The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW

The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW
Professor of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology



BEGINNING WITH A BRIEF REVIEW of the foundation concepts of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics and an introduction to the concepts of compressible flow, this volume treats one-dimensional gas dynamics, including flow in nozzles and diffusers, normal shocks, frictional flows and flows with heat transfer or energy release; the differential equations governing the two- and three-dimensional motion of a nonviscous compressible fluid; analytical methods and experimental results for subsonic, two- and three-dimensional flows; two-dimensional supersonic flows from the theoretical and practical points of view; and, in Appendices, the theory of characteristic curves and sets of numerical tables of compressible-flow functions.



IN THIS VOLUME are treated three-dimensional supersonic flows past wings and bodies of revolution; hypersonic flows; flows containing both subsonic and supersonic regions; transonic flows; unsteady flows in one dimension, including continuous wave motion and moving shocks; theoretical and experimental surveys of friction and heat transfer in laminar and turbulent boundary layers for external and internal flows; and the interaction between boundary layers and shock waves.

IN Two









1953, by





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Number: 53-8869

PREFACEDuring the past two decades a rapid growth of interest in the motion of compressible fluids has accompanied developments in high-speed flight, jet engines, rockets, ballistics, combustion, gas turbines, ramjets and other novel propulsive mechanisms, heat transfer at high speeds, and blast-wave phenomena. My purpose in writing this book is to make available to students, engineers, and applied physicists a work on compressible fluid motion which would be suitable as an introductory text in the subject as well as a reference work for some of its more advanced phases. The choice of subject matter has not been dictated by any particular field of engineering, but rather includes topics of interest to aeronautical engineers, mechanical engineers, chemical engineers, appliedmechanicians, and applied physicists. In selecting material from the vast literature of the field the basic objective has been to make the book of practical value for engineering purposes. To achieve this aim, I have followed the philosophy that the most practical approach to the subject of compressible fluid mechanics is one which combines theoretical analysis, clear physical reasoning, and empirical results, each leaning on the other for mutual support and advancement, and the whole being greater than the sum of the parts. The analytical developments of this book comprise two types of treatments: those leading to design methods and those leading to exemplary methods. The design methods are direct and rapid, and easily applied to a variety of problems. Therefore, they are suited for use in the engineering office. The discussions of these design methods are detailed and illustrative examples are often given. The exemplary methods, on the other hand, comprise those theoretical analyses which are time consuming, which generally require mathematical invention, and which are not easily applied to a variety of problems. Such methods are primarily of value for yielding detailed answers to a small number of typical problems. Although they are not in themselves suitable for the engineering office, the examples which they permit to be worked out often provide important information about the behavior of fluids in typical situations. Thus they serve as guides to the designer in solving the many complex problems where even the so-called design methods are not sufficient. The treatment of exemplary methods in this book usually consists of a brief outline of the method, together with a presentation of those results obtained by the method which illuminate significant questions concernv





ing fluid motion and which help to form the vital "feel" so desired by designers. In keeping with the spirit of the several foregoing remarks, all the important results of the book have been reduced to the form of convenient charts and tables. Unless otherwise specified, the charts and tables are for a perfect gas with a ratio of specific heats (k) of 1.4. In those parts of the book dealing with fundamentals, emphasis is placed on the introduction of new concepts in an unambiguous manner, on securing a clear physical understanding before the undertaking of an analysis, on the rigorous application of physical laws, and on showing fruitful avenues of approach in analytical thinking. The remaining part of the work proceeds at a more rapid pace befitting the technical maturityof advanced students and professionals. The work is organized in eight parts. Part I sets forth the basic concepts and principles of fluid dynamics and thermodynamics from which the remainder of the book proceeds and also introduces some fundamental concepts peculiar to compressible flows. In Part II is a discussion of problems accessible by the most simple picture of fluid motion -the one-dimensional analysis. Part III constitutes a summary of the basic ideas and concepts necessary for the succeeding chapters on twoand three-dimensional flow. Parts IV, V, and VI then present in order comprehensive surveys of subsonic flows, of supersonic flows (including hypersonic flow), and of mixed subsonic-supersonic flows. In Part VII is an exposition of unsteady one-dimensional flows. Part VIII is an examination of the viscous and heat conduction effects in laminar and turbulent boundary layers, and of the interaction between shock waves and boundary layers. For those readers not already familiar with it, the mathematical theory of characteristic curves is briefly developed in Appendix A. Appendix B is a collection of tables which facilitate the numerical solution of problems. The "References and Selected Bibliography" at the end of each chapter will, it is hoped, be a helpful guide for further study of the voluminous subject. Apart from specific references cited in each chapter, the lists include general references appropriate to the subject matter of each chapter. The choice of references has been based primarily on clarity, on completeness, and on the desirability of an English text, rather than on historical priority. My first acknowledgment is to Professor Joseph H. Keenan, to whom lowe my first interest in the subject, and who, as teacher, friend, and colleague, has been a source of inspiration and encouragement. In an intangible yet real way I am mdebted to my students, who have made teaching a satisfying experience, and to my friends and colleagues

at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who contributed the climate of constructive criticism so conducive to creative effort. Many individuals and organizations have been cooperative in supplying me with helpful material and I hope that I have not failed to acknowledge any of these at the appropriate place in the text. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the M.I.T. Gas Turbine Laboratory have been especially helpful along these lines. I was fortunate in being able to place responsibility for the important work of the drawings in the competent hands of Mr. Percy H. Lund, who, with Miss Prudence Santoro, has been most cooperative in this regard. For help with the final revision and checking of the manuscript I wish to give thanks to Dr. Bruce D. Gavril and Dr. Ralph A. Burton. Finally, but by no means least, I must express a word of appreciation to Sylvia, and to young Peter, Mardi, and Bunny, who, one and all, made it possible for me to escape from the officeinto the somewhat less trying atmosphere of the home, and there to carry this work forward to its completion. ASCHER H. SHAPIRO Arlington, Mass. April 4, 1953








Properties of the Continuum. Systems and Control Volumes. Conse-rvation of Mass. Momentum Theorem. Theorem of Moment of Momentum. Units and Dimensions. 2


The First Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic Properties of the Continuum. The First Law for a Control Volume. The Second Law for a Control Volume. The Perfect Gas. 3


The Velocity of Sound. Physical Differences Between Incompressible, Subsonic, and Supersonic Flows. The Mach Number and Mach Angle. Similarity Parameters. Domain of the Continuum. Classification of Compressible Flows. Optical Methods of Investigation.

Part II. One-Dimensional


General Features of Isentropic Flow. Adiabatic Flow of a Perfect Gas. Isentropic Flow of a Perfect Gas. Working Charts and Tables for Isentropic Flow. Choking in Isentropic Flow. Operation of Nozzles Under Varying Pressure Ratios. Special Relations for Low Mach Numbers. Deviations from Perfect Gas Laws. Performance of Real Nozzles. Some Applications of Isentropic Flow. 5


Governing Relations of the Normal Shock. Normal Shock in a Perfect Gas. Working Formulas, Curves, and Tables. Weak Shock Waves. Formation of Shock Waves. Thickness of Shock Waves. Normal Shocks in Ducts. Moving Shock Waves. Operating Characteristics of Converging-Diverging Nozzle. One-Dimensional Supersonic Diffusers. Supersonic Pitot Tube.

Dimensional Passages. Supersonic Flow 14 Two-DIMENSIONAL. The Prandtl-Glauert Method of Expansion in Series of a Shape Parameter. THREE-DIMENSIONAL. Very Weak Shocks. Simple Waves. Working Equations and Tables of Influence Coefficients. The General Solution for Linearized Supersonic Flow. SUBSONIC FLOW 393 8 GENERALIZED ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONTINUOUS FLOW 219 Gothert's Rule for Uniform Flow with Small Perturbations. Physical Equations and Definitions. Relations Between the Velocity Potential and the Stream Function. Graphical Versus Numerical Method. Differential Equations in Terms of the Velocity Potential. Examples of Combined Friction and Heat Transfer. The Karman-Tsien Pressure Correction Formula. Design of Supersonic Wind Tunnel Nozzles. Shock Waves with Changes III StagnatIOn Temperature. The Streamline Curvature Method. General Method of Solution.x CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER CONTENTS 159 12 MISCELLANEOUS METHODS AND RESULTS FOR Two-DIMEN- xi PAGE CHAPTER 6 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Adiabatic Constant-Area Flow of a Perfect Gas. Experimental Friction Coefficients. Flow with Constant Specific Heat and Molecular Weight. The Characteristic Curves. Spheres. Simple Types of Flow. Shock Polars. Experimental Results for Thin Profiles. Field Method Versus Lattice-Point Method. Interaction of Shoek Waves with Boundary Layer. Flow with Waves of Both Families by Extension of Linear Theory. Flow Past a Wave-Shaped Wall. Linearization of the Pressure Coefficient. Gothert's Rule. Geometrical Interpretation of the General Solution. Calculation of Profile Shape Correction. Example of Combined Friction and Area Change. Euler's Equations of Motion. Adiabatic. Supersonic Airfoils. Some Measured Effects of Compressibility in Subsonic Flow. SUPERSONIC FLOW THE EQUATIONS OF MOTION FOR STEADY. The Laws o~ Thermo~ynami~s. The Coefficient of Heat Transfer. Bodies of Revolution. Shock Geometry. in Simple To-Change. Curved Shocks. Miscellaneous Examples. 10 Two-DIMENSIONAL. Isothermal Flow in Long Ducts. Special Conditions at the Sonic Point. Some Special Features of Supersonic Flow. Flow Inside Two. Sweptback Wings of Finite Span. Explicit Solutions by Series Expansions. Wings of Finite Span. Unit Processes. Nonviscous Flow with Rotation. 7 FLOW IN DUCTS WITH HEATING OR COOLING SIONAL. Flow Past Ellipsoids. The Rayleigh-Janzen Method of Expansion in Series of the Mach Number. Relaxation Method. The Tangent-Gas Approximation. SUBSONIC FLOW 364 190 13 Simple-Heating Relations for a Perfect Gas. SUBSONIC Oblique Shock Equations. IRROTATIONAL FLOW The Physical Significance of Irrotational Motion. TURBATIONS SUPERSONIC FLOW WITH SMALL PER- 427 Part III. Extension of KarmanTsien Method. Sweptback Wings. The Connection Between the Rotation and the Thermodynamic Properties of the Flow. Wind Tunnel Corrections. The Prandtl-Glauert Rule. The Recovery Factor. Two-Dimensional Profiles. Method of Constructing Characteristic Curves. Application of Theory of Characteristics. B TABLES OF COMPRESSIBLE-FLOW FUNCTIONS 610 635 INDEX . DIfferential Equations in Terms of the Stream Function. 16 OBLIQUE SHOCKS 462 Part N. The Equation of Continuity. Part V. Kelvin's Theorem. Simple Waves by Theory of Characteristics. 15 METHOD OF CHARACTERISTICS FOR Two-DIMENSIONAL. Flow Past a Wave-Shaped Wall. Reflection and Intersection of Waves. Appendix A 336 THEORY OF CHARACTERISTICS 595 Derivation of the Hodograph Equations. Reflection and Interaction of Shocks. Flow with Waves of One Family by Extension of Linear Theory. Some Special Aspects of Oblique Shocks. 11 HODOGRAPH FLOW METHOD FOR Two-DIMENSIONAL. Applications of Method of Characteristics. 9 Introduction to Flow in Two and Three Dimensions 265 Linearization of the Equations. Examples of Two-Dimensional Flows Containing Shocks. TIONS Subsonic Flow 303 529 SUBSONIC FLOW WITH SMALL PERTURBA- Linearization of the Potential Equation. Cho~ing Effects. Performance of Long Ducts at Various Pressure Ratios. General Features of Flow Patterns.

Theoretical Consideration of Transonic Flow Without Shocks. Shock-Boundary Layer Interactions in Transonic Flow. Flow With Arbitrary Prandtl Number. INDEX FOR VOLUMES I AND II . Part VIII. 23 UNSTEADY 'WAVE MOTION VOLUME Part V. Relaxation Method. ONE-DIMENSIONAL SHOCK WAVES Preliminary Considerations of Finite Wings. 22 DRAG AND LIFT AT TRANSONIC SPEEDS Differential Equations of the Turbulent Boundary Layer. Typical Theoretical Results for Finite Wings. Effects of Gradual Changes in Area. Experimental Results for Laminar Boundary Layers. One-Dimensional Flow. 26 THE LAMINAR Flow of Real Gases with Viscosity and Heat Conductivity BOUNDARY LAYER Part VI. Application of Theory. Unsteady. Analysis of Moving Shocks. Detached Shocks. Solution of Hodograph Equations by Hypergeometric Functions. Characteristics of Wings. Transonic Drag of Bodies of Revolution. The Method of Conical Fields. CONTINUOUS FLOW Supersonic Flow (Continued) FLOW 17 AxIALLY SYMMETRIC SUPERSONIC Exact Solution for Flow Past a Cone. Oblique Shock Relations for Hypersonic Flow. Method of Characteristics. Development of Wave Form. Modified Calculation Procedure for Weak Shocks. Applications of the Transonic Similarity Law. Linear Theory for Slender Bodies of Revolution. Method of Characteristics. Recovery Factor for Turbulent Flow. 19 HYPERSONIC FLOW Analysis in Terms of Stationary Shock Formulas. Laminar Boundary Layer for Axi-SymmetricFlow. UNSTEADY. Source-Vortex Flow.MENSIONAL. Theoretical and Experimental Results for Skin Friction on Flat Plates. 2. UNSTEADY. Stability of the Laminar Boundary Layer. Analyses of Recovery Factor. xii Flow in Tubes. Slopesof Force Coefficientsat M~ = l. Integral Equations of the Turbulent Boundary Layer. Turbulent Boundary Layer on Bodies of Revolution. Some Examples. Characteristics of Wing Profiles. Normal Shocks in Ducts. Skin Friction. Flow With Prandtl Number Unity. Waves of Small Amplitude. Characteristic Curves. Simplified Physical Analysis of Pressure Pulse. Hypersonic Performance of Two-Dimensional Profiles. and Heat Transfer for Turbulent Flow Past a Flat Plate with Turbulent Prandtl Number of Unity. Shock-Boundary Layer Interactions in Supersonic Flow. Transonic Flow Past a Wavy Wall. The Limit Line. Interaction Between Boundary Layer and Shock Wave. Flow in Throat of Converging-DivergingNozzle. 27 THE TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER Equations of the Hodograph Method. Integral Equations of the Laminar Boundary Layer. Experimental Results. Lnit Operations and Boundary Conditions. Simple Waves. Flow at Mach Number Unity. Miscellaneous Experimental Results. Comparison Between Experimental and Theorctical Results. Simple-WaveExpansion Relations for Hypersonic Flow. Similarity Laws for Hypersonic Flow. 20 THE HODOGRAPH METHOD FLOW Mixed Flow SUBSONIC-SUPERSONIC FOR MIXED Differential Equations of the Laminar Boundary Layer. Weak Shock Waves. The Shock Tube-Riemann's Problem. Hypersonic Performance of Bodies of Revolution. Sweptback Wings. Transonic Flow Past Wedge Nose. The Method of Su~ersonic Source and Doublet Distributions.NGS OF FINITE SPAN Extension of Linearized Theory. Remarks on Details of Working Out the Method of Characteristics. 28 BOUNDARY LAYERS IN TUBES AND IN THE PRESENCE WAVES OF SHOCK Experimental Validity of Transonic Similarity Law. ONE-D. End Conditions and Interaction Effects for Strong Shocks. Similarity Rule for Supersonic Wings..COXTENTS xiii Part VII. Boundary-Layer Separation Produced by Sbock Waves. 21 TRANSONIC FLOW The Transonic Similarity Law. 18 SUPERSONIC FLOW PAST W. Waves of Both Families. CHAPTER Unsteady Motion in One Dimension OF SMALL AMPLITUDl'. Comparison of Theory with Experiment. Compressible Flow with 1800 Turn. CHAPTER II 24 Equations of Motion.


Introductory An engineering science like fluid dynamics rests on foundations comprising both theory and experiment. In this way the general point of view and phraseology of the book will be established. All analyses concerning the motion of compressible fluids must necessarily begin. either directly or indirectly. the proportionality law between shear stress and rate of shear deformation in a Newtonian fluid. progress has been especially dependent upon an intimate cross-fertilization between the analytical and empirical branches. The analytical branch of a science is constructed from concepts. The latter are in terms of the concepts and definitions and are in conformity with experimental observations. In this book emphasis is placed on the manner in which important conclusions spring from analyses growing out of the four basic laws mentioned above. it is usually necessary to bring into an analysis certain subsidiary laws relating to the particular fluid or class of fluids in question. and the analyses in turn suggesting critical and illuminating experiments which further amplify and strengthen the theory. With fluid dynamics. with the statements of the four basic physical laws governing such motions. which are independent of the nature of the particular fluid. These laws. and the statements of physical laws.Chapter 1 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Remarks 1. Definition of a Fluid. For this reason the first two chapters are devoted to a review of these principles and the associated cuncepts and definitions. are (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) the law of conservation of mass Newton's second law of motion the first law of thermodynamics the second law of thermodynamics In addition to these fundamental principles. definitions. the Fourier law of heat conduction. the experimental results being most fruitfully interpreted in terms of theoretical reasoning. etc. The rigorous classification of substances in various ways is usually thwarted because certain substances behave so 3 .1. Examples are the equation of state of a perfect gas.

:acuu~ technology. temperature. The ratio om/o'O is called the average mass density of the fluid within the volume properties relevant to the laws of . we deal instead with certain macroscopic p~opertlCs descl'l~mg the gross behavior of tbe substance. 1. Thus.e. The treatment of fluids as continua may be said to be valid whenever the smallest volume of fluid of interest contains so many molecules as to make statistical averages meaningful. That this is so may be seen by considering that a mass of "water" at 1 atm and 100°C in a glass cylinder closed by a piston may.2. In most engineering problems our primary interest lies not in the motions of molecules. Density at a Point. An important corollary which follows from the definition of a fluid is the observation that if there is no relative motion within the fluid. Properties of the Continuum We discuss here those continuum motion. This approach. without a meniscus once being observed! For most practical purposes the words "liquid" and "gas" are of value insofar as the former denotes a fluid which generally exhibits only small percentage changes in density. Matter. w x. is often too cumbersome for practical calculations. but. Thus we say that "a fluid cannot withstand shearing stresses. while seemingly continuous. on the other hand.4. The subject matter of this book relates for the most part to highly compressible fluids. I:Ia). Y. it is fortunately a valid approach to many practical problems where only macroscopic or phenomenological information is of interest. both of which are fluids. or pressure magnitude of radius vector radius vector time u A F F g go u V V The Concept of a Continuum. fluid om in a volume 0:0 surrounding the point P in a continuous fluid (F~g. internal energy. but rather in the gross behavior of the fluid thought of as a continuous material. To avoid the impression that the method~ and results of this book are universally valid. pressure. shear stress.h b This book concerns the motion of compressible fluids whic may e treated as continua. or torque normal force per unit area. These are defined mArts. if fluid particles are not deformed.4 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch. .l Art. whenever we deal WIth highly rarefied gases (as in rocket flight at extreme altitudes. The usual methods of attempting to distinguish rigorously between a liquid and a gas. GASES. For our present purpose.:3 of velocity component direction component of velocity direction volume speed velocity mass rate of flow Cartesian coordinate.. e~tropy. A fluid. which usually goes under the name of kinetic theory or statistical mechanics. are futile and indeed not of any practical use. be transformed to a mass of "steam" at 1 atm and 100°C."erable m~lecules. has obvious merits." . Although the postulate of a continuous fluid is nothing but a convenient fiction. exhibits relative motion between its elementary parts so long as shearing forces are applied. then there can be no shear stresses acting on such particles. or electronic tubes). The great simptiflcation afforded by the concept ?f a continuum is that instead of dealing with instantaneous states of mnu'. or shear stress 1. whether viscous or nonviscous. The most fundamental approach in analyzing the motion of matter in the aggregate is.2 PROPERTIES OF THE CONTINUUM 5 anomalously as to defy being neatly placed in a pigeonhole. and coefficient of thermal conductivity. high . i. When shearing forces are applied to a solid. Consider the mass of. therefore. 1. NOMENCLATURE a A acceleration area area vector force force vector magnitude of body force per unit mass constant of proportionality in Newton's second law mass moment of a force. it seems well at this pomt to mention that the macroscopic approach fails whenever the n:ea~ free path of the molecules is of comparable size with the s~all~st significant dimension of the problem. coefficient of viscosity. is composed of myriads of molecules in constant motion and collision. velocity. subsequent to some initial state of affairs. the continuum approach of classical fluid meChalll?S and thermodynamics must be abandoned in favor of the rmcroscopic approach of kinetic theory. to set down the laws of motion for each individual molecule and to trace the history of each molecule. and so we shall generally speak of gases. the latter undergoes a certain deformation which does not change so long as the applied forces are maintained constant. LIQUIDS VB. We shall define a fluid as a substance which deforms continuously under the action of shearing [orces. however. In the motion of r-omprcssible fluids the relevant properties are density. by suitable heat transfers and motions of the piston. in xin y- m M p 'Y Ii- p T angle coefficient of viscosity mass density at a point tangential force per unit area. or of statistical groups of molecules. we wish principally to distinguish between the numerous common substances we call fluids and such other substances as solids and plastics.3 and 2.

every point of a fluid continuum has A a corresponding fluid velocity vector.2b.. \ '..'Effects . After the introduction of a coordinate system. I II I /1 I I \ '. Smce there is no velocity component normal to the streamline. However.. . 1. It is a matter of experience that the fluid on one side of this surface exerts a force on the fluid on the other side' and by the third law of Newton. Consider an elementary area dA normal to the velocity vector at some point. Domain of Molecular -.. and comprise one of the most common and most useful graphical representations of the flow. At first the average density tends to approach an asymptote as the volume encloses fluid more and more homogeneous in nature... Definition of density at a point. we often mean the streamline picture. The fluid velocity at a point is quite independent of the instantaneous velocity of the molecule nearest that point.. In unsteady flows the streamline pattern changes from instant to instant.1b) instantaneously surrounding that point. We may then / . NORMAL STRESS. 1.. I I / CMOSS -: 0 / '\ 8'11" 8m I I I . When the flow is steady..2) . circular area oA in this plane surrounding P... When we speak of the flow pattern.2..l Art.. 1.1. _----_ (a) . it is therefore possible to resolve the vector velocity into three scalar components.. imagine the smallest volume which can be regarded as continuous to be 0'0'. The surface force acting on the area oA may be resolved into a component normal to oA and a component lying in the plane of oA. (a) (b) FIG.. The streamlines passing through t~e circumference of dA form a surface which is called a stream tube..----' I (b) Oomoin of Continuum FIG..._ . By fluid particle we mean here a small mass of fluid of fixed identity and of size comparable with 5'0'. The curves which are everywhere tangent to the velocity vector are known as the instantaneous streamlines of the flow.2 PROPERTIES OF THE CONTINUUM 7 5'0._ Effects i I Domain of Continuum ) "" ".' Volume STREAMLINES. Such forces are called surface forces. the walls of a stream tube may be thought of as being impervious to flow.. and so it is impossible to speak of a definite value for om/o'O. Now suppose that at first 5'0 is rather large. 1. and that it is subsequently shrunk about the point P.. Rather we consider the motion of the center of gravity of the volume 0'0' (Fig. . however. t any instant. the fluid on the latter side exerts an equal but opposite force on the fluid on the first side. I \ I .. point. // I I Domain of Molecular -.. l. Consider a plane passing in a given direction through point P of the continuous medium of Fig..2. Definition of normal stress at a.. the average density fluctuates substantially with time as molecules pass into and out of the volume.6 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch... an? refer:ing to Fig. STREAM TUBE. Thus the fluid velocity at a point is the instantaneous velocity of the fluid particle which at that moment is passing through the point.. or the trajectories of fluid particles....1) This definition illuminates the idea of a continuum and shows the true nature of a continuum property "at a point" as a fictitious but highly useful concept. Stress at a Point. and then define the density at a point as p == lim 6'U -+ 6 'U' om 5'0 (1. we define the fluid pressure at the pomt P m t~e given direction as the limit of the normal component of force per unit area: p== lim aA -+ 6A' liFnormal (1. Considering first the normal force c~mpo~ent. 1. 1..1b. Fluid Velocity at a Point. and define the fluid velocity at the point P as the instantaneous velocity of this center of gravity. Then a plot of 5m/5'O versus 5'0 would be typified by Fig. Whereas density at a point is a scalar quantity. fluid velocity at a point is a vector. and imagine a. the streamlines are constant in time and represent also the path lines. when 5'0 becomes so small as to contain relatively few molecules./" ---"---------_ "'.

3. it follows that Tz" = T"". Shear deformation in a fluid. applymg Newton's second law for moments of forces. and indeed the state of stress is similar to that existing in a solid.4).3.We now raise the question whether at the point P the pressure. In this case. since shear stresses are assumed absent.3) = p" = P'Y Both the pressure and the shear stress are. it is soon found that p"" p". and let us then investigate the dynamics of an infinitesimally small triangular piece of fluid of unit depth surrounding P in Fig. 1. Similarly.P'YV dx2 + dy2 cos 'Y+ gxP dx dy 2 = P -- dx dy 1 rs:~_--_J 2 a". . at a point. The area 8A' and volume 8'1. Then. 1... (I) Nevertheless. it is meaningless to speak of the pressure at a point. To answer this question. we get p" = P'Y' Thus we have finally that ' p".3. the fluid pressure at a point is the same in all directions. the inertia forces and body . when the Reynolds Number is large compared with unity) the shear stresses are small compared with the normal stresses. Let g". only normal stresses. gravity force) acting on the fluid per unit mass. of course.3. let us first consider an inviscid fluid. By writing the laws of motion.. experimental observations indicate that a shearing deformation is always accompanied by a shearing stress. 1. and P'Y denotes the pressure at point P in the 'Y-direction. lim 8A -+ 8A' 8Ftangl'ntial (1. and gy be the components of body force (e.. or normal stress. From the geometry of the triangle. we often do speak of the pressure at a point in viscous fluids. Now we may write Newton's second . where Px denotes the pressure at point P in the x-direction.4. In all real fluids. Then. Normal stress forces acting triangle are shown in the sketch. = P'Y' . py denotes the pressure at point P in the y-direction. and. we see that v'dx2 + dy2 cos 'Y = dy and then. a fluid in which no viscous stresses (tangential or shear stresses) exist even though there is relative motion within the fluid. 1. have comparable dimensions. 1. but rather it is necessary to speak in terms of six stress components at a point. Such a condition is termed a hydrostatic state of stress.. we conclude that in an inviscid fluid.8 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS cs. shearing stresses must be inserted in Fig.2 PROPERTIES OF THE CONTINUUM 9 SHEAR STRESS. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. I which means that the shearing stress I is proportional to the rate of shear• I I • ing deformation. the shear stress T is defined in terms of the limit of the tangential component of force per unit area acting on 8A: T= By similarly applying Newton's second law in the y-direction. law in the x-direction. I I Consider in two dimensions a fluid • I 'y+dYdt I particle of fixed identity which at some instant of time t is rectangular T dy yx pi and which at the same t has one corner at point P in space (Fig. vector quantities. r Art. whether in motion or not. forces are of higher order than the surface forces. r --_ . that is.g. depends upon the orientation of the plane M. -- P» dy . and a similar analysis yields the same result of a hydrostatic state of stress. Y . and consequently the variation of normal stress with orientation is correspondingly small. where ax is the acceleration in the x-direction. and P'Y are all different. which is in fact the situation usually obtaining in practice. or pressures. Suppose for mathematical simplicity that only two dimensions are considered. noting that dx dy is negligible compared with dy. Shear stresses are again absent because of the lack of relative motion. STATE OFSTRESS INVISCOUSLUID.. Fig.. Coefficient of Viscosity.)'.. 1. as described graphically by Mohr's circle of stress. act on the three faces.. as follows: ~F". dx p Let the shear stresses acting on the two faces passing through P be denoted by T xy and T uxx As in the analysis connected with FIG. Consider next a viscous fluid at rest. Turning next to the general case F of a viscous fluid in motion. since the direction 'Ywas chosen without prejudice. it should be noted. we obtain the result that p". Most common engineering fluids are Newtonian in nature. and this is justified by the fact that in such cases (specifically. The forces exerted by the fluid outside the triangle on the fluid within the FIG. = ma". 1.

z. state of stress. According to this concept.dx iJx +- iJp iJy dy +- iJp iJz dz +- iJp iJt dt (1. however.4) In Chapter 9 a study of the kinematics of two-dimensional motion yields an expression for d-y/dt leading to TZII of Lagrange. An inviscid fluid differs from a viscous fluid in one other important respect. the corresponding increment in p may be written in terms of the partial differential quotients: iJp dp = . we say in the Eulerian method that the density is a function of location and time.) (1. y. however. but nevertheless stick to solid boundaries. and it is the viewpoint adopted in this book.6) where u and v are the respective velocity components in the x.I. etc. In a thin boundary layer near the solid boundary. 1.1 are always stated in the first instance in terms of a "system. on the other hand. and specifies at each instant of time the density. pressure. A perfect fluid. Mathematically.l Art. Treating the density as a typical continuum property defined at a point. 1.7) Relations like Eqs. . Many engineering problems refer to a steady condition of operation. with x. focuses attention on a fixed point of space.3 SYSTEMS AND CONTROL VOLUMES 11 After a time interval dt. is defined as an arbitrary collection of matter of fixed identity. which means physically that shear stresses are absent despite shearing deformations in the fluid. the included angle at P has changed by the amount d-y. Everything external to the system is called the surroundings. First. STEADY FLOW. the particle has moved to the position shown by the dashed lines. usually used in the dynamics of discrete particles. shear forces must necessarily be significant because of the large shearing deformations resulting from the fluid's being at rest at the solid boundary. and hence viscous.and y-directions. No real fluids are inviscid. A Newtonian fluid is now defined as one exhibiting the proportionality d-y TZII"""- dt J. fluids stick to solid boundaries with which they are in contact. that is. Systems and Control Volumes The System. which is sometimes called a free body or isolated body.- dt (1. there is the method Then for arbitrary increments in z. t) (1. z) iJp/iJt = 0 1. we indicate this by writing p = TIIZ = p. wherein the history of individual fluid particles is described.5) = p(x. viscous forces in the fluid may be ignored in comparison with inertia forces at some distance from the boundary. BOUNDARY LAYER. Mathematical Description of Continuum. 1. y. z. Using the density for illustration.7 may be written for all continuum properties thus far defined. The constant of proportionality is called the coefficient of viscosity" and is defined by d-y TZII = TIIZ = p.3. Specifically we define steady flow as a condition where at each point of space there is no variation of any property with respect to time. y. Since many real engineering fluids have small viscosity. may glide past solid boundaries with complete freedom. + :.. but the concept of a perfect fluid is useful inasmuch as it provides a simple model which at the same time approximates real fluids in many situations. The method of Euler. at solid boundaries the fluid has the same velocity as the boundary. In most problems of fluid motion Euler's description proves far more convenient. Furthermore. All real. the concept of a boundary layer has proved immensely useful. etc.G. There are two possible viewpoints in describing the motion of fluids. that is. and t. y. This division of the field of flow into two distinct parts is often of great practical service in making problems simple enough for analytical treatment. Through the use of the system concept one focuses attention on the body or substance of immediate interest and then observes interactions between the system and the surroundings." A system. A perfect fluid is defined as one having a zero coefficient of viscosity. are specified for a certain fluid particle of fixed identity.. of the fluid particle which happens to occupy that point at that instant.6 and 1. . PERFECTFLUIDS. and the corner at P has moved to P'. The four basic principles listed in Art. z as Cartesian coordinates.10 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch. density. at each instant of time the location. we may then write p = p(x. The boundary of a system is defined as the imaginary surface which separates the system from its surroundings.

4. but the Boundary of System at TIme t +dt (a) 1. By definition. for others. For some purposes. At time t the system occupies spaces .5a). Conservation of Mass The principle of conservation of mass.4. For convenience in analysis. and through which. Without this step it is useless to speak of such things as force. We wish to derive the form of the law of conservation of mass as it applies to this control volume. etc. Flow through a control volume. 1. mass.4 CONSERVATION OF MASS 13 To illustrate. and 2. we define a control volume as an arbitrary volume. for these terms are ambiguous until the system is specifically and rigorously defined. system moves in the general direction of the streamlines. the control volume remains fixed in space. it is always a closed surface. conservation of momentum. With this in mind. but may be either singly or multiply connected.isimpler to think in terms of a given volume of space through which fluid flows than it is to think in terms of a particular mass of fluid of fixed identity.5. when referred to a system of fixed identity.6. denoted by I. To make practical use of the control volume concept. This statement is a concise summary of experimental observation. Then these forms may be used as starting points for analysis.12 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch. relativity and nuclear effects being of course absent. fixed in space. This is particularly true in the interior of turbomachines. To begin an analysis in terms of a system is never incorrect. 2. consider Newton's second law. conservation of energy. therefors.5.5. m is the mass of the system. by considering control volumes of finite size. and the second law of thermodynamics in their elementary forms is necessarily the definition of a system. 1. However. useful results are obtained by considering infinitesimal control volumes. 1. and a is the vector acceleration experienced by the center of mass of the system. we must begin with a system of fixed identity. Consider an arbitrary control volume through which fluid streams (Fig.fluid flows.1 Art. 1. in order to apply (b) FI<l. we consider what happens during the succeeding time interval dt. 1. 1. and so we define our system as the fluid which at some instant t occupies the control volume. The identity of the fluid occupying the control volume changes from instant to instant. work. the law. heat. simply states that the mass of the system is constant. The surface which bounds the control volume is called the control surface.5a. With fluids in motion it is. II. The two positions of the system are shown in Fig. we consider three regions of space. III in Fig. Fluids are extremely mobile. The first step in applying the laws of conservation of mass. The Control Volume. where complex processes occur and where different particles of fluid passing through the machine experience different histories. The reformulation of the physical laws into control volumeform is effected in Arts. Next. F = mao Here F is the resultant vector force exerted by all the surroundings on the system. it is first necessary to cast the four basic principles into a form where they apply to the control volume rather than to the system. 1.. but sometimes it is an inconvenient starting point when dealing with fluids.5a by dashed lines. and it is therefore difficult to identify the boundaries of a fluid system for any appreciable length of time.

One-Dimensional duct or stream tube assume the flow to sional. and the integral is to be taken over the entire control volume. me. in the limit. Eq. =fdW' dt and so the conservation In law may now be expressed as (1. Furthermore. where d1J is an element of control volume. 1.v . But. 1. Steady Flow. . The ratio IimII . iiplat is zero for each element of control volume.+" p(dAnut)(Vn dt) _ V dA dWout = -d-t= dt -pn out where p is the local instantaneous mass density in the neighborhood dJiuut and V n is the corresponding local instantaneous component velocity normal to dAout.. = I p du c. Continuity Equation. 1. ap =s» iit With the help of Fig. i ~dU .v .!l.e.. Similar reasoning yields mIll.6) and be one-dimenp and V are cross section..v. . denotes the instantaneous The third term may be written mIIJ+d1 mass within the control volume. Then Eq. Or. = mI. + mIl. the identity of the fluid within the control volume changes continuously. One-dimensional flow. since of that element.5b. = we note that at any J Om. the mass of the system is conserved. at =fpVn dAin - fpVn dAout (1. we may express the mass rate of flow in the form limn.11) It is interesting to observe that the same result applies to incompressible.Idt is called the outgoing flux of ma88 across the area dAout.v.v.8) (1.summed up for all elements of control surface area dAout through which fluid leaves the control volume. I rV·dA (1.v. 1 I and III. 1.v. -> ~ ( ) dt at mo. . = ~ at at f pdU = f e.mI.v.4 CONSERVATION OF MASS 15 Thus.. 1.9 states that the incoming and outgoing mass rates of flow are identical: fpV"dAin = JpVndAout that the mass rate of flow is to be . we write mI. With the foregoing expressions. means the mass of fluid in space I at time t.. A where mI. 1. which states that the rate of accumulation of mass within the control volume is equal to the excess of the incoming rate of flow over the outgoing rate of flow.11 yields Steady Flow. of continuity. When the flow is steady. Consider the steady flow through a (Fig... Art. simple rearrangement then gives am a _. and so on. In vector form it is written where ~II . as dt goes to zero. and so. and is denoted for convenience by dWout.8 may now be written of of The first term represents the time rate of change of mass within space I. p is the local mass density where A 1 represents the cross-sec- FIG. since it is based on the assumption of a continuous medium. but the total mass remains constant.10) The integral sign in f dWout signifies where the last integral is a surface integral summed up over the entire control surface. =JdW out f ~dU c.. . unsteady flows. instant For detailed computations. 1.v.. . at =- Yc.. mI. Then since constant over each Eq. and at time t + dt it occupies spaces I and II. n. or the ma88 rate af flow. mathematically. where mo. represents the amount of mass crossing the elementary surface dAout during the time dt.6. space I coincides with the control volume. + mIll.v. . .14 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch.9) dt = ~8mllJ+dJ dt =" '-' 8mul+dJ dt a form which is usually called the equation..

v. Working Form of Momentum Theorem. For the sake of generality there is also shown protruding into the control volume some sort of obstacle. In the limit as dt goes to zero. The term f V x dw which appears here is called the flux of x-momentum.14) . the momentum theorem is written ze. that part of the obstacle lying within the control volume is part of the system whose motion during the time dt is being studied. Eq.16 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch. for the system at =!_f at pVxd'O =f c. or turbomachine blade. Flow through a control volume. space I coincides with the control volume. Fig.em. Considering the x-direction. dt dt L. however. We now form the expression (mVXhIt-tdt = ~VX ~mUt-tdt = ""V ~mUt-td. !_ (pVx)d'O at +fpVnVxdAout -fpVnVxdAin (1. we now derive the form of this law appropriate to a control volume.4. rial occupying the control volume at time t. and the right-hand side represents the time rate of change of the total x-momentum of the syst. the system being defined as the mate- & !!.v . together with the position of the system at times t and t + dt. such as a strut. = :t (mVx)c.6.1 Art. c. the dynamic relation may be written zr. using the expression for dw developed in Art. measured in a plane normal to the axis of the tube. 1. 1. guide vane. as dt vanishes. +f Vx dWout . we write. For the control volume chosen. flameholder. with the expressions developed above.5 MOMENTUM THEOREM 17 tional area at section 1. respectively. Then. The right-hand side may. screen. Following the approach used in Art. we note that ~F x becomes the algebraic net x-force acting instantaneously on the fluid within the control volume. and so the term in question becomes the time rate of change of x-momentum within the control volume. Momentum Theorem The fundamental principle of dynamics is Newton's second law of motion. 1.7 shows the arbitrary control volume.13 is usually called the momentum theorem and states that the net force acting instantaneously on the fluid within the control volume is equal to the time rate of change of momentum within the control volume plus the excess of outgoing momentum flux over incoming momentum flux. be expressed as 1. of the fluid element of volume d'O within the control volume. 1. !_(pVx)d'O at where p and Vx are the local density and x-velocity.v.7.4.13) FIG.v ._ (mV ) x = (mVxht-tdt + (mVXhlt+dt - & (mVxht - (mVxhUt The combination of terms (mVxht-tdt dt (mVxht represents the time rate of change of x-momentum within space 1. This equation is of great practical utility for simplified calculations. 1. Now. 1. In the limit.J x dt -I: d x Wout and note that a similar expression applies to the incoming flow. Newton's second law is a vector relation. acting on the system during the time interval dt.f Vx dWin (1. A useful working form of the momentum theorem is obtained by observing that !_(mVx)c. =f where the left-hand side represents the algebraic sum of the x-forces c.v.

Referring to Fig. In vector notation this is written ~Fxr d =- dt (2:mVxr) where r is the radius vector from an arbitrary origin of moments. Since the momentum theorem derives from the law of motion.J e .J + !prVn at Vt dAout - !prVnVt dAin (1. the momentum theorem for a control volume may be represented by a single equation. as for example the rotor of a turbomachine. and (ii) surface forces. In Cartesian notation.17) . acting on the control surface. magnetic forces. this is written Mz = 2:rFt = . 1. at +f (pV·dA)Vxr (1. Often it is useful to divide surface forces into two types: (i) those arising from normal stresses. Eq.B. 1.5 for converting from a system to a control volume. and generally involves shear stresses and either tensile or compressive stresses in the metal.15 (or ~Fx in Eq. Working Form of Theorem of Moment of Momentum. In practice. SURFACEORCES. The term ~F in Eq.v . or with reference to a coordinate system moving at constant velocity with respect to the earth.v. In most engineering problems. 1.14 for the x-direction) is the algebraic sum of all forces exerted by the surroundings on the material instantaneously occupying the control volume. the z-axis. namely that in Eq.v . the force acting on the surface of intersection between the obstacle and control surface must be included in ~F. on the other hand.6.lo6 THEOREM OF MOMENT OF MOMENTUM 19 Two similar relations apply to the y. BODY FORCES. However. By following the methods employed in Arts. If.and z-directions. Newton's law in its usual form is not valid since there must be inserted additional terms to take account of the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations. acting on the control surface. the sum of the moments of the external forces is equal to the time rate of change of moment of momentum. !_ (prVt)d1.B. it is written ~Fxr = d f !_(pVxr)d1.4 and 1.l Art. 1. 1. For accelerating coordinate systems.16) C. and (ii) those arising from shear stresses. inertia forces such as centrifugal and Coriolis forces would also be included. Vt is the component normal to r of the vector velocity projected in the xy-plane. Discussion of Forces. and M z is the net moment of forces about the z-axis. Here it is well to recall that forces may be divided into two classes. surface tensions also form a special type surface force. The acceleration term appearing in the law of motion is the acceleration with reference to the fixed stars.15) C. which is the fundamental principle in the dynamics of fluid motion. 1. where we may be more concerned with moments of forces (or torques) than with the forces themselves. This form of the law is especially valuable for the analysis of turbomachines. the theorem of moment of momentum may be derived for a control volume.Surface forces are those forces which are exerted at F the control surface by the material outside the control volume on the material inside the control volume. For a system. and considering moments about. 1. ~F =!_ at f c. Where interfaces between phases are involved. therefore.8. and comprise those forces involving action at a distance.15 the velocities must be measured with respect to the earth. and referring to Fig. we usually evaluate Newton's law with reference to the earth's surface as a coordinate system. a similar conclusion applies. 1. Illustrating Newton's second law for moments. the fluid pressures and shear stresses acting on the part of the obstacle within the control volume do not enter into ~F because the surfaces on which they act do not form part of the control surface. or viscous stresses.7. pV d1. In Cartesian form. we employ an accelerating coordinate system. By using vector notation. Body forces are forces which are proportional either to the volume or mass of the body. Moving Reference Systems.18 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch.8. or pressures. say.(2:mrVt) dt where r is the radius in the xy-plane to the element of mass m. Theorem of Moment of Momentum In dynamics useful information is often obtained by employing Newton's law of motion in the form where it applies to the moments of the forces. the acceleration of the earth's surface with respect to the fixed stars is negligibly small.J + f p(V ·dA)V (1. and include such examples as the force of gravitational attraction. tor force projected in the xy-plane. Such forces arise from force fields. Such forces are exerted in the form of surface stresses. In vector form. (i) body forces. 1. = f c. Ft is the x component normal to r of the veeFIG. but they are not of interest for our present purpose. and electrodynamic forces.16 is written as z-».

or / 1. Units and Dimensions It seems in order at this point to explain the system of dimensions in use throughout the book.20 FOUNDATIONS OF FLUID DYNAMICS Ch.p ® 1 The last system. it is evidently possible to redefine one of the units of measure in terms of the other three. 1. At section 2. . F '-" ma. HUNSAKER. l.1.1. G. Hydrodynamics. 1 Art.. L.7 we imply that PROBLEMS slug ft sec2 Ibf sec2 1--ft 21 which states that the algebraic sum of the moments rate of change of moment of momentum within the the excess of outgoing flux of moment of momentum ing incoming flux. B. it is convenient to remember that 1 slug == 32. the units in which these quantities could be measured were totally unrelated.. The remarks in Art.P2) in terms of V max. the velocity varies with radius according to the relation V = V max (1 .5 concerning forces are also to the moments of the forces. Fundamentals of Hydro.. Before the statement of the law of motion. Consider the frictionless. and TIETJENS. These ideas are illustrated by the following tabulation of three systems of units in engineering use Mass Ibm Ibm slug Length ft ft ft Time sec sec sec Force lbf poundal lbf go Ibm ft 32.2. the velocity is uniform over the cross section. once the proportionality law is known. L. and time. Inc. 2.L..174 Ibm REFERENCES AND SELECTED BmLIOGRAPHY 1. (b) If Tw is the average wall shearing stress retarding the flow between sections 1 and 2.1741bf sec2 1 Ibm ft poundal sec2 + dA + dV A V =0 =0 dp + p V dV + pg dz (b) Determine the integrated forms of these equations for an incompressible fluid. and thus one for which unit force gives unit mass unit acceleration. . which is the one employed in this book. thus reducing by one the number of primary quantities. Thus.and Aeromechanics.2.1. find the pressure drop (PI ..~:) F= ma (a) Demonstrate that VIV max = %. . is one where go has the numerical magnitude unity. or 1slug == Since we usually employ the slug as mass unit for numerical calculations. rand Tw. mass. section 1.i rl I I p A z ~ VJ11111 1. chanics. 1934. length. 3. C. but often refer to results in terms of pound masses.7. 1. PROBLEMS 1. For such a system of units. New York: Dover Press. Engineering Applications of Fluid MeJ. (a) Demonstrate by the continuity and momentum theorems that dp p F=-ma go 1 where go is an experimentally determined constant whose magnitude depends only upon the units of measure of the four primary quantities. .<D III PROB. where the flow is laminar and fully developed. However. PRANDTL. v « dV p + dp v p p+dp Gravity z A+dA z +dz ~f"~"""""1' _. writing as we do.._. An incompressible fluid flows in a pipe of radius R. we may eliminate go from the mathematical statement of the law. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. O New York: McGraw-Hili Book Co. p. steady flow of a compressible fluid in an infinitesimal stream tube. is equal to the time control volume plus over the correspondevidently applicable 1 Ibf == 1--. LAMB. with a value VI. 1. and RIGHTMIRE. which is tantamount to eliminating one of the primary units of measure and defining it instead in terms of the remaining three. H 6th ed. At the inlet.. Inc. 1947.11 III 1 slug ft lbf sec2 PROB.1. and so Newton could state his law only as a proportionality. G. . 1945. Newton's dynamic formulation is stated in terms of four completely independent physical quantities: force.

and on the free stream dynamic head. two-dimensional. V. (I. 1. 1. Newton's laws of motion. It is not the intent here to treat this subject with the fullness and detail found in well-known thermodynamics textbooks. and the two laws of thennodynamics. and the definition of a continuum property "at a point" are implicit in classical thennodynamics. . electricity. e E g h k m p Jl' q. In an experiment . 1.1 and 1. Y2PVo'. The definition of a fluid.. Q q% based on the projected area From the measured data.2 is relevant also to thennodynamics.::!"---==-----=-r-'1vo ~vo i ~ I---. (b) Calculate Pa . The basic concepts. and we now proceed to a similar brief review of the foundations of thermodynamics. NOMENCLATURE A Cp Cv to determine Vo p. = 100 ft/see. 1. assume that at sections 1 and 2 both str~a. capillarity. Measurements of velocity and pressure were made at the boundaries of the control surface shown.e. calculate the drag coefficient of the cylinder. and analytical statements relating to the first two of these four principles were reviewed in Chapter 1. The pressure was found to be uniform over the entire control surface. definitions. The sketch shows a vane with a turning angle (3 which moves with a steady speed U. the streams are thoroughly mixed and uniform in velocity. 1. 1.1 it was pointed out that the four fundamental principles governing the motion of compressible fluids are the law of conservation of mass. The vane receives a jet which leaves a fixed nozzle with speed V. At the end of the constant-diameter mixing-tube. 2) but rather to set out the general point of view. 1. The x-componeni of velocity at the control surface boundary was approximately as indicated by. For the purpose of this analysis. PROB. Much of the preliminary discussion contained in Arts.I . incompressible flow. except for a unit mass that part of the internal energy of a system independent of motion.22 FOUNDATlOXS OF FLUID DYNA:vrrCS Ch.l 1.. insofar as thermodynamics is concerned.. i. The sketch shows a jet pump (ejector or injector) in which a primary stream of high velocity liquid at section 1 entrains a secondary stream of the same liquid at low velocity at section 2. Introductory f() I I I V3~ I II) 7/ /////11/ I I~ Secondary t PROB. the concept of a continuum. = 0. .4 Ihm/ft' (a) Calculate Va (It/sec).~d Vo Vo Vo ~ j4d ~ Pl r-'"' b. Drag Force per Unit Length tpVo2d area specific heat at constant pressure specific heat at constant volume internal energy per unit mass internal energy of a system in general local acceleration of gravity enthalpy per unit mass ratio of specific heats mass pressure power heat heat transfer per unit time per unit area in the x-direction 23 q R 8 ~ (R S T u U v 'U vector heat flux per unit area rate of heat transfer gas constant universal gas constant entropy per unit mass entropy absolute temperature same as U..5. A.4. the definitions of the system and of the control volume given in Art. ~ ~ drag.. V. = 1 ft'. method of procedure. (a) Assuming that the vane is mounted on rails as shown in the sketch. Assuming that A.3. (b) Assuming that there are a large number of such vanes attached to a rotating wheel moving with peripheral speed U.3. and magnetism specific volume volume .4. gravity.3. remain have the same static pressure and that shearing stresses at the walls of the mixmg tube are negligible.5.PI (Ibf/in'). show that the work delivered to the wheel is a maximum when UIV = Yz. a circular cylinder of diameter d was immersed in a steady. = 10 ft/see. Likewise.. together with the remarks concerning their relative utility. at section 3. Vo Vo In Art.1. the sketch.. show that the work done against the restraining force is a maximum when UIV = ~. as the result of friction between the streams. and necessary relations employed in this book. and p = 64. PROB.1 ft'.. Chapter 2 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Remarks 2.

PROCESS. one of which "feels hot" to the touch. however. Formally. Thermodynamics deals with phenomena considerably more complex than does mechanics. some sort of interaction between the system and surroundings occurs during a process. 2.2 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 25 V w W speed mass rate of flow work. STATE.2 Art.It is a common fact of experience that OF when two bodies. the specification of this interaction completes the description of the process. however. 2. is the length of a mercury thread in a glass column. TEMPERATURE. Often.The concept of inequality of temperature derives by implication from the concept of equality of temperature. the second of which "feels cold. PROPERTY. After some time. but nonetheless arbitrary. etc. as evidenced by the changes in properties which occur in both. Later we shall identify this type of interaction as heat. Further thought concerning the possible utility of a thermometer as defined above reveals that the practical applications of thermometry hinge on the assumption that two bodies respectively equal in temperature to a third body must also be equal in temperature to each other." are brought together. A property of a system is any observable characteristic of a system. CYCLE. A simple and familiar temperature scale. For the present. and so it is necessary to generalize the foregoing definition of work. A cycle is a process wherein the initial and final states of the system are identical. Furthermore EQUAL-TEMPERATURE PROCESS. The state of a system is' its condition or configuration. A process is a change of state and is described in part by the series of states passed through by the system. These interactions may be divided into two classes: (i) work and (ii) heat interactions. but not always. direction. density. with numerical values established by a precisely defined. it follows that an arbitrary scale of temperature may be defined in terms of some convenient property of a standard body called a thermometer. The properties we shall deal with are all mensurable in terms of numbers and units of measurement and include such physical quantities as location. In mechanics work is defined as an effect produced by a system on its surroundings when the system moves the surroundings in the direction of a force exerted by the system on its surroundings. pressure. described in sufficient detailsb that one state since we distinguish inequality of temperature by observing changes of properties of the two bodies concerned. The laws of thermodynamics deal with interactions between a system and its surroundings as they respectively pass through equilibrium states. RECOGNITIONFWORKDONE. we observe only that if a process occurs in which the system and surroundings are at each step equal in temperature. It is sometimes called the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics. no further changes are observed. A listing of a sufficient number of independent properties constitutes a complete definition of the state of a system. . then the particular type of interaction associated with temperature inequality is absent from the process. EQUALITY TEMPERATURE. system of markings on the glass. may be distinguished from all other states. molecular weight elevation above given datum 1/ A z p thermal efficiency coefficient of thermal conductivity density 2. THE ZEROTH LAWOFTHERMODYNAMICS.5 we shall develop the appropriate form of the First Law for a control volume. We say that work is done by a system O on its surroundings if some other process can be found in which the system passes through the same series of states as in the original process. for example. The magnitude of the effect is measured by the product of the distance moved and the component of force in the direction of motion. For this to be true it is only necessary that the initial and final states have identical values of all respective properties. The definition of equality of temperature is based on the cognizance of some sort of interaction between a system and its surroundings which occurs when equality of temperature does not prevail. The~irs{ Law of Thermodynamics In this article we shall outline the structure of the First Law as it relates to a system of fixed identity) and in Art. this assumption is amply verified by innumerable experiments. Fortunately. This in no way implies that the temperature of the system need be constant during the process. Definitions and Concepts. we define equality of temperature between two bodies by saying that this equality exists when no interaction occurs upon the two bodies being brought into communication with each other. The use of constant-temperature baths and of evacuated jackets (such as Dewar flasks) are common laboratory techniques for effecting equal-temperature processes. some sort of interaction occurs.2. speed. and we then say that the two bodies are equal in temperature. Work.24 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS NOMENCLATURE-Continued Ch.

where W A denotes t~e work done by body A and WB denotes the work done b! body B. mixtures. carried out on a variety of systems. we define Q == W . For example. (2. The nature of the experiments were such that the processes were carried out with substantial temperature equality between the system and surroundings. and may be stated formally as follows: The amount oj work done by any system in going Jrom one state to another does not depend on the course oj states passed through by the system nor on the manner oj work interaction. With these conventions it follows that If a work interaction occurs between bodies A and B. These different processes involving several different kinds of work were.1. INTERNAL ENERGY. which we consider as the system. it is then necessary to interchange temporarily the system and surroundings. The type of interaction owing to temperature inequality is called a heat interaction. the magnitude of the work IS taken to be negative. some involving electrical work and others involvmg m~challlcal work with various mechanical arrangements. ti I This means that "motion of a force through a distance ISnot essen ia to a work interaction. Thus. . When the system does work on the surroundings. When temperature equality does not prevail during a process. some type of interaction occurs which is different in nature from the work interaction. This result has such important practical implications that it is called the First Law of Thermodynamics.We. namely. WORKRECEIVED. Thus. and (We. Instead. and substances undergoing chemical reaction. then the stor~ge battery could pass through the same series of st~te~ with no net o~tsIde effect except the rise of the weight. and the work done is not equal to the decrease in the property E. it is only necessary that there be some alternative surroundings which might engage in the process in such a way that the motion of a force through a distance would be the only effect external to the system. These experiments revealed that. . the decrease in which represents the work during an equal-temperature process. then the surroundings receive ~ork of the same amount from the system.ges while lighting an e~ectric light bulb. MEASUREMENT OFWORK. it follows that the storage battery did work in the original process. ". The principal experimental foundations of the First Law are the remarkable investigations of Joule. When work is received by a system. 2. (2. 2. To complete the definition of work. 2. The property E defined by raIse~ from one prescribed level to another in the alternative surroundmgs previously used for the recognition of work.t. and the actual work done by W. T~IS rule is analogous to Newton's third law for forces: action and reactIOn are equal. . this suggests that we define a new property or state function.d1 _ 2 denotes the work done by the system during an equal-temperature process while going from state 1 to state 2. moreover.2 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS but in which the sole effect in the surroundings is the rise of a weight.a. it is conventional to call the work positive.. Since the work in an equal-temperature process depends on the end states.26 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. the amount of work in ft-lb is th~ same ~s the number of pound masses which can be raised from a certam location on the earth to an elevation one foot higher. the amount of work done was the same for all such processes. By the CrIte~IOnfor . To recognize work received by a system. assuming that for a given system an arbitrary value of E is assigned to some specified reference state.a variety ~f processes.1 is usually called the energy or the internal energy of the system. comprising several pure substances..2) . and the amount of heat is measured by the difference between the work done during the actual process and the work which would be done during an equal-temperature process between the same end states. Heat. for a given system passing from a given initial state to a given final state by different equal-temperature processes. so long as the system and surroundings are equal in temperature at each step oj the process.1) where E is the newly defined property. To illustrate suppose a storage interaction. The First Law. (3) who carried ou~ processes from a given initial state to a given final state by .WB. denoting the heat "received" by Q. From this law follows the important corollary that the amount oj work done during an equal-temperature process depends only on the end states oj the process and not on the intermediate series of states.2 Art. Thus far we have spoken only of wor~ done by a system. If the bulb were replaced by an electric motor havmg very large conductors and a pulley on which is wound a string suspending a weight. then W A = . discha. The amount of work done by a ~ystem is measured by the number of standard weights which may . corresponding values of E at all other states may be found by measuring the work in equal-temperature processes and applying Eq. . we sa~ that If ~ system does work on the surroundings.

better still.q2 q2 11=--= =1-ql ql ql (2. and so from Eq. Since Q is also zero in an equaltemperature process. It is a matter of experience that when barriers called heat insulators. It may be demonstrated that. Similarly. we may regard the Btu as a measure of the change in E. the system is at a lower temperature (on all conventional thermometric scales) than the surroundings.1 to mean that 1 Btu = ql . is given by the decrease in the property E. 2.3. or.7) = 778. then QA = -QB. The First Law for a cyclic process. ql. A heat engine having a thermal efficiency of 100 per cent is called a perpetual motion machine oj the second kind.1. Consequently.Thermodynamics as we now know it was preceded by calorimetry.4 it follows that (2.5) which states that the algebraic net heat received by the system during a PERPETUAL MOTIONOF THESECOND KIND. The Second Law of Thermodynamics In this Article we shall briefly outline the structure of the Second Law following closely the detailed development of Keenan. may be interpreted according to Eq. and entirely in accord with Joule's interpretation. are heat engines according to this definition. which was based on the caloric theory of heat.q2 (2.3 is written ~Q cycle is equal to the algebraic net work done by the system during the cycle." or that heat is "transferred to the system. and so we have (2. (1) . it is often called the First Law of Thermodynamics.3. and the amount of heat is denoted by ql. in fact. When ~Q is positive we say that heat is "received by the system. 2. 2. and define it as the change in E of a pound mass of water between a state at 1 atm and 59.3 is nothing but a definition. if such a machine could be constructed. Adiabatic Process. it would be possible to obtain mechanical power without the use of any fuel whatsoever. on the other hand. 2.6) The useful output of an engine is the mechanical work. the thermal efficiency of an engine is taken to be Weng ql . and it is not difficult to extrapolate in one's mind to the condition where the insulation is so effective as to make the heat zero.4) where the symbols ~Q and ~W represent small amounts of quantities which are not properties. Eq. the heat for the system is equal in magnitude to and opposite in sign to the heat for the surroundings. JOULE'SCONSTANT." Within the framework of the First Law as stated here. In differential form for a small change of state. 2. Such a process is said to be adiabatic. 2. the ft-lb and the Btu) together with the Joulean "mechanical equivalent of heat. the heat Q reckoned from Eq. Heat Engines. The most familiar example of a heat engine is the steam power plant.5°F and a state at 1 atm and 60.2 Art.3 becomes very small. Eq. This observation is.28 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. That part of the surroundings from which the system receives heat during the cycle is called a source oj heat. but more precise.2 ft lbf The First Law for a Cycle. whereas dE denotes an increment of a property.t. connected with the Second Law of Thermodynamics. requires that the net work of the engine during a complete cycle be given by Weng = dE + ~W (2. We find in the literature independent definitions of work and heat (for example.5." It may be demonstrated that when heat is defined by Eq. if bodies A and B exchange heat only with each other. which. however. are placed between a system and surroundings at different temperatures. Weng.3) Although Eq. It is a matter of experience that when ~Q as defined by Eq.4 is positive.1. it follows that an equal-temperature process is also an adiabatic process. again. is like Newton's third law of motion. whereas the factor most closely connected with the cost of operation is the heat received. q2 represents the amount of heat rejected by the system to the sink during the cycle. experiments substantially like Joule's. according to Eq.5°F. 2. . 2.3 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 29 But We. This is in fact an acceptable statement if one adds that E is a property defined by Eq. the net change in E for a cyclic process is exactly zero. and vice versa. 2. and the closed-cycle gas turbine is another. Taking this as the definition of the Btu. 2. THERMAL EFFICIENCY OFHEATENGINES. A heat engine is defined as a system of fixed identity which undergoes a cyclic process during which there are work and heat interactions with the surroundings. 2. 2. Since E is a property. the heat ql being taken either from the atmosphere. Thus. from some low-temperature body which it is desired to refrigerate. Neither open-cycle gas turbines nor internal combustion engines.

3 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 31 The Second Law of Thermodynamics.2 Art. inasmuch as it delivers positive work Weng to the surroundings while receiving heat ql . (I) COROLLARY 1. suppose that in Fig. to high temperature permits Thus we have proved that our oft perceived observation of the irreversibility of heat conduction from a high-temperature to a low-temperature body is in fact a logical consequence of the Second Law. by operating a heat engine as shown in Fig. 2. Conduction of heat from low temperature perpetual motion of second kind. we say that a process is irreversible if there is no known way by means of which the system and all parts of the surroundings can be restored to their respective initial states. Experience teaches that perpetual motion of the second kind. For the types of phenomena of interest in this book. the cyclically operating system enclosed by the dashed lines becomes a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. and this suggests an alternative definition of irreversibility: A process is irreversible if the undoing of all the effects of the process would make possible the construction of a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. Note that all these are phenomenological manifestations of molecular actions. process it would then be possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind.1b. For example. The definition of an irreversible process is implicit in the definition of a reversible process. For this reason the reversible process is a useful standard of comparison against which real processes may be evaluated. for it can be shown that otherwise perpetual motion of the second kind would be possible. No real processes are reversible. and in this sense it is equivalent to the absence of a process. that is.· although greatly to be desired. A reversible process "does not make history. comprising the most important results for its practical utilization. This statement has such important practical implications that it is called the Second Law of Thermodynamics." for it may be completely undone. The confidence placed in this law derives not alone from the failure of efforts to construct perpetual motion machines of the second kind. 2. No heat engine operating between two heat reservoirs of fixed and uniform temperature can have a greater thermal efficiency than a reversible heat engine which operates between the same two reservoirs. 2. if there exists some known way by which the system and all parts of the surroundings can be restored to their respective initial states. 2. That is. stem by logical processes from its statement. that real processes are irreversible. However. but often real processes can be refined to the point where they approximate reversible processes. is impossible to achieve. IRREVERSIBILITY. Reversibility and Irreversibility. Our personal experiences that natural events tend to proceed in one direction only. then heat ql would be transferred to reservoir T 1 while the same amount of heat was lost from reservoir T2. low-temperature reservoir T2• If this process could be undone. Again we follow closely the development of Keenan. the irreversibilities can always be traced to three basic causes: (i) viscosity. The following corollaries of the Second Law. and (iii) mass diffusion. The connection between irreversibility and the Second Law stems from the proposition that if a way were found to undo any irreversible I I ~ Perpetual Motion Machine of Second Kind I I I I I t (a) (b) FIG.1a the heat passes by conduction through the metal bar from the high-temperature reservoir Tl to the . REVERSIBILITY. which may now be stated as follows: No system can pass through a complete cycle of states and deliver positive work to the surroundings while exchanging heat with only a single source of heat at uniform temperature. (ii) heat conduction.30 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. The proposition stated above may be similarly proved for irreversible processes in general.q2 from the single uniform-temperature source T2. but even more from innumerable experiments which serve only to confirm the many corollaries and consequences which stem from the Second Law. are intimately connected with the Second Law.1. Corollaries of the Second Law. We say that a process is reversible if it is possible for the effects of the process to be entirely effaced-that is.

Although the entropy is defined in terms of reversible processes and can only be reckoned from Eq. so the Second Law also leads to the definition of a property-the entropy. The ice point (O°C. The Rankine temperature is obtained from the Fahrenheit temperature by adding 459. or absolute centigrade scale.2-namely. 2.32 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. COROLLARY THE INEQUALITYOF CLAUSIUS. It will be recalled that a similar situation exists for the internal energy which although defined only for equal temperature processes.8) where Tl is the temperature of the reservoir supplying the heat ql to the engine. 32°F) has a temperature of 273. T2 rev (2. in a cycle made up of reversible steps. COROLLARY3. therefore. and they can exchange heat with the surroundings only when the temperature difference between the working fluid and the surroundings is vanishingly small. The quantity oQ/T for a reversible infinitesimal process is. according to Eq. 2. by a.. From Corollary 1 it follows that all reversible heat engines operating between the same two reservoirs of fixed and uniform temperature have the same thermal efficiency. the integral of oQ/T will be the same for both processes. More generally. . Thus. 4 it may be shown f C:)rev that =0 (2. The Kelvin scale of absolute temperature is defined by ql q2 of the system during an elementary part of the cycle. 2. This property. and T is the corresponding absolute temperature at that part of the boundary. COROLLARY2.2 Art. just as the First Law led to the definition of a new property (the internal energy).10) From this it follows that in going from a given state 1 to a given state 2 by two different processes. this in no way diminishes its utility for irreversible processes. so that the reversal of a reversible engine leads to the reversal of the net cyclic work and heat interchanges with the surroundings. to the latter. is defined by dB -= (oQ) T r.2 on the Kelvin. COROLLARY5. Thus. It follows further from Corollary 3 that it is impossible for systems to have zero or negative absolute temperature. or absolute Fahrenheit scale. has meaning nonetheless for processes which are not at equal temperature. that different thermometers agree only at one or two fixed points but generally differ at all other points. inasmuch as it is a property having a particular value (with respect to some reference condition) for each equilibrium state of a system. which is called the entropy. often rounded off as 460. From Corollary 2 it may be shown that a temperature scale defincd in terms of the efficiency of a reversible engine operating between two reservoirs of fixed and uniform temperature depends only on the temperatures of these reservoirs and not on the nature of the engine nor of the thermometric fluid. we may say thefCoQ/T)rev depends only on the end states and not on the intermediate series of states. and T2 is the temperature of the reservoir receiving the heat q2 rejected from the engine.0 (2. The integral is to be summed for all parts of the boundary and over the entire cycle. THE ABSOLUTE TEMPERATURE SCALE. From Corollary that.7. Friction must be absent from reversible engines. 2.9) of heat received at a part of the boundary and this may be represented by the area under the curve representing the process on a thermodynamic diagram of temperature versus entropy (Fig.g. 2. 5300R). and is the differential of a thermodynamic property. For reversible processes the heat received by a system in passing from state 1 to state 2 is given. THE ENTROPY. It may be shown that 4. perpetual motion of the second kind is possible unless and is most useful for practical calculations.2).12) < T.11) (2. In this book absolute temperatures will be reported on the Rankine scale (e. by using a reversible engine as a thermometer.3 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 33 Here it is well to remark that a reversible engine is reversible in each element of its cycle. it is possible to avoid a basic difficulty of thermometers constructed as outlined in Art. and a temperature of 491.11. both of which are reversible. when a system passes through a complete cycle. an exact differential.7 on the Rankine.11 with the aid of imaginary reversible processes. = f where oQ is a small amount o Q f TdB (2.

i. and z. Since the entropy is defined by Eq. etc. magnetic. electrical.13) == E/m ==S/m where ~Q and T have the same meaning as in Eq. and in the absence of electrical. 2. since the change in U can be evaluated from measurements of work in processes which are not necessarily reversible. Reversible and irreversible temperature-entropy diagram. are important also in thermodynamics.9.. Eq. 2.15 refers to changes in properties between equilibrium states of a system and is. it may be shown that. electrical. and so on. density. For a pure substance defined in this way. v. 2. When a system is isolated from all heat exchange with the surroundings.15) where '() is the volume of the system and U is that part of the internal . for an infinitesimal process of any system. COROLLARY THE SECOND 6. or internal energy per unit mass. it may be evaluated for any chosen process between a selected pair of end states. 2.13 and 2.. Hence we define e 8 > ~Q -T (2. Furthermore. it may be shown that dU p d1J dS=---T where e is the specific internal energy. the most practical way of measuring changes in entropy. Thermodynamic Properties of the Continuum Re~ersi~le AdIabatIC s S FIG. magnetic. these changes being made manifest by changes in pressure. The Internal Energy U for a Pure Substance.e.3 illustrates the paths of reversible and irreversible adiabatics on the temperature-entropy diagram. therefore. Capillary. but the system may undergo accelerations and may be subject to gravitational forces. in general. and temperature. Eq. where z denotes elevation above the earth's surface. 1. therefore. dS The continuum properties density and pressure. and the entropy. 2.14) (dS)adiabatic ~ 0 which is the well known principle of the increase of entropy. In addition. Small letters denote values per unit mass. adiabaties. it is convenient to work with the "specific" values of the properties. In addition.A system whose chemical composition during a given process is both homogeneous and invariable is called a pure substance. (ii) an equaltemperature change of elevation of the system in which there are no + (2. 2. Fig.13 shows that (2. Regarding the latter two. and capillary forces. Reversible heat transfer on FIG. it may be shown that the inequality sign always applies to irreversible processes. s. The specific volume is the volume per unit mass and is. and capillary forces.2 Art. 2.14 for reversible processes.2. we have in this chapter introduced several additional properties more uniquely related to thermodynamics. RELATION BETWEEN FIRSTANDSECOND LAWPROPERTIES FORAPURE SUBSTANCE. 2. the inverse of the density. and capital letters represent values for the entire system.4.4 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF CONTINUUM 35 T T Reversible Adiabatic i \( \ Irreversible Adiabatic ~ /1' . E is the internal energy for the entire system. Let us select a simple process comprising three steps: (i) an equal-temperature change of speed of the system in which there are no changes in p. the internal energy. v == 1)/m = l/p The values of such properties as e./\ Irreversible Adiabatic energy E which is independent of the system's motion and of gravitational. p. and magnetic forces are absent or negligible in most engineering problems involving fluids. LAWIN ANALYTICAL FORM.34 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. This relation is the most convenient analytical form of the Second Law. defined in the preceding chapter. namely. 2. "at a point. m is the mass of the system. the system may undergo other changes in state owing to heat transfers or to motions of the boundary against external forces. the values per unit mass.3. are defined according to the train of thought illustrated by Fig. Often it is convenient to employ an expression for e which separates the effects mentioned above. together with the definition of the entropy. it follows that the equality sign necessarily applies in Eqs." or for a fluid particle. the temperature.11. From Corollaries 4 and 5. 2. Since e is a property.1.

>.16) The Enthalpy. and c". the factor of proportionality depending only on the units of measurement and on the local thermodynamic state. a control volume. in which the right-hand side is the change of internal energy of a pure substance in the absence of changes in speed and of body and capillary forces.Zl) where g is the local acceleration of gravity. and so it is convenient to define a shorthand symbol for this sum.)" (2. we have e2 el Units and Dimensions. Ibf.)p.el = (V22 . == (.. perhaps a compressor or turbine. Fourier's law of heat conduction states that the heat flux per unit area in a given direction is proportional to the temperature gradient in the same direction. For the second step. 19a) FIG. sec. The units of some typical thermodynamic quantities are then as follows: Q U cp 8 x ft Ibf ft Ibf/slug ft lbf/slug R ft lbf/slug R Ibf/sec R 2. In this article we shall do so for the First Law. and T. where V denotes the speed of the system. Passing through the control surface are a stationary strut and a rotating shaft attached to a turbomachine. For the entire process. and V.V12)/2. namely. 2. 19b) where q is the vector heat flux per unit area.5 THE FIRST LAW FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 37 changes in p. In most flow problems the terms U and pv appear as a sum. Two "specific heats" are in common use. slug. - aT ax (2. 2. Consider the flow through the control volume of Fig.4. it follows again from Eq. .. by definition. The right-hand side is usually called the increase in potential energy. therefore. is defined by q = ->'VT (2.36 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. + g(Z2 - Zl) (2. the word "heat" in their titles is a misnomer carried over from caloric theory: Cp C Boundory of System ot Time t p == (. the right-hand side usually being called the increase in kinetic energy. called the enthalpy: (2..2 Art.uI. We shall adopt as standard units the ft. In vector language.17) Specific Heats.1 and Newton's second law that e2 . and degree Rankine. p. Flow through control volume. As will be seen from their definitions. and aT/ax is the temperature gradient in the z-direction.5. so now it is desirable to do the same for the two laws of thermodynamics. 2.1 and Newton's second law that e2 . For the third step. we set e2 .el = ~ . 2.el = g(Z2 . We consider what happens during the time interval dt. and VT is the vector gradient of the temperature.4. and (iii) a process involving changes in p. The First Law for a Control Volume Just as it was desirable to put the law of conservation of mass and Newton's second law of motion into forms applicable to the flow through = U2 - Ul + vl-2 V12 . and is defined by qz == ->. it follows from Eq.18) Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity. The minus sign is inserted as the heat always flows from high to low temperatures. p. The proportionality constant is called the coefficient of thermal conductivity>. following identically the pattern of procedure employed in Chapter 1. but no changes in z and V. with the system defined as the material occupying the control volume at time t. 2. c. where qz is the heat transfer per unit time per unit area in the x-direction. For the first step.

power delivered by means of a rotating and the shaft and the power delivered by other shear forces.5 THE FIRST LAW FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 3\1 Eq. owing to the torque in Steady-Flow Energy Equation. we write dE dt = (EI. as the interval dt becomes vanishingly small. But dAout dx is the volume of the mass element ~mIII+d" which volume may be written as v ~mIIt+d" The total rate of work done by normal stresses during the process may now be set down. These are respectively denoted by CPshaft CPshear. the work done during the process is the result of normal and shear stresses at the moving boundaries of the system. 2. If the control surface also coincides with the inner casing of a machine.21 is then simis plified greatly. then." "flux of kinetic energy.5). we may write ~Q dt = ~ the rotating shaft resulting from the shear stresses in the plane cut by the boundary of the system. if the control surface coincides with the stationary wall of a duct or machine casing. The mass flow W is then alike at both sections.+<!. 2. etc. This work may be conveniently divided into two categories: (i) the work done by the part of the shaft inside the system on the part outside the system.38 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. Let section 1 represent the incoming flow through the control surface (Fig.20) dWout - Rate of Work Done.v.17. 2. · it .21) (~W) dt = f pv ~mII'+dl normal dt WORKDONE BY SHEARSTRESSES.hear zero. + CP. We may rewrite Eq. this becomes E dd t = (aE\ +fe ael e. In the limit.+<!.. (h + V + gz) pV·dA 2 2 (2. Now we put the three terms of this expression into more convenient form. dWin (h + V2 + gz) dWout 2 (2. 2.. The First Law. (ii) the shear work done at the boundaries of the system on adjacent fluid which is in motion.v-. CP.hear plays an important role for a control surface lying within the viscous boundary layer. and using the expression for e given by Eq.+<!. 2. as dt vanishes.haft CP. CPshaft and CP. On the other hand. and electrical forces.2 Art.16 and the expression for h given by Eq. 2.) dt I. Eq. and section 2 the outgoing flow. the flow is steady and may also be regarded as one-dimensional..5. Likewise. and so it is convenient to define Q == ~/w as the heat received per unit mass of fluid passing through. h FIG." etc. (EI• + Em. -f (h + :2 + gz) f~ at e. Taking the normal stress at the boundary of the system as the hydrostatic pressure. magnetic. where dx is the component of distance moved normal to dAout. In many practical engineering problems. the work done by the system owing to normal forces at an element of area dAout is p dAout dx.) E I.hear course refer to the of material instantaneously occupying the control volume. since the strut is not in motion. Note that shearing forces at the strut do not contribute to CPshear. Omitting from our considerations capillary. Rate of Heat Transfer. 2. 2. 2. as where the integrals involve such terms as the "flux of enthalpy. we finally obtain the following expression applicable to the control volume: Rate of Change of E.hear + +f e. WORKDONE BY NORMAL STRESSES. with the aid of the foregoing. as ~Q dt = di + dt dE ~W in terms of the rate of heat transfer.. Ul sional flow. -E dt + fe ~ ~mIII+<!' dt _ ~ . Referring to Fig. Combining the expressions developed above.v. + En.4. . and Wx == CPshaftiwasthe shaft work.20 somewhat more compactly with the help of vector notation: ~= CPshaft CPshear + + (ep) d'O + J: 1:. CP.(aatE) fe dWin Since space I coincides with the control volume as dt vanishes. for the system. CPshear zero at such points even though is there may be appreciable shear stresses. One-dimend eIrvere d per urn mass 0f fluid passmg trough. If ~ is the rate of heat transfer (ft Ibf/sec) through the control surface from the surroundings.4 may here be written.

justified in proceeding in the present manner. 2. Eq. ffi is the universal gas constant. Eq. 2.6. therefore. u du du = = = u(v. The Second Law for a Control Volume Employing the same control volume. 2. it should be realized that there are a few problems.s. or equation of state. From well-known thermodynamic relations it may be shown that for any pure substance obeying Eq. ffi = 1545.13 may be put into either of the following forms applicable to the flow through a control volume: Real gases appear to obey Eq. and we are.26) whereT is the absolute temperature.a. Nonequilibrium States.T p W P ffi (2. = .. 2. the same system. given by pV = W". :t d: ~ . R is the gas constant of the particular gas.4)(32.26 exactly at zero pressure or at infinite temperature. so that in this respect the science would be more appropriately named "thermostatics.174) ---- ft lbf R slug-mole 2. The definition of a perfect gas is in two parts. Equation of State. On the other hand.2 THE PERFECT GAS 41 With these assumptions.27a) so that the change in internal energy between any pair of end states is given by (2. and W is the molecular weight. there results (2..7. and the same process as in Fig. We shall therefore set down here for later reference the special thermodynamic relations which apply to a perfect gas." How. In the usual engineering units.26 it is also true that (aujaV)T = i. we may write with the aid of the foregoing result. 2.4. spV·dA (2. Eq. For steady. T) (au) dv av T + (au) aT Cv dT v o· dv + Cv dT = dT (2.27b) . CDc.ZI) which is the familiar form found in most textbooks on engineering thermodynamics.23b) where dst is the incoming rate of heat transfer through an elementary area dA of the control surface. even when supersonic speeds are involved.40 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch.21 is reduced to the form Q 2. + h2 . 2. and T is the corresponding temperature of the control surface at that point. fSdwout ~ fSdWin (2. Since we are dealing with a pure substance. 2.23a) 0 d: (sp)d1J +~ . the assumption of the perfect gas laws is sufficiently in accord with the properties of real gases as to be acceptable. then.V 2 2- VI 2 2 + g(Z2 . Thermodynamics deals with equilibrium states of a system. can we apply the usual methods of thermodynamics to flow problems where fluid particles are undergoing changes of state at a finite rate. and so cannot be passing through equilibrium states? Investigations of this point reveal that in most practical problems. notably the flow through a shock wave.23 reduces to (2.26 is an accurate approximation to real gases provided that the pressure is low compared with the critical pressure. and hence depends on temperature alone. the departure from thermodynamic equilibrium is negligibly small.v. if heat transfers across the control surface are negligible. one-dimensional flow (Fig.24) and. wherein the departure from thermodynamic equilibrium is very great.hI + ---- . The Perfect Gas (2. For temperatures not low compared with the critical temperature. + i s i.5). the first of which is the pressure-density-temperature relation.22) For most problems in gas dynamics.4 ft lbf R Ibm-mole = (1545.25) which is equivalent to saying that the internal energy of a perfect gas does not depend on density. 2. Internal Energy and Enthalpy Changes.v.= RT = . Eq.

Art. = Cp(T2 TI). Cv.31a) (2. 1 = CpTl [(::)-k J - 1 J (2. and T and p are connected with each other during the process by the following laws: TVk-1 = const. 2. and R. 82 81 du T +.28a) (2. k = %.hi = and (ah) dp ap T + (ah) aT dT = O.30) Of the four quantities Cp. plays an important role in isentropic processes. The Isentropic.R In - P2 PI = Cv In - (T2)k r. = Cv In T2 r.27 and 2. 2.= . upon integration.32b) (2.29 and 2. (V2)k-l VI (2. Applying the special relations of a perfect gas to the general relation between 8. 2.31b) h2 . It is defined by (2. Tk-l/p = const. 2. k. p and v. we form cp Gas Constants. monatomic gases have n = 3. etc. and the knowledge that h depends on T alone. It is calculated in terms of the initial temperature and the pressure ratio as follows: k-l (tlh). 2.32 that T and v.T1) = Cp(T2 .32c) 82 - 81 Cp In - T2 r.33) . The second part of the definition of a perfect gas is that Cv.(u dT dT dh + du pv) = dT + -RT dT d = Cv +R (2. and v. the kinetic theory of gases shows that n+2 k=-n where n is the number of degrees of freedom of the molecule.29 that cp is also a constant. p~ k = p// = const. With Eqs. = = Cv In - P2 PI + cp In - V2 VI = Cv In ( - P2 )( PI - (2. k-l k CV = --. k-l etc. and then Eqs. we get ds = and. is assumed to be constant.2 From the definition of the enthalpy it follows that h is also a function of temperature only. only two are algebraically independent. such as freon and gaseous compounds of uranium have large values of n and consequently values of k only slightly larger than unity. and so sometimes we speak of a "semi-perfect gas.29) Alternatively. we may eliminate either T or the aid of pv = RT. have n = 5. inasmuch as both u and pv are functions only of temperature. nitrogen.. u. the perfect gas law. for example. R allowing the entropy change to be simply calculated in terms of the end properties. From the definitions of Cp and h.dp p +c p dT = cp dT (2. If the entropy is constant at each step of the process. For isentropic flow processes the enthalpy change is important.28b) Changes of Entropy. Gas with Constant Specific Heats. Hence (ahjap)T = 0 dh Considering now a perfect gas.28 yield U2 Ul = Cv(T2 . one for which pv = RT but having specific heats variable with temperature. which has already been shown to be dependent on T only. V. Diatomic gases such as oxygen. . = Cv In (T2) V VI r. we may derive. = CpTl [(~:). it follows from Eq. and k.T1) (2. and so obtain 82 81 from this expression with t'2 ) VI k The ratio of specific heats. For the most simple molecular model. (P2)-<k-l) - PI cp = --R.30. Thus.7 42 THE PERFECT GAS 43 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch. C R. Extremely complex molecules. Often the isentropic process is taken as a model or as a limit for real adiabatic processes. This restriction is not so good an approximation to real gases as is the equation of state. k = 3i.32a) == ( - ah) «r p = d . it follows from Eqs.= T + R In ~ p dv cv-+RT dT dv v When a substance obeys the perfect gas law there is a simple relation between Cp." that is.

To simplify the analysis. J. in many cases. Let us calculate the velocity of sound for a plane. it is closely connected with the velocity of propagation of small pressure disturbances. 2. of London.44 FOUNDATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS Ch.e. The rate of change of density with respect to pressur€ is. 1884.) London: Taylor & Francis.M. has a density p + dp. the result principally of pressure changes from one point to another. JOULE. and moves to the right with a velocity dV. In Fig.. Such a wave might have been initiated. P. with the velocity of sound. velocity c. The fluid through which the wave front has passed is at tb pressure p + dp.2 REFERENCES AND SELECTED BmLIOGRAPHY 1. and is motionless. Inc. i..1. 3. as we shall see.. has a pressure p and a density p. The Velocity of Sound 'I'he. Inc. p Velocity of Propagation of a Plane Pressure Pulse. Heat and Thermodynamics. an important parameter in the analysis of compressible flow. . therefore. by a slight inward motion of a piston at the lefthand end of the pipe. 3. W. The fluid on the right. infinitesimal pressure wave proceeding along a pipe of uniform cross section. Chapter 3 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 3. (Phys-Soc. NOMENCLATURE a A C Cp k l L M p R <R 8 mean molecular velocity area velocity of sound specific heat at constant pressure ratio of specific heats mean free moleculaf path length Mach Number pressure gas constant universal gas constant entropy per unit mass T V w W a absolute temperature velocity mass rate of flow molecular weight Mach angle bulk modulus of compression boundary layer thickness coefficient of thermal conduetivity coefficient of viscosity density f3 ~ x p. New York: McGraw-HIll Book Co.1a the wave front is assumed to propagate steadily to the right with a. These variations are.1941. we reduce the process to one of steady motion by imagining that the observer travels with the steady speed of the wave 45 . New York: John Wiley & Sons. 1937.J..' H. KEENAN. The Scientific Papers of James Prescott Joule. and.term compressible flow implies variations in density throughout the field of flow. for example. Thermodynamics. ZEMANSKY. into which the wave front is moving.

dp = pcdV (3. or c= V (ap/ap). differentiating.dV) which reduces to dp p dV c (3. An interesting conclusion concerning turbomachinery can be drawn from these figures. and. 3. for an infinitesimal wave. we get for the velocity of sound in a perfect gas. The momentum equation may be written. and consequently.5) + dp)] = w[(c .3 as a partial derivative at constant entropy because the variations in pressure and temperature are vanishingly small. the shear forces on this control volume are negligibly small compared with the pressure forces. the compress- where A is the cross-sectional area.1 with Eq. the limiting design factor on rotative speed may be either stress considerations or compressibility considerations. it might be noted.. EFFECTOFMOLECULAR EIGHT. 3. and in freon refrigerating gases or uranium hexafluoride. the process may be considered both reversible and adiabatic.. we see that. c-dV The ratio dp/dp is written in Eq. Identical results for the velocity of propagation of a small disturbance are obtained for a cylindrical wave spreading from a line source and for a spherical wave spreading from a point source.2 then yields c2 = (ap/ap). The continuity equation is then written for the fluid on both sides of the wave front. on the other hand. 3. the velocity is reduced from c to (c . = constant = kp/ p = kRT 3 MOMENTUM EQUATION. To avoid excessive stresses. isentropic. the speed of sound in air is of the order of 1100 ft/sec.dV) . which is equivalent to superposing a leftward velocity c on the flow of part (a). At normal atmospheric temperature. and the density from p to p dp.2) . and. therefore. and noting that from w =p4c. as A[p (p Thus. we get Simplifying. of the order of 4200 ft/sec.. the tip speeds of rotors in turbomachines must not exceed a figure in the neighborhood of 1000 to 1500 ft/sec. in general. is Euler's equation for a steady motion (note that dV is the decrease in velocity in the direction of motion). gases with small molecular weights have large sound velocities and vice versa. the process is nearly reversible. In hydrogen compressors. we obtain In p . Thus. Fluid flows steadily from right to left.4) of an infinitesimal pressure pulse. Considering a stationary control surface surrounding the stationary wave front of Fig. the pressure rises from p to p dp.k In p dp p dp = k. 3. ~ It-P+dP~p. Noting that the area is unchanged. p (ap) ap (a) Observer at rest. Propagation .dV).1. (b) Observer moving with wave front. we pc = (p + dp)(c . in air compressors. in hydrogen. the continuity equation. 3. 3. Since k varies only between narrow W limits. In the shows the appearance of the process to such an observer who is moving to the right with the velocity c. For a perfect gas the relation between pressure and density in an isentropic process is given by f1 ~ p/l = constant cp (3. Moreover. At the same time. makes the process nearly adiabatic. the comparative rapidity of the process. as it passes through the wave front. CONTINUITY EQUATION.1) This equation. c =~ = vkiiT = VkCRT/W (3. of the order of 300 It/sec. a Art. Fig. and noting that = pRT for a perfect gas. therefore.46 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch.1 THE VELOCITY OF SOUND 47 front. Velocity of Sound in a Perfect Gas. Combination of Eq. (3.c] where W is the molecular weight. 3. It is also a matter of experience that losses in efficiency mount rapidly as the flow velocity relative to the blades approaches the sonic velocity.3) + + (bl I Stationary Wave Front ~ it-P+dP-"__pFIG. together with the smallness of the temperature variations. Putting this into logarithmic form.

which is enormously in excess of fluid velocities which can be produced in a liquid. but the fractional variations in pressure. there are astonishing differences in flow pattern and general behavior. For many problems in the flow of gases. in the case of a projectile moving through air. Realms of Fluid Motion. the fractional variations in pressure and temperature may be very large. And. To illustrate this in a simple way. For example. or degrees F abs. The science of Ballistics is a special branch of Gas Dynamics. VELOCITYF SHOCK O WAVE. Although the term Gas Dynamics is used. Shock waves are discussed in Chapter 5 and in Volume II. Velocity of Sound in Incompressible Fluid. At the opposite end of the scale. In the case of air at normal pressure and temperature. usually called a shock wave. At each instant of time the point source may be imagined to emit an infinitesimal pressure wave which spreads spherically from the point of emission with the speed of sound relative to the . The speed of sound in common liquids is of the order of 5000 ft/sec. This realm. the flow may with little error be treated as incompressible. Eq.3. COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDMOTION. and the fractional variation in density is insignificant. in compressible flows. 3. and density are of significant magnitude. Indeed. and density are all of significant magnitude.2 INCOMPRESSIBLE. by definition. INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUIDMECHANICS. however. much as the impulsive motion of the piston in Fig. A wave of finite strength." in the sense that the fractional changes in density are so small as to be negligible. Physical Differences Between Incompressible. or when a fluid flowspast a body or within the walls of a duct.The fluid velocities are small compared with the velocity of sound. temperature.2. Pressure Field Created by a Moving Point Disturbance.5 becomes c = 49.3. 3. this ratio may be as great as 0. AND SUPERSONIC FLOWS 49 ibility limitation is never a factor. cannot experience changes in density. depending on whether the fluid velocity is greater or less than the local speed of sound. Velocity of Sound in Air. it is safe to say that one's "instincts" or past experience with subsonic flows are completely useless when dealing with supersonic flows and are apt to lead to false conclusions. it is well to remember that the science of thermodynamics plays a role equally important to that of the science of dynamics in the motion of compressible fluids. At any instant of time. a point source of disturbance moving at uniform linear speed through a compressible medium. the velocity of propagation increasing with the wave strength.48 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. Some of the different fields of fluid motion may now be classifiedas follows: ACOUSTICS. Often we speak of the "incompressible flow of a gas. Consequently. and the fractional variations in pressure. 3. Eq.3 shows that the speed of sound is infinite in such a fluid. When a body moves through a fluid. SUBSONIC. therefore. is the principal subject of this book. and this local disturbance creates a pressure pulse which propagates into the exterior air. each element of the projectile's surface area pushes the neighboring air out of the way. and Supersonic Flows The influence of compressibility of the medium can lead to marked qualitative differences between the physical natures of incompressible and compressible flows.02Vr (3.2 (corresponding to a velocity of about 200 It/see for air at normal atmospheric temperature) before the computed error in the pressure variation exceeds one per cent. often called Gas Dynamics. 3. Chapter 25. it is useful to adopt momentarily a point of view which is somewhat oversimplified yet at the same time brings out the salient physical phenomena. 3 Art. let us consider the pressure field created by the most elementary type of a moving disturbance-s-namely. No fluids are truly incompressible. Following this line of thought. It will be shown later that the error produced by neglecting compressibility in the computation of pressure variations is of the order of one-fourth the square of the ratio of the stream velocity to the sound velocity.1 results in the propagation of a pressure wave down the duct. The fluid velocities are extremely small compared with the velocity of sound. although liquids show little change in density. Subsonic. Since an incompressible fluid is one which. pertaining to the free flight of projectiles at velocities greater than that of sound. Pressure pulses emitted anywhere in the fluid are thus felt simultaneously at all other points. each element of solid surface tends to divert the fluid from the course which it might otherwise take. 3. temperature. the pressure perturbation at a point away from the projectile will be some sort of sum (not necessarily linear) of those pressure pulses which were initiated earlier at each element of projectile surface and which have arrived at the point in question after spreading spherically from the individual points of emission. The velocities are appreciable compared with the velocity of sound. therefore. always propagates with a greater velocity than that indicated in Eq.6) where c is in It/sec and T is in degrees R. compressibility effects represent the principal limiting factor on the rotative speed for freon and uranium hexafluoride compressors.

For the subsonic source. Conversely. that is. (al (b) INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW. Transonic motion (V Ie = 1). but the pressure pattern is no longer symmetrical.2c shows the pressure pattern at the boundary between subsonic and supersonic flow. . three rules of supersonic flow THE ZONEOFACTION ANDTHEZONEOFSILENCE. 3. Thus. Subsonic motion (V Ie = 31). In the case of the supersonic source.2d illustrates the three rules of supersonic flow proposed by von Karman. The effect of pressure changes produced by a body moving at a speed faster than sound cannot reach points ahead of the body. When the source moves at subsonic speeds. the point -1 represents the location one unit of time previously. 3. In each pattern the point 0 represents the present location of the disturbance. 3. Fig. where t is the unit of time.2d indicates that the phenomena are entirely different from those at subsonic speeds. to find the present location of the wave which was emitted at time -3. 4aChcone iii . a. the pressure disturbance is felt in all directions and at all points in space (neglecting dissipation due to viscosity). Fig. we have the rule of concentrated action: the pressure disturbance is largely concentrated in the neighborhood of the Mach cone that forms the outer limit of the zone of action. A stationary point source in a supersonic stream produces effects only on points that lie on or inside the Mach cone extending downstream from the point source. For example. the pressure and velocity at an arbitrary point of the stream can be influenced only by disturbances acting at points that lie on or inside a cone extending upstream from the point considered and having the same vertex angle as the Mach cone. Supersonic motion. or when the speed of the moving point disturbance is small compared with the speed of sound. 3. THE RULE OF CONCENTRATED ACTION. 3. and the effect of the disturbance is not felt upstream of the source of disturbance.2. and so on. illustrating Karman's (Vie =2).2 INCOMPRESSIBLE. for the case where the stream velocity is identical with the sonic velocity. The distance between point -3 and point 0 is then given by aVt where V is the velocity of the point disturbance with respect to the medium. but are usually qualitatively applicable for large disturbances.50 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. the intensity is unsymmetrical. All the pressure disturbances are included in a cone which has the point source at its apex. When the medium is incompressible (Fig. AND SUPERSONIC FLOWS 51 fluid. SUBSONIC.2b.2 is a measure of the intensity of the pressure disturbance at each point in the field of flow. The cone within which the disturbances are confined is called the Mach cone. 3. For each of these previous locations there is drawn a concentric circle showing the distance to which the corresponding wave has spread. The proximity of the circles representing the different pressure impulses in Fig.2 shows several pressure pulse patterns for different values oj the speed of the source compared with the speed of sound in the fluid. For supersonic speeds Fig. THE RULE OF FORBIDDEN SIGNALS.2a).!? ~I c: I Zone of Silence Karman's Rules of Supersonic Flow. the intensity of the disturbance is symmetrical about the source. (1) These rules apply exactly only for small disturbances. 3. The pressure pattern which exists at any instant is then found b) superposition of all the pressure pulses which were previously emitted. (a) (b) (c) (d) Incompressible fluid (V Ie = 0). the pressure pulse spreads uniformly in all directions. a circle is drawn with -3 as a center and with a radius 3ct. (d) Zone of Silence (c) FIG. 3. SUBSONIC FLOW. SUPERSONIC FLOW. I Art. here the wave front is a plane. Pressure field produced by a point source of disturbance moving at uniform speed leftwards. for the stationary source. Fig. Fig.

52 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. Fig. the noise is concentrated in a "crack. showing individual through the open space between the tubes. (a) Schlieren photograph. Aberdeen). 3. wavelets which passed passes over the ear of the observer. Patterns like those of Fig.3b is a schlieren photograph of a similar arrangement. Cone-cylinder projectile traveling at supersonic speed (Ballistic Research Laboratory. 3. at near the speed of sound (after Ackeret). no wave front appears. 3. 3. (b) Several short tubes in series. schlieren. corresponding to Fig. Shadowgraph of supersonic bullet passing through cylindrical tube.3. for example. when the latter does occur. 3. except that slots are cut in the tube to allow FIG. 3. Fig. AND SUPERSONIC FLOWS 53 These rules explain why a projectile or rocket moving at supersonic speed cannot be heard until the wave attached to the nose of the body (a) (b) FlO.4 shows a bullet traveling at nearly the speed of sound and having a wave front similar to that of Fig. and why.2 INCOMPRESSIBLE. or interferometer techniques. (a) Single tube. is a shadowgraph of a bullet which has just passed through a cylindrical tube while traveling at supersonic speed.2d. At low subsonic speeds. (a) (b) FIG.5. which are optical methods for demonstrating density variations in a gas.2b. Schlieren phoonly a selected number of wavelets to pass out tograph of bullet traveling of the tube into the field of view. (b) Interferometer photograph. SUBSONIC.2c. 3. 3." Configurations like those of Fig. 3 Art.2 can be made visible in gas flows by means of shadow. showing Mach cone and spherically spreading wave fronts (after Ackeret). 3. 3. .3a.4. 3. 3. Fig.2 may easily be observed in the form of gravity waves on a free water surface when a sharp-pointed object is drawn through the water at varying speeds. The bow wave of a surface ship resembles the Mach cone of Fig.

8) Note that the Mach angle is imaginary for subsonic flow. where [t: is the scale factor for length.9b) = Vic and so that fMM =fvVlfec fM 3. We inquire as to the conditions which must be met in order that the flow pattern for the model be similar to that for the prototype. fkk Ignoring viscosity for the present. In the next article we shall see that it is a dimensionless parameter important for model testing. 3.9a. and tail are visible (N ACA). and tail of a model of a guided missile are shown in Fig.7.3 Art. The ratio of these two velocities is called the Mach Number.9c) Combining Eqs. 3. Vic (3.. fins. (3.. Later it will be shown that it is also a parameter which almost always appears in the equations of motion. fins. 3.6...9c.2d) is related to the Mach Number by sin a :.7 is to be taken at the local temperature and pressure of the stream. and 3. both of these equations can be satisfied only if (3. The Mach Number and Mach Angle In the preceding article it was shown that the nature of the flow pattern depends on the comparative magnitudes of the stream velocity and the sonic velocity. 3.9a) From Eq. Thus: dp and Since the scale factors are constant. 3. it varies from point to point in the flow field. Similarity Parameters Consider a prototype flow pattern and a model which is geometrically similar (as regards solid boundaries) to the prototype.. we have: M = ..7) The speed of sound in Eq..5 we obtain in similar fashion c and so that IcC = le=~ Likewise.4. 3. Euler's equation of motion must be satisfied for both the prototype and model. = -pVdV ~ . We have found the Mach Number to be a criterion of the type of flow pattern.. M:. Thus.6.54 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. from Eq. = Ivlfe (3.. and. 3..9b. 3. Schlieren photograph of a model of a guided missile in a supersonic wind tunnel. 3. Mach cones from nose.3... we can summarize the other properties of the prototype flow and model flow as follows: Prototype V p p Model -fvV fpp fpp L c M iLL fcC fMM k FIG..4 SIMILARITY PARAMETERS 55 The Mach cones produced in a supersonic wind tunnel by the nose. 3. Similarly.. we finally get: ... The semi-angle of the Mach cone (Fig. and let fLL be the corresponding characteristic length for the model.. of course. 11M (3. Let L be a characteristic length for the prototype..

the continuity equation. the energy equation. Domain of the Continuum The concept of the continuum has already been discussed in Chapter 1. in respect to orders of magnitude. and the equation of state. By considering all the physical equations which govern the flow. we may illustrate the approach to this problem by supposing that. In the boundary layer or in the interior of shock waves. when combined with Eq. then the boundary-layer relations for a flat plate show that which. the NavierStokes equation. prototype. similarity in M is by far the more important. Dimensionless Groups Governing Compressible Flows. the Prandtl Number is nearly the same for all gases and varies only slowly with temperature. and >... and so the Reynolds Number and Prandtl Number must be included inthe similarity conditions. where viscous effects and heat conduction effects are relatively unimportant. That is. in a given problem. Fortunately. . . For those regions of the flow outside the boundary layer. 3. BOUNDARy-LAYER FLOW. Of the two. we now express the Reynolds Number of the body as Rey == -- pVL JJ. POTENTIAL FLOWOUTSIDE BOUNDARY LAYER. viscous and heat conduction effects are all-important. When viscosity is present. must be the same for both model and. M 3. Thus.5 DOMAIN OF THE CONTINUUM 57 By examining the energy equation. since k has a relatively weak influence on the flow pattern. This (3. VRe.e. Using the foregoing relations. cal c VeL V L 1 where L is a characteristic body dimension on which relation may be rearranged to give -~1 M Rey is based. where it was pointed out that the criterion for continuum mechanics is that the mean free molecular path be small compared with the smallest significant body dimension. it may be shown that the ratio of specific heats. taking into account the further effects of viscous work and heat conductivity."" . If the Reynolds Number is large compared with unity.. However. it is usually necessary that only M and k be alike in order to have similarity.6. let us consider a steady flow and make some approximate calculations of an order-ofmagnitude nature.10. thus showing that the ratio of Reynolds Number to Mach Number is a dimensionless parameter indicative of whether or not a given problem is amenable to the continuum hypothesis.3 Art. For this case Tsien (3) suggests that the realm of continuum gas dynamics be limited to instances where the boundary-layer thickness is at least 100 times the mean free path. These are (i) The Mach Number (ii) The Reynolds Number a""c where a is the mean molecular velocity and l is the mean free molecular path. the smallest significant body dimension is of the order of the boundary-layer thickness. Rules for determining the validity of the continuum concept in terms of Rey and M cannot be stated generally since they depend on the particular type of problem.10) L Rey (iii) The ratio of specific heats. namely. k (iv) The Prandtl Number..!k = 1.56 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. It is seen that the continuum concept is likely to fail either at very high Mach Numbers or at extremely low Reynolds Numbers.!M> 100 . 0. 3. IL "" 1M = 1 pal and or the Mach Number must be the same for the model and prototype if the flows are to be similar. yields -~-1 o VRe. we conclude that In order to determine when this condition is valid. the thermal conductivity. IL the coefficient of viscosity. it is possible to arrive at four dimensionless parameters which must be the same in order for two flow patterns to be similar. . i.. CpIL!>". == -- pal IL . N ow kinetic theory (2) shows that. a similar analysis applied to the inertia and viscous terms in the Navier-Stokes equation leads to the criterion that the Reynolds Number must be the same for similarity in flow patterns. k. where Cp denotes the specific heat at constant pressure. and if the boundary-layer flow is also laminar.

the possible states in the stream tube are represented in a diagram of c versus V by the steady-flow ellipse (Fig. the energy equation may be written as (3. ft. and the shadowgraph) depend on one of two physical phenomena: (i) the speed of light depends on the index of refraction of the medium through which it passes. The steady-flow energy equation for the flow in such a tube is then 3. V2 . The velocity is small compared with the sonic speed.0 4.7 shows the Reynolds Number per unit length as a function of flight Mach Number for various altitudes. Steady-Flow Ellipse. and sonic speed are of comparable magnitude. The velocity is very large compared with the sonic speed. 20 20. 1428). Subsonic Compressible Flow. and. 3. The velocity and sonic speed are of comparable magnitudes. compressible gas flows lend themselves particularly well to optical methods of investigation.7. and only cOI~. 3. Changes in velocity are very small.000 5 50.. for a perfect gas.. as a consequence of this first phenomenon. Reynolds Number per foot versus Mach Number. ft. The velocity showing realms of compressible flow. Consider a stream tube in which the flow does not exchange heat with the fluid in neighboring stream tubes. at- Supersonic Flow. Optical Methods of Investigation Apart from the conventional methods of experimentally investigating flow patterns by means of pressure and velocity surveys.7 OPTICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 59 Fig.000ft.000 30. 3.000 ft. 3. 3 Art.6. the schlieren. Comparison of Methods. !1h = Cp !1T. and T = c2jkR. Steady-flow adiabatic 0 0 1. Altitude Sea Level 25 According to Eq. Different parts of this ellipse represent schematically different realms of compressible flow having significantly different physical characteristics. Introducing these.11) where Co is the speed of sound at the stagnation condition (where V is zero) and Vmax is the maximum possible velocity in the fluid (where the absolute temperature is zero).0 FIG. 3. Changes in V and c are of comparable magnitude. (ii) light passing through a density gradient in a gas (and therefore through a gradient in index of refraction) is deflected in the same manner as though it were passing through a prism. 3. and the index of refraction of a gas in turn depends upon its density.J 10. The Adiabatic.M 3.\~~:::::::~I/". 3.8. Fundamentally. III 15 >- a: ft. Incompressible Flow. Hypersonic Flow. The difference between V and c is small compared with either V or c. based on standard mosphere (NACA Tech. -2 + h = constant Now. but the former is less than the latter. based on the standard atmosphere.0 Mach number. lncorn / \ presslble / Transonic Flow. Changes in c are very small compared with changes "in V. the optical methods in common use (the interferometer.~ secondarily through changes in c.8). C V<c . it is sometimes convenient to subdivide the subsonic and supersonic categories in classifying different types of flow. but the former is larger than the latter.0 2. together with the relations between the gas constants.000 10 40. and thus variations in Mach Number are almost exclusively the result of changes in c.7. No. In a high-speed gas flow the density changes are sufficiently large to make these phenomena sizable enough for optical observation.11./ Vac Transonic v FIG. Changes in Mach Number take place through substantial variations in both V and c.58 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. ID 0 _. ellipse. Note. Classification of Compressible Flows When dealing with problems of steady motion. I. Changes in Mach Number occur primarily Subsonic because of changes in V. -.

and that the air in the test section has exactly the same density as the reference air of the upper light beam. Now imagine that the pressure in the test section is uniformly and gradually increased. 3. these rays will ROTATION MOUNT INTERCHANGEABLE SOURCE MOUNTING COMPENSATOR CHAMBER TRANSLATOR . but will gradually darken as the test-section density is increased.9. 3. the first derivative of the density gradient). Fig. " In order to assist the reader in the interpretation of photographs taken by the three methods. and the shadowgraph the least. 3. and is then directed to the lower splitting plate by means of the upper mirror.. measures directly changes of density. The schlieren method.e. Mach-Zehnder type of interferometer (M.------MOUNT FILM HOLDER COMPENSATING PLATES INTERFEROMETER SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM-INTERFEROMETER FIG. Since the different rays of the lower beam are retarded by different amounts as they pass through portions of the test section of different density. The two beams which divided at the upper splitting plate are recombined at the lower splitting plate and are then focussed by a lens system on either a ground glass screen or on a photographic plate. also based on phenomenon (ii). and then passes through a monochromatic filter. It then passes through the first "splitting plate. the interferometer yields the most information. the interferometer is the most costly and the most difficult to operate. the basic principles of operation will be outlined. and its greatest utility is in giving an easily interpretable picture of the flow field together with a rough picture of the density variations in the flow. and it has found its greatest utility in the study of shock waves. INFINITE-FRINGE INTERFEROGRAM.. 3 Art.I.9. The Interferometer. eferring to Fig. On the other hand. Then the two light beams will be exactly in phase when they recombine. each ray of light passing through the test section traverses gas of constant density. The shadowgraph method. that there is no flow. After the density has reached the point where the lower beam is out of phase with the upper by one-half wave length. Suppose to begin with that all the mirrors and splitting plates are exactly parallel and in line." which is a plane halfsilvered mirror that passes half the light and reflects half the light.7 OPTICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 61 The interferometer. Since the entire lower light beam is thus retarded by the same amount. FORMATION OFINTERFERENCE PATTERNS. the screen will remain uniform in light intensity.T. the type which seems to be the most useful for gas-flowinvestigations.60 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. based on phenomenon (ii). whereas the shadowgraph is the least costly and the easiest to operate. 3.. The light which passes through the first splitting plate passes through a pair of glass compensating plates which duplicate in thickness and quality the glass side walls of the test section. measures density gradients. Of the three methods mentioned. without attention to the numerous optical and mechanical refinements required. Gas Turbine Laboratory).9 is that the lower beam has passed through the test section. except for slight refraction effects. the . it is inferior to the interferometer in this respect. and the screen will appear uniformly bright.9 shows the essential parts of the MachZehnder interferometer. and the choice of method depends on the nature of the investigation. Thus. and is primarily suited for quantitative determination of the density field. The light which is reflected is changed back to its original direction by the lower mirror and then passes through the test section. light R from the source first passes through a collimating lens which renders the light parallel. Details of these refinements may be found in References 4 to 12. and thus an interference pattern will be formed at the screen. 3. We shall assume for this discussion that the flow in the test section is normal to the paper and that the flow is two-dimensional in planes nor- have various phase differenceswith the corresponding rays of the upper beam when they are recombined. mal to the paper and normal to the light beam. Therefore it makes visible only those parts of the flow where the density gradients change very rapidly.. The chief differencebetween the two beams of light in Fig." Eachmethod therefore has its own useful niche in experimental work. measures the second derivative of the density (i. based on phenomenon (i). Although it is theoretically adaptable to quantitative use.

ta from Eqs. the screen will again be at maximum brightness. which states that -- n-l P = KG-D (3. tion. and represent contours of constant density. and b the fluid in an adjacent dark band. . the density on each dark band in the nozzle may be computed from Eq. the light beams passing through adjacent dark bands of the test section are out of phase by one room-air wave length. 2Y2. The dark bands in Fig. Gas Turbine Laboratory).10.LT. the difference in time for a light beam to pass through a as compared with that to pass through b is given by tb ta =-~room Now the frequency f of a given monochromatic light is constant.17) where KG_D.9. but has on it contours of brightness. As the density continues to increase. These contours represent contours of constant index of refraction. 3.17. . _ V _ Vroom _ Va _ Vb Vvacuo (3. the term "infinite-fringe" signifying that the light field is uniform in the abFIG. there will be formed on the screen successive light and dark fringes. This difference in traversal time is also related to the differencein speed of light in the test section. 3.12) The right-hand side of this equation is easily computed from the dimension of the test section. ~vacuo G-D (3.10 may be evaluated in the following manner. 3. defined by (3. 3. 3. Infinite-fringe interferogram of flow through supersonic nozzle sence of flow through the test sec(M. Referring again to Fig.11a). With the same mirror geometry as before.15. Fig.10 are loci of points where there is complete interference.16) It remains to connect the index of refraction with the gas density.. with each fringe lying parallel to the axis of rotation (see.14 and 3. we obtain finally Pb-Pa=-LK . Hence. 3. Eliminating n in Eq. Further increases of density will produce a lightening of the screen until. Thus.10. 3. If the second splitting plate is rotated through a small angle with respect to the first splitting plate. Fig. This is done through the empirical Gladstone-Dale equation. the density in the low-speed flow upstream of the throat is found bv measuring the temperature and pressure in this low-speed region. With this as a reference. 3. where ~ and V denote respectively the wave length of the light and the speed of light. be out of phase at the screen.15) Eliminating tb .For a more accurate quantitative evaluation. if a represents the fluid lying in one dark band. The change in density from one dark band to the next in an interferogram like that of Fig. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION. FRINGE-DISPLACEMENT METHOD. and therefore represent contours of constant density in the flowfield. two "coherent" beams of light which were ia phase at the first splitter will. the method described above is modified as now described. the Gladstone-Dale constant. Therefore. and introducing Eqs. the cycle of darkening and brightening will be repeated. tb ta =- L Vb -- L r. for example. room-air wave lengths. The optics are the same as above. consider now the situation with flow through the test section.18. (3. through the change in lengths of light paths. we may obtain for the differencein index of refraction between adjacent bands (3. On the dark bands the light waves passing through the test section are out of phase with those which pass through the room air in the compensating chamber by Y2. except that the screen is no longer uniform in brightness.3 Art. 3. although the accuracy of this procedure using the infinite-fringe interferogram is not high unless the optical components are extraordinarily accurate.13. 3.18) Vroom (3. the color of the monochromatic light employed. 3. Therefore.10 shows such an "infinite-fringe" interferogram of flow through a supersonic nozzle. uniformly spaced. Let us return to the situation where room air is in the test section of Fig. is constant for a given gas. and the value of KG_D for air. and Vb and Va denote respectively the speeds of light in fluid b and a. If the splitters are rotated about axes normal to the paper.14) f ---------=-- x ~room ~a ~b ~vacuo The velocity of light in a given medium is related to the velocity of light in vacuo through the index of refraction n.13) where L is the length of test section along the light direction. 1Y2.62 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch.7 OPTICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 63 screen will be uniformly dark.12 and 3.16 in favor of P by means of Eq. with a phase difference of one wave length.. 3. 3.

although the bands will remain parallel and uniformly spaced. similar fringe shifts will occur. 3. Fig. This will produce a uniform displacement of all the wave fronts passing through the test section.19) where P2 is the density in the test section. and the screen is uniformly illuminated by the portion of the light escaping the knife-edge. If the no-flownegative (Fig. that they are lines of constant density. from the flow photograph alone. 3. SUPERPOSITION METHOD. where there exists an image of the source.19 may source of small but finite width is collimated by the first lens and then passes through the test section. The fringe shift is a measure of the change in density in the test section. Now suppose that the air density in the test section is uniformly increased. Y t Gloss Walls Lens I Z Knife Edge Screen or Photographic Plate (a) No flow. and. and l is the distance shifted by a dark fringe in passing from condition 1 to condition 2. (b) Supersonic flow in test section. FIG. Indeed. (c) Superposition of (a) and (b). 3. (b) . with corresponding nonuniform density changes.where 5 is the difference in angles of rotation between the two splitters.LT. 3.11a) is superimposed on the flow negative (Fig.18 may be applied to either. to be two-dimensional.lIb).12 shows one of the numerous types of schlieren (striae) arrangements. there is introduced a knife-edge which cuts off part of the light. With no flow in the test section the knifeedge is usually adjusted so as to intercept about half the light. the interference bands on the screen to shift in a direction normal to the bands. 3. the light passing through the combination produces the light pattern of Fig.11c. 3. 3 . If both a flow and a no-flow photograph are taken. and Eq. 3. 3. and on the sign of the density gradient. for simplicity. At the focal point. the pattern of Fig. Light from a uniformly illuminated line Two-Dim. Eq. Schlieren system. 3. This is a 'particularly convenient way of determining the contours of constant density. Eq.lIb). 3.7 OPTICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 65 The spacing of successive dark fringes may be shown to be equal to ~room/25. By an analysis similar to that given previously. PI is the density at the initial reference condition. 3. and thus the number of fringes in the flow field is controlled by adjusting the geometry of the optical elements. interferograms for supersonic nozzle (M. Gas Turbine X. 3. depending on the orientation of the knife-edge with respect to the density gradient.-_1_ _ Lens ::::. for a consideration of the geometry of the two fringe patterns shows that the fuzzy dark bands of Fig.19 may be used to determine at each point the density change referred to the no-flow density. This displacement in turn will cause then be applied at each point in the flow.19 may be used for finding the density differences between two points of the flow. It is then brought to a focus by the second lens and projected on the screen. Therefore. Model I-L--J (c) Finite Line Source /<C' -.' The Schlieren Method.64 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. therefore. d is the distance between dark fringes in the reference condition. as they are no longer uniform. but. 3. When the flow is established in the test section (assumed here.11<---- FIG.12.11. it may be shown that P2 - PI = --- ~vacuo LKG_D (l) - d (3.11c are lines of constant fringe shift. the resultant fringes will be curved (Fig. Fringe-shift Laboratory). with each light ray passing through a path of constant air density) any light ray passing through a region in which there is a density gradient normal to the light direction will be deflected as though it had passed through a prism. 3. When there is flow in the test section. 3. Art. more or less of . Or.10. Eq.11c is like that of Fig..

If the source is far from the test section the collimatLens ~Odel ing lens is unnecessary. A photographic plate at the viewing screen records density gradients in the test section as different shades of gray. 3. 3. the boundary layers are not visible except on the inclined walls of the nozzle.11 (M. Accordingly. 3. and a viewing screen or photo-graphic plate. 3. Gas Turbine Laboratory). it may be shown that 1 . 3. In Fig. If the map is illuminated by glancing side light nearly parallel to x. 3 Art. to the term aX = LKG_DLKG_D- op Po~Jl- Sffi j ax op oy (3.13.7 OPTICAL METHODS OF INVESTIGATION 67 the light passing through each part of the test section "ill escape the knife-edge and illuminate the screen. if the density gradient were constant. only gradients in the y-direction will become visible. normal to the flow). However. The total angular deflection E of the ray in passing through the test section of width L is therefore given by L E=-=Lgradn R Resolving this into Cartesian components. and vice versa.14.12. iJ2p . Since the speed of a wave front of light varies inversely with the index of refraction n of the medium through which the light travels.13a and 3.13b are schlieren photographs of the supersonic nozzle of Figs. (b) Knife-edge vertical.20a) (3. 3. and show the different effects obtainable (a) (b) FIG. established in the test section the FIG. i.y-plane...Let us assume that the flow in the test section is parallel and in the x. Assume at first that the test section has stagnant air in it and that Source Viewing the intensity of illumination on the Flow Screen or Photographic screen is uniform. it is convenient to imagine that the photograph represents a plan view of a relief map of the flow field in which the vertical elevation is the gas density. 3. illumination in the y-direction corresponds to placing the schlieren knife-edge parallel to the x-direction.20b) Ey L- an oy = If the knife-edge is aligned in the y-direction (i.14) comprises simply a small.13a (knife-edge horizontal) light areas on the upper half correspond to dark areas on the lower half.e. In interpreting a schlieren photograph of a two-dimensional flow. a collimating lens. Hence density gradients in the x-direction will be made.= gradient n R where R is the radius of curvature of the light ray. (a) Knife-edge horizontal. Similarly. Noting that n is nearly unity for gases. it follows that a given wave front will rotate as it passes through a gradient in n.66 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. Similarly. since with this knife-edge orientation the density gradients normal to the flow are made visible. 3. 3.17.y-plane.LT. THEORYOF LIGHTDEFLECTION. 3. the pattern of shadows and brightness will correspond to a schlieren -+iJx2 iJy2 assuming two-dimensional flow in the x.11. since this normal is what we mean by the light ray. as in Fig.10 and 3. every light ray would be deflected by the same amount. bright source. When flow is Plote . we get for the angular deflections of the light in the z. In Fig. the boundary layers on the walls are clearly visible. visible. Thus the schlieren system makes density gradients visible in terms of intensity of illumination. 3. The Shadowgraph. Only if there is a gradient in density gradient will there be any tendency for the light rays to diverge or converge. Schlieren photographs of flow through nozzle of Figs. and there would be no change in illumination on the screen. with different orientations of the knife-edge. Figs. light beam will be refracted wherever there is a density gradient. Shadowgraph system. if the knife-edge is parallel to x. the latter is refracted as it passes through the density gradient.13b (knife-edge vertical) the upper and lower halves look alike. From this it is evident that variations in illumination of the screen are proportional to the second derivative of the density gradient. A shadow system (Fig. and taking note of Eq. but gradients in the y-direction will not be visible. only deflections Exwill influence the light passing the knife-edge. the normal to the wave front will follow a curved path. iJ p 2 . and that the light passes through the test section in the z-direction.and y-directions Ex = L= iJn photograph with knife-edge in the y-direction.10 and 3.e.

3°. To what pressure must liquid water be compressed in order that it leave a nozzle at atmospheric pressure with a jet velocity equal to the sonic velocity? Assume a constant bulk modulus of compression of 300. 5.7 (1947). 653. 3. 51. 11 (1948).1. Design and Performance of a Simple InterH. (f) liquid water at 14. . WINCKLER. 6. 13.62 psia and 73°F. Z. for a perfect gas. .. I. Wind-Tunnel Technique..I. 18. T.1359.. 3.SIRJAMES. Zeitschrift fur. Meteor Report. No. T Jour. PROBLEMS 3.8 (1945). 1947. (e) water vapor. L. and BAILEY. Jour. (c) uranium hexafluoride. S. Forschungsheft V. H. ferometer for Wind-Tunnel Measurements. J. and PUCKETT. 79. Development and Construction of an Interferometer for Optical Measurements of Density Fields. No. 1946. From physical reasoning it appears that at great distances from the projectile this shock wave becomes truly conical and changes in velocity and density across the shock become vanishingly small. 3 Art. 2. Memo. 396. C. The pressure and temperature of the undisturbed air are 14. Photographs of a bullet in flight show that at a great distance from the bullet the total included angle of the cone is 50.2. No. . I. 373. Amer. Sci. 3. Supersonic Aerodynamics-Principles and Applications. Translation. W. and (b) the actual value of k for each temperature. Show that c 3. 3. An Introduction to the Kinetic Theory of Gases..2 (1951). Jour.5.2 (1946). Vol. 14. 73. 1952. 1184 (1947). 53 (1933).4. (a) (b) FIG. SCHARDIN. BARRY. A projectile in flight carries with it a more or less conical-shaped shock front. 8. Aero. Vol. respectively. (d) mercury vapor. New York: John Wiley & Sons. p. Sci.. 10. 35. Soc. Introduction to Aerodynamics of a ComH. 1934). Das Toeplersche SchIierenverfahren. F. Schlieren and Shadowgraph Equipment N. REFERENCES AND SELECTED BmLIOGRAPHY 1. W. p. It is especially convenient and simple for making shock waves visible.. For comparison.D. Sci.000 psi. ZOBEL. Aero. 3. Instrumentenkunde.. A. No. W. (1950). Hence the rate of change of density gradient is positive on the upstream side of the shock and is negative on the downstream 9. pp. Show that. VONKARMAN..3.68 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. Rev. E. and BRYSON. Superaerodynamics. A. A Portable Mach-Zehnder F. Across such a shock the density increases from one side to the other in an S-shaped curve. No. SCHARDIN. Vol.. Aero. and HOLDER. ASHKENAS. 4. M. 11.. LIEPMANN. No. PANKHURST. H. Opt. Vol.I5b shows a schlieren photograph of a similar shock. 12. NACA Tech. and that the fractional change in absolute temperature is given by dT = (k _ 1) dV T c .. (a) Shadowgraph. {3 = p dp dp = v7i7P Calculate the velocity of sound at 70°F in the following media: (a) Air. 3. 7. Also see RA. Theorie und Anwendung des Mach-Zehnderschen InterferenzH. (b) Schlieren. BARNES. In the shadow picture the shock therefore shows as a dark line followed by a bright line. Detached shock in front of blunt body (Ordnance Aerophysics Laboratory).. C. E.6. Fig. London: R D Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons.. Band 5 (July-August. and BELLINGER. Refraktometers.4 for all temperatures. Mechanics of Rarefied Gases. p. C Studies of Faster Than Sound Phenomena. No. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in It/sec. for Air Flow Analysis. and VAN VOORHIS. JEANS. Fig.E. (b) hydrogen. knife-edge horizontal. LADENBURG. 3. pressible Fluid.7 PROBLEMS 69 The shadowgraph is therefore suited to flowswith rapidly varying density gradients. 424. A. D Interferometer. Cambridge. and is insensitive to flows with gently varying gradients. Calculate the velocity of the bullet. Jour. 367. Vol.. p. The compressibility of a liquid is usually expressed in terms of the bulk modulus of compression. Phys. No.15..L. 3. 82. 497. Interferometric R. TSIEN. Ausgabe B. the fractional change in pressure across a small pressure pulse is given by dp = k dV p c side. Inc.H. Plot and compare curves of the sonic velocity in air versus absolute temperature (a semi-log plot is suggested) using (a) a value of k of 1. the undisturbed air. Vol. and the Mach Number of the bullet relative to. 3. p. S.I5a is a typical shadowgraph of a detached shock wave. DEFRATE.TH. Mass..7 psia.

(b) Derive similar rules for a rightward-moving rarefaction wave and for leftward-moving compression and rarefaction waves. (a) Demonstrate that a compression wave (i. Calculate the pressure rise (psi) across the pulse for (a) water.1a strikes a stationary wall closing the right-hand end of the duct. a pressure pulse which increases the density of the fluid over which it passes) which moves rightward imparts a rightward velocity to the fluid. 3 3. Compare the pressure change across the incident wave with that across the reflected wave.8. PART II FLOW ONE-DIMENSIONAL . 3. (c) The rightward-moving compression wave of Fig. 3.70 INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Ch. and determine whether the reflected wave is a compression or rarefaction. A compression pulse changes the velocity of the fluid over which it passes by 10 ft/sec.7 psia and 70°F. and (b) air at 14.e..7. Demonstrate that it is necessary for a reflected wave to travel leftward.

The flow in pipes and ducts is very often adiabatic. (i) flow in ducts and (ii) flow in stream tubes. Furthermore. we mean a flow in which the rate of change of fluid properties normal to the streamline direction is negligibly small compared with the rate of change along the streamline. the isentropic process provides a useful standard of comparison for actual noszles and diffusers. where it is well known that the properties vary over each cross section. we in effect deal with certain kinds of average properties for each cross section. . By a one-dimensional flowwe mean a flow in which all fluid properties are uniform over any cross section of the duct. Hence the equations of isentropic flow may be considered exact. and. Viscous and heat conduction effects for such stream tubes. When applying the one-dimensional assumption to the flow in ducts. and the flow may as a first approximation be considered reversible. and in many involving flow through passages. exactly one-dimensional. in the limit. Introductory Remarks Theone-dimensional. since the function of nozzles and diffusers is to accelerate or decelerate a stream as efficiently as possible. for the flow through an infinitesimal stream tube is.1. No approximation whatsoever is involved in the case of a stream tube. there are elementary stream tubes which lie entirely outside the boundary layer. The errors in predicting the rate of change of properties along the duct axis may be expected to be small then. more strictly. Flow in Ducts. if (i) The fractional rate of change of area with respect to distance along the axis is small (dA/A dx« 73 1). therefore. it appears from experiment. are negligible. steady-flow treatment of isentropic flow finds important applications in two kinds of problems. the frictional effects are comparatively small. In virtually all problems involving flow around bodies. The One-Dimensional Approximation. unless discontinuities such as shock waves appear. Flow in a Stream Tube. as it is in nozzles and diffusers. isentropic.Chapter 4 ISENTROPIC FLOW 4. Or. When the duct is short. namely.

The following physical equations may be written for a control surface extending between the stagnation section and any other section in the channel: First Law of Thermodynamics. 4. 4. as shown in Fig. FIG. One state on this isentropic corresponds to zero velocity.1b) pV (4. All possible states lie on a line of constant entropy. so useful and so reliable that this method is one of the most powerful tools in the armory of the engineer.or even three-dimensional analysis. signifies free stream conditions Equation of State. (iii) The shapes of the velocity and temperature profiles are approximately unchanged from section to section along the axis of the duct.1c) p p " ()o Equation of Continuity. is independent of whether or not entropy changes occur. Indeed. (4. and is completely silent as to the variation of properties normal to the streamlines. NOMENCLATURE A C Cp usually called the isentropic stagnation pressure. Isentropic acceleration or deceleration on Mollier chart.1. For a given stagnation condition. tables . i. At the same time.1e) Performance Curves. For many practical problems the latter is of the essence. and is sometimes called the total pressure. ho. V Ic* pressure gas constant universal gas constant 8 T 3 V w W entropy per unit mass absolute temperature thrust velocity mass rate of flow molecular weight nozzle efficiency viscosity density ho=h+SecondLaui of Thermodynamics. showing stagnation enthalpy and isentropic stagnation pressure.3... 8 (4.1a) = 80 (4. We may write implicitly that h Definition of Mach Number. Governing Physical Equations. = h(8. Eqs. supplies information only as to the way in which the average fluid properties over the duct cross section vary with distance along the axis of the duct. This may be expressed in the form of charts . is M = Vic = v/V(fJp/fJp). by its very nature. p) (4. does not apply to M* (). p) 4. For example. The great virtue of the one-dimensional approximation is the marvellous simplicity it affords. G = w/A = signifies stagnation state ()* signifies state at which the Mach Number is unity. P --ho To Co I L_----~ I I I I I vi~ PI W --+-Flow TI h -5 =50 5 ~-h ~ I FIG. . since it has the same value for all states which are reachable from it adiabatically.~«~~~Urface Po Control . y2 2 c" F h k Cp Cw G M M* p R CR cross-sectional area speed of sound specific heat at constant pressure specific heat at constant volume pressure coefficient nozzle discharge coefficient impulse function mass velocity. suppose an arbitrary value of P less than Po is selected.74 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch. Stagnation Section «««~:. or algebraic equations. leading as it does to rapid calculation methods for a great variety of practical engineering problems. The value of the stagnation enthalpy. Po.1 may be used for constructing the performance curves shown in Fig.1d) P = p(s. for fixed values of 80 and Po. 4.e. wi A enthalpy per unit mass ratio of specific heats Mach Number dimensionless speed.2 GENERAL FEATURES OF ISENTROPIC FLOW 75 (ii) The radius of curvature of the duct axis is large compared with the passage diameter. 4.4 Art.2. Flow between stagnation section and any other section. it is well to remember that the one-dimensional approach.1). 4.2. and then the one-dimensional treatment must be supplemented by a two. the information resulting from the one-dimensional point of view is. The pressure at this state. Then the corresponding values of h and p . 4.2. when carefully interpreted. General Features of Isentropic Flow Let us first consider the isentropic flow of any fluid whatsoever through a passage of varying cross section (Fig 4.

3 are typical of gases and vapors but are somewhat different for liquids and liquid-vapor mixtures. but instead are found through -+-+-=0 A V . it is seen that the pressure always decreases in an accelerating flow and increases in a decelerating flow. 4. Pressure ratios greater than the critical correspond to subsonic flow. and the con(4. we arrive at the following conclusions of practical significance: (i) For subsonic speeds (M < 1). Critical Pressure Ratio.1d. We first write the steady-flow energy equation in differential form for two cross sections infinitesimally distant from each other.2b) (4.2e) Po : Const. 0 T ds dp/p = dh .2c.1a. (ii) For supersonic speeds (M dA dp increase in cross section. was employed.2a) < 0.2e.7() ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch. dA dV = 0 = = -pVdV be recognized as Euler's equation of motion for an inviscid is not surprising. the corresponding values of ui] A 00 Supersonic Su bsonlc and M may be reckoned from Eqs. 4.3 is the maximum in the curve of flow per unit area.dp/p. from Eq. dition of constant entropy.2d and rearranging.1c and 4. In other words . Typical variation properties in isentropic flow. 4. dA ->0' dp . 4. which indicates that an accelerating stream startof flow ing from rest must first decrease in cross section and then subsequently Substituting A Since the process is isentropic. p/Po. 4. V2) c2 = c'l (1 _ dV dp = 1.2 GENERAL FEATURES OF ISENTROPIC FLOW Eq. is called the critical pressure ratio. which is the dynamic equation for a frictionless fluid.1e.2c) (iii) For sonic speeds (M = 1). the corresponding value of V may next be found from Eq.3 cannot in general. introduce the equation of continuity in logarithmic differen- Thus: we hav? the astonishing result th~t the effects of an area change. the curves of Fig. 4. and pressure ratios less than the critical correspond to supersonic flow. be formulated analytically. 4. finally. we have dh so that dp This will fluid. This flow energy second law N ext we tial form. are exactly opposite for subsonic and supersonic flow. 4. according rized schematically in Fig. and has a value. and. 4. The possible types of flow. the equation of state. 4. giving = .3. dA dp = 0.2d) At Mach Number unity the area goes through a minimum. 4. dA = dP(~ _ dp) dp we get 77 may be found from Eq.M2 pV2 d P (4. ' In constructing the curves of Fig. 4. . This will now be demonstrated in a completely general manner.3. The most interesting feature of Fig. Distinction Between Subsonic and Supersonic Flow.4. 4.1b. inasmuch as s is known from Eq. to this tabulation. dA dV> (4. 4. ' FIG. so that dp/dp dA = dp A pV2 p V2 = (iJp/iJp).2c into Eq. The curves shown in Fig.4 Art. as the kinetic-energy term in the steadyequation was originally obtained with the help of Newton's of motion.V dV -<0 dV dA > 1). where the flow per unit area is a maximum. Thus dh = -d(V2/2) From the thermodynamic relation. -<0 Using this result in conjunction with Eq. Since the equation of state for real gases and vapors can seldom be put into simple algebraic form. or dp p d(ln p) dA + d(ln dV A) + d(ln V) = 0 (4. 4. o p/po Now. Eq. sayan Increase In area.1d. 4. This important conclusion is valid irrespective of the type of fluid considered whether gaseous or liquid. are summa- d(ln pAY) = 0. The pressure ratio. for all real gases and vapors. of approximately one-half.

Since negative temperatures on the absolute scale are not attainable. 4. Adiabatic Flow of a Perfect Gas Before restricting the discussion to isentropic flow. Using Eq.T) (4.5. }. (b) Irreversible adiabatic deceleration.. it is evident from Eq.4) .3d.. the steady-flow energy equation (Eq.h = cp t:J. and the vertical distance between To and T is proportional to the square of the velocity.3b) Cp Cv = R cp/cv C p Three Reference Speeds. ---. " ts-: . certain relations obtainable from the energy equation alone will be derived.. analytical results are obtainable.3a) t:J. 4. These relations are valid for any adiabatic flow of a perfect gas.3a and 4.1a) becomes v= V2cp(To .L~O Irreversible Deceleration ro v2 __j~7_j2C~_T* M= I -_ T p SUPERSONIC --+ i I . Effects of area change on pressure and velocity in subsonic and supersonic flow. 4.T (4. Referring to the temperature-entropy diagram of Fig.>: SUBSONIC Flow P Increases ~ .T) = ~k-l I~ R(To . 4.. particularly air at moderate pressures and temperatures._1-1:--YT V*2 o M=O To _~ Po __ ...1 (4..4. Using an asterisk to denote conditions at M = 1.5a) Another useful reference velocity is the speed of sound at the stagnation temperature. V* == c* . Co=~ (4.e. 4. 4. From this we see that for a fixed stagnation temperature To. it is assumed that the perfect gas laws are valid. is given by . the velocity at Mach Number unity. we have. all states with the same temperature have the same velocity.3. (sometimes called total temperature). Flow processes on temperature-entropy (a) Isentropic acceleration or deceleration. (b) s diagram. i.5. 4.. --C---r• M=I (7·'" ~ Flow p increases P s (a) FIG.3 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 79 direct computation.3c) 1 (4. which is often used for reference purposes. on the other hand. 4. the deviations from the perfect gas laws are negligible.. and the numerical computation of problems is greatly simplified. hence.J Vmax = 2k --RTo k. whether reversible or not.3d) Still a third convenient reference velocity is the critical speed.. by definition. If.5b) =k =--R kk (4. most calculations are based on these simple relations.. For many engineering gases.4 Art.>.78 ISENTROPIC FWW Ch. This maximum velocity.4 that there is a maximum velocity corresponding to a given stagnation temperature. lines of constant velocity are horizontal. For a perfect gas we have (4...> FIG. Flow p SUPERSONIC decreases ~ .

I~R(To T*) ~k-l =~ Combining these relations. (ii) zero temperature. 4. adiabatic flow of a perfect gas is V2 Moreover.9) + 2cpT == = constant k+l 1k__ T cp -kR kRT = 1_2 -ck-l k+l .1) and T ~ = c2 k- = kRT. this takes the simple and con1 V2 -+---=-k1 C*2 k- 1 venient form T 1 + -- 2 - c 2 = 1+ -- k- 1 2 M 2 (4. 4. we get the following relations between the three reference velocities. together with the numerical values for k = 1. The latter is not the value of M at the local sonic condition. but is rather defined as given above.7) Eliminating C2/C*2 from this pair of equations. V2 2cpT Stagnation-Temperature T T Eq. for a perfect gas.5. From the definitions of M * and M. 4.4: c* Co Vrnax ~k+l ~=2.6c) Ratio. this convention is not followed in the definition of M*. we get the useful formulas M*2= k 1 --M 2 k__ 2 M*2 _ 1 M*2 (4.8) + 1 Substituting this value of T* for Tin Eq.5c) The Dimensionless Velocity M*.6b) Co Vrnax C* (4. and k: V2 2 + __ which gives.4. C p ratio depends only on the The energy equation for and + 2 _ 1 M2 1+ __ 2 M2= (4. 4. it is useful to work with a dimensionless velocity obtained through dividing the flow velocity V by one of the three reference velocities of Eq. The Energy Equation in Kinematic Form.4. using Eq. local sound speed. and evaluating the constant at the three reference conditions of (i) zero speed.4 Art.5 through 4. 4. we get V*=C*=~ Note that Eqs.4 and the equation for the sound speed in a perfect gas. As a dimensionless parameter the Mach Number is very convenient.24 I 2 = 0. and rearranging. the first and last parts of Eq. N ow using Eqs. and (iii) sonic speed. Generally the most useful of these ratios is defined by M* == V/c* == V/V* It should be noted immediately that although in general the asterisk denotes the value of a property at Mach Number unity.8.6a) (4.8 may be divided by give V2 2 c2 k+l C*2 c*2 ~=1+--=1+-Since C p to = kR/(k . (4. 4. but it has two disadvantages: (i) it is not proportional to the velocity alone and.10) which shows that the stagnation-temperature gas constant k and Mach Number M. 4.7 may be obtained rather easily from Eq. we obtain three alternate and useful forms of the energy equation involving only the local velocity.3 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 81 or. 4.4 may be written V2kR kRT 2cp Furthermore. (ii) at high speeds it tends towards infinity. There is a unique relation between M and M* for adiabatic flow. after rearrangement -=-To T* 2 k k-l c2 = --c 2 k_l° 2 =V x2 rna = __ k-l k + 1 C*2 (4.80 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch.913 (4. therefore. Often.8.

4. 4. and density ratios at the critical state (i.9 and 4. 4.J ~~(~r - (4.01« II~ 1. When a stream with a given pressure. temperature. but the final temperature will be equal to the adiabatic stagnation temperature for either reversible or irreversible deceleration.1 k +l = pV = RT V = VkRT {k!To 1 ~R ~T v'To p = ~R -v'ToM {k J k-l 2 1 -2-M + ~-(. Flow per Unit Area. 4. To (deg. at the minimum area) are found by setting .13) 0. The relations between pressure. 4. then M * 1. Referring to Fig.4 Art. and velocity (Fig.12 into Eq. The parameter is plotted in Fig. static pressure and Mach Number. Rankine). we make the following rearrangements: w A P pV J -. W (Ib/lb mol.82 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch.10 that when M when when M 4. ( P l+--M k.4 ISENTROPIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 83 The value of M* is a simple index of when the flow is subsonic and when supersonic.5b) is decelerated to zero velocity.005 ~Q. then M* < M* > 1 1 = 1. then when M = 0.k·IA M' 0. then M* Fig. for we find from Eqs. To.12) This is best arranged in the form of a mass flow parameter involving To. p. Substitution of Eqs.3 illustrates the relative magnitudes of M and M* in subsonic and supersonic flow. A (ft2).14b) Po -= p ( k.11) Temperature.4. Next we will derive a useful relation between the flow per unit area.1 2)k-l k 2 (4. Units: w (slug/sec).e. A. they are applicable to any sort of change in the vertical (T) coordinate.14a) T 2 Po --= . temperature. Mass flow parameter versus M and M*. p (lbf/ft2). All states along the channel or stream tube lie on a line of constant entropy and have the same stagnation temperature.7 now yields the important relations To k.6. 4.10 relation f--. the pressure-temperature P pT density relation of a perfect gas is =- Po PoTo =R (4. 4.05 M Also. or slug/slug mol). Isentropic Flow of a Perfect Gas All the relations of the preceding section are valid for both isentropic and nonisentropic flows. irrespective of changes in the horizontal (s) coordinate. pressure. the final pressure will be less than the isentropic stagnation pressure if the decleration is irreversible. All states with the same entropy and the same stagnation temperature have the same isentropic stagnation state and the same critical state. We now further restrict the analysis to the isentropic case. then = eo =1 M* = 0 = when M . and the state with M = 1 is called the critical state. Starting with the equation of continuity. The state of zero velocity is called the isentropic stagnation state.01 -1~0.. Pressure... and density for an isentropic process of a perfect gas are < M> 1. With this chart it is easy to solve the common problem of computing the local Mach Number from given values of w. 4. {k = ~(R M '\j 1 + -2-M2 I k-l (4. and p.5. The parameter itself then depends only on k and M according to the 0.1 1+--M 2 2)k-i 1 (4. provided that all states have the same stagnation temperature.14c) The particular values of the temperature. 4. 1/ IV w 1 A-p-VW vr. and the molecular weight W.0 FIG.4.6 for k = 1. stagnation temperature. and Density Ratios as Functions of Mach Number.0 M and M· 10.1 2 -= 1+--M (4.

15b.6339 k (4. was discovered empirically by Fliegner nearly a century ago at a time when the theoretical considerations outlined here were scarcely understood! Fliegner's experiments. We shall. ( 1 + __ k- 1 M2 r: 53.3. we would find that M = 1. Using the values k = 1. or indeed on any flow passage which operates over a wide range of pressure and temperature levels. where w is in Ibm/sec.18. At this condition. 4.16 with the help of Eq.5283 = k+1 (2 )k~l= 0.14 and 4. To. 4. are as follows: M T* - To p* Po = 2 c*2 Co = -- 2 k + 1 = 0.4.16 with respect to M and set this derivative equal to zero. 4. and p/Po. neither of these procedures is necessary inasmuch as we have proved quite generally in Art. THE AREARATIO..67. M or M* may be taken as an independent parameter. whereas doubling the absolute temperature level reduces the maximum flow by about 29 per cent. the temperature at the throat is only about 17 per cent less than the stagnation temperature. etc. From Eqs. Doubling the pressure level doubles the maximum flow. R.10 it is clear that either T/To.17) For a given gas.4 Art.= -- Po + 1 (4. An equivalent procedure would be to differentiate Eq.16) --A* w vITo = 0. 4. are usually plotted with wVTo/po as the flow variable. Eq. Just as we have found it convenient to work with the dimensionless ratios p/Po. It varies almost linearly with k from 0. therefore. and Po in Ibf/ft2.2 that the cross-sectional area for isentropic flow passes through a minimum at Mach Number unity. so it is convenient to introduce a .4 ISENTROPIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 85 = 1 in the above expressions. for a given Mach Number. the maximum flow per unit area depends only on the ratio Po/VTo. which were conducted on a simple converging nozzle. we need only set M = 1 in Eq.14b. From this we would find that the critical pressure ratio is given by Eq. The resulting formulas.15b) p* .4867 for k = 1. 4. p* /Po. to find (w/A)max. The resulting expression is then the algebraic formula. 4.17 = (2 )k~l= 0. we eliminate p in the equation preceding Eq.84 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch.3 (4.. we could compute the derivative d(w/A)/d(p/po) and set this derivative equal to zero.532 Po (4. 4. corresponding to the curve of w/A versus p/Po in Fig. the flow is proportional to the stagnation pressure and inversely proportional to the square root of the stagnation temperature. However. Mass Flow Relations in Terms of Mach Number. Therefore.14b). 4.18) This shows that. 4. This formula. we obtain from Eq. follow the practice in this and succeeding chapters of deriving all the working formulas in terms of M as the independent variable. whereas the throat pressure is only about half the isentropic stagnation pressure. is of the same order of magnitude for all gases.11 by means of the isentropic law (Eq. 4. By and large. which we have derived on purely analytical grounds.17 shows that the maximum flow which can be passed is relatively large for gases of high molecular weight and relatively small for gases of low molecular weight.6065 for k = 1 to 0. the variable M has been found to be the most convenient choice as far as simplicity of practical calculations is concerned. Po. To in OR.8333 (4. flow test data on compressors and turbines. For given values of the stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature and for a passage with a given minimum area. corresponding to air.15a) Now it is evident that if M were eliminated from Eq. For this reason. Thus we obtain w fk Po 2 M A ~R vr. therefore. p/Po.15c) Thus. The critical pressure ratio. p/po. 4. To find the condition of maximum flow per unit area. and that the remaining quantities would then depend uniquely on the value of the chosen independent parameter. for air. gave a value of the constant within about 1 per cent of the value in Eq. Thus we find (4.4 and R ft Ibf/lbmoR. 4. 4. In this way the results of a given test become applicable to operation at levels of temperature and pressure different from the original test conditions.16. MAXIMUM FLOWPERUNIT AREA. together with the numerical values for k = 1. To find a convenient formula for the mass flow per unit area in terms of M. 4. A * in ft2. FLIEGNER'S FORMULA. we would have w/A in terms of k. for a perfect gas.

and A/A * from Eqs.1 increase in F.23) .00 I OJ 0.15b. and setting F F* P P* A A* 1 + kM2 1 The area ratio is always greater than unity. 4.05 6 r--A tracing the curve of A / A *. 4. This is true whether the flow is adiabatic or nonadiabatic.24) 4. 4. 0. and the other for supersonic flow.22) V-n For isentropic flow. 4.5 WORKING CHARTS AND TABLES 87 dimensionless area ratio.xx P "Ii x Jro cross-sectional area. etc. acting in the direction opposite to the direction of flow.. the key curve on this chart is that of A/A *.19.. For problems involving jet propulsion it i~ sometimes convenient to employ a quantity called the impulse function.8 represents in graphical form the various dimensionless ratios for isentropic flow with M as independent variable. Po P* P Po A A 1 + kM2 1 * +k substituting. "0 La == - p and so RT V2 == __ p kRT kV2 = kpM2 (4. and 4.10 properties may easily be found by ~ 0.-.7. there is obtained after simplification. and so we compute from Eqs.0 properties in isentropic flow are T 0. practical computations are greatly facilitated by working charts and tables Chart for Isentropic Flow. Another way of forming a dimensionless impulse function is by evaluating F* at M = 1. For example.-. and increases in p. Po.19. an 0. as used here. 4. The Po effects of changes in area on other t 0.p/po. Fig. it is seen that or ~+ PIAl . 4.:::0 i_~ •~ :1\ F' I all constant reference values for a t 0. py2 F.86 ISENTROPIC FLOW cs.8 a t FIG.14b.PIAl Vl2 where ~ is the net "thrust" produced by the stream between sections 1 and 2. are . 4. Po/P*.8.5 T brought about through changes in .6. Art. keeping 1-0 ~ ~A' :'! / « in mind that A *. 4. For a perfect gas. 4. an 0. M It may be seen from Fl ·g· 4. Working chart for isentropic th b up to a Mach Number 0 f a out. respectively. and whether the flow is reversible or irreversible. often of a trial-and-error nature. Obviously the appropriate reference area if A *. The term thrust. F*. and for any given value oj * there always correspond two values of M-one for subsonic flow. defined by (4.16 and 4. Since changes of fluid I00 1.005 increase in area at subsonic speed f--7 s: produces a decrease in velocity. changes in density are almost negligible for engineering calculations.0 5 10 T.17 the formula ~ A* A/A = w/A * = ~ w/A M l(_2 ) (1 + ~ M2)]2(k-l) + k 1 2 k+l (4.7. is defined as the net force exerted by the stream on the internal solid surfaces which the fluid wets. with k = 1.0 I > given problem.\ .P2A2 = P2A2 V22 . Illustrating use of impulse function.14b and 4.5 1.4. This explains why in so many instances air is treated as though it were an incompressible fluid.20) F == pA + pAV2 +k =-. It includes the forces due to pressure and viscous stresses on the duct walls as well as the total drag of any stationary obstacles in the stream.19] where P / Po and A/A * are functions of M given respectively by Eqs. o 3 flow. F F* (4. 0 FIG. The Impulse Function. a dimensionless impulse function is formed by writing F pA 2 -=--(l+kM) poA * Po A * (4. (corresponding to about 300 It/sec for air at normal conditions). and p. Applying the momentum equation to the flow through the control surface of Fig. Working Charts and Tables for Isentropic Flow Since the formulas thus far derived lead to tedious numerical calculations.

we then obtain at this value of (AlA *)2 the corresponding values of M2.1V559.833(559.0. Let us consider two sections of a stream tube having a ratio of areas A21Ab and let us specify all flow properties at section 1.6.2 lists the various isentropic flowfunctions for k = 1. we now calculate properties in the test section: V /c* = 1. = = 0. On the other hand. Which one of the two occurs depends in 2 part on whether a throat intervenes between sections 1 and 2. etc. (T IToh. From these we compute 4. PROBLEM. 4.634(0. it is necessary for the flow to pass through a throat at M = 1. For example. It is desired to compute the mass flow. then M2 must also be subsonic. where the velocity is negligible.. 4.9. 4.2300(0.532(10)(144)(1) = 32. •• . are 10 psia and lOO°F. = 0. there are either two solutions for the final state M2 or none at all. if MI is subsonic and the passage is converging-diverging (i.0483) 0. the mass flow may be computed from the continuity equation at the throat or test section.528) = 5.7 Alternatively.1278(10) = = 0. p* c* VT*1To = 0.7°R. •• P* T* = = = = 10(0.6875(1) = 1. = 0. such as PI. (T ITo)2.6875. For example.6 CHOKING IN ISENTROPIC FLOW 89 Working Tables. with k = 1. First we work out the reference stagnation properties. SOLUTION.2300.9. TI.633(1060) = 0.4 Ibm/sec Y559. Typical curves of M2 versus for we have demonstrated that in Ml for fixed values of area ratio A2/ Al. We are given Po = 10 psia and To = 459.6875 ft2 Finally.0483) V* = 466°R 0.6330.7) = = 311OR 1. if MI is subsonic and the passage is converging. except as discussed later.7) .4. since A * is constant during the process. The use of the compressible flow functions is best explained by an example. When there are two solutions. and (AlA *)1' Then.0483 lbm/ft Co = 49. Since Po and To are constant.913(1162) 1060 ft/sec Entering Table B. FIG. one of the two is subsonic and the other is supersonic. The supply pressure and temperature at the nozzle inlet.4 Art.28 psia = = = 0. corresponding to MI we may find in the tables (pIPoh. and that the flow is one-dimensional at the throat and test section. has a minimum area between sections 1 and 2) the flow at section 2 .. Mb etc.. let us consider a passage with a given area ratio A21Al and compute in the manner outlined above the values of M2 corresponding to several values of MI. From the tables or graphs we can then solve for the properties at section 2. Table B.2 at M M* p/Po p/po T/To A/A* = 2..278 psia = = 0.556(559. the test-section area.556.833. .RTo .. Choking in Isentropic Flow The fact that the curve of mass flow per unit area has a maximum is connected with an interesting and important effect called choking. or vice versa.. 1.4 Ibm/sec Now. The preliminary design is to be based on the assumptions that the flow is isentropic. respectively. For example.01110 lbm/fta = 0. order to go from supersonic speed to subsonic speed. . 4. Table B.7 100 = 559.0306 lbm/fta = = = 0. 0.1YTo = 49.1278.2 is to be used.7) 0.2 atM = 1: P*/Po T*/To P*/Po c*/co = (TIToh 0. with Mach Number as independent argument.18: W= 0. A supersonic wind-tunnel nozzle is to be designed for M = 2.532PoA VTo *= 0. we find the properties at the throat by selecting values from Table B.53. and the fluid properties at the throat and test section. we may write A2 Al + *h (AlA *h (AlA _ Po _ 10(144) _ a Po . w = p*A *V* = 0. Examination of this chart indicates two peculiarities: (i) For a given initial Mach Number MI and a given area ratio M2 A2IAI. we compute the mass flow from Eq.913. .e.634.528.88 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch. . (pIPoh. illustrative Example. The results may then be plotted as in Fig. this allows us to compute P2 and T 2 from (TIToh P2 PI Next. For accurate or extensive calculations. .0306(l)(lO60) = 32.4. with a throat section 1 sq ft in area. = 1731 It/sec 1. V P p T A = 1.3(559..7 = 1162 ft/sec and so we may compute (AlA *h Returning to the tables.




Art. 4.7



may be either subsonic, as in a conventional venturi, or supersonic, as in a supersonic nozzle; which of these two situations prevails depends on the pressures imposed at the inlet and exit of the passage, as discussed more fully in Art. 4.7. (ii) When, for selected values of MI and A2/AI, there is no solution in Fig. 4.9, the solution is imaginary in the mathematical sense. This occurs only when A2 is smaller than AI' Physically, this result signifies that for given conditions at section 1, there is a maximum contraction which is possible; this maximum contraction corresponds to sonic velocity at section 2. Or, put quite simply, if conditions at section 1 are specified, the mass flow is accordingly determined, and there is then a minimum cross-sectional area required to pass this flow. This phenomenon is called choking, and may be summarized by saying that for a given area reduction, there is in subsonic flow a maximum initial Mach N umber which can be maintained steadily; and in supersonic flow a minimum initial Mach Number which can be maintained steadily. At either of these limiting conditions, the flow at section 2 A, __ !_ is sonic, and is said to be choked. I Flow ---~I P, ITo illustrate further the phenomenon of T, choking, let us suppose that at a section 1 in a duct there is a subsonic flow with certain values M, Zustoble ~IIS of MI, PI, Tb and AI. These parameters fix the FIG. 4.10. Illustrates flow rate, w. Let us imagine further that, at choking of flow. a section 2 downstream, the walls are flexible; thus the area A2 is adjustable, as shown in Fig. 4.10. If A2 is equal to AI, all conditions at section 2 will be identical with the corresponding conditions at section 1. A slight reduction in A2 will produce certain effects at section 2, which, according to Fig. 4.8, will comprise an increase in M2, a decrease in P2, and a decrease in T2. This slight reduction in A2 without a change in conditions at section 1 must, therefore, be accompanied by a reduction in the back pressure, P2, according to the requirements of Fig. 4.8. Further reductions in A2 may be made in the same way until the value of M2 reaches unity. After this point has been reached, there is no way of reducing the area further without a simultaneous change in the steady-state conditions at section 1. If, for example, the pressure and temperature at section 1 are maintained constant, a reduction in A2/ Al beyond its limiting value will, after a transient period of wave propagation, result in a reduced steady-state Ml, which in turn means that the flow rate will be decreased. The maximum possible value of MI (which will correspond to the maximum possible flow rate) is obtained when M2 = 1. To obtain this limiting flow, the back pressure, P2, must of course be adjusted accordingly. Fig. 4.8 shows that any area reduction whatsoever may be made if the initial Mach Number is sufficiently low or sufficiently high.

4.7. Operation of Nozzles Under Varying Pressure Ratios
The p~enomenon of choking discussed above may be manifested in seve~al different wa!s. To illustrate still another aspect of choking, let us dISCU~ the practical problem of nozzles operating under varying pressure ratios.

Conv~rging Nozzles:

Suppose, for the sake of concreteness, that a passage (FIg. 4.l1a) with a large entrance area at section 0

To Exhauster




Along Nozzle




"Regime n,: Regime~1

t--OO-----i>- __
(v) (iV)1














o "--__ o





FIG. 4.11. Operation of converging nozzle at various back pressures.

discharges into a region where the back pressure, PB, is controllable b means of a valve. The values of Po and To will be maintained constant. and the ~xpH1me?t will involve variations in PB. If PE denotes the I~ the exit plane of the nozzle, we inquire as to the effects of variations III back pressure on the distribution of pressure in the passage on the flow rate, and on the exit-plane pressure. These effects are p ~ trayed graphically in Figs. 4.11a, b, and c, respectively. or




Art. 4.7



To begin with, suppose that PB/PO = 1, shown as condition (i) in Fig.4.lla. The pressure is then constant through the nozzle, and there is no flow. If PB is now reduced to a value slightly less than Po, as shown by condition (ii), there will be flow with a constantly decreasing pressure through the nozzle. Because the exit flow is subsonic, the exit-plane pressure PE must be the same as the back pressure PB, except for minor secondary circulation effects in the exhaust space. That this must be so can be seen by supposing for a moment that PE is substantially larger than PB. If this were so the stream would expand laterally upon leaving the nozzle; however, such an area increase at subsonic speeds causes the stream pressure to rise even further. Since the back pressure is, by definition, the pressure which the stream ultimately achieves in the exhaust space, it follows that PE cannot be larger than PB. A similar argument leads to the conclusion that PE cannot be substantially less than PB. A further reduction in PB to condition (iii) acts to increase the flow rate and to change the pressure distribution, but there is no qualitative change in performance. Similar considerations apply until condition (iv) is reached, at which point PB/PO equals the critical pressure ratio and the value of ME equals unity. Further reductions in PB/PO, say to condition (v), cannot produce further changes in conditions within the nozzle, for the value of PE/PO cannot be made less than the critical pressure ratio unless there is a throat upstream of the exit section (it is assumed here that the stream fills the passage). Consequently, at condition (v), the pressure distribution within the nozzle, the value of PE/PO, and the flow rate, are all identical with the corresponding quantities for condition (iv). The pressure distribution outside the nozzle cannot be predicted on onedimensional grounds, and for the present is shown in Fig. 4.lla as a wavy curve. To summarize the preceding discussion, the two different types of flow will be denoted as regime I and regime II. These regimes may be compared as follows: Regime I PB/PO ME Regime II PB/PO PE/PO ME

In regime I the values of PE and PB are virtually identical. Hence, except for a constant multiplier, the flow curve in regime I of Fig. 4.llb is identical with the curve of w/ A in the subsonic part of Fig. 4.3. A simple converging nozzle of the type discussed often serves as a flow nozzle. It is particularly useful when PB/PO is less than the critical pressure ratio, for then the flow rate is given by Eq. 4.18, and measurements of only Po, To, and AE are necessary for computation of the flow rate. For accurate measurements, the effects of boundary layer and of departures from one-dimensionality require that the nozzle be calibrated. Discharge coefficients for rounded-entrance nozzles are usually of the order 0.98 to 0.99, except for very low Reynolds Numbers where they may be considerably less. The converging nozzle may occasionally be used to advantage as a simple flow regulator because of the fact that the flow rate is independent of back pressure when the latter is less than about half the supply pressure. Converging-Diverging Nozzles. Consider an experiment similar to the one described above, except that a converging-diverging nozzle is to be used (Fig. 4.12). With PB less than Po by only a small amount, the flow is similar to that through a venturi passage, and it may be treated approximately as incompressible. The corresponding pressure distribution is shown by curves (i) and (ii) in Fig. 4.12. To Exhauster When PB/ Po is reduced to the value corresponding to curve (iii), the Mach Number at the throat is unity, and no further reductions in PT / Po are possible if the stream fills the passage. We consider next the operation (ivlwhen the flow is entirely supersonic, corresponding to curve (iv). Distonce Along Nozzle The value of PB/PO for curve (iv) FIG. 4.12. Operation of convergingcorresponds exactly to the area diverging nozzle at various back pressures. ratio of the nozzle, AE/ AT, as given by the isentropic tables (in this case AT = A *, since MT = 1). This is often called the "design" pressure ratio of the nozzle. No flow pattern fulfilling the conditions of isentropic and one-dimensional flow can be found which will correspond to values of PB/PO between those of curves (iii) and (iv) in Fig. 4.12. One method of finding solutions for these boundary conditions is to suppose that irreversible

> P* /Po <
1 on PB/PO

< P* /Po

PE/PO ....... B/PO P

P* /Po

wVTo dependent -A-EPO

-A-independent of PB/PO EPO






Art. 4.9



discontinuities involving entropy increases occur somewhere within the passage. The analysis of such discontinuities, called shock fronts, is the subject of Chapter 5. A complete discussion of the convergingdiverging nozzle will, therefore, be postponed until the shock wave analysis has been presented.

this case P is the static pressure and Po is the pressure measured at the mouth of the tube. If V is in error by 1 per cent then V2' • b 2 per cent. Hence we set ,IS In error y

4.8. Special Relations for Low Mach Numbers
In many flow problems the Mach Numbers are comparatively small, but compressibility effects cannot be entirely ignored. Using binomial expansions, the formulas of the preceding articles may be put into simple algebraic forms which are accurate and convenient for such cases. Correction to Incompressible Pitot-Tube Formula. For example, suppose that it is desired to examine the error incurred in the computation of pressure variations when the gas is assumed incompressible. From Eqs. 4.8 and 4.14b, we find that

V ~ 0.28 Co The latter figure corresponds to an air speed at norm I te about 300 ft/sec. At higher speeds the error increase~ qU~:;:~~~~;
0.02; from which



Isentropic Formulas in Powers of Mach N bE' 49 4 14 4 16 d wn er. xpandIng Eqs ., . , . ,an 4.19 in powers of M2 by means of th bi .I . orem, the following convenient formulas for low d ~ Inom~a thevalid up to orders of M4, may be found: -spee IsentropIc flow, M* Po -

= ,\/~M



1 - -4-M2 M2 )



!!_ =

[1 _ ~ (V)2]k~1

Po P



Expanding the right-hand side of this expression by the binomial theorem and rearranging, we get, if only terms up to (V /CO)4 are included, Po - P = 1 _

M2( 2

kM2 1--+ ...) 4


!P V


4 Co






= =

{k Po ,\/IiVToM

(k-l 1+-4M




If the fluid were taken as incompressible, the right-hand side of Eq. 4.25 would reduce to unity, and the equation would be identical with Bernoulli's theorem. The departure from unity is then a measure of the error incurred in ignoring compressibility. This error in the calculation of pressure changes is shown in the following table for several values of


(_2_)m=t)[ 1+ + 1 +
k 1

k -4 - M


(3 - k)(k 32



M3 +

... ]


V Ico
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Po -

!P V

2 -

4.9. Deviations from Perfect Gas Laws
1 Thu.s far all the isentropic formulas have been based on th t sumptions of a perfect gas, namely (i) p = pRT d C) e wo asIn practice, either of these assum~tions may b~ a;e ~I t c, = constant. For example, if the process Occurs at very hi h tea 0 some extent. moderate pressures, as in the case of ram jets t~ mperatures b~t at variations in specific heat. On the other hand .~r~hmay be apprecIable mode at t t but i ,I e process OCCursat r ~ empera ures, ut IS carried out at an extremel hi h level, as In hypersonic wind tunnels there may b . 'fiY gd p~es~ure from the law p = pRT. ' e sigm cant eviations These two effects have been studied (I) for the' t .B S' th I" isen ropie ow of air mce e ana YSISIS a lengthy one only the' I . significance are summarized here. ' mam resu ts of practical

0 -0.0025 -0.01 -0.0225 -0.04 -0.0625

Suppose that the incompressible formula were used for interpreting the reading of a pitot tube, based on the density at the stagnation pressure; at what air speed would this formula be in error by 1 per cent? In





Art. 4.9



Effect of Variable Specific Heat when p = pRT. The equation of state of a perfect gas is retained at first, but the specificheat is expressed from quantum mechanics as

1.0 0.9 0.8













To' 520 R

where () = 5526°R for air. The results are embodied in Fig. 4.13, in which are shown the per cent errors in the pressure, temperature, and density ratios incurred through use of constant rather than variable specific heats. At stagnation temperatures of l0000R or less, the -16 To'2000oR PIPo error is seen to be small for engineering purposes; but, at tem-12 peratures greater than 2000oR, the error can be substantial, especially -8 PIPo at supersonic Mach Numbers. ~

5Oftm, 20001~~'


11\ ~
otmV~ a1 50 0tm


'\ y


0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1



r: I

II ~




- -4 c


t -I

c '" ~a '" a..




2 4

plpo plpo

'" a..

'" ~


TITo 6 (a) 8












Po'O atm (perfect gas)



aIm 200 otm
.1 I



~ ~ ~


~ ~ ~
2.0 50 atm ~200atm-





FIG. 4.14. Effect of pressure level on isentropic flow functions, using van der Waals equation for air (after Donaldson).

TITo 4






1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7


\ II

(b) of constant specific heats for air,

FIG. 4.13. Error incurred through assumption with p = pRT (after Donaldson).


/ I(



460 aIm


= 1()()()°R.

(b) To = 2()()()OR.

• «1«

I' ~ ~

/po= 1.6 o trn

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Effect of Deviations from Perfect-Gas Equation of State. Based on the use of constant specificheats but the van der Waals equation of state for air, the isentropic pressure ratio and area ratio are plotted versus M in Fig. 4.14 for several stagnation pressures. It is seen that the deviations from results obtained with the perfect-gas equation of state are negligible up to about 50 atmospheres, but are appreciable at 200 atmospheres and above. Combined Effect of Variations in Specific Heat and Deviations from Perfect-Gas Equation of State. The simultaneous effects on pressure ratio and area ratio of both high temperature level (i.e., variations in specific heat) and high pressure level (i.e., deviations from p = pRT) are illustrated in Fig. 4.15. There is an interesting anomaly here in that the effects of pressure level are in one direction at low pressures and in the other direction at high pressures: .




I ,


~ ~


o .,

(Iperfect ga~


, "

T~' 2~001R_


...... 460 aIm po' ~oallm










"'~ .......



"""" 1.6atm ~

./~60 aIm

FIG. 4.15. Eimultaneous effects of high pressure and high temperature ratio and area ratio (after Donaldson).

on pressure





Art. 4.10





4.10. Performance of Real Nozzles
Because of frictional effects, the performance of real nozzles differs slightly from that computed with the isentropic flow relations. Since the departures from isentropic flow are usually small, the usual design procedure is based on the use of the isentropic flow formulas modified by two types of empirically determined coefficients-the nozzle efficiency and the coefficient of discharge.
Nozzle Efficiency. The term nozzle efficiency is employed primarily in turbine design where it is important to estimate accurately the average velocity leaving a nozzle passage. Consider a nozzle (Fig. 4.16) supplied with gas at low velocity and at pressure Pi and temperature Ti. The gas expands adiabatically, but with increasing entropy, to state e. If it had exT panded without friction to the same final pressure, the end state would have been 8. We now define the nozzle efficiencyas the ratio of the exit kinetic energy to the exit kinetic energy which would be obs tained in a frictionless nozzle exFIG. 4.16. Illustrating definition of panding the gas to the same final nozzle efficiency. pressure. With the help of the steady-flow energy equation the efficiency may be written

Occasionally the term "velocity coefficient" is used, denoting the square root of the nozzle efficiency. . Frictional effects in nozzles are usually confined to thin boundary layers on the walls. Since the boundary layer thickness depends primarily on the Reynolds Number (based on some equivalent nozzle length) and on the pressure-distance curve in the nozzle, no simple expression for nozzle efficiency can be given which is applicable to all nozzles. In general, the nozzle efficiency becomes nearly unity for extremely large nozzles because the boundary layer thickness is so small compared with the size of the passage. With very small nozzles, however, the boundary layer may nearly fill the passage, and then the nozzle efficiency may drop drastically. . When well-designed nozzles with straight axes are operated at their design pressure ratio and at high Reynolds Numbers, they are found to have efficiencies ranging from 94 to 99 per cent, and even higher for sizable wind tunnel nozzles. Well-designed turbine nozzles with curved axes have efficiencies of the order of 90 to 95 per cent when operated with suitable pressure ratios at high Reynolds Numbers.
Nozzle Discharge Coefficient. The nozzle discharge coefficient, Cw, is defined as the ratio of the actual nozzle flowto the flowcalculated from the isentropic laws for the initial and final pressures of the actual nozzle.


== --------


Isentropic Flow Rate

(4.31) This may be rearranged further to give





which is convenient for reckoning the exit velocity when the efficiency, pressure ratio, and stagnation temperature are all known.

If the over-all pressure ratio of the nozzle is such that the velocity at the minimum section is subsonic, then the "isentropic flow" is reckoned in terms of the exit conditions of the nozzle. However, if the pressure ratio is such that sonic velocity prevails at the minimum section, then the "isentropic flow" is reckoned by using the formula for choking flow at the throat. These specifications apply to both converging and converging-diverging passages. The remarks made previously concerning the factors influencing nozzle efficiencypertain also to the discharge coefficient. For well-designed nozzles with straight axes having "pipe" Reynolds Numbers measured at the minimum area of 106 or more, the discharge coefficient is of the order of 0.99, but it may be considerably less for low Reynolds Numbers. Neither the discharge coefficientnor the velocity coefficientof roundedentrance nozzles suitably designed for the operating pressure ratio are significantly dependent upon the leaving Mach Number.




Art. 4.11



Sharp-Edged Orifice Meter. The deviation from unity of the discharge coefficientfor a sharp-edged orifice meter is due primarily to the contraction (vena contracta) in the stream following the orifice. The contraction in turn is due to three7;; ;;~; )7;; 71 dimensional effects. The coefficient of contraction increases substantially as the result of compressi0.9~---~---~---,----~---~ bility effects (Fig. 4.17). It should be noted that the isentropic flow on which the discharge coefficient is based is reckoned as though a rounded-entrance converging nozzle, having the same exit area as 0.4 0.2 o 0.6 0.8 the orifice, were supplied with gas Pz Ip, at stagnation pressure PI and disFIG. 4.17. Discharge coefficient of charged to a region having the sharp-edged orifice meters with zero vepressure P2. locity of approach (after J. A. Perry).

In the following chapter, however, it is pointed out that a nozzle having a given area ratio and operating at certain ratios of back pressure to supply pressure cannot be isentropic because shocks are present. Such cases are not covered by the equations about to be derived. Under the assumed conditions, the pressure ratio Pe/PO is fixed by the area ratio, and so the exit-plane pressure in general differsfrom the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Applying the momentum equation to the control volume of Fig. 4.18a, we find the thrust J to be given by

= wVe

+ Ae(Pe + At

- Pa)

which is then put into dimensionless_form through division by poAt:



w PoAt Ve

Ae (P~ Pa) Po - .Po

From Eq. 4.17, for choking flow,

4.11. Some Applications of Isentropic Flow
Thrust of Rocket Motor. Consider a rocket motor (Fig. 4.18a) which generates gas steadily at Po and To. The nozzle has a throat area At, an exit area A., and discharges to an atmosphere at pressure Pa. Experimental data verify that the isentropic flow equations predict, within a few per cent, the thrust produced by such a rocket.

and, from the energy equation and isentropic law,

Substituting these into the thrust equation, and rearranging, there results

(b) FIG. 4.18. Isentropic flow in rocket motor.

jPlone Where p.' p. Produces Negatjve Thrust

·S fotic - pressure I Distribution




-\I k -



( 2 )~~~ (pe)k:l 1 k+1 -\11 - Po


+ At

Ae (Pe Pa) Po - Po (4.33)

(a) Diagrammatic sketch. (b) Pressure distributions on internal and external surfaces of diverging portion of nozzle.

Since the pressure ratio Pe/PO depends only on the area ratio, Eq. 4.33 indicates that the thrust for a nozzle of given size and geometry depends only on Po and the ratio Pa/PO, and is independent of the temperature To. EFFECT AREA OF RATIO. We now ask, for given values of At, Po, and Pa, what exit area should be used in order to obtain maximum thrust? By applying the calculus to Eq. 4.33 it may be shown after a laborious calculation that J is a maximum when the area ratio is chosen in such a way as to make the pressure in the exit plane exactly equal to Pa. How-

Since rocket motors generate gas at about 500 psia and operate in atmospheres at 14.7 psia or less, a converging-diverging nozzle is usually used. Except under operating conditions far from the design point, sonic conditions occur at the throat, and the flow to the nozzle exit is shock-free. We shall assume these conditions for the present analysis.

. and P..20.. since this reduces the size of the nozzle without materially reducing the thrust.. 1"--".)'1 ~ 5 FIG. the pressure in the nozzle will drop further./Po would be the critical pressure ratio.. ~ \\ '" 500 1000 FIG. If the nozzle is continued beyond this point.19. so that the area ratio need not be exactly adjusted in order to obtain substantially maximum thrust. = 0 3conv/PoAt -.20 shows a supersonic wind tunnel with a test section having a Mach Number Ml ~ 100 r-.. A. . Performance 10 IJ r--.llPI ~Pl PoA t J 2 k- ( 1k + 2 1..6 _lOIII f-'" 1. Reynolds Number for Supersonic Wind Tunnel..4 0.l1 = P1V1PI = ~ PoL J.." 50 \ \ 1\ \ \ ~~ \ This ratio is plotted against area ratio in Fig.... and the added piece of divergent nozzle will have negative thrust 1.0 A / AI ~ b.4 Art.. because the internal pressure on this added piece is less than the external pressure... )!~~ J PoL Po J. this result may more easily be obtained with the simplest of physical reasoning. with k = 1.33 and simplifying. we get 3 _ • --k---max and in which is inserted a model of length L.1.. would equal At.lIV _fin ----~-"". based on fluid properties in the test section and on the length L. (P. \ k J k=I 2 ( )"':1 ( k+1 2 k 1 l-~ Pe)-k1 +Ae ~-~ A. = pa would also act to reduce the thrust. = Pa. Line of Moximum Thru 0.°o/ -. With the aid of the perfect gas laws and the isentropic flow relations. Pa) (4. as in Fig."k-:-+~l If the nozzle were a simple converging nozzle.r-. lA.ii J.1 1+--M12 (pa)k~l 1-Po (4...2 (after Malina).18b. k = 1.. rocket nozzles are usually designed with P. 0 ~ 0.2 -I.33.. A. 4.2 Shock Line .35) To illustrate the effect of area ratio on nozzle thrust.4 1... .: 1. Hence we conclude that the thrust is a maximum when P.37) Ml k....2 (typical value for rocket gas)... The net thrust on the rocket is the resultant of static pressures acting on all the surfaces of the motor...< i!l!!i:!=' L ~ :--.. ~ 1\ 0 ~ \o~ o ~ " 1\ \ \ ...8 st\/\ o :\1\ ~~ ~ \ r--. 4.36) 2(k:l)~-:: \~9o '% \ 't> 1\ \ :.. greater than Pa./P.6 'G ~ ~ ~ 0.. Suppose. Making these substitutions lO( 2 r . It is seen that the curves are quite flat near their maxima. that there is a certain exit area for which p. 4. there is obtained --=2 3 PoAt conv (2 + -k k+1 1 t 1 --Pa Po (4. Applying this criterion to Eq. Fig. b. 4. r--. We shall derive a convenient relation for the Reynolds Number of the model.11 SOME APPLICATIONS OF ISENTROPIC FLOW 103 ever. 1'\ -~--:J I II p.2 1. 4.8 k in Eq.. = pa.. 4. 4.19 for various values of Pa/Po. 4. we form the expression Rey = PIV1L/J.lIRTI ~kT. Po (4. By similar reasoning.. we form the ratio 3conv = 1..34) vk.102 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch.. In practice.. characteristics of rocket nozzle. it follows that cutting off a piece of nozzle upstream of the plane where p... Supersonic wind tunnel.

Since the nozzle throat is choked. Note..0 1. to use the tabulated functions of k and M in Appendix B not only for the particular types of flow underlying the construction of the tables. pressure = 2. Indicate the values of plp* and V IV* at their maximum and minimum points. 4. (a) Calculate the critical velocity of the air relative to the aircraft. (b) The steam is considered as a perfect gas. for values of the latter between 1 and 2.~ . the local Mach Number M may be found from these tables by a quick computation. the quantity on the right-hand side of Eq. A convenient chart representing this relation for air flow is shown in Fig. Consider the reversible.2. 3 . but for such other problems where identical functions of k and M appear .4 2. Flow in duct with friction.11 PROBLEMS 105 Now Tb and accordingly the viscosity f. adiabatic flow of a perfect gas. direction of curvature. FIG. FIG. 4. .--t---I ~I~ f--#+-+-+---t--t--+---+---f~~ 1.. (b) Calculate the maximum possible velocity of the air relative to the aircraft. for a given gas.22. paying special attention to zero or infinite slopes. Note on the Importance of Imperfect-Gas Effects and C. 4. it may be shown by direct comparison that At/A (A */A)isen Cw--=---(4. Reynolds Number for supersonic wind tunnel (NACA Tech. for the following conditions: (a) The properties of steam are taken from the Steam Tables of Keenan and Keyes.0°F. and (p/PO)isen is the function of k and M given by Eq. all 'Versus k. 4. 4.19. p*lpo. 3.38) P/Pi (p/PO)isen where (A */A)isen is the function of k and M given by Eq.6 pressures Pi and p.72 psia) with a speed of 400 mph. DONALDSON. What is the physical significance of the tangent to the curve of plp* versus VIV*? Dividing one of these by the other. When a duct is supplied with a supersonic flow by a converging-diverging nozzle.38 is listed in the isentropic flow tables. and when the flow in the duct is adiabatic but not frictionless.14b.s . Thus the Reynolds Number per unit length and per unit stagnation pressure depends. Variation of Heat Capacities on the Isentropic Flow of Gases.21. 4.38 typifies a technique which we shall find useful from time to time-namely.4 Art. the mass flow through the system is given by Eq.8 2. DUP.M. No. REFERENCES AND SELECTED BmLIOGRAPHY ·9 = • f---j'-+-+--+--+-+---"l1~. L8J14 (1948). Eq.22. PROBLEMS 4. at points of zero or infinite slope. and points of inflection.3.17 when modified by the discharge coefficient Cw: Furthermore. and at points of inflection.Lb are determined by the values of To and MI. plot against plpo the values of specific volume (ft3/Ib).2 2. Vmax/c*. 4. (c) The steam is considered as incompressible with a density equal to the density corresponding to Po and To. a useful expression may be obtained for determining the local Mach Number in terms of the local area and static pressure. The nomenclature is shown in Fig.000 ft (temperature = -67. An airplane flies at an altitude of 40. with a value of 1. At the section where the velocity is zero the pressure and temperature are Po = 50 psia and To = 800°F. T*ITo. An illustrative example is given in Chapter 6. together with the discharge coefficient Cw.2 :1'. NACA R. Denoting the pressure at any other point in the stream by p. Plot the values of p*lpo. and Vmax/co. and mass velocity (lb/ft2 sec). 4. In the above calculations choose for the lowest value of plpo the value of p which corresponds to the first appearance of moisture in part (a).. velocity (ft/sec).104 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch. 4.21. Given the areas At and A and the measured . Supersonic Flow in Duct with Friction. Eq. c*leo. Neglecting frictional effects. only on the test-section Mach Number and on the stagnation temperature. Since the type of problem discussed here arises frequently in experimental work.1. 1428).11 yields w -= ~ ---M P A R v"f: J k-l 1+--M2 2 4. 4. No. «~ 1. 4. Consider the reversible adiabatic flow of steam through a passage of variable cross section. 4.3 for k.4. Sketch a curve of pressure (plp*) versus velocity (V IV*) for isentropic flow.. 4.

5Ib/sec. The barometer reads 29. (c) Suppose that an airplane is flying at sea level with a velocity of 500 mph. Po .4. approximate versions of the isentropic flow relations for a perfect gas valid at Mach Numbers large compared with unity. Po .L C' = = L/ A . For the section with the minimum area.9. assuming the flow to be isentropic. A converging nozzle with an exit area of one square inch is supplied with air at low velocity and at a pressure and temperature of 100 psia and 200°F.P . the velocity. The st~gnati?n temperature is lOO°F. Derive an expression for C. temperature. etc.. find the velocity and pressure at the minimum area.16. A rocket combustion chamber is supplied with 24 lb/sec of hydrogen and 76 lb/sec of oxygen. the stream pressure and temperature. and (b) assuming the air compressible. etc. Cp ' .6. A stream of air flowing in a duct is at a pressure of 20 psia. _t V 2.13. (b) Plot log (-Cp *) versus log Moo for k '= 1. A perfect gas (k '= 1. Compute the air velocity. . Plot the mass rate of flow through the nozzle versus back pressure. The cross-sectional area of the duct is one square inch. compute the quantities listed in part (a). '" CL == L/A _t 2P".4 PROBLEMS 107 4.. When a body is placed in a stream which at infinite distance upstream is in uniform flow with free-stream conditions V"" p"" Moo. (a) assuming the air incompressible. air flows with a velocity of 500 It/sec and has a pressure and temperature of 10 psia and 40°F. and the value of M*. A stream of air flows in a duct of 4 inches diameter at a rate of 2~ lb/~c.1 and 1. (a) Compute the stagnation temperature of the stream in degrees F. 4.0. and the stagnation temperature of the air stream is 80°F.p". . the pressure. At one section of the duct. when made dimensionless with respect to the corresponding critical values. and flows at a rate of 0.p"'. Thus Cp == p .8.4 and for values of Moo between 0 and 00. 2P".11.p". mass rate of flow of 1 Ibm/sec. and stagnation pressure at this secti?ii: 4.73 inches Hg.14.6. and . respectively.12. and density. find the throat area of the nozzle required. of airfoils which are in a free stream with conditions p"" Moo. and Moo. (a) Calculate the following quantities at a point further downstream in the stream tube where the cross-sectional area is 15 per cent smaller than at the upstream section: the stagnation pressure and temperature. Neglecting dissociation and friction. in square feet 4.'/Cp in terms of Moo and k. ee etc. 4. the Mach Number. drag coefficients. to atmospheric pressure. V 2. and the temperature is 4960OF. are as follows: .42 inches of mercury. (b) Compute the maximum possible reduction in area of the stream tube. . in psia (b) The velocity in the exit plane. et c. (b) What is the maximum percentage reduction in area which could be introduced without reducing the flow rate of the stream? (c) For the maximum area reduction of part (b). velocity. 4.7. 14. the pressure is 23 atmospheres. 4. A pitot-statie tube records a static pressure of 5. Cp: (a) Show that the value of the pressure coefficient corresponding to the appearance of the critical velocity is given by 4.25.20 psig and a difference between impact pressure and static pressure of 19. Alternate definitions for compressible flow.. respectively.. lift coefficients. What is the maximum pressure coefficient which may be attained on the wings without the speed becoming anywhere supersonic? 4. ~ static pressure IS 6 psia. etc.106 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch. are given by 4. Assume k = 1. 4. calculate (a) The pressure in the exit plane.6..7 psia.4 and for values of Moo between 0.10. The nossle dischargea. Assuming frictionless adiabatic flow. where Po is the isentropic stagnation pressure corresponding to p". are usually expressed in terms of the dynamic head of the free stream.p". Pressure coefficients. . R '= 100 ft lbf/lbm=R) is supplied to a conv~~ ing nozzle at low velocity and at 100 psia and 540°F. Derive simplified. Show that for isentropic flow of a perfect gas. has a Mach Number of 0. . Plot C//Cp versus Moo for k '= 1. Before entering the nozzle all the oxygen is consumed. assuming no friction and no heat transfer. jn ft/sec (c) The cross-sectional area of the exit plane. not usually employed. the local pressures in the neighborhood of the body are usually reported in terms of the dimensionless pressure coefficient. At a certain point in a stream Calculate the Mach Number.

pressure. What is the Mach Number at this minimum radius? Find expressions for r/rmin as functions of M and k for the line source (two-dimensional) and the point source (threedimensional).16. that the direction of the air stream entering the engine is at right angles to the direction of thrust.(p/Po) l-l] t t-l t A Po w VTo A A* = (p/Po)t I \J 1 - (p/Po) t+l I 2k \J R(k - 1) = ~ 2 (k + I)N ! /k-l k _ 1 -2. with k = 1.2 = -- k. The z-direction is away from the center of the earth.7 psia.23. \J k+1 r{"iC=l Derive a relation between M* and the mass flow parameter (b) Show that the field of flow outside the minimum radius includes all Mach Numbers from zero to infinity. From schlieren photographs of the flow of air through a convergingdiverging nozzle it is found that the average Mach angle over the exit cross section is 40°. The equation of this motion is Vr = I'/211'.. that either supersonic or subsonic flow may subsist. 4. measurements indicate a thrust of 1845 lb when the flow rate is 30 Ib/sec..11 in a power series of M with the aid of the binomial theorem. and that the nozzle is frictionless. c2 = kRT. 4. but that both types may not exist together. by employing Euler's equation for frictionless flow. and r is a constant called the circulation. (a) Using the assumption that air is a perfect gas. gas speed. determine by analysis the direction of change (increase or decrease) of the Mach Number. (c) For the four possible types of flow outside the minimum radius. Derive relations between M and V/ Co and between M and V/V for adiabatic flow of a perfect gas. dp = -p V dV. Consider the vortex motion of a perfect gas in which all streamlines have the same entropy and the same stagnation-enthalpy. The nozzle has no diverging section. Derive Eqs.(p/Po) T -1 ] ~-l = -. DIU.24. depending on whether the flow is outwards (source) or inwards (sink) and on whether it is subsonic or supersonic.18. Derive the following expressions for isentropic flow with the pressure ratio p/Po as a parameter: V M2 M*2 = \Jk-1 VTo [ f2kif ~ 1. show that for low Mach Numbers the mass flow parameter may be approximated by A ~ VTo _1_ p y'W = "Jffi ~ (M +k . density. is 14oo°F. 4.25. 14. and the perfect gas relations p = pRT. r is the radius of the streamline. To.) 4 4. and p/" = constant.198 atm.ubsanic speeds speeds .or three-dimensional) of a compressible fluid. estimate the pressure in the exit plane of the nozzle. and that this radius is given by rmin = 4. 4. stagnation temperature. wVTo 1 r* = rmin Ik+l \Jk=1 4. (a) Starting from first principles. while the pressure upstream of the nozzle. (ii) For supersonic (i) For s.19. 4. The measured static pressure at the exit cross section is 0.4 (b) Using the Air Tables of Keenan and Kaye and a measured value for the stagnation temperature. where r is the radius at M and rmin is the minimum radius. sound speed. so that the stream reaches atmospheric pressure. (a) Show that there is a minimum radius inside of which the vortex motion may not exist. Consider a perfect gas flowing in a conetant-area duct adiabatically and without friction.108 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch.4 Ch.1 (Po/p)-t- t-l k+l[ k-l ! 1 .1 M3 + .22.where V is the tangential velocity. all for a positive increase in z. and isentropic stagnation pressure. By expanding Eq. The temperature at the entrance to the thrust nozzle. During a reaction-stand test of a turbojet engine.17. where the velocity is 300 It/sec. somewhere outside the nozzle. Calculate the ratio of the average exit kinetic energy per unit mass of the stream to the exit kinetic energy corresponding to isentropic expansion to the measured exit pressure. (p/po)t"J 1.20.000 atm. is 1. Assuming no heat loss from the gas.14 without use of the steady-flow energy equation.21. where the velocity is small.(p/Po) t 4.4 PROBLEMS 109 4. 2?rc. and that the radius corresponding to the critical velocity is given by :A-p-y'W applicable to adiabatic flow of a perfect gas. specify the directions of the pressure gradient and of the fluid acceleration. (a) Show. (b) Show that for a finite flow rate from the source there is a minimum radius within which a source-type flow pattern is impossible. 4. Changes in state come about as the result of changes in elevation in the earth's gravity field. of 24oo°F abs 4. for a source-type flow (either two. and hence gravity acts in the negative z-direction.

(ii) There is no heat conduction from the tank to the air. A tank having a volume of 100 ft3 is initially filled with air at 100 psis and 140°F. Plot the pressure in the tank versus elapsed time.0? In analyzing this problem it is suggested that the governing equations be written in differential form. the tank is to be considered as insulated perfectly against heat conduction and as having no heat capacity.31. (a) Show that Po . J!.0? (v) Supersonic speeds of the order of Mach Number 1O. Under what circumstances will these assumptions lead to accurate results? 4. where ~ is a constant. Show that the coefficient of contraction for a Borda re-entrant orifice is given by where M is the Mach Number of the jet. It is agreed to assume that the flow is quasi-steady.28.4 Ch.31. The over-all nozzle efficiency from inlet to exit is 90 per cent. that the steady flow equations may be applied to the nozzle at any instant of time. and find the Mach Number at the throat. Consider the isentropic flow of a highly compressible liquid having a pressure-<iensity relation given by . . 4. and Mach Number at exit. based on the following assumptions: (i) The flow is quasi-static. and compare with the corresponding values for isentropic flow.32.P* = ~In 2 where Po is the stagnation pressure and P* is the critical pressure.e. Initially.30.98.110 ISENTROPIC FLOW Ch.50 at M = 0 to approximately 0. i. At one section of the duct the pressure is 14.0. (c) Considering frictionless. Estimate the time required for the pressure in the tank to reach 25 psis. Calculate the pressure. The supply pressure is 100 psis.. 4. Calculate the Mach Number and isentropic stagnation pressure at this section.2 psia. and ventilating systems. 4.29. The diaphragm is suddenly broken and air rushes PROB.4. into the tank. Note that the coefficient goes from 0. fluid machinery. 4. 4.5? (iii) Speeds very close to the local speed of sound? (iv) Supersonic speeds of the order of Mach Number 2.4 PROBLEMS 111 (b) Is choking possible for this type of flow? Justify your answer. a diaphragm over the orifice seals the tank from Main the main.26.1 ]I. 4.01 in. (c) Show that Mach Number unity does not occur at the minimum area. adiabatic gas flows for aircraft. A large main is connected to an evacuated tank with a volume of 10 ft3 by means of a rounded-entrance. velocity. Furthermore. Consider a supersonic nozzle constructed with a ratio of exit to throat area of 2. would you expect gravity effects to be significant for (i) Speeds negligible compared with the speed of sound? (ii) Subsonic speeds of the order of Mach Number 0.27. Consider a nozzle with an efficiency 7J between the inlet and any station downstream. converging nozzle having a diameter of 0. and the nozzle has a discharge coefficient of 0. and that the percentage change is of the same order of magnitude as that for ordinary sharp-edged orifices. Suddenly the air is allowed to escape to the atmosphere (14.7 psia) through a frictionless converging nozzle of one-inch diameter. The nozzle is supplied with air at low speed at 100 psia and 140°F. (a) Derive the expression . but the flow is isentropic to the throat.~l M2 (b) Derive a eorresponding expression for (iii) The pressure and temperature in the main are constant.64 at M = 1. (b) Derive expressions for p/Po and A/A * in terms of M and~. A supersonic nozzle with a throat area of 1 sq in. Po = [1 _! 7J 1 +k ~M2 .. The air in the main is at 100 psia and 70°F. ~=p(~) ap . discharges air into a duct having a cross-sectional area of 2 sq in.

T.1. and the light parallel lines are defects in the glass walls of the tunnel. a pure discontinuity. Oblique discontinuities will be treated in Chapter 16.6) show "conical shock waves" which are so thin that the changes in pressure and velocity which occur across the wave are effected in an extraordinarily short distance.Art. We therefore focus our attention on the relations between the stream properties on the two sides of such a discontinuity. some new phenomenon must be introduced. 5. Introductory Remarks It was shown in Chapter 4 that for certain combinations of initial and final pressures there are no completely isentropic solutions to the problem of one-dimensional flow through a converging-diverging passage. theoretical calculations and experimental measurements show that the thickness of a normal shock is of the order of 10-5 inches and is comparable with the mean free path of the molecules. mass rate of flow Cartesian coordinates bulk modulus of compression shock thickness diffuser efficiency coefficient of viscosity density signifies stagnation state signifies state at which M = 1 signifies free-stream conditions signifies conditions upstream of normal shock signifies conditions downstream of normal shock signifies a quantity associated with a pressure wave p ()o ( )* ( )'" (i. Schlieren photograph of "normal shock" in supersonic wind tunnel at M ~ 2. NOMENCLATURE A c Cp h k I M M* p P Q R 8 t T v V area speed of sound specific heat at constant pressure enthalpy per unit mass ratio of specific heats mean free molecular path Mach Number V/c* pressure strength of a shock wave heat gas constant entropy per unit mass time absolute temperature specific volume velocity w X. The shock itself is not quite straight. These photographs show that at supersonic speeds there sometimes occur very rapid changes in the velocity and pressure of the stream. 112 FIG. Indeed. In a real fluid discontinuities in fluid properties cannot exist for finite periods of time. 5. therefore.I. Gas Turbine Laboratory). Further evidence is adduced in Fig.5 and 3.e..1 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 113 only discontinuities normal to the direction of flow (as in Fig. namely. for viscous. Chapters 25 and 28. The straight vertical line is a reference wireoutside the tunnel. 5. heat conduction.1. 3.1. It is profitable. and mass diffusion effects tend to smooth out such discontinuities. to ignore the interior details of the shock wave. Additional material relevant to the subject matter of the present chapter may be found in Volume II. i. photographs of supersonic projectiles (Figs. and on the question of whether all such discontinuities are possible. with flow from left to right. At each end of the normal shock is a pair of forked oblique shocks which arise from the interaction of the normal shock with the boundary layers on the walls of the tunnel (M. yet the changes occur in a distance too small to be measured on a photographic plate. and to employ a simplified model. In order to find solutions fitting these boundary conditions.1). Here the pressure increases across the shock by fivefold.5) we will consider now only one-dimensional motion. 5. and the velocity decreases by a factor of three. For practically all engineering calculations we are concerned primarily with the net changes in fluid properties across the shock. A clue to the nature of this phenomenon is given by schlieren (striation) photographs of the flow in nozzles and around projectiles.Y {3 0 7JD p. However. Chapter 5 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES 6. Although experiments show that these discontinuities are often oblique to the direction of flow (as in Fig. 3. showing a normal shock wave in a supersonic wind tunnel. ( )1/ ()w . and have no interest in the complex viscous and heat conduction phenomena in the interior of the shock wave.

5) .4. By 5 repeating this calculation for vari.1) = A (Vy = py w of Eqs. + -2 Vx2 = hy + -2 V/ = ho (5. therefore. and also because we shall later find them of use in discussing a number of other one-dimensional flow processes. _______ ~ox=hoy The energy equation (Eq. At this point it is well to state that the introduction of the Rayleigh and Fanno lines in the present discussion is not meant to imply that the shock process occurs along either or both of these curves. (5. For such a process. Let us fix all conditions at section x and inquire as to the conditions at section y. The Rayleigh Line. 5.5) together define a locus of states passing through point x. 5. 5. Eq. we first select a particular value of Vy. 5. 5. Then.2. Thus. 5.2. 5.2 and 5. Fanno line and Rayleigh line. 5.5a.4.1.4). + d(V2j2) = 0 (5.2). From the equation of continuity.3 then gives Px + PxVx2 s + pyVy2 (5. the Fanno line represents states with the same flow per unit area and the same stagnation enthalpy.4. they are reachable from each other by continuous changes along the Rayleigh line only through heat transfer effects.2. may be plotted on the diagram.114 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Combination theorem to the flow through Vx) the dis(5. and Sy may be found from Eq.5.1).2 and 5. The normal shock itself must satisfy Eqs. 5. and the equation of state (Eq. (((((i X Y II. therefore. p) The Fanno Line.1 becomes dh or dh Similarly.3) xY FIG. then py may be computed from Eq. py may be computed from Eq. and 5. Governing Relations of the Nonnal Shock Physical Equations.2). since there DiscontiControl nuity Volume is no heat transfer across the control surface. Since the momentum equation has not yet been introduced. h 5. frictional effects are required to pass continuously along the Fanno line from state x to any other state on the line.2).5b) The equation of state of the fluid may be written implicitly in the form h = h(s. ( ( ( ( ( the steady-flow energy equation may be written rVII in the form ous values of Vy. For a given state x. We next consider the locus of states passing through point x which are defined by the momentum equation (Eq. Control surface around a normal discontinuity. the continuity vx-l I i-vy I II LJ hx where ho is the stagnation enthalpy on both sides of the shock.7) or pdV + V dp = 0 .5. 5. 5.3.5a) (5.2 GOVERNING RELATIONS OF THE NORMAL SHOCK 115 6. The resulting curve is called the Rayleigh line.2. 5. The cross-sectional areas must be the same on both sides of the discontinuity. Rather they are introduced because they help to explain graphically certain peculiar features of normal shocks. the locus of possible states reachable from state x. if a particular value of Vy is chosen. hy may be computed from Eq. but not necessarily with the same value of the impulse function. and b the equations of state (Eq. the continuity equation (Eq.2) Application of the momentum continuity yields Px . 5.. a locus which in the h-s diagram of Fig. while satisfying Eqs.2. the Fanno line may easily be constructed.4) (5. the continuity equation (Eq. in general. 5. 5. Hence the intersection of the two lines at point y represents the conditions at the downstream side of the discontinuity corresponding to the prescribed conditions at section x. For example. the end state of the normal shock must lie on both the Fanno line and Rayleigh line passing through x. 5. Suppose that conditions on the upstream and downstream sides of the discontinuity are denoted respectively by subscripts x and y (Fig. By repeating these calculations for various values of V y.3 is called the Fanno line.FIG. and Sy may be found from Eq. then py may be computed from Eq. 5. To compute this locus. p) = s(p. 5. Since states on the Rayleigh line have. 5.5 Art.5 simultaneously.6) + V dV d(pV) =0 equation becomes = 0 (5. 5. 5. in general.1. different stagnation enthalpies. 5. Consider now an infinitesimal process in the neighborhood of the point of maximum entropy (point a) on the Fanno line. 5.

14) +- Vx2 or 2 = cpTy +- Vy2 2 = cpTo (5. Eq.12. Hence the combined momentum and continuity relation.116 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. We turn now. pV2 = kpM2. 5. 5.13) For a perfect gas. According to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. simple relations connecting the properties on the two sides of the shock cannot be derived unless a simple equation of state in algebraic form is employed.lOb takes the form (5. dh = dp/p Combining Eqs. the normal discontinuity always involves a change from supersonic to subsonic speed with a consequent pressure rise. and 5.11) . lOa) Finally.1 My '\jl + -2-M/ 1 + kMy2 (5.9) (5. states x and y have the same adiabatic I I . only the change from x to y is possible. Furthermore. r.3 NORMAL SHOCK IN A PERFECT GAS 117 From the thermodynamic relation Tds = dh - dp/p values of T* and therefore the same adiabatic values of c* and of Co. Using the adiabatic relation between To. In similar fashion it may be demonstrated that M = 1 at the point of maximum entropy. therefore. py MyCy py My ~y Px Mx Px Mxcx - r. and the relation p we get = pRT.15) (5. Governing Equations.lOb) Consequently.6. Eqs. however.1 Mx'\j 1 + -2-Mx2 1 + kMx2 from Eqs. in the following article. The energy equation. The right-hand side represents the local sound velocity.1. k. whether from x to y.7.12) from which it follows that Ty r. py 6. we arrive at (5. r. 5. 5. 5. It may also be shown that the upper branches of the Fanno and Rayleigh lines represent subsonic speeds. (5. and M. Hence.1. Nonnal Shock in a Perfect Gas For a given fluid and for a given state x upstream of the shock.5 suffice to permit the calculation of fluid properties at state y. Eq. or from y to x. point b. The analysis thus far given places no restriction on the direction of the process. For all fluids thus far investigated. 5. 5. 5. Eq. we find the equation of the Fanno line in terms of p and M.13 and 5. the entropy may not decrease during an adiabatic change. all the adiabatic formulas of Art. that is. 5. 4. 5.3 lies to the right of point x.2. T.5 Art. We conclude that the Mach Number is unity at point a.3 are applicable to states x and y. may be written in the case of a perfect gas as cpTx Mx J k-l 1 + --Mx2 2 (5. and noting that there is no entropy change for the infinitesimal process under consideration.4. and the lower branches supersonic speeds. Direction of Shock Wave.8) 1+--M2 2 1+--M2 2 kk1 1 y x we see that at point a. From the continuity expression. This conclusion will.14.11 and 5. Px Py Px Vx This equation is now modified by introducing the definition of M and the formula for the sound speed in a perfect gas: -=---=-- r. 5. and never the reverse. point y on Fig. be demonstrated rigorously for a perfect gas. = (py)2 Px (My)2 Mx Combining Eqs. Eq. we get a k. yields the following form of the Rayleigh line equation in terms of p and M: py Px 1 + kMx2 1 + kM y 2 (5.4. on the Rayleigh line. and 5. In other words. to the special case of a perfect gas. 5. 5.2.3. consequently. However. after eliminating pylpx relation between Mxand My.8.

s x = cP In . 5. 5.16b for the value of My. and the perfect gas law. PII = cP In --'----. The second solution indicates the connection which must subsist between the states on the two sides of the discontinuity.1 l+--M 2 2)k-l k k.1 k + +1 (5. (5.1) (5.15 may be solved explicitly for My. we employ the perfect-gas formula.10 gives the following simple relation between Mx* and My* known as Prandtl's equation: The ratio of stagnation pressures is a measure of the irreversibility in the shock process. Upon squaring and algebraic rearrangement. Vy VX Px PII The first of these solutions is trivial since it expresses the obvious fact that conditions may be identical at sections x and y.23) . (1 M/ from Eq.19.18a. 5. after algebraic simplification. and POy/Py and Px/Pox may be found from Eq.20) and the velocity ratio follows from Eq. Inspection of Eqs.----. SInce Cx * = cy . 5.16b into Eq. Sll . Eq. we substitute Eq.3 NORMAL SHOCK IN A PERFECT GAS 119 Working Formulas.18a and 5. 5.16&) and (5.18a) Also. 4. we get.16b into Eq. .21) From this it is evident that if the flow at x is supersonic.16b) The density ratio may be found in terms of Mx from Eqs.11. To find the ratio of pressures fore and aft of the shock.11 and 5. 17b) (5. (5. * Mx*My* =1 (5.118 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. It may be found by observing that -=--- POy POll PII Px p" Px POx POx Now PII/PX is given by Eq.k-l (Py/Px)-k2 Ty/Tx (5.19) we get an alternative expression for the entropy change in terms of stagnation temperatures and isentropic stagnation pressures..17a) (5. namely.1) (5. 4. the flow at y must be subsonic. 5.R In T x k.2. s y .Sx = cp In k (POII/POx)-kToy/Tox 1 ---M 2(k . and thus obtain py 2k -=--Mx Px k 1 2 --- To evaluate the entropy change across the shock. Substituting for My and Mx from Eq.18b) r. In the subsequent discussion attention is given to the discontinuity solution. and vice versa. since (5.22) Px An alternative form is To k-=l+--M 1 and T 2 Substituting the value of for the temperature ratio. Two solutions are obtained. 5. 5. 5. or.14. 5.14b. Using Eq.1 + -2-Mx (k 2) + (2k k=1Mx 1)2 2 x 2 . we get Po -= ( P k.13 shows that. for the trivial solution. ~ Art. 5. py = Px and Ty = Tx.

and the cooling from b to y is at high temperatures. solving for Py/Px. the equation preceding Eq.21.1 [2 1 +k_1 (k + 1)Mx 2 k.120 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch.1Sb into Eq. Since the process is reversible. the area under the curve on the T-s diagram represents the net heat transfer.67 the entropy change is always positive when Mx is greater than unity.1 k + or. 5.11. 5. using Eq.24) Now.1 py + 1) k PII Px + 1 1 (5. and is always negative when Mx To CD py - [ Px 1+ PII (k---. FIG. after substituting the value of POll/POX given in Eq. 5.1 +--J k +1 2 the Rayleigh line involve reversible heat transfer. and.5. consequently. Hence state y must have a greater entropy than state x. 5. -+--1 Px k( k+ k. 5.3 NORMAL SHOCK IN A PERFECT GAS 121 In the present case.5.25) PII 5 Px k. The Rankine-Hugoniot Relation. for a perfect gas. Since Sy must exceed Sx. 5.4. 5. since the stagnation temperatures are the same at x and y.20. 5. we obtain.6. Imagine that state y is reached reversibly from state x by adding heat at constant area along the Rayleigh line from x to b and then rejecting heat from b to y. 5.e. It is seen that for diatomic gases the density can at most increase by a factor of six. The irreversibility of the normal shock for perfect gases can also be demonstrated with the help of the temperature-entropy diagram.5 are similar to the corresponding curves of Fig. 5. 5. we find that ( k k- (5. after algebraic rearrangement. a: = f T ds (5.1) k + PIIJ 1 Px 1 -+--1 Px k+ Then. Substituting the value of My2 from Eq. TOil = Tox. the enthalpy is a linear function of temperature.Sx k ---=--In R k. 5.24 leads to the important conclusion that there is always a decrease in isentropic stagnation pressure across a shock wave.24 is shown graphically in Fig.24 indicates that for gases with 1 < k < 1. An interesting relation connecting the pressure ratio and density ratio is known as the llankine-Hugoniot equation. Continuous processes which follow 1) 1 PII _ Px PII Px 1 (5.5 Art. The heating from x to b is at low temperatures. Since. whereas the . 5. so that ---= Sll Sx R -In- POll POx or. SII . i. It is thus proven rigorously that for a perfect gas only the shock from supersonic to subsonic speed is possible. 5.. together with the isentropic relation between pressure and density (p '-'"' pk).3. b In [2k k+1 Mx -k+1 k- 1J Impossibility of a Rarefaction Shock. PII is less than unity. Fig.4. 5. Entropy change across normal discontinuity. Illustrating the impossibility of a rarefaction shock. the Fanno and Rayleigh curves of Fig.26) FIG. the net heat transfer for the process considered must be zero. the net area under the curve xby must be zero.27) Px + k- 1 This relation is plotted in Fig. The general form of Eq. Careful study of Eq.

The use of the tables is best explained by means of a sample problem._ We are given M" = 2./ L c" = 49. for k = 1.4. Working curves for normal shock.5 Art. SOLUTION.5 psia 1\ I 6. 6.4)(0. 100 k = 1. 5.18a yields 2k P = --(M 2 x k+1 -I) (5. by "weak shock" we mean a shock in which the percentage rise in pressure is small. 5.7 = 1087 ft/sec Py PI Ty T.667 815 It/sec ~o\.122 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. Working Formulas.667. .6. Weak Shock Waves 10 5 Certain important features of shock waves may be illuminated by working out special relations for shocks of small strength.0 I00 <. = py _ 1 pz (5. p" = 10 psia.05 II f-W- v" = 2174/2. r I 50 Shock Wove (Rankine . for k = 1.. and Tables As in the case of isentropic flow. and POy/Pox are easily computed from the equations of Art. 5. k·IA - From Table B. 2. Rankine-Hugoniot FIG. Then. py/Px. A stream of air with a Mach Number of 2. Strength of Shock Wave. from Table B.- 5 I I / J~ . and temperature of 30°F passes through a normal shock.3. jl Ii I 'I -e c: a e W ~~nlroPic 0. / o. To facilitate extensive or accurate numerical calculations. PROBLEM.) Pox = 0.~/ 4 5 6 0...10 \ II 1)1\ . 78. POtI/Po" = = a 6 w0. <. T" = 489. 5.>- ~ ~ 0. the normal shock functions are tabulated in Table B. for any chosen value of Mx. 51-~ ~ po. Let us define the strength of a shock wave as the ratio of the pressure increase to the initial pressure.28) Rearrangement of Eq.7°R = 10 II // J I. since it follows that (P. Po" = 10 0.7209) = 56.2 (isentropic How) we find.7. 5.3. x r-I- 50 Also.4 Asymplole_ Fig. MzC" = 2(1087) = 2174 It/sec >- -e I Now.00.4.6. it is convenient to regard the Mach Number Mx as the foremost parameter of the normal shock equations.4.eQ_ W v" = V"/V.. Vy/Vz.. The curves indicate another important feature. namely that weak shocks are nearly isentropic.4. 5. Ty/Tx.7209 0. the corresponding values of My.0.4 pSla i----Po.4.7 gives the important shock relations in graphical form for a gas with k = 1. py/Px.1278 .p / ~ . .1 v"f: = 49. p = py .Huqcnlot) I K . Curves. at M" whence = = 2. Calculate the final velocity and stagnation pressure.29) . 'r1 1\ 5 \ PO!! = (78. i.1278.Px Px FIG. pressure of 10 psia. The curve.e.. illustrative Example.1 V489.3 for k = 1.5 WEAK SHOCK WAVES 123 pressure ratio may reach infinity. at M" 2 = 7? / .

32b) 8y - 8". y = In [(py _ p". Hence (M".32b. The irreversibility will be measured in terms of the entropy increase in passing through the shock. Irreversibility of Weak Shock. 5. from Eq.31 is of the form In (1 + e) where e is much smaller than unity. 2.. This same conclusion was reached in Chapter 3.31) Now.1) is directly proportional to the shock strength. it follows that a very weak pressure disturbance travels with the speed of sound with respect to the fluid in which it is propagating. Rearrangement of Eq. the limiting case of a normal shock. 5. is unity for such a shock. for weak shocks.5 Art. from the Rankine-Hugoniot relation.approaches unity. we find by substituting Eq.16b and 5. 5.2. Furthermore.26 yields Carrying out these operations and simplifying. we find that the firstorder and second-order terms in the shock strength vanish.. leaving _y__ 8 -8 Cv '" = __ k2-1 or 12k2 p3 _ --p4 k2-1 8k2 + .124 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. An infinitesimal plane pressure wave is.1). 5.. and the isentropic relation between pressure and density may be used for connecting the states on both sides of the shock.2. =k R + 1p3 12k2 _k + 1p4 + . the ratio of the two speeds being M".32b that the entropy increase is given by 8y 8". P = -1) _2 _ (py _ 1) ~(py k- Inserting the previous expression for 8 -8 y '" pyl p"" we find 2k 1 p '" (5..30. each of the terms on the right-hand side of Eq. therefore.32a) (5.6 FORMATION OF SHOCK WAVES 125 Also.1) and the percentage increase in density may be chosen as alternative measures of shock strength. the irreversibility connected with weak shocks may be ignored. 5. My approaches unity.. 5.29... - k 2 1) . for weak shocks. A shock of infinitesimal strength is therefore identical with a sound wave.27. the entropy increase is of the third order with respect to the shock strength. Two questions come naturally to mind: (i) what are the mechanical reasons underlying Now. therefore. Shock of Vanishing Strength.(k 3 2k2 + 1)2 (M". 5. (5. from Eqs.29 it appears that the term (M". and that rarefaction shocks are impossible. It explains also why in Fig. -=-8 _-_8_".30 indicates that the ratio of density increase to initial density. Formation of Shock Waves We have seen from the Second Law of Thermodynamics that a compression shock involves an entropy increase (or a loss in stagnation pressure). l+k+lp 2k 1+--P k. the value of M".29 into Eq..33) py p". 5.. 5. Eq. 8k2 In terms of (M". 5.. the series expansion In (1 We therefore employ for each term e2 - k- 1 Px From Eq..30) Cv k+l) P = In (1 + P) . from Eq. Suppose that the shock strength approaches zero. Cv .+ . This result explains why in Fig. Eq. + e) = E- 234 + . and the density change across the shock approaches zero.2. e3 E4 is also approximately proportional to the shock strength.6 the isentropic curve and RankineHugoniot curve have the same slope and the same radius of curvature at the lower left-hand comer of the chart. 5. If the shock is relatively weak. 1) + 1] . The shock itself travels with a speed greater than the speed of sound in the fluid into which it is propagating.1 2k Thus. (5.7 there is scarcely any loss in stagnation pressure across the shock for initial Mach Numbers less than about 1.6. 6. Then. It is of interest to examine the irreversibility associated with a weak shock of finite strength. - 2 1) 4 +.25.kin py p".k In ( 1 + -- + k In (k-l) -1+ 2k P (5. R = "3 (k 2 + 1)2 (M". As a first approximation. 5. Since M".

8. speed occurring at equal intervals of time. 5. The pres~nt analysis then ceases to be valid because viscous and heat conduct~on e~ects ar~ no longer negligible in the face of such extraordinary gradients III velocity and temperature.6 FORMATION OF SHOCK WAVES 127 the appearance in nature of compression shocks and the impossibility of rarefaction shocks? and (ii) what are the dissipative phenomena in a shock leading to an entropy increase? The first of these questions is answered in this article.8.8 the pressure distribution in the duct is shown schematically at various times after the beginning of motion." because "a" is moving faster to the right and also because the velocity of sound in "a" is greater than the velocity of sound in "b. Consequently. 5. The simplest physical process incorporating the elementary ideas expressed above is illustrated in Fig.i: 1-4 from a condition of no motion. and the original wave travels along the duct and imparts a pressure and velocity pulse to mass "b. 5. In Fig. to the case where the piston accelerates to a constant speed and then moves at constant velocity. in order to explain the existence of shock waves in a duct or attached to a moving body." The gas mass "a" is therefore at a slightly increased pressure and is moving to the right with the velocity of the piston. because of the nonlinearity of finite wave motion. Each successive pressure wave produced follows the laws derived in Art.htheir greater pressures." The net result of this process is that the wave profile becomes steeper and steeper. i.126 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch.9a.5 Art. corresponding 1=0 p v 1=1 1=3 1=4 p Dislonce. Thus. These results are summarized in Fig. the pressure waves nearer the piston tend to overtake those further from the piston. for a~ expansion wave. the pressure gradient becomes infinite. For example. or V) plotted against distance x. with the piston traveling at uniform speed between each pair of impulsive accelerations. 3. For purposes of analysis we will supFIG. if the isentropic analysis ?. 10 ~bbm •x Physical Description of Wave Development. The wave form at a given instant is defined as the curve of some fluid property (say p. (a) x =th1 1=5 V p IsO p F/~ Dislonce. 5. ' A similar analysis applied to a leftward motion of the piston. STEEPENING COMPRESSION OF WAVES. There we regarded each element of surface bounding a fluid stream as pushing the neighboring fluid out of its way and thereby propagating a pressure pulse into the fluid. Indeed. To explain in the simplest manner the physical mechanism leading to compression shocks. since the process is isentropic. becomes ever steeper as it propagates rightward until between t = 4 and t = it tends to become infinitely steep at some point. (a) Compression wave. i~dicates that expansion waves become less steep WIth the passage of time. we shall adopt the point of view of Art.9. Fig. (b) Expansion wave. 5. until. After the first impulsive acceleration of the piston.e. x (b) 1=1 1=2 1=3 FIG. at t = 6. The piston accelerates rightward into gas which is initially motionless in the duct.. the masses nearer the piston have greater sound velocities by virtue of the higher temperatures associated wit. a small compression shock has been formed a shock which grows in strength as the process continues. Now each of these pressure waves travels with the local speed of sound relative to the fluid through which it is passing. Therefore..2. it is necessary to examine the way in which the steady-state condition is achieved 1L-. compression waves become steeper and ultimately form a discontinuity.e. . the mass "a" receives a further increase in pressure and velocity from the second acceleration of the piston. and the second in Art. 3. Development of wave form of constant strength. 5. 5. referring to t = 3. the wave in mass "a" travels faster than the wave in mass "b. Wave fronts formed at successive times pose that the gradual acceleration is approxias piston accelerates mated by a series of instantaneous increases of rightward by a series of equally spaced impulses.2." This process continues as each of the pressure waves travels downstream and as fresh waves are initiated by successive piston accelerations. the pressure wave (shown as a vertical front) has moved down the duct a short distance and influenced the mass of gas labeled "a. at t = 6. p. The position of the vertical axis on each chart indicates the instantaneous location of the piston. The compression wave. i. this is analogous to the case of a projectile starting from rest and accelerating to a constant final speed. while expansion waves spread out and thus are unable to support a discontinuity.9. But the masses nearer the piston have forward motions greater than those further from the pisto~. Thus. Moreover. It is also necessary to point out that a steady-state flow is always arrived at through a series of transient flows which asymptotically approach the steadystate condition after a long period of time. at t = 1. Between t = 1 and t = 2.7. showing successive appearances of a wave form of constant total pressure change. 5.

As long as the velocity and temperature gradients are moderate.128 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch.2. the front part of the wave (corresponding to compression) is seen to steepen. the geome---'tr-_~Vw+dVw try of the flow permits the for+~-~VW ward part to tumble over. the instantaneous form of which is shown in Fig. 5.34b. de. do. as it means that at the same time and location the fluid has. each element of the wave may be analyzed as in Art. this is physically absurd. p In this case. this tumbling over produces the well-known ocean "breakers. 1 pC dp (5. we obtain dV w v2 (d2p/dv2)s --= dp ------ 2c (dp/dv). 5. The foregoing descriptive v arguments may be put into simple analytic form. 5. therefore. and we assume that the entire fluid was originally at rest with uniform pressure and temperature. and so no discontinuity effects are observed.35) Furthermore. Consider a rightward-moving plane compression wave. as in Fig." -=-+dp dp dp dV -=- dV10 dV de (5.5 Art. 3. Illustrates analysis on development of wave form. however. the wave would "topple over" to the form shown by the dashed line.34a) = dV + de We are interested in whether adjacent parts of the wave travel at the same or different speeds. The respective parts of the wave passing through these same points differ in wave speed by the amount dV w' Since a finite wave may be thought of as a succession of infinitesimal pressure pulses.9b. velocity. 5.36) Substituting Eqs.35 and 5.37b) . where v is the specific volume.2 we obtain. tance. The rarefaction wave. since each particle of fluid undergoes isentropic changes.37a) Hence 8 = l/v. becomes ever less steep as it propagates rightward. and the rear part (corresponding to rarefaction) is seen to spread out. As an incoming gravity wave approaches the shore.simultaneously three different values of pressure. if a rarefaction shock were momentarily established. t = 5. we have de 2c dp = d (dP) dp dp = dp dp dp p (d ) d (dP) (5. the increments in pressure and density between adjacent fluid particles obey the relation 2 dp c=dp Analysis of Wave Development. At two adjacent points the fluid properties differ in magnitude by dV. part of the wave with respect to fixed coordinates is. 5. p = ~[1+~f.)l pc 2 dp/dp (5. The propagation velocity of a Differentiating with respect to p. SPREADING RAREFACTION OF WAVES. and density.36 into Eq. dp. Viscous and heat conduction effects intervene soon after t = 4 and act to produce a stationary shock wave of unchanging form. we obtain dVw dp By definition.6 FORMATION OF SHOCK WAVES 129 were continued to t = 5.9a. 3. V10 = V V 10 whence it follows that dVw +c and the propagation velocity of an adjacent part of the wave is + dV 10 = (V + dV) + (c + de) (5.10 by plots of x pressure and velocity versus disFIG. 5. 5. (5.37a. Therefore we form the ratio J THE SURF ANALOGY.34b) From the analysis of Art. Consequently each elementary part of the wave travels at the local speed of sound with respect to the fluid in which it is propagating. 5. the dynamic effects outlined here would cause the shock to decay immediately into a continuous expansion wave. Indeed. Fig. -=--= d dp dvd dp dv ---= 1d p2 dv -v-- "d dv Applying this transformation to Eq. for a rightward-moving wave.A similar phenomenon may be seen at ocean beaches.(t.10. etc. experience confirms the assumption that longitudinal viscous and heat conduction effects are negligible.

. viscous stresses must inevitably become appreciable.7 THICKNESS OF SHOCK WAVES 131 For a fluid to be thermodynamically stable (i. that is. In the foregoing article we saw that. However. 5. Moreover. From this it follows that the thickness of a shock wave is in part controlled by viscous and heat conduction effects. CRITERIA FORCHANGE WAVESHAPE. pvk is constant during an isentropic process. GASWITH UNCHANGING WAVE SHAPE. we conclude that. similarly. However. This p-v isentrope is a straight line on the p-v diagram of Fig. In a perfect gas. Thickness of Shock Waves We now turn to the question of how dissipative effects account for the entropy increase in a shock wave. if dVw/dp is positive. The shapes of the isentropes corresponding to these two criteria are illustrated in Fig. OTHER FLUIDS.38a that in a perfect gas compression waves steepen and rarefaction waves flatten. Consequently. 5.130 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. When the isentropic pressuredensity relation has a special form. 5. no matter how small the coefficient of thermal conductivity.11.38. the sign of dV w/dp depends exclusively on the sign of (d2p/dv2). we get Wave Form Unchanged dv s Compressions Flatten /" Rarefactions Steepen (dip) t <0 '\ ~. there seems to be no basic principle forbidding the existence of such a fluid.. 5. if it is not to collapse or expand catastrophically).11. ~ Art.11 and marks the dividing line in curvature between gases in which compression waves steepen and gases in which they flatten. must be negative. heat conduction effects must inevitably become substantial. (dp/dv). \ \ "\ (ii) Compression waves flatten and expansion waves steepen when Comparing this with Eq. IN the higher-pressure parts of the wave overtake the lower-pressure parts. Differentiating.38a. the isentrope must have a negative slope on the pressure-volume diagram. on whether the isentrope on the pressure-volume diagram is concave upwards or concave downwards. According to Eq. Now. 5. as the wave becomes very steep.e. where A and B are constants. waves of finite amplitude propagate through the gas with unchanged shape. in the absence of viscosity and heat conduction. But if dV w/dp is negative. we obtain p =A + Bv as the unique isentropic relation for unchanging wave shape. The analysis underlying this result was based on a form of the equation of motion containing only pressure and inertia forces. Criteria for steepening or flattening of compression and rarefaction waves in terms of curvature of p-v isentrope. 5. No example has yet been adduced of a real fluid obeying Eq. The isentropic relation for liquids may usually be represented at moderate pressures by v (d2~) >0 P (ddv) = -fj 8 where fj is positive and nearly constant. Hence. 5.. a rarefaction wave becomes less steep. it follows from Eq. no matter how small the coefficientof viscosity. and so a particle of fluid undergoes nonadiabatic effects. 5. a compression wave becomes less steep and a rarefaction wave steepens into a dv s compression shock. Since viscous and heat conduction effects tend to wipe out discontinuities in velocity and temperature.38b. and a compression wave steepens as it progresses. compression waves tend to become infinitely steep. 6. compression waves steepen and expansion waves flatten. this occurs when Integrating twice.7. LIQUIDS. Possibly certain fluids in the neighborhood of the critical pressure and temperature can exhibit stationary rarefaction shocks. By differentiating twice it is found that Since k is positive for all known gases. From these Compressions Steepen considerations we arrive at the Rarefactions Flatten following criteria: (i) Compression waves steepen p and expansion waves flatten when p=A + Bv PERFECT GAS. v= IIp FIG. they tend also to resist the steepening of a compression wave. in liquids obeying the law of constant fj.






Art. 5.7





In short, when a compression wave has reached a stationary form, the spreading influences of viscosity and heat conduction just balance the steepening influence of pressure and inertia forces. Order-of-Magnitude Considerations. The ideas outlined above lead to a simple estimate of the order of magnitude of the shock thickness. In a shock of stationary form, the pressure, viscous, and inertia terms in the equation of motion must all be of comparable magnitude. Physical considerations dictate that the stationary shock have a form like that of Fig. 5.12. The ...i"_ velocity curve approaches the end '--------------. values Vx and Vyasymptotically, FIG. 5.12. Definition of shock thickness. and so the thickness is actually infinite. However, virtually the entire change in velocity occurs in avery short distance. It is convenient, therefore, to define a characteristic shock thickness 8 as shown by the sketch, or, Vz - v,

rium does not prevail within a shock, therefore, and the analysis of a shock from continuum considerations at best gives approximate results for the shock structure. Kinetic theory or even quantum mechanics may be necessary for an adequate analysis. Shock Thickness in Perfect Gas. The structure of the shock wave may be investigated more fully by solving the exact N avier-Stokes equation and the exact energy equation for such a dissipative, onedimensional region. The results of such studies are more accurate than the order-of-magnitude result reached above but are nonetheless subject to the same weakness of being based on the assumption of a continuum. A formula showing a shock thickness Reynolds Number as a function of Mach Number, Prandtl Number, specific-heat ratio, and viscositytemperature variation has been derived by Shapiro and Kline. (1) It has the form

D Mx* + [(k + + I)Mx* . Mx* - 1 -21+



1- k


+ 1 Mz*2

1 )J1-..

= -----'--

(dV /dx)


Now, since the longitudinal viscous stress must be of the same order of magnitude as the inertia stress, ~ p.*!!___ (dV) "'" p*V* dV 3 dxdx dx or, evaluating the, derivatives in order-of-magnitude assuming % "'" 1 (V" - Vy)/8 Vz - Vy p.* "'" p*V*---from which we get
8 8


8k(k + 1) 1 (Mz* - 1)2] ----_.:_ 3Pr* D2 Mz*
2k k

(5.39a) (5.39b)

D=-+-------3 Pr* 2Pr*



1 Mz*2 + 1


fashion, and

and where n is the exponent in a viscosity-temperature relationship of the form p."'" T" (from kinetic theory, n = 72 for perfect gases; for air, experimental values yield n = 0.768 at ordinary temperatures). The symbol Pr* denotes the value of the Prandtl Number at the temperature T*. When D is positive, the plus sign in Eq. 5.39a is used; when D is negative, the minus sign. VERYWEAK SHOCKS.When M"* approaches unity, Eq. 5.39a may be approximated by


p*V*8 p.*


which says that the Reynolds Number of the shock, based on the thickness 8 and on the fluid properties at T* is of the order of magnitude of unity. By introducing certain further relations from the kinetic theory of gases, it may be shown that, in respect to order of magnitude,


M~*->l "'"


+ 1 3 + ---p;;-

4 (4


1) 1

M,,* - 1




Hence the thickness of weak shocks is inversely proportional to the strength of the shock if we choose the strength to be measured by (M,,* - 1). Even for extremely weak shocks, however, the shock thickness at pressure and temperature is extremely small compared with the dimensions of physical objects, as may be seen from Fig. 5.14. TABLE OF SHOCKTHICKNESSES.Using constants corresponding to air (k = 1.4, Pr* = %, and n = 0.768), Eqs. 5.39a and b yield the values shown in the following table for the shock thickness parameter.



where l is the mean free molecular path. Thus it follows that the shock thickness is of the order of the mean free path. Thermodynamic equilib-




Art. 5.8



Also shown are order-of-magnitude values for the ratio of shock thickness to the mean free molecular path at state x.
M.,* 1.36 1.63 1.96 2.14 2.24 2.30 2.33 2.36 2.38 2.39 2.45

6.8. Normal Shocks in Ducts
When the pressures at the entrance and exit of a duct in which a gas flows supersonically are adjusted so that a compression shock appears in the duct, the latter is found to be radically different from a plane discontinuity. This difference arises as the result of an interaction between the shock wave and the boundary layer on the walls of the duct. The phenomenon in its details is most complicated, but the outstanding physical features can be readily explained. The normal shock in the core of the stream imposes an extraordinarily large adverse. pressure gradient on the stream as a whole. As the boundary layer flow has been retarded by wall friction, however, it does not have sufficient momentum to negotiate this adverse pressure gradient. Consequently, apart from the thickening of the boundary layer produced by the adverse pressure gradient, there is often a back flow in the boundary layer near the shock. This back flow produces a separation of the stream from the walls. The boundary layer effects described above lead to oblique shock waves in the pattern, and consequently the flow is far from one-dimensionaI.
q~ ¢"9 _9_~_'1.---TU:II III 1111111 /(

p.,c.,81J1.., 8.0 4.6 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4

81l., 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

In the range where measurements of shock thickness have been made (up to about Mz = 1.5), Eq. 5.39a is in excellent agreement with experi-

Normal Shock V. M.'I.I, T.·59F, p.·14.7 psia Cl230)-·-rar-__;___;_-"':"':"'=--____:~---, 1200 V V (FIISec)



'7J71l, /117/ /1/////177 ReQion of Seporation


I""}J-L_ t:v iiJ a ~ ,,----1-(b)


FIG. 5.15. Typical shock-boundary layer interactions in a duct. (a) Thin boundary layer and weak shock. (b) Thick boundary layer and strong shock.

(b) FIG. 5.13. Variation of fluid properties in a normal shock.



mental observation for monatomic gases such as argon, and under10-1 estimates the shock thickness by about 25% for diatomic gases like nitrogen. ~ 10~ ~ Fig. 5.13a shows typical velocity, temperau c ture, and pressure distributions in a weak shock :i 10wave. The corresponding course of thermo•• dynamic states is shown in the temperature:c ~ 10-4 entropy diagram of Fig. 5.13b, which indicates g ~ that entropy decreases occur near the end of the '8.000' 0.001 0.01 0.1 wave. The thickness of a compression shock at (M.-I) normal atmospheric pressure and temperature FIG. 5.14. Thickness of (Fig. 5.14) is extraordinarily small, thus justia normal shock at standfying the treatment of the shock as a disconard atmospheric pressure and temperature. tinuity for most practical computations.

Typical Experimental Results. Typical flow patterns are shown in Fig. 5.15. When the shock is weak and the boundary layer thin, as might be the case slightly downstream of the throats of supersonic


.>C U








FIG. 5.16. Schlieren photographs of compression shock in a duct, with flow from left to right (M.I.T. Gas Turbine Laboratory). (a) Moderately thick boundary layer. The light, diamond-shaped regions represent regions of acceleration. (b) Very thick boundary layer .:

nozzles, the normal shock extends over most of the stream and a thickening of the boundary layer occurs (Fig. 5.15a). When the shock is strong and the boundary layer thick, as in long ducts fed by supersonic nozzles, back flow and separation occur (Fig. 5.15b). The main stream






Art. 5.9





separates from the walls, alternately passes through a series of accelerations and shocks, and, finally, after reaching subsonic speeds, diverges and fills the passage again.



FIG. 5.17. Schlieren photographs showing the effect of boundary-layer removal on the compression shock in a duct, with flow from left to right (after A. Weise). (a) Boundary layer present. (b) Boundary layer removed through suction slits.

Typical schlieren photographs of these phenomena are shown in Figs. 5.1 and 5.16. That the boundary layer is indeed responsible for the complex flow pattern with re0.035 peated shocks is seen from the My: 0.51 schlierenphotographs of Fig. 5.17, where it is evident that the simple normal shock can be made to occur by removing the boundary layer from the walls of the passage. This figurealso indicates the possibility of eliminating complex and lengthy shock patterns by p means of boundary layer suction. Fig. 5.18 illustrates a typical static pressure distribution measured at the wall of a duct containing a compressionshock.(2) In the particular case shown, for which the Mach Number at the beginning of the shock was 2.8, about ten diameters of duct were re10 20 30 40 quired for the pressure rise to be attained. In other tests of similar Distance Fram Tube Inlet Tube Diameter nature the length of the "shock" FIG. 5.18. Measured static pressure was found to vary between 14 distribution at the wall of a duct containdiameters for a Mach Number of ing a compression shock like that of Fig. 4.2, and 9 diameters for a Mach 5.16b (after E. G. Newberg, Jr.). Number of 1.8. These figures are doubtless a function of the Reynolds Number and of the boundary-layer thickness. Measurements of the maximum pressure rise for the steeply

ascending portions of the pressure-distance curves indicated that the measured value of P1I/Px was about 6 per cent less than the value corresponding to the normal shock equations and the measured value of Mx. This agreement is good, considering the fact that at neither section x nor section y is the flow strictly one-dimensional. The good agreement between the measured and calculated pressure rises is explained by the fact that the wall shearing forces in the region of separation in Fig. 5.15b are extremely small, and hence the normal shock equations are approximately applicable between sections z and y. From this we reach the important conclusion that, although the compression shock in a duct is far from a plane discontinuity, the normal shock equations are a good guide to the changes in fluid properties across such a shock region. It is important to remember, however, that a substantial distance is required for the net change in state to be effected. Additional information on shocks in ducts is presented in Volume II, Chapter 28.

5.9. Moving Shock Waves
In a number of practical problems, such as those relating to explosion waves, the V-I "buzz bomb" engine, and the Comprex, it is necessary to deal with compression shocks which are not stationary. If in such cases the shock wave travels at constant speed, the problem may be reduced to that of a stationary shock merely by employing a moving coordinate system relative to which the shock is at rest; the shock relations already derived are then applicable to the fluid properties in this moving coordinate system. The same result is true to a very good approximation even when the shock strength is changing with time or when the shock speed is not constant; this is so because the shock thickness is minute, from which it follows that the time rates of change of mass, momentum, and energy within a control surface surrounding the shock are negligible compared with the changes in the respective fluxes of these quantities passing through the control surface. Transformation of Moving Shock to Stationary Shock. To illustrate the general approach by which the stationary shock relations can be made applicable to a moving shock, consider a moving shock wave such as might have been created by an explosion in a gas at rest (Fig. 5.19b). By superposing on the pattern of Fig. 5.19b a uniform velocity to the right, the stationary shock pattern of Fig. 5.19a is obtained. In Fig. 5.19a, gas approaches the shock with the speed Vx and pressure Px, and with the supersonic Mach Number Mx. It leaves the shock with a higher pressure, lower speed, and with a subsonic Mach Number. In the case of the moving shock, the gas over which the shock has passed is at a higher pressure than the undisturbed gas. The gas over which the




Art. 5.10




shock has passed travels leftward with the speed V", - Vy, and, since this is less than the shock speed V"" a particle of high-pressure gas falls farther and farther behind the shock front. Let us define the Mach Number of the moving shock wave as the ratio of the speed of the wave to the speed of sound in the stationary gas. This ratio is identical with the value of M", for the stationary discontinuity. Now, since for a wave of finite strength M", is greater than unity,
Stationary Shock Moving Shock

Toy = T y ( 1+ -2- M/ ;






kr, [ 1+ -2-1 (My')2 ]



k- 1 p", ( 1 + -2-Mx2 k-1 -2-



(5.45a, 5.45b)

POx' = p",

(5.46a, 5.46b)

Pay = py ( 1+

2)k-l My




= Py [ 1 + k ~

1 (My'2)

/II /I/I/III~</1({/l
Stationary Gas ~ v.


(5.47a, 5.47b) Through the use of these transformations and the equations of Art. 5.3, the shock relations may be worked out for the observer of Fig. 5.19b. It is worthy of note that the change ill stagnation temperature is dependent on the observer's motion, as indicated by the following expressions:

(a) (a) Gas flowing through stationary shock. (b) Shock moving into stationary gas.



Py > p.

FIG. 5.19. Transformation of coordinate system.

it follows that such waves travel faster than the speed of sound in the undisturbed medium. Only in the case of a wave of infinitesimal strength does the wave propagate with the speed of sound. Transformation Formulas. The equations of Art. 5.3 are, of course, valid only in terms of Fig. 5.19a, i.e., only for quantities measured by an observer who travels with the discontinuity. In order to obtain equations which are applicable to quantities seen by an observer at rest with respect to the low-pressure gas, all quantities containing a velocity term must be modified in accord with the change in coordinate system. Suppose we signify with primes those quantities measured by an observer who is at rest with respect to the gas toward which the discontinuity moves. Then we may write Px'


= Tau' - Tax'
= Ty - Tx



xy 2cp


and, since I1To


0, we find that - Vy)

= -----


= Px;




(5.40a, 5.40b) (5.41a, 5.41b)

Similar transformation relations gating into a flowing medium which has may be worked out for the case been suddenly brought to rest. (Reprinted courtesy R. Courant and K. O. Friedrichs where the flow in a pipe is sud- Supersonic Flow and Shock W aves Inter~ denly brought to rest at one end, science Publishers, New York, copyright 1948.) thus initiating a shock wave which propagates back through the pipe. The corresponding physical situation is pictured (with some poetic license) in Fig. 5.20.

FIG. 5.20. Metaphorical shock propa-



(5.42a, 5.42b)

6.10. Operating Characteristics of Converging-Diverging Nozzle
(5.43a, 5.43b) Tax

r, ( 1 + -2-M",2

k- 1



(5.44a, 5.44b)

We return now to the problem of the operating characteristics of converging-diverging nozzles under varying pressure ratios, discussed previously in Art. 4.7.






Art. 5.10




Simplified Theoretical Analysis. Fig. 5.21a shows the experimental arrangement considered for purposes of discussion. Figs. 5.21b, c, and d show the characteristics computed on the basis of frictionless flow, but admitting the possibility of normal shocks. The measured characteristics are in general agreement with those illustrated here and differ chiefly because of boundary-layer effects.

Distance Along Nozzle


PT I-oo()o<o-(li:o-lo-<>--<t Po




(d) FIG. 5.21. Performance of converging-diverging pressure to supply pressure. (a) (b) (c) (d) nozzle with various ratios of back

in the exit plane of the nozzle. In regime II, as in regime I, the exitplane pressure PE is virtually identical with the back pressure PB. On the other hand, the flow rate in regime II is constant and is unaffected by the back pressure. This is in accord with the fact that throughout regime II all stream properties at the throat section are constant. In regime III, as for condition 5, the flow within the entire nozzle is supersonic, and the pressure in the exit plane is lower than the back pressure. The compressionwhich subsequently occurs outside the nozzle involves oblique shock waves which cannot be treated on one-dimensional grounds. Condition 6 is termed the design condition for the nozzle under supersonic conditions, since the exit-plane pressure is then identical with the back pressure. A reduction in the back pressure below that corresponding to condition 6 has no effect whatsoever on the flow pattern within the nozzle. In regime IV the expansion from the exit-plane pressure to the back pressure occurs outside the nozzle in the form of oblique expansion waves which also cannot be studied by a one-dimensional analysis. In both regimes III and IV the flow pattern within the nozzle is independent of back pressure, and corresponds to the flow pattern for the design condition. Adjustments to the back pressure are made outside the nozzle. For subsonic flow, there are an infinite number of possible pressuredistance curves. For the supersonic region of flow, however, the pressure-distance curve is unique. To put it differently, in subsonic flow the pressure ratio does not depend solely on the area ratio; in supersonic flow the pressure ratio does depend solely on the area ratio. Only over a narrow range of back-pressure ratios, namely, the range covered by regime I, does the flow rate depend on the back pressure. For regimes II, III, and IV, the flowrate is independent of back pressure, and, since M = 1 at the throat, may be computed from Eq. 4.17. Experimental Results. Fig. 5.22 shows schlieren photographs of the flowthrough a converging-diverging nozzle. Figs. 5.22a, b, and c correspond to regime II and show a normal shock advancing down the nozzle as the back pressure is lowered. In Figs. 5.22a and 5.22b the shock is weak and the boundary layer thin, and there is a single and substantially normal shock. In Fig. 5.22cthe shock is fairly strong and there is boundary-layer separation with a repeated shock pattern. With sufficiently low back pressure (regimes III and IV) the shock moves out of the nozzle, and the flowin the passage is entirely supersonic, as in Fig. 5.22d. Measured pressure distributions on the nozzle axis are shown in Fig. 5.23. They are seen to agree generally with the simple model of Fig. 5.21a, the chief difference being a gradual rather than a steep rise in

Curves of pressure versus distance along nozzle axis. Exit-plane pressure versus back pressure. Throat pressure versus back pressure. Mass flow parameter versus ratio of back pressure to supply pressure.

Four different regimes are possible. In regime I the flow is entirely subsonic, and the passage behaves like a conventional venturi tube. The flow rate is sensitive to changes in back pressure. At condition 2, which forms the dividing line between regimes I and II , the Mach Number at the throat is unity. As regime II is entered, a normal shock appears downstream of the throat, and the process aft of the shock comprises subsonic deceleration. As the back pressure is lowered, the shock moves down the nozzle until, at condition 4, it appears




Art. 5.11





pressure across the shock. This difference is caused by boundary-layer thickening and separation. Flow patterns in the exit jet for regimes III and IV are illustrated by the schlieren photographs of Fig. 5.24. Analytical studies of the oblique waves seen in these pictures are presented in Chapters 14, 15, and 16.
(a) (b)



(c) FIG. 5.22. Schlieren photographs


of flow through converging-diverging with flow from left to right (after Prandtl). (a) (b) (c) (d)


Weak shock just downstream of throat. Shock further downstream than in (a). Strong shock accompanied by flow separation. Back pressure low enough to permit purely supersonic flow in passage. Inclined lines are Mach wavelets generated by slight roughness on the walls.


FIG. 5.24. Schlieren photographs of flow at exit of converging-diverging nozzle, with flow from left to right (after Prandtl). (a) Pressure in exit plane greater than back pressure (regime IV). (b) Pressure in exit plane equal to back pressure (condition 6). (c) Pressure in exit plane less than back pressure (regime III).


T"b: Wit:.::


j ~_ r

O.l5S")>-----6.142" ------~ 160 rr-r-r-.-r-r-r--r-'r'""T-r-..,.....,~ 140
0 .;;; Q.

6.11. One-Dimensional

Supersonic Diffusers

120 100 SO 60 40 20 0_050



Diffusers, or passages which decelerate a stream to low velocity, are important elements in such different devices as compressors, wind tunnels, and ram jets. The supersonic diffuser offers certain unusual problems not met with in the design of subsonic diffusers. Special Problems of Supersonic Diffusers. At first thought it might appear that a supersonic diffuser could be designed as though it were the reverse of a converging-diverging nozzle. Two difficulties arise, however. First, if the diffuser is in a closed system and is preceded by a supersonic nozzle, frictional effects between the nozzle and the diffuser require that the diffuser throat be somewhat larger than the nozzle throat. If the diffuser throat is made slightly too small, supersonic flow will not be attained in the nozzle; and, if the diffuser throat is made slightly too large, there will necessarily be a shock somewhere within the diffuser. Indeed, even if the two throats did match perfectly, it appears that the combined system would be unstable and that flow oscillations would occur.




~ ~ " :::

FIG. 5.23. Experimentally determined curves of static pressure on axis versus distance along axis for converging-diverging nozzle (after Stodola).


Maximum area contraction for which supersonic wind tunnel diffuser of fixed geometry will permit supersonic flow to be established in test section. and subsonic flow will exist in the test section. It is clear from this diagram that during the "starting" condition there is a large loss in stagnation pressure and a consequent increase in the area required to pass the flow. dilL throat Anollie throat section Mach Number. .25a) inasmuch as the shock then occurs at the maximum possible Mach Number and.26. and. 5. 5. a shock moves down the dition. Should the diffuser throat be considerably smaller than that given by Eq. Hence Ax/All * depends only on the test-section Mach Number. therefore. The worst starting shock is illustrated in the T-8 diagram of Fig. The limiting contraction ratio Ax/All diffuser is accordingly given by Ax AII* * for the = Ax Ax * = Ax POll Ax* Ay* Ax* POx The area ratio Ax/Ax * is given in terms of Mx by the isentropic formula.l~ l~ A· Ax 11 Max. except possibly downstream of the diffuser throat. 5. 4.11 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS 145 A second and more serious difficulty arises.f the stream at Mx could be diffused without a shock. The path of states during the most un. As the stagnation pressure is reduced by a normal shock.10.. Starting operation of supersonic wind tunnel diffuser illustrated on temperature-entropy diagram. A II* POx (5. comprising a converging-diverging nozzle.21.5 Test . The design problems raised by this aspect of the process will be discussed for two applications. During this period. according to the discussion of Art. namely.5 Art..17.1 IY 2.0 M. a normal shock will stand ill the diverging portion of the nozzle. Supersonic Wind Tunnel Diffusers. consequently.5 3. the product Ax*Pox must equal the product Ay *POy. a test section. and the ratio POy/Pox is given in terms of Mx by the shock formula.. it follows that there is a corresponding increase in the minimum area through which the flow can be made to pass.e. FIG. This area ratio is plotted versus Mx in Fig.48) where POll/POX is the stagnation pressure ratio for a shock at the test- With the limiting diffuser throat area corresponding to Eq. reduction in pressure at the nozzle (a) Most unfavorable starting con.48. a diffuser. 1/ II 11 j.Section Mach Number. We will suppose that the inlet stagnation pressure and temperature are (b) constant. When the exhauster is FIG. :g 0 0 A" rT a: 1. except for entropy in(a) creases which occur across normal ox shocks. it will be assumed that the flow is isentropic. In order to focus attention on the essential features of the problem. 1.48 the flow will be subsonic throughout the entire system. 5. 5 1'°1 1.19. In interpreting this diagram it is well to remember that all states on the same Fanno line have a common stagnation temperature and flow per unit area. Area Contraction For Constant Geometry 1. Across a normal shock there is no change in flow rate or in stagnation temperature. Eq. and an exhauster.£ kf! I I'!. and the flow at the diffuser throat is exactly sonic when the shock is in the test section. the diffuser is barely able to "swallow" the flowduring starting.48. STARTING CONDITIONS.exit. 5. A change in cross-sectional area has associated with it a shift from one Fanno line to another.27. while the shock is in the test section) is from Ox to x to y to *y to Oy.25. 5.4 [!Max.144 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. Contraction For Isentropic Di Iluser . the nozzle throat is passing the maximum possible flow. Starting of supersonic wind started up and thereby produces a tunnel diffuser.2 e. The minimum area of the diffuser throat is therefore given by Amin. together with a curve showing the area contraction which would be possible j. FIG. 4. since A *Po is constant across the shock. 5. If the diffuser throat is slightly smaller than that required by Eq. Eq. produces the largest loss in stagnation pressure. I ~ " o ~ ~ 1. 5.25. According to Eq. Consider the supersonic wind tunnel system of Fig. 5. The worst condition in this respect occurs when the shock is moving through the test section (Fig.favorable starting condition (i. 5. 5. diverging portion of the nozzle (b) Best operating condition.3 s 0 0 " 1. Most flow systems start from rest and accelerate to the operating velocity. 5. it follows that the flow can pass through the diffuser throat only if the latter is larger than the nozzle throat. During the starting period normal shock waves pass through the system.26. 5.0 r(i"i'l I IIIIII 2.27. We shall assume also that the flow is quasi-steady during the period of starting the flow. wind tunnel diffusers and propulsion engine diffusers.

5...=-. 5. 5. the throat area must be made slightly larger than the theoretical minimum value to account for inaccurate estimates of the effects of friction. 5. a slight disturbance might make it move temporarily into the converging section.~ (b) geometry diffusers in conjunction with =::::. Stagnation pressure loss for of the exhauster is determined by supersonic wind tunnel diffuser of fixed the starting condition rather than geometry...r-. =====-.0 fuser throat.. ~{~~(') . 2 3 Test . the supersonic inlet during starting. a normal shock followedby isentropic subsonic diffusion. (ii) variable.28. although there are modifications owing to viscous effects.. -. In practice the shock is maintained slightly downstream of the diffuser throat during operation. if the exhaust pressure were fixed.7 'x best operating condition is shown WE 1\ \ 0..Section Mach Number Hence the pressure ratio required FlO. Fig. these operate at supersonic speeds.. 5. Here again.6 in Fig.28. Thus.. Supersonic inlet. because practical reasons require that the best design be compromised by an enlargement of the throat and by an operating condition with the shock at a Mach Number greater than the minimum in the passage.. This would make the situation still worse.28. ThE o0 ~ Starting Condition 0..::::. we shall treat the flow as quasi-static and shall ignore all losses except those occurring in normal shocks.27 is from 0. with all the free stream flow engines always reach their operating speed corresponding to the area Al entering the inlet.\' yperoting Favorable Condition 0. stagnation pressure loss for best 0. is to make the shock occur in a length of several passage diameters. 5. in Fig.25b. Curve marked "least favorable starting condition" shows also the by the operating condition. and.e. it would be necessary to lower the exhaust pressure to the minimum value required for starting.::-_:--=-_-_-::.8 Mach Number in the diffuser.29a shows a converging-diverging OF supersonic inlet having an inlet area Al and minimum area A2• If no . To insure that a supersonic diffuser of fixed geometry will start. gines such as turbojets and ram jets when (a) Nomenclature. ssuming now that the diffuser is largE A enough for supersonic flowto be established in the test section. Wall friction of course produces slight additional losses in stagnation pressure.A stagnation pressure loss for a diffuser comparison of the two limiting comprising a normal shock followed by stagnation pressure ratios is shown isentropic subsonic diffusion.. For example.146 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch.however. as the shock will then -.. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS.29.3 <. for simplicity.1 up because of the lower Mach 4 Number at which the shock occurs. i. and (iv) taking advantage of effects which are not one-dimensional. The lower curve represents also the operating condition of a diffuser having no contraction whatsoever. and the shock would move upstream progressively until it came to rest in the diverging part of the nozzle at a point when! the stagnation pressure loss in the system matched the exhaust pressure of the system. . as determined from Fig. by being accelerated from lower speeds..". (iii) driving the ------shock through the diffuserthroat by means of a large-amplitude pressure pulse. The chief effect of viscosity. The corresponding \ '\ 0. For low test-section Mach Numbers it is evident that the normal shock is so efficient as hardly to justify the use of a converging-diverging diffuser. (4) Some of the diffuser problems outlined _ here may be avoided by such means as > '.. 5.Least FavorOble~ Ox to x to x' to y' to Oy'.:::_-=--=-~ variable-geometry nozzles. .-. if the shock were maintained exactly at the minimum area.2 . This is done because with a fixed exhaust pressure the shock is unstable in the converging portion of the diffuser. and so forth. (i) variable-geometry diffusers. SWALLOWING SHOCK..::::. Supersonic Inlets.. the practically attainable efficienciesof such diffusersfall somewhat short of the values which seem possible in principle.0 0..4 I. and so we must investigate operation of (c) Detached shock. with spillover.. of the departures from one-dimensionality.y Detached Shock Let us now consider the inlets of air-breathing propulsion enFlO. unless this feature is taken into account in the design. the diffuser efficiency may be considerably lower than anticipated..5 path of states in Fig... Such (b) No detached shock.9 occur at the minimum possible Most .. transient waves would cause the shock to move further upstream. In order again to obtain supersonic flow in the test CD Q.. Experimental investigations confirm in a general way the theoretical considerations outlined here. a sufficient lowering of the exhaust pressure will cause the shock to move through the test section and to be swallowedby the diffuserthroat. the system and exhauster should be matched so that the equilibrium position of the shock is in the dif1. III 0.0 section. r-. rather than abruptly. But this would augment the loss in stagnation pressure.11 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS 147 OPERATING CONDITIONS._ operation is less than for starting 0. This \ 0. 5.~""~. e Art. For best efficiency. .>""' . The position at which the shock comes to rest depends on the manner in which the operating characteristic of the exhauster is matched to the pressureflow characteristic of the remainder of the system.

The streamlines were made visible by means of a time exposure. 5. CONSTANT-GEOMETRY INLET.31 shows the maximum contraction possible when there is no shock whatsoever.5 Art.32b). 5. The detached normal shock permits some of the flow to spill over the inlet lip (Department of the Navy. 5. '<4iI~t~j~:. "Q22Z2 . Maximum Contraction for Starting _ ~M'" Shock Shock Swallowed Maximum Contraction for Operation (No Shock) Shock Disgorged FIG.:fftf:~~1MHmHlmMJa .). 5. 5.---M<I Moo < Mooa The lower curve of Fig. provided of course that the exhaust pressure is sufficiently low.A. and comes directly from the isentropic relations. and having contraction ratio (A2IA1)a. In Fig.31).26. 5. U. The equilibrium position of the 'Shock depends on the way in which the performance characteristics of (a) (b) Moo· Maaa (c) (d) FIG.S. the shock hangs on the inlet lip. 5.29b).30 is a schlieren photograph illustrating this phenomenon. and having the area ratio (A2/ A1)a. 5. When the speed is slightly less than the design speed (Fig. Fig.oa. 5. 5. 5. Should the inlet not be able to pass this amount of flow. Consider now a fixed-geometry inlet designed to operate at the speed Mooa.32. a detached shock stands ahead of the inlet (Fig. 5. The ordinates of these curves are the reciprocals of the corresponding ordinates of Fig.30. Fig.32a.31. The upper curve shows the maximum contraction possible for the special case where a detached normal shock hangs on the inlet lip. . Starting of fixed-geometry supersonic inlet.11 ONE-DIMENSION AL SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS 149 shock stands ahead of the inlet when the latter travels at supersonic speeds.29c). thus forcing all the air through the engine but with a reduced stagnation pressure. as then the flow behind the shock is subsonic and may spill over the inlet lip of the diffuser. there is no possibility of the air flow being diverted before reaching the inlet. 5. the speed is too low for the flow to be swallowed. Limiting contraction ratio versus free-stream Mach Number.148 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch.. Schlieren photograph of supersonic inlet fed by supersonic free jet.32 shows various stages during starting._M2=1 d7ZZZz Moo FIG. and all the free-stream flow corresponding to the crosssectional area Al enters the engine (Fig. designed for free-stream Mach Number M. and a detached shock is present (point b of Fig. A slight increase in speed causes the shock to move into the inlet.

32d would cause the shock to be disgorged.34b). 5.34a).31 is reached. Such a diffuser has an interesting hysteresis effect.!lfi.. 5.32d it is in the farthest upstream position for which the flow is stable. Once swallowed..a' W IA.iJjlWllllll. 5..150 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch.32c the shock is too far downstream for good efficiency.\g (AlIA. and in Fig.(At IA.·. For a perfect gas Eq. OVERSPEEDING CONSTANT-GEOMETRY OF INLET. the shock will not be disgorged upon deceleration until the speed Moo! (Fig. the diffuser is then free of shocks (Fig.. 5. By overspeeding the engine to the speed M~d (Fig. (d) == -- (t:. the shock is brought closer to the inlet.31. and 3 is a fictitious state at the actual leaving pressure but at the entering entropy. 5. 5.- Mooa ~1I1ir% (At FIG. Diffuser Efficiency.5 Art. By increasing the throat area. 5. the throat area may be reduced without disgorging the shock until point c of Fig.. 5. Referring to Fig. we define TID "I. In Fig. and.'.31) is reached. 2 FIG. Suppose that such a diffuser is operating at the speed Mooa of Fig. ' .'" I 151 the inlet are matched to the performance characteristics of the remainder of the engine.i_ . 5. The operating shock may also be eliminated through the use of a variable-geometry diffuser.31.49 becomes TI (~- VI /2 = h3 .. Subsequently. VARIABLE-GEOMETRY INLET.iWF. 5. if the exhaust pressure is properly adjusted. 5. (c) . 5.. Assuming that the exhaust pressure is sufficiently low. .33 shows various stages ~. the shock reaches the inlet lip and may be swallowed (Fig.-1 I -":. 5..34. Illustrates definition of diffuser efficiency.'. When point a of 1) and. If the throat area is too small.31) is reached. corresponding perhaps to point c of Fig.···· . entering the diffuser. the shock is swallowed. . ~ supersonic inlet. 5.hI (5.j. 5.. Starting of variable-geometry Mach Number M". the shock will not be swallowed during acceleration until the speed Mooa (Fig.35.". 5.i/···························. 5..'. It is possible to eliminate altogether the operating shock of a supersonic fixed-geometry inlet if the engine may be overspeeded.33.50) ._.31)..35.11 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC DIFFUSERS ". The most common definition of diffuser efficiency is parallel to the definition employed for compressor efficiency. and then the engine may be decelerated at most to Mooa before the shock is disgorged. s where state 1 is the actual state FIG. designed for free-stream ~ Fig.lwI. 5.a.$f .BfrMIj 4. however. Overspeed starting of fixed-geometry supersonic inlet. designed for freestream Mach Number M"." I >.31 a contraction ratio (A2/ A1)c. 5.----.--M<I h (a) (b) "16". .l. 2 is the actual state leaving the diffuser. a detached shock stands ahead of the inlet (Fig. 5. 5. and assuming that the velocity leaving the diffuser is negligible.. Fig..hI h2 .h).34c). and having contraction ratio (A2/A1)c. A slight disturbance in the flow pattern of Fig.49) in the acceleration period of an inlet designed for the speed Mooa and having in Fig. since and we get TID V12/2cp T3/TI = (p2/pd-kk-l k-J TI = CI2/kR (P2/PI)-k-- = 1 (5.31 is reached.

p •y Stagnation S FIG. 5. Rayleigh Supersonic Pitot-Tube Formula.51) Corresponding to the two curves of Fig. with the aid of Eq. P -r:::.2 0. and P1I/Px is given in M.51. = .-=-. The Mach Number of the undisturbed stream ahead of the shock wave may be found from measured data 100 if the following assumptions are made: (a) The shock wave is locally II 50 normal to the stagnation streamV line at the point where the latter crosses it. Plot of Rayleigh supersonic pitot-tube formula for k = 1. Wind Tunnel Performance. 10 / nation streamline are brought to / rest isentropically in the subsonic / region aft of the shock.50 8est / Normal-Shock Diffuser 0040 "" -.30 I Inlet Mach Number 2 0. 5.PI PI POI P2 POI P2 POI PI P02 POI 6.38.P. be true when the tube is placed parallel to a uniform stream. 5. 5. (b) Particles followingthe stag.36.14b and 5.38. 0. ox for Normal Pay Shoc. .- P01l P01l P1I / / Now. modifications must be made in the interpretation of the measured data.. a curved shock wave stands ahead of the mouth of the tube.~'\" Curve:! Shock M. (5.Geometry Diffuser 100 p.37.37 are plotted the compressor pressure ratios for a number of operating wind tunnels. In Fig.38. there are plotted in Fig. FIG. We write V / -=-. It is evident that the principal loss in supersonic wind tunnels is caused by the shock in the diffuser and that the maximum gain in supersonic wind tunnel economy. When used with supersonic streams.75 ". - I rrrrllil IX 0. 1. by symmetry requirements.. 5. 0. This condition will.00 :l ".60 \ 1'\ 1'\ .90 0. 5.80 '" \ IY ~ Rever:ible Diffuser 8est Fixed. 5.12 SUPERSONIC PITOT TUBE 153 The efficiency is uniquely related to the stagnation pressure ratio for a given inlet Mach Number.5 I I I II for Best Fixed-Geometry Circles Ind icate Operating Wind Tunnels oj) '1D =0. is to be had by improving the performance of supersonic diffusers. at least from the point of view of machinery installation. 5. the maximum efficienciesfor fixedgeometry diffusers and normal shock diffusers. 5. Supersonic Pitot Tube The pitot tube has long been an important instrument for measuring the velocities of subsonic streams.152 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. Summary of performance of high-speed wind tunnels. and substituting into Eq. 0. 5 / These assumptions are illustrated graphically on the T-8 diagram of Fig. Supersonic pitot tube. o E o ~ .4. P01l/P1I may be expressed in terms of Mx by using Eqs. To demonstrate this. we get after rearrangement.1 I 0tl'· ~~ ~ 5 at Test Section 10 Mach Number FIG.5 Art.. """'" 3 4 :" f.70 'I.!!_. 11:10 ~ ~ o f- Po ~ 0. P.Pay :l . 5. 4.50.16b. we write -=-.36. as shown in Fig. Photographs reveal that when an impact tube is placed in a supersonic stream.r! 0. Employing the isentropic relation for POt/Pll 5.28. This chart shows that subsonic tunnels correspond roughly to a diffuser efficiency of 75 per cent.12. Triangles represent measured ratio of inlet to exit stagnation pressures for variable-geometry wind-tunnel diffusers. 5.39. 5 10 FIG. Maximum efficiency of onedimensional supersonic diffusers.

Demonstrate with the help of the Rayleigh line that in the case of a perfect gas the existence of an expansion shock wave would permit the construction of a perpetual motion machine of the second kind. and {3. 369. and velocity downstream of a normal shock occurring at condition x. Introducing these expressions.POll ~ POx 1. 4. of Tech. POx .154 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. Derive simple approximate formulas for very weak shocks.My). (b) Compare your results with the corresponding results found from the shock tables.18a..19b. Show that for a very weak shock in air.S.A. In(_2 k- )2k (!'_)k (!±. (a) Find the limiting forms of the normal shock equations for a perfect gas with k = 1. Measurement of Static Pressure.6.Px) and VII/V x in terms of M".1 Art.. and DONALDSON. Air flows steadily through a pipe of constant cross-sectional area and at a certain section has properties Px = 10 psia. 6. Vol.F. (VII . 6. and LUSTWERK. l. High-Efficiency Supersonic Diffusers. If the stream is in a wind tunnel. H.52 is not applicable..- 8- 8b = I T[ n Tb (k + 1) - 2 ~(k + 1)2 - ]\ 4k ~b 1 where 8b and Tb are respectively the entropy and temperature at the point of maximum entropy on the Rayleigh line. (1946). Derive a formula for the speed of the high-pressure gas properties of the low-pressure gas and the strength of the wave.--Mx ~ 2 2)k-l/( k 2k --Mx k+1 2 k--k+1 l)k-l 1 6. A shock moves into stationary gas according to the 5. In supersonic flowthis tap does not give an easily interpretable measurement. we get thE Rayleigh pitot-tube formula: POy _ (k + 1 .6. 5. experimental data indicate that if the static tap is placed some ten tube diameters aft of the nose. Consider a pipe in which air at 70°F and 10 psia flows uniformly with a speed of 400 It/sec. Dept.. 2. Istanbul.. T x = 1240°F. 51. Jour.E. Sci. and V x = 3000 It/sec. 5. Turkey: Eighth International Congress on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics. (a) Show that the inlet and exit Mach Numbers are related by M2 M2-u2=ln-'" x "'II My2 (b) Find expressions for (PI/ . P.4. there is no shock (unless Mxis close to unity). (b) Show that the equation of the Rayleigh line for a perfect gas is c.Tx)/Tx. and a shock wave propagates back into the pipe. Mass.52. T-v.POI/)/Pox all in terms of (M".52) POy/p~ Fig. and the isentropic stagnation pressure.39 shows this relation for a gas with k is also tabulated in Table B. Demonstrate that there is a point of maximum temperature on the Rayleigh line and find a relation connecting the entropy and temperature at this point with 8b and Tb. .1.7.Vx)/Vx. KANTROWITZ. and T-8 diagrams. SHAPIRO. 5. and (Pox . and KLINE.8a = Cp (5. the static pressure Px must be measured upstream of the shock wave. 5. REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY On the Thickness of Normal Shock Waves in Air. Eng.-1 where 8a and Ta denote respectively the entropy and temperature at the point of maximum entropy on the Fanno line. the customary isentropic relation.12 PROBLEMS 155 terms of Mxby Eq. (a) Plot the Fanno and Rayleigh lines corresponding to point x on the p-o. E.10. 3. NACA. However. OLEMAN A C DUP. of Mech. in terms of the It is suggested and Mx. (b) Find simple asymptotic forms of the normal shock equations for a perfect gas when the Mach Number approaching the shock is very large compared with unity. Aero. 6. L5D20 (1945).1. Consider a normal shock in a fluid (not a perfect gas) whose density depends only on the pressure according to the relation p dp dp = {3 where {3 is a positive constant. thesis. 5.9.Px)/Px. S. expressing (1 . 5. The ratio Subsonic Pitot Tube.3. Compute the speed of the wave and the pressure and temperature of the air which has been brought to rest. Find from these diagrams the pressure. JR. Preliminary Investigation of Supersonic Diffusers.3.! _!'_)2k 1 Ta 2 Ta k-1 1 . In using Eq. 5. Pitot tubes often have a static tap built into the side wall of the probe.1). 5. the static pressure.2. No. (a) Show that the equation of the Fanno line for a perfect gas is 8 . Eq. G. the static pressure at the tap is a close approximation to the static pressure upstream of the shock. PROBLEMS 5. and Eq. this might be done with a static pressure tap in the wall of the tunnel. (TI/ .. temperature. Inst. p.14b. NEWBERG.VI/)/cx sketch of Fig. S. that this be put in the form of a relation between (Vx . Measurements of Diffuser Efficiency of Supersonic Pressure Shocks. 4. ARR No. is used for relating the Mach Number. 5. Instead.6 (1951).M.3(Mx _ 1)3 . (PI/ . The end of the pipe is suddenly closed by a valve. J. = 1.4. 5. . NEUMANN.. 1952. Show that the local Mach Number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on the Rayleigh line. For subsonic flow.

. and the process comprises a normal shock followed by reversible subsonic compression. however. Estimate the changes in pressure (atm). based on the reversible adiabatic work of compression. convergent-divergent wind tunnel diffuser is to be designed for Mach Number 2. The shock may be considered as being infinitesimal in thickness.h/ l:!. Assuming reversible.19. converging-diverging wind tunnel diffuser in which the minimum area is 15 per cent smaller than the entrance . 6. Assuming no friction. An impact-tube traverse in a wind tunnel gives values of 2.18. the volume rate of flow at inlet (cfm). for the case where the Mach Number is unity at the throat and the flow in the diverging section is subsonic. Estimate the Mach Number of the tunnel.area. Compare the curve of PlI/Po with a curve representing the isentropic pressure ratio at the same location in the nozzle for the limiting case of subsonic operation. adiabatic flow in the nozzle.4. respectively. A supersonic wind tunnel is to be designed for a Mach Number of 2 with a test section one square foot in area. the pressure ratio. (b) Indicate on the sketch the pressure (psia) and temperature (oF) at the test section. respectively. from entrance to exit. 6.34 psia and 10. The rocket gases are generated at 400 psia and have k = 1. 6. The pressures before and after the shock will be denoted by Px and PlI. (b) The design is conservative. find the ratio of the rocket thrust at launching to the thrust at 100.stagnation pressure (atm).h. Design the best convergent-divergent diffuser which could then be used.5 PROBLEMS 157 6.18. convergent-divergent diffuser for this aircraft.02 psis for the static pressure upstream of the shock and the pressure at the mouth of the tube.h.13. the pressure coefficient (referred to free-stream conditions) at the static holes is 0. 14.5 Ch. l:!. that is. At launching.156 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. and compute for it the maximum efficiency and the least per cent loss in stagnation pressure. and velocity (ft/sec). 6. and the pressures shown in the sketch are recorded.17. A rocket nozzle which is intended to operate at an altitude of 100.h) of 80 per cent. for the compressor. and the fluid may be taken as a perfect gas with k = 1. and the horsepower required for operation. (a) Make a sketch of this tunnel. and at the exit of the compressor.16. temperature (OF).000 ft has an area ratio of 5. Shock . 70°F) and will be accelerated to a Mach Number of 2 in a converging-diverging nozzle. adiabatic flow. and with the shock located during operation at an area 5 per cent greater than the throat area. compare the maximum possible efficiency and the minimum possible per cent loss in stagnation pressure during operation for the following cases: 6. Frictional effects upstream of the shock are negligible. while the over-all efficiency (l:!. (d) Specify. A certain pitot tube is used for measuring the Mach Number M. because of conservative design. is traveling through air at standard atmospheric conditions with a speed of 200. with a throat area 5 per cent larger than that required for starting. Suppose that a blast wave. When an impact tube with a blunt nose is \P'20Psia placed in a supersonic stream. (c) The converging portion is eliminated./ l:!.h. Assuming frictionless.14. and find for it the maximum efficiency and the least per cent loss in stagnation pressure at the operating speed of 2000 mph. (c) Specify the diameter of the nozzle throat. The general arrangement of the tunnel will be as follows: Air will be taken from the atmosphere (14. pe.5. the shock stands downstream of the throat at a point where the area is 10 per cent larger than the throat area. A particular converging-diverging nozzle is designed for a Mach Number of 2 on the basis of reversible. From the test section the air will be diffused to substantially zero velocity in a diffuser and will then be discharged to the atmosphere by a compressor. for purposes of design the assumptions will be made that the stream with M = 2 passes through a normal shock and that the subsonic stream is then diffused with an efficiency (l:!. (b) Suppose that it were possible to overspeed the aircraft to 2400 mph.) of the nozzle. The design of the tunnel and compressor will be based on the following assumptions: (1) The nozzle is frictionless to the throat. at the entrance to the compressor. the rocket exhausts to normal atmospheric pressure.. adiabatic flow both upstream and downstream of the shock. stagnation temperature (OF). Estimate the free(~~~~~~P:'3~p~s~ia ~~ stream Mach Number. of a supersonic air stream.16. to supply-region pressure Po. When the ratio of exhaust-region pressure. Plot the efficiency and the per cent loss in stagnation pressure versus the approach Mach Number.1. a curved shock front PROB.16. stands at some distance in front of the tube.000 It/sec.11.7 psia. which might have been initiated by an atomic bomb explosion. What is the minimum value of the latter for starting purposes? (b) Assume that during operation. (3) The compressor has an efficiency. showing the cross-sectional areas at various sections.7 psia. It is known that for the particular tube employed. of 82 per cent.000 ft. is 95 per cent. (a) The best possible design is employed. (a) Plot the maximum possible efficiency and the minimum possible per cent loss in stagnation pressure versus the approach Mach Number. and in which the efficiency for subsonic deceleration to zero velocity is 90 per cent. Consider a fixed-geometry. (2) Although an attempt will be made to diffuse the supersonic stream through a throat. The conservative nature of this assumption will tend to balance the fact that no account is taken of losses in the test section. produced by the wave with respect to an observer who is stationary with respect to the undisturbed air. 6. A fixed-geometry. is raised considerably above the design value.3. plot Px/Po and Py/Po against Pe/PO for the range in which the shock lies between the throat and the exit plane. a normal compression shock appears in the nozzle. 6. A ram jet aircraft is to fly at 40./l1h.12. 6.000 ft altitude with a speed of 2000 mph. (a) Design the best fixed-geometry.

2 . Hints: (i) If the nozzle is choked. and 28. calculate the time and distance required for the wave to develop into a series of shocks separated by rarefactions._ P"f5' sq in.~ P'40Psia~i o _ T'2000·R~! o~~ :/' ~ A..21.2000· I 2. but if the nozzle is unchoked. energy. Show that.. 5. the flow is approximately adiabatic. transport of fluids in chemical process plants. p. The wave has a frequency of 10. It is the purpose of this chapter to discuss such flows from a simple one-dimensional point of view.15in" 10. as in the case of natural-gas pipe lines. As a first approximation. (ii) Apply the momentum. as one follows a part of the wave corresponding to a particular fluid velocity and pressure.] I """""~ o ~///////II/I1r(((//)I( 2. assuming that A31AI = 2.. Neglecting damping of the wave. 5. Both of these limiting cases will be investigated in this chapter. (a) Consider a rightward moving wave in a perfect gas. Calculate the pressure acting on the annular surface of section 2 and the mass rate of flow.33.24. however.n . then P2 must equal Pl.27. . At section 3 the flow is substantially uniform and parallel.5 5. When the ducts are reasonably short. Calculate the mass rates of flow of primary air and secondary air. PROB. Chapters 24.21. and between sections 2 and 3 wall friction is negligible..18..25 psia.26.00 in" Primary _po·40 Psia T.158 NORMAL SHOCK WAVES Ch. When the ducts are extremely long. We shall here consider flows in which wall friction is the chief factor bringing about changes in fluid properties. transport of natural gas in long pipe lines and various types of flowmachinery.23. Explain why entropy decreases occur as a fluid particle nears the end of its passage through a shock wave. Air flows through a frictionless. and we shall assume that no special attempt is made to transfer heat to or from the stream. the pressure on the annular face of section 2 may be less than PI. all irreversibilities except those associated with viscous mixing are to be ignored. . Additional material relevant to the subject matter of the present chapter may be found in Volume II. Introductory Remarks The flow of compressible gases in ducts of constant area is of importance in many engineering fields. More general cases of compressible flow with heat transfer are treated in Chapters 7 and 8.7 Psia To' 5400R PROB. Using the results of Problem 5. NOMENCLATURE A C Cl' (b) Show that the time required for a given part of the wave to acquire infinite slope is given by t= __ k where av lax is the wave steepness at t O..000 cycles per second and an intensity level of 120 decibels. D 5. high-vacuum technology. Po' 14.. Consider a plane progressive sound wave in air at 70°F and 14.5. converging nozzle (see sketch) into a sudden enlargement. there is sufficient area for heat transfer to make the flow nonadiabatic and approximately isothermal. The mixing tube of this particular pump has constant cross-sectional area.22.5.7 psia. the time rate of change of wave steepness is given by !!_ (av) dt ax =_ k + 1 (aV)2 2 ax 2_jaV + 1 ax = Chapter 6 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION 6.' . show that the wave tends to become saw-toothed in form.20. I . psia i t Secondary Q) .. therefore. and continuity equations between sections 2 and 3. including stationary power plants aircraft propulsion engines. 5..25 PSIO I I ~. p V enthalpy per unit mass ratio of specific heats L Lmax M Q R 8 P T V w x duct length maximum duct length for continuous flow Mach Number pressure heat gas constant entropy per unit mass absolute temperature velocity mass rate of flow Cartesian coordinate 159 .24.1. J F G f h k area velocity of sound specific heat at constant pressure hydraulic diameter coefficient of friction length mean coefficient of friotion impulse function mass velocity.23. A jet pump (see sketch) uses a high-pressure stream of air to pump a second stream of atmospheric air to a pressure of 18.

we get the equation of the Fanno line in terms of the enthalpy and density: h=ho-- G2 2p2 (6. beyond which the entropy would suffer a decrease. 6. the Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us that the entropy may in-reese but Preliminary Considerations of Adiabatic Flow. and a supersonic flow may never become subsonic. 6.3 defines a relation between the local enthalpy and the local density. on the other hand.1. (ii) the flow is steady. the effects of friction will be to increase the velocity and Mach Number and to decrease the enthalpy and pressure of the stream. i. where p is the density at the section where Y and h are measured. Fanno lines on h-o diagram. (iv) differences in elevation produce negligible changes compared with frictional effects. (iii) there is neither external heat exchange nor external shaft work. SECOND-LAW LIMITATIONS. and (v) the duct is of constant area. the qualitative character of the flow is markedly influenced by whether the flow is subsonic or supersonic. The equation of continuity is written h h v-lip S .160 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION NOMENCLATURE-Continued Ch. 6. the effects of friction will be to decrease the velocity and Mach Number and to increase the enthalpy and pressure of the stream. Thus.2. THE FANNOLINE.3) Since ho and G are constants for a given flow. adiabatic flow at constant area. giving the may not decrease. Solid lines have the same stagnation enthalpy but different flows per unit area. The curves of Fig. the entropy is determined by the enthalpy and density. For a pure substance. the path of states along anyone of the Fanno curves must be toward the right.Since the flow is adiabatic. The asterisk here denotes the state where M = 1 for the particular process under consideration. The three curves shown have the same stagnation enthalpy but different flows per unit area.2). that the lower branch corresponds to supersonic flow. If. s = s(h.. namely.2.2. 6.1) h+-=ho 2 where hand Yare respectively the corresponding values of the enthalpy and velocity at an arbitrary section of the duct. constant-area flow with friction ( ) *1 ()o ( )* signifies state at which M = l/Vk in isothermal flow signifies stagnation state . 6. For all substances thus far investigated. 6. the Fanno curves have the general shape shown in Fig.2).2) FIG.1 and 6. 6. and G (the mass velocity) has a constant value for all sections of the duct. and that the Mach Number is unity at the point of maximum entropy on each Fanno curve. This relation is shown graphically in Fig. as in the case of isentropic flow. Thus. A subsonic flow may therefore never become supersonic.p). Thus we observe that. FIG. We now make the assumptions that (i) the flow is one-dimensional.2 that the upper branch of each Fanno curve corresponds to subsonic flow. 6. The limiting pressure.= pY == G A w (6. 5. constant-area flow lie on one of these lines. occurs at Mach Number unity and is denoted by p*. and ho (the stagnation enthalpy) has a constant value for all sections of the duct.1 for a single value of ho and for several values of G. familiar Fanno curves of Fig. All possible states of the fluid for a given adiabatic.1 INTRODUCTORY REMARKS 161 p Tw density wall shearing stress signifies state at which M = 1 for adiabatic. Fanno Jines on h-e diagram. Consequently. ho is the enthalpy at the section where the velocity is zero. 6. if the flow at some point in the duct is subsonic (point a of Fig. Dashed lines are isentropes. . Combining Eqs. The energy equation of steady flow may be written y2 (6. 6.e. Eq. GOVERNING PHYSICAL LAWS. the flow is initially supersonic (point b of Fig.2.1 may thus be transferred to the enthalpy-entropy diagram. Physically.6 Art. 6. It Was shown in Art. unless a discontinuity is present. referring .

Starting with the perfect-gas relation. T w is the shearing stress exerted on the stream by the walls. moreover.2. Referring to Fig. I = w/A = pV 1 dV2 (6.162 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. and thus obtain dp dp -=-+- p p T (6. 1II1////1/1!!/1/1/1//1///1/1!!!//1//~1//1////I/1/.. it is evident from the foregoing considerations that some sort of adjustment in the flow is necessary. Thus. it becomes possible to draw broad conclusions which would otherwise not be apparent. From the expression for the Mach Number in a perfect gas.3. M2 = V2/kRT. Adiabatic. we get by logarithmic differentiation. Control p T Surface dT + d (:) = 0 Dividing through by CpT. In Chapter 4 the isentropic relations were derived by writing the various physical relations for two sections a finite distance apart. the rate of change of properties depends upon the amount of friction. we shall carry out the present analysis in differential form. p+dp T+dT v p M 1!I).3. 6. P PERFECT-GAS EQUA- = pRT dT we take logarithmic differentials. 6. The energy equation of steady flow is written for a perfect gas in the form Cp 6.3. and dAw is the wetted wall area over which Tw acts. If the duct length is increased. When the flow is supersonic.4) DEFINITIONOF MACHNUMBER. TION. irrespective of whether the flow is subsonic or supersonic. dT T (6. Governing Physical Equations and Definitions. this adjustment is in the form of a reduction in the flow rate.7) I· I p+dp J V-t-dV I -+--=0 p dp M+dM 2 V2 Ld:_j MOMENTUM EQUATION. the momentum equation is written . or the coefficient of friction as it is usually called for flow in ducts. When the flow is subsonic. and length of duct are such that Mach Number unity is reached at the end of the duct. this becomes dT k .2 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 103 to state a as an example. the value of Pa * will be different for an isentropic flow as compared with the value for an adiabatic. DEFINITIONOF FRICTIONCOEFFICIENT. that is. This will be discussed more fully in Arts. 6. 6. The drag coefficient.1 2 dv2 (6.5) STEADy-FLOW ENERGYEQUATION.6) -+--M -=0 T 2 V2 CONSERVATION OFMASS. the analytical treatment is greatly simplified. Consider a situation in which the stagnation enthalpy. is defined as the ratio of the wall shearing stress to the dynamic head of the stream. the flow is choked. To illustrate another method of approach. and using the definition of the Mach Number. Control surface for analysis of adiabatic. employing the infinitesimal control volume of Fig.2 and 6. ))))1/II!It1/1I1//I). for sufficiently large increases in duct length.A dp . flow per unit area. The continuity equation is G or. constant-area Our purpose is to find in analytical form the variations in all stream properties along the length of a duct of constant area. involves ultimately a choking of the flow./I///1//1I/1//).2 indicates that the isentropic stagnation pressure is reduced as a result of friction. Constant-Area Flow of a Perfect Gas If it is assumed that the fluid is a perfect gas. 6./r. 6.6 Art. where A is the cross-sectional area. Fig.!1I1h L I I I I r- -.Tw dAw = w dV flow. . and. so that the momentum equation must be introduced into the analysis. the adjustment at first involves the 'appearance of shock waves. constant-area flow. Naturally. since G is a constant. FIG. and.3. CHOKING DUE TO FRICTION.

2(1 F + kM2) 4f D dx (6.16.1 or.10) dx of the impulse function.23. 4. 6. solving simultaneous equations are used. Since the flow is adiabatic the stagnation temperature is constant. 6. which relate eight differential variables: dp/p. 6. The usual methods for SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS.12M2 1+--M 2 IMPULSE FUNCTION.7. following algebraic rearrangement. dp/p is eliminated thus giving 4A dp dp p k.164 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. dp/p. . and -+-4f-+--=0 p 2 D 2V2 (6. From the definition dp kM2/2 dM2 -=--= dx 4f- D (6.M2) 4f D Ide kM2 2c (6.13) dpo -=-+----Po P k .15) F =. (6.8. in differential form. linear algebraic equations. and 6. namely. From Eq.' the entropy change is ds k . dpo/Po.M2) = 2(1 . we divide through by p. 6. yielding -=--·--M2_ A D=. and 4f dx/D. Then. dM2/M2.M2) 4f D (6.1 2 dV2 P V2 with the help of Eq. 6. At this point we notice that we have seven simultaneous. and. =4-dx dAw/dx dAw We now introduce the latter two expressions and the continuity tion into the momentum equation.8) Finally.4. The remaining seven variables may consequently be found in terms of 4f daf D with the aid of the seven equations.2(1 .14b. cp ---k I)M2 2 Po ds cp (k - 4f- dx D (6. 6.16) we get.10.5.6. we use this relation for eliminating obtain. therefore. Eqs.4 and 6. and thus obtain equaNext.7. Hence we select the variable 4f dx/D as independent. after noting that the area is constant. 6.9) dV kM2 dx k(k . t k dx 4f- D (6. For example. ( k M2 + -2-~ 1 1 . using Eq.4f2D =- W A dV = 2 dV pV V dp p + (k 2 Next.12) V dT T (6. dV2/V2 from Eq. dF/F. 5.1 dpo (6.M2 +k. 6.18) or.11) Using similar methods. from Eq.9. 6.6. 6. dT/T. We retain our previous definition of the isentropic stagnation pressure corresponding to a given state as that pressure which would be attained if the stream were isentropically decelerated from the given state to the state of zero velocity. pA dF + pAV2 dp = pA(1 + kM2) dM2 M2 --4f- kM2 2 dx D (6.6 Art.17) Effects of Wall Friction on Fluid Properties. I)M2 dV2 from this expression 1 pV2 dx -dp .19) .14) dp p dpo Po dF (6.M2 ) Po = P ( 1 -2. dV2/V2.1)M4 2(1 . The physical phenomenon causing changes in state is viscous friction. -=-+--F p 1 + kM2 kM2 kM2 . 6.2 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 165 The hydraulic diameter is defined as four times the ratio of cross-sectional area to wetted perimeter. upon noting that pV2 obtain dp kM2 dx kM2 dV2 = kpM2. dM2 M2 the formulas which follow are obtained: kM2 1 ISENTROPIC STAGNATIONPRESSURE.8. the term dT /T may be eliminated from Eqs.

F = (-Lmax) 4fD Ml . and where x is arbitrarily set equal to zero. the maximum possible duct length which can be employed without altering these given initial conditions and without introducing discontinuities is that length for which the exit Mach Number is exactly unity.20) where J is the mean friction coefficientwith respect to length.= JII D dx (1 M2 kM4 (1 + 1 . we conclude that the shearing stress must always act in the direction assumed. We may summarize the various changes as follows: Subsonic Pressure. therefore. This is true for either subsonic or supersonic flow. 6.19 that the friction coefficientf must always be a positive number. and (ii) the section where the Mach Number is unity. 6. 1M2) dM 2 where the limits of integration are taken as (i) the section where the Mach Number is M. dx is positive in the direction of flow.166 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. M Velocity. we note that Eqs. and x is the maximum possible length of duct. whence we conclude from Eq. First.M2 kM2 4fD = + ---v. according to Eqs. we shall take the pressure as an example.1 21+--M 2 2) (6.12 may be combined to give dp/p 1 + (k . It is at first surprising to see that friction has the net effect of accelerating a subsonic stream.M2) appears in the denominator of each of these equations.6 Art. 6. 6. Po Impulse function.11 through 6. SUMMARY OFFRICTIONAL EFFECTS.(-Lmax) 4fD M2 (6.17 that both the isentropic stagnation pressure and the impulse function must decrease when friction is present.2 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS IG7 By convention.21) We see that the Mach Number always tends toward unity.1)M2 k2 ( 1 +-2-M2 1 ) dM2/M2 or. Wall friction therefore reduces the effectiveness of all types of flow machinery and also reduces the thrust obtainable from jet propulsion devices. 6. or from supersonic to subsonic flow.11 and 6. Our next step is to integrate the previously given differential equations in order to obtain formulas suitable for practical To illustrate how the local stream properties are found in terms of the local Mach Number. we obtain -Lmax 1 . Lmax. dp P 1 + (k . depend on whether the Mach Number is greater or less than unity. 6. since the term (1 . In formulating Eq.15. The directions of changes in the remaining stream properties. the length of duct L required for the flow to pass from a given initial Mach Number Ml to a given final Mach Number M2 is found from the expression _L 4fD Stagnation Pressure. 6.-ln k+ 1 (k + 1)M2 ( k. It appears from Eqs.16 and 6. V Temperature.M2 k. Since 4JLmax/D is a function only of M.1)M2 k2M2 ( 1 +-2-M2 1 dM2 ) . are consequently impossible.20 gives the maximum value of 4JL/D corresponding to any initial Mach Number M. Carrying out the integration. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the entropy may not decrease in an adiabatic process. P Mach Number. T Density. and perhaps even astonishing to observe that friction causes a rise in pressure at supersonic speeds. defined by 1 J=- Supersonic increases decreases decreases increases increases decreases decreases decreases increases increases decreases decreases decreases decreases Lmax i Lmax fdx 0 Eq. We shall use the Mach Number as the independent variable for this purpose. Continuous transitions either from subsonic to supersonic flow.12 is rearranged to read i Lmax o 4f. Working Formulas. For given conditions at an initial section of the duct. 6. p computations.8 it was assumed that the shearing stress acted on the stream in a direction opposite to the direction of flow. Eq. Since f must always be positive.

1 Mach Number I 1111 I 10 Moch Number. F F* (6. In order to find the change in some PROBLEM. and thus obtain P p* =M IJ stream property.6 Art.23) 1 T T* k +1 k1 ) (6. we integrate between the section where M = M. and so forth. M -- 8Cp 8* = InM2 (6. For extensive 10 or accurate numerical calculations.. respectively.5. 6.168 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. the following data were obtained with the aim of measuring friction coefficients for the supersonic flow of air: Pressure upstream of nozzle = 516 cm Hg abs Temperature upstream of nozzle = 107. 6.01 0. P = p*. With an experimental rig comprising a converging-diverging nozzle attached to a smooth.2 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 169 Denoting the pressure at M = 1 by the symbol p*. 6.. illustrative Example. inasmuch as 4fLmax/ D \ must always decrease. Graphical Representation of Working Formulas. is the value of the right-hand side of Eq.25) 00 / Po Po* 1 21+--M k .1 V V !-- I 7 K• \ \ ~-. such as p*. etc.22) where (P/P*)M.~~ ~~ By similar methods we get the relations which follow: (6. P = p.20 to 6.4 and 6. Variation of fluid properties on Fanno line.5. and the section where M = 1. represent the values of the stream properties at the section in the duct where M = 1. with 1/ ~ t~ F/F· Mach Number as the argument. from which general orders of magnitude and rates of change may be found 100 with ease.: the important dimensionless ratios !'oJ V/V· are tabulated in Table B. constant-area flow. .4.4.22 corresponding to M2.3°F .4. V . FIG. V*. they may be regarded as convenient reference values for normalizing the equations. On this chart the curve 1\ of 4fLmax/ D is the key to direction _l Po po· of change. The formulas of Eqs. .. -: T M ~ p. 6.. Variation of fluid properties on Fanno line. The quantities marked with an asterisk in these expressions. between the sections where the Mach Numbers are MI and M2.28) FIG. k = 1.4 - +1 (6.27 are represented graphically in Figs. 6.1 ( [ 2 k+l 2)]::: (6. round tube.26) 0. 6. say the pressure. 2(I +~M2) 2 k 1. we set P2 PI (P/P*)M2 (P/P*)Ml 2 ( l+~-M k+l k2 1 2) (6.27) 4fLmox/D !-0. k = 104. Since they are constants for a given adiabatic. 1\ Working Tables.24) II 2 ( 1 +~2-M2 p V* -=-=p* V 1 M J "" " . ~ t.

a normal shock. When there are no shocks present. the large losses in stagnation pressure which are incurred at supersonic speeds make it desirable to avoid long runs of duct in which the flow is supersonic.L/D = 29.03537 (p/Po)1(A/ A *)1 = (0.e.0025.6 for values of M2 4fL/D of 0 and 0.75 and x/D = 29.5009 inches Pressure of stream at a point 1.6 the curved line labeled 4fL/D = 0 represents.5 14 2 31 3 52 00 82 (0. For example. no matter how great the initial Mach Number. and constant impulse function are then satisfied.1512 Therefore. 6.1 cm Hg abs It is desired to calculate the average friction coefficients between the sections where x/D = 1.2859 and.0. the Mach Number is reduced to 2. The portion of this line for which Ml is less than unity is imaginary.0025: M Lmax/D 0 00 .60 diameters from tube inlet = 37.1 2 (P / P *) 2 .85) = 0. 878) . the column labeled (p/po) (A/ A *) in Table B. therefore.2.60 . 4f'1. 6.1. with an initial Mach Number of 3. constant stagnation temperature. there is of course a trivial solution for which Mi = M2 and there are no changes in any stream properties.2416 inches Diameter of nozzle exit and of tube = 0. the relative magnitudes of Ml and M2 for a fixed length of duct are illustrated in Fig.18. for finding the Mach Number at any section.75 = 27. Choking Due to Friction.2986 An interesting fact revealed by this table is that for purely supersonic flow.25 (O. 6. there is a possibility of shocks occurring in the given length of duct. SOLUTION.2416)2 = 4.25 850 .25 ern Hg abs Pressure of stream at a point 29.0 and a friction coefficient of 0.85 the average friction coefficient is f - = 0. The relation between Ml and M2 will then depend on the location of the (P/PO)1 = 18.2986) = 0. then for each initial Mach Number Ml there will correspond a certain final Mach Number M2 \ which may be easily found from \ \ Fig. we get. as explained in Chapter 4. Illustrates choking due to an for a shock may be found from increase in 4fL/D.4371 Now.-7~_. In Fig.60.0 in 21 duct diameters. 6. If the value of 4fL/ D between two sections is fixed. (A/ A *)1 = shows the maximum length-diameter ratio for several initial Mach Numbers.542 (4fLmu/Dh we find that = 0. since the normal shock conditions of constant area.170 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. To illustrate.03537)(4. 6. (p/p*h (4fLmu/D)1 = 0. i. The corresponding MI initial and final Mach Numbers FIG. 1r-----r--. Illustrative curves of M2 \ \ versus Ml constructed in this way are shown in Fig. It will be assumed that the flow to the throat of the nozzle is isentropic.50 no . and at the same time the isentropic stagnation pressure is reduced to about 40 per cent of the initial value. since !:!.37.1.5850 - Entering Table Bo4 with this value of (p/p*h.25 7 Limiting Duct Length for Supersonic Speeds.25/516 = 0.2 ADIABATIC FLOW OF A PERFECT GAS 171 Throat diameter = 0.5 by connecting the two branches of the F /F* curve with a horizontal line.6 by the solid curves labelled 4fL/D = 0. 6. assuming thatf = 0.2 may be used. and that the flow in the entire system is adiabatic.1512 = 0.4 and 6.0025.75 12 1 0 1. since we obtain P2 P1 = (p/p*h (P/P*)1 .1520 From Table B. the total length of duct is limited to about 82 diameters for a friction coefficientof 0. Frictional effects are very serious at high Mach Numbers.5009/0.0. Since the flow to the throat is isentropic and the entire flow is adiabatic.6. from Table Bo4. a shock might occur in zero length..5. Figs. 6.1. On the other hand. Apart from this.524 Using this value of M1.6 Art. = 004371 . If the flow is initially supersonic. since it corresponds to an expansion shock.2878 = 0. the following table . if Ml > 1.75 diameters from tube inlet = 18. then. M1 = 2.rlh~----~ For the limiting case where 4fL/D is equal to zero. M2 = 1.2859 4(27.

The exhaust pressure sonic. 6. There are small pressure drops through the supply nozzle and duct. and d".6 the curves labeled Band C represent the two extreme locations: B referring to a normal shock at the exit of the duct.8a. is variable. Further increases in duct in the space to which the duct discharges length cause the shock to move is assumed to be less than p*. a further increase in duct length causes the shock to move into the 41 LID nozzle which feeds the duct. e'. a shock stands in the passage. but is still subsonic. Thus. Duct Fed by Converging Nozzle. the shock stands at the inlet of the duct length. are fixed. a. and d. because ME cannot become greater than unity.8f. conditions a and b are qualitatively equivalent. The states at the inlet for these conditions are represented by the symbols a'. then Fig. and that the back pressure.e. Finally. and d'. therefore.6 that for any initial Mach Number there is a maximum value of 4fL/D for which a solution is possible. 6. An increase in the value of 4fL/D over its maximum value will act to decrease Ml until a steady-state solution again becomes possible with M2 = 1. Performance of Long Ducts at Various Pressure Ratios To illustrate an important aspect of choking.6 toward a condition corresponding to curve C. After the shock reaches the duct inlet. In condition a the back pressure is slightly less than the supply pressure. converging nozzle. First we shall consider the case of a duct fed by a frictionless. The leaving stream is at a higher Mach Number than for condition a. The expansion to the back pressure for condition d involves oblique expansion waves in the stream leaving the duct. b'. Finally. Further reductions in back pressure cannot produce further increases in flow rate. but the flow pattern in the duct moves from a condition corresponding to curve B in Fig.8b through 6. To. the shock vanishes in the throat. 6. It is clear from Fig. Referring to Fig.3 PERFORMANCE OF LONG DUCTS 173 shock. and the supply temperature. 6. e. Conditions at the duct inlet are denoted by the subscript I. In other words. the flow is choked. It is pertinent to ask. 6. when the length is increased to C. c". so that any diminutions in the floware due exclusively to limiting effects produced by friction. Fig. No qualitative changes are observed until the back pressure is reduced to the value corresponding to condition e. 6. are shown in Figs. the flow is "choked" by friction. An increase in the value of 4fL/D over its maximum value at first produces a shock in the duct which moves upstream as the duct length is increased. 6. Four conditions of operation. and is therefore at a pressure equal to the back pressure. namely. and at the duct exit by the subscript E. and the flow in the entire duct is subsonic. farther into the nozzle. SUPERSONIC FLOW. what happens when the duct length initially has its maximum value for a given Ml and the duct length is subsequently increased.7. We must distinguish between two cases: (i) that in which the duct is fed by a converging nozzle. A reduction in back pressure to condition b acts to increase the flow rate and the pressure drops in the nozzle and duct. Thus the flow pattern within the duct for condition d is identical with that for condition e. This FIG. suppose that the supply pressure. Fig.. and that M2 = 1 at this condition. Based on these considerations. 6.172 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION CR. b. 6. When this ratio is sufficiently low. SUBSONIC FLOW. When the length is increased to B. Mach Number and pressure causes the Mach Number at the distribution along a duct of varying inlet to the duct to become sublength which is fed by a convergingdiverging nozzle. and C referring to a normal shock at the inlet to the duct. and the corresponding states at the exit by a". In Fig. The stream leaving the duct is subsonic. 6. and further increases in length produce reductions in flow rate.9b showsthe ratio of the maximum flowwhich can be passed by the nozzle- . POI. at which point the exit Mach Number is unity. b". and using the isentropic flow equations for the nozzl a together with the relations derived in this chapter for adiabatic flow in a duct. From a different point of view. PB. 6 Art. for a given value of 4fL/D there is in subsonic flowa maximum initial Mach Number for which a solution is possible. which in tum reduces the Mach Number at the duct inlet. the value of M2 remains at unity. for a fixed Ml and a variable 4fL / D. 6. This results in a reduction in the flow rate. and (ii) that in which it is fed by a converging-diverging nozzle. i.9a shows the flow passed by ducts of various length with various ratios of exhaust pressure to supply pressure. and in supersonic flowa minimum initial Mach Number for which a solution may be found. In answering this question we shall suppose that the back pressure to which the duct exhausts is maintained as low as necessary. let us investigate how the adiabatic flow in a duct varies with the ratio of back pressure to supply pressure. and the flow is choked.3. Length A represents the maximum length without a shock.7 shows the course of states in a duct of varying length with an initial Mach Number of 2.

. E <. chiefly . PB. . 6...' o Ing ~ 1-0.. 6... 6. ~~------------~'io·~a IC I d Po... '" . 6. a E . .4 0.-0 0.10 under a varying back pressure is considerably more complex than is that of Fig. 5.4).8. since the flow characteristics of the nozzle alone have been discussed in Art...5 I 2 5/ ... 6... - .3 0. Performance of duct fed by converging nozzle. Let us consider next the case of a long duct which is fed by a frictionless convergingdiverging nozzle.000 dO CO (k = 1.3 PERFORMANCE OF LONG DUCTS 175 duct combination to the maximum flow which can be passed by the nozzle alone..J °o~------------~--------~ PB/POI Ps/POI I I I (d) (e) FIG. ~ 1 .. .. . ~\ ~~ flII c: Q) c· (b) d" .. The pressure at the inlet of the duct will be denoted by PI..2 ~~ / 2?0 --'" - ~ r.10. :----.. and that the back pressure.l!! .0 10 41 LID (b) 100 10....--0..174 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch.... Flow passed by long adiabatic duct fed by isentropic converging nozzle (a) Dimensionless flow parameter versus ratio of exhaust pressure to supply pressure. I / / / I Isenfropic rCrifical / / / / / I I I Isenfrop~ Crifical : °O~------------~---------. 6....2 0..9. ~ 1.. and at the exit by PE· The operation of the system of Fig. p 1 --I--- : IsentropiC I Critical 1 1 r d d I O~-L---D-is-to-n-ce-A-IO-n-g~D-u-Ct~----~ (a) o (f) o ..10... is variable. a E 1.5 L . 0 : o 0... "t'\.... and the characteristics of subsonic flow in a long duct have just been examined.....6 0. FIG.. Referring to Fig... (b) Ratio of choking flow to choking flow through nozzle alone. We shall confine our attention to the case where there are no shocks in the nozzle... we shall suppose the supply pressure POI and supply temperature To to be held constant... Duct Fed by ConvergingDiverging Nozzle.J .6 Art.1 ~..' /10 20 50 )C i -. because the converging-diverging nozzle of fixed area ratio allows of only one Mach Number greater than unity at the duct inlet.... ..\~ .1 1 ~IO. ~ ~ '" . as function of 4fL/D.8...

6.11). and the flow pattern in the duct will be identical with that for Class (Ia). CLASS (lc): PE' < p*.20. If the back pressure. within limits. if it were. for. on whether the actual length of duct gives a value of 4fL/D greater or less than the maximum allowable value.10 when PE' > v" and L > LmoX' CLASS(2). In other words. and the back pressure is. further increases in back pressure produce a reduction in flow rate. Duct fed by isentropic converging-diverging nozzle. 6. 6. there will be no shocks in the duct. 6.3 PERFORMANCE OF LONG DUCTS 177 Since the nozzle is without shocks. and PG > PB > PE' (Fig. depends on MI. Operation of system of Fig. Operation of system of Fig. 6. As the flow at the duct exit is subsonic. 6. MI. This condition. and the back pressure is lower than the exit pressure for shockless flow.12b). After the back pressure is raised to the value corresponding to the pressure PG downstream of a normal shock in the duct exit. 6. so that PE' < P* and L < Lmax (Fig. To the Mach Number MI corresponds a particular value of 4fLmax/D according to Eq. We therefore divide the types of flow into two main classes. depending We shall now discuss the several types of flow in each class. For convenience in classification. Consequently. CLASS(lb): PE' < p*.6 Art. the other hand. the flow at the tube exit would in general be subsonic. 6. is not too much greater than the pressure PE'. the pressure and Mach Number at section I are fixed by the area ratio of the nozzle. The duct length is greater than the maximum possible length.176 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. Accordingly. The pressure corresponding to Mach Number unity is denoted by p*.10 when PE' < »" and L < Lmax· FIG. CLASS(2a): PE' > p*. Ultimately it moves into the diverging portion of the nozzle. and the adjustment to the back pressure occurs downstream of the duct exit in the form of oblique expansion waves. and. and PB > PG (Fig. we conclude that the flow in the tube is shockless. The actual exit pressure. regardless of whether shockless flow can in fact occur. that PE = ps. on .11c). 6. PE = PE'.10.12). CLASS(Ia): PE' < p*. and PB < PE' (Fig. The value of P* is a function only of MI and PI. is then determined completely by the magnitudes of PI. The duct length is less than the maximum. The duct length is less than the maximum. as the exit pressure would therefore have to be identical with the back pressure.11b). 6. p». T ---------To ) (a) (a) T p (b) ·x p (c) p (c) FIG. greater than the exit pressure for shockless flow. The adjustment of the stream to the back pressure will then occur outside the duct in the form of oblique shock waves. The stream leaves the tube at a pressure higher than the back pressure. Instead. a shock stands in the duct. the actual exit pressure PE must be identical with the back pressure pe. An increase in back pressure causes the shock to move upstream. namely.12b) would involve a decrease of entropy. and 4fL/D. 6. so that PE' > P* and L > Lmax (Fig. determines the location of the shock. 6. 6.11b). The duct length is less than the maximum. with subsonic flow in the part of the duct downstream of the shock. A shock cannot be present. after the shock disappears into the throat. but the back pressure is so high that the stream cannot leave the duct in supersonic flow (with the pressure PE') and adjust itself to the back pressure. We may now define the classes of flow as follows: CLASS (1). But. the pressure at the duct exit for shockless flow is denoted by PE'. a normal shock stands in the duct. and 4fL/D. further increases in back pressure cause a normal shock to appear in the duct. and the exit flowis supersonic.11. PE. The value of PE'. Shockless flow to the exit (shown by the dashed curve in Fig. PI. the entropy would decrease adiabatically near the end of the tube. 6. The duct length is less than the maximum possible length. and Ps > P* (Fig.12. Since -i----x I I FIG.

but principally on whether kM2is greater or less than unity.8 and 6. and the pressure increase produced by this divergence would make it impossible for the stream ever to adjust itself to the back pressure. i. Governing Physical Equations and Definitions.9. therefore. for on leaving the duct it would diverge o~ account of the exit pressure being greater than the back pressure. 6. with 4/ dx/D as the independent variable. 6. Increases in the back pressure cause the shock to move upstream an ultimately to vanish in the throat of the nozzle. there is only one location in the duct at which the shock may stand. 6.4 ISOTHERMAL FLOW IN LONG DUCTS 179 > p*. that PE = PB.35) From these equations it is seen that the direction of change depends not on whether the flow is subsonic or supersonic.e. the temperature which the local stream would acquire if brought to rest adiabatically.32. determines the location of the sh in the tube.29)1 2 kM2(1 _ k 2(kM2 . a shock ~ present.7. As in the case ~ Class (2a). . for the flow downstre~ of the shock is subsonic and can. For a perfect gas the ener equation may be written V2 dQ = cp dT + d .9 are valid as they stand for isothermal flow. Isothermal Flow in Long Ducts As pointed out earlier. except that the energy equation now includes changes in stagnation temperature.31.30) For isothermal flow. and 6. or. The change in To is a direct measure of the amount and direction of heat transfer.31) Similarly. and PB < P* (Fig. we get dp dp p P -V dV =- 2 2 1 dM2 M2 =- kM2 dx 2(1 . isothermal flow with friction is of in~erest inj connection with pipe lines for transporting gas over long distances. To k(k - 1)M4 dx 2(1 . j PB where To is the local adiabatic stagnation temperature. In Chapter 4 we derived the relation To = T ( 1 k. with ~ pressure greater than p*. 6. -2-M2 CLASS(2b): PE' > p*. not become supersonid except through area change or heat transfer. 6. 6. Furthermore. The adjustmenj of the stream to the back pressure then occurs outside the duct in the.11 are idealized in that the shocks are shown as discontinuities. the duct length is so great that it is impossible for the flo~ to be supersonic in the entire length of duct. Because of boundary-layer effects. t exit pressure PE must be identical with the back pressure PB.7. in other words. Eqs. Qualitative Effects of Friction Under Isothermal Conditions. and.1 +-.8. namely. Finally. 6. 6. therefore. the transition from supersonic ~ subsonic flow is more likely to be extended over a considerable distance. ther1 are substantial changes in pressure owing to the great lengths over which.34) ar. 6.32) Eqs. Eq.= cp dTo (6.kM2) (1 + k-1 -2-M2 )4fD (6. As long as the back pressure is l~ than p*. that PE = p*. Solving the simultaneous equations. form of oblique expansion waves. ~j ) Taking logarithmic differentials and noting that dT dTo To = 0. the flow at the duct exit cannot be subsonic. Noting that 4/ dx/D is always .i Although the Mach Numbers for such flows are usually quite low. as explained in Chapter 5.kM2) 4f D (6. 6.33) 6. the equation of state of a perfect gas becomes dp/p = dp/p (6. it should be mentioned that the flow patterns of Figs.1Q and 6. The analysis is paral-l lel to that for adiabatic flow. we get (6. friction acts.30. 1) ( + 1 M2) 1 -2-M2 k- dx 1+ ) 4/ D (6. therefore.178 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION . T condition. Accordingly. and so the flow may not be treated as incompressible. I The sole remaining possibility is that the stream leaves the duct at Mach Number unity.4..5 becomes (6. 6. Ch.12c). 1 The flow at the duct exit cannot be supersonic. the flow at the duct exit must be subsonic. Art.

6.kM2 dM2 kM4 where the lower limit of integration is taken at x = 0.. when M exceeds l/vk. the formula for stagnation temperature yields 1 + __ To = _!_ To*t T# k1 M2 1+--2 2 = ~(1 k .. Eq. therefore. Po p~t .33 may be rearranged to give o dx 41.1 2)k~1 I+--M P( 2 k ( 1+--- k-ll)k-l 2 k + 1) + 1) = ~k Ck2~ IY-l k (I + k2M 1M2)k~ 1 (6.kM2 kM2 + In kM2 (6. -=-- \ 10 5 pM' M2 11k PS P from which V2 (V*t)2 (6.6 Art. we get (Subsonic) Pressure Density Velocity Mach Number Stagnation temperature Stagnation pressure decreases decreases increases increases increases decreases < l/vk (Subsonic or Supersonic) increases increases decreases decreases decreases increases for M < V2/(k { decreases for M > V2/(k M> l/Vk Po k . 6. and the upper limit is taken at M = l/Vk. heat is rejected from the stream. 1'. pV = p#V*t.5 1= f= r-- To 1*' 0 From the equation of continuity. This value therefore represents a limit for continuous isothermal flow. beyond which the continuous isothermal flow may not proceed. ?I I 0. 6..4.. heat is added to the stream. the directions of change are summarized for gases with k in the table which follows.= D 1/k Finally. in the same way that M = 1 represents a limit for continuous adiabatic flow.41 are represented graphically in Fig. The perfect-gas relation yields p p p*t = p*t = p 0.39) FIG.t. M = M.. 6.1 M 10 VkM (6. etc. Working chart for isothermal flow in ducts.37) r-I p.41) t: i 41-D Lmax k M2 1 .11 3k . I V I--- 1 p*t = 1 VkM (6. . Denoting properties at M = l/vk by such symbols as V*t. Working Formulas.180 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. The formulas of Eqs.. k = 1. 6. we may write.40) It is seen that the Mach Number always tends towards I/vk.0 It?' 0.36 to 6.13. .36) 100 50 Now M2 = V2IkRT.05 k'v~.13.38) 0.01 0. 1000 500 1 .1 +k - 2 1 M2) (6.. 4fLmo~~ 0 0. M > 1 From the formula for isentropic stagnation pressure. The procedure for employing the working formulas and chart for computations is similar to that for adiabatic pipe flow. and T is constant. p*t..4 ISOTHERMAL FLOW IN LONG DUCTS 181 positive. When M is less than l/vk. Integration yields = Working Charts.

L 4f-= D (Lmax) 4fD The conventional pressure-drop formula for incompressible flowis similar to Eq. Since.43b) Hence although for given values of Ml and 4fL/D there are two solutions Ior P2/Pb only the left-hand intersection may be used. however.P2)/Pl. Carrying out this expansion. we obtain (6. 1---z--L(4f 0. then left-hand ordinate is 0. P~ 0. 6. 6. No.39. Vol. 34. From Eq.36.4 0. thus this limit is artificial and not physically real. 6. 12.6 kM2 f Lmax) . Example: If k = 1. 2 (w)2 A RT. it follows that choking effects may occur in similar fashion to those for adiabatic pipe flow. all fluid properties change rapidly with distance. P2/Pl= 0. Scale FIG. (Pl . and may be solved explicitly for the latter in the convenient form Pl . In long commercial pipe lines the Mach Numbers employed are so low that the loss in stagnation pressure is virtually identical with the loss in static pressure. The righthand intersection implies negative values of f and involves a violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. 6. .P2) [ 2) (1 . we obtain the following useful approximation applicable to low pressure drops: L 4f . 6.P2)] 2 Pl (6.kMl kMl Pl In employing Eqs. and Eng. A tangent-type intersection indicates choking flow. Chem. from Eq. Eqs.14.42 in a power series of the fractional pressure drop.14 is a convenient nomograph representing this relation. 4fL/D. the flow process under these circumstances is likely to be more nearly adiabatic rather than isothermal.4 ISOTHERMAL FLOW IN LONG DUCTS 183 Relations for Low Mach Numbers. 6.43a) Choking Effects. 1485.5 0. and rearranging.7 0.765 and right-hand ordinate is 0. W. for a given value of Mb there is a maximum length for continuous isothermal flow.P2 Pl kMl2 (6.::: -2 D (Pl .3 Also.39 and the fact that M2 cannot exceed l/Yk. it is convenient to expand the right-hand side of Eq.182 FLOW IN CONSTANT-AREA DUCTS WITH FRICTION Ch. it follows that (::Y> Eq. Ind. M2 = M1- Pl P2 Intersection on P2/P.313. and 4fL/D = 3.43a except that the square bracket on the right-hand side has the value unity. 6. 1942. when there is no intersection at all.43a is a quadratic in the fractional pressure drop. and. 6.43. 6.29 indicate the need for infinite heat transfer per unit length.42 and 6. p. Thomson. Subscripts 1 and 2 refer respectively to inlet and exit conditions. Unless heat is transferred purposefully.42) Fig.6 Art.( 41 D2 t> kM'.43 it is convenient to remember that kMl 2 = (W)2 A RTl Pl2 (6.. therefore. At M = 1/0. It should be kept in mind.35 and 6. When the per cent pressure drop is fairly small. From Eq. July. using left-hand intersection. For such cases it is useful to have a direct relation connecting P2/Pl. From this we see that the error incurred through assuming the fluid incompressible is negligible only when both kM12 and (Pl . 6. Nomograph for determining static pressure drop for isothermal flow in duct of length L. and retaining terms up to the second power of this variable.137. that when a subsonic isothermal flow approaches the limiting Mach Number. and Mb where subscripts 1 and 2 refer respectively to the inlet and exit conditions for a pipe of length L.4.44) 2 (1 + kM12) (Pl .P2)/Pl are both negligible compared with unity. Ml = 0.638. L exceeds Lmax. (After G.) Substituting this value of M2 into the previous equation. 6.

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