerals were of intramagmatic and hydrothermal type. The intramagmatic type are those globular opaque melt inclusions from pyroxenes and appear to be explained by a more basical and higher temperatured magma ascending and mixing processes which implies the reheating of the magma chamber and resorbtion processes on phenocrystals. In both studied outcrop samples there are visible reaction aureolas between the host rock and the xenoliths. These reaction coronas around the xenolyths are mostly developed in the case of metamorphic xenoliths due to the differences in chemical compositions between crystalline schist and host igneous rock.

Topic:

Petrology

298

Studies on some xenoliths from Neogene intrusive bodies from the Bârgău Mountains (East Carpathians)
Boglárka Mercedesz Kis, Emilia Mosonyi, Babeș-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca Introduction The Neogene magmatic bodies from the East Carpathians contain a lot of xenoliths of different types. The aim of the study was a brief analysis of some igneous and metamorphic xenoliths from Bârgău Mountains, Eastern Carpathians to elucidate the magma evolution processes: magma mixing or mingling, different xenolith assimilation processes, the intramagmatic or hydrothermal origin of the opaque minerals from the rock. Geological background The igneous formations from the Eastern Carpathians are part of the volcanic andesitic chain that appeared at the western edge of the Tisa-Dacia continental terrain (Fig.1). This volcanic chain was formed during its collision with the Eurasian Plate (Rădulescu et al., 1982, Seghedi et al, 1995). During the Neogene the intensified compression forces and subduction processes led to magma production phenomena, to magma mixing and assimilation of crustal material (Rădulescu et al., 1982, Pécskay et al., 1996). The andesitic volcanic chain of the East Carpathians can be divided into three main segments (Băncilă, 1958): Oaș-Gutâi, Țibleș-Bârgău - also known as the subvolcanic region - and CălimaniGurghiu-Harghita. The first and the second present similarities in magma evolution and activity, while the subvolcanic area, Țibleș-Bârgăului presents mainly hypabysal features (Băncilă, 1958). In the segment of subvolcanic region, Bârgău Mountains, it may be possible that the igneous rocks described as andesites are the result of intrusive igneous processes (Seghedi et al., 1995). It is known (Peltz, 1971) that the intrusions from Bârgău Mountains were intruded in the Borșa sandtone and were amphibole-piroxene andesite type, but sometimes basaltic. These intrusions are laccolithes, dykes and sills around which contact metamorphic aureola were developed (Ureche, 1999). These intrusions contain several igneous and metamorphic xenoliths. They are studied in order to gather information about magma genesis and evolution. According to Nițoi et al. (1995, 2000) the xenoliths can be classified into four types: igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary and xenocrystals. Ureche (1999) classified xenoliths according to their origin, so that there are xenoliths from mantle, crust and cognate. According to their relationship with the host rock there can be enalogenous and homogenous xenoliths. The metamorphic xenoliths are represented by orogenic metamorphic rocks from the crystalline basement of the East Carpathians. The studied areas are two outcrops from Bârgăului Mountains, one located at Măgura Ilvei at 47º 22' 39''N, 24º 49' 20''E and another near Mureșenii Bârgăului locality at 47º 14' 20''N, 24º 49' 60''E. The later body dip direction was measured and represents 220c/65c. Methods and data collection During field research igneous and metamorphic xenoliths samples were collected. From rock samples thin sections were prepared and were analyzed with petrographic methods, with Carl Zeiss Jena microscope. Our analysis focused mainly on the mineralogy of the reaction coronas between the host igneous rocks and the xenoliths to establish the type and depth of the xenolith embedding.

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Fig. 1 The geologic map of the studied region, Bârgău Mountains Data processing and results The samples collected from Măgura Ilvei outcrop have a hypocrystalline, phaneritic, inequigranular and porphyric texture due to crystallization in subvolcanic conditions. Based on mineral paragenesis of the rock: groundmass: volcanic glass and microliths (10%), plagioclase (70%), green amphibole (10%) pyroxene (7%), accessory minerals (2%): opaque minerals and secondary minerals: zeolites, chlorites, clay minerals (1%), it appeared to be a diorite family rock (after LeMaitre, 2002) The phenocrystalls of the rock consists of: 300-400 µm dimensioned, continuous zoned and twinned plagioclase, amphiboles and pyroxenes. Due to magma mixing and reheating of the igneous system zonal distribution of sieve structures on the plagioclases and sometimes globular opaque melt inclusions in pyroxenes can be observed and an abundance of opaque mineral grains in the groundmass. The igneous xenoliths from these rocks are diorites with intergranular texture with scarce small plagioclase between millimetrical-sized, greenish amphibole phenocrystals. Along the reaction corona between the xenolith and andesitic host rock there are: chloritised amphiboles, biotites, epidote grains. The reaction corona is fair developed, suggesting a slight difference in chemical composition between the host rock and the xenolith.

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The samples collected from Mureșenii Bârgăului are andesites having hypocrystalline, phaneritic, inequigranular, porphyric texture in which phenocrystals of plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene and pylotaxitical groundmass. Two kind of xenoliths were found: igneous and metamorphical. The igneous xenoliths have a fair aureola with a lot of opaque mineral grains in the contact zone with the host rock. No differences in mineralogical composition between the xenolyth and host were found, suggesting a homogenous chemical composition. The metamorphic xenoliths consists of quartzo-feldsparic schist with biotite and sericite and albite porphyroblasts. In the reaction aureola of this xenolith we can observe an evident zonal distribution of minerals (from the host into the xenolith) a kordierite porphyroblast-rich zone (which is typically contact metamorphic mineral), a biotite-rich zone and an opaque mineral-rich zone. Conclusions We studied xenolyths of cognate and enalogenous type from two igneous outcrops from the Bârgău Mountains. The presence of opaque mineral inclusions and sieve structures suggests that there had been a mixing process between two different kind of magma. Opaque minerals were of intramagmatic and hydrothermal type. The intramagmatic type are those globular opaque melt inclusions from pyroxenes and appear to be explained by a more basical and higher temperatured magma ascending and mixing processes which implies the reheating of the magma chamber and resorbtion processes on phenocrystals. In both studied outcrop samples there are visible reaction aureolas between the host rock and the xenoliths. These reaction coronas around the xenolyths are mostly developed in the case of metamorphic xenoliths due to the differences in chemical compositions between crystalline schist and host igneous rock. Further analysis should be made in order to find out detailed chemical and mineralogical compositions of reaction coronas. Aknowledgements We want to thank the European Union POSTDRU grant project for financing the field study, sample collection and thin section preparing, and Dr. Emilia Mosonyi, for helping us by the sample analysis and interpretation. References Băncilă, I. [1958] Geologia Carpațiilor Orientali, Editura Științifică, București, 346-347. Ianovici, V., Rădulescu, D., Patrulius, D. [1968] Hartă geologică 1:200 000 teritoriul 4.Vișeu, Institutul Geologic, București. Nițoi, E., Munteanu, M., Marincea, Ș. [2000] The enclaves in the East Carpathian Neogene Intrusions (Romania); Their significance for the genesis of the calc-alkaline magmas, An. Inst. Geol. Rom., 72, part. II, p.67-76, București. Nițoi, E., Marincea, Ș.T., Ureche, I. [1995] Enclaves in the Neogene Calcalcaline Rocks in the Subvolcanic Zone of the East Carpathians: Origin and Significance, Rom. Jour. Mineralogy, vol.77, supl. 1, București. Pécskay, Z., Lexa, J., Szakács, A., Balogh, K., Seghedi, I., Konecny, V., Kovacs, M., Marton, M., Kaliciak, M., Szeky-Fux, V., Poka, T., Gyarmaty, P., Edelstein, O., Rosu, E. and Zec, B. [1996] Space and time distribution of Neogene-Quaternary volcanism in the Carpatho-Pannonian region, Acta Volcanologica, 7. Peltz S., Vasiliu C., Udrescu C., Bratosin I. [1971] Petrologia magmatitelor zonei subvulcanice neogene din Carpații Orientali. An.I.G.G.XXXIX, București. Seghedi I., Szakács A., Mason P.R.D. [1995] Petrogenesis and magmatic evolution in the East Carpathian Neogene volcanic arc (Romania), Acta Vulcanologica, 7 (2), 135-143. Rădulescu, D., Dumitrescu, R. [1982] Petrologia endogenă a teritoriului R.S. România. Universitatea din București, Facultatea de Geologie și Geografie, București. Ureche, I. [1999] Petrologia magmatitelor Neogene din Munții Bârgău, Teză de Doctorat, Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Facultatea de Biologie și Geologie, Cluj-Napoca.

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Title:

Microfacies and microfossils of the Lower Cretaceous limestone from Pădurea Craiului (Apuseni Mountains), Fâşca-Câlăţea area
Mariana Ancuţa Hebriştean, Babes-Bolyai University

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

To determinate the age of the limestone from the North-Western part of Pădurea Craiului by studying thin section. The present study provides important information concerning the biostratigraphy and microfacies of the Northern-Western part of Pădurea Craiului.

Summary The area under study is located in the North-Western part of Pădurea (max. 200 words): Craiului Mountains between localities Fâşca and Câlăţea. The Lower
Cretaceous deposits from Pădurea Craiului were separated into the following lithostratigraphical units (according to Cociuba, 2000): (1) Blid Formation, (2) Ecleja Formation, (3) Valea Măgurii Formation, (4) Vârciorog Formation. The micropaleontological association identified in these limestones mainly the orbitolinids indicate an Early Baremian age for the limestone in Câlăţea area with Paracoskinolina jourdanensis, and a Late Aptian - Albian age for the limestone of Fâşca area with Mesorbitolina Texana. According to the adopted stratigraphical scheme of the Pădurea Craiului region (Cociuba, 2000), carbonate deposits of this age are known within the Coposeni Member, from Blid Formation being previously attributed to the so-called “Lower Pachyodont Limestones” from Câlăţea area and Vârciorog Formaţion from Fâşca area. The studied facies are characteristic for carbonate platforms, respectively for environments ranging from intertidal to shallow subtidal. The same bioconstructions were originally built-up by corals and rudists. The internal sediment (bioclastic wackestone/packstone) and the frequent encrusting organisms are associated with a low sedimentation rate.

Topic:

Paleontology, Sedimentology, Stratigraphy

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Microfacies and microfossils of the Lower Cretaceous limestone from Pădurea Craiului (Apuseni Mountains), Fâşca-Câlătea area
Mariana Ancuţa Hebriştean, University of Babeş-Bolyai

Introduction
The area under study is located in the North-Western part of Pădurea Craiului Mountains between localities Fâşca and Câlăţea. We studied the Lower Cretaceous limestone from Fântâna de Piatră hill and Coasta Lupului hill in the proximity of Câlăţea locality. (Fig.1)

Fig.1 Geological map of Pădurea Craiului Mountains -central part- (after D. Patrulius, S. Bordea) The Lower Cretaceous deposits of Pădurea Craiului Mountains (Northern Apuseni Mountains) consist of the following lithostratigraphic succession (Cociuba, 2000): 1) Blid Limestone Formation, having two members: Dobreşti Member (?Berriasian-ValanginianHauterivian), and Coposeni Member (?Hauterivian-Barremian). 2) Ecleja Marls Formation (Bedoulian), including two members with different lithologies, the Gugu Breccia Member, and the Valea Bobdei Limestone Member. 3) Vârciorog Formation, siliciclastic with carbonate intercalations (Gargasian-Albian). The outcrops near Fâşca consist predominantly of gray, sometimes siltic marls, which contain, in some areas massive limestone breccias. The study of thin sections evidences the following types of facies: mudstone, bioclastic wackstone, bioclastic peloidal, packstone-grainstone, bounstone, fenestral wackstone-packstone. Lower Cretaceous deposits studied in the outcrops from Fâşca belong to Vârciorog Formation within the carbonate deposits of this formation we found the following foraminiferal assemblage: Mesorbitolina texana (ROEMER) (Fig. 2, Photo.20), Sabaudia minuta (HOFKER) (Fig 2, Photo.17), Nezzazatinella sp., Lenticulina sp.,Gaudryna sp (Fig. 2, Photo18),and fragments of rudists, corals and Bacinella This association (mainly Mesorbitolina texana) indicate the upper Aptian-Albian age and a depositional environment with carbonate turbiditic floras incorporated in marly sediments coorser proximally (with orbitolinids) and finer distally. In Câlăţea area, most of the sampled limestone, belong to the Blid Formation (Lower Pachyodont Limestone) more precisely to the Coposeni Member.

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The carbonate deposits are represented by bioaccumulated and bioconstructed limestone (bioconstructions with rudists). The Baremian–Aptian micropaleontological association described from these carbonate rocks consists of the following foraminifers: Paracoskinolina jourdanensis (FOURY & MOULLADE), (Fig. 2, Photo.13), Orbitolinopsis sp., (Fig. 2, Photo.16), Vercorsella sp.,(Fig. 2, Photo.15), Andersenolina sp, Belorusiella, Dobrogelina sp., Gaudryina sp., Textularia sp.. The dasycladale algae are represented by: Clypeina cf. solkani (CONRAD & RADOICIC), Actinoporella podolica (ALTH), (Fig. 2, Photo.12), Salpingopoporella muehlberghi (LORENZ) (Fig. 2, Photo.4), Salpingopoporella cf. katzeri (CONRAD & RADOICIC), (Fig. 2, Photo.5) Salpingoporella patruliusi (BUCUR), (Fig. 2, Photo.15), Similiclypeina conradi (BUCUR), (Fig. 2, Photo.12), Cayeuxia moldavica (FROLLO) (Fig. 2, Photo.10), rivulariacean-type cyanobacteria, Bacinella irregularis (RADOICIC), (Fig. 2, Photo.9). The microfacies identified in this limestone are: fenestral mudstone; fenestral mudstonewackstone; bioclastic packstone; fenestral bioclastic packstone-grainstone with foraminifera (Fig. 2, Photo.8), fenestral wackestone/packstone with cyanobacteria; bindstone with Bacinella (Fig. 2, Photo 9). The presence of the orbitolinid Paracoskinolina jourdanensis among other foraminifera points to a lower Baremian age of this limestone. The most important foraminifera from this association is Paracoskinolina jourdanensis, first described by Foury & Moullade (1966) from Baremian deposits (Alpilles, Bousches du Rhone). This species has been also identified by Masse (1976) in Lower Baremian deposits, its stratigraphic distribution being also considered by Arnaud-Vanneau (1980) to be restricted to Lower Baremian. The depositional environment of the limestone from this area is intertidal to shallow subtidal. The shallow subtidal facies is represented by Bacinella bindstone, (Fig. 2, Photo.9) and wackstonepackstone with dasycladalean algae, benthic foraminifera, gastropods, bivalves (rudists), echinoderms, cyanobacteria. The intertidal facies is represented by peloidal fenestrate grainstone, fenestral grainstonepackstone, fenestral mudstone. Peloids are abundant and the bioclasts are represented by miliolids and other small foraminifera, fragments of gastropods and rare fragments of bivalves (rudists), rivularicean type cyanobacteria. The same bioconstructions were originally built-up by corals and rudists. The internal sediment (bioclastic wackestone/packstone) and the frequent encrusting organisms are associated with a low sedimentation rate. Conclusions: The studied facies are characteristic for carbonate platforms, respectively for environments ranging from intertidal to shallow subtidal. The micropaleontological association identified in these limestones mainly the orbitolinids indicate an Early Baremian age for the limestone in Câlăţea area with Paracoskinolina jourdanensis, and a Late Aptian-Albian age for the limestone of Fâşca area with Mesorbitolina Texana.

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Fig. 2, Photo 1-20 Photo.1-2 Outcrops from Câlătea; Photo.3 Limestone with rudists Photo.4 Packstone with rudist , scale =0,5mm, sample 33A; Photo.5 Packstone with foraminifera and dasycladalean algae (Salpingoporella cf.katzeri) (CONRAD & RADOICIC), scale=0,5mm, sample 20b; Photo.6 Packstone with foraminifera and algae (Salpingoporella muehlbergii) (LORENZ), scale=0,5mm, sample 27; Photo.7 Mudstone-Wackstone with rivulariacean type cyanobacteria, scale=0,5mm, sample 26.

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Photo.8 Fenestral packstone/grainstone with abundant foraminifera and two types of cement (rim cement and pore filling cement), scale=0,5mm, sample 22; Photo.9 bindstone with Bacinella iregularris, scale=0,5mm, sample 17; Photo.10 Rivulariacean Cyanobacteria, scale=0,5mm, sample 22; Photo 11 Salpingoporella muehlbergii (LORENZ) scale=0,25mm, sample21; Photo.12 Actinoporella podolica (ALTH), Similiclypeina conradi (BUCUR), Salpingoporella muehlbergii (LORENZ), scale=0,5mm, sample 36; Photo.13 Paracoskinolina jourdanensis (FOURY&MOULLADE), scale=0,25mm, sample 33A; Photo.14 Clypeina solkani (CONRAD & RADOICIC), scale=0,25mm, sample 36; Photo 15 Vercorsella, Salpingoporella patruliusi? (BUCUR), scale=0,25mm, sample 22. Photo.16 Orbitolinopsis sp., scale=0,5mm, sample 21; Photo.17 Sabaudia minuta (HOFKER), scale= 0,5mm,sample 33; Photo.18 Gaudryna, scale= 0,5mm, sample 12-1; Photo.19 Corali, scale=0,5mm, sample 12-1; Photo 20 Mesorbitolina texana (ROEMER), scale=0,125mm, sample 12-1b; References: Bucur, I. I., Cociuba I. [2004] Lower Cretaceous limestones from the Northern part of Pădurea Craiului (Osoiu hill and Subpiatră sections): Biostratigraphy and preliminary data on microbial structures, Studia Universitatis Babeş Bolyai, Geologia, XLIX, 2, 49-62. Bucur, I. I., [2000], Lower Cretaceous dasyclad algae from the Pădurea Craiului Massif (Northern Apuseni Mountains, Romania). Acta Paleontologica Romaniae, 2, 53-72. Bucur, I. I., Cociuba I. [2001] Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits from Pădurea Craiului. In: Bucur I.I., Filipescu S. & Săsăran E. (eds.)- Algae and carbonate platforms in the western part of th Romania (4 Regional Meeting of IFAA, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 5, 2001, Field trip Guide Book), Cluj University Press, 43-52.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Quality groundwater quartered in deposits alluvial of along river Jijia

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mich Lia, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza

The main objective in this paper is putting in evidence the quality of groundwater in the hydrographic basin Jijia Water is not potable of wells ( Carniceni, Costuleni, Victori) afferent basin Jijia, because exceeding the maximum permissible concentration for organic substances dissolved and NH +4 according to STAS 1342/1991

Summary This paper is putting in evidence one of the major problems for the north(max. 200 words): east of the Plain of Moldavia, namely the quality of groundwater in one of
the important hydrographic basins of Romania, the Jijia Basin. For showing the chemical composition of water quartered in alluvial deposits of river Jijia in the month of May 2009, it was collected water sampled of wells from depths ranging between 3 and 7 m. Analysis was realized in Laboratory of chemical analysis from the Faculty Geology of Geography, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza , Iasi, Romania. Also was processed 177 analysis with program Aqua Chem, analyzes were from 10 hydrological stations from 26 deep drillings for groundwater abstraction. Data was provided from the "DA PRUT". After processing analysis and determination of average values of each hydrometric station was determined a high sodium content in underground water. Water is not potable of wells afferent basin Jijia, because is exceeding the maximum permissible concentration for organic substances dissolved and NH +4 according to STAS 1342/1991 ( CCO- Mn. 3mg/l) and ( NH +4 - 0.5 mg/l). To protect groundwater from contamination by organic substances and other chemical compounds is necessary to take measures both individually and in level the community. Each individual must be responsible for protecting water sources.

Topic:

Hidrogeology

307

Quality groundwater quartered in deposits alluvial of along river basin Jijia
Mich Lia, University Alexandru. Ioan Cuza Introduction This paper putting in evidence one of the major problems for the north- east of the Plain of Moldavia, namely the quality of groundwater in one of the important hydrographic basins of Romania, the Jijia Basin. With increasing economic activities, industrial and agricultural in especially, is generates a significant amount of pollutants that have a growing action of contamination water quality. All these activities by the contamination of water sources, often affect communities and regions entire. Short description of the study area The study area is located in the north-east of Romania. Surface basin Jijia is 5.722 km2 with a length of 275 km, is a major tributary of the Prut. Of point of the view the geomorphological, Jijia river is framed in the northern half of the Plain Jijia. In the area studied prevails a temperate climate with influence continental increased to the east, and in the west-north west, north-west and west is specific an climate with influences scandinavo - baltic. Precipitation average multiannual decrease in the area high mountain to the area plain but and the east to west and from north to south. Of point of the view geological area within the study is framed structural units Moldavian Platform which is a part of the EastEuropean Platform.

Fig. 1 Location of the Basin Jijia on the Romanian Map In Iasi in the area river Jijia alluvial deposits are formats of fine sands and loamy medium coarse sand, located between depths of 2 and 8 m. The level groundwater is located at 0.3 and 4.5 m from the ground surface, flows being of 2.2l/s to bumps of 3 m.

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Fig. 2 The map geomorphological of Jijia Plain

Fig. 3 The map geological of Jijia Plain

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Groundwater quality For show the chemical composition of water quartered in alluvial deposits of river Jijia in the month of May 2009, I was collected water sampled of wells from depths ranging between 3 and 7 m. Analysis was accomplish in Laboratory of chemical analysis from the Faculty Geology of Geography, University Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iasi, Romania. Also was processed 177 data (data was provided from the "DA PRUT") with program Aqua Chem, analyzes were from 10 hydrological stations from 26 deep drillings for groundwater abstraction. After processing analysis and determination of average values of each hydrometric station was determined a high sodium content in underground water, because that deposits alluvial in which is quartered groundwater have as principle component rocks argillaceous rich in ions of Ca 2+ and ions of Na+. Due to influence climate of steppe, ions of Ca2+ are fixed in clay and ions Na+ are released .

Fig. 4 Diagram Paiper for waters from drilling afferent basin hidrographic Jijia After determined indicators physical -chemical resulted water is not potable of wells associated basin Jijia, because exceeding the maximum permissible concentration for organic substances dissolved according to STAS 1342/1991 ( CCO- Mn. 3ml/l).

Fig. 5 Variation of chemical oxygen consumption in period the year 2000-2007 for water from drilling afferent hydrographic basin Jijia

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In phase of field I establishment the appearance at the soil surface to saltness which influence water composition. Conclusions Water is not potable of wells afferent basin Jijia, because exceeding the maximum permissible concentration for organic substances dissolved and NH +4 according to STAS 1342/1991 ( CCO- Mn. 3mg/l) and ( NH +4 - 0.5 mg/l). Studies made of both field and laboratory I establishment that main source of groundwater contamination in the area studied is the use of fertilizers in agriculture nitrogen and waters are unsatisfactory treated from sewage plants in areas Dorohoi, Botosani. To protect groundwater of contamination by organic substances and other chemical compounds is necessary to take measures both individually and in level the community. Each individual must be responsible for protecting water sources. Acknowledgements I want to thank PhD Assistant Stan Oana Cristina ( Faculty of Geology and Geography, University Al. I. Cuza ) for the great support in the realize this paper. Also I want to thank DA PRUT ( Directia Apelor Prut) for the data provided in the determination of water quality. References Popa, G. [2002] Hidrogeochimie. Editura ‘’Universităţii Alexandru Ioan Cuza’’. Brânzilă, M. [1999] Geologia părţi sudice a Câmpiei Moldovei. Editura Corson. Dragomir, S. [1998] Geochimia apelor subterane din judeţul Iaşi. Rez. teză de „Universitatea Al .I .Cuza “. Legea nr. 311/2004 de modificare şi completare a Legii nr. 458/2002. Arhiva – Direcţia Apelor Prut Iaşi.

doctorat

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11 Symposium of Romanian Geology and Geophysics Students
• Geophysics, Environmental Engineering, Hydrogeology
Code R101 Title & Authors
OscilaŃii climatice înregistrate de proprietăŃile magnetice ale secvenŃei de loesspaleosol de la Costinesti (Dobrogea, România)

th

Dragoş Mitrică*, Cristian G. Panaiotu, University of Bucharest ObservaŃii geofizice recente în cadrul sitului arheologic de la Adamclisi R102 Irina Carmen Brînză*, Gabriela Enache, Florina Chitea, University of Bucharest Geophysical methods constructed for the eastern part of Platform Moesia Florin-Catalin Mihai*, Ionelia Panea, University of Bucharest R104 Date geochimice privind starea de poluare a raului Dambovnic din surse antropogene Cosmina Ioana Popescu*, Consuela Milu, University of Bucharest R105 Testarea puterii discriminante a penetrării statice pe con în diferenŃierea litologică a formaŃiunilor Holocene din zona UrlaŃi Alexandra-Victoria Rîcu*, Daniel Scrădeanu, University of Bucharest

R103

Code R106

Title & Authors Utilizarea metodelor geoelectrice pentru identificarea nivelelor acvifere Neagu Sorin-Cristi*, Opris Anca , Stanciu Adrian Christian, University of Bucharest

R107

Evaluarea vulnerabilitatii unui acvifer freatic din Judetul Timis Ionut Horatiu Adrian Mirea*, Oana Dumitru, University of Bucharest

R108

AbsorbŃia luminii în frunzele plantelor decorative și eficienŃa fotosintezei Andreea Stanci*, Alexandra Dodoacă, University of Petroșani PosibilităŃi de valorificare a fracŃiei cărbunoase depozitate în iazurile de la UP Coroiesti

R109

Alexandra Dodoacă*, Andreea Stanci, Cosmin Baboş, University of Petroșani Caracteristici geologice si hidrogeologice favorabile stocării CO2 în subteran Ioana Cancel*, Cristina Iliescu, Iulian Popa, University of Bucharest

R110

Code R111

Title & Authors Sudiul cutremurelor anatoliene la staŃiile din reŃeaua seismologică naŃională. ImplicaŃii asupra structurii crustei si mantalei superioare Mihai Barbu*, Irina Branza, Marian Ivan, University of Bucharest Noi date paleomagnetice din partea de est a zonei vulcanice Harghita de Nord

R112 Tudor Alexandru Ienulescu*, Gabriela-Teodora Trandafir, Vişan Mădălina, University of Bucharest Evaluarea calitatii aerului in intervalul iulie-decembrie 2009 in cadrul regiunii Bucuresti- Ilfov Alexandra Pirlea*, Consuela Milu, University of Bucharest

R114

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Climatic oscilations recorded by the magnetic proprieties of the loess-paleosols sequence from Costineşti (Dobrogea, România)
Dragoş Mitrică*, Cristian G. Panaiotu, University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Determine the paleoprecipitation variation recorded in the loess-paleosols sequence at Costineşti which covers the last 600 ky. Measuring the sequence at Costineşti helps improve the accuracy of the paleoclimatic record of this area during the last 4 glacial-interglacial cycles.

Summary Loess is a deposit of wind-blown silt that blankets large areas of the (max. 200 words): continents. During glacial episodes, loess accumulation in Europe and North
America is associated with an arid climate which supported only a very reduced vegetation cover characteristic of a steppe-tundra. When the climate became warmer in the interglacials, the amount of rainfall increased, enabling the growth of a more dense vegetation which led to the formation of the paleosols sequences. During these warmer and wetter conditions, very fine-grained, ferromagnetic granules form in the paleosols. By measuring the magnetic susceptibility of the samples, the concentration of the ferromagnetic fraction can be determined - measuring thus the relative abundance of plants characteristic of more humid conditions. These measurements can be calibrated to describe in a more accurate manner the record of paleoprecipitation in the studied region. By comparing the magnetic susceptibility oscillations recorded at Costineşti with magnetic time scale built for the loess-paleosols sequence from Mircea Vodă we can date the sequence form Costineşti as covering the last 600 ky. Today the alternating sequence of loess units and intervening paleosols form the most complete terrestrial records of Quaternary paleoclimatic conditions to be found on the continents.

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Earth physics

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Oscilaţii climatice înregistrate de proprietăţile magnetice ale secvenţei de loesspaleosol de la Costineşti (Dobrogea, România)
Dragoş Mitrică, Cristian G. Panaiotu, University of Bucharest Introducere Loessul este un tip de depozit siltic eolian care acoperă arii întinse în domeniul continental. Geografic, acest depozit ocupă arii extinse în Marile Câmpii din America de Nord, în Sudul, centrul şi Estul Europei, Asia Centrală, în China şi Argentina. Depunerea loessului este legată de o climă aridă cu vegetaţie redusă asociată stepei sau tundrei - în cazul depozitelor din Europa sau din America de Nord - în timp ce în celelalte zone, în Asia Centrală şi în China, depozitarea loessului fiind asociată cu deşerturi extinse. (Kukla, 1975 a,b) În perioadele interglaciare, clima se încălzeşte în general, şi devine mai umedă, depunerea loessului încetineşte, condiţiile fiind favorabile dezvoltării unei vegetaţii mai abundente care duce la formarea benzilor de paleosoluri. În ziua de azi, secvenţele alternante de loess şi paleosoluri constituie cea mai completă arhivă a condiţiilor paleoclimatice continentale din Cuaternar. Există câteva abordări privind interpretarea secvenţelor de loess-paleosol. Maher şi Thompson în 1994, respectiv în 1995, consideră în lucrările lor variaţia susceptibilităţii magnetice a depozitelor drept un indicator al cantităţii de paleoprecipitaţii lichide. Corelarea este justificată de observarea unei creşteri a susceptibilităţii în soluri(faţă de loess) datorată formării in situ a unor granule ultrafine (< 0,03 µm), feromagnetice formate prin precipitare inorganică, ajutate de prezenţa unor bacterii care reduc fierul (Maher and Thompson, 1992; Heller et al., 1993; Verosub et al,, 1993; Liu et al,, 1994). Prin stabilirea relaţiei dintre cantitatea actuală de precipitaţii şi măsurătorile susceptibilităţii solurilor recente din Platoul de Loess din partea central-nordică a Chinei a fost posibilă calibrarea datelor de susceptibilitate privind legătura cu paleoprecipitaţiile. A fost astfel determinată variaţia periodică a precipitaţiilor lângă Xifeng în timpul ciclurilor glaciare din ultimii 1,1 Ma - de la ~400 mm/an în perioadele mai aride, glaciare la ~ 750 mm/an în perioadele interglaciare (Maher, Thompson, 1992). În această lucrare este prezentată variaţia susceptibilităţii magnetice a unei secvenţe de loesspaleosol de pe litoralul românesc al Marii Negre din zona localităţii Costineşti (Fig 1). Această secvenţă descrie variaţia parametrilor climatici din ultimii 600 ka. Probare şi tehnici de laborator Secvenţa de loess-paleosol de la Costineşti are o înălţine de circa 13 m (Fig. 1). Ea este formată din solul actual şi o succesiune de cinci paleosoluri cu intercalaţii de loess. Grosimea loessului intercalat între paleosuri este mai mare în partea superioară (1.5-2 m) şi se reduce considerabil sub al treilea paleosol. Probele au fost colectate la un interval de 5 cm de pe toată lungimea secţiunii. În laborator probele au fost introduse în cilindri de plastic cu volumul de 10 cm3. Pentru fiecare probă s-a măsurat susceptibilitatea magnetică la trei frecvenţe diferite F1 = 976 Hz, F2 = 3904 Hz, F3 = 15616 Hz. Câmpul magnetic a fost pentru toate cele trei frecvenţe de 200 A/m. Măsurarea susceptibilităţii magnetice la trei frecvenţe diferite permite identificarea fracţiei magnetice extrem de fină(superparamagnetică) care este produsă de către procesele de pedogeneză din perioadele calde(interglaciare). Această fracţie extrem de fină (sub 0.03 µm) contribuie din ce în ce mai puţin la valoarea susceptibilităţii magnetice pe măsură ce frecvenţa de măsurare scade. Pentru a caracteriza dependenţa de frecvenţă a susceptibilităţii magnetice s-au calculat următorii parametrii kd12(%)=100*(kF1-kF2)/kF1 şi kd13(%)=100*(kF1-kF3)/kF3 unde kF1, kF2, kF3 este valoarea susceptibilităţii măsurată după fiecare frecvenţă. S-a măsurat şi dependenţa susceptibilităţii magnetice de câmpul magnetic aplicat pentru frecvenţa F1 şi două câmpuri magnetice 200 A/m şi 700 A/m. Dependenţa de câmpul magnetic a susceptibilităţii magnetice a fost caracterizată cu parametrul FD(%)=100*(k700-k200)/k200 unde k700 si k200 sunt susceptibilităţile măsurate în cele două câmpuri magnetice şi frecvenţa F1. Toate măsurătorile de susceptibilitate magnetică au fost normalizate la masa probei. Măsurătorile au fost realizate cu un instrument MFK1-A (AGICO). Pe eşantioane reprezentative pentru diferitele nivele de loess şi paleosol s-a măsurat şi dependenţa susceptibilităţii magnetice de temperatură utilizând instrumentul MFK1-A cuplat cu un cuptor CS4.

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Fig. 1 Secvenţa de loess-paleosol de la Costineşti Incălzirile au fost efectuate într-o atmosferă de argon pentru a reduce modificările mineralogice în timpul încălzirii. Rezultate Principalele rezultate sunt prezentate în Fig. 2. In figură sunt reprezentate variaţia susceptibilităţii magnetice kF1, a parametrului FD şi a parametrilor care caracterizeză dependenţa de frecvenţă (kd12 cu puncte negre şi kd13 cu puncte albe). Nivele de paleosol sunt marcate cu benzi gri.

Fig. 2 Variaţia parametrilor magnetici măsuraţi pe secvenţa de loess-paleosol de la Costineşti

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Datele măsurate arată că în solul actual şi în paleosoluri atât susceptibilitatea magnetică, cât şi dependenţa de frecvenţă sunt amplificate în raport cu nivelele de loess. Acest tip de răspuns este tipic pentru paleosolurile formate în climat temperat. În astfel de paleosoluri se formează în timpul procesului de pedogeneză o fracţie magnetică dominată de magnetit/maghemit extrem de fin produs de pedogeneză (Evans & Heller, 2003). Un rezultat interesant obţinut în acest studiu este legat de scăderea susceptibilităţii magnetice în câmpuri înalte. Datorită acestui aspect FD are valori negative mai mari în paleosoluri decât în loessuri. O astfel de dependenţă a mai fost semnalată în sedimente şi loessuri dar originea acestui fenomen nu este încă lămurită (Hrouda et al., 2006). Având în vedere că este asociată cu prezenţa magnetitului extrem de fin produs de pedogeneză ca o ipoteză de lucru se poate presupune că este vorba de o proprietate a granulelor superparamagnetice. Concluzii Proprietăţile magnetice ale secvenţei studiate sunt similare cu cele măsurate pe alte secvenţe de loess din Dobrogea (Buggle et al., Timar et al., 2009) sau Câmpia Română (Panaiotu et al., 2001). Aceste proprietăţi sunt compatibile cu depunerea loessului în perioadele reci şi uscate (glaciare) şi formarea paleosolurilor în perioadele calde şi umede (interglaciare). Comparând oscilaţiile susceptibilităţii magnetice înregistrate la Costineşti cu scara de timp-magnetică realizată pentru secvenţa de loess-paleosol de la Mircea Vodă (Dobrogea, Timar et al., 2009) se poate data secvenţa de la Costineşti, vârsta maximă fiind în jur de 600 ka. Micile diferenţe locale între datele colectate din zone diferite ale lumii, respectiv ale Europei îmbunătăţesc rezoluţia informaţiilor paleoclimatice acestea contribuind şi la construcţia unor modele paleoclimatice mai exacte ale Cuaternarului. Referinţe Kukla, G.J. [1975a] Missing Hnk between Milankovitch and climate. Nature, 253, 600-603. Kukla, G.J. [1975b] Loess stratigraphy of central Europe. In: After the Australopithecenes(K.W. Butzer and G. L. Isaac, eds.). The Hague: Mouton, 99-188. Maher, B.A. and Thompson, R. [1995] Paleorainfall reconstructions from pedogenic magnetic susceptibility variations in the Chinese loess. Quaternary Research, 44,383-391. Maher, B.A. and Thompson, R. [1992] Paleoclimatic significance of the mineral magnetic record of the Chinese loess and paleosols. Quaternary Research, 37, 155-170. Heller, F., Shen, C-D., Beer, J., Liu, X-M., Liu, T-S., Bronger, A., Suter, M., and Bonani, G. [1993] Quantitative estimates of pedogenic ferromagnetic mineral formation in Chinese loess and paleoclimatic implications. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 114, 385-390. Verosub, K.L., Fine, P., Singer, M.J., and TenPas, J. [1993] Pedogenesis and paleoclimate: interpretation of the magnetic susceptibility record of Chinese loess-paleosol sequences. Geology, 21, 1011-1014. Liu, X, Rolph, T, Bloemendal, J., Shaw, J., and Liu, T. [1994] Remanence characteristics of different magnetic grain size categories at Xifeng, central Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary Research, 42, 162-165. Buggle, B., Hambach, U., Glaser, B., Gerasimenko, N., Markovic´, S., Glaser, I., Zoller, L. [2009] Stratigraphy, and spatial and temporal paleoclimatic trends in Southeastern/Eastern European loess paleosol sequences. Quaternary International, in press. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2008.07.013. Evans, M.E., Heller, F. [2003] Environmental magnetism. Principles and Applications of Enviromagnetics. Academic Press, 299 pp. Hrouda, F., Chlupáčová, M., Mrázová, S. [2006] Low-field variation of magnetic susceptibility as a tool for magnetic mineralogy of rocks, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 154, 323–336. Panaiotu, C, Panaiotu, C.E., Grama, A, Necula, C. [2001] Paleoclimatic record from a loess-paleosol profile in southestern Romania). Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26, No. 11-12, 893-898. Timar, D. Vandenberghe, E.C. Panaiotu, C.G. Panaiotu, C. Necula, C. Cosma, P. van den Haute, [2009] Optical dating of Romanian loess using fine-grained quartz, Quaternary Geochronology xxx , 1–6, doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2009.03.003.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Recent geophysical investigations in the archaeological site of Adamclisi, Romania

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Irina Carmen Brînză*, Gabriela Enache, Florina Chitea, University of Bucharest The aim of the electrical resistivity investigations discussed in this paper was to detect buried structures in a less-explored area of Adamclisi archaeological site. Non invasive and non destructive geophysical investigation method for locating unknown ancient buried tombs in Adamclisi archeological site. Improved electrical resistivity acquisition technique. Inversion of electrical resistivity data to obtain improved information on archaeological targets (dimensions, shape). many domains. This paper is dedicated at presenting the importance of the electrical resistivity method in archaeological investigations. Electrical Resistivity Tomography method has been applied successfully in the Adamclisi archaeological site for detecting buried structures of historical importance. Data acquisition has been performed using SuperSting R1-IP resistivity meter using 28 electrodes. Wenner-Schlumberger array has been selected in order to obtain a better coverage with data points on the electrical resistivity profile. Interpretation of data has been made using resistivity pseudosection, but also resistivity section obtained after processing the data with specific inversions algorithms. High resistivity anomalies detected on the 2D model have been interpreted as caused by the presence of unknown ancient buried tombs.

Summary (max. 200 words): During times, geophysical investigation methods proved their utility in

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

317

Observaţii geofizice recente în cadrul sitului arheologic de la Adamclisi
Irina Carmen Brînză , Gabriela Enache, Florina Chitea, Universitatea din Bucureşti

Introducere Reperarea şi stabilirea limitelor siturilor arheologice, explorarea acestora şi analiza vestigiilor reprezintă aplicatii importante ale metodelor geofizice atunci când sunt utilizate în arheometrie. Identificarea golurilor subterane şi a cavităţilor acoperite având origine antropică (morminte, tuneluri, pivniţe, etc) este posibilă prin efectuarea de măsurători de rezistivitate electrică de mare detaliu (Ioane, 2007; Cardelli et al., 2008). Pentru identificarea necropolelor care deserveau fosta cetate Adamclisi au fost recent efectuate măsurători de tomografie de rezistivitate electrică (ERT) într-o zonă test. Localizarea zonei de investigaţie Fosta cetate de la Adamclisi, situată în Dobrogea, judeţul Constanţa, face parte din complexul arheologic Tropeum Traiani. Cetatea este datată începând cu anul 109. Ultimul vestigiu databil de la Adamclisi provine din anul 586 (Parvan, 1912). Perimetrele folosite pentru înmormântare de către locuitorii vechii cetăti, precum şi obiceiurile funerare au variat de-a lungul timpului, iar în prezent nu există o localizare precisă a necropolelor, majoritatea informaţiilor fiind obţinute în urma excavaţiilor arheologice. Pentru a testa posibilitate metodei electrometrice pentru localizarea mormintelor s-a ales un perimetru situat diametral opus faţă de poarta de sud a cetăţii, lângă actuala mânăstire Adamclisi (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Localizarea zonei testată geofizic (marcată cu roşu)

Achiziţia datelor Pornind de la informaţiile arheologice obţinute prin săpături, au fost trasate profile pentru investigarea geofizică (Fig.2a) situate atât în zona cu morminte cercetate arheologic (Fig. 2b) şi în afara acesteia. Măsuratorile de rezistivitate executate au fost de tip tomografie electrică de rezistivitate (ERT) folosindu-se sistemul multielectrod SuperSting R1 - IP (A.G.I –U.S.A) (Fig. 3a). Achiziţia datelor s-a realizat prin utilizarea a 28 de electrozi amplasaţi la echidistanţa de un metru.

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a)

b)

Fig. 2 a) Amplasarea profilelor electrice (M1-2 si M3) si b) mormânt cercetat arheologic în apropiere de profilul electric M3

Tehnica de lucru constă în introducerea unui curent electric de intensitate cunoscută în sol şi măsurarea diferenţei de potenţial asociată acestui curent între două puncte amplasate la suprafaţa solului. Această operaţiune este posibilă prin intermediul unui dispozitiv de tip ABMN alcătuit din electrozii (Fig. 3b) de curent AB şi linia de înregistrare a diferenţei de potenţial MN.

a)

b)

Fig. 3 a) Rezistivimetrul SuperStingR1, b) electrod şi ţărus metalic folosit pentru injectarea curentului electric in sol Există mai multe configuraţii posibile pentru dispozitivele quadripolare, printre cele mai utilizate numărându-se dispozitivele Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipol-Dipol, Gradient, Pol-Dipol. Modul de amplasare al electrozilor de curent şi raportul faţă de electrozii de potenţial trebuie atent ales în funcţie de obiectivul investigaţiei şi caracteristicile sitului cercetat. Dispozitivul electric Schlumberger este utilizat în special pentru prospectarea terenurilor orizontal-stratificate şi se caracterizează prin faptul că distanta dintre electrozii MN este cu mult mai mică decât aceea dintre electrozii AB (Georgescu, 1981).

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Configuratia clasică a dispozitivului Wenner constă în amplasarea echidistantă şi simetrică a celor patru electrozi. În comparaţie cu alte dispozitive electrice, dispozitivul Wenner are o adâncime de investigaţie moderată, însă intensitatea semnalului este ridicată, lucru extrem de util în cazul în care măsuratorile sunt efectuate într-o zonă caracterizată de un zgomot electric ridicat (Chitea, 2009). În cadrul studiului nostru s-a lucrat cu dispozitivul hibrid Wenner – Schlumberger. Acesta este rezultatul unei combinaţii a dispozitivelor menţionate anterior (Wenner si Schlumberger), fiind indicat pentru investigaţiile în mediile geologice în care sunt prezentate structuri care să genereze contraste de rezistivitate atât pe direcţie verticală cât şi orizontală (Looke 2002).

Prelucrarea şi interpretarea datelor Prelucrarea datelor de rezistivitate electrică s-a realizat prin utilizarea programului Res2Dinv. Inversia datelor s-a efectuat folosindu-se un model 2D discretizat în blocuri rectangulare (Fig. 4). Distribuţia valorilor de rezistivitate masurate in cadrul celulelor şi mărimea blocurilor pot fi ajustate în funcţie de necesitate (calitatea datelor, numărul de înregistrari, tipuri de contraste electrice).

Fig. 4 Modul de discretizare al modelului 2D folosit pentru prelucrarea datelor de rezistivitate

Fig. 5 Rezultatul masuratorilor ERT multielectrod, profil M1-2 – vara 2009 a) pseudosectiune de rezistivitate aparenta; b) pseudosectiune de rezistivitate aparenta modelata; c) sectiunea de rezistivitate reala

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Datele măsurate de-a lungul profilului M1-2 sunt redate sub formă de pseudosecţiune de rezistivitate aparentă (Fig. 5a). Atât în pseudosecţiunea de rezistivitate cât şi în modelul 2D obţinut în urma prelucrării datelor (Fig. 5c) se observă prezenta unor anomalii de maxim rezistivimetric posibil asociate unor morminte situate la o adancime cuprinsă între 0,30m -1,00m. Extinderea anomaliilor de rezistivitate ridicată este variabilă fiind influenţată de poziţia mormintelor faţă de linia profilului electric. Anomaliile de rezistivitate cu dimensiuni mici sunt interpretate ca fiind generate de influenţa asupra liniilor de câmp electric a unor morminte aflate în apropierea profilului electric, în timp ce anomaliile cu extindere de cca 1 -1,5 m sunt obţinute în situaţia în care mormintele au fost traversate de către profilul electric. Concluzii Utilizarea metodei electrice folosindu-se tehnica de achiziţie ERT a permis detectarea unor anomalii de rezistivitate ridicată, a căror sursă este datorată unor activităţi antropice. Atât adâncimea de îngropare cât şi valorile ridicate de rezistivitate sugerează prezenţa unor morminte. Caracterul nondistructiv şi noninvaziv al metodei electrice, precum şi timpul de lucru relativ scurt recomandă utilizarea acestei metode încă de la primele etape pe care le presupune investigarea siturilor arheologice.

Referințe Cardelli, E., Fischanger, F., Piro, S. [2008] Integrated geophysical survey to detect buried structures for archaeological prospecting. A case-history at Sabine Necropolis (Rome, Italy). Near Surface Geophysics, 6, No.1, pg. 15-20. Chitea, F., Ioane, D., Kodom, K. [2009] Geoelectrical evaluation of soil properties, European Geosciences Union- General Assembly, Vienna. Georgescu, P. [1982] Prospectiuni electrice, Universitatea Bucuresti. Ioane Dumitru [2006] Geofizica pentru mediu, Ed. Vergiliu, Bucuresti. Looke, M.H. [2002] Tutorial: 2D and 3D electrical imagining surveys. Parvan, V. [1912] Cetatea Tropaeum- consideratii istorice, Ed. Tipografia Gütenberg.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Geophysical methods constructed for the eastern part of Platform Moesia

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Florin-Catalin Mihai*, IoneliaPanea, University of Bucharest

Information on geological structure of the eastern part of Moesian Platform

The first time I have built 2D and 3D velocity distributions of wide platforms

Summary Information on the geological structure of the eastern part of Moesian (max. 200 words): Platform can be obtained from gravimetric and seismic data analysis.
Bouguereau apparent anomaly in the interpretation map of the platform sedimentary layer thickening from south to north and complicated tectonic structure of crystalline foundation in the southern part of the platform. Complicated tectonics effect the foundations of the anomaly is weaker Bouguereau advancing northward thickening due to sedimentation Carpathians. This apparent thickening and two-dimensional distributions of velocity of propagation constructed from processing seismic reflection records This tectonic accidents (example faults) in the sample area is highlighted by isolines form of speed.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

322

Modele geofizice construite pentru sectorul estic al Platformei Moesice
Mihai Florin-Cătălin, Panea Ionelia, Universitatea din București

Introducere Analiza din punct de vedere geofizic a formațiunilor geologice necesită cunoașterea modului în care variază parametrii fizici ce caracterizează rocile și formațiunile geologice (de exemplu, densitate, viteză de propagare, rezistivitate și conductivitate, susceptibilitate magnetică). Densitatea și variațiile de densitate stau la baza analizelor gravimetrice, iar variațiile vitezelor de propagare ale undelor longitudinale și transversale sunt studiate în metodele seismice active și pasive. Orice model geofizic ce urmează a fi realizat depinde de cunoașterea parametrului /parametrilor fizici pe care se bazează obținerea acestuia. În gravimetrie se studiază variația gravității de la un punct la altul pe suprafața solului. Prelucrarea măsuratorilor gravimetrice conduce la obținerea hărților de anomalie Bouguer. În țara noastră, primele măsuratori gravimetrice au fost efectuate pentru identificarea structurilor gazeifere din Depresiunea Transilvania, măsurători realizate la începutul sec XX folosind balanța de torsiune (Orban, 1979). Interpretarea calitativă a hărților de anomalie Bouguer poate conduce, de exemplu, la obținerea unei imagini generale privind structura geologică a zonei (de ex., direcția de îngroșare a cuverturii sedimentare în zonele de platformă, poziția domurilor de sare etc). Studii gravimetrice detaliate pot fi efectuate pentru a se obține informații despre acumulările de substante minerale utile solide. Prospecțiunea seismică aplicată cu metoda activă, sub ambele forme de reflexie si refracție, este folosită în studiile tectonice (crustale) și în cele legate de etapa de explorare a structurilor purtătoare de hidrocarburi. Rezultatul comun al folosirii ambelor metode (reflexie si refracție) este reprezentat de distribuțiile de viteză bi- și tri-dimensionale, în funcție de tipul măsurătorilor, bi- sau tri-dimensionale; acestea sunt necesare, mai departe, în prelucrarea datelor seismice efectuate cu scopul de a obține secțiunile seismice de timp/adancime. Cunoasterea distribuțiilor vitezei de propagare a undelor seismice este utilă în studiile geologice deoarece permite construirea unei imagini privind structura geologică a zonei. Cu cât structura geologică a zonei investigate este mai simplă cu atât acuratețea modelelor de viteză este mai mare, permițand obținerea unei imagini structurale cât mai apropiată de realitate a subsolului. Cadrul geologic al Platformei Moesice Denumirea de platformă Moesica a fost introdusă de Boncev (1947); aceasta cuprindea Câmpia Română, Podisul Prebalcanic, Dobrogea de nord. Extinderea în suprafață a platformei a variat în timp, în funcție de diverși autori. În prezent, limitele platformei sunt: Carpații în partea de nord și vest, Dunarea la sud, falia Trotusului în nord. Falia Intramoesică împarte platforma în două sectoare și anume, sectorul valah, spre vest, și dobrogean, spre est (Figura 1). Cuvertura sedimentară cuprinde o succesiune de depozite sedimentare cu vârste de la Paleozoic (Cambrina-Ordovician) până la Quaternar. Pe criterii stratigrafice au fost separate patru cicluri de sedimentare: ciclul Ordovician – Carbonifer, ciclul Permian – Triasic, ciclul Jurasic – Cretacic si ciclul Tertiar. Fundamentul cristalin are o compozitie diferită din punct de vedere geologic în cele două sectoare ale platformei. Analiza datelor geologice și geofizice a pus în evidență exisțenta urmatoarelor fracturi, considerate, crustale: falia Intramoesică, falia Peceneaga – Camena, falia Capidava – Ovidiu, falia Trotușului, falia Jiului, falia Motrului și sistemul de falii corespunzatoare ridicarii de la Craiova – Bals – Optași. Dintre toate aceste fracturi, comportamentul faliei Intramoesice este cel mai studiat deoarece este asociat cu producerea cutremurelor de mica adancime în zona Făgăras-CâmpulungSinaia.

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Fig. 1 Harta tectonică a Platformei Moesice (Săndulescu, 1984) --- sectorul valah, ||| sectorul dobrogean Distribuția anomaliei Bouguer în sectorul estic al Platformei Moesice Rezultatele măsurătorilor gravimetrice sunt folosite în studiile crustale și în cele realizate cu scopuri economice (de ex. exploatarea hidrocarburilor, a substanțelor minerale utile solide etc). Parametrul fizic care stă la baza analizelor gravimetrice este densitatea rocilor sau a formațiunilor geologice. Variația acestui parametru se reflectă în variația gravității. Rezultatele studiilor gravimetrice sunt reprezentate de hărți ale anomaliei Bouguer. In Figura 2 este reprezentată anomalia Bouguer obținută în urma prelucrării datelor gravimetrice din zona București – Oltenița. Valorile anomaliei cresc de la nord spre sud, ea prezentând valori negative în nord și pozitive spre sud. Această crestere confirmă îngroșarea cuverturii sedimetare din Platforma Moesică de la sud spre nord, spre Carpații Meridionali. Depozitele sedimentare, ce intră în alcătuirea cuverturii sedimentare a platformei, sunt caracterizate de o densitate medie mult mai mică decât cea a formațiunilor metamorfice și magmatice din constituția fundamentului cristalin. Din acest motiv, se obțin valori de gravitate pozitive în zonele în care fundamentul cristalin este mai apropiat de suprafață comparativ cu partea de nord a platformei unde sedimentarul este mult mai gros. În plus, în partea de sud a platformei, structura complicată a fundamentului cristalin, cu horsturi si grabene, își pune amprenta asupra formei izoliniilor (vezi Figura 2). Distribuții ale vitezelor de propagare a undelor longitudinale în sectorul estic al Platformei Moesice Studiile seismice de reflexie si refracție, folosind metoda activă, au acoperit uniform întreaga suprafață a platformei Moesice datorită prezenței numeroaselor structuri purtătoare de hidrocarburi (Videle, Filiasi, Tg Jiu etc). Studiul seismic aplicat folosind metoda activă este un studiu în care generarea undelor seismice se face folosind surse artificiale (de exemplu, dinamita, Vibroseis-ul, ciocanul, căderea greutații etc). Datorită costurilor ridicate, acest tip de măsurători geofizice nu se pot repeta în cazul în care parametrii de achiziție a datelor seismice nu au fost definiți corect. Sectorul estic al Platformei Moesice este acoperit cu profile seismice de reflexie realizate în perioada 1960 – prezent. Datorită posibilităților limitate de stocare a datelor seismice, în prezent nu este posibilă re-prelucrarea înregistrărilor seismice realizate până în anul 1985. Dezvoltarea calculatoarelor si a tehnicii de calcul ce a avut loc în anii ‘80 a permis obținerea și salvarea tuturor informațiilor necesare studiilor geologice și geofizice (secțiuni seismice de timp, modele de viteză uni-dimensionale, microseismocarotaje). Distribuțiile uni-, bi- și tri-dimensionale de viteză pot fi obținute fie folosind analiza de viteză realizată în flux-ul de prelucrare a înregistrărilor seismice de reflexie, fie prin inversarea timpilor de propagare a primelor sosiri (Panea, 2007; Bocin, 2010).

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Fig. 2 Harta anomaliei Bouguer construită pentru partea sud-estică a sectorului dobrogean al Platformei Moesice (imagine preluată din Raport Etapa 2, VELOROM)

În Figura 3 sunt reprezentate o serie de profile seismice înregistrate în perioada 1995 – prezent și folosite în construirea unor distribuții de viteză bi- și tri-dimensionale la scara întregii Platforme Moesice. Dintre acestea au fost selectate ca fiind cele mai reprezentative pentru sectorul estic al platformei, profilele PM21, PM22 si PM23, datorită poziției lor față de falia Intramoesică. Analiza distribuțiilor bi-dimensionale ale vitezelor de propagare a undelor longitudinale confirmă îngroșarea cuverturii sedimentare de la sud spre nord (vezi PM21 și PM22). În ceea ce priveste distribuția vitezelor în lungul profilului PM23, se constată o întrerupere a continuității izoliniilor în zona centrală a profilului. Aceasta întrerupere poate fi cauzată de activitatea faliei Intramoesice, știut fiind faptul că direcția ramurii nordice a acesteia traversează această zonă (vezi Figura 2). Informații mai precise pot fi obținute din analiza secțiunilor seismice de timp/adâncime existente pentru această zonă. Concluzii Informații privind structura geologică a sectorului estic al Platformei Moesice pot fi obținute din analiza datelor gravimetrice și seismice. Din interpretarea hărții anomaliei Bouguer reiese îngroșarea cuverturii sedimentare a platformei de la sud spre nord și structura tectonică complicată a fundamentului cristalin în partea sudică a platformei. Efectul tectonicii complicate a fundamentului asupra anomaliei Bouguer este mai slab înaintând spre nord datorită îngroșării spre Carpați a sedimentarului. Această îngroșare reiese și din distribuțiile bi-dimensionale ale vitezelor de propagare

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construite în urma prelucrării înregistrărilor seismice de reflexie. Prezenta accidentelor tectonice (de exemplu, falii) în zona analizată este pusă în evidență de forma izoliniilor de viteză.

Fig. 3 Harta tectonică a Platformei Moesice cu indicarea poziției profilelor seismice de reflexie importante folosite în construirea distribuțiilor de viteză tri-dimensionale

Fig. 4 Distribuții bi-dimensionale de viteză pentru profilele PM22(stanga), PM23 (centru) și PM21 (dreapta)

Referințe Bocin, A. [2010] Crustal structure of the SE Carpathians and its foreland from densely spaced geophysical data, PhD Thesis, Vrije Universiteit, The Netherlands, 124 p. Orban, T. [1979] Prospecțiuni seismice I, Note de curs, Universitatea din București, 297 p. Panea, I. [2007] The use of single sensors in seismic data acqusition, processing and interpretațion, PhD Thesis, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, 180 p.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Geochemical data regarding the pollution in Dambovnic River due to anthropogenic sources

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Cosmina Ioana Popescu*, Consuela Milu, University of Bucharest

To analyse the chemical composition of water in Dambovnic river.(it’s important to establish the potential impact of Arpechim industrial activity). General trend of decrease of concentration (CN, phenol and oil products), but which exceed the maximum allowable amount in the river upstream Dambovnic.

Summary Arpechim SA is among the best known companies processing crude oil and (max. 200 words): petrochemicals in the country. Complex industrial activity in the platform
Arpechim is reflected on main river that crosses the area of study Dambovnic river. Another source of contamination are wastes on both sides of the river, discharge water from the Oarja Zootechnical complex, located on the direction of the river, produce a contamination of the river Dambovnic with organic pollutants. Following the studies was noted that there are several point sources of pollution of the river Dambovnic: water discharged from refinery and waste water characterized by values exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations of cyanides, phenols, organic substances. In oder to assers the state of Dambovnic river, in august 2009 we carried out a campaign to monitor the chemical composition of water in river Dambovnic.Chemical analysis made in 2009 in the zone adjacent to combine Arpechim- river Dambovnic have concluded that there was a general trend of decrease of concentration (CN, phenol and oil products) but which exceed the maximum allowable amount in the river upstream Dambovnic.

Topic:

Geochemistry

327

Date geochimice privind starea de poluare a raului Dambovnic din surse antropogene
Cosmina Ioana Popescu, Consuela Milu, Universitatea din Bucuresti Introducere Arpechim S.A se numara printre cele mai cunoscute companii de prelucrare a titeiului si de petrochimie din tara (vechime de 43 ani). Datorita activitatii sale industriale complexe (prelucrarea titeiului, petrochimia) zona este puternic afectata, fapt ce implica o serie de probleme cu privire in mod special asupra solului, aerului si apelor. Impactul este dat in principal de activitatea industriala, fiind cel mai evident la nivelul principalului rau care traverseaza perimetrul de studiu- raul Dambovnic (afluent de dreapta al Neajlovului) - Fig. 1. Activitatea societatii Arpechim S.A a modificat starea naturala a raului Dambovnic. Modificarea echilibrului natural implica si importanta cercetarii raului acesta fiind si sursa de alimentare cu apa potabila a gospodariilor din zona BraduOarja, situate in aval de Arpechim. Fig. 1 Zona industriala Arpechim – raul Dambovnic Conform datelor existente principalele surse de poluare si poluanti specifici sunt: (Fig. 2)
Surse de poluare Arpechim S.A Domeniul de activitate Prelucrari chimice Emisar Volum ape uzate evacuate (mil.mc) 11.34 Poluanti specifici

Dambovnic

Sc Suintest Sa Oarja

Zootehnie

Dambovnic

0.053

MTS,cloruri,sulfati, detegenti,CBO5,NH4,NO3,NO 2,Mn,Cu,Cr,Zn,Ni,Pb,Al, Ca,Mg,, cianuri,fenoli, fluoruri, extractibile MTS,cloruri,sulfati,deterg. CBO5,NH4, O3,NO2,CCOCr, fenoli

Fig. 2 Sursele majore de poluare si poluanti specifici ai raului Dambovnic Raul Dambovnic nu este contaminat doar datorita activitatii industriale din cadrul platformei Arpechim. O alta sursa de contaminare o constituie depozitele de deseuri existente pe ambele maluri ale raului. Utilizarile casnice fac să ajungă în apa subterană, prin intermediul spalarii rufelor, a spalarii masinilor etc., o serie de indicatori chimici ca: detergenţi, hidrocarburi. De asemenea, deversarea apelor de la complexul de crestere a porcilor din localitatea Oarja, localizata pe directia raului, produce o contaminare a raului Dambovnic cu poluanti organici.Toate aceste surse de contaminare sunt insotite de inerentele poluari accidentale. Acestea sunt datorate atât neglijenţei manifestate de unii operatori economici în timpul desfăşurării proceselor tehnologice cât şi neretehnologizării proceselor tehnologice din cadrul unităţii industriale Arpechim (Fig. 3); spargerilor conductelor de transport ale produselor petroliere, datorită furturilor de combustibil sau uzurii acestora, cedarea barajului de decantare a apei reziduale din interiorul combinatului etc. Fig. 3 Poluarea accidentala a raului Dambovnic (www.realitatea.net)

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Evolutia indicatorilor de mediu in perioada 1995-2009 De-a lungul timpului s-au realizat numeroase studii privind calitatea raului Dambovnic. Monitorizarea activitatii industriale din zona cercetata s-a efectuat inca din 1970. S-a observat ca vorbim de mai multe surse punctuale de impurificare : apele deversate de la rafinaria Arpechim (evacuate in Canalul Dambovnic la randul sau deversate in lacurile de acumulare Dambovnic si Suseni) indicau concentratii peste limitele admisibile la fenoli, cianuri, impurificatori anorganici, materie organica (manifestate indirect prin valori ale consumului chimic de oxigen cu permanganat de potasiu-CCO-Cr) si apele reziduale ale platformei industriale (evacuate in raul Dambovnic) caracteristice prin valori peste limita maxim admisibila privind concentratiile de cianuri, fenoli, substante organice. In urma acestor observatii s-au delimitat ca principale surse de poluare: halda de reziduri si canalul Dambovnic din incinta combinatului Arpechim. Precizam ca suportul geologic in care se produce impurificarea cu substante organice si anorganice este: patura acoperitoare de depozite loessoide-argiloase si aluviunile de terasa in care este cantonat stratul acvifer (in partea vestica). Rezultate si concluzii Studiile efectuate in timp au indicat o poluare cu un impact puternic negativ asupra zonei din cadrul combinatului cat si in aval de platforma industriala. In 1974 s-a dat in folosinta statia de epurare biologica (SEB) ce a dus la o ameliorare a situatiei, dar prezenta rezidurilor lichide in lacul Dambovnic s-a pastrat peste limita admisibila de 0,01 mg/l (STAS 1342/71). Acest fapt a convins conducerea combinatului de a realiza o retea de canalizare interna si externa de colectare a apelor uzate pentru a fi conduse la SEB si deversate ulterior in lacul Dambovnic. In perioada 19952005 s-a realizat o monitorizare punctuala a zonelor de contaminare maxima, cu observatii speciale asupra raului Dambovnic. Dupa cum indica si diagramele din figurile nr.4, 5 si 6 referitoare la unele elemente poluante nocive –cianuri, fenoli si produse petroliere se poate observa ca: cu exceptia anului 1999, in anii 1995-1996-2000 s-au inregistrat valori de CN peste concentratia maxim admisibila (CMA cianuri= 0,01 mg/l ).
Evolutia parametrului chimic-produse petroliere la nivelul raului Dambovnic in perioada 1995-2005

Evolutia indicatorului chimic-cianuri (CN) la nivelul raului Dambovnic in intervalul 1995-2005

0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06
concentratie 0.05 CN (g/l)

0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005

Fig. 4
Evolutia indicatorului chimic- fenoli a raului Dambovnic in perioada 1995-2005

0.45 0.4 0.35

0.3 0.25 concentratia fenoli (g/l) 0.2
0.3

0.15
0.25

1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005

0.1
0.2 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005

0.05

concentratia prod.petroliere 0.15 (g/l)

0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005

0.1

0.05

0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2005

Fig. 6

Fig. 5

Evolutia indicatorului chimic –fenoli din cadrul raului Dambovnic a indicat depasiri ale concentratiei maxim admisibile, in perioada 1997, 2001, 2005 (CMA fenoli= 0,02 mg/l). In ceea ce priveste concentratiile de produse petroliere se poate observa (Figura nr.6), ca pe parcursul aniilor cu exceptia anului 1996, 2001 si 2005, prezinta valori peste CMA. (CMA prod. petroliere= 0,1 mg/l) Prezenta acestor indicatori nocivi in raul Dambovnic dovedesc o activitate poluanta a combinatului. Impurificarea este data pe de o parte de prezenta unor halde de reziduri cu legatura in canalul Dambovnic. De aici se poate intelege evolutia substantelor poluate pe parcursul anilor datorita multitudinii de surse de poluare a raului Dambovnic.(Figura 7 si diagramele din figurile 4-6).

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In dorinta de a afla starea raului Dambovnic, in august 2009 am efectuat o campanie punctuala a compozitiei chimice a apei Dambovnicului. Fig. 7 Halde de reziduri si Canalul Dambovnic S-a urmarit in principiu aceleasi zone de contaminare maxima, cu precizarea ca de data aceasta a fost imposibila realizarea unor serii de prelevari in incinta combinatului Arpechim. Conform hartii (Figura 8) s-au prelevat probe de apa din urmatoarele puncte: 1. Rau Dambovnic; 1a) Canal Dambovnic; 1b) Lac Dambovnic; 1c) Lac Suseni; 1d) Rau Dambovnic aval.
Variatia indicatorului chimic -fenoli pe segmentul Rau Dambovnic, Canal Dambovnic, Lac Dambovnic, Lac Suseni 2009
1. Raul Dambovnic 1a. Canal Dambovnic 1b. Lac Dambovnic 1c. Lac Suseni 1d. Raul Dambovnic aval

0.016 0.014 0.012 0.01 Concentratie CN 0.008 mg/l 0.006 0.004 0.002 0
ic ic ic ni vn vn vn se av al

Variatia indicatorului chimic -CN pe segmentul Rau Dambovnic, Canal Dambovnic, Lac Dambovnic,Lac Suseni, Rau Dambovnic aval- 2009

0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 Concentratia 0.005 CN (mg/l) 0.004 0.003 0.002 0.001 0
vn ic vn ic en i ic am bo vn lD am bo am bo Su s av al

1. Raul Dambovnic 1a. Canal Dambovnic 1b. Lac Dambovnic 1c. Lac Suseni 1d. Raul Dambovnic aval

S-au efectuat determinari pentru o serie de indicatori chimici. Am urmarit in mod special cianurile, fenolii si produsele petroliere pentru ca acesti indicatori de calitate sunt rezultati din procesarea petrolului (Arpechim S.A) si pe de alta parte datorita informatiilor avute privind evolutia acestor indicatori in timp. Analiza geochimica a produselor petroliere am efectuat-o in laboratorul de Geochimie, cu ajutorul metodei luminiscentei si gazcromatografiei. In ceea ce priveste analiza cianurilor si fenolilor le-am analizat la INCD Ecoind.

bo

bo

bo

Su

m

m

m

ac

Da

Da

Da

ul

1c

ac

Ra

an

.L

.C

1b

1.

1a

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D

.L

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.L

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1.

Da m

ac

au

1c

bo v

ac

nic

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.R

au

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am

al

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vn

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Fig. 8 Perimetrul cercetat-raul Dambovnic

Realizand o comparatie intre concentratia tuturor indicatorilor analizati din raul Dambovnic in anumite perioade (vezi Figura 9 -1995-2001, 2005, 2007, 2009) avand ca suport si informatiile de la Agentia de mediu Arges, observam ca exista un maxim de concentratie in anul 2007. Acest lucru poate fii legat de poluarea accidentala petrecuta in acel an, cand un baraj de decantare a apei reziduale a cedat şi peste 500.000 de metri cubi de produse petroliere au ajuns în râu. Analizele chimice efectuate in anul 2009 in zona adiacenta combinatului Arpechim - raul Dambovnic au condus la concluzia ca exista o tendinta generala de descrestere a concentratiilor de cianuri, fenoli si produse petroliere, in zona raului Dambovnic-amonte. In august 2009 s-au inregistrat valori maxime care nu depasesc CMA (cianuri=0.0089 mg/l, fenoli=0.016 mg/l, produse petroliere=0.07 mg/l).

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Zona amintita este in contact direct cu deversarea de ape uzate din cadrul combinatului Arpechim. Tendintele de diminuare a impurificarii cu indicatorii de calitate se manifesta de-a lungul raului Dambovnic spre aval.(vezi Figurile 4-6). Imediat in urmatoarea luna septembrie 2009 s-a inregistrat din nou o poluarea accidentala cu produse petroliere la nivelul raului Dambovnic. Cunoastem ca prezenta fenolilor si cianurilor in apa indica un caracter agresiv al apei fata de instalatiile metalice. Probabil exista o preocupare a celor de la Arpechim de reducerea poluarii. Se merge insa pe ideea daca sunt poluatori si isi recunosc vina atunci isi pot sista activitatea pana la remedierea situatiei. Arpechim intentioneaza sa achizitioneze o serie de servicii in vederea reabilitarii, tratarii si eficientizarii biologice a lacurilor Dambovnic si Suseni la nivelul sedimentelor (mineralizarea si reducerea volumului de namol depus in timp) si a coloanei de apa, pentru asigurarea functionarii lacurilor ca sisteme ecologice biologice naturale.

Evolutia parametrilor chimici (CN, fenoli, produse petroliere) la nivelul raului Dambovnic in perioada 1995-2009
0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 Concentratii (mg/l) 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 CN 1999 Fenoli 2000 Produse petroliere 2001 2005 2007 2009

Fig. 9 Evolutia parametrilor chimici (cianuri, fenoli, produse petroliere) la nivelul raului Dambovnic in perioada 1995-2009 Referinte Morton Lippmann. Enviromental toxicants, Human Exposures and their health effects. ISBN 0-47129298-2, pag.31,pag.969-981. T.H.Y Tebutt, B. Heinemann [1998] Principales of water quality control. Pag.28-3, pag.76-91. Jamie Bartram, Richard Balance E. & F.N. Spon [1996] Water quality monitoring. Pag.113-198. Protectia mediului.Calitatea apei. [2004] Institutul European din Romania, Seria Acquis Comunitar nr. 10, decembrie.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Testing discrimination power of static cone penetration in differentiation of the Holocene lithological formations

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandra-Victoria Rîcu*, Daniel Scrădeanu, University of Bucharest

Discriminant analysis applied for CPT results. Testing the discriminant power of CPT in differentiation of lithological formations. Correlation between CPT and drilling results.

Summary Testing how data obtained from analysis of cone penetertion test data (max. 200 words): (penetration resistance and lateral friction) can distinguish different
lithological types. It is tested the correlation between lithologic model from Urlaţi area designed on 10 wells and direct observations on lithology, and lithologic model made with parametric data obtained by cone penetration test(CPT). The calculations used 7243 data pairs, which were correlated with lithology as follows: 4071 fo the group loeloessoid group, 1935 for the detritic population and 1235 pairs seen as clay. Their distribution according to penetration resistance (Rp) and lateral friction (fl) indicates areas of overlap, suggesting the likelihood of incorrect classifications. Differentiation between groups was demonstrated by calculating the Mahalanobis distance, which measures the distance between groups multivariate groups, and comparison of the experimental value of Fisher function with the one calculated usind data values. Differentiation between loess and debris, and clay-loessoid is better than that of clay and loess, as attested and Mahalanobis distance smaller than that for the other two groups.

Topic:

Geological engineering, Hydrogeology

332

Testarea puterii discriminante a penetrării statice pe con în diferenţierea litologică a formaţiunilor Holocene din zona Urlaţi
Alexandra-Victoria Rîcu, Daniel Scrădeanu, Universitatea din București Obiective Testarea modului în care datele obţinute în urma analizei statice pe con (rezistenţa la penetrare şi frecarea laterală) pot diferenţia diferitele tipuri litologice. Se testează concordanţa dintre modelul litologic ale zonei Urlaţi realizat pe baza a 10 foraje şi observaţiile directe asupra litologiei, şi modelul litologic realizat cu datele parametrice obţinute prin penetrare statică pe con (PSC). Metodologie Analiza discriminant presupune existenţa unei clasificări realizate pe baza unor variabile măsurate, ale căror valori servesc încadrării unor eşantioane de provenienţă incertă în una din categoriile acelei clasificări (Scrădeanu, 1995). Parametrii luaţi în considerare, în acest caz sunt rezistenta la penetrare (Rp) şi frecarea laterală (Fl), reprezentand datele obtinute din testul de penetrare statică pe con. Funcţia discriminant permite separarea a două populaţii cu câte K parametri variabili, reprezentaţi într-un spaţiu K dimensional, printr-un plan având (K-1) dimensiuni. În funcţie de ce parte a planului (K-1) dimensional se plasează probele, acestea sunt încadrate într-unul din cele două grupuri. Cele două grupuri pot fi localizate prin coordonate K-dimensionale a mediilor lor multivariate, iar distincţia dintre grupuri depinde de separaţia dintre medii (Harbaugh, Merriam, 1968). (Fig.1)

Fig. 1 Reprezentarea grafică a funcţiei discriminant Funcţia discriminant liniară utilizează concepte şi operaţii matematice simple: suma variabilelor, suma pătratelor variabilelor, suma produselor mixte pentru fiecare populatie, valoarea medie a unui parametru, etc. Ea este de forma: R=λaA+λbB , iar prin combinarea mediilor populaţiei de probe în funcţia discriminant se calculează indicele discriminant R0 . În funcţie de valoarea indicelui discriminant (R) al unui set de valori faţă de R0, datele sunt atribuite uneia din populaţii. (Scradeanu, 1995) Se calculează coeficienţii pentru funcţiile de discriminare (de clasificare) şi influenţa fiecărui parametru. Având n populaţii distincte vor exista Cn2 funcţii discriminant. În cazul de faţă, existând 3 litologii distincte, vor exista 3 funcţii discriminant ce le vor diferenţia doua câte doua. În cazul în care există zone de suprapunere între populaţii, există riscul clasificării incorecte. Acesta poate fi minimizat, insă nu se poate elimina (Sandu, 1996). Aprecierea incertitudinii de asociere a unei probe

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la unul din grupurile în care se face clasificarea se realizează utilizând împreună cu analiza discriminant şi regula lui Bayes. (Scradeanu, 1995) Pentru a încadra o nouă probă în una din populaţiile existente se calculează un scor de clasificare pentru fiecare funcţie discriminant. Regula lui Bayes este folosită pentru a calcula probabilităţile condiţionate. Proba va fi încadrată grupei cu scorul de clasificare mai mare decât riscul asumat. Comparaţia între clasificarea corectă (plasarea în aceeaşi clasă în care o proba a fost identificată) şi cea calculată pentru diferite valori ale riscului asumat indică relevanţa discriminantă a variabilelor. Studiu de caz S-au utilizat datele provenite de la 10 testări de tipul penetrării statice pe con şi 10 foraje la aceleaşi coordonate, în aproperea orasului Urlati, judetul Prahova. (fig2), pe malul stâng al râului Cricovul Sărat. Depozitele Cuaternare in care s-a forat fac parte din molasa carpatica.

Fig. 3 Amplasarea forajelor Fig. 2 Foraje utilizate. Scară verticala 1:3,7 Probele de penetrare statică pe con sunt teste in-situ ce măsoară în mod direct proprietăţile solului şi unii parametrii geotehnici, realizând un profil continuu al acestora. Testul constă în împingerea la o rată constanta de 20mm/s a unui cilindru metalic şi măsurarea rezistentei solului la penetrare. Penetrometrul standard are un varf cilindric la o înclinaţie de 600, cu suprafaţa proiectată de 10 cm2, suprafaţă de frecarepe manta de 150 cm2. Măsuratorile de bază (rezistenţa la penetrare – măsurată pe vârful conic şi frecarea laterală -pe mâneca de frecare) sunt realizate la intervale de 20 mm, realizându-se un profil continuu. În calcule s-au folosit 7243 de perechi de date, care au fost corelate cu litologia dupa cum urmeaza: 4071 în grupul loessoid, 1935 în stratul detritic şi 1235 în categoria argilă. Repartitia acestora în funcţie de rezistenţa la penetrare(Rp) şi frecarea laterală (fl) indică zone de suprapunere, sugerând existenţa riscului unei clasificări incorecte (fig 4). Adâncimea forajelor este de aproximativ 15 m, situate într-o reţea regulată la 80 de m distanţă unul faţă de celălalt. (fig 3). Pentru litologia iniţiala am realizat profilul litologic 3-dimensional cu ajutorul programului RockWorks (RockWare Incorporated) folosind ca metodă de interpolare krigging-ul (fig 5). Se observă cele 3 strate existente: loessoid (galben), detritic (gri- în imagine este dezactivat pentru observarea planelor de separare) şi argilă (verde-stratul inferior). Modelul tridimensional în care s-au folosit rezultatele analizei discriminant (pentru un risc asumat de 50%) prezintă numai două tipuri de litologie: loessoid şi detritic, precum şi zone nedefinite care nu au putut fi încadrate în niciunul din cele 3 grupuri.

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Fig. 4 Graficul repartiţiei populaţiilor dupa rezistenţa la penetrare(Rp) şi frecarea laterală (Fl)

Fig. 5 Modelul stratigrafic bazat pe datele initiale Modelul litologic calculat. Risc asumat 0.5 Diferenţierea dintre categorii a fost demonstrată calculând distanţa Mahalanobis, care măsoară distanţa dintre grupurile multivariate ale grupurilor, precum şi compârand valoarea funcţiei Fisher experimentală cu cea calculată pentru valorile date. Diferenţierea dintre loessoid şi detritus, precum şi argila-detritus este mai bună decat cea dintre argila şi loessoid, fapt atestat şi de distanţa Mahalanobis mai mică decat în cazul celorlalte două grupări. Valorile Rp şi Fl înregistrate fac ca pentru risc asumat mic (în acest caz mai mic de 30-40%) să nu se poată face distincţia dintre argilă şi loessoid, iar pentru valori ale riscului mai mari, argila să nu mai fie prezentă în modelele litologice bazate pe analiza discriminant. Concluzii Valorile calculate prin analiza discriminant pentru cele 3 perechi de date sunt repezentate în tabelul de mai jos.
λA λB Ro D^2 Fexp F(α;ν1; ν2) Rx Loessoid-Detritic 0,394519103 0,001632447 3,253065252 5,641559143 3701,669433 0,606555909 Argilă-Loessoid 0,429035619 0,00313486 0,720436456 0,156321974 74,04725476 0,693237789 =λA*Rp+λB*Fl Argilă-Detritic -0,211014345 -0,01297833 2,809262475 2,048663297 772,2660943 0,6065785

Fig. 6 Rezultatul analizei discriminant

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risc 0,1 Foraj F01 F02 F04 F05 F07 F08 F10 F11 F12 F13
Nr probe

risc 0,2 numar 477 297 347 341 239 266 160 305 226 186 % 63,35 39,76 46,39 45,59 31,95 35,56 21,39 40,72 30,17 24,87

risc 0,3 numar 530 475 480 494 457 479 452 460 361 422 % 70,39 63,59 64,17 66,04 61,10 64,04 60,43 61,42 48,20 56,42

risc 0,4 numar 563 493 511 512 538 568 580 554 515 483 % 74,77 66,00 68,32 68,45 71,93 75,94 77,54 73,97 68,76 64,57

risc 0,5 numar 563 489 518 507 535 557 580 539 504 484 % 74,77 65,46 69,25 67,78 71,52 74,47 77,54 71,96 67,29 64,71

risc 0,7 numar 474 327 356 355 249 247 165 255 209 208 % 62,95 43,78 47,59 47,46 33,29 33,02 22,06 34,05 27,90 27,81

risc 0,9 numar 384 88 85 191 138 82 62 155 127 96 % 51,00 11,78 11,36 25,53 18,45 10,96 8,29 20,69 16,96 12,83

numar 433 134 201 254 186 122 89 212 181 137

% 57,50 17,94 26,87 33,96 24,87 16,31 11,90 28,30 24,17 18,32

753 747 748 748 748 748 748 749 749 748

Tabel 1. Numărul de probe încadrate corect pentru riscuri ale erorii de 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 Numărul maxim de perechi de date încadrat corect este de aproximativ 75-77%, calculat pentru riscuri de 0,4 şi 0,5, iar cel minim pentru riscul de 0,1 (probabilitate de 90%). În tabelul 1 am cuantificat acurateţea metodei de încadrare a valorilor noi în categoriile litologice deja existente. S-a observat că numărul mare de date iniţiale încadrate în categoria ”loessoid”, 4071, în comparaţie cu celelate două categorii, care însumeaza 3170 de probe, înfluenţează analiza în direcția unei probabilităţi mai mari ca o probă să facă parte din acestă populaţie. Nicio probă de argilă nu a fost încadrată în categoria corectă, fiind asimilată populaţiei loessoide. Astfel, nu se poate folosi metoda discriminantă pentru a încadra probe noi, gradul de incertitudine fiind prea mare pentru a putea folosi corect acesta litologie creată din analiza parametrică. Referințe Scrădeanu, D. [1995] Informatică Geologică, Volumul I, Editura Universităţii Bucureşti, 156-166. Merriam, D., Harbaugh, J. [1968] Computer applications in stratigraphic analysis, 240-243. Sandu, D. [1996] Sociologia tranzitiei. Valori si tipuri sociale în România. Bucuresti: Staff, cap. 5. David Garsson Discriminant Function Analysis (Three Groups): SPSS Output , la adresa http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/discrim3.htm, consultat martie 2010.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Geoelectrical methods used in the investigation of aquifer levels

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Neagu Sorin-Cristi*, Opris Anca , Stanciu Adrian Christian, University of Bucharest

Investigation of the local litology; investigation of the aquifer levels through geoelectrical methods. Interpretation of resistivity pseudosections to identify aquifer levels, in conjunction with structural elements, lithological and hydrogeological conditions.

Summary (max. 200 words): Electrometric processes peculiarity lies in the way of addiction research

between the underground structure and the electrical distribution on the surface through the intermediary electrical apparent resistivity ( ρ a ) of rocks and geological formations. To study the variation of resistivity with depth, is used Vertical Electric Sounding, which is based on the fact that current penetration is proportional to the length of the transmission line AB, given a homogeneous medium, isotropic and multilayered. Data acquisition was performed in the village Simonesti, Harghita County. Using Schlumberger method, geophysical data was gathered to identify groundwater aquifers in the researched area. For this purpose we measured the apparent resistivity of the basement rocks. The presence of water is reveald by the minimum apparent resistivity in VES curves. The only hydrogeophysical important area appears to be located at a depth of 50-60m below the surface on which measurements were made. High values of resistivity (over 30 ohmm) may be associated with the presence of sandstone sandy aquifers that lean from South to North.

Topic:

Applied geophysics

337

Utilizarea metodelor geoelectrice pentru identificarea nivelelor acvifere
Sorin-Cristi Neagu, Anca Opris, Adrian Christian Stanciu, Universitatea din Bucuresti

Introducere Aplicarea metodelor geoelectrice pentru investigarea formatiunilor geologice presupune injectarea unui curent electric prin doi sau mai multi electrozi de injectie (8,16,32 ,64 , 128, 256), situati la suprafata terenului, notati cu A si B. Pentru masurarea diferentei de potential indus se folosesc alti doi electrozi (M si N), coliniari cu electrozii de injectie. Adancimea de investigare este direct proportionala cu distanta dintre electrozii A si B. Pentru aceast studiu s-a ales metoda sondajului electric vertical (SEV), fiind cea mai utilizata si cea mai ieftina metoda de investigare geofizica, cu rezultate foarte bune in domeniul geologiei, geotehnicii, indentificarii rocilor utile, identificarii nivelelor acvifere, pentru determinarea si monitorizarea poluarii solului. Cele mai utilizate tehnici sunt : Schlumberger si Wenner. Instrumente si metode utilizate Aparatura folosita consta dintr-un rezistivimetru de tip ABEM SAS 300, si un sistem cuadripolar de electrozi AMNB(fig. 1) compus din: doi electrozi de injectie ce formeaza linia de emisie AB si doi electrozi de masura MN, toti cei patru electrozi fiind coliniari si conectati la rezistivimetru. Distanta dintre electrozii A si B este de 150m. Cu ajutorul rezistivimetrului s-a masurat diferenta de potential (∆V) intre prizele M si N. Intensitatea curentului s-a reglat in functie de distanta dintre electrozii de injectie. Metoda Schlumberger presupune ca distanta MN sa fie totdeauna mai mica decat 1/5 din lungimea AB, tinand cont ca cele 4 puncte sunt rectilinii si simetrice fata de un punct central.

Fig. 1 Dispozitivul electric Schlumberger

Constanta unui dispozitiv Schlumberger este :

KS = Π

r2 2l

(ec. 1)

Particularitatea procedeelor electrometrice consta in modalitatea de cercetare a dependentei dintre structura subsolului si distributia electrica la suprafata prin intermediu rezistivitatii aparente ( ρ aS ) a rocilor si formatiunilor geologice.

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Rezistivitatea aparenta determinata cu dispozitivul Schlumberger:

ρ aS = K S

∆V (ec. 2) I

Un avantaj major al utilizarii acestui dispozitiv il reprezinta posibilitatea eliminarii influentei curentilor telurici, datorita distantei mici intre electrozii M şi N. Dezavantajul cel mai mare este legat de faptul ca pentru a putea masura diferentele de potential intre electrozii M şi N (in limitele erorilor de masura), este necesar injectarea unor curenti mari in sol. In cazul unui mediu omogen şi izotrop ca si in cazul unei stratificatii cvasi-orizontale rezistivitatea aparenta masurata cu dispozitivul Schlumberger are urmatoarea forma:

ρ as = −2Πr 2

l ∂V (ec. 3), I ∂r

unde V este potentialul sursei punctuale. Pentru a putea studia variatia rezistivitatii cu adancimea se foloseşte metoda Sondajului Electric Vertical (SEV), care se bazeaza pe faptul ca adancimea de patrundere a curentului este proportionala cu lungimea liniei de emisie AB, avand in vedere un mediu omogen, izotrop şi multistratificat. Pentru lungimi foarte mici ale liniei de emisie AB, rezistivitatea aparenta tinde catre rezistivitatea primului strat, iar pentru valori foarte mari catre rezistivitatea celui de al doilea strat. Astfel, determinand variatia rezistivitatii aparente in functie de lungimea liniei de emisie AB se poate determina modul de variatie in adancime a rezistivitatii reale. Dispozitivul utilizat este cel de tip Schlumberger. Uitilizarea acestui dispozitiv presupune departarea simultana si simetrica a electrozilor de injectie AB fata de centrul dispozitivului marcat prin prezenta rezistivimetrului. Rezultatul masuratorilor se reprezinta intr-un grafic cu scari logaritmice. Interpretarea acestor grafice, respective a curbelor SEV poate conduce la determinarea grosimii şi rezistivitatii stratelor, precum şi a elementelor structurale ce favorizeaza acumularea de ape subterane, exploatabile. Reprezentarea grafica este efectuata cu programul SURFER 6.01 şi 8.0 prin interpolari proportionale cu pasul de masura pe profil (100-200m) şi pe adancime (5-100m). Imaginea geoelectrica, o pseudosectiune de rezistivitate devine interpretativa in momentul in care se traseaza elementele structurale, litologice şi hidrogeologice. Achizitia si prelucrarea datelor Achizitia datelor s-a realizat in comuna Simonesti, sat Cobatesti, jud. Harghita. Prin metoda Schlumberger s-au adunat date geofizice in vederea identificarii unei panze freatice in zona cercetata. In acest scop am masurat rezistivitatea aparenta a rocilor din subsol pe o distanta de 2000 m, prin intermediul a 15 SEV-uri. Masuratorile au fost executate cu un pas de 100 m, exceptand perimetrul fermei Gordon si zona locuita, unde s-a masurat la un interval de 400 metri (SEV 14 si Sev 15) (fig. 2). Valorile rezistivitatii aparente ( ρ as ) sunt determinate intr-o retea de puncte, in general distribuite pe profiluri liniare, care acopera convenabil regiunea de prospectat. Pentru calculul rezistivitatii aparente a fiecarui lungimi a dispozitivului AB intr-un punct de statie se utilizeaza relatia din ec. 2. Prezenta apei in strate este redata in cubele SEV prin minime ale rezistivitatii aparente.

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Fig. 2 Pseudosectiune de rezistivitate aparenta, Cobatesti

Concluzii Profilul geoelectric a intalnit in primii 75m de cercetare roci de tipul argilelor prafoase, nisipuri argiloase si gresii nisipoase, identificate geofizic prin valori diferite de rezistivitate. Singura zona de importanta hidrogeofizica mai mare pare a fi cea situata la adancimea de 5060m sub suprafata pe care s-au efectuat masuratorile. Valorile ridicate de rezistivitate (peste 30 ohmm) pot fi asociate cu prezenta unor gresii nisipoase, posibile strate acvifere, ce inclina de la S spre N. In lipsa informatiilor din foraje, nu se poate afirma cu exactitate ca exista sau nu apa pe profilul investigat. Referinţe Paul Georgescu [1982] Prospectiuni electrice, Editura Universitatii Bucuresti. Stefan Airinei [1977] Geofizica pentru geologi, Editura Tehnica Bucuresti. Radu Botezatu [1964] Metode geofizice de cercetarea a subsolului, Ed. Didactica si Pedagogica. Iulian Gavat, Radu Botezatu, Marius Visarion [1973] Interpretarea geologica a prospectiunilor geofizice, R.S.R.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The vulnerability’s evaluation of phreatic aquifer from the Timis area

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ionut Horatiu Adrian Mirea*, Oana Dumitru, University of Bucharest

Pointing out the vulnerability of the aquifer using 2D and 3D modeling with programs like GIS. The vulnerability maps obtained can be used in activities regarding durable management of groundwater, in planning and designing.

Summary The aquifer is a deposit of permeable rocks shielded at its inferior side by a (max. 200 words): waterproof layer (free aquifer), or between two waterproof layers (captive
aquifer) capable of storing high quantities of water and allowing the movement of water between them. The aquifer can be studied through only one characteristic, its degree of vulnerability. So that, from the 209 drillings executed in the Timis area, the data for knowing the lithological structure of the area were extracted for completing the study of the aquifer’s vulnerability. The analysis of the vulnerability has been made through the GOD method (G/coefficient x O/coefficient x D/coefficient = vulnerability/ vulnerability marker), method that has the advantage of excluding parameters with a high degree of uniformity for the analyzed sector. The main theme was pointing out the vulnerability of the aquifer using 2D and 3D modeling with programs like GIS. The vulnerability maps obtained can be used in activities regarding durable management of groundwater, in planning and designing, by any organization responsible in the water domain.

Topic:

Hydrogeology

341

Evaluarea vulnerabilitatii unui acvifer freatic din Judetul Timis
Ionut Horatiu Adrian Mirea, Oana Dumitru, Universitatea din Bucuresti Introducere Acviferul este un depozit de roci permeabile ecranat la partea inferioara de un strat impermeabil (acvifer liber), sau roci cuprinse intre doua strate impermeabile (acvifer captiv) capabile sa inmagazineze cantitati importante de apa si sa permita miscarea acestora prin ele. Acviferele pot fi marginite de un strat semi-impermeabil numit acvitard sau de un strat perfect impermeabil denumit acvifug (Fig.1 – Tipuri de acvifere). In cele mai multe cazuri acviferul aflat la adancimea cea mai mica este cel liber, neavand un acvitard sau un acvifug intre el si suprafata. Acviferele libere se reincarcă de obicei direct de la suprafata, din apa de precipitatie sau din alte mase de apa ( rauri sau lacuri) conectate hidraulic cu acviferul. Acviferele captive au limita superioara sub nivelul suprafetei freatice locale, si se regasesc, in majoritatea cazurilor, sub acviferele libere fiind despartite de acestea de un strat impermeabil sau semi-impermeabil.

Fig. 1 Tipuri de acvifere Termenul de vulnerabilitate a apelor subterane a fost pentru prima data prezentat in anii `60, de hidrogeologul francez J. Margat. Atribuirea gradelor de vulnerabilitate la contaminarea cu poluanti proveniti de la suprafata, a apelor subterane, incearca sa sugereze faptul ca anumite zone sunt mai vulnerabile la poluare decat altele. Scopul final al hartii de vulnerabilitate este acela de a contura zone cu potentiale diferite. Incercari de a defini vulnerabilitatea au fost numeroase, dar definitia care se apropie cel mai mult de realitatea fizica a fenomenului a fost data de VRBA J. SI ZAPOROZECA, in 1994, care spune ca: “Vulnerabilitatea este proprietatea intrinseca a unui sistem acvifer, ce depinde de sensibilitatea acestuia la impactul uman si/sau natural”. Principalii parametri ce intra in analiza vulnerabilitatii sunt legati de regimul de precipitatii, caracteristicile solului, reincercare prin drenanta de la suprafata, si nu in ultimul rand de caracteristicile zonei nesaturate cat si a celei saturate. Parametrii secundari ce pot ajuta la o mai buna reprezentare includ topografia, nivelul piezometric. Este cunoscut faptul ca acviferele freatice sunt in general, poluate si depreciate, datorita vulnerabilitatii mari la factorii externi. Aceasta situatie se regaseste si in perimetrul cercetat in lucrarea de fata. Cunoasterea caracteristicilor acestor ape este necesara pentru protecţia lor (datorita faptului ca ele sunt inca utilizate pe scara larga la alimentarea cu apa, in special a gospodariilor particulare si pe plan local la irigare - mai ales cea a gradinilor).

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Realizarea hartilor de vulnerabilitate Cele mai simple metode de analiza a vulnerabilitatii sunt cele de tip R.S. (rating sistem), dar asta nu inseamna ca acestea sunt deficitare dintr-un anumit punct de vedere. Aceste metode presupun atribuirea unui coeficient fiecarui parametru ce intra in calculul vulnerabilitatii. Suma acestor coeficienti atribuiti fiecarui punct din zona analizata reprezinta un grad de vulnerabilitate. Astfel se imparte zona analizata in arii mai mici functie de gradele de vulnerabilitate rezultate in urma analizei. Una dintre cele mai interesante metode de tip R.S. datorita simplitatii si a pragmatismului de care da dovada a fost propusa de Foster (1987), si este denumita generic GOD de la initialele parametrilor ce intra in calcul. Astfel: G – “Groundwater occurence” (tipul acviferului prezent in zona ); O – “Overlying lithology” (caracteristicile litologice ale formatiunilor acoperitoare); D – “Depth to water”(adancimea la care se gaseste nivelul piezometric). Metoda are avantajul ca exclude parametrii cu grad mare de uniformitate pentru sectorul analizat cum ar fi parametrii acviferului si caracteristicile de alimentare ale acviferului. Tinand seama de datele disponibile, a fost aleasa aceasta metoda pentru analiza vulnerabilitatii acviferului. Vulnerabilitatea intrinseca rezultata in urma aplicarii metodei GOD este rezultatul operatiilor de inmultire a coeficientilor atribuiti parametrilor ce stau la baza metodei. G/coeficient x O/coeficient x D/coeficient=Vulnerabilitate/indice de vulnerabilitate

Fig. 2 Harta hidrogeologica a Campiei Banatului Geologia zonei studiate Zona studiata cuprinde zona de est a Banatului (Fig. 2 – Harta hidrogeologica a Campiei Banatului). Din punct de vedere geologic, domeniul analizat corespunde unitatii geologice a Depresiunii Panonice. Formatiunile de rama si fundament sunt reprezentate prin sisturi cristaline epi şi mezozonale apartinand unitatii Panzei Getice din masivele Semenic si Poiana Rusca, precum si formatiuni

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sedimentare vechi de cuvertura, de varsta paleozoica si mezozoica, asociate cu magmatite prealpine si alpine. Formatiunile sedimentare de umplutura apartin ciclurilor de sedimentare Miocen, Pliocen si Cuaternar. Acestea sunt dispuse transgresiv si discordant peste seria detritica bazala de varsta Badenian inferior. Din punct de vedere litologic acestea sunt alcatuite din conglomerate, argile, gresii si nisipuri grosiere, argile plastice si argile nisipoase. Cea mai mare parte a suprafetei Depresiunii Panonice este acoperita de depozitele neogene de umplutura ale Panonianului. Practic formatiunile panoniene sunt de varsta pliocena. Depozitele panoniene medii si superioare se dispun transgresiv fie peste formatiunile de fundament, fie peste depozitele miocene anterior depuse si se dezvolta in facies litoral si de larg. Faciesul litoral este predominant grosier (nisipuri ce trec la argile nisipoase) si se indinteaza lateral spre vest cu faciesul de larg predominant pelitic. Daca partea inferioara a Panonianului este dezvoltata in facies argilos – nisipos – carbunos, in partea mediana a depunerilor panoniene domina nivelele de nisipuri galbui cu intercalatii de roci argiloase masive cu trecere laterala la argile nisipoase si nisipuri argiloase. La partea superioara sunt evidente depunerile grosiere neconsolidate. Acestea sunt reprezentate prin pietrisuri si nisipuri. In ansamblu, in zona supusa cercetarii grosimea depozitelor panoniene este de 800 – 1600 m (Dragulescu et al., 1968). Peste formatiunile Panonianului se regasesc depozitele cuaternare apartinand Pleistocenului si Holocenului. Limita intre formatiunile panoniene superioare si cele ale Cuaternarului este greu de stabilit, datorita caracterelor litologice asemanatoare precum si a lipsei unor elemente faunistice concludente. Concluzii – conditii hidrogeologice Din cele 209 foraje executate in zona Judetului Timis, au fost extrase datele necesare cunoasterii structurii litologice a zonei, cat si pentru realizarea studiului de vulnerabilitate al acviferului. Analiza vulnerabilitatii a fost realizata cu metoda GOD, mai sus descrisa. Tema principala urrmarita a fost evidentierea vulnerabilitatii acviferului prin modelare 2D respectiv 3D in programe de tip GIS. Aria supusa studiului se prezinta sub forma unor hidrostructuri etajate de tip multistrat cu variatie de la nivelul pietrisurilor pana la nisipuri argiloase, separate de nivele argiloase compacte sau de argile nisipoase in cuprinsul carora se formeaza hidro-structuri de tip acvitard. In zona studiata importanta majora o reprezinta unitatile hidrogeologice asociate formatiunilor pliocen – pleistocene si cele pleistocen superioare – holocene. De regula, in depozitele pliocen – pleistocene se regasesc acviferele de adancime, in timp ce in depozitele pleistocen superioare – holocene se dezvolta acviferele freatice si cele de mica adancime. Curgerea apei este in linii generale de tip convergent, producandu-se preponderent dinspre nord, nord – est şi est. Proprietatile filtrante ale structurilor acvifere au variatii mari potrivit schimbarilor granulometrice pe laterala, astfel incat conductivitatile hidraulice variaza de la valori subunitare, in cadrul nisipurilor fine-argiloase, pana la zeci de m/zi si in mod exceptional valori ceva mai mari in situatia pietrisurilor. Hidro-structurile cuaternare de mica adancime sunt de tipul celor deschise, avand un grad de protectie redus, iar in alte cazuri sub solul vegetal se dezvolta ecrane impermeabile. Intre acviferele de mica adancime si cele adanci se interpune un ecran de roci impermeabile de tip argilos, cu grosimi variabile. In conditiile unor grosimi reduse coroborat cu schimbarea faciesului dominant pelitic intr-unul pelito – siltito – arenitic se creeaza conditii favorabile transferului hidric prin percolare verticala. In functie de variatiile presiunilor din acvifere percolarea verticala se poate produce prin drenantă ascendenta si descendenta. Hartile de vulnerabilitate obtinute pot fi utilizate in activitatile legate de managementul durabil al resurselor de ape subterane, in planificare si proiectare, de catre oricare din organismele responsabile din domeniul apelor.

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Multumiri Multumim domnului Profesor Doctor Inginer Daniel Scradeanu si domnului Preparator drd. Inginer Mihai Alexandru Samoila pentru sprijinul acordat si pentru furnizarea de materiale si idei care se regasesc in aceasta lucrare.

Referinte Scradeanu D., Gheorghe A. [2007] Hidrogeologie generala. Ed. Universitatii din Bucuresti. Marunteanu C., Stanciucu M. [2001] Ingineria geologică a depozitelor de deseuri. Ed. Universităţii din Bucureşti.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The light absorption in leaves ornamental plants and the efficiency photosynthesis

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Andreea Stanci*, Alexandra Dodoacă, University of Petrosani

Behavior of plants in different light conditions.

The effects light energy on ornamental plants, Primula acaulis Primel.

In this paper we propose to study in the laboratory the efficiency of light on Summary (max. 200 words): ornamental plants. Natural process of photosynthesis solar energy source is

tribute which is an eloquent expression of the nature of life on Earth. The researches on photosynthesis in decades led to the deciphering step by step to mechanism by which plants fix light radiation energy. In the study we used three ornamental plants under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Research results are presented in this paper.

Topic:

Environmental engineering

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Absorbţia luminii în frunzele plantelor decorative și eficienţa fotosintezei
Andreea Cristina Stanci, Alexandra Dodoacă, Universitatea din Petroșani Introducere Procesul natural de fotosinteză este tributar sursei energetice solare şi este expresia elocventă a caracterului de viaţă pe Pământ. Cercetările asupra fotosintezei din ultimele decenii au dus la descifrarea pas cu pas a mecanismului prin care plantele fotosintetizante fixează energia radiaţiilor luminoase. Pătrunderea biochimiei şi biofizicii în cercetarea fotosintezei a însemnat pentru biologie un nou mod de interpretare a datelor obţinute prin observaţii şi experimente fiziologice. În această lucrare ne propunem să studiem în laborator eficienţa luminii asupra plantelor decorative (Primula acaulis Primel). Consideraţii teoretice În procesul fotosintezei, plantele, înzestrare cu această capacitate, iau simultan din scoarţa terestră şi atmosferă elemente sub diferite forme pe care apoi le clădesc specific cu ajutorul energiei solare, în substanţe organice proprii. Esenţiale pentru organismele fotosintetizante în realizarea celor doua procese simultane, fotosinteza şi activitatea fotorespiratorie proprie, sunt dioxidul de carbon, oxigenul şi acţiunea energetică a luminii. Aceştia au fost factorii decisivi ai apariţiei şi evoluţiei fotosintezei. Raportul dintre dioxidul de carbon, oxigen şi intensitatea luminii la suprafaţa solului sau în mediul acvatic, au fost factorii faţă de care urmau să fie determinate în primul rând direcţiile de evoluţie şi adaptare. Astfel, vieţuitoarele fotosintetizante, în procesul fotosintezei fixează CO2 atmosferic, punând în libertate oxigenul esenţial vieţuitoarelor heterotrofe. Fotosinteza este procesul prin care plantele şi unele bacterii utilizează energie din lumina solara pentru a produce zahar, care prin respiraţia celulară se transformă în ATP, utilizat ca “combustibil” de toate lucrurile vii. Conversia lumina solare inutilizabilă în energie chimică utilizabilă este asociată cu acţiunea pigmenţilor verzi din clorofilă. Procesul de fotosinteză utilizează apă şi elimină oxigenul absolut necesar pentru a rămâne în viaţă. Putem scrie ecuaţia generală a acestui proces astfel:
6 H 2 O + 6CO 2 energie lu min oasă → C 6 H 12 O6 + 6O2     Frunza este specializată pentru îndeplinirea fotosintezei. Apa intră în rădăcină şi este transportată până la frunze prin intermediul celulelor specializate din plante cunoscut sub numele de xylem. Plantele trebuie să se protejeze împotriva uscării, şi astfel au evoluat structuri specializate cunoscute sub denumirea de stome care permit intrarea şi ieşirea gazelor. Dioxidul de carbon nu poate trece prin stratul protector de ceară cu care este acoperită frunza (cuticule), dar poate intra în frunze printr-o deschidere blocată de două celule de pază. Oxigenul produs în timpul fotosintezei poate ieşi din frunză numai prin stomata deschisă (figura 1). Din nefericire pentru plante, în timp ce acest gaz se deplasează între interior şi exterior, se va pierde o mare cantitate de apa. Planta de bumbac, de exemplu, va pierde 100 de galoane de apă pe oră în zilele foarte călduroase. În procesul de fotosinteză un rol deosebit îl au pigmenţii din cloroplaste şi acţiunea energetică a luminii. Pigmenţii de cloroplaste pot fi: - clorofilimi (verzi) (clorofila a şi b) - compus organomagnezian cu proprietăţi reducătoare, asemănătoare structural cu hemoglobina, compus organoferos cu proprietăţi oxidante; - carotinoizi (xantofila şi carotina) - protejează clorofila de oxidare rapidă la lumina intensă; - ficobilini (ficoeritrina) (la algele roşii). Componentul principal al pigmenţilor porfirinici este clorofila a. Ea este răspândită aproape la toate algele şi plantele superioare, fiind şi sub aspect cantitativ în procentul cel mai mare, faţă de ceilalţi pigmenţi fotoasimilatori. Molecula sa este alcătuită pe tipul nucleului porfirinic propriu-zis, având în mijlocul acestuia un atom de magneziu legat covalent prin atomii de azot de la ciclurile pirolice 1 şi 3 după schema prezentată în figura 2. Puntea de legătură a clorofilelor cu pigmenţii carotenoidici este deosebit de importantă în transferul energiei de pe pigmenţii carotenoidici pe clorofile. Legăturile dublu conjugate atât din nucleul porfirinic cât şi cel din lanţul fitolului, joacă un
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rol deosebit în manifestarea proprietăţii puternic absorbite a luminii din zonele spectrale de la violet la roşu apropiat.

Fig. 1 Stomata frunzei de mazăre Un al doilea component principal al grupei porfirinelor este clorofila b. Clorofila b o găsim răspândită la plantele superioare şi la majoritatea algelor cu excepţia algelor albastre şi roşii. Absorbţia spectrală a clorofilei b dovedită de unii mutanţi de alge şi plante superioare, dar mai ales lipsa ei in condiţii normale la algele albastre şi roşii, poate fi dovada unei funcţii auxiliare ce o are în raport cu clorofila a.

Fig. 2 Structura chimică a nucleului porfirinic propriu-zis După cum am văzut un al doilea factor foarte important în fotosinteză este acţiunea energetică a luminii. Propagarea luminii în mediu este de natură ondulatorie cu oscilaţii permanente între câmpul magnetic şi câmpul electric ceea ce defineşte un pasaj al undei sau un ciclu. Apare evident că în propagarea ondulatorie a luminii avem o succesiune de vârfuri, ca cele descrise de o linie sinusoidală continuă (figura 3).

Fig. 3 Lungimea de undă şi aspectul undei de lumină
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Lumina albă este separată în diferite culori (lungimi de undă), la trecerea printr-o prismă. Lungimea de undă (λ) este definită ca distanţa dintre doua minime sau două maxime. Energia este invers proporţională cu lungimea de undă, pentru lungimi de undă mari energia este mică. Convenţional, în funcţie de lungimea de undă a radiaţiilor luminoase, spectrul este împărţit în vizibil şi invizibil. Spectrul vizibil, cu semnificaţie biologică, atât energetic cât şi de orientare la majoritatea vieţuitoarelor se află între 400 şi 740 nm. Ordinea de culori este determinată de lungimea de undă a luminii. Lumina vizibilă este o mică parte din spectrul electromagnetic. Lungimea de undă a spectrului vizibil cuprinde mai multe culori, începând cu culoarea roşie. Lungimile de undă mai scurte reprezintă partea violetă a spectrului. Lungimile de undă mai mari decât lungimea de undă a culorii roşii formează infraroşiile, în timp ce lungimile de undă mai mici decât lungimea de undă a violetului formează ultravioletele (figura 4).

Fig. 4 Spectrul electromagnetic O altă caracteristică a undei luminoase o reprezintă frecvenţa (ν) ondulaţiilor, a schimbărilor vibraţionale. Atâta timp cât în drumul luminii nu intervin particule absorbtive, în vid viteza de propagare este independentă de lungimea de undă. Valoarea energetică a radiaţiilor este diferită în funcţie de relaţia lungimi de undă cu frecvenţa. Lumina fiind de natură corpusculară, propagată în unde electromagnetice este definită prin unităţi energetice numite fotoni şi cuante de lumină, astfel energia luminii (E) este dată de zona spectrală în care se află emis fotonul de către un atom cu o stare de excitare superioară. Energia purtată de un foton este dată de relaţia: hv E = hν =

λ

în care h este constanta lui Planck, iar v viteza de propagare a luminii. Excitarea moleculei de pigment în urma absorbţiei unui foton şi deexcitarea sunt procese fizice supuse legilor mecanicii cuantice. Astfel, lumina se comporta atât ca o undă cât şi ca o particulă. Date generale despre Primula acaulis Primel Genului Primula îi aparţin circa 400 de specii răspândite în multe regiuni ale lumii. Primula acaulis este o plantă perenă, cultivată de obicei ca plantă anuală. Rezistă, în general, doi ani, înfloreşte la sfârşitul iernii şi începutul primăverii. Florile sunt dispuse în mănunchi, susţinute pe tulpini verticale, şi sunt dispuse sub formă de cuib între frunze. Culorile florilor sunt variate: alb, roz, portocaliu, roşu, cărămiziu, mov, violet având de obicei un ochi galben-auriu în centru. Este necesară îndepărtarea florilor trecute, pentru a permite bobocilor să se dezvolte. Frunzele sunt uşor păroase şi pot cauza reacţii alergice. Date experimentale Unul din efectele luminii asupra plantelor este culoarea lor. Pigmenţii sunt daţi de absorbţia luminii de către substanţă. Culoarea pigmentului vine de la lungimea de undă a luminii reflectate (cu alte cuvinte cele care nu sunt absorbite).Clorofila, pigmentul comun tuturor celulelor
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fotosintetizatoare absoarbe toate lungimile de undă ale luminii vizibile cu excepţia culorii verzi care se reflectă şi este văzută de ochiul uman. Pigmenţii negri absorb toate lungimile de undă ale luminii. Pigmentul alb reflectă aproape toată lumina având o energie mare. Pigmenţii au propriile lor caracteristici spectrale de absorbţie. Clorofila este o moleculă complexă, nu are aceeaşi structură a moleculei la plante şi la alte organisme fotosintetizatoare. Toate organismele fotosintetizatoare conţin clorofilă a. Pigmenţi suplimentari absorb energia pe care clorofila a nu o poate absorbi. Pigmenţi suplimentari includ clorofila b (de asemenea c, d şi e în alge şi protozoare), xantofila şi carotidele (cum ar fi betacaroten). Clorofila absoarbe energia sa din lumină de lungimea de undă violet - albastru şi portocaliu roşu –roşu şi puţină din verde – galben – portocaliu. Primula acaulis Primel este o plantă ornamentală care necesită în procesul de fotosinteză o cantitate ridicată de energie solară. În vederea studiului efectuat am folosit trei plante ornamentale identice supuse aceloraşi condiţii de temperatură (18 -20°C), fiind udate la un interval de trei zile cu 50 ml apă de izvor la temperatura camerei astfel încât composul să fie permanent umed. Ele au fost plantate în ghivece separate. Plantele au fost supuse unor energii luminoase deferite, observându-se comportarea lor de-a lungul a două săptămâni. În imaginile următoare este prezentată comportarea celor trei plante.

a) b) c) Fig. 5 Primula acaulis Primel după două săptămâni: a) în condiţii de lumină normală, b) în condiţii de lumină scăzută, c) în lipsă de lumină Concluzii Frunzele plantei aflată la cea mai mare intensitate luminoasă au o culoare verde şi sunt viguroase. Ce-a de-a doua plantă ţinută la o intensitate luminoasă mai mică decât prima are frunzele verzi cu pete galbene, iar ce-a de-a treia, ţinută la întuneric, după prima săptămână o parte din frunze şi-au schimbat culoarea devenind gălbuie şi ulterior frunzele uscându-se şi pierzându-şi turgescenţa. În concluzie în procesul de fotosinteză energia solară are un rol major, fără ea viaţa nefiind posibilă. Mulţumiri Această cercetare nu ar fi fost posibilă fără sprijinul acordat de către coordonatorii acestei lucrări. Mulţumirile noastre se îndreaptă mai ales către Prof. univ. dr. fiz. Aurora STANCI şi Şef lucr. dr. ing. Emilia DUNCA din cadrul Catedrei de Ingineria Mediului şi Geologie a Universităţii din Petroşani, pentru datele furnizate, suportul teoretic şi practic acordat cât şi pentru coordonarea competentă dovedită pe întreaga durată a cercetării. Referințe Lambers, H., & Ribas-Carbó, M. (Eds.). [2005] Plant Respiration: From Cell to Ecosystem (Advances in Photosynthesis & Respiration). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Ştirban, M. [1981] Procese primare în fotosinteză, Editura Dacia, Cluj Napoca. Stanci, A., [2003] Elemente de fizica atomului şi moleculei, Editura Edyro Press, Petroşani.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Possibilities for the exploitation of coal fraction stored in UP Coroiesti settles pounds

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandra Dodoacă*, Andreea Stanci, Cosmin Baboş, University of Petrosani

Possibilities for the exploitation of coal fraction stored in UP Coroiesti settles pounds Using the classical methods like flotation and hydro cyclone in exploitation of mining waste

Summary The present study propose solutions for exploitation of coal fraction stored in (max. 200 words): Coroiesti settle pounds and also propose solution for ecological reclamation
and reconstruction. It was elaborated using bibliographic study, documentation, field study and laboratory study and also modern methods and advances technologies like X ray spectrophotometer and virtual try dimensions modelling. The proposed methods were flotation method and hydro cyclone method. Choosing the optimum concentration method is a difficult point because is known that the prevalent methods for coal concentration are gravitational methods. The flotation method is indicated, because it gives high concentrations and extraction. Economically speaking it can be observed that the hydro cyclone method has lower costs a high profitability comparatively with flotation method. The product obtained with this method is conforming with client requirement (47,16 % ash), lower than the quality obtained using flotation method (31,64% ash). Using the SWOT method was choose the hydro cyclone method as the optimum method for processing coal slurry from 1B and 2 settle pounds. For coal slurry stored in 1A settle pound there neither will nor be a concentration method (only an exploitation and drying method) because it has average ash content under imposed beneficiary limit.

Topic:

Environmental engineering

351

Posibilităţi de valorificare a fracţiei cărbunoase depozitate în iazurile de la UP Coroieşti
Alexandra Dodoacă, Andreea Stanci, Cosmin Baboş, Universitatea din Petroşani Introducere Lucrarea propune soluţii pentru valorificarea şlamurilor cantonate în iazurile de la UP Coroieşti în contextul respectării cadrului legal stabilit de Uniunea Europeană prin „Directiva 2006/21/CE privind gestionarea deşeurilor din industria extractivă” care încurajează valorificarea deşeurilor extractive, în scopul obţinerii beneficiilor financiare precum şi în scopul reducerii poluării mediului. Aceste aspecte coroborate cu prognoza producţiei de huilă care arată o menţinere a cererii face ca şi procesarea acesteia să fie în aceeaşi situaţie rezultând în continuare deşeuri sub formă de şlamuri sterile care trebuie valorificate. Modele teoretice, metode de studiu şi aparatură Proprietăţile fizice care influenţează comportarea şlamurilor la preparare sunt: dimensiunea şi forma particulelor, densitatea, proprietăţile capilare (tensiunea superficială, puterea de absorbţie), conductibilitatea electrică, cantitatea de cenuşă, materiile volatile şi puterea calorifică (ultimele 3 având un caracter extrem de important pentru aprecierea calităţii şlamurilor). Pentru determinarea caracteristicilor fizico-chimice şi petrografice ale şlamurilor de la UP Coroieşti au fost recoltate şi analizate probe din cele 2 iazuri de decantare folosind metode standardizate precum şi metode moderne de spectrofotometrie de raze X. Caracteristicile fizico - chimice ale şlamurilor Compoziţia granulometrică este definită de răspândirea procentuală a granulelor sau grupelor de granule, în conformitate cu dimensiunea sau limitele dimensiunii lor. Analizele granulometrice au fost efectuate pe probe reprezentative pe baterii de site cu mărimea ochiurilor de la 0,8 mm la 0,040 mm. Forma, dimensiunea medie şi suprafaţa specifică a şlamului depind de structura petrografică a huilei. Pentru şlamul din iazul 1A dimensiunea medie este Diay1A=43 *10-5 m şi suprafaţa specifică: Siaz1A=13,5 m2/kg, pentru iazul 1B: Diay1B= 41 *10-5 m şi Siaz1B=13,2 m2/kg, şi pentru iazul 2: Diay2= 37*10-5 m şi Siaz2=15,0 m2/kg. Cantitatea de cenuşă: pentru fiecare probă reprezentativă din cele 3 corpuri de iaz de la UP Coroieşti a fost determinată cenuşa obţinându-se valorile cenuşilor pe clase granulometrice precum şi cenuşa medie ponderată, rezultatele fiind cuprinse între 26,8% şi 77,5% observându-se că odată cu scăderea dimensiunii particulelor creşte cantitatea de cenuşă. Materiile volatile sunt gazele (CO2, H2S, CH4, H2, NH3, etc.) care se degajă dintr-o probă de cărbune (şlam de cărbune) prin încălzire la 850 ± 20° C timp de 7 minute în absenţa aerului. Puterea calorifică (Q): pentru probele prelevate din iazurile de la Coroieşti a fost determinată puterea calorifică superioară rezultatele fiind cuprinse în intervalul 1405 – 5744 [kcal/kg]. Compoziţia chimică a şlamurilor cărbunoase cantonate în iazurile de la UP Coroieşti este dată de: masa organică (substanţe cu structură complexă formate din carbon, oxigen, sulf şi azot); masa anorganică (substanţe minerale care prin calcinare se transformă în cenuşă); apa din cărbune este legată parţial de masa organică şi parţial de cea anorganică. Determinarea compoziţiei chimice a cenuşii şlamurilor de la Coroieşti, a fost efectuată pe probe de şlam prelevate din cele 2 iazuri de decantare de la UP Coroieşti folosind spectrofotometria cu fluorescenţă de raze X cu aparatul S4 Pioneer şi softul Spectra Plus, fiind determinate valori pentru următorii parametrii: SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, SO3, MgO, TiO2, CaO, Na2O, BaO, P2O5, Cr2O3, MnO, V2O5, SrO, ZrO2, CuO. Caracteristicile petrografice ale şlamurilor În vederea stabilirii caracteristicilor petrografice ale şlamurilor a fost efectuată şi o analiză microscopică pe cele 12 probe prelevate din iaz evidenţiind structura, textura, componentele petrografice etc.

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Localizarea obiectivului şi date generale despre iazurile de decantare Uzina de Preparare Coroieşti este amplasată în partea estică a oraşului Vulcan, Judeţul Hunedoara pe malul drept al Jiului de Vest, situată în zona aşezării Coroieşti. Din procesul tehnologic de procesare rezultă ca deşeu un şlam de steril care în prezent se decantează şi se stochează în două iazuri situate pe malul drept al râului Jiul de Vest, la o distanţă de cca. 1 km în aval de uzina de preparare. Ambele iazuri sunt de tipul „de câmp” sunt încadrate după ultima evaluare în grupa B de importanţă şi sunt realizate prin închiderea unor suprafeţe cu diguri perimetrale executate din steril minier, rezultat din lucrările miniere. Iazul de decantare nr.1 este alcătuit din 2 compartimente (A şi B) (Fig. 1.), ambele de sedimentare care au funcţionat alternativ de-a lungul timpului, având o suprafaţă de 14 ha şi un Volum de 3.000.000. m³. Iazul de decantare nr.2 (Fig. 2.) este amplasat în continuarea celor două compartimente ale iazului nr.1, a fost dat în funcţie în 1968, are un singur compartiment, având o suprafaţă de 11 ha şi un volum de 2.000.000.m³. Compartiment A Compartiment B

Fig .1 Iazul de decantare nr.1

Fig. 2 Iazul de decantare nr. 2 Preparabilitatea şlamurilor de la UP Coroieşti Comportarea la preparare a cărbunilor şi implicit a şlamurilor depinde de caracteristicile lor şi anume de gradul de incarbonizare, compoziţia chimică şi compoziţia mineralogică, proprietăţile fizice şi fizico-chimice ale substanţei combustibile, natura sterilului cu care este asociat, proporţia de substanţă combustibilă şi sterilă, granulometria cărbunelui, umiditatea etc. În urma determinărilor efectuate pe fiecare probă reprezentativă de şlam din iazurile de la UP Coroieşti, se determină parametrii cu ajutorul cărora se pot trasa curbele densimetrice Henry Reinhard. Pe baza calculării indicelui Preigerson precum şi din curbele HR rezultă că, şlamul cantonat în iazul 1A este un şlam cu preparabilitate gravitaţională dificilă, şlamul cantonat în iazurile 1B şi 2 este un şlam cu preparabilitate gravitaţională foarte dificilă. În ceea ce priveşte flotabilitatea şlamurilor, analizele efectuate au relevat conţinuturi de cenuşă din produsul flotat cu valori diferite în funcţie de fiecare iaz în parte (în iazul 1A obţinându1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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se un produs cu un conţinut de 42,66 % - sub conţinutul de cenuşă impus 47 %, în iazul 1B se obţine un produs cu un conţinut de cenuşă de 54,69 % iar pentru şlamul din iazul 2 se obţine un produs cu un conţinut de cenuşă de 50,84 %. Alegerea metodelor de concentrare Pentru şlamul din iazul 1B şi iazul 2 de la Coroieşti s-au determinat metodele de concentrare (cenuşa medie ponderată a şlamului din iazul 1B este a = 54,69% iar cenuşa medie poderată a iazului 2 este a = 50,84 %). Pentru şlamul din iazul 1 se va realiza doar o extragere şi o desecare deoarece cenuşa medie ponderată a acestuia este sub limita impusă de beneficiar. Concentrarea prin flotaţie În ceea ce priveşte concentrarea prin flotaţie a fost propus un circuit de flotaţie, şi un flux tehnologic, a fost calculat numărul celulelor de flotaţie, numărul filtrelor cu vacuum necesare pentru desecarea concentratului rezultat în urma flotaţiei, numărul de decantoare de limpezire necesare pentru tulbureala sterilă rezultată în urma flotaţiei, determinându-se în final bilanţul de apă material pentru această metodă. Concentrarea prin hidrociclonare Concentrarea cu ajutorul hidrociclonului cu curent adiţional de apă reprezintă cea de-a doua metodă de concentare propusă pentru şlamurile de la Coroieşti şi permite adoptarea de simple şi flexibile căi de control ale procesului de concentrare, dând o acurateţe concentrării, în conformitate cu cerinţele ingineriei minerale moderne. În vederea aplicării acestei metode de concentrare a fost determinată şi verificată dimensiunea de separare a particulelor, a fost stabilit diametrul echivalent al orificiului de suprascurgere, viteza de curgere a tulburelii în hidrociclon şi presiunea dinamică la periferia hidrociclonului, a fost propus un flux tehnologic utilizând hidrociclonarea, a fost calculat numărul filtrelor cu vacuum necesare pentru desecarea concentratului rezultat în urma hidrociclonării, numărul de decantoare de limpezire necesare pentru tulbureala sterilă rezultată în urma hidrociclonării, determinându-se în final bilanţul de apă material pentru această metodă. Alegerea celei mai bune metode de concentrare pentru şlamurile cantonate în iazurile de la UP Coroeşti, este o problemă care depinde de mai mulţi factori dintre care cei mai importanţi sunt: - caracteristicile şlamului - modul de asociere între fracţia cărbunoasă şi steril - utilizarea concentratelor - posibilitatea de aprovizionare cu apă Concluzii Valorificarea şlamurilor de la Coroieşti poate fi realizată atât cu metoda de concentrare prin flotaţie obţinându-se în acest caz un procent de 61,28 % fracţie cărbunoasă din totalul şlamului iar cu metoda de concentrare prin hidrociclonare se obţine un procent de 76,12% fracţie cărbunoasă din totalul şlamului. Totodată metoda de concentrare prin hidrociclonare are costuri mai mici, o rentabilitate mai mare în comparaţie cu metoda de concentrare prin flotaţie obţinându-se un produs de o calitate care se încadrează în cerinţele beneficiarului (a = 47,16 %) dar mai scăzută decât calitatea obţinută prin concentrarea folosind flotaţia (31,64%). Mulţumiri Această cercetare nu ar fi fost posibilă fără sprijinul acordat de către coordonatorii acestui proiect. Mulţumirile noastre se îndreaptă mai ales către Dr.ing. Alina LORINŢ pentru datele furnizate, accesul la aparatura modernă din Laboratorul de monitorizare a factorilor de mediu al Companiei Naţionale a Huilei S.A. Petroşani şi întreg sprijinul acordat, Prof.univ.dr.ing. Romulus SÂRBU şi Dr.ing. Csaba LORINŢ din cadrul Catedrei de Ingineria Mediului şi Geologie a Universităţii din Petroşani, pentru suportul teoretic şi practic şi coordonarea competentă dovedite pe întreaga durată a cercetării.
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Referințe Buia Grigore, Lorinţ Csaba [2005] Zăcăminte de substanţe minerale utile solide, Ed. Focus Petroşani. Chiţac (Lorinţ) Alina – Teză de doctorat „Valorificarea fracţiei cărbunoase depozitate în iazurile de la UP Coroieşti şi reconstrucţia ecologică a acestora” Crăescu Ionel, Krausz Sanda, Sârbu Romulus, Constantin Dumitru, Haneş Nicolae [1982] Prepararea substanţelor minerale utile, Editura Didactică şi pedagogică Bucureşti. Dobrescu Luigi [1963] Prepararea cărbunilor, Editura tehnică Bucureşti. Krausz Sanda, Ciocan Viorica [1993] Îndrumător de lucrări practice pentru disciplina flotaţia substanţelor minerale utile. Krausz Sanda, Paraschiv Ilie [2001] Teoria şi tehnologia flotaţiei vol I , Editura Matrix Rom Bucureşti. Lorinţ Csaba, Buia Grigore [2009] Geologie economică-determinator pentru lucrări practice de laborator, Ed. Focus. Petrescu I., Biţoianu C., Nicorici M., Mărgarit Gh., Nicorici E., Pătruţoiu I., Totdros C., Popescu D. [1986] Geologia zăcămintelor de cărbuni (vol. I) (Probleme fundamentale), Ed. Tehnică, Bucureşti. Sârbu R, Sârbu R jr., Sârbu N [2006] Hidrociclon cu curent adiţional de apă, Brevet de invenţie OSIM nr. 119930/30.08. Sârbu Romulus Iosif [1993] Preparare gravitaţională – Clasarea simptotică – partea I – Litografia Universităţii Tehnice Petroşani. Sârbu Romulus Iosif [1993] Preparare gravitaţională –Metode gravitaţionale de concentrare – partea II – Litografia Universităţii Tehnice Petroşani. Sârbu Romulus Iosif [2008] Procedee şi echipamente de epurare a apelor reziduale, Editura Focus, Petroşani.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Geological and hydrogeological characteristics favourable for underground storage of CO2

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ioana Cancel*, Cristina Iliescu, Iulian Popa, University of Bucharest

Emphasize the major conditions controlling the subsurface CO2 injection and storage; present the impact of reservoir parameters on CO2 trapping. Synthetic presentation of aquifer parameters; Assessment of maximum injection pressure and radial extent of saturated zone as indicators of injection efficiency.

Summary Three primary options are being considered for large-scale storage of CO2 in (max. 200 words): subsurface formations: oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers, and coal
beds. CO2 injection sites should have an adequate receiving and confining geological system, which may consist of: a good reservoir; a trapping mechanism; a confining system. From geological point of view CO2 plume behavior is a function of reservoir parameters: porosity, permeability, anisotropy, thickness, dip, pressure and potential leakage through faults. When CO2 is injected into a deep saline formation in a liquid or liquid-like supercritical dense phase, it is immiscible in water. Because supercritical CO2 is much less viscous than water and oil, migration is controlled by the contrast in mobility of CO2 and the in situ formation fluids. In saline formations, the comparatively large density difference (30–50%) between CO2 and formation water creates strong buoyancy forces that drive CO2 upwards. As CO2 migrates through the formation, some of it will dissolve into the formation water, some of it is retained in the pore space by capillary forces, commonly referred to as ‘residual CO2 trapping’. The efficiency of injection process into geological formation depends on two key elements: injection pressure and total injected volume.

Topic:

Environmental Engineering

356

Caracteristici geologice si hidrogeologice favorabile stocării CO2 în subteran
Ioana Cancel, Cristina Iliescu, Iulian Popa, Universitatea din Bucuresti Introducere În prezent schimbările climatice au devenit o preocupare majoră şi probabil una din provocările cele mai serioase ale perioadei actuale. Se impun acţiuni şi măsuri rapide pentru a stabiliza încălzirea globală. În anul 1986 a fost pentru prima dată sugerată, de către cercetători norvegieni de la compania SINTEF, tehnologia de captură şi stocare geologică a CO2 ca opţiune de combatere a schimbărilor climatice. În prezent există, la nivel mondial, 15 instalaţii operaţionale la scara industrială dintre care mentionam 3 dintre cele mai importante: 1. Sleipner (Norvegia) – proiect iniţiat de compania Statoil din 1996 pe şelful continental al Mării Nordului. Circa 1 Mtpa CO2 sunt injectate într-un acvifer salin de adâncime în cadrul formaţiunii Utsira. 2. Weyburn (Saskatchewan, Canada), proiect lansat în anul 2000 şi care injectează 0.8 Mtpa CO2 în bazinul petrolier Willison. 3. In Salah (Algeria), proiect operat de către compania BP din 2004. Circa 1.2 Mtpa CO2 sunt injectaţi într-un rezervor de roci grezoase la o adâncime de 1800 m. Selectarea formaţiunilor geologice candidate ca rezervor are la bază câteva criterii: a) distance from the power plant, b) size of the reservoir, c) geological and hydrogeological characteristics, and d) fluid characteristics. Tipuri de rezervor pentru stocarea CO2 Din marea diversitate de formaţiuni geologice, doar trei sunt considerate opţiuni de stocare a CO2 în subteran, pe scară largă (fig. 1): rezervoare de gaz şi petrol, acvifere saline adanci si strate de cărbuni. Fiecare se caracterizează prin mecanisme fizice, acţionând la diverse scări de timp, care determină distribuţia şi evoluţia CO2 în cadrul formaţiunii pe termen lung.

Fig. 1 Principale formaţiuni geologice favorabile stocării subterane CO2 Caracteristici ale rezervorului Este necesară caracterizarea formaţiunilor rezervorului şi ecranului, din punct de vedere structural, stratigrafic şi al proprietăţilor fizice, la scară locală şi regională, pentru a determina modul de migraţie şi potenţialul de stocare. Datele seismice 2D şi 3D sunt esenţiale pentru delimitarea rezervorului şi pentru corelaţii structurale şi stratigrafice. Datele de foraj completate cu carote şi probe de sită sunt utile pentru delimitarea structurii regionale şi pentru cartarea proprietăţilor rezervorului. Această cartare trebuie să includă cel puţin: adâncimea, grosimea şi proprietăţile fizice ale rezervorului. Deasemenea este esenţial să înţelegem continuitatea stratigrafică şi hidraulică, laterală şi verticală, a rezervorului.

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Comportarea penei de CO2 este funcţie de parametrii rezervorului: porozitate, permeabilitate, anizotropie, grosime, înclinare, presiune şi potenţial de scurgere de-a lungul faliilor. Porozitatea: Influenţează în mod direct cantitatea de fluid (apă, saramură) disponibilă pentru solubilizarea CO2. Deasemenea, viteza interstiţială scade odată cu creşterea porozităţii. Pe de altă parte, o porozitate redusă este în general asociată cu o saturaţie reziduală a gazului ridicată. Efectul rezultant al acestor mecanisme depinde de rata de injecţie şi de solubilitatea CO2 în saramură în condiţiile din rezervor. Permeabilitatea: O valoare ridicată a permeabilităţii determină o presiune de injecţie scăzută. Dacă injecţia are loc la presiune constantă atunci pana de CO2 va migra mai rapid datorită rezistenţei mai scăzute la curgere. O presiuned de injecţie redusă determină deasemenea scăderea densităţii CO2 şi astfel creşterea flotabilităţii sale. Anizotropia permeabilităţii: Cu cât este mai mare raportul Kv/Kh, cu atât va fi mai mic timpul de migrare până la acoperişul rezervorului. Odată ajuns la partea superioară, CO2 se va împrăştia rapid crescând probabilitatea de a intercepta o cale de scurgere. Pe măsură ce CO2 migrează pe verticală se crează o zonă cu saturaţie ridicată (permeabilitate relativă a gazului ridicată), care va deveni o cale preferenţială pentru migrarea ulterioară a CO2. Aceasta va reduce volumul de rocă şi saramură în contact cu CO2 , conducând la reducerea înmagazinării. De aceea anizotropia are un impact negative din punct de vedere al eficienţei stocării CO2. Temperatura formaţiunii rezervor este un parametru important în evaluarea capacităţii de stocare având în vedere că vitezele de reacţie pot creşte cu câteva ordine de mărime la temperaturi ridicate. Înclinarea. Determină extinderea laterală a CO2 în direcţia inversă înclinării. Pe de altă parte în rezervoarele înclinate creşte înmagazinarea CO2 prin saturaţie reziduală şi solubilitate în saramură, favorizate de un traseu mai lung de migrare. Salinitatea apei de zăcământ. Afectează injecţia CO2 în principal prin vâscozitate: conţinut ridicat de săruri determină o vâscozitate mai mare a apei. Vâscozitatea influenţează direct procesul de injecţie prin permeabilitatea efectivă. Alţi parametri influenţaţi de salinitate sunt densitatea, factorul de formaţie şi compresibilitatea apei: salinitatea ridicată determină o reactivitate mai redusă a apei şi o capacitate de înmagazinare redusă datorită compresibilităţii scăzute. Proprietăţi ale CO2 În condiţii normale CO2 este un gaz foarte stabil din punct de vedere termodinamic, mai greu decât aerul având densitatea 1.872 kg/m3. La temperaturi mai mari decât Tc=31.1°C şi presiuni mai mari de Pc=73.8 MPa (punctul critic), CO2 se află în stare supercritică. Funcţie de condiţiile de presiune şi temperatură, specifice unei formaţiuni geologice rezervor, densitatea poate creşte de la 150 la peste 800 kg/m3 – (fig.2) Interacţiuni CO2 – rezervor. Mecanisme de stocare Principalele mecanisme de curgere şi transport care controlează împrăştierea CO2 sunt: • Curgerea (migrarea) ca urmare a gradientului hidraulic natural şi a gradientului de presiune determinat de procesul de injecţie; • Flotabilitatea, datorată diferenţei de densitate între CO2 şi fluidul de zăcământ; • Difuzie; • Dispersie şi macrodispersie cauzate de heterogeneităţile formaţiunii şi de contrastul de mobilitate între CO2 şi fluidul de zăcământ; • Dizolvare, mineralizare; • Captură (stocare) în spaţiul poros (permeabilitate relativă);

Fig. 2 Densitatea CO2 functie de presiune P şi temperatură T

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• Adsorpţie a CO2 pe materia organică. Atunci când CO2 este injectat într-un acvifer sărat de mare adâncime, ca fază lichidă în stare supercritică, el este nemiscibil cu apa. Având o vâscozitate mult mai mică decât a apei şi chiar a petrolului, migraţia CO2 este controlată de contrastul de mobilitate faţă de fluidul de zăcământ. În cazul acviferelor sărate diferenţa de densitate este de 30-50% şi duce la apariţia unor forţe de flotabilitate care determină migrarea puternică pe verticală a CO2. Pe parcursul migrării CO2 va fi înmagazinat în rezervor în următoarele forme (fig. 3): a. reţinut în spaţiul poros prin forţe capilare – înmagazinare reziduală (până la 15-25%); b. în timp o cantitate tot mai mare de CO2 se va dizolva în apa de zăcământ (cca. 30% din volumul injectat în câteva zeci de ani); c. CO2 dizolvat în saramură este uşor acid şi poate reacţiona cu mineralele rocii rezervor formând noi minerale – înmagazinare prin mineralizare. Condiţii de injectare a CO2 Eficienţa procesului de injecţie a CO2 într-o formaţiune geologică rezervor depinde de două elemente: presiunea de injecţie şi volumul injectat. Presiunea maximă de injecţie (Pmax) se poate estima funcţie de date experimentale obţinute din testarea forajelor (date de presiune din teste LOF, RFT etc.). Funcţie de presiunea hidrostatică Ph avem următoarele relaţii: Pmax = 1.35 x Ph (pentru z < 1000 m), Pmax = 2.4 x Ph (pentru z = 1000 … 5000 m). O estimare a volumului (V) se poate obţine cu ecuaţia

(a)

(b)

V=
în care

M n S g ⋅ ρ g + (1 − S g )⋅ X l ⋅ ρ l

[

]

Fig. 3 Înmagazinare CO2: reziduală (a) şi mineralizare (b)

M – masa de CO2 injectat; n – porozitatea medie a formaţiunii rezervor; ρg – densitatea CO2 în stare liberă, în condiţii de presiune (P) şi temperatură (T) ale formaţiunii rezervor; dacă datele (P, T) nu sunt cunoscute, se pot face estimări pornind de la gradientul presiunii hidrostatice şi gradientul geotermic: P=1+0.1z (P in bari şi z in metri), T=15+0.025z (T in °C); valori ale ρg pentru diverse condiţii geologice de stocare sunt date în Tabel 1; ρl - densitatea fazei lichide; Xl – fracţia masică a CO2 dizolvat în faza lichidă; se poate aproxima prin solubilitatea CO2 in saramură; astfel Xl depinde numai de P, T şi salinitate (concentraţia saramurii) – vezi tabel 1; Sg – indice de saturaţie pentru CO2 în stare liberă; Sl=1-Sg – indice de saturaţie al fazei lichide (apă+săruri dizolvate+CO2 dizolvat). Apă (0 mg/l) Saramură (100 g/l) Adâncime Condiţii CO2 z (m) P (bari) ,T (°C) Xl Xl ρg (kg/m3) ρl (kg/m3) ρl (kg/m3) 1000 P=101, T= 40 635 1007 0,052 1069 0,033 1500 P=151, T=52,5 681 1004 0,052 1067 0,033 2000 P=201, T=65 694 1000 0,052 1063 0,033 2500 P=251, T=77,5 701 995 0,053 1058 0,034 Tabel 1 – Proprietăţile fluidelor funcţie de condiţiile geologice de stocare Flotabilitatea CO2 (atât în stare gazoasă cât şi lichidă) determină ridicarea sa la partea superioară a rezervorului. Evoluţia spaţială a zonei saturate cu CO2 poate fi reprezentată în mod simplificat ca în fig. 4. Această zonă este descrisă prin grosimea b şi extinderea maximă rmax, ce pot fi estimate cu ecuaţiile:

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 λ ⋅ λ ⋅ V (t )  b(r , t ) 1 = ⋅ c w − λw  2 λc − λw  n ⋅ π ⋅ B ⋅ r B 

rmax (t ) =

λc ⋅ Q ⋅ t n ⋅ π ⋅ λw ⋅ B

unde: λc, λw – mobilitate CO2 sau apă (saramură); Q – debit de injecţie; t – timp; n – porozitate ; B – grosimea formaţiunii acvifere;

Fig. 4 Profilul zonei saturate cu CO2

Riscuri asociate injectării şi stocării CO2 în subteran Factorii care trebuie consideraţi în evaluarea riscului sunt: • Posibile scurgeri de CO2 din cadrul rezervorului prin zone neetanşe ale acoperişului, falii, foraje abandonate. Acest risc poate fi cuantificat prin trei variabiletimpul de ascensiune până la acoperiş, extinderea lateral maximă şi totalul fracţiei de gaz mobile. • Reacţii potenţiale între CO2 şi rezervor cu implicaţii asupra capacităţii de injecţie. Permeabilitatea poate fi diminuată, prin reacţii de precipitare chimică sau mărită prin dizolvarea mineralelor matricii. • Presiunea de injecţie este un factor limitativ: o valoare prea mare poate determina fisurarea rocilor şi pierderea etanşeităţii. Pe de altă parte, valoarea maximă a presiunii determină capacitatea (volumul) de stocare al formaţiunii rezervor. • Existenţa unor elemente geologice transmisive (pe verticală), care pot facilita mişcarea ascendentă a CO2. Concluzii Asa cum a fost demonstrat in M. Nordului, în câmpul Sleipner (Norvegia), din punct de vedere tehnic stocarea CO2 în formaţiuni saline adânci este posibilă. Din anul 1996, 1 milion tone CO2 a fost injectat anual în nisipuri saturate cu apă sărată, la adâncimi mai mari de 800 m. Stocarea în condiţii de siguranţă a CO2 în formaţiuni acvifere de mare adâncime necesită un acoperiş suficient de impermeabil pentru a preveni migrarea ascendentă înafara rezervorului. În consecinţă, riscul de scurgere a fost una dintre principalele probleme pentru ca stocarea de CO2 să fie o soluţie fiabilă din punct de vedere economic. Cu toate acestea, rocile din acoperiş pot avea imperfecţiuni, în special falii, care pot acţiona ca o conductă prin care CO2 migrează către suprafaţă. Deasemenea, informaţii despre parametrii interni ai acviferului sunt necesare în selectarea rezervorului şi estimarea capacităţii de stocare. Referințe Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, IPCC Special Report [2005] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press. Geological Storage of CO2 from Combustion of Fossil Fuel – summary report [2004] EU FP5 R&D Programme. “SACS - Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage Project” - Best Practice Manual, [2002]. Nordbotten, J.M., Celia, M.A., Bachu S. [2005] Injection and Storage of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers: Analytical Solution for CO2 Plume Evolution During Injection. Transport Porous Media, 58, 339–360. Obdam, A., van der Meer, L., May, F., Kervevan, C., Bech, N., Wildenborg, A. [2006] Effective CO2 Storage Capacity in Aquifers, Gas Fields, Oil Fields and Coal Fields. CCP Project Report.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The study of turkish earthquakes from the Romanian national seismological network

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Mihai Barbu*, Irina Branza, Marian Ivan, University of Bucharest

The implications on the Black Sea and Mohorovičić discontinuity

The Black Sea nature and faults generated by Mohorovičić discontinuity

Summary In the course of history earthquakes have been of dilemma for mankind and (max. 200 words): Turkish earthquakes aren’t an exception. Turkey is home to an important
fault, the North-Anatolian fault and this system is created by a number of tectonic factors. The tectonics in this area is complicated and they are giving birth to an intense seismic activity: In the South East the Arabic plate is colliding into Anatolia and Eurasia; in the South West, the Mediterranean plate is subducted into Anatolia and Aegean. The North Anatolian Fault is the most active Fault in Turkey and earthquakes are frequent here. Using the Turkish earthquakes registered at the Romanian National seismological network we are able to find some information about the Moho discontinuity in Romania and the nature of the bed of the Black Sea. We can achieve this through analysis of the seismic waves generated by the earthquakes, seeking the kind of waves and arrival times.

Topic:

Applied Geophysics

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Sudiul cutremurelor anatoliene la staţiile din reţeaua seismologică naţională. Implicaţii asupra structurii crustei şi mantalei superioare
Mihai Barbu, Irina Carmen Brinza, Marian Ivan, Universitatea Bucureşti
Introducere De-a lungul istoriei, cutremurele au ridicat o problemă mare, atât pentru omenire, cât şi pentru geologi şi geofizicieni, în mare parte deoarece în acele vremuri nu se ştia ce anume produce aceste “mişcări ale pământului”, iar modalităţile de înregistrare erau practic inexistente. În prezent există aparatură care înregistrează aceste oscilaţii, iar cauzele producerii lor sunt variate. Turcia este una dintre cele mai active zone din punct de vedere seismic, deoarece, pe lângă faptul că este “presată” de către subducţia plăcii Arabia cu Eurasia, ea este “casa” unei imporatante falii, falia Nord Anatoliană, o falie de strike-slip (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Principalele falii din zona Anatoliană Influenţa faliei Nord Anatoliene asupra teritoriului Turciei Conform articolului lui M. N. Toksoz, A. F. Shakal and A. J. Michael (1979) zona faliei Nord Anatoliene este o caracteristică tectonică foarte importantă, cu efecte foarte bine definite şi cu o istorie seismică impresionantă. Efectele sunt bine definite pe o distanţă de 1000 km, între 31° şi 41o longitudine estică. La vest de 31o longitudine vestică, falia se împarte in două ramuri, posibil trei. În această regiune mecanismele cutremurelor prezintă o componentă de tensiune pe direcţia N-S, pe lângă componenta de strike-slip. Cutremurele intermediare sau mari din această zonă au produs rupturi la suprafaţă. Seismicitatea Turciei este controlată de interancţiunea complicată a mai multor plăci: în partea de SE placa Arabică se ciocneşte cu plăcile Anatolia şi Asia; în SV placa Mediteraneană este subdusă sunb plăcile Anatolia şi Aegean. În vestul Turciei, seismicitatea se produce de-a lungul unor falii normale pe direcţia E-V, zona constând din horst-uri şi grabene. În partea nordica, falia Anatoliană este o limită majoră între plăcile Anatolia şi Asia. Falia Nord Anatoliană este cea mai activă falie din Turcia şi este sursa a numeroase cutremure de-a lungul istoriei (Fig. 2), toate având magnitudini foarte mari. Ea se extinde pe direcţie vestică de la îmbinarea cu falia Est Anatoliană în punctul de triplă joncţiune Karliova, de-a lungul Turciei până la Marea Egee. Manifestarea cutremurelor a variat în timp, având o activitate mai intensă în intervalele 18501900 şi 1940-prezent şi una mai puţin intensă în perioada 1910-1939.

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Fig. 2 Distribuţia cutremurelor pe teritoriul Turciei în perioada 1963-1999 Dintre cutremurele ce s-au produs de-a lungul faliei Nord Anatoliene importante de menţionat, coform lucrarii lui E.L.Lekkas, sunt cel de la Dezli (1702) care a avut o magnitudine de 7 şi a fost atat de puternic încât a mutat cursul unui râu; cel de la Erzincan (1939) cu magnitudine de 7.9 care a produs rupturi mari, alunecări de teren, lichefieri şi tsunami pe Marea Neagră; cel din Izmit (1999) cu magnitudine de 7.4, iar pe o distanţă de 120 km s-a văzut falia la suprafaţă, cutremur urmat de încă unul, la mică distanţă, cu magnitudinea de 7.1; cel de la Muradiye (1976), cu magnitudinea de 7.3-7.5, ce a avut epicentrul în oraşul Muradiye, pe muntele Ararat. Conexiunea dintre falia anatoliană şi zona Vrancea Cutremurele din Carpaţi sunt concentrate într-o mică curbură numită zona Vrancea. Zona este descrisă ca fiind de acţiune moderată(Siedberg-1923). Guttenberg si Richter(1949) au atras atenţia despre sursa remarcabilă de şocuri de adâncime moderată cu repetiţie frecventă de la cam acelaşi loc situat undeva la o adâncime de 100-150 de km. Au arătat că arcul nu este foarte bine dezvoltat. Enescu si Constantinescu(1964) şi mai apoi Constantinescu(1966) au determinat soluţiile primului mecanism focal şi interpretarea lor tectonică. Majoritatea mecanismelor sunt de falii inverse de tip dip-slip cu o componentă orizontală de presiune pe axele Nord-Vest , Sud-Est şi deci transversal faţă de arcul Carpatic. Ritsema(1969b, 1971) a aflat că focarele sunt concentrate într-o placă mai mult sau mai putin verticală în direcţia Nord-Nord-Est. Placa are 100 km în lungime, 35 de km în lăţime şi 100-200 km în adâncime. Stresul compresiv care se află aproape pe directia E-W este explicat de faptul că Peninsula Balcanică este continuu împinsă spre nord de mişcarea spre Est a arcului Calabrian şi miscarea spre Vest a blocului Anatolian. Undele P si Pn Undele P sunt unde elastice, numite şi unde seismice care pot traversa gaze, lichide si solide şi deci întreaga masă a Pământului. Undele P sunt produse de cutremure şi înregistrate de seismometre. Numele P vinde ori de la unda primară deoarece viteza de propagare este cea mai mare şi ea ajunge prima la staţia seismologică, ori de la unda de presiune, deoarece este formată din compresii şi refracţii alternative. În medii solide izotrope şi omogene, polarizarea undelor P este întodeauna longitudinală, aşadar particulele din solid au vibraţii paralele sau de-a lungul direcţiei valului de energie.(Seismic Waves, wikipedia) Unda total refractată pe discontinuitatea Moho, care calatoreşte dominant cu viteza din stratul de sub MOHO (infra Moho), numită unda Pn. Pentru un cutremur cu focarul în stratul “granitic”, la staţia seismologică ajung, în general, 3 tipuri de unde P (Fig.3): · unda directă ce a traversat numai stratul “granitic”, numită unda Pg; · unda total refractată pe discontinuitatea Conrad, ce se propagă dominant cu viteza din stratul “bazaltic”, numită unda Pb (sau P*);
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· unda total refractată pe discontinuitatea Moho, care călătoreşte dominant cu viteza din stratul de sub MOHO (infra Moho), numită unda Pn.

Fig. 3 Modul de propagare a undelor prin diferite strate (M. Ivan, 2004) Localizarea statiilor Romanesti pe teritoriul Romaniei La studiul cutremurelor s-au luat în calcul datele obţinute de la cinci statii romaneşti (Fig. 4) : MLR ( Muntele Roşu), VRI ( Vrîncioaia), BURAR ( Bucovina Array), DRGR şi TIRR. O scurtă descriere a celor cinci staţii se regăseşte în tabelul 1.

Fig. 4 Localizarea staţiilor pe teritoriul României

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Statia

Lat

Long

Alt

Stati e ARR AY SP 1C +3C BB 3C BB

Senzor

Frecventa locala de recoltare probe "Science Horizons CD1 50 100 sps"

Transfer ul de date RT satellit

Software achizitie date D-C ANTEL OPE

Deschide re Open NIEP & AFTAC property

BUR AR

47.614 8

25.216 8

1150

9xGS2 1 + KS540 00

MLR

45.490 9

25.945

1360

STS2

DRG R TIRR

46.791 6 44.458 1

22.711 1 28.412 8

921

3C BB 3C BB

KS200 0 STS-2

77

"QUANTERR A 4120 Comserv 1, 40, 100 sps" "Altus K2 SeisCOMP 50, 100 sps" "EarthData SeisCOMP 50, 100 sps" "Altus K2 SeisCOMP 50, 100 sps"

Intranet

D-C ANTEL OPE D-C ANTEL OPE D-C ANTEL OPE D-C ANTEL OPE

Open

RT satelit RT Satellit

Open

VRI

45.866 5

26.727 6

472

3C BB

CMG 3ESP

RT satelit

Open NIEP & Geofon property Open

Tabel 1: Descrierea staţiilor( http://www.infp.ro) Prelucrarea datelor În prelucrarea datelor s-a folosit programul Pitsa, care se ocupă cu procesarea semnalului pe date seismice digitale; oferă un număr de utilităţi în manipularea traselor seismice, cum ar fi decalarea sau aducerea la scară a traselor. Pentru a vizualiza trasele seismice mai pe larg, se realizează o seismogramă cu distanţele de la hipocentru pe axa orizontală şi timpul pe axa verticală. De asemenea, Pitsa poate fi folosit pentru e estima magnitudinea, pentru a analiza mişcarea particulelor în două sau trei dimensiuni sau pentru a realiza corecţii de bază. Prin prelucrarea datelor analizăm, cu ajutorul programului Pitsa, diferite cutremure turceşti şi observăm prezenţa undelor Pn, a căror viteză o calculăm prin metoda celor două staţii ca fiind raportul dintre diferenţa de distanţă dintre cele două staţii şi diferenţa de timp dintre sosirile undei Pn la cele două staţii. Calculând viteza undelor vom observa că pe diferite zone ea va creşte sau va scădea; în Dobrogea ea va fi de 8.11 km/s, viteză mai mare decât cea din Vrancea, care e de 7.87 km/s. Din punct de vedere geologic acest lucru sugerează că în Dobrogea Moho se află mai sus decât în Vrancea, lucru pus pe seama existenţei unei falii. Concluzii În concluzie limita Moho variază pe teritoriul României, ea fin mai aproape de suprafaţă în Dobrogea, iar Marea Neagră este o combinaţie de crustă oceanică şi crustă continentală. Referințe M. N. Toksoz, A. F. Shakal And A. J. Michael [1979] Space-Time Migration of Earthquakes Along the North Anatolian Fault Zone and Seismic Gaps. E.L. Lekkas [2004] Earthquakes Geodynamics. De Renata Dmowska,Barry Saltzman [1994] Advances in geophysics, 36. Marian Ivan [2004] Seismologie : elemente de prelucrarea datelor digitale - pentru uzul studentilor, Bucuresti. Editura Universitatii din Bucuresti, 77 p. Institutul National pentru Fizica Pamantului, Reteaua Seismica Nationala http://infp.infp.ro/statinst.php.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

New paleomagnetic data from the east part of the North Harghita volcanic region

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Tudor Alexandru Ienulescu, Gabriela-Teodora Trandafir, University of Bucharest, Vişan Mădălina, The Institute of Geodynamics Sabba S. Ştefănescu A broader perspective upon the volcanic region of northern Harghita and concentrates on the eastern part which has been less documented.

The distribution of magnetic polarities obtained show that the initial model proposed by Pătraşcu (1976) has to be modified.

Summary According to the K-Ar dating method, volcanism in Northern Harghita took (max. 200 words): place in the interval 6 – 4 My (Pecskay et al., 1995). This age interval
overlaps the magnetic polarities time ladder (Lourens et al., 2009) on the C3r and C3n chron (Fig. 1). As you can see in figure 1, the C3r chron has only one inverted magnetic polarity on a interval that stretches about 800.000 years while the C3n chron with 1 My is caracterised by a high inversion rate. Past studies on the neogen volcanism in the Carpathian-Pannonic area (Pecskay et al., 2006) shows that the paleomagnetic data in combination with the K-Ar age data can lead to to further problems linked with the volcanic evolution in the area. The structure of the remanent natural mangetisation has been studied demagnetizing the samples with alternative magnetic fields usind the static method on a MAGNON intrument with a maximum field of 200 mT. Thermal demagnetisation of the samples between room temperature and 700°C using an uninductive oven placed in inside of three magnetic shields. The field sampling has been achieved with a diamond-bit drill, and the samples are oriented using a magnetic compass. The identification of the natural remanent magnetic structure has been achieved using the main component analysis method. The individual components of magnetisation where identified in orthogonal projections through the representation of the liniar segments in the horizontal plane as well as in the vertical plane. The liniar segments have the maximum deviation under 5 degrees.

Topic:

Earth physics

366

Noi date paleomagnetice din partea de est a zonei vulcanice Harghita de Nord
Tudor Alexandru Ienulescu, Gabriela-Teodora Trandafir, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Vişan Mădălina, Institutul de Geodinamică Sabba S. Ştefănescu Introducere Zona vulcanică Harghita de Nord face parte din lanţul vulcanic Călimani – Gurghiu – Harghita dezvoltată în timpul neogenului în Carpaţii Orientali (Seghedi et al., 2004, Seghedi et al., 2010). Evoluţia în timp a vulcanismului în acest lanţ vulcanic arată o migrare treptată a acestuia de la nord la sud (Pecskay et al., 2006). Conform datărilor prin metoda K-Ar, vulcanismul în Hargita de Nord a avut loc în intervalul 6 – 4 Ma (Pecskay et al., 1995). Acest interval de vârste se suprapune pe scara de timp a polarităţilor magnetice (Lourens et al., 2009) pe chron-ul C3r şi C3n (Fig. 1). După cum se poate observa din figura 1, chron-ul C3r are doar polaritate magnetică inversă pe un interval de aproape 800.000 de ani, în timp ce chron-ul C3n cu o durată de circa 1 Ma este caracterizat de o rată ridicată de inversiune.

Fig. 1 Scara de timp a polarităţii magnetice şi vârstele K-Ar din zona vulcanică Harghita de Nord Studiile anterioare pe vulcanismul neogen din aria Carpatho-Pannonică (Pecskay et al., 2006) au arătat că datele paleomagnetice în combinaţie cu datele de vârste K-Ar pot aduce constrâgeri suplimentare legate de evoluţia în timp a vulcanismului. În zona vulcanică Harghita de Nord a fost publicat un studiu de paleomagnetism de Pătraşcu (1976). Acest studiu propune divizarea ariei vulcanice în trei zone în funcţie de polaritatea magnetică. Distribuţia noilor date de vârste corelată cu scara de timp a polarităţii magnetice (Fig. 1) arată că este necesar o reeevaluare a acestui prim model. Lucrarea de faţă face parte dintr-un studiu paleomagnetic mai amplu legat de vulcanismul neogen din munţii Harghita şi se concentrează pe partea estică a zonei vulcanice care a fost mai puţin analizată în studiul precedent (Pătraşcu, 1976).

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Fig. 2 Exemple tipice privind structura magnetizării remanente naturale Metoda de probare şi tehnici de laborator Colectarea probelor în teren s-a efectuat cu ajutorul unei carotiere portabile cu diamante. Probele au fost orientate cu o busolă magnetică, iar în toate situaţiile posibile s-a măsurat cu o busolă solară declinaţia magnetică locala. S-au colectat probe dintr-un număr de 19 puncte. În laborator, din probele colectate s-au tăiat eşantioane cilindrice standard pentru paleomagnetism de circa 11 cm3. Structura magnetizării remanente naturale a fost studiată prin urmatoarele tehnici: a) demagnetizarea probelor prin câmpuri magnetice alternative utilizându-se metoda statică pe un instrument MAGNON cu un câmp maxim de 200 mT; b) demagnetizarea termică a probelor între temperatura camerei şi 700°C utilizând un cuptor neinductiv amplasat în interiorul a trei scuturi magnetice. Măsurarea remanenţei s-a efectuat cu magnetometre tip JR6A Dual Speed Spinner Magnetometer. Atât magnetometrul cât şi cuptorul au fost amplasate în interiorul unor bobine Helmoholtz care au permis realizarea unui mediu magnetic controlat mai mic de 500 nT. Identificarea structurii magnetizării remanente naturale s-a făcut prin metoda analizei componentelor principale. Componentele individuale ale magnetizării au fost identificate in proiecţii ortogonale prin trasarea segmentelor liniare in plan orizontal si in plan vertical. Segmentele liniare luate in considerare au avut valoarea maximă de deviaţie mai mică de 5 grade. În paralel s-au efectuat o serie de măsurători de rockmagnetism pentru identificarea mineralelor magnetice responsabile de achiziţia magnetizării remanente naturale: variaţia susceptibilităţii cu temperatura şi câmpul magnetic aplicat. Rezultate Exemple tipice ale structurii magnetizării remanente naturale obţinută în urma demagnetizarilor prin câmpuri magnetice alternative sunt prezentate în figura 2, atât pentru un punct cu polaritate magnetică normală (eşantionul HN72-1), cât şi pentru unul cu polaritate magnetică inversă (eşantionul HN86-2). În figura 2 sunt prezentate următoarele tipuri de diagrame: proiecţii ortogonale, proiecţii stereografice Wulff şi diagrama de demagnetizare a modulului magnetizării remanente.

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În urma analizei structurii magnetizării remanente naturale s-au identificat 10 puncte cu polaritate normală, 5 puncte cu polaritate inversă, iar un număr de 4 puncte au înregistrat direcţii intermediare sau care au fost instabile. Concluzii Distribuţia polarităţii magnetice a punctelor studiate este prezentă în Fig. 3. Această distribuţie a punctelor coroborată cu distribuţia vârstelor în aria studiată arată că în partea de est a zonei vulcanice Harghita de Nord este dezvoltată predominant în timpul chron-ului C3n. Distribuţia de polarităţi obţinută în studiul de faţă arată că modelul iniţial propus de Pătraşcu (1976) trebuie modificat. Pe ansamblul atât datele noi, cât şi studiul anterior (Pătraşcu, 1976) sunt compatibile cu o migrare de la nord la sud a vulcanismului în interiorul zonei vulcanice Harghiat de Nord.

Fig. 3 Distribuţia polarităţii magnetice în zona vulcanică Harghita de nord: albastru = polaritate normală, roşu = polaritate inversă. Zona studiată este marcată cu chenar negru. Punctele de vârstă sunt marcate cu cercuri galbene. Harta geologică este conform foii Odorhei (1: 200.000) Mulţumiri Lucrarea de faţă a fost întocmită cu ajutorul domnului Conf.Dr.Cristian Panaiotu. Suportul financiar pentru acest studiu a fost asigurat de proiectele PNII-IDEI 974/2007 şi PNII-IDEI 151/2007.

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Referinţe: Gradstein, F., Ogg, J. & Smith, A. [2004] A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, 589 pp. Pătrascu, S. [1976] Paleomagnetic study of some Neogene eruptive formations in the CălimaniGurghiu-Harghita (Romania). Rev. Roum. Geol. Geophys. Geogr. Ser. Geophys., 20, 51-63. Pécskay, Z., Lexa, J., Szakács, A., Seghedi, I., Balogh, K., Konečný, V., Zelenka, T., Kovacs, M., Póka, T., Fülöp, A., Márton, E., Panaiotu, C., Cvetković, V. [2006] Geochronology of NeogeneQuaternary magmatism in the Carpathian arc and Intra-Carpathian area: a review. Geologica Carpathica, 57, 511-530. Pécskay, Z., Edelstein, O., Seghedi, I., Szakács, A., Kovacs, M., Crihan, M., Bernad, A. [1995] KAr datings of the Neogene-Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in Romania. In: Downes, H. & Vaselli, O. (eds) Neogene and related volcanism in the Carpatho- Pannonian Region. Acta Vulcanologica 7, 53-63. Pécskay, Z., Marton, E., Panaiotu, C. [2004] Neogene–Quaternary magmatism and geodynamics in the Carpathian–Pannonian region: a synthesis. Lithos 72, 117–146. Seghedi, I., Maţenco, L., Downes, H., Mason, P., R.D., Szakács, A., Pécskay, Z. [2009] Tectonic significance of changes in postsubduction Pliocene-Quaternary magmatism in the south east part of the Carpathian- Pannonian Region, Tectonophysics, In Press.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Air quality assessment in Bucharest-Ilfov area (JulyDecember 2009 interval)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Alexandra Pirlea*, Consuela Milu, University of Bucharest

We fallowed interval).

the quality of air from Bucharest.( July-December 2009

During the monitoring we can remark that the air quality in Bucharest not indicated values over critical value.

Summary The quality of air from Bucharest is a major problem of our society. The (max. 200 words): main factors responsible for impure air are the dust, the industrial pollution,

the traffic, etc. From eight monitoring station, we fallowed the distribution of chemical indicators for: Balotesti, Magurele, Military Circle and Berceni. Measured environmental indicators were SO2, NOx (NO/NO2), O3, CO, PM10. The variation of these environmental indicators was monitories in july and december 2009. Concerning the variation of concentrations, we can mention: the measured values not outgrow the informal threshold; the concentration of inorganic pollutants are connected with anthropogenic activity; the indicators measured in july got higher values than winter month (ex. 69 µg/m3 like maximum values in july and 38 µg/m3 in december); the concentration of atmospheric pollutants are higher in traffic areas due to buildings urban congestion which circumvent the dispersion (ex. Military Circle). During the monitoring we can remark that the air quality in Bucharest not indicated values over critical value. In local area are recording increased values than the others monitories months but no outgrowing CMA for O3= 69 µg/m3 and PM =41 µg/m3.

Topic:

Geochemistry

371

Evaluarea calitatii aerului in intervalul iulie-decembrie 2009 in cadrul regiunii Bucuresti- Ilfov
Alexandra Pirlea, Consuela Milu, Univesitatea din Bucuresti Introducere Poluarea atmosferica este o problema majora a societatii. Efectele poluarii sunt resimtite in mod direct si indirect de catre om si celelalte componente ale mediului. Impactul impurificarii atmosferice este unul cu efecte pe termen scurt, mediu si lung. Pe termen scurt si mediu, poluarea aerului are efecte negative, de natura sa puna in pericol sanatatea oamenilor (sistemul respirator). Pe termen lung, poluarea atmosferica produce efecte la scara regionala si globala, cum sunt efectul de sera, distrugerea stratului de ozon din stratosfera, ploile acide etc. Din cauza poluarii excesive, Bucurestiul, zona cercetata in cadrul lucrarii, intra in categoria zonelor urbane cu risc major pentru sanatate si mediu. Principalii factori responsabili pentru situatia grava existenta la nivelul orasului sunt: praful, poluarea industriala si fonica, poluarea cauzata de traficul auto, emisiile de dioxina, reducerea drastica a spatiilor verzi..

Fig. 1 Gradul de poluare a aerului-in cadrul Orasului Bucuresti (zona rosie –contaminare maxima) Poluantii aerului In municipiul Bucureşti poluarea aerului are un caracter specific, datorită în primul rând condiţiilor de emisie, respectiv existenţei unor surse multiple, înălţimii diferite ale surselor de poluare, precum şi o repartiţie neuniformă a acestor surse, dispersate însă pe întreg teritoriul oraşului.Incercand sa realizez o clasificare a surselor de poluare atmosferica putem observa:

1. UNITATI INDUSTRIALE pulberi organice si anorganice (Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Ni, Cd) gaze si vapori (SO2, NOx, NH3, HCl, CO, CO2, H2S) solventi organici, funingine 3. SANTIERE DE CONSTRUCTII Pulberi sedimentabile 4. TERMOCENTRALE TERMICE SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, pulberi, fum, cenuşă volantă

2. TRAFICUL AUTO gazele anorganice (NO, SO2 CO, O3), pulberi: pulberi totale în suspensie, PM10, fumul negru; componente ale pulberilor: carbon elementar, hidrocarburi policiclice aromatice, plumb; compuşi organici volatili: benzen, butadienă. 5. SURSE DIFUZE DE COMBUSTIE

-centrale termice uzinale, de cvartal

sau de bloc deşeuri de tip menajer, cauciucuri uzate, mase plastice - deşeuri stradale în perimetrul urban depozitarea inadecvată a reziduurilor industriale şi a deşeurilor menajere

Fig. 2 Surse de poluare atmosferica

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Sistemul de monitoring al atmosferei in regiunea Bucuresti -Ilfov • La inceputul anului 2004 in cadrul programului PHARE 2000 a fost pusa in functiune reteaua automata de monitorizare a calitatii aerului in Bucuresti (Fig.2-3). Masuratoriile efectuate sunt furnizate in timp real si provin de la 8 statii automate de monitorizare a calitatii aerului. • Datele de calitate a aerului sunt transmise automat, in fiecare ora catre: 3 panouri externe de afisaj – Moghioros, Obor, Universitate ; 3 display-uri interne Ministerul Mediului si Dezvoltarii Durabile,
UNIVERSITATE

Fig. 3 Reteaua de monitorizare a orasului Bucuresti, Primaria Municipiului Bucuresti si APM Bucuresti

ADM

GSM GSM GSM GSM GSM Server

BUCUR OBOR

PRIMARIE

GSM

MINISTERUL MEDIULUI

MOGHIOROS

Fig. 4 Distributia informatiei de cadrul orasului Bucuresti Rezultate si concluzii

mediu in

Din totalul de 8 statii de monitorizare am urmarit distributia indicatorilor chimici pentru 4 zone : Balotesti (statie de fond regionala, situata in Comuna Balotesti, in sediul unitatii militare, la 15 km de Bucuresti), Magurele (statie de fond suburbana, localizata in comuna Magurele, la S de Bucuresti,in curtea Institutului de energie nucleara), Cercul Militar (statie de trafic, situata la Casa Armatei) si Berceni (statie industriala, localizata in zona sos. Berceni, in curtea Spitalului nr.9 de neuropsihiatrie Obreja). Zonele monitorizate alese sunt dispersate in cadrul orasului Bucuresti si jud. Ilfov astfel; Balotesti si Magurele sunt situate in afara orasului, Cercul Militar este plasat in centrul orasului iar Berceni este localizat in zona marginasa a orasului Bucuresti.Aceasta diversitate a locatiilor de probare pun in evidenta o diferenta intre zonele poluate si zone mai putin impurificate (Cercul Militarzona cea mai poluata, Berceni o zona de poluare mai scazuta, Magurele si Balotesti, zone marginase ale Bucurestiului). Indicatorii de mediu masurati au fost: SO2, NOx (NO/NO2), O3, CO, PM10. Variatia acestor indicatorii de mediu a fost urmarita in luna iulie- luna de vara si decembrie –luna de iarna. Aceste variatii au fost reprezentate grafic in diagramele urmatoare (Fig. 5):

Evolutia indicatorilor chimici privind calitatea atmosferei in data de 6 iulie 2009, ora 10:30

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Evolutia

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Fig. 5 Monitorizarea indicatorilor chimici privind calitatea aerului in 6 iulie si 6 decembrie 2009 Luna iulie si decembrie a fost monitorizata o data pe saptamana, timp de 4 ori pe luna. Selectiv am ales sa construiesc o serie de grafice surprinzand concentratia de indicatorii chimici, in prima parte a zilei, la ora 10:30, la 15:55 si la ora 20:37.(tabel nr.1). Precizez ca monitorizarea pe care am efectuato cupride intervalul iulie-martie 2010 (material care face obiect lucrarii de licenta) insa pentru acest articol am ales reprezentativ cate o zi din luna de vara (iulie) si o zi din luna de iarna (decembrie) pentru a observa variatia indicatorilor de poluare din cadrul orasului Bucuresti- jud. Ilfov. Precizam ca, interpretarea parametrilor inregistrati s-a facut functie de standardele de calitate a atmosferei. Acestea se bazeaza pe masuratori privind concentratia poluantilor in anumite durate de timp, deoarece gradul de expunere umana la poluanti toxici depinde de concentratia acestora in atmosfera si de timpul de contact cu atmosfera. Dupa cum se observa in diagramele privind evolutia indicatorilor chimici pentru 6 iulie 2009 se poate observa ca: -in prima jumatate a zilei concentratiile in dioxid de sulf sunt ridicate (21µg/m3 -in zona Magurele), ca dupa masa si seara concentratiile de SO2 scad (maxima fiind de 13 µg/m3-zona Berceni). Precizam ca ambele zone au o activitate industriala complexa, de unde si sursa de SO2. .Emisia de O3 in ziua de 6 iulie prezinta un maxim de concentrare in Berceni -69 µg/m3 pe tot parcursul zilei. Impurificarea aerului cu cantitati mari de O3 poate fi legata de zonele urbane intrucat precursorii ozonului (oxizii de azot, oxizii de sulf, compusi organici volatili) sunt generati de activitatea industriala si de traficul rutier. -urmarind variatia concentratiilor in pulberi sedimentabile zonele cu trafic intens pe tot parcursul zilei sunt : Balotesti (41 µg/m3) si Cercul Militar (37 µg/m3). Statia de la Balotesti indica valori ridicate de PM datorita existentei liniei de centura. Statia de la Cercul Militar, situata in centrul orasului Bucuresti este o zona cu trafic auto maxim In cazul diagramelor de variatia din 6 decembrie 2009 se poate observa:

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-in prima parte a zilei, valorile de SO2 sunt mai crescute (12 µg/m3) ca dupa-amiaza concentratiile de SO2 scad (2 µg/m3); centrul maxim inregistrandu-se la Cercul Militar. -pentru NO in ziua respectiva nu au fost inregistrate valori; parametrul O3 prezinta un nivel relativ constant 27-38 µg/m3, zona cea mai infestata fiind Balotesti (linie de centura, trafic auto intens). Emisia de O3 prezinta un maxim in zona Balotesti cu 38 µg/m3. -variatia pulberilor sedimentabile prezinta valori maxime pe tot parcursul zilei, in Balotesti (41 µg/m3) si Berceni (34 µg/m3).Amintesc ca pragul de informare pentru PM este de 50. In acest caz, parametrul de pulberi sedimentabile este singurul parametru monitorizat care se apropie de pragul de informare, deci poluarea cu PM este critica. Ceilalti parametrii prezinta variatii locale dar nu prezinta nici o depasire peste valoarea critica. De asemenea am tinut cont de variatia de temperatura in cele 4 locatii. Variatia temperaturii nu este mare, se poate observa ca intre temperatura din centrul orasului (Cercul Militar) si cea din Balotesti este de aproape 50C. Fenomenele observate pana in acest moment din analiza vizuala a graficelor indica: -valorile masurate nu depasesc pragul de informare; -concentratiile de poluanti anorganici sunt legate de activitatea antropica- zone industriale, trafic auto, santiere de constructii, centrale electrotermice etc; -indicatorii masurati in iulie prezinta valori mai ridicate fata de luna de iarna, dat fiind: intensitatea traficului rutier este mai mare vara decat iarna, umezeala relativa este mai mica vara (3549%) fata de cea din iarna (71-76%), fapt ce vara poluantul este mai bine fixat fata de iarna. - O3 in perioada de vara-iulie cand intervalul de iluminare diurna este mai mare si reactiile fotochimice din atmosfera sunt accelerate, rezulta cresteri ale continutului de ozon (ex: in iulie am valori de 69 µg/m3 comparativ cu decembrie valoarea masurata fiind de 38 µg/m3) -concentraţiile poluanţilor atmosferici sunt mai crescute în zonele cu artere de trafic străjuite de clădiri înalte sub formă compactă, care împiedică dispersia. Acest caz se aplica zonei de la statia Cercul Militar. Acest perimetru este unul din cele mai poluate cu valori crescute de NO, PM10; Berceni datorita activatii industriale (CET Berceni) si Balotesti datorita existentei aeroportului Otopeni, traficului auto, santiere etc. Concluzii Calitatea aerului in Orasul Bucuresti este influentata, major de platformele industriale, de centralele termoelectrice (CET), de traficul auto si de santierelor de constructii. In perioada de monitorizare nu au avut loc cresteri semnificative. Singurul parametru ce se apropie de valoarea critica este PM10 (pulberile sedimentabile). Referinte Stanley E. Manahan [2000] Environmental toxicants- Human exposures and their health effects. Edited by Morton Lippmann, pag.31, (pag.981). Stanley E. Manahan [1994] Environmental Chemistry-sixth edition. Edited by Lewis Publishers, ISBN1-56670-088-4, pag. 263, pag.305, (pag. 793). Stanley E. Manahan [1991] Environmental chemistry- fifth edition. ISBN 0-87371-425-3, edited by Lewis Publishers, pag. 219, pag. 251, (pag.565).

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11th Symposium of Romanian Geology and Geophysics Students
• Sedimentology, Paleontology, Tectonics
Code Title & Authors Considerente asupra tufurilor din zona Oligocenului, Valea Sibiciului-Valea Bălănesei, comuna ColŃi R301 Răzvan Gabriel Popa*, Patricia Tita, Cezar Radu-Buterez, Alice Diana Baratu, Răsvan Stochici, University of Bucharest Studiu sedimentologic si petrografic asupra formaŃiunii Sard – Valea Ampoiului, judeŃul Alba Lucia Profeta*, Nicolae Anastasiu, University of Bucharest R303 Studiul paleontologic al zonei Chergheș (Deva) Florica Stefan*, Carmen Chira, Babes–Bolyai University R304 Nannoplanctonul calcaros de la Lapugiu de Sus Stefanut Victorita-Ionela*, Carmen Chira, Babes-Bolyai University R305 Depozitele de travertin de pe Valea Muresului – particularităŃi sedimentologice, petrografice si geochimice Lihaciu Alina*, Ranete Emilia, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest

R302

Code R306

Title & Authors Dovezi ale variației nivelului mării în Cuaternar Dragoș Lucian Șuțoiu*, Ioan Munteanu, Gheorghe V. Ungureanu, University of Bucharest GaleŃi si blocuri de calcare paleogene în depozitele de la Râpa Rosie (jud. Alba): implicaŃii asupra vârstei rezervaŃiei Solomon Alexandru*, Miclea Angela, Vlad Codrea , Ioan Bucur, Babes-Bolyai University Caracterizarea granulometrică a sedimentelor actuale de plajă din sectorul sudic al Ńărmului românesc la Marea Neagră Ana Maria Rusu*, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest, Gheorghe Oaie, GeoEcoMar
Analiza de facies a depozitelor campanian-maastrictiene din cuvertura posttectonică a Pânzei Getice si reconstituirea mediilor de sedimentare

R307

R308

R309

Iacob Ovidiu*, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest EvoluŃia tectono-stratigrafică a sectorului Nord-Vestic al Marii Negre în timpul PonŃianului R310 Cristian Mihalcea*, Ioan Alexandru Lepardă, Corneliu Dinu, University of Bucharest

Code

Title & Authors Cicluri climatice reflectate în depozitele Burdigaliene ale FormaŃiunii de Moisa din Pânza Subcarpatică Andrei Bercea*, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest

R311

R312

Bennettitale Jurasice-timpurii de la Anina Matei Berta Corina*, University of Bucharest

R313

Exemplare fosile din colecŃia Laboratorului de Paleontologie al UniversităŃii din Bucuresti Andreea Moisil*, Iuliana Lazar, University of Bucharest

R314

Fauna de moluste sarmaŃiene de la Răcăstia Popa Alexandra*, Tămaş Dan Mircea, Babes-Bolyai University

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Considerations on the Tuff Deposits from the Oligocene Area, Sibiciu Valley-Bălăneasa Valley, Colţi Village

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Răzvan Gabriel Popa*, Patricia Tita, Cezar Radu-Buterez, Alice Diana Baratu, Răsvan Stochici, University of Bucharest

Announcing and locating the Volcanic Tuff Deposits found within the Oligocene dated area, between Sibiciu Valley and Bălăneasa Valley; and their petrographic analysis. The finding of Volcanic Tuff Deposits within the mentioned area, their first petrographic analisys and possible explanations.

Summary The possibility of an existing volcanism outside the Carpathian Mountains (max. 200 words): that activated along the Oriental Carpathians up to south of the curvature area
was first mentioned at the beginning of the 1940’s. (M. Filipescu, 1944). Since then, proofs that could confirm or infirm the suggested hypothesis have been looked for, but neither of them pointed towards a clear and rigorous conclusion, the issue remains unsolved till this day. Scientists have been engaged in searching operations in order to find tracks of possible volcanic activity, such as tuff deposits or hydrothermal mineralization. The tuff deposits from the areas neighboring the zone which is subject of this paper; have been dated as Tortonian (N. Oncescu, 1957), period which coincides with the volcanic activity inside the Carpathian Arc. The present paper proposes to present the location, description and analysis (through different geological methods) of the volcanic tuff deposits found during field expeditions, in the area located between the Sibiciu Valley and the Bălăneasa Valley, of the Colţi Village administrative territory; area dated back to the Oligocene (29 L-35-XXI Covasna, CSGB). The existence of these deposits and of some additional formations such as breccias with lithoclasts of volcanic material, brings out new questions and research possibilities linked to the tectonics of the area and to the much debated Outer Carpathian Volcanism.

Topic:

Petrology

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Considerente asupra tufurilor din zona Oligocenului, Valea Sibiciului-Valea Bălănesei, comuna Colţi
Răzvan Gabriel Popa, Patricia Tita, Cezar Radu-Buterez, Alice Diana Baratu, Răsvan Stochici, Universitatea din Bucureşti Introducere La începutul anilor 1940 s-a vehiculat pentru întâia oară posibilitatea existenţei vulcanismului în spaţiul exterior arcului carpatic, cu activitate de-a lungul Carpaţilor Orientali, până la sud de zona curburii (M. Filipescu, 1944). De-atunci s-au căutat dovezi care să confirme sau infirme ipoteza sugerată, fără însă ca vreuna dintre acestea să încline înspre o concluzie clară şi riguroasă, problema rămânând deschisă şi în prezent. Cercetătorii au întreprins activităţi de localizare a urmelor unor posibile activităţi vulcanice, precum depozite de tufuri, sau, în prisma unora, mineralizaţii hidrotermale. Corpurile de tuf aflate în zonele învecinate ariei care face obiectul de studiu al lucrării de faţă au fost datate ca aparţinând Tortonianului (Badenian), deci perioadei Neogene (N. Oncescu, 1957), perioadă ce coincide cu activitatea vulcanică din spaţiul intracarpatic. Lucrarea de faţă îşi propune să prezinte localizarea, descrierea şi analizarea (prin metode geologice diverse) a corpurilor de tuf vulcanic întâlnite în campaniile de teren, în zona cuprinsă între Valea Sibiciului şi Valea Bălănesei, pe actualul teritoriu administrativ al comunei Colţi, zona fiind datată la zi ca vârstă Oligocenă (29 L-35-XXI Covasna, CSGB). Existenţa acestor corpuri şi a unor formaţiuni adiacente precum brecii cu litoclaste din material vulcanic aduce la lumină noi întrebări şi direcţii de studiu legate de tectonica zonei şi de îndelung dezbătuta problemă a vulcanismului extracarpatic. Descrierea zonei Zona aflată la est de Valea Sibiciului, având ca fundament geologic Pânza Extern Marginală a Flischului Carpatic, mai precis Pintenul de Văleni (N. Oncescu, 1957) este caracterizată de faciesul de Kliwa, prezentând alternanţe de şisturi disodilice, marne şi gresii de Kliwa, varietatea Inferioară şi Superioară în stratele mai recente. Corpurile sunt puternic cutate şi faliate, fiind tăiate de la NE spre SV de o falie ce coincide cu Valea Alunişului, o serie de falii mai noi decât aceasta fragmentând partea vestică a anticlinalul de la Piatra Corbului, înainte de a se opri în falia pe care o vom considera principală, cea de la Valea Alunişului. O caracteristică a alternanţelor de gresii, şisturi disodilice şi marne din această zonă o reprezintă existenţa nodulilor bogaţi în materie organică (Chihlimbar, Cărbuni); găsiţi cu uşurinţă la contactul dintre stratele de roci moi şi friabile (şisturile disodilice, marne). Rar se pot găsi în gresii intercalaţii stratiforme de conglomerate friabile cu elemente verzi, sub-angulare, subcentimetrice, litoclastele sugerând un metamorfism în stare incipientă, în faciesul şisturilor verzi (predomină mineralele specifice: clorit, albit; însă structura este izotropă). Menţionăm de asemenea existenţa a numeroase izvoare sulfuroase sau carbogazoase, cu caracter permanent, toate orientate în lungul faliilor. Întregul areal este considerat ca aparţinând vârstei Oligocene, mai precis intervalului Lattorfian-Chattian, fundamentul fiind format acum aproximativ 20 MA (29 L-35-XXI Covasna, CSGB) (Fig. 1). Modele şi Teorii Prin observaţiile în teren am pus în evidenţă corpuri de tufuri vulcanice, aflate în cadrul unor aflorimente extinse în interiorul perimetrului descris, datat conform bibliografiei ca LattorfianChattian. Coordonatele acestor iviri le-am înregistrat punctual, cu ajutorul aparatelor GPS, datele achiziţionate fiind [45° 22' 6.6146" N, 26° 23' 4.2057" E] (Sat Valea Sibiciului, N extrem), respectiv [45° 23' 20.0018" N, 26° 25' 56.6861" E] (Podul Samarului, în vecinătatea satului MusceluCărămăneşti). La Valea Sibiciului s-au găsit tufuri de culoare negricioasă, extrem de compacte, cu aspect lucios în spărtură, însă alterate la exterior, prezentând o peliculă de oxizi şi hidroxizi de fier care le face greu de deosebit de gresiile ce aflorează în zonă. Tufurile de la Podul Samarului sunt albcrem, mai puţin compacte şi friabile, uneori cu incluziuni stratiforme de silice alb-cenuşie, prezentând şi ele, însă doar pe fisuri, precipitări de genul oxizilor si hidroxizilor de fier. Tot aici aflorează o brecie cu litoclaste preponderent de tuf vulcanic, rareori de gresie, cu matrice oxidică, compactă, de culoare roşu-cărămiziu.

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Apariţia acestor tufuri în zona cunoscută drept Oligocen (N. Oncescu, 1957) ridică întrebări legate de vârsta tufurilor, de tectonica zonei şi bazinele de sedimentare. Dacă tufurile se dovedesc a fi de vârstă Oligocenă, atunci se pun probleme legate de provenienţa lor şi de localizarea sursei, aceasta nemaiputând fi legată de activitatea vulcanică intracarpatică. Dacă pe de altă parte vârsta lor este cuprinsă în intervalul Tortonian-Sarmaţian, ele se dovedesc a fi depuse în aceeaşi perioadă cu tufurile deja cunoscute şi atunci semnul de întrebare se mută asupra tectonicii zonei, care ar putea explica aceste iviri în Oligocen prin modelul unor încălecări. Un alt model pentru acest al doilea caz îl reprezintă existenţa unor bazine depresionare care să fi funcţionat în Tortonian ca arie de acumulare a sedimentelor, care, datorită paleocurenţilor erau izolate de restul formaţiunilor de aceeaşi vârstă, transportate şi depuse ulterior în aceste bazine, deasupra stratelor Oligocene.

Fig. 1 Înregistrările punctuale are coordonatelor ivirilor de tuf vulcanic (realizat pe baza 29 L-35-XXI Covasna, CSGB) Metode şi colectarea datelor. Prelevarea eşantioanelor şi descrierea macroscopică s-a realizat in-situm, la coordonatele menţionate. Coordonatele au fost înregistrate pentru o mai bună precizie, cu ajutorul a două aparate GPS, Garmin GSPMAP 60CSx respectiv Garmin eTrex H, receptoarele fiind iniţial calibrate pentru standardul datum WGS84. Transferul datelor de pe GPS s-a făcut folosind programul dedicat MapSource, ulterior georeferenţierii hărţii geologice 29 L35-XXI Covasna, CSGB. În vederea analizei eşantioanelor s-a folosit într-o primă etapă analiza difractometrică, aceasta fiind realizată în cadrul Laboratorului de Difractometrie al Universităţii din Bucureşti, cu ajutorul unui aparat XPert MPD cu anod din cupru, alimentat la 40mA şi 40 kV cu radiaţia setată la următoarele lungimi de undă: K-Alpha1 [A] 1.54060; K-Alpha2 [A] 1.54443; K-Beta [A] 1.39225; cu raportul între K-A1/K-A2 de 0.50000. Scanarea s-a realizat după o axă de tip Gonio, cu poziţia de start [ ̊2Th] 2.0617 şi poziţia de final [ ̊2TH] 79.9957. Mărimea fiecărui pas a fost de [ ̊2Th] 0.0170 şi staţionarea de 10.3270 secunde. Datele au fost salvate şi interpretate în format *.RD (PHILIPS-binary scan) folosind baza de date a aplicaţiei X’Pert. A doua etapă a analizei s-a efectuat prin microscopie optică, cu şi fără lumină focalizată.

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Concluzii Studierea secţiunilor subţiti oferă o primă descriere şi analiză petrografică a tufurilor menţionate, în compoziţia acestora cea mai importantă pondere având-o sticla vulcanică, de unde şi caracterul lor vitroclastic. Aceasta prezintă structuri pseudosferulitice şi intense zeolitizări, ce-i conferă tufului un aspect mozaical. Granoclastele observate, de dimensiuni de ordinul a 0,12 mm sunt în principal din cuarţ, alături de acesta fiind prezent în cantităţi subordonate feldspatul plagioclaz. Ţinând cont de ponderea covârşitoare a sticlei vulcanice şi de natura mineralelor observate în constituenţa rocilor, se poate spune ca acestea provin cel mai probabil dintr-o magmă vâscoasă, dacitică. Existenţa acestor tufuri în zona datată ca Oligocen ridică probleme legate de vârsta acestora, de tectonica zonei şi de condiţiile de sedimentare. Dacă în urma analizelor se dovedeşte că vârsta corpurilor ar fi Oligocenă, atunci s-ar putea sugera încă o dată ipoteza vulcanismului extracarpatic şi ar reprezenta o nouă direcţie de cercetare şi încă o dovadă care ar pleda puternic în favoarea acesteia. Dacă vârsta se găseşte în intervalul Tortonian-Sarmaţian, atunci ivirile de tuf şi contextul stratigrafic în care se află merită o mai mare atenţie şi o observare amănunţită, caz în care limita Tortonianului trebuie mutată înspre est. A treia posibilitate, şi anume cea a transportului, izolării şi sedimentării materialului vulcanic deasupra stratelor Oligocene, dacă se dovedeşte aşa, ar oferi informaţii preţioase legate de morfologia bazinului şi de direcţiile paleocurenţilor marini. Mulţumiri Acest studiu ar fi fost dificil de realizat fără concursul a numeroase persoane, care ne-au pus la dispoziţie aparatură de specialitate, bibliografie şi nu în ultimul rând sfaturi practice şi îndrumări. Dorim să mulţumim în mod special doamnei lector dr. Anca Luca şi domnului profesor dr. Marin Şeclăman pentru ajutorul nemijlocit oferit pe parcursul studiului, ajutor materializat nu numai prin facilitarea accesului la aparatură şi informaţii, dar şi prin pasiunea debordantă faţă de geologie şi de modul în care ne-au îndrumat. De asemenea mulţumim doamnei dr. Barbara Soare şi masterand Cătălina Şeclăman, fără de care analizele difractometrice nu ar fi fost posibile, doamnei lector dr. Denisa Jianu şi domnilor lector dr. Relu Roban şi lector dr. Alexandru Andrăşanu. Nu în ultimul rând suntem recunoscători doamnelor lector dr. Consuela Milu, dr. Irina Catianis, profesor dr. Rodica Popescu şi domnului conferenţiar dr. Lucian Petrescu de la Departamentul de Geochimie al Universităţii din Bucureşti, pentru sprijinul oferit în vederea realizării analizelor geochimice. Referințe Filipescu, M.G. [1944] Problema vulcanismului extracarpatic, 1-9. Oncescu, N. [1957] Geologia Republicii Populare Romîne, pp. 438.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Sedimentological and petrographic studies of the Sard Formation - Ampoiului Valley, Alba county

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Lucia Profeta*, Nicolae Anastasiu, University of Bucharest

Studying the facies, sedimentation processes and products for the area in question Identifying the provenance area and paleoclimate reconstruction for the Late Cretaceous outcrop located near Alba Iulia

Summary The outcrop near the town of Şard is located on the boundary between the (max. 200 words): Southern Apuseni Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin. Its position
makes it a valuable tool in understanding how surrounding regions have evolved. It also offers the possibility of studying allogene material from many different sources. The aim of this study is to reveal aspects regarding the sedimentological evolution of the region and link it to major events that occurred during the period in which the basin was active (up to Late Cretaceous).

Topic:

Sedimentology

381

Studiu sedimentologic şi petrografic asupra formaţiunii Şard – Valea Ampoiului, judeţul Alba
Profeta Lucia, Nicolae Anastasiu, Universitatea din Bucureşti

Introducere
Importanţa studierii formaţiunii Şard de pe Valea Ampoiului derivă din amplasamentul său la contactul dintre două zone cu evoluţie tectonica diferită: Munţii Apuseni şi Bazinul Transilvaniei. Prin identificarea şi analiza proceselor şi produselor de sedimentare corespunzătoare acestei zone şi identificarea provenienţei materiei alogene se poate face paleoreconstrucţia regiunii în timpul Cretacicului superior.

Teorii şi modele
Bazinul Transilvaniei este o parte componentă a Oceanului Paratethys Central (Krézsek, Bally, 2006), de a cărui evoluţie a depins până la închiderea acestuia odată cu ridicarea lanţului AlpinoCarpatic (Paleogen superior). Formaţiunea Şard s-a dezvoltat peste Pânza de Bozeş, unitate componentă a Transilvanidelor de Vest (Săndulescu, 1984), pânză cu extindere areala importantă, comparată cu o formaţiune vulcanosedimentară olistostromică (Săndulescu, 1984). În constituţia acestei pânze intră roci sedimentare cu caracter de fliş si de wildfliş, roci calcaroase masive, cinerite şi corpuri de roci magmatice efuzive. Formaţiunile sedimentare sunt dispuse în următoarea succesiune (din bază spre top): Formaţiunea carbonatică (Neojurasic – Neocomian); Formaţiunea de fliş (Barremian – Aptian); Formaţiunea de wildfliş (Albian - Cenomanian); Formaţiunea de molasă (Neocretacic); Formaţiunea sedimentară neogenă. Formaţiunea de Bozeş este acoperită în această regiune cu un facies predominant conglomeratic cu intercalatii de gresii şi silturi (Ianovici et al.,1976) de varstă Maastrichtian (Balc et al., 2007).

Date primare – descrierea zonei
Formaţiunea Şard este situată la 6 km NV de Alba Iulia. În cadrul acestei formatiuni aflorează para- şi orto-conglomerate cu nivele de silturi roşii intercalate (Fig. 1). Faciesul conglomeratic identificat în formaţiune este în toate ocurenţele polimictic, dar apar diferenţieri legate de raportul dintre liant şi particule. Astfel, la baza coloanei stratigrafice sunt întalnite alternativ strate de paraconglomerate şi ortoconglomerate cu grosimi cuprinse între 0.5 şi 1m, iar spre partea superioara apar numai ortoconglomerate în strate de 1 până la 3m. Structurile observate pe conglomerate sunt: structura masivă, structura cu stratificatie oblic - tabulară sau structura cu stratificatie paralela. În unele nivele se poate distinge o granoclasare normală, iar altele au în componenţă galeţi moi. Fracţia arenitică are o ocurenţa mai redusă faţă de conglomerate, iar grosimea stratelor nu depăşeşte 50 cm. Apar uneori cu structură masivă, dar şi cu stratificaţii paralele, oblice sau concoide. De obicei, culoarea rocii este cenuşie, cu excepţia unui singur strat în care alternează culorile cenuşiu şi roşu (Fig. 1-nivelul 8). Silturile apar în strate cu grosimi cuprinse între 2 şi 50 cm. Culoarea roşiatică este dată de concentraţia mare a oxizilor de fier.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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Fig. 1 Coloana litologică a formaţiunii Şard

Metode utilizate
Pentru evidenţierea caracteristicilor zonei s-au folosit următoarele metode: • Analiză litologică – prin care au fost determinate mineralogia, compoziţia rocii sedimentare (particule/liant), culoarea, gradul de compactare, gradul de deformare (fisuri, microfracturi) şi gradul de transformare (alterare chimică) • Analiza texturală – definirea dimensiunilor clastelor (granulometrie), formei clastelor (morfometrie), sortare • Analiza stratonomică – identificarea şi marcarea stratificaţiei (sau a laminaţiei) şi a planelor de stratificaţie, grosimea şi geometria stratelor, contactele ȋntre strate (limite nete, regulate, neregulate, etc.) • Analiza structurilor sedimentare – definirea structurii interne a stratelor şi a suprafeţelor de strat, cât şi a structurilor la scară mare ( corespunzătoare mai multor strate) • Analiza biofaciesurilor – identificarea tipurilor de organisme, ocurenţa şi modul de conservare a fosilelor şi a urmelor fosile: bioturbaţii, urme de hrănire, de târâre, de locomoţie, etc. • Analiza paleocurenţilor: indicatori de orientare, direcţii de curgere • Studiul optic pe secţiuni subţiri, plachete lustruite • Difractometrie RX.

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Procesarea datelor şi rezultate obtinute
Au fost analizate eşantioane prelevate din stratele: • S0801 (Fig. 1-nivelul 2) – ortoconglomerat polimictic masiv cu matrice roşiatică • S0802 (Fig. 1-nivelul 4) – ortoconglomerat polimictic masiv cu liant compus din matrice şi ciment • S0803 (Fig. 1-nivelul 5) – silt roşu • S0804 (Fig. 1-nivelul 6) – paraconglomerat polimictic cu stratificaţie oblică tabulară, slab cimentat • S0805 (Fig. 1-nivelul 12) – ortoconglomerat polimictic masiv cu galeţi moi imbricaţi • S0806 (Fig. 1-nivelul 18) – fracţie arenitică medie, foarte bine cimentata, cu stratificatie concoida • S0807 (Fig. 1-nivelul 22) – fracţie arenitică fină, cu galeţi imbricaţi • S0808 (Fig. 1-nivelul 23) – fracţie arenitică fină, cu stratificatie oblica • S0809 (Fig. 1-nivelul 38, la partea superioară a succesiunii) – ortoconglomerat polimictic masiv cu matrice roşiatică. Din eşantioanele corespunzătoare stratelor S0801, S0802, S0804,S0805, S0808, S0809 au fost confecţionate secţiuni subţiri. Identificarea ariilor sursă este posibilă doar în cazul secţiunilor din probele S0801, S0802, S0804 şi S0805 în care pot fi identificate litoclastele. În cazul celorlalte secţiuni, transformările suferite ȋn domeniul sedimentar îngreunează determinarea cu exactitate a protolitelor. Secţiunile S0801 şi S0804 prezintă litoclaste preponderent de natură vulcanică, iar în S0802 şi S0805 apar minerale specifice unui facies metamorfic. Protolitele acestora ar putea fi produse de către magmatismul ofiolitic şi apariţia unui metamorfism de contact între acesta şi rocile preexistente, cât şi alte surse mai îndepărtate faţă de locul acumulării, posibil conectate prin intermediul Oceanului Paratethys (Krezsek, Bally, 2006).

Concluzii
Formaţiunea Şard conţine tipuri variate de facies ce au fost acumulate şi transformate in situ. Efectuarea unei analize combinate asupra rocilor din succesiune a condus la stabilirea mediilor de sedimentare şi a pus în evidenţă elemente ce au condus la identificarea ariilor sursă corespunzătoare particulelor regăsite în formaţiune.

Referințe
Balc, R., Suciu-Krausz, E. and Borbei, F. [2007] Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous deposits in the Western Transylvanides from Ampoi Valley. Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, 52 (2), 3743. Ianovici, V., Borcos, M., Bleahu, M., Patrulius, D., Lupu, M., Dumitrescu, R., Savu, H. [1976] Geologia Muntilor Apuseni. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei R.S.R. Krézsek, C., Bally, A.W. [2006] The Transylvanian Basin (Romania) and its relation to the Carpathian. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 23, 405–442. Săndulescu, M. [1984] Geotectonica Romaniei. Bucuresti: Editura Tehnica.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The paleontological study of Cherghes region

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Florica Stefan*, Carmen Chira, Babes–Bolyai University

The study of calcareous nannoplancton with the purpose of obtaining bibiostratigraphic dates in Cherges region.

I dated the age of the formation on the valley of Sipot: CampanianMaastrichtian.

Summary The aim of this study consists in a detailed presentation of the paleontology (max. 200 words): of the Cherghes region and the study of the calcareous nannoplancton
collected from certain stratigraphic levels, with the purpose of obtaining more precise biostratigraphic dates from the region. I have examined material taken from the Cherges zone, more precisely from the valley of Sipot, where I found an association of nannoplancton which certifies the presence of CC23 biozone- with Tranolithus phacelosus, an age marker for the last part of the Campanian and the first part of the inferior Maastrichtian. From here I have dated the age of the formation on the valley of Sipot as being in the period of Campanian-Maastrichtian.

Topic:

Paleontology

385

Studiul paleontologic al zonei Chergheș (Deva)
Florica Stefan, Carmen Chira, Babes – Bolyai University Introducere și studii anterioare Scopul acestei lucrări constă într-o prezentare detaliată a paleontologiei regiunii Chergheș, cunoscută în special datorită prezenței amoniților de cele mai mari dimensiuni din Romania, de până la 1 metru diametru. Regiunea este situată în nord- estul Munţilor Poiana Ruscă, la S-V de oraşul Deva. Studiul actual se referă la nannoplanctonul calcaros cercetat de la anumite nivele stratigrafice, în vederea obținerii unor date mai precise de biostratigrafie în regiunea Chergheș. Fauna cretacică de la Chergheș este reprezentată în mare parte de acteonele, Trochactaeon, nerinei, radiolari, pe baza cărora s-au realizat și interpretări paleoecologice şi de paleomediu. Acteonelele de exemplu erau considerate de Zittel (1865) organisme ce trăiau în ape salmastre puţin adânci. Tiedt (1958) considera că acolo unde acteonelele au talie mare, nerineele sunt slab dezvoltate şi invers, lucru observat şi de Forray (1994) în regiunea Chergheș. Din depozitele Formaţiunii de Deva (Dealul Dumbrava ) au fost analizate pentru prima oară asociaţii de nanoplancton din regiune (Forray,1994), pe baza cărora s-a determinat vârsta TuronianSantonian a depozitelor, deşi nu au fost găsite specii indicatoare de biozonă. A fost mentionată prezenţa urmatoarelor specii de nanoplancton : Chiastozygus litterarius, Eiffellithus turriseiffelli, Ellipsagelosphaera fassacincta, Eprolithus floralis, Glaukolithus diplogrammus, Lithraphidites sp., Placozygus fibuliformis, Predicosphaera gr.cretacea, Vagalapilla matalosa, Watznaueria barnesae, Zeugrhabdotus embergeri . Formațiunea de Chergheș a fost divizată în mai multe orizonturi, observabile şi pe valea Sipotului. S-a remarcat un orizont mixt, care conţine Tylosoma cf. subaequiaxis, Multiptyxis gissarensis, Ptygmatis sp., Ptygmatis cincta, Radiolites cf. socialis, Ptygmatis schiosensis. Urmează orizontul cu itruvii care conţine Itruvia abbreviata, Itruvia cycloidea, Itruvia subcycloidea şi Itruvia caucasica, și apoi orizontul cu acteonele, ce cuprinde: Acteonella (Trochactaeon) renauxiana, Acteonella (Actaeonella) laevis, Acteonella supernata, Oligoptyxis turricula, Oligoptyxis cylindrica, Oligoptyxis gissarensis, Actaeonella laevis, Actaeonella supernata. Urmează apoi un orizont continental lipsit de resturi fosile, apoi unul cu orbitoline ce conţine Orbitolina concava, Proliserpula sp., Pecten sp., Proliserpula ampullacea, Ostrea carinata. Succesiunea se termină cu un orizont cu amoniți, cu: Proliserpula sp., Proliserpula ampullacea, Parapachydiscus sp. şi Parapachydiscus neubergicus (Forray, 1994). Pe baza acestei faune a fost precizată vârsta cenomaniană - până la orizontul cu amoniţi, pe baza formei de Ostrea carinata si Orbitolina concava, iar Orizontul cu amoniţi a fost atribuit Campanianului superior pe baza formei de Parapachydiscus neubergicus. Astfel Stratele de Cherghes au fost cosiderate de vârsta cenomanian- campanian superioară. De menţionat ca există autori cu păreri diferite în ceea ce priveşte vârsta Stratelor de Chergheș. Astfel îi amintim pe Stur (1863) care conferă formaţiunii vârsta Cenomanian-Maastrichtian, Gheorghiu (1954), care consideră vârsta ca fiind Santonian-Maastrichtian, Lupu (1965) care datează stratele cu gastropode Vraconian-Cenomanian iar cele cu amoniţi le încadrează în Turonian-Coniacian de aici reieşind intervalul Vraconian-Coniacian şi Marincas (1970) care consideră Formaţiunea de Cherghes aparţinand ca varstă intervalului Vraconian-Maastrichtian. Metoda de lucru Nannoplanctonul calcaros este reprezentat prin alge aurii-brunii (haptofite), importante biostratigrafic, paleoecologic si practic. Pentru determinarea coccolitelor calcitice ce protejeaza alga la exterior, am utilizat microscopul optic. Probele analizate provin din materialul recoltat in practica de vara din anul 2009, din sedimentarul din prima parte a succesiunii de pe Valea Sipotului, din cadrul Formaţiunii de Cherghes. Probele de pe teren nu contin nannofosile calcaroase. Au fost studiate probe recoltate de pe un amonit de la Cherghes, din Muzeul de Paleontologie – Stratigrafie a Universitatii Babes-Bolyai (Parapachydiscus neubergicus), si s-a determinat vârsta Campanian superioara – Maastrichtian inferioara a depozitelor din care provine.

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Nannoplanctonul calcaros din regiunea Chergeș Asociația studiată de la Chergheș cuprinde: Watznaueria barnesiae (Bajocian-Maastrichtian) – (Fig.1), Rhagodiscus angustus (Apţian - Maastrichtian) – (Fig.2), Cribrosphaerella ehrenbergii (Albian - Maastrichtian), Discorhabdus cf. ignatus (Campanian- Maastrichtian) – (Fig.3), Broinsonia cf. verecundia (Campanian- Maastrichtian), Rhagodiscus splendens. Prezența taxonului indicator de biozonă pentru Biozona CC23 (după Sissing, 1977), respectiv biozona cu Tranolithus phacelosus – (Fig.4), atestă prezența părții terminale a Campanianului şi a primei părți a Maastrichtianului inferior. Concluzii Pobele prelevate de pe Valea Şipotului nu conţin nannoplancton calcaros. Ca atare, am examinat conținutul în nannoplancton pe material existent în muzeu dintr-un amonit din cadrul colecţiei catedrei, recoltat de pe valea Şipotului din orizontul cu amoniţi, în care am găsit o asociaţie de nannoplancton ce probează prezenta biozonei CC23 – cu Tranolithus phacelosus, marcator de vârstă pentru partea terminală a Campanianului şi prima parte a Maastrichtianului inferior. De aici am dedus vârsta formaţiunii de pe valea Şipotului ca fiind Campanian-Maastrichtian.

Fig. 1 Watznaueria barnesiae (N+)

Fig. 2 Rhagodiscus angustus (N+)

Fig. 3

Discorhabdus ignotus. (N+)

Fig. 4 Tranolithus phacelosus (N+)

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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Referințe Forray F. [1994] Lucrare de diploma-Formatiuni mezozoice din regiunea Nandru-Cherghes, ClujNapoca. Chira C. [2000] Nannoplancton calcaros si moluste Miocene din Transilvania, Romania. Ed.Carpatica Cluj-Napoca. Lupu D., Lupu M. [1966] Stratigrafia si faciesurile depozitelor cretacic superior din regiunea Bretelin Cherghes, Dari de seama ale sedintelor (1965-1966). Vol. I.II/2, Bucuresti. Bown P. [1998] Calcareus nannofossils biostratigraphy. Kluwer Academic Publishers, London. Perch-Nielsen, Saunders B., Bolli H. [1985] Plankton stratigraphy, vol.I, Cambridge University Press.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

388

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Calcareous Nannoplancton from Lapugiu de Sus

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Stefanut Victorita-Ionela*, Carmen Chira, Babes-Bolyai University

Analysis on the calcareous nannoplancton of Lapugiu de Sus.

Biostratigraphy and Paleoecology of fauna in the studied area.

The abstract contains results of analyzes done over the calcareous Summary (max. 200 words): nannoplancton, from Lapugiu de Sus, Cosului Valley. Using microscopy analysis we have found a diverse fauna of calcareous nannoplancton with important evidence for the biostratigraphy of the deposits, indicating the possible age. The fauna is characteristic for NN5 - Sphenolithus heteromorphus. I have identfied 25 species of nannofossils bringing evidence on the paleoecology: Helicosphaera walberdorfensis, H carteri, Coccolithus miopelagicus, C. pelagicus, Braarudosphaera bigelowii, Syracosphaera histrica, Discoaster exilis, D. variabilis, D. musicus, D. brouwerii, D. deflandrei, Holodiscolithus macroporus; Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus; Rabdosphaera pannonica; Micrantolithus vesper; Pontosphaera multipora; Lithostromation perdurum, Umbilicosphaera jafari, U. rotula; Calcidiscus macintyrei, C. leptoporus, C. pataecus, Sphenolithus heteromorphus, S. abies, S. moriformis.

Topic:

Paleontology

389

Nannoplanctonul calcaros de la Lapugiu de Sus
Stefanut Victorita-Ionela, Carmen Chira, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai

Introducere Lucrarea contine rezultatele obtinute in urma analizelor efectuate in regiunea Lapugiu de Sus, pe Valea Cosului. Scopul l-a constituit studierea asociatiilor de nannoplancton calcaros, pentru stabilirea varstei relative a formatiunilor si interpretari de ordin paleoecologic. Nannoplanctonul calcaros este reprezentat prin alge haptofite (aurii-brunii) ce fac parte din fitoplanctonul marin. Geologia regiunii Depozitele badeniene din regiune sunt constituite predominant din argile, marne si nisipuri. La Lapugiu de Sus se gaseste unul dintre cele mai bogate si bine conservate puncte fosilifere miocene din Romania si chiar din Europa. Fauna de moluste a fost descrisa pentru prima data de catre Bielz (1845). Nannoplanctonul calcaros din aceasta regiune a fost anterior studiat de Papp (1976), (Chira 2000a, 2000b), s.a. Pe baza studiilor realizate pe Valea Cosului s-au putut stabili bioevenimente foarte importante de ordin stratigrafic, precum si interpretari paleoclimatice, paleoecologice. A. Studiul paleontologic Sedimentele badeniene formeaza un mic golf cu directia NE-SV, marginite de sisturi cristaline situate pe marginea nordica a masivului Poiana-Rusca. Depozitele interceptate pe Valea Cosului, reprezentate prin marne cenusii sunt bogate in foraminifere: Orbulina suturalis si Orbulina bilobata, iar subordonat au fost mentionate Praeorbulinae, Miliolidae si Nodosaridae (Papp, 1976). In intercalatiile de nisipuri si pietrisuri apar mai frecvent coralieri, moluste, etc. B. Studiul paleoecologic Conditiile zonei litorale si sublitorale, cu adancimi mici a favorizat dezvoltarea organismelor fitofage, bentonice. Concluziile paleoclimatice ce se desprind din microflora de la Lapugiu se refera la o ultima perioada calda din Miocenul mediu din Transilvania cat si din Paratethysul Central. Microfauna este foarte bogata in specii, existand o mare varietate a acestora. Climatul de tip subtropical, cu unele nuante tropicale din Badenianul inferior are mai multe legaturi spre Miocenul inferior decat spre Miocenul Superior. Exista posibilitati ca in preajma golfului de la Lapugiu de Sus temperatura medie anuala sa fi oscilat intre 17-18°C cu cca 2000 mm precipitatii medie pe an (Petrescu, I. 1990). Metoda de lucru Pentru a studia probele de pe Valea Cosului am parcurs pasii folositi in cazul utilizarii microscopului petrografic, astfel: au fost recoltate sistematic probe de pe teren, din care aproximativ 5-10 grame au fost puse in eprubeta peste care s-a turnat apa. Aceasta am etichetat-o in functie de numarul probei, am agitat compozitia obtinandu-se astfel o suspensie care a fost lasata 2 zile. In acest timp particulele de pana la 31 microni se depun, iar coccolitele plutesc. Din coloana de apa cu nannoplancton au fost extrase cu pipeta cateva picaturi si puse pe o lama de sticla curata, etichetata ca si eprubeta. Picaturile sunt intinse uniform pe lama si lasate sa se usuce. Pe urma se pune o picatura de balsam de Canada peste care se aseaza o lamela ce a fost miscata pentru eliminarea eventualelor bule de aer si a surplusului de subsanta de imersie. Cand preparatele au fost gata le-am analizat la microscop. Astfel in cadrul nannofaciesului Badenianului inferior s-a pus in evidenta prezenta speciilor Sphenolithus heteromorphus, Sphenolithus moriformis, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus, Syracosphaera histric, Umbilicosphera rotula, Pontosphaera multipora, Calcisfera, Holodiscolithus macroporus, Lithostromation perdurum, Braarudosphaera bigelowii, Coccosfera de Coccolithus pelagicus, Discoaster variabilis si Coccolithus pelagicus, Discoaster variabilis, Discoaster musicus, Discoaster deflandrei Micrantholithus vesper, Coccolithus pelagicus (Plansa I).

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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Rezultatele cercetarilor proprii Am analizat 14 probe de pe Valea Cosului, de la Lapugiu de Sus. Nannoplanctonul prelevat probeaza apartenenta acestor depozite la zona NN5, cu specia marcher Sphenolithus heteromorphus, caracteristica pentru apele calde. In asociatie mai sunt prezente: Helicosphaera carteri, a carei prima aparitie este presupusa in zonele NN1 sau NN2, care traieste in ape tropicale si subtropicale; Discoaster: variabilis, D. exilis, D. musicus, care au inregistrat o maxima diversitate in Miocenul inferior. Una dintre cele mai bogate si bine pastrate probe este cea cu numarul 7 care contine alaturi de forma de zona Sphenolithus heteromorphus si Holodiscolithus macroporus, Rabdosphaera pannonica, Lithostromatium perdurum, Coccolithus pelagicus, care prefera suprafetele apelor reci si bogate in substante nutritive, coccosfera de Coccolithus pelagicus, numerosi discoasteri (D. variabilis, D. musicus, D. deflandrei), Lithostromation perdurum, iar in probele 1 si 13 am gasit foarte putin nannoplancton.

Concluzii Continutul lucrarii se axeaza pe studiul biostratigrafic si paleoecologic al nannoplanctonului calcaros de varsta miocen medie (Badenian), colectat de pe Valea Cosului, regiunea Lapugiu de Sus. In urma analizelor realizate cu ajutorul microscopului optic si pe baza informatiilor anterioare se poate afirma ca in aceasta regiune se gasesc multe specii de nannoplancton calcaros. Acestea prezinta importanta pentru biostratigrafia depozitelor, datorita existentei unei raspandiri restranse in timp si larga ca areal, indicand varsta relativa a depozitelor in care se gasesc. Asociatiile de nannoplancton calcaros de la Lapugiu de Sus sunt caracteristice pentru zona NN5- cu Sphenolithus heteromorphus. Pe Valea Cosului am identificat 25 specii de nannofosile calcaroase: Helicosphaera walberdorfensis, H carteri, Coccolithus miopelagicus, C. pelagicus, Braarudosphaera bigelowii, Syracosphaera histrica, Discoaster exilis, D. variabilis, D. musicus, D. brouwerii, D. deflandrei, Holodiscolithus macroporus; Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus; Rabdosphaera pannonica; Micrantolithus vesper; Pontosphaera multipora; Lithostromation perdurum, Umbilicosphaera jafari, U. rotula; Calcidiscus macintyrei, C. leptoporus, C. pataecus, Sphenolithus heteromorphus, S. abies, S. moriformis. Conditiile zonei litorale si sublitorale, cu adancimi mici a favorizat dezvoltarea organismelor fitofage, bentonice.

Referinte Marunteanu, M., Chira, C. [1999] Middle Miocen(Lower Badenian) calcarous nannofossil from the Mures Passageway and Faget Basin, Romania; Badenian Nannofosil Zonation, The Carpatian Area. Acta palaentologica Romaniae, II, 73-84/ 261-267. Papp, C. [1976] Diploma de licenta, anexe, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai- Cluj Napoca. Petrescu, I., Meszaros, N., Chira, C. Si Filipescu, S. [1990] Lower Badenian Paleoclimatic at Lapugiu de Sus, on account of paleontological investigations, Studia Universitatis Babes- Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca Chira, C., Voia, I. [2000] Middle Miocene (Badenian) conidae from Lapugiu de Sus, Romania, Systematical and palaeoecological data, Studia Universitatis, Babes- Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca.

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17a

17b

Fig. 2 1-Sphenolithus heteromorphus,N+; 2-Sphenolithus moriformis; 3-Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus; 4- Syracosphaera histric; 5-a,b Umbilicosphera rotula, a-N+ , b-NII; 6Pontosphaera multipora, N+; 7- Calcisfera; 8-Holodiscolithus macroporus, NII; 9- Lithostromation perdurum, NII; 10- Braarudosphaera bigelowii, N+;11-Coccosfera de Coccolithus pelagicus, NII; 12-Discoaster variabilis si Coccolithus pelagicus, NII; 13- Discoaster variabilis, NII; 14- Discoaster musicus, NII; 15-Discoaster deflandrei, NII; 16-a,b Micrantholithus vesper, a-NII, b-N+; 17-a,b Coccolithus pelagicus, a-NII, b-N+.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Sedimentolgical, geochemical and petrographical particularitis of the travertine deposits from Valea Muresului

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Lihaciu Alina*, Ranete Emilia, Cristina Panaiotu, University of Bucharest

Identification of travertine microfacies and its sedimentological and geochemical properties. New interpretation of the formation of travertine deposits from Geoagiu and Carpinis quarries with the help of geochemical methods of research.

The area we have studied is being rather ignored today, but the travertine Summary (max. 200 words): deposits were known and exploited since Roman times. In order to study these deposits, we have collected oriented and unoriented samples from the Geoagiu and Carpinis quarries. The genesis of the travertine is conditioned by the presence of the crystalline limestone from the Rapolt series and the associated fractures of the Mures Fault. After geochemical research on the collected samples, the composition of the fluids which precipitated in the area, show a high level of mineralization which was favourable for fast precipitation of calcium carbonate containing low amounts of magnesium, but sometimes locally with high levels of Mn and Fe. The biotic activity was an active factor in the formation in the formation of the deposits.

Topic:

Sedimentology

393

Depozitele de travertin de pe Valea Mureşului – particularităţi sedimentologice, petrografice şi geochimice
Lihaciu Alina, Ranete Emilia, Cristina Panaiotu, Universitatea din Bucuresti Introducere O zonă ignorată astăzi, dar care în timpul dominaţiei romane în Dacia s-a bucurat de mult interes este situată în apropiere de Simeria între Geoagiu şi Banpotoc. In acele locuri, romanii au recunoscut travertinul ca rocă de construcţie precum şi potenţialul balnear al izvoarelor minerale epişi mezotermale din care aveau loc depunerile de travertin. Pornind pe urmele romanilor, în cadrul Laboratorului de Sedimentologie al Universităţii Bucureşti, a fost iniţiat un studiu al caracteristicilor ale travertinului din Valea Mureşului. Geneza acestor travertine este condiţionată de prezenţa calcarelor cristaline din Seria de Rapolt şi de fracturile asociate faliei Mureşului. Este incertă încă influenţa vulcanismului şi a variaţiilor climatice în formarea travertinului însă studiile ulterioare vor încerca decelarea acestor aspecte. Probare şi metode de investigaţie utilizate Pentru acest studiu au fost prelevate probe orientate şi neorientate din carierele Geoagiu şi Cărpiniş. Probele orientate au fost utilizate pentru studiul proprietăţilor magnetice şi al magnetizărilor remanente înregistrate de aceste roci în timpul precipitării lor din soluţii. Probele neorientate, au fost utilizate pentru diverse investigaţii cu caracter petrografic sau geochimic după cum urmează: - analiza microfaciesurilor carbonatice prin analiza microscopică a secţiunilor subţiri şi amprentelor pe celuloid; - analiza efectelor diagenezei prin analiza microscopică a amprentelor pe celuloid realizate după reacţia de colorare cu alizarin şi fericianură de potasiu – care permite diferenţierea rapidă între calcitul ferifer, cel slab magnezian şi dolomit; - fluorescenţă activată de radiaţia ultravioletă, pentru evidenţierea conţinutului în ioni uranil sau substanţă organică din calcit; - catodoluminiscenţă pentru identificarea zonalităţilor de creştere ale cristalelor în timpul precipitării chimice sau al diagenezei - analiza compoziţiei chimice a diverselor faze de precipitare prin microfluorescenţă de raze X. Rezultate şi concluzii Rezultatele preliminare sunt remarcabile, microfaciesurile identificate permit încadrarea depozitelor în categoria barajelor de travertin formate din izvoare mezotermale situate mult deasupra nivelului de eroziune fluviatilă, cu treceri laterale către acumulări paludale, cascade sau terase. Acumulările paludale au fost frecvent întâlnite la Geoagiu şi prezintă adesea structuri concreţionare cu pisoide şi încrustaţii în jurul plantelor acvatice (Fig. 1A). Pisoidele prezintă zonalităţi caracterizate prin alternanţa unor benzi fine cu luminiscenţă estompată cu benzi mai groase fără luminiscenţă. Aceste zonalităţi denotă precipitarea carbonaţilor in condiţii oscilante din punct de vedere al condiţiilor redox, cu incorporarea de ioni de Mn2+ şi Fe2+ în perioadele cu Eh negativ (Fig. 2A). Depozitele crustiforme sunt laminate şi prezintă frecvente micro-ondulaţii date de alternanţa laminelor micritice cu cele cristaline (Fig. 1B). Benzile cristalizate au cristale de calcit cu dezvoltare radiară sau cristale cu aspect de pană, orientate perpendicular pe laminaţie. Cristalele de calcit sunt puternic fluorescente sugerând prezenţa acizilor humici în compoziţia calcitului (Fig. 2B). Compoziţia fluidelor din care s-au format travertinele reflectă un grad ridicat de mineralizare care a favorizat depuneri rapide ale carbonatului de calciu slab magnezian dar local cu un conţinut ridicat în Mn, Fe (ordinul sutelor de ppm). Fluidele diagenetice, cele care au cimentat parţial spaţiul poros iniţial, sunt în general lipsite de catodoluminiscenţă dar există şi o serie de pori care prezintă cristale zonate cu luminiscenţă estompată în ultimile faze de închidere a porilor (Fig. 2C) reflectând o cimentare diagenetică în condiţii reducătoare. Activitatea biotică a fost şi ea un factor activ în formarea depozitelor de travertin alături de procesele fizico-chimice de precipitare, numeroase bioherme şi bacterioherme (Fig. 1C şi Fig. 2D)

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fiind identificate, în schimb faună superioară (moluşte, artropode) nu a fost încă depistată nici în faciesurile paludale nici în cele de terase sau baraje, probabil compoziţia şi temperatura fluidelor era improprie habitatelor acestora. A B C

Fig. 1 Exemple de structuri interne ale travertinelor: A – structuri pisoidice şi concreţiunare în jurul plantelor acvatice, B - structuri laminate, C – structuri stromatolitice din bacterioherme

Fig. 2 Exemple de imagini microscopice ale diferitelor tipuri de travertine. A – Pisoide zonate vizibile la catodoluminescenţă, B – cristale largi de calcit cu fluorescenţă datorată acizilor humici, C – structură zonată a unor pori umpluţi cu ciment diagenetic vizibil la catodoluminiscenţă, D – structuri tipice bacteriohermelor în care fluorescenţă este variabilă.

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Referinte Pentecost, A. et Viles, H. [1994] A review and assesment of travertine classification. Geographie physique et quaternaire, 48, no 3, 305-314. Jones, B, Renault, R. W., Bernhart Owen, R., Torvasons, H. [2005] Growth patterns and implication of complex dentrites in calcite travertines from Lysuholl, Snæfellsnes, Iceland. Sedimentology, 52, 1227-1301. T. D. Ford, H.M. Pedley [1996] A review of tufa and travertine deposits of the world. Earth-Science Reviews, 41, 117-175.

396

1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Evidence of sea level changes in Quaternary

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Dragoș Lucian Șuțoiu*, Ioan Munteanu, Gheorghe V. Ungureanu, University of Bucharest

Evidence of sea level changes in Quaternary

Erosion chanels present on nordwestic shelf of Black Sea.

Summary This paper presents Quaternary water level changes for the northwestern (max. 200 words): Black Sea based on shelf terraces chanels and coastal onlaps. As the water
level begins to fall, the river mouth advances towards the shelf edge. Rapid deltaic sedimentation leads to overpressuring in the prodelta and slope sediments, resulting in sediment failure and canyon formation The northwestern Black Sea is characterized by a particularly wide shelf of 100– 150 km, with the shelf edge at approximately 130 m water depth.

Topic:

Tectonics, Seismic Stratigraphy

397

Dovezi ale variației nivelului mării în Cuaternar
Dragoș-Lucian Șuțoiu, Ioan Munteanu, Universitatea din Bucureşti Introducere Marea Neagră este o mare continetală semi-închisă, cu o lungime totală de aproximativ 1000 km V-E si lătime de circa 600 km N-S, rezultând o suprafată totală de aproximativ 423000 km2 . Marea Neagră este înconjurată de sisteme orogenice Alpine după cum urmează: Munții Caucaz si Crimeea la nord, Pontide la sud și Balcani la vest. Legătura cu oceanul planetar se face prin intermediul strâmtorii Dardanele cu marea Marmara și prin strâmtoarea Bosfor cu Marea Mediterană. Adâncimea redusă a acestor strâmtori face ca Marea Neagră să fie foarte sensibilă la variațiile de nivel ale mării. Se fac remarcate astfel în special scărderile importante ale nivelului mării sub adancimea stramtorii, care fac ca acest bazin să devină unul închis,endimic, datorită unor scăderi a nivelului de bază al mării, fie datorită ridicării unor bariere, generate de miscări tectonice. În timpul ultimei glaciațiuni legătura a fost una restrictivă pentru o perioadă chiar oprinduse schimbul cu oceanul planetar, având o variație de nivel a apei independent de nivelul global. În acea perioadă de întrerupere a legaturii Marea Neagră a devenit un lac salmastru nivelul apei scăzând sub orice limită înregistrată. Zona nordvestică a Mării Negre este caracterizată de un șelf de mari dimensiuni, în această zonă fiind aduse cantități mari de sedimente de către Dunăre, Nistru și Nipru. În prezent Nistrul și Niprul iși varsă sedimentele într-un sistem lagunar, separat de Marea Neagră prin bariere costiere, doar o mică cantitate de sedimente ajungând direct în mare. În timpul regresilor fluviile iși vărsau sedimentele direct în mare. În timpul regresilor marine, scăderea nivelului relativ al mării, sub limita self-break-ului actual, face ca o zonă de dimensiuni importante să fie exondată și deci supusă eroziunii (o noua arie sursă), sedimentele să fie transportante în zona abisală, alimentâdu-se astfel conurile abisale ale fluviilor, prin intermediul unor sisteme de canale și văi incizate. Analiza sectiunilor seismice de pe selful romanesc al Mării Negre indică si existenta unor variatii de nivel ale Mării la diverse perioade de timp, materializate prin existenta unor canale și văi incizate, a suprafețelor de eroziune, sedimentele rezultate regăsindu-se acum in zona abisală. Principalele cauze ale acestor variații de nivel relativ al mării, sunt au cauze fie eustatice fie in cazul Mării Negre datorită miscărilor tectonice, de ridicare sau de coborâre (crearea unor zone depresionare, precum în cazul faliei Nord Anatoliene), a unor bariere muntoase (de ex. Pontide, Caucaz). Adâncimea mică a acestui șelf a facut ca în timpul scăderii nivelului mării o mare parte din acesta să devină exondat, producându-se eroziuni pe scară largă, sedimentele fiind deplasate spre bazin. De asemenea apar sisteme de canale de eroziune, indicatori importanți ai scăderii nivelului mării. Date Datele seismice au fost achiziționate în cadrul proiectului stiințific Româno-Francez BLAZON. Achizitie facuta in 2 etape, prima in 1998 Blazon I cand s-au achiziționat aproximativ 4500km de profile seismice si a doua in 2002 Blazon II cand au mai fost achizitionate 4500km de date. In studiul acestei lucrari au fost folosite doar o parte din profile, prezentate in Fig.1. Metode Pentru stabilirea relațiilor stratigrafice între corpurile depoziționale identificate în interpretarea datelor seismice se foloseste Statigrafia Seismica. Dezvoltarea secvențelor stratigrafice și geometria lor spațială reflectă modificari ale nivelului relativ al marii. În timpul ridicării sau căderii nivelului relativ al mării se formează succesiuni caracteristice de sisteme depoziționale ”sistem tract”, acestea fiind separate de ”suprafețe marker”. Interpretarea datelor si rezultatele obtinute Pentru interpretarea datelor s-a folosit programul SMT KINGDOM. S-au observat mai multe generații de canale de eroziune ceea ce indică faptul că au fost mai multe perioade de scădere a nivelului mării, materialul erodat fiind transportat si depus pe fundul

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bazinului.Un asemenea canal de eroziune este prezentat în fig. 2, este un canal erodat in mai multe generații, cu o adâncime totală de aproximativ 570 m. De asemenea apar zone cutate în Zona 1 fig.2, inclinarea formațiunilor se face de la E spreV înspre canal. În zona 2 avem un facies progradational ceea ce indica că în acea perioadă de timp nivelul mării era în creștere.

Fig.1 Marea Neagra si pozitionarea profilelor seismice interpretate

Fig.2 Profil seismic reprezentativ

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Referințe Popescu, I. [2007] Seismic expresion of gas and gas hydrates across the Western Black Sea. Geo-Mar Let. Popescu, I. [2001] Late Quaternary channel avulsions on the Danube deep-sea fan, Black Sea. Marine Geology, 179 Elsevier. Winguth, C., Wong, H. K. [2000] Upper Quaternary water level history and sedimentation in the northwestern Black Sea. Marine Geology, 167 Elsevier.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Paleogene limestone pebbles and blocks from Rapa Rosie (Jud. Alba)

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Solomon Alexandru*, Miclea Angela, Vlad Codrea , Ioan Bucur, BabeşBolyai University

Study of the Paleogen limestone blocks in thin sections from upper beds from Râpa Roşie. The Paleogene age based on microfossils assemblages and microfacies interpretation.

Summary For long time, a lot of geologists considered the red beds from Râpa Roşie (max. 200 words): (Alba County) as early Cenozoic. Among other arguments, they reported the
presence of Paleogene limestone boulders inside these red beds. Recent research demonstrates that the red beds are in fact older, Maastrichtian. The Paleogene clasts which can be found in Râpa Roşie, are originating all as reworked boulders and pebbles inside the base of the marine Badenian transgressing deposits, overlying the red beds. The microscopic analysis of the Paleogene limestone collected at Râpa Roşie, shows the presence of orbitolinids, alveolinids, rotaliids and red algae, which document the Early and Middle Eocene. Until now, no sample can be related to the Late Eocene. Apart the geological age of Râpa Roşie red beds which have to be reconsidered, this detail opens an interesting discussion on the Eocene paleogeography. Therefore, the source areas for these rocks should be presumed rather on the northern rim of South Carpathians, than on Apuseni Mountains border, because near Alba Iulia there are cropping out only Priabonian and Lower Oligocene deposits, forming the Ighiu Formation.

Topic:

Stratigraphy

401

Galeţi şi blocuri de calcare paleogene în depozitele de la Râpa Roşie (jud. Alba): implicaţii asupra vârstei rezervaţiei
Solomon Alexandru, Mircea Angela, Vlad Codrea, Ioan Bucur, Universitatea „Babeş-Bolyai” Introducere În arealul Alba-Iulia – Sebeş – Vinţu de Jos ( SV Depresiunii Transilvaniei,) sunt expuse la zi diferite depozite, încadrate cronologic în intervalul Cretacic superior-Miocen inferior (Codrea & Dica, 2005). Zona prezintă interes în primul rând pentru fauna de dinozauri descoperită în depozitele roşii de vârstă Maastrichtian (Codrea et al., 2001; Codrea et al., 2002), dar şi pentru spectacolul peisagistic dat de aspectele depoziţionale şi erozionale, cum este la Râpa Roşie, zonă protejată oficial în prezent (Toniuc et al., 1992). Depozitele de la Râpa Roşie aparţin Formaţiunii de Sebeş, vârsta lor fiind pentru mult timp neclară, negăsindu-se fosile indicatoare in situ, doar elemente remaniate din formaţiunile mai vechi. Geologie Situată la 3 km NE de oraşul Sebeş, Râpa Roşie este o rezervaţie geomorfologică şi botanică de excepţie. Deschiderea este de dimensiuni foarte mari, cca. 800 de m lăţime şi cca 120 m înălţime, oferind spre studiu numeroase torente şi canioane.

Fig. 1 Harta geologică a zonei Alba-Iulia-Sebeş-Vinţu de Jos cu localizare zonei protejate de la Râpa Roşie (modificată după Codrea & Dica, 2005): 1- aluviuni; 2- depozite de terasă; 3- Pannonian s. str.; 4- Badenian; 5- Fm. “de Sebeş” (= Şard); 6- Fm de Sântimbru, Aquitanian; 7- Fm. de Bărăbanţ, Rupelian-Chattian; 8- Fm. de Ighiu, Priabonian terminal-Rupelian timpuriu; 9- Fm. de Şard, Maastrichtian-Priabonian; 10- Fm. de Vurpăr, Maastrichtian; 11- Fm. de Bozeş, SantonianMaastrichtian; 12- Aptian-Albian; 13- Barremian-Aptian. Depozitele deschise aici, au un caracter pregnant siliciclastic de culoare roşiatică. În partea inferioară predomină argilele roşii în facies grosier-conglomeratic, caracterul litologic devenind mai fin spre partea superioară, reprezentat printr-o alternanţă de gresii şi argile fine (Fig. 1). Cele mai frecvente fosile colectate de la Râpa Roşie sunt resturi scheletice de vertebrate, care se întâlnesc pe toată grosimea profilului, fără posibilitatea de a identifica anumite nivele de concentrare. Primele resturi de vertebrate colectate (fragment de femur şi coastă), sunt atribuite de către Koch (1894) speciei de rinocer Aceratherium cf. goldfussi Kaup., pe baza căreia a apreciat o vârstă Oligocen-Miocenă. Ulterior Nopcsa (1905) reconsideră aceste resturi ca fiind un fragment de femur şi humerus (ulna după Grigorescu, 1987) atribuindu-le unui dinosaurian sauropod, concluzionând o

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vârstă Cretacic superioară (“Daniană”). Alte câteva piese sunt colectate în timp, dintre care o parte sunt publicate de către Grigorescu (1987). Este vorba despre două fragmente de humerus de ankylosaurian, şi un dinte conic de 1,5 cm înălţime atribuit unui dinosaurian theropod. O parte dintre resturile colectate după anul 1994, sunt publicate de către Jianu et al. (1997), respectiv Codrea & Vremir (1997). Printre acestea se remarcă câteva resturi exoscheletice aparţinând unei ţestoase cryptodire (Kallokibotion bajazidi), resturi de sauropode (ulna, fibula), ornithopode şi recent un pterosaur azdarchid (Vremir et al., 2009). Topul succesiunii cuprinde depozite marine de vârstă badeniană, care remaniază material din formaţiunile mai vechi cum ar fi blocuri cu numuliţi. Din aceste depozite au fost colectate în timpul unei activităţi de teren mai multe blocuri de calcare. Am selectat 9 blocuri de calcare pe care s-au realizat 18 secţiuni subţiri care vor fi analizate în continuare. Analiza micropaleontologică a secţiunilor subţiri Au fost realizate câte 2 secţiuni pe fiecare bloc calcaros, pe direcţie transversală respectiv longitudinală. Secţiunea 1 este un packstone/grainstone cu foraminifere şi indică un facies puţin adânc cu o hidrodinamică ridicată ce poate fi localizată aproape de zona litorală în care apare un sediment bine sortat. Asociaţiile micropaleontologice constau în numuliţi, foraminifere bentonice şi aglutinante, cyanobacterii, alge verzi. Secţiunea 2 este un packstone/grainstone bioclastic indicator de un facies de şelf puţin adânc, cu extraclaste de dimensiuni siltice până la nisipoase care demonstrează o zonă litorală în care din când în când se observă un aport sedimentar continental. Asociaţia micropaleontologică include briozoare, corali, plăci de echinide, alveolinide, alge roşii coralinacee şi foraminifere bentonice. Secţiunea 3 este un packstone/grainstone cu foraminifere şi indică un facies puţin adânc cu o hidrodinamică ridicată ce poate fi localizată aproape de zona litorală în care microorganismele sunt reprezentate de ostracode, gastropode, alge verzi şi roşii, alveolinide, Orbitolites şi alte foraminifere. Secţiunea 4 este un wackestone cu material terigen, slab sortat, în care se găsesc multe fragmente de lamellibrachiate complet dizolvate, plăci şi radiole de echinide, foraminifere aglutinante, dasycladale, alge coralinacee. Faciesul reprezintă zona subtidală cu o hidrodinamică scăzută. Secţiunea 5 este un packstone/grainstone. Reprezintă un facies de şelf cu o hidrodinamică ridicată. Asociaţia micropaleontologică cuprinde alveolinide, Orbitolites, alte foraminifere rotaliacee şi aglutinante, fragmente de alge verzi. Secţiunea 6 este de vârstă jurasică fiind argumentată de asociaţia micropaleontologică şi care nu o vom discuta în această lucrare. Secţiunea 7 este un wackestone. Indică zona aproape de şelf în care avem o hidrodinamică scăzută. În secţiune au fost identificate foraminifere bentonice, Orbitolites, fragmente de lamellibranchiate, fragmente de corali, asemănătoare cu secţiunea 2 şi 3. Secţiunea 8 este un wackestone/packstone bioclastic cu material terigen, indicator de şelf puţin adânc cu hidrodinamică o scăzută. Asociaţia micropaleontologică cuprinde foraminifere cu test hialin, alveolinide, Orbitolites, alge verzi, alge roşii, briozoare, fragmente de gastropode şi lamellibranchiate. Secţiunea prezintă o pigmentare puternică a cimentului sparitic. Secţiunea 9 calcar grezos cu un facies de şelf în care avem un aport substanţial de material extraclastic, puţin adânc cu hidrodinamică ridicată în care organismele sunt reprezentate de fragmente de lamellibranchiate, piese scheletice de echinoderme, fragmente de corali, alge verzi, foraminifere bentonice, alveolinide şi Orbitolites. Toate secţiunile demonstrează că faciesul este de tip litoral cu hidrodinamică scăzută sau ridicată iar asociaţiile micropaleontologice demonstrează vârsta Eocen (cel mai probabil Eocen inferiormediu) (Fig. 2). Concluzii Depozitele roşii care aflorează în zona Alba-Iulia – Vinţu de Jos – Sebeş şi care aparţin Formaţiunii de Şard, sunt de vârstă Cretacic superior, argumentată pe baza resturilor scheletice aparţinând dinozaurilor (Codrea et al., 2009) dar şi pe baza asociaţiei palinologice (Antonescu et al.,

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1983). Vârsta depozitelor de la Râpa Roşie a fost pentru mult timp incertă, din două considerente: i. piesele scheletice de dinozauri, au fost considerate mult timp ca fiind exclusiv remaniate şi ii. s-a crezut că între clastele respective apar blocuri de calcare eocene. Aceste depozite au fost atribuite unei formaţiunii distincte “Formaţiunea de Sebeş” atribuită intervalului ?Eggenburgian-Ottnangian (Codrea & Dica, 2005). Numeroase resturi fragmentate de dinozauri au fost găsite în depozitele roşii de Râpa Roşie (Jianu et al., 1997; Codrea & Vremir, 1997) iar recent, în partea mediană, a fost descoperită o vertebră in situ atribuită unui azdarchid gigantic şi care dovedeşte vârsta Cretacic superior (Maastrichtian) a acestor depozite datorită imposibilităţii remanierii acestui material, mult prea fragil prin constituţia sa histologică pentru a rezista unui astfel de proces (Vremir et al., 2009). Din baza transgresiunii badeniene care acoperă discordant succesiunea continentală maastrichtiană cad gravitaţional pe pantă blocuri de calcare şi care ajung să fie înglobate în depozitele roşii. Pe baza asociaţiei micropaleontologice din secţiunile subţiri realizate, atribuim acestor blocuri de calcare o vârstă în intervalul Eocen inferior – Eocen mediu. Aria lor sursă constituie în consecinţă un subiect deosebit de incitant, fiindcă în proximitatea Râpei Roşii sunt semnalate exclusiv depozite ce revin intervalului Priabonian superior-Rupelian inferior, încadrate în Formaţiunea de Ighiu (Băluţă, 1987; Codrea & Dica, 2005). De aceea, aria sursă a calcarelor eocene remaniate în baza Badenianului de la Râpa Roşie, ar trebui căutată mai degrabă pe rama Carpaţilor Meridionali, unde forma probabil o succesiune consistentă şi totodată continuă lateral. Transgresiunea badeniană a demantelat aceste depozite eocene, care astăzi sunt cunoscute exclusiv prin apariţii restrânse şi izolate, precum cele de la Porceşti (Bucur & Ianoliu, 1987) sau Apoldu de Sus, ori ca elemente remaniate în baza transgresiunii badeniene, cum s-a semnalat la Dobârca, iar acum, la Râpa Roşie. Referințe Antonescu, E., Lupu, D., and Lupu, M. [1983] Corrélation palynologique du Crétacé terminal du sudest des Monts Metaliferi et des Dépressions de Haţeg et de Rusca Montană. Anuarul Institutului de Geologie şi Geofizică, Stratigrafie, 59, 71-77. Băluţă, C. [1987] Contributions biostratigraphiques concernant le Priabonien et le Ruppelien basal situés au Nord d’Alba Iulia. In: The Eocene from the Transylvanian Basin (I. Petrescu, L. Ghergari, N. Mészáros, E. Nicorici Eds), 183-187, Cluj-Napoca. Bucur, I. I., Ianoliu, C. [1987] L’éocène de Turnu-Roşu-Porceşti. Considérations sur les algues calcaires. In: The Eocene from the Transylvanian Basin (I. Petrescu, L. Ghergari, N. Mészáros, E. Nicorici Eds), 37-42, Cluj-Napoca. Codrea, V., Vremir, M. [1997] Kallokibotion bajazidi Nopcsa (Testudines, Kallokibotidae) in the red strata of Râpa Roşie (Alba County). Sargetia, 17, 233 - 238, Deva. Codrea V., Hosu A., Filipescu S., Vremir M., Dica P., Săsăran E., Tanţău I. [2001] Aspecte ale sedimentaţiei Cretacic superioare din aria Alba-Iulia – Sebeş (jud. Alba). Studii şi cercetări (Geologie-Geografie), 6, 63-68. Codrea, V., Săsăran, E., Dica, P. [2002] Vurpăr (Vinţu de Jos, Alba district). In: The 7th European Workshop of Vertebrate Palaeontology, Abstract Volume and Excursionas Field Guide, 60-62, Sibiu. Codrea V., Dica P. [2005] Upper Cretaceous-lowermost Miocene lithostratigraphic units exposed in Alba Iulia – Sebeş – Vinţu de Jos area (SW Transylvanian basin). Studia Universitatis Babeş-Bolyai, Geologia, 50 (1-2), 19-26. Grigorescu, D. [1987] Considerations on the age of the "red beds" continental formations in southwestern Transylvanian Depression. In: The Eocene from the Transylvanian Basin (I. Petrescu, L. Ghergari, N. Mészáros, E. Nicorici Eds), Universitatea “Babeş-Bolyai” Cluj, 189-196, Cluj-Napoca. Jianu, C., M., Mészàros, N., Codrea, V. [1997] A new collection of Haţeg and Râpa Roşie material (Dinosauria, Crocodilia, Chelonia) in the Cluj-Napoca University. Sargeţia, Series Scientia Naturae, 17, 219-232, Deva. Koch, A. [1894] Die Tertiärbildungen des Beckens der Siebenbürgischen Landestheile. I. Paläogene Abtheilung. Mitteilungen aus den Jahrbuch der Kön. Ungarische Geologischen Anstalt, X, 6, 177399, Budapest. Nopcsa, F. [1905] A Gyulafehervar, Deva, Ruszkabanya es a Romaniai hatar koze eso videk geologiaja. A M. Kir. Foldt. Int. Evk., XIV, 82-254, Budapest.

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Toniuc, N., Oltean, M., Romanca, G., Zamfir, M. [1992] List of protected areas in Romania (19321991). Ocrotirea naturii şi a mediului înconjurător, 36, 1, 23-33, Bucureşti. Vremir, M.M., Unwin, D.M., Codrea, V.A. [2009] A giant Azhdarchid (Reptilia, Pterosauria) and other Upper Cretaceous reptiles from Râpa Roşie-Sebeş (Transylvanian basin, Romania) with reassessment of the age of the “Sebeş Formation”. The 7th Romanian Symposium of Paleontology, Abstract volume, 122-124.

Fig. 2 Asociaţiile de microfosile din calcarele de la Râpa Roşie. 1. Morozovella velascoensis; 2. Nummulites sp; 3. Foraminifer rotallid (?Amphistegina sp.); 4. Foraminifer rotallid; 5-8. Alveolina aff. pisella; 9. Echinoderm spine; 10. Cympolia paronai; 11. Corallina sp.; 12-13. Orbitolites complanata; 14, 17. Alveolina vredenburgi; 15. Ouinoueloculina vulgaris; 16. Triloculina sp. 18. Textularia sp.; 19-20. Pyrgo sp.; 21. Alveolina cf. elliptica.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

The grain size particularities of the modern sediments from southern part of Romanian Black Sea coast

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Ana Maria Rusu*, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest, Gheaorghe Oaie, GeoEcoMar

Grain size characterization of the modern sediments from shoreface and beach. Monitoring of beach sediment characteristics in August 2009 period.

Summary Twenty-one samples were analyzed from the southern Romanian Black Sea (max. 200 words): coast, on 6 profiles transversal to the shoreline : South Vama Veche, North
Vama Veche, 2 Mai, Venus-Saturn, Costinesti, Eforie. The samples were collected from the main subdomains: swash, berm and backshore. The sampels were sieved, the weight percent obtained was ploted as simple frequency and cumulative frequency curves. There have also been calculated statistical parameters : Mo, Md, M, C, Sk, σ, K. These samples have a large range size from fine sand to medium gravel, but the main are sands (Folk, 1954).Coarser sediments characterize swash areas while backshore areas are finer.In the Vama Veche area the samples are coarser compared to the Venus-Saturn. This is determined by the position of the cliff situated near the shoreline, the narrow beach and the high wave energy of Vama Veche area, contrary to Venus-Saturn situation, where the cliff is missing, the beach is wide and the submerged slope gradient is low.

Topic:

Sedimentology

406

Caracterizarea granulometrică a sedimentelor actuale de plajă din sectorul sudic al ţărmului românesc la Marea Neagră
Ana Maria Rusu*, Relu D. Roban, Universitatea din Bucureşti, Gheorghe Oaie, GeoEcoMar
Introducere Sunt expuse o serie de rezultate preliminare privind parametrii granulometrici ai sedimentelor de plajă din sectorul sudic al ţărmului românesc la Marea Neagră şi semnificaţiile acestora în termeni hidrodinamici şi ai ambianţelor de sedimentare. Ţărmul românesc al Mării Negre are o dispunere N-S si o lungime de circa 240 Km. Este divizat în sectorul nordic, de la Braţul Musura până la Cap Midia, aflat sub influenţa Dunării şi sectorul sudic, situat până la Vama Veche si dominat marin. Au fost analizate doar sedimentele din zona sudică, sectorul Năvodari-Vama Veche unde ţărmul este înalt, cu faleză, iar plaja este mai îngustă. Faleza are în bază calcare bioacumulate sarmaţiene peste care se situează niveluri de loess cu intercalaţii de paleosol. Sedimentele de plajă sunt carbonatice, în special bioclaste actuale de bivalve şi subordonat gastropode. Mult subordonat sunt fragmente de calcare sarmaţiene şi siliciclastite. Sursa sedimentelor este în principal intrabazinală şi subordonat din faleza şi activitatea antropică - fragmente din diguri. Ţărmul românesc la Marea Neagră în sectorul sudic este modelat de activitatea marină, valuri şi furtuni iar plaja este alipită continentului. Pe un profil efectuat perpendicular pe ţărm se distig următoarele sectoare în funcţie de activitatea valurilor: swash (spalare a valurilor), breacker/surf wave (spergere a valurilor); bild up (construcţie a valurilor). În funcţie de influenţa valurilor asupra fundului bazinului se disting în zona emersă: zona dunelor; backshore (spatele ţărmului); berma şi foreshore (faţa liniei ţărmului); iar în zona submersă: shoreface (suprapus sectoarelor de swash-bild up) limitat de baza valurilor de vreme bună (L/2) şi zona de tranziţie shoreface-ofshore, sub baza valurilor de vreme bună. Metode Au fost executate 6 profile perpendiculare pe linia ţărmului: Eforie, Costineşti, Venus-Saturn, 2 Mai, Vama Veche Nord şi Vama Veche Sud. Pe fiecare profil s-a urmărit prelevarea probelor în zonele de backshore, bermă şi swash. Doar pe profilul Venus-Saturn a existat posibilitatea colectării probelor din zona de dună, zona de spargere a valurilor şi zona de înălţare a valurilor, datorită laţimii mai mari a plajei şi profilului gradientului pantei submerse scăzut. Au fost prelevate 21 de probe (tabel 1), a câte 500 g. Materialul brut, netratat chimic a fost sitat cu un set de 8 site. Cantitătile ramase pe site au fost cântarite, iar gramajele au fost transformate ulterior în procente de greutate şi plotate sub forma frecventelor simple şi frecvenţelor cumulate. Scara ), unde d este diametrul granulelor. granulometrică este reprezentata în unităţi phi (φ
Nr. crt 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Cod VV1/P1 VV2/P2 VV3/P3 VVnord1/P6 VVnord2/P7 VVnord3/P8 2M1/P9 2M2/P10 VS1/P11 VS2/P12 VS3/P13 VS4/P14 VS5/P15 VS6/P16 Locatie Vama Veche Vama Veche Vama Veche Vama Veche Nord Vama Vechie Nord Vama Vechie Nord Doi Mai Doi Mai Venus-Saturn Venus-Saturn Venus-Saturn Venus-Saturn Venus-Saturn Venus-Saturn Zona litorala de colectare swash berma backshore swash berma backshore swash berma backshore duna berma swash zona de spargere a valurilor zona de înălţare a valurilor

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15 16 17 18 19 20 21

C3/P17 C4/P18 C5/P19 C7/P21 Efs-n1/P22 Efn-s2/P23 Efs-n3/P24

Costinesti Costinesti Centru Costier Costinesti Epava Costinesti Eforie S-N Eforie S-N Eforie S-N

swash swash swash berma swash berma backshore

Tabel 1: Denumirea şi locaţia probelor prelevate Au fost calculaţi următorii parametri granulometrici: modul (Mo), indicele de clasticitate (C), mediana (Md), media (M), deviatia standard (σ), asimetria (Sk) si ascutimea (K) (după Folk şi Ward, 1977, din Anastasiu si Jipa ,1983; Jipa,1987; Cheel,2005). Rezultate Probele sunt cuprinse în intervalul rudit mediu–arenit fin. Din punct de vedere al nomenclaturii distribuţiei granulometrice, majoritatea sunt de tipul nisip şi nisip slab pietrişos (Folk, 1954, în Jipa, 1987), (Fig. 1). Ruditele sunt compuse majoritar din bioclaste cu provenienţă intrabazinală, iar termenul de pietriş trebuie folosit cu rezervă. Probele cele mai grosiere au fost prelevate din Vama Veche, unde faleza se află în apropierea liniei ţărmului, iar plaja este îngustă. Cele mai fine probe provin din arealul Venus –Saturn, unde faleza lipseşte iar plaja este lată. După dimensiunea maximă a clastelor (C) şi mediană (Md) (Fig. 2) se poate constata ca cele mai grosiere probe aparţin zonei de swash, iar cele mai fine zonei de backshore. Probele din swash au o distribuţie aleatorie cu maxime ale indicelui de clasticitate de 64 mm, la Vama Veche, şi minime de 2 mm în zona Venus-Saturn. Din plotarea asimetrie (Sk) vs deviaţia standard (σ) se poate observa gruparea relativă a probelor din zona de bermă şi backshore, în timp ce valorile din zona swash sunt aleatoriu răspândite, conţinând maximele şi minimele distribuţiei. (Fig. 3)

Fig. 1 Nomenclatura distribuţiei granulometrice după Folk (1954)

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N- nisip; P-pietris; M-mal; PMN-pietriş malos nisipos; NPM-nisip pietrişos malos; NMsP-nisip malos slab pietrişos; NM-nisip malos; NsP-nisip slab pietrişos; NP-nisip pietrişos; PN-pietriş nisipos; PM-pietriş malos; MP-mal pietrişos; MsP-mal slab pietrişos; MN-mal nisipos.

Fig. 2 Graficul distribuţiei indice de clasticitate (C) vs Mediana (M). Valorile sunt date în unităţi phi (φ)

Fig. 3 Graficul distribuţiei asimetrie (Sk) vs deviaţie standard (σ) Valorile sunt date în unităţi phi (φ)

Concluzii In urma analizei granulometrice s-a constatat ca distrubuţia ocupă un interval dimensional larg, de la rudite medii la arenite fine. Probele din sectorul Vama-Veche sunt mai grosiere decât cele din zona Venus-Saturn, datorită prezenţei falezei, îngustimii plajei, gradientului mai mare a pantei submerse şi astfel a energiei de bazin mai mai ridicate. În zona de swash probele sunt mai grosiere dar au sortarea variabilă datorită energiei bazinale mari. Mulţumiri Autorii aduc mulţumiri colectivului de cercetători de la GeoEcoMar Constanţa - Costina Fulga, Florian Păun, Gicu Opreanu - pentru ajutorul acordat atât pe teren cât şi în laborator.

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Referinţe Anastasiu, N., Jipa, D. [1983] Texturi şi structuri sedimentare. Ed. Tehnică, Bucureşti, 320 p. Cheel, R.J., [2005] Introduction to clastic sedimentology. Department of Earth Sciences, Brock University, Ontario, Canada, 124 p. Jipa, D. [1987] Analiza granulometrică a sedimentelor: semnificaţii genetice. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Romania, 128 p.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Facies analysis of the campanian-maastrictian deposits from post-tectonic cover of the Getic Nappe – sedimentary environments reconstructions
Iacob George Ovidiu*, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Identification of the sedimentary facies and their interpretation in the hydrodynamical terms and of the sedimentary bodies and their depositional environments. The Turnu Formation coarse deposits belong to debritic canyons or debritic cones and those of the Călimaneşti Formation – to turbiditic lobes and basin plain.

Summary The purpose of this article is to reconstruct the sedimentary environments of (max. 200 words): the campanian-maastrichtian deposits belonging to Getic Nappe, located
between Olăneşti and Olt valleys. These deposits belong to Turnu and Călimaneşti formations. Using the facies analysis algorithm were identified 13 depositional facies, separated by grain size and structural criteria: Pebbly Gravel massive; Gravel massive; Gravel normally graded; Gravel inversely graded; Pebbly gravel stratified; Gravelly sand normally graded; Gravelly sand stratified/laminated; Sand massive graded; . Sand rippled graded; SandMud couplets, graded, laminated, rippled; Mud laminated. The facies suggest gravity flows processes: debris fall, cohesionless debris flows, hyperconcentrated density flows (grain glows), concentrated density flows (high-density turbiditic flows), low-density turbiditic flows and suspension settling. Four facies association were identified and interpreted in terms of sedimentary bodies: debris cones or canyon fill deposits; proximall and middle turbiditic lobes; distal lobes and basin plain. The deposits analyzed represent the accumulation in deep-water environments, the transition from coalescent deep water fan deltas or submarine canyons – filled with debris material – to lobes and abyssal plain.

Topic:

Sedimentology

411

Analiza de facies a depozitelor campanian-maastrictiene din cuvertura posttectonică a Pânzei Getice şi reconstituirea mediilor de sedimentare
Ovidiu Iacob, Relu D. Roban, Universitatea din Bucureşti
Introducere Scopul lucrării este reconstituirea ambianţelor de sedimentare a depozitelor de vârstă Campanian Maastrictian din cuvertura post-tectonică a Pânzei Getice, localizate între văile Olăneşti şi Olt (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Localizarea perimetrelor de studiu. Profile în formaţiunile de Turnu şi Căciulata pe văile Olăneşti, Muiereasca şi Olt. După hărţile 1:50000 IGR Pânza Getică este alcătuită din fundament prealpin, compus la rândul său din roci metamorfice de grad mediu-slab şi o serie de cuverturi sedimentare, alcătuite din roci de vârstă Carbonifer superior/Permian-Cretacic mediu/superior (Săndulescu, 1984). În funcţie de evenimentele tectonice intra-Albiene („Austrice”) şi intra-Senoniene („Laramice”) acestea sunt împărţite în trei categorii: cuverturi pre-Austrice, post-Austrice/pre-Laramice şi post-Laramice. În zona de studiu, depozitele campanian-maastrictiene, aparţin cuverturilor pre- şi post-Laramice şi conţin două formaţiuni: Turnu şi Căciulata. Formațiunea de Turnu are stratotipul în localitatea Turnu având grosimi variabile, de la 400m până la 2000m. Limita inferioară este discordantă faţă de cristalinul getic, iar cea superioară este în continuitate de sedimentare faţă de Formaţiunea de Căciulata. Din punct de vedere litologic are în componenţă conglomerate şi gresii, iar subordonat argile. Formaţiunea de Căciulata are stratotipul în localitatea Căciulata şi atinge grosimi de la 50 la 1000 m. Limita inferioară este în continuitate de sedimentare cu Formaţiunea de Turnu, iar cea superioară este discordantă faţă de formaţiunile eocene. Litologic, Formaţiunea de Căciulata conţine argile cu intercaţii grezoase subţiri. Metode Au fost efectuate mai multe profile pe văile: Olăneşti, Muiereasca şi Olt. A fost aplicat algoritmul analizei de facies ce constă în ridicarea coloanelor litologice, sintetice şi analitice; separarea faciesurilor şi interpretarea în termeni hidrodinamici; identificarea asociaţiilor de facies şi interpretarea acestora în scopul definirii corpurilor sedimentare şi a sistemelor depoziţionale.

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Rezultate obţinute În urma analizei coloanelor sintetite şi analitice au fost identificate 13 faciesuri depoziţionale (Tabelul 1) separate în funcţie de granulometrie şi structurile depoziţionale. Denumirea faciesurilor reprezintă practic caracteristicile petrografice depoziţionale din timpul acumulării sedimentelor (perioadă în care sedimentele erau mobile), iar caracteristicile lor ne sugerează o sedimentare complexă în urma unor procese gravitaţionale. Tabel 1: Faciesurile depoziţionale şi caracteristicile lor Nr Facies şi simbol Descriere crt
1 Pararudit grosier masiv (Rg- m) Pararudit mediu-fin, masiv (Rfm-m ) Blocuri haotice (Bh) 3 Ortorudit mediu-fin, granoclasat normal (Rmf- gn) Ortorudit mediu invers granoclasat (Rm- ig) Ortorudit mediu stratificat paralel (Rm-sp) Rudit/arenit laminat paralel (R/A- lp) Arenit masiv/granoclasat normal (A-gn) Arenit laminat paralel (A- lp) Arenit cu undulaţii de curent (A- oc) Arenit/ silt laminat paralel (A/S- lp) Cupluri arenit-lutit siltic, laminatii paralele şi ondulaţii de curent (A-L-sp, oc) Lutit laminat paralel cu intercalaţii siltice (L/S- lp) FT, grosimi decimetrice - metrice, sortare slabă, 30-40% claste predominant subrotunjite, contacte libere, matrice arenitică. FT, grosimi decimetrice - metrice, sortare slabă, 30-40% claste predominant subrotunjite, matrice arenitică fină, uneori prezintă o tendinţă de granoclasare normală. FT, blocuri intraformaţionale, de dimensiuni 50-150 cm de diverse naturi petrografice, prinse într-o matrice arenitică FT, grosimi decimetrice - metrice, sortare bună, >60% claste, rotunjite şi subrotunjite; granoclasare normală; matrice arenitică. Bază erozională. FT, grosimi decimetrice, sortare bună, >60% claste granoclasate invers, matrice arenitică fină FT, grosimi decimetrice, matrice arenitică grosieră; clastele au un fabric planar şi se întâlnesc aliniate pe stratificaţie

Interpretare
CDH -CDN

CDH -CDN

2

Căderi de blocuri

CDH- CTDM

4

CDH - CG

4

5

6

7

FT, nu atinge grosimi mai mari de 20 cm, clastele au un fabric planar, stratificaţia este dată de dispunerea orizontală galeţilor FT, grosimi decimetrice, sortare buna, clastele mai grosiere sunt diseminate în bază, uşoară tendinţă de granoclasare normală preponderent in FC, grosimi decimetrice, uneori prezintă geometrii canaliforme si o tendinţă de granoclasare normală FC, grosimi centrimetrice (mai rar) FC, grosimi centimetrice şi decimetrice FC, grosimi decimetrice-metrice, geometrii stratiforme. Ponderea nivelelor arenitice şi lutitice este aprox. egală. Arenitele sunt centimetrice şi au laminaţii paralele cu ondulaţii de curent spre partea superioară. Lutitele sunt laminate paralel cu intercalaţii siltice. FT, preponderent in FC, grosimi centrimetrice si decimetrice, uneori metrice

CDH, aplatizarea clastelor se datorează vâscozităţii mari si a stresului orizontal CDH- CTDM (covoare de tracţiune) CDC- CTDM

CDC- CTDM CTDm, Tc - Bouma, (1962) CTDm, Td - Bouma, (1962) CTDm - Tc,d Bouma, (1962) în alternanţă cu depuneri din suspensii turbulente Td,e Bouma Decantare din suspensii turbititice şi pelagice

8 9 10

12

13

FT – Formaţiunea de Turnu, FC – Formaţiunea de Căciulata; CDN – curgeri debritice necoezive; CDH – curgeri dense hiperconcentrate, Mulder şi Alexander (2001); CG – curgeri granulare Lowe (1982); CDC – curgeri dense concentrate, Mulder şi Alexander (2001); CTDM – curenţi turbiditici de densitate mare, Lowe (1982); CTDm – curenţi turbiditici de densitate mică, Lowe (1982) Asociaţii de faciesuri Asociaţiile de facies reprezintă rezultatul mai multor tipuri curgeri gravitaţionale dense, coezive şi necoezive, care au generat corpuri cu geometrii diferite: I) conuri debritice; II) tranziţii canal-lobi turbiditici; III) lobi turbiditici IV) asociaţii de câmpie bazinală (Fig. 2).

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Asociaţiile de conuri debritice – domină partea inferioară a Formaţiunii de Turnu având grosimi variabile, de la 1.5 m până la 10 m. Sunt alcătuite din faciesuri ruditice grosiere slab sortate de tipul pararuditelor grosiere, medii şi fine, cu variaţii laterale şi verticale de facies. S-au observat treceri bruşte de la rudite grosiere masive la rudite granoclasate normal şi invers precum si de la ortola pararudite. De asemenea sunt specifice blocurile haotice răspândite aleator în cadul asociaţiei. Subordonat au fost identificate rudite stratificate. Asociaţiile ruditice au caracter recurent şi sunt separate între ele de nivele arenitice masive şi granoclasate. Curgerile în masă debritice necoezive sau cele dense hiperconcentrate sunt principalele procese care au dus la formarea acestor depozite. Variaţiile bruşte de facies pot fi explicate prin reologia diferită în cadrul curgerilor. Mediile de acumulare sunt în zona pantelor submarine. Asociaţile de canale-lobi turbiditici – sunt întâlnite în partea medie şi superioară a Formaţiunii de Turnu şi în partea inferioară a Formaţiunii de Căciulata. Au în componenţă secvenţe de tip fining up cu grosimi de ordinul metrilor şi caracter recurent. Secvenţele încep cu ortorudite granoclasate şi laminate, arenite masive şi granoclasate şi arenite laminate la partea superioară. Secvenţele se încheie cu lutite a căror pondere este mult subordonată. Sunt secvenţe tip Lowe (1982) complete şi incomplete generate de curgeri gravitaţionale dense hiperconcentrate sau de curenţi turibiditici de densitate mare. Baza secvenţelor este erozională iar faciesurile arenitice grosiere si ruditice păstrează galeţi moi în bază. Datorită acumulărilor bruşte şi stării de subconsolidare, imediat după depunere au avut loc procese deformaţionale de eliminare a apei si de tasare diferenţială. Mediile de acumulare sunt de tipul zonele de tranziţie de la canioane submarine spre lobii turbiditici.

Fig. 2 Asociaţiile de facies ale formaţiunilor de Turnu şi Căciulata: con debritic, canal-lob turbiditic, lob turbiditic şi câmpie bazinală

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Asociaţiile de lobi turbiditici – sunt specifice părţii mediane a Formaţiunii de Căciulata. Conţin secvenţe recurente fining up cu grosimi decimetrice, 30-70 cm. Au în alcătuitre arenite masive sau granoclasate, arenite laminate si cu ondulaţii de curent, silturi şi lutite laminate. Baza este erozională de multe ori cu galeţi moi. Sunt secvenţe Bouma (1962) acumulate din curenţii turbiditici clasici de densitate medie şi slabă (Lowe, 1982). Mediul depoziţional este de apă adâncă zona lobilor turbiditici. Asociaţiile de câmpie bazinală – sunt specifice părţii superioare a Formaţiunii de Căciulata. Sunt compuse din cupluri arenite laminate cu ondulaţii cu grosimi centimetrice şi lutite, sau din lutite laminate cu rare intercalaţii arenitice subţiri. Reprezină acumulări din cadrul curenţilor turbiditici de densitate scăzută şi decantări din suspensii turbiditice si pelagice. Asociaţia, dominată de aceste faciesuri fine este tipică câmpiei abisale. Sistemul depozitional Depozitele analizate reprezintă medii de acumulare de apă adâncă, tranziţia de la conurile debritice de apa adanca coalescente sau a canioanele submarine – umplute cu depozite debritice – spre lobi şi mai departe spre câmpia abisală. Concluzii Profilul granulometric general al succesiunii celor două formaţiuni cu tendinţă fining up ar putea sugera un regim de continuă adâncire a apei datorat fie transgresiunii, fie subsidenţei. Referinţe Bouma, A. H. [1962] Sedimentology of some Flysch deposits: A graphic approach to facies interpretation. Elsevier, 168 pp. Lowe, D.R. [1982] Sediment gravity flows: II depositional models with special reference to the deposits of high density turbidity currents. J.Sedim.Petrol., 52, 279-297. Mulder, T., Alexander, J. [2001] The physical character of subaqueous sedimentary density flows and their deposits. Sedimentology, 48(2), 269–299. Săndulescu, M. [1984] Geotectonica României. Editura Tehnică Bucureşti, 355 pp.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the North-Westhern BlackSea self, in Pontian times

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Cristian Mihalcea*, Ioan Alexandru Lepardă, Corleniu Dinu, University of Bucharest

One of the objectives was to map and correlate faults systems; to establish their age and to understand the processes behind their formations. Another important objective was to analyze the seismic facies and to determine the system tracts. High detailed seismic interpretation and facies analysis of the Pontian sequences.

Summary The opening of the Black-Sea basin is considered in general, to take place in (max. 200 words): Middle Cretaceous time, as an back-arc basin behind South vergent
subduction of Neothethys domain. From the tectonic point of view the Black-Sea basin can be split in to sub-basin, West and East. Our study focuses on more recent evolution of the West Black-Sea basin, especially the North-Western part. In this area there is a thick sedimentary pile, deposit during Pontian-Quaternary times. Normal gravitational faults system are partially crosscutting the sedimentary pile (some of the cutting even the sea floor), some of the fault connect with a decolment level. Following this level East-ward a toe of thrust structure can be found, an evident of gravitational sliding, probably due to rapid accumulation of material. During PontianQuaternary times important erosion surfaces can be seen, which reflects the sea level drop, and the subsequent erosion. The subsidence mechanism required to create the accommodation space is still poorly understood, further studies are required to understand it.

Topic:

Tectonics

416

Evoluţia tectono-stratigrafică a sectorului Nord-Vestic al Marii Negre în timpul Ponţianului
Cristian Mihalcea, Ioan-Alexandru Leparda, Corneliu Dinu, University of Bucharest

Introducere În prezent Marea Neagră este o mare semi-închisă, cu o conexiune limitată cu oceanul planetar, prin strâmtoarea Bosfor (fig.1). Marea Neagră este înconjurată de sisteme orogenice Alpine, ale căror prelungiri se pot regăsi, prin metoade geofizice, şi în zona acvatorială. Din punct de vedere tectonic, bazinul Mării Negre se împarte în două sub-bazine (Fig.1), de Vest şi respectiv de Est, Marea Neagră, separate de o zonă ridicată, ridge-ul Andrusov. Cele două subbazine sunt caracterizate de momente diferite de deschidere, bazinul Vest Marea Neagră fiind mai evoluat, astfel, în centrul bazinului se găseşte o crustă oceanică; în timp ce, în bazinul Est Marea Neagră, mai tânăr, se regăseşte o crustă subţiată (Dinu et al., 2005). Astfel, şelful românesc al Mării Negre reprezintă marginea Vestică a bazinului Vest Marea Neagră. Evoltuţia tectonică a şelfului românesc al Mării Negre a fost îndelung studiată de diverşi autori români şi străini rezultand, astfel, funcţie de materialul şi conceptele vremii, mai multe multe modele. Momentul deschiderii iniţiale a acestui bazin este, în general, considerat ca fiind de vârsta Albian-Apţian, că un bazin de back-arc, în spatele subducţiei, cu vergenţa sudică a Neothethysului (Gorur,1988). După acestă perioadă de riftare iniţială, intracontinentală, urmează o a doua fază extensională, de vârstă Creatacic superior-Paleogen, care a dus la extinderea bazinului până la apariţia crustei ocenice. Începând cu Paleogenul superior, întreg bazinul este afectat de un regim compresional (Dinu, 2005, Ţambrea, 2007), acest regim a continuat pe şelful românesc al Mării Negre până în Miocen. În Ponţian sunt observate doar structuri generate de falii gravitaţionale, unii autori presupunând existenţa unui regim extensional în acestă perioadă, dovezile fiind însă, insuficiente. Stiva de sedimente, depusă pe şelful românesc al Mării Negre, reflectă această interacţiune complexă între tectonica şi fluctuaţiile nivelului mării. În acestă ordine de idei, studiul nostru şi-a propus descrierea formaţiunilor şi a structurilor tectonice de vârstă Ponţian, din zona de Nord Vest (zona Albatros-Cobalcescu) a şelfului românesc al Mării Negre (fig.2.). Acest lucru a fost posibil prin analiza secţiunilor seismice şi a datelor de foraje precum şi a literaturii existente. Studiul evidenţiază grosimea importantă a formaţiunilor ponţiene (până la 2 km), separate de o suprafaţă de discordanţă importantă (fig.2), în două mari secvenţe: una inferioară, caracterizată, în general, de un facies haotic uneori, cu relectori paraleli cu continuitate slabă şi una superioară, progradantă, caracterizată de un facies seismic oblic-sigmoid. Principalele elemente structurale, identificate în arealul studiat, sunt: falii de alunecare gravitaţională şi structuri roll-over asociate, falii extensioanale datorită compactării diferenţiate (fig.2), care au generat şi diapire de argilă precum şi falii inverse, datorate expansiunii gravitaţionale. Date şi metodologie Pentru acest studiu am folosit un număr important de profile seismice din industrie. Vartele secvenţelor seismice au fost stabilite cu ajutorul reperelor din sonde. Interpretarea sistematică a datelor sesimice pentru indentificarea şi cartarea orizonturilor seismice reper, identificarea şi cartarea faliilor, stabilirea caracterului acestora şi extiderea lor areală; analiza secvenţelor depoziţionale şi a faciesului seismic, prin prisma stratigrafiei secvenţiale, a permis înţelegerea evoluţiei tectonice a şelfului românesc în timpul Ponţianului.

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Fig.1 Harta tectonică a Mării Negre, Dupa Dinu et al.,2005. Linia Rosie reprezinta profilul seismic din Fig.2.

Fig.2 Profil seismic interpretat. Localizarea in Fig.1. Concluzii Evoluţia tectono-stratigrafică, în timpul Ponţianului, a sectorului românesc al Mării Negre reprezintă efectul cumulat al subsidenţei accentuate, ridicarea ariilor orogenice încojuratoare (sursa materialului), a variaţiei nivelului mării precum şi a compactărilor diferenţiate care au condus la formarea de structuri complexe extensionale gravitaţionale şi, subsecvent, la falii inverse datorate expansiunii gravitaţionale.

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Referințe Dinu, C., Wong H.K., Tambrea D., Matenco L. [2005] Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics, 410, 417-437. Gorur, N. [1988] Timing of opening of the Black Sea basin. Tectonophysics, 147, 242– 262. Tambrea, D. [2007] Analiza de subsidenta si evolutia tectonica-termica a depresiunii Istria (Marea Neagra).Implicatii in generarea hidrocarburilor. Teza doctorat, Universitatea din Bucuresti.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Wet and dry climatic cycles in the Burdigalian deposits of Moişa Formation from Subcarpathian Nappe of East Carpathians
Andrei Bercea*, Relu D. Roban, University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Identification of the sedimentary facies and association and their interpretation in terms of sedimentary environments and climatic changes The interpretation of sliciliclastic, muddy and evaporitic facies as climatic changes

Summary In the Moişa Formation from Subcarpathian Nappe of East Carpathians, (max. 200 words): eight facies were identified belonging to siliciclastites, muddy, carbonate and
sulfate rocks. The siliciclastic facies are massive, normal grading and crosslaminated sands accumulated from hyperpycnal flows. The muddy facies are massive but of different colors - green, red and black - being settled from floatability wedges. The black muddy facies are expression of anoxic regime while red muddy facies could be an effect of sub-aerial oxidation after accumulation, in the dry and warm periods. The red muddy facies is passing up to red micritic limestones, sometimes intercalated with primary euhedral gypsum. From petrographical point of view, the siliciclatic facies are wackes, rich in ankimetamorphic clasts with chlorites. These green clasts and flute casts suggest an East-European Platform source area. The siliciclastic facies associated in channels, levee and lobes up to 5 m in thickness were accumulate in the marine lagoon environment during the wet periods. These alternate with green and red mud, carbonates and sulfate associations, up to 1 m in thickness being the expression of hypopycnal currents and chemical precipitation, during warm and dry periods.

Topic:

Sedimentology

420

Cicluri climatice reflectate în depozitele Burdigaliene ale Formaţiunii de Moişa din Pânza Subcarpatică
Andrei Bercea, Relu D. Roban, Universitatea din Bucureşti Introducere Sunt prezentate rezultatele preliminare ale unui studiu sedimentologic şi petrografic efectuat asupra depozitelor burdigaliene ale Formaţiunii de Moişa din Panza Subcarpatică, în scopul reconstituirii ambianţelor de sedimentare. În structura geotectonică a Carpaţilor Orientali, Gresia de Moişa aflorează atât în Pânza Cutelor Marginale (Vrancea) cât şi în Pânza Subcarpatică, Digitaţia Pietricica. Stratotipul se află în localiatea Moişa, Pânza Subcarpatică. Grosimea este variabilă, cuprinsă între 20 – 50 m. În bază se învecinează printr-o limită tranziţională cu Conglomeratele de Almaşu superioare sau Pleşu (în localitatea Moişa) şi trece printr-o limită de asemenea de tranziţie spre “Formaţiunea cenuşie”. Vârsta este Miocen mediu, Burdigalian. Din punct de vedere litologic reprezintă o alternanţă de gresii decimetrice şi centimetrice cu argile. În Pânza Cutelor Marginale, localitatea Almaşu, sunt predominante unităţile grezoase cu intercalaţii conglomeratice, în timp ce, în localitatea Valea Seacă din Pânza Subcarpatică (Fig. 1) sunt specifice alternanţele unităţilor grezoase cu unităţi mai subţiri, compuse din gresii fine, silturi, argile, marne şi chiar niveluri carbonatice şi sulfatice.

Fig. 1 Localizarea perimetrului analizat. Formaţiunea de Moişa, Valea Seacă, Pânza Subcarpatică. Harta 1: 50 000, foaia Crăcăoani, IGR Metode A fost analizat în detaliu doar aflorimentul de la Valea Seacă unde Formaţiunea de Moişa are o grosime de aproximativ 30 m. În bază se delimitează prin contact tectonic – front de încălecare – de depozitele “formaţiunii cu sare” (Micu, 1976) din Pânza Cutelor Marginale, iar la partea superioară sunt dispuse în continuitate de sedimentare, depozitele “formaţiunii cenuşii”. S-a urmărit algoritmul analizei de facies care implică: separarea şi interpretarea faciesurilor depoziţionale; identificarea faciesurilor diagnostic pentru diversele medii depoziţionale; separarea asociaţiilor de facies şi interpretarea acestora în termenii arhitecturilor corpurilor sedimentare, şi în final, elaborarea unui model de facies. În acest sens a fost cartat integral aflorimentul şi s-au construit coloane sedimentologice, atât sintetice cât şi analitice. În plus au fost efectuate secţiuni subţiri pentru 25 probe, care s-au analizat la microscopul optic polarizant în scopul determinării petrotipurilor sedimentare.

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Rezultate obţinute În urma analizei coloanelor analitice şi sintetice au fost separate 8 faciesuri depoziţionale (Tabel 1), care sugerează procese mecanice de transport şi acumulare în urma unor curenţi hiperpicnali (Mulder et al., 2003; Zavala 2006) (S-m/ng, S-h, S-r), procese de decantare gravitaţională din pene de flotaţie (SyT-m, TyM-mv, M-mr, M-mn) şi procese de precipitare chimică (CG-h), (Fig. 2).
Nr.crt. 1 2. Facies şi simbol Nisip masiv/granoclasat normal (S-m/ng) Nisip cu laminaţie paralelă orizonală (S-h) Nisip cu ondulaţii asimetrice (S-r) Descriere 20-50 cm grosime, nisip grosier în bază, limita inf. erozională. 5-40 cm grosime, laminaţii paralele Interpretare Curenţi hiperpicnali Curenţi hiperpicnali

3.

0,5-3 cm grosime, laminaţii interne oblice

4.

5.

Silt nisipos, masiv/granoclasat normal (SyT-m, gn). Argilă siltică/Marnă masivă, verde, (TyM-mv)

0,5-5 cm grosime, structura masivă, uneori granoclasată. 0,2-4 cm grosime, structura masivă, uneori granoclasata. Devine mai bogat în argilă sau chiar marnă spre partea superioară, unde se poate face tranziţia spre următorul facies (M-mr) 0,1-3 cm grosime, structura masivă, uneori granoclasată dacă conţine silt în bază. Spre partea superioară se poate face tranziţia spre faciesul (CG-h)

Curenţi hiperpicnali, unidirecţionali, regim inferior, structuri interne rezultate prin migrarea şi agradarea formelor de fund (ripples) Depuneri din suspensii din curenţii hipopicnali (pana de flotabilitate) Depuneri din suspensii din curenţii hipopicnali (pana de flotabilitate)

6.

Argilă /Marnă masivă, roşie, (M-mr)

7.

Argilă siltică, masivă, neagră, (M-mn)

0,2-3 cm grosime, structura masivă, uneori granoclasată, culoare cenuşiu închis până la neagră.

8.

Calcar (argilos)±gips, laminat, roşu (CG-h)

0,1-5 cm, lamine carbonatice, uneori în alternanţă cu niveluri de gipsuri. Culoare roşiatică

Depuneri din suspensii din curenţii hipopicnali (pana de flotabilitate). Culoarea roşie sugerează fie un aport de material fin cu pelicule de oxizi de fier de pe continent fie condiţii de oxidare subaeriene imediat după acumulare. Depuneri din suspensii din curenţii hipopicnali (pana de flotabilitate). Culoarea neagră sugerează condiţii anoxice datorate închiderii bazinului care au condus la conservarea materiei organice. Carbonaţii micritici cu structură laminitică sugerează precipitarea din soluţii concentrate în condiţii climatice aride. Gipsul precipită după calcit, însă condiţiile au fost rareori îndeplinite.

Tabel 1. Faciesurile depoziţionale ale Formaţiunii de Moişa. Descriere şi interpretare Gresiile masive, granoclasate şi chiar laminate paralel, atunci când au grosimi de peste 10 cm prezintă uneori în bază structuri de tasare diferenţială (load cast), flame şi chiar structuri deformaţionale interne de eliminare a apei sau de lichefiere (laminaţii convolute). Din punct de vedere petrografic, faciesurile nisipoase sunt graywackesuri litice cu litoclaste de roci verzi, cloritoase de “tip dobrogean”. Nivelurile carbonatice sunt constituite din lamine micritice milimetrice, neregulate, care mai conţin probabil materie organică, oxizi de fier şi minerale argiloase. Gipsul primar apare sub forma unor cruste cu cristale selenitice iar cel secundar, fie pe fisuri, fie nodular.
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Asociaţii de facies Au fost identificate două tipuri de asociaţii de facies dispuse într-o alternanţă ciclică.

Fig. 2 Faciesurile şi asociaţiile de facies specifice cilurilor climatice umede şi uscate în Formaţiunea de Moişa, Valea Seacă Asociaţia de canale şi lobi deltaici, siliciclastici Secvenţă întâlnită de 4 ori în aflorimentul studiat. Are grosimi variabile, cuprinse între 0,5 şi 5 m. Este compusă din nisip masiv granoclasat sau laminat (S-m/ng, S-h), cu grosimi decimetrice şi

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chiar metrice, uneori cu baza erozională sau marcată de tasări diferenţiale şi, subordonat din nisip cu ondulaţii, silturi şi argile verzi masive (S-r SyT-m, TyM-mv), care apar sub formă de intercalaţii, cu grosimi de ordinul centimetrilor. Faciesurile sunt expresia curenţilor hiperpicnali şi a decantărilor din suspensii hipopicnale în momentele de inundaţie, în domenii lagunare proximale. Extinderea laterală este variabilă putându-se identifica geometrii de canale, levee şi lobi de debuşare. În partea inferioară a fiecărei asociaţii tendinţa granulometrică este crescătoare iar spre partea superioară descrescătoare ceea ce reflectă intensitatea inundaţiilor. Asociaţia pânze argiloase şi cruste evaporitice Asociaţie întâlnită de 5 ori în succesiuna analizată. Are grosimi variabile, de la 0,5 m la 1m. Este compusă din minisecvenţe descrescătoare granulometric cu grosimi de 1-10 cm, alcătuite la rândul lor din silturi nisipoase (SyT-m), mâluri siltice masive verzi (TyM-mv), mâluri masive roşii (M-mr), rareori mâlui masive negre (M-mn), iar la partea superioară un facies evaporitic roşu compus din calcare micritice laminitice şi gipsuri laminate (CG-h). Succesiunea reflectă acumulări din suspenii hipopicnale, continuate cu momente de evaporaţie intensă şi precipitare a faciesurilor carbonatice şi sulfatice. Secvenţele sunt de cele mai multe ori incomplete, fie datorită eroziunii, fie neîndeplinirii condiţiilor de precipitare a evaporitelor. Culoarea roşie a argilelor, care de fapt este tranziţională de la faciesurile verzi, reflectă fie oxidarea intrabazinală, în momentele expunerii datorită evaporării, fie provenienţa din crustele de alterare lateritice continentale. Geometriile sunt stratiforme iar calacarele şi evaporitele au aspect crustiform. Concluzii Model de facies Bazinul de acumulare pare să fi fost lagunar – marin, cu adâncimi de ordinul metrilor sau al zecilor de metri. Sursa materialului clastic este est-europeană, argumentată atât de direcţiile structurilor vectoriale de tipul canelurilor de eroziune cât şi de calitatea petrografică a litoclastelor anchimetamorfice verzi – şisturi verzi de tip dobrogean. Dispunerea secvenţelor reflectă o alternanţă climatică a perioadelor umede, când se formau canalele şi lobii de debuşare cu perioade aride, când avea loc evaporarea şi formarea faciesurilor evaporitice. Referinţe Micu, M. [1976] Harta geologică, Foaia Crăcăoani, IGR.. Zavala, C., Ponce, J. J., Arcuri, M., Drittanti, D., Freije, H., Asensio, M. [2006] Ancient lacustrine hyperpycnites: a depositional model from a case study in the rayoso formation (cretaceous) of westcentral argentina. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 76, 41–59. Mulder, T., Syvitski, J. P.M., Migeon, S., Faugeresa, J. C., Savoyed, B. [2003] Marine hyperpycnal flows: initiation, behavior and related deposits. A review Marine and Petroleum Geology,20, 861– 882.

1st International Geosciences Student Conference – Bucharest, Romania, 22-24 April 2010

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Earlier-Jurasic Bennettitales from Anina

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Matei Berta Corina, University of Bucharest

This paper purpose is the study of Bennettitales from Anina and their structure General aspects of the Bennettitales, their anatomy and morphology, the role and their significance

Summary The most important area with liasic flora is Anina, wich is a Paleobotany (max. 200 words): reservation where the diversity and higher conservation of the paleobotany
material makes this area a “Fossils Lagerstatten”. Here was discovered Bennettitales fossils plants who has reproductive structures. The characteristics of this plants, are a long microphyllar tube and a testa which is composed of different layers like endotesta and sarcotesta. Bennettitales have bisexual reproductive structures and were considered the ancestors of the flower plants. The Bennettitales plants are part of the Cycadeopsida class. The class is separated in two orders: Cycadales order and Bennettitales order,only fossils.

Topic:

Paleontology

425

Bennettitale Jurasice-timpurii de la Anina
Matei Berta Corina, Universitatea Bucureşti Introducere Bennettitalele fac parte din clasa Cycadopsida. Sunt plante arborescente, cu tulpina in forma de stip sau columnare, dioice sau monoice cu trunchiul monopodial, cilindric acoperit cu baze foliare, la partea superioara găsindu-se inserate frunze penat compuse, lung peţiolate. Cilindrul central este de tip eustal ,cu măduva bine dezvoltată. Structurile reproducătoare sunt aşezate direct pe tulpină, având caractere de con, uni sau bisexuate. Clasa este separată în două ordine: ordinul Cycadales, al cicadalelor în sens strict şi ordinul Bennettitales (figura 1), (numai fosile) al cicadelelor în sens larg.

Cilindrul central este de tip eustal, cu măduva bine dezvoltată. Structurile reproducătoare sunt aşezate direct pe tulpină, având caractere de con, uni sau bisexuate. Clasa este separată în două ordine: ordinul Cycadales, al cicadalelor în sens strict şi ordinul Bennettitales, (numai fosile) al cicadeleleor în sens larg. (Popa et al.)

Fig. 1 Bennettitales Teorii şi modele Cycacadeoides avea tulpini groase, îmbrăcate în resturile petiolurilor frunzelor căzute, si erau presărate cu flori, iar spre vârf se desprindea un buchet mare de frunze. Dintre bennettitale se mai cunoaşte Williamsoniella, cu tulpina ramificată dicotomic, florile purtate pe pedunculi lungi si Williamsonia, care avea înfăţişarea unei ferigi arborescente. La bennettitale apare un înveliş care cuprinde şi apară sămânţa. Conul matur avea asemănări cu fructul angiospermelor, plante superioare cu seminţele protejate de fruct. Bennettitalele şi dinozaurii au dispărut la sfârşitul Cretacicului; perioada Cretacicului a fost caracterizată de radiaţia rapidă a angiospermelor începand cu zonele tropical-umede. Fosile de Bennettitales au arătat seminţe dispuse pe sporofile(figura 2). Aceste seminţe adăpostesc embrioni. Caracteristicile specifice ale acestora sunt: un tub lung micropilar şi o testa care este compusă din straturi diferite ca de exemplu endotesta şi sarcotesta. (Petrescu et. al)

Fig. 2 Structura bennettitalelor

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Morfologie foliară: în funcţie de caracterele sistemului de nervaţiune, se pot deosebi distribuţii asemănătoare ale nervurilor la unele gimnosperme fosile ca in cazul cicadelelor şi bennettitalelor. Frunzele pot fi rotunde, aciculare, triunghiulare, după forma limbului; pot fi apiculate, obtuze, acute, trunchiate, după forma vârfului. Materialul foliar este de obicei subaerian, dar pot fi şi excepţii cand frunzele sunt subacvatice, fără ţesut palisadic şi stomată. Anatomia foliară: tipurile de aparate stomatite se diferenţiaza genetic după raporturile între celulele subsidiare şi cele de gardă, la gimnosperme. Bennettitalele au ca tip de aparate stomatite pe cele sindetocelice, care au celulele de gardă şi cele subsidiare de aceeaşi origine, provenind din aceeaşi celulă iniţială care se divide în trei. Celula fiică centrală se divide pentru a genera cele doua celule de garda, iar celulele laterale dau două celule subsidiare mari, situate lateral axului stomatic şi paralel cu acesta. Cadrul geologic În timpul Jurasicului, în domeniul continental, flora reprezentată prin familii numeroase de ferigi ca Matoniacee, Dipteridacee, Schizeacee etc, era dominată de gimnosperme bennettitale. Dezvoltarea masivă a acestei flore a favorizat formarea unor mari zăcăminte de cărbuni în bazine paralice sau limnice, lucru ce a dus la individualizarea celei de a doua faze antracolitice importante din Fanerozoic, aceea liasica. În România, flora liasica este foarte bine reprezentată atât în Pânza Getica (Doman, Anina, Holbav), cât şi în Autohtonul Danubian (Bigger, Mehadia, Baia de Aramă, Schela). Cea mai importantă localitate cu flora liasică este Anina, care este rezervaţie paleobotanică din anul 1995, Rezervaţia Paleobotanică Ponor, unde diversitatea şi conservarea ridicată a materialului paleobotanic face din această localitate o “Fossile Lagerstatten”. Concluzii Bennettitalele sunt gimnosperme propuse ca posibili strămoşi de plante cu flori, datorită florii care au structuri de reproducere bisexuale, care au format componentă majoră a vegetaţiei Mezozoicului, la nivel mondial. Ele au fost implicate în originile angiospermelor şi Gnetalelor. Importanti derivaţi ai Bennettitalelor sunt Cycadeoideea, Bennettites şi Williamsonia. Bennettitalele au apărut pentru prima dată în Triasic şi Permian-timpuriu şi au dominat în multe parţi ale lumii în perioada Jurasicului. Mulţumiri Aş dori să îi mulţumesc domnului Conf. Dr. Ing. Mihai Popa pentru sprijinul acordat în realizarea acestei lucrări. Referințe Popa, M., Dragastan, O., Damian, R. [1997] Paleobotanica si Palinologie. Editura Universitatii, Bucuresti. Petrescu, I., Dragastan, O. [1981] Plante fosile: introducere in paleobotanica. Editura Dacia, ClujNapoca.

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Title:

Invertebrate fossils from the paleontological collection of the University of Bucharest

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Andreea Moisil*, Iuliana Lazar, University of Bucharest

Making a public resource of scientific information, to be used by the wider scientific community as well as in the higher education. Gathering up-to-date scientific information from fossil specimens. Correlation with the European and International information systems

Summary During its centenary existence, the Geology and Paleontology Department of (max. 200 words): The University of Bucharest has gathered thousands of fossil specimens
representing a valuable source of scientific information. Most of the collections are represented by fossils discovered on Romania’s territory helping us understand the geological past of this area. The collections are very diverse and contain taxa representative for plants and animals, going from Porifera to Mammalia, in various degrees of preservation. Age ranges from Paleozoic to Quaternary, containing great taxonomical, taphonomical, stratigraphical and paleobiogeographical information. The collection also holds numerous invertebrate holotypes which represent extremely valuable specimens. Through this paper we tried to make known part of the most well preserved and most illustrative individuals of different taxa in the collections. By going through numerous drawers and glass cabinets we managed to collect the most interesting ones, which show typical morphological features, making the fossils easy to associate with the group they belong to. We also considered special fossilization processes, like soft body parts imprints, internal moulds, permineralisation or even fossils that still have the original shell structure.

Topic:

Paleontology

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Exemplare fosile din colecţia Laboratorului de Paleontologie al Universităţii din Bucureşti
Andreea Moisil, Universitatea din Bucureşti Introducere De-a lungul existenţei sale centenare, Catedra de Geologie şi Paleontologie a Universităţii din Bucureşti a acumulat colecţii de mii de exemplare fosile care constituie o sursă valoroasă de informaţie ştiinţifică. Majoritatea colecţiilor contin specimene descoperite pe teritoriul României, ajutându-ne să înţelegem trecutul geologic al acestei zone. Colecţiile sunt foarte variate şi conţin taxoni reprezentativi pentru plante şi animale, pornind de la porifere şi ajungând pană la mamifere, aflate în diverse stadii de conservare. Intervalul cronostratigrafic pe care îl reprezintă colecţiile de exemplare fosile, se extinde din Paleozoic până în Cuaternar, având in acest fel un potenţial informaţional semnificativ atât din punct de vedere taxonomic, cât şi din punct de vedere stratigrafic, paleoecologic şi tafonomic (Lazăr, 2008). Metode de cercetare: Seturile de date analizate pentru exemplarele fosile studiate sunt conforme cu cerinţele internaţionale pentru organizarea unor baze de date paleobiologice internaţionale (Alroy, 2003; Connolly and Miller, 2001; Miller, A., 2003): Date de colecţie: inventariere (numere de inventar, identificare în registre) şi localizarea în spaţiile de depozitare din colecţii, verificarea numărului de exemplare pentru fiecare taxon studiat; Taxonomie: actualizarea denumirilor taxonomice şi a poziţiilor sistematice; identificarea holotipilor, paratipilor, sintipilor, neotipilor, etc. Taphonomie: starea de conservare; modul de fosilizare; integritatea materialului; metodele de preparare, conservare şi/sau colectare; Ocurenţe: localizarea geografică / geotectonică; stratigrafie / lithostratigrafie; cronologie / biostratigrafie; Referinţe bibliografice: indentificarea lucrărilor publicate în care sunt menţionaţi, descrişi, figuraţi taxonii studiaţi din colecţie. Se înregistrează locul (instituţia) în care se găsesc aceste lucrări (în biblioteca facultăţii, în biblioteci particulare sau altele). Rezultate: Phylumul Porifera este reprezentat în cadrul colecţiei prin 90 de taxoni colectaţi din următoarele zone : Dârste (Braşov)- Triasic ; Dobrogea Centrală(Jurasic superior - Cretacic superior, colectiile : Bărbulescu, Dragastan). Cele mai impresionante exemplare de spongieri provin din zona Dobrogei Centrale (Cheia-Casian) din calcarele recifale care formează structuri de tip bioherm şi biostrom, de vârstă Jurasic superior.

Fig. 1 Spongier silicios cu epifaună de serpulide, Dobrogea Centrală, Jurasic superior, Colectia Barbulescu.

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Coelenteratele au reprezentanţi fosili descoperiţi în Munţii Bucegi (Jurasic mediu şi Jurasic superior), Alba (Jurasic superior), Roşia Bihor (Cretacic superior), Curchia-Bahna (Miocen) ş.a. Cea mai bogată colecţie de corali fosili provine din calcare recifale de vârstă Jurasic superior (Dobrogea Centrală reciful cu bioherme coralgale de la Topalu, colecţia Bărbulescu) şi Cretacic superior de la Cernavodă (colecţiile : Neagu, Dragastan, Pană) Gastropodele însumează 3947 specimene din diferite locaţii fosilifere din România. Doar cele jurasice şi cretacice sunt reprezentate prin peste 350 de specimene colectate din diferite zone: Jurasic mediu: Dobrogea Centrala – Colectia Barbulescu, Munţii Bucegi – Colectia Lazăr; Şviniţa – Banat; Jurasic superior: Cetea (Muntii Trascău) – Colecţia Orăşeanu; Munţii Ghilcoş – Colecţia Dragastan; Cretacic inferior: Dobrogea de Sud – Colecţia Pană, Neagu şi Dragomir; Cretacic superior: Muntii Trascău – Colecţia Pitropov; Mehedinţi – Colecţia Ştefănescu; Hunedoara – Colecţia Ghiorghiu.

Fig. 2 Valenciennius reussi, Valea Teleajenului, Ponţian, Colectia Hanganu Cephalopodele (nautili, amoniţi, belemniţi) sunt în număr de câteva sute de exemplare, dintre până în prezent au fost inventariaţi aproximativ 150 de taxoni. Zonele majore de ocurenţă sunt: Dobrogea de Nord (Triasic), Dobrogea Centrală (Jurasic mediu, Jurasic superior şi Cretacic superior); Giurgiu, Valea Ialomiţei, Dealul Sasului (Cretacic inferior) ; Covasna, Braşov, Siriu, Dobrogea de Sud, Valea Prahovei (Cretacic). Colecţii: Simionescu, Neagu, Grădinaru, Bărbulescu, Chiriac, Avram, Andrăşanu. Bivalvele moluşte sunt reprezentate prin 1999 de exemplare înregistrate în cadrul colecţiei, cu o răspândire foarte largă : Banat (Jurasic inferior şi mediu); Dobrogea Centrală, Bucegi (Jurasic mediu - superior); Valea Olăneşti, Valea Mare, Braşov, Dobrogea de Nord (Cretacic); Dobrogea Centrală, Buzău, Valea Mare, Prahova, Haţeg, Deva (Cretacic superior); Cluj (Eocen, Oligocen) şi toate văile din arealul pericarpatic pe care aflorează depozite de vârstă Miocen şi Pliocen. Coelcţii: Ştefănescu, Pană, Hanganu, Bărbulescu, Tătărâm, Rado, Neagu, Preda, Pauliuc, Damian, Lazăr.

Fig. 3 Pecten sp., Eocen, Cluj, colectia Tătărâm
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Arthropodele (trilobiţi, decapode) au în cadrul colecţiei o gamă largă de reprezentanţi care însumează peste 100 de taxoni cu răspândire largă : Bucovina (Silurian), Munţii Bucegi (Jurasic mediu), Dobrogea (Jurasic mediu şi superior), Albeşti (Eocen), Dâmboviţa (Oligocen, Miocen), Gorj (Miocen). Cele mai spectaculoase exemplare de crabi fosili provin din colectiile : Bărbulescu, Lazăr, Franţescu. Phylumul Brachiopoda este bine reprezentat prin 2300 de exemplare din diferite locaţii fosilifere : Dobrogea de Nord (Silurian, Devonian, Triasic), Bucegi (Jurasic), Pădurea Craiului (Triasic superior, Jurasic inferior), Dobrogea Centrală ( Jurasic mediu, Jurasic superior), Hîrşova (Jurasic superior), Hăghimaş ( Jurasic superior), Bazinul Haţeg (Jurasic superior, Cretacic), Dobrogea de Sud (Cretacic). Colecţii : Simionescu, Bărbulescu, Neagu, Preda, Georgescu, Lazăr. Colecţia de date Paleobiologice a Universităţii din Bucureşti cuprinde de asemenea numeroase specii de echinoderme (crinoide şi echinoide) aproximativ 333 de taxoni. Aceştia au o largă răspândire pe teritoriul ţării noastre : Braşov (Triasic, Jurasic superior), Munţii Bucegi (Jurasic mediu), Dobrogea Centrală (Jurasic mediu, Jurasic superior, Cretacic superior), Cheile Bicazului (Jurasic superior), Cernavodă, Moldova Nouă, Dâmbovicioara (Cretacic inferior), Dobrogea de Sud (Cretacic), Dâmboviţa (Cretacic superior), Cluj (Eocen, Oligocen), Haţeg (Oligocen, Neogen). Colecţii : Ştefănescu, Dragomir, Bărbulescu, Neagu, Tătărâm. Cele mai importante exemplare de vertebrate fosile sunt reprezentate de : agnathe (scuturi cefalice, Devonian, Republica Moldova) ; amblypteride (Permian, Banat) ; dinosauri, crocodili, pterosauri, ţestoase, broaşte, şopârle (Cretacic Superior); peşti (Oligocen) ; rinoceri, cervide, proboscidieni, carnivore (Pliocen) ; bovide, cervide, proboscidieni, rinoceri (Pleistocen). În colecţie se mai află şi un craniu cu trăsături hibride între Sapiens şi Neanderthal, descoperit la Cioclovina. Concluzii Prin această lucrare ne-am propus să valorificăm o parte din cele mai bine conservate şi mai ilustrative exemplare ale diferiţilor taxoni regăsiţi în cadrul colecţiilor studiate. Am evidenţiat exemplare care prezintă procese de fosilizare deosebite : piritizări, silicifieri, mulaje interne pe care s-au conservat impresiuni ale părţilor moi, exemplare fosile cu cohilia aragonitică originală. Am selectat cele mai interesante specimene, care se remarca prin trăsături morfologice specifice grupelor sistematice din care provin. Specimene deosebit de valoroase în acest sens sunt holotipii, majoritatea fiind descrişi de către paleontologi români. Datele obţinute în urma acestui studiu vor fi integrate în baza de date internaţionale Paleobiology Database. Referințe Alroy, J. [2003] Global databases will yield reliable measures of global biodiversity. Paleobiology, 29(1), 26-29. Connolly S. R. and Miller, A. I. [2001] Joint estimation of sampling and turnover rates from fossil databases: capture-mark-recapture methods revisited. Paleobiology 27(4), 751-767. Lazar, I. [2008] Baza de date paleobiologice a Universitatii din Bucuresti. Sinteza raport final Grant CNCSIS 1022, 2006-2008. Miller, A. [2003] On the importance of global diversity trends and the viability of existing paleontological data. Paleobiology, 29(1),15-18.

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Sarmatian mollusk fauna from Răcăştia

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Popa Alexandra*, Tămaş Dan Mircea, Babes-Bolyai University

Identifying and describeing the mollusk fauna from Răcăştia.

First description of sarmatian mollusk fauna from Răcăştia.

Răcăştia (Hunedoara Country) is situated in the Cerna-Strei Depression. Summary (max. 200 words): After collecting eight samples (numbered R1-R8) from the outcrop in the

vicinity of Răcăştia (on the right side of the road which leads to Nandrului Valley) we processed them by standard methods (dried, boiled in wather with sodium carbonate, and then washed over a 63µm sieve). The fossils were picked from the >63µm residue. We encountered fossil fauna in all of the samples, but only R6 and R8 samples contained mollusk (gastropods and bivalves) fauna.

Topic:

Paleontology

432

Fauna de moluşte sarmaţiene de la Răcăştia
Popa Alexandra, Tămaş Dan Mircea, Universitatea “Babes-Bolyai” Introducere Localitatea Răcăştia se afla în sud vestul Bazinului Transilvaniei, în Depresiunea Cerna-Strei, în vecinatatea oraşului Hunedoara (nord-vest). Fundamentul regiunii este format din şisturi cristaline, care aflorează în Masivul Poiana Ruscă, constituite din şisturi sericitoase, cloritoase cu intercalaţii de calcare dolomitice, şisturi grafitoase şi cuarţite sericitice (Gheorghiu, 1954). Aceste depozite sunt acoperite de sedimente de vârsta badenienă şi sarmaţiană (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Harta geologică cu localizarea zonei studiate (simplificată după Harta geologică 1:200.000, foaia 25 Deva, Gherasi et. al., 1968).

Depozitele badeniene sunt constituite dintr-o variată gamă litologică (brecii, conglomerate, pietrişuri, nisipuri, marne, marne argiloase, intercalaţii cărbunoase, calcare, gipsuri şi piroclastite (Gheorghiu et al, 1962), cu o bogată faună de foraminifere (Popescu, 1977). Primele cercetări privind depozitele sarmaţiene au fost făcute de Gaal (1911) care descrie şi ilustrează de la Răcăştia o faună de gastropode continentale. Sarmaţianul din regiune este reprezentat, în general, printr-o alternanţă de argile şi nisipuri cu intercalaţii de gresii, tufuri şi marne cu intercalaţii de nisipuri în proporţii variabile. Alternanţa se prezintă fie în strate subţiri, fie în pachete groase de zeci de metri (Ciupagea et al, 1970). Din aflorimentul studiat a fost descrisă o asociaţie de foraminifere bentonice aparţinând biozonei cu Elphidium reginum, care indică o vârsta sarmaţian inferioară (Silye & Szabo, 2007) Zagorsek et al, (2008) descriu în premieră din aflorimentul studiat două specii de briozoare, dintre care Crisia romanica este o specie nouă.

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Material şi metodă Din aflorimentul de la Răcăştia am recoltat opt probe pe care le-am notat R1-R8 (Fig. 2). Probele au fost uscate, fierte în apă cu Na 2 CO 3 , apoi spălate prin sita de 63µm şi uscate în etuvă la 104,5°C. Din reziduul uscat au fost colectate moluştele (gastropode, bivalve). Acestea au fost determinate, descrise şi ilustrate. Determinările au fost făcute în acord cu : Kolesnikov (1935), Jekelius (1944), Papp (1954), Boda (1959), Svagrovsky (1971), Kojumdgieva (1969). Rezultate Aflorimentul studiat este localizat pe partea dreaptă a pârâului Petac care traversează localitatea Răcăştia. Înălţimea lui este de cca. 2,5m. Fig. 2 - Profilul aflorimentului de la Răcăştia. În afloriment, începând din bază am identificat: 20 cm gresii, 60 cm silturi argiloase, 20 cm nisipuri siltice, 35 cm silturi argiloase, 20 cm Fig. 2 Coloana stratigrafica, paraul Petac gresie, 37 cm silturi argiloase, 33 cm nisipuri siltice şi 15 cm silturi argiloase (Fig. 2). Toate probele recoltate conţin foraminifere şi ostracode. Moluştele (gastropode şi bivalve) am identificat doar în partea superioară, în probele R6 şi R8. În proba R6 am identificat următoarele specii de gastropode şi bivalve: Gastropode: Granulolabium bicinctum (Basterot) Acteocina lajonkaireana (Basterot) Hydrobia stagnalis Basterot Gibbula picta (Eichwald) Bivalve: Cardium sp. Ervilia dissita (Eichwald) Loripes sp. Mactra sp. Specimenele recoltate sunt slab conservate, asociaţia este dominată de gastropode (Hydrobia). Granulolabium bicinctum apare în diferite stadii ontogenetice. În proba R8 au fost colectate: Gastropode: Granulolabium bicinctum (Basterot) Acteocina lajonkaireana (Basterot) Mohrensternia sarmatica Friedberg Hydrobia suturata (Fuchs) Hydrobia uiratamensis Kolesnikov Agapilia picta (Ferussac) Bivalve: Congeria sarmatica Kojumdgieva

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Cardium sp. Ervilia dissita (Eichwald) Mactra sp. Specimenele recoltate sunt foarte bine conservate, la Agapilia picta şi Congeria sarmatica se conservă ornamentaţia. În asociaţie domină şi sunt în diferite stadii ontogenetice Granulolabium , Agapilia, Hydrobia şi Congeria. Asociaţia identificată în probele R6 şi R8 este caracteristică pentru Sarmaţianul inferior. Referințe Boda J. [1959] A Magyarorszagi szarmata emelet et gerinctelen faunaja. Annales Instituti Geologici Publici Hungarici. Ciupagea D., Păucă M., Ichim Tr. [1970] Geologia Depresiunii Transilvaniei. Editura Academiei RSR, Bucureşti. Gaal I. [1911] Ahunyadmegyei Rakosd szarmatakoru csigafaunaja. A Magyar kirali Foldtani Intezet Evkonyve, XVIII (1), 1-97. Gheorghiu C. [1954] Miocenul din bazinul inferior al Streiului. Dări de seama ale şedinţelor, Comitetul Geologic, XXXVIII (1950-1951), 44-51, Bucureşti. Gheorghiu C., Zberea A., Visarion M., Calotă C. [1962] Date noi asupra structurii bazinului inferior al Streiului, ca rezultat al cercetarilor geologice si geofizice, XXXII, p. 97-165, Bucureşti. Gherasii N., Mureşan M.,Mureşan G., Krautner F., Krautner H., Lupu M., Marinescu F., Savu H., Arghir-Drăgulescu A. [1968] Harta Geologică a RSR, foaia 25 Deva, scara 1:200.000. Institutul de Geologie si Geofizică, Bucureşti. Jekelius E. [1944] Sarmat und pont von soceni (Banat). Memoriile Institutului Geologic al României, V, Bucureşti. Kojumdgieva E. [1969] Les fossiles de Bulgarie VIII Sarmatien. Academie Bulgarie des Sciences, Sofia. Kolesnicov V. P. [1935] Moluştele Sarmatice. Paleontologia U.R.S.S., X, fasc. 2, Leningrad. Papp A. [1954] Die Mollusken fauna im Sarmat des Wiener Beckens. Mitteilungen der Geologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, Wien. Popescu G. [1977] Date preliminare asupra foraminiferelor Miocenului mediu din imprejurimile Hunedoarei. Dări de seama ale şedinţelor, Institutul de Geologie şi Geofizică, LXIII (3), p. 63-71, Bucureşti. Silye L., Szabo B. [2007] Lower Sarmatian microfauna from Răcăştia (Hunedoara Country). Annual Scientific Session “Ion Popescu Voiteşti”, Programme and Abstracts, 50, Cluj-Napoca. Svagrovsky J. [1971] Das Sarmat der tschechoslowakei und seine molluskenfauna. Acta Geologica et Geographica universitatis comenianae Geologica, Nr. 20, Bratislava. Zagorsek K., Silye L., Szabo B. [2008] New Bryozoa from the Sarmatian (Middle Miocene deposits of the Cerna-Strei Depression, Romania). Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai, Geologia, 53 (1), 25-29. Cluj-Napoca.

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11 Symposium of Romanian Geology and Geophysics Students
• Petrology, Mineralogy, Ore deposits
Code Title & Authors Mobilitatea elementelor chimice in metamorfism la contactul dintre doua tipuri petrografice constant; studiu de caz: asociatia de meta-granite si eclogite de la Leresti, M-tii Iezer Andreea Petre*, Gelu Costin, University of Bucharest R202 Andezitele din Măgura Ilvei: studiu mineralogic si petrografic; domenii de utilizare Mariana Prociuc *, Nicolae Har, Babes-Bolyai University R203 Cristalochimia seriei bismutină-aikinit. Determinarea structurii cristaline a hammaritului – Cu2Pb2Bi4S9 Soveja Lucia Elena*, University of Bucharest R204
Mineralogia si petrogeneza sisturilor cu granat si fengit din formatiunea de Bughea (Leresti - *M-tii Iezer) Mihai Andrei*, Paiu Daniela, University of Bucharest

th

R201

Aspecte mineralogice si petrogenetice privind eclogitele din Valea Zarna (M-Ńii Fagaras) R205 Maria Plăcintă*, Teodora Vasile, Liviu PanŃiru, Gelu Costin, Anca Luca, University of Bucharest

Code

Title & Authors Faze hidroxilate incluse în granatul de la Foltea : metasomatism potasic în mantaua hercinică? Tudor Eugen*, University of Bucharest

R206

R207

Studiul unor “pseudo-meteoriŃi” din Muzeul UniversităŃii Babes-Bolyai Cluj-Napoca Pojar Iulian*, Marcel Benea, Babes-Bolyai University

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Studiul petrografic al mortarelor de la Cetatea Enisala, Dobrogea de Nord Ene Vlad-Victor*, Anca Luca, University of Bucharest

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Aurul din aluviunile râului Aries (Cornesti-Buru, JudeŃul Cluj) Daniel-Constantin Popescu*, Nicolae Har, Babeş-Bolyai University Studiul mineralogic al meteoriŃilor chondritici obisnuiŃi

R210 Dan-Cristian Olteanu*, Daniel-Alexandru Voiculescu, Gelu Costin, University of Bucharest

Code Baze de date geologice în Surpac Vision R211

Title & Authors

Lorand Birtok*, Laurentiu Igna, Aurelian Negrescu, Adrian Opritescu, University of Petroșani Calculul densităŃilor polimorfilor Al2SiO5 la diferite intervale de presiune pe baza parametrilor structurali Birsan Antonio*, Seclaman Alexandra, University of Bucharest Tipuri de transformare a sticlei din tufurile vulcanice din România. Studiu de caz: tufurile de Persani (Brasov) si tufurile de Govora (Râmnicu Vâlcea) Georgiana Popescu*, Irina Chiciudean, Barbara Soare, University of Bucharest Mineralogia si termobarometria eclogitelor asociate spatial cu ultramafitele de la Paltinis, Judetul Sibiu: semnificatii petrogenetice Ungureanu Diana Georgiana*, Cojocea Cristian-Gabriel, University of Bucharest Rafinarea Rietveld a structurii cristaline a distenului utilizând date de difracŃia razelor X pe pulberi

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R215 Marius Gabriel Neamu*, Gogulancea Radu, Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiești

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1st International Geosciences Student Conference, Bucharest, 22-24 April

Title:

Mobility of the chemical elements in metamorphism at the contact between two petrographic rocs

Authors and affiliations: Main objectives: New aspects covered:

Andreea Petre*, Gelu Costin, University of Bucharest

The study of association of meta-granites and eclogites from Leresti,M.Iezer.

Summary Variation of the chemical elements offer us theory considering the (max. 200 words): metamorphism contact of meta-granites and eclogites.The rocs from the
contact area are afected by dynamic metamorphism and higher pressure and temperature. We can say that the meta-granites keep the cores in where the magmatic phases and pre-metamorphic structuresare are conserved. The mobility of the chemical elements at the contact of granites-eclogites,was tested by means of probation profile.Study was start from the izotrop granites,in passing with deformated granites with millonitics structures and its got at the contact with the Cr.eclogites.

Topic:

Petrology

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Mobilitatea elementelor chimice in metamorfism la contactul dintre doua tipuri petrografice constant; studiu de caz: asociatia de meta-granite si eclogite de la Leresti, M-tii Iezer.
Andreea Petre, Universitatea din Bucuresti Introducere Meta-granite (tipul granitelor de Albesti) si corpuri eclogitice tabulare si lenticulare afloreaza in versantul stang al Raului Targului, amonte de localitatea Leresti (M-tii Iezer). Aceste roci fac parte din formatiunea de Bughea, considerate o zona de forfecare de grad ridicat (Iancu, 1999). Metagranitele prezinta grade variate de anizotropie, de la structuri izotrope pana la structuri milonitice. Eclogitele sunt fin granulare si izotrope (nu arata efecte ale deformarilor plastice). Spre deosebire de alte eclogite ce afloreaza in fundamental domeniului Getic, aceste eclogite nu prezinta o zona amfibolitica de tranzitie spre rocile silicioase si sunt bogate in Cr continand aggregate de Cr-Mgstaurolit, Cr-omfacit si Cr-disten (Costin, 2005). Mobilitatea elementelor chimice (atat majore cat si minore) la contactul dintre granite-eclogite a fost testata de-a lungul unui profil de probare seriata cu o lungime de 3m (fig. 1). Profilul a urmarit trecerea de la granitul izotrop, trecand prin granitul deformat cu structuri din ce in ce mai milonitice, traversand contactul cu corpul eclogitic, pana in central acestuia.

Fig.1 Pozitia profilului de probare la contactul dintre meta-granite si ecolgite Variatia elementelor majore Conform analizei elementelor majore de-a lungul profilului de probare, se observa cresterea SiO2 din centrul corpului eclogitic, spre contactul cu granitele (Fig. 2a). In milonitele granitice, la contactul cu eclogitele, SiO2 nu arata o scadere procentuala pentru a se explica o eventuala compensare a silicei cedata corpului bazic. SiO2 arata valori mult mai ridicate decat in cazul granitului izotrop sau deformat.

a) Variatie elementelor majore la contactul granit-eclogit
% de greutate oxid

b) Variatia elementelor majore (Detaliu fara SiO2)
% de greutate oxid
18 16 14 TiO2 Al2O3 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.5 1 1.5
Distanta (m) granit(0 m) - granit deformat(1 m)- sist(2 m)- Creclogit(2.1 m)- eclogit (2.2, 2.8, 3 m)

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 SiO2 TiO2
Al2O3

Fe2O3 MnO MgO

Fe2O3 MnO MgO CaO Na2O K2O P2O5
H2O

CaO Na2O K2O
P2O5 H2O

Distanta (m) granit(0 m) - granit deformat(1 m)- sist(2 m)Cr-eclogit(2.1 m)- eclogit (2.2, 2.8, 3 m)

2

2.5

3

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c) Variatie elementelor minore (Ba-Zr) la contactul granit-eclogit
700

d) Variatia elementelor minore (Y-Ce) la contactul dintre granit si eclogit
225 200 Y Th Co Sc V Cu Pb Zn Sn W Mo La Ce 0 0.5 1 1.5
Distanta (m)

600 500
400 ppm

Ba Rb Sr Cs Ga Nb

175 150 125 ppm 100 75 50 25

300 200 100 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Distanta (m) granit(0 m) - granit deformat(1 m)- sist(2 m)- Cr-eclogit(2.1 m)- eclogit (2.2, 2.8, 3 m)

Hf
Zr

0 2 2.5 3

Fig. 2 Variatia elementelor majore si minore de-a lungul profilului de probare seriata Continuturile de Al2O3 (fig. 2a, b) sunt mai ridicate in eclogite decat in granite, acest element aratand profile relativ plate de-a lungul profilului. Astfel se arata pe de o parte faptul ca protolitul eclogitului este unul aluminos iar pe de alta parte, ca Al2O3 este un compus care s-a comportat imobil, cel putin in eclogit. In granite, Al scade de la corpul izotrop spre cel milonitic si sugereaza o mobilizare a acestuia in zonele mai deformate. MgO arata continuturile cele mai mari la contact, fapt explicabil prin aparitia biotitului flogopitic in corpul bazic, imediat in vecinatatea granitului. O crestere a acestui compus in partea intermediara a lentilei eclogitice reprezinta domenii mai bogate in talc. Fe2O3 analizat (ingloband atat Fe2+ cat si Fe3+) creste spre miezul eclogitic, aratand ca protolitul a fost bogat in Fe si ca spre marginea corpului eclogitic, la contact, scade brusc,ca urmare probabil a mobilizarii acestuia intr-un fluid. CaO are valori mai mari in zona intermediara a eclogitului (datorita prezentei unui amfibol cu Ca dar si a componentei grossularice a granatului eclogitic) ca si in zona de contact a acestuia, unde simplectitele diopsidice si granatul (bogat in grossular) reprezinta peste 75% din zona analizata. Atat Na2O cat si K2O scad din centrul corpului eclogitic spre contactul cu granitele, ceea ce arata ca cei doi componenti au fost eliberati si mobilizati spre marginea corpului eclogitic. Cantitatea mare de K2O din centrul eclogitului se explica prin prezenta unui fengit relict, de natura eclogitica.Neoformarea plagioclazului albitic si a micelor (mai mult muscovit) in milonitele granitice se datoreaza migrarii Na2O si K2O in zonele cu deformare avansata. TiO2 si Al2O3 arata profile plate, nefiind afectati de transformarile metamorfice. H2O arata ca eclogitele sunt mai hidratate in centru decat la margine (fig. 2a). In centrul corpului eclogitic, fazele dominante sunt amfibolul si zoizitul, ceea ce arata ca protolitul eclogitului trebuie sa fi fost hidratat iar profilul H2O sugereaza ca spre marginea corpului, apa este eliberata, probabil ca urmare a unor reactii de deshidratare (transformari prograde). Variatia elementelor minore Cr, Ni si Co cresc de la centrul eclogitului spre contactul cu granitele (valorile maxime se inregistreaza la marginea eclogitelor). Este posibil ca aceste elemente (in special Cr) au migrat spre zona marginala a eclogitului, fiind incorporat in Cr-Mg-staurolit, Cr-omfacit, Cr-disten si Cr-fengit (Costin, 2005). Corelarea acestei comportari a Cr-lui cu prezenta sa in minerale de presiune ridicata din zona microblastica marginala a eclogitului demonstreaza ca acest element a fost mobilizat in timpul procesului de edificare a paragenezei cu Cr-Mg-staurolit la presiuni ridicate. Elementele Rb si Sr (fig. 2c) scad in granit si in eclogit, spre contactul dintre acestea, ceea ce sugereaza o mobilizare a acestor elemente impreuna cu K si Ca. In zona intermediara a eclogitului, valorile mai mari in Sr arata o eterogenitate a corpului eclogitic ce poate fi data de zonalitatea initiala a protolitului eclogitic realizata in timpul procesului de eclogitizare. Cu si Zn scad mult la contact (fig. 2d), sugerand o migrare a acestor elemente in solutie si levigarea in zona de contact.

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Concluzii Variatia elementelor chimice majore si minore ne permite sa corelam compozitia mineralogica cu frecventa mineralelor de-a lungul profilului de probare seriata. Profilul H2O arata o tendinta scadere dinspre miezul eclogitelor spre contactul cu meta-granitele ceea ce sugereaza ca cele doua corpuri au suferit un process de deshidratare, indicand astfel conditii de temperatura ridicata in momentul alaturarii celor doua corpuri. Aceasta observatie, alaturi de observatiile de afloriment sugereaza ca natura contactului dintre eclogite si meta-granite este primar (magmatic) si ca deformarea in facies amfibolitic nu a afectat contactul dintre corpurile studiate. Acesta interpretare sugereaza ca