Killer of Martyrs of Karbala Yazeed Ibn Muawiya Ibn Abi Sufyan Yazeed, a villain of Islam was to establish a long

-term Bani Umayya ruler ship over the Ummat-eMuslima (forfeiting with main Islamic principles), but doing it in the name of Islam. Imam Husain (a.s.) struggle with Yazeed and succeeded in preventing Islam and its principles with presenting a great sacrifice along with his family & companions in Karbala. Imam Husain (a.s.) exposed yazeed’s destructive mission to eliminate a spirit of Islam. Yazeed Commonly known as: Yazeed , Muawiya named his name Yazeed, on his brother’s name. Born: 645 AD. 24 Hijri YAZEED TAKEN KHILAFAT BY HIM SELF: 680 AD., 60 Hijri BATTLE OF KARBALA ON: 680 AD. , 10 Muharram 61 Hijri YAZEED DIED AT: 683 AD, 63 Hijri , Yazeed was died when he was 38 year old and buried in Damascus. Most people believe his grave no longer exists while others believe that his grave is located in a small street near Omayyad Mosque without any mark or distinction. Total age: 38 years Duration of his ruling: ruled for three years only from 680 AD until his death in 683 AD. HIS FATHER & FAMILY BACK GROUND: Yazid was son of Muawia. Muawiya was son of Abu Sufyan, a leader of Bani Umayya tribe which was one of the kin of Quraish tribes. Muawiya grew up in a family known in arab as a robbers of Hajj pilgrims, cunning, worldly, materialistic, and power hungry tribe. Muawiya became Muslim only when Prophet Muhammad (SAW) conquest over Mecca. Those who became Muslim in this manner were called Tulaqaa, (a term scornfully used for the disbelievers who became Muslims to save their lives). Muawiya and his father Abu Sufyan, his mother Hind, and his brother Yazeed son of Abu Sufyan were all Tulaqaa. Muawiya never forgot the embarrassment that, some of his near and dear has slaughtered in battle of Badr from Muslims, thus a feeling of malicious revenge always existed in his heart. Muawiya's character and aspirations were entirely opposite to one of his sister, Umm Habiba, who was one of the wives of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). Umm Habiba dislike to Muawiya, as she was a sincere believer and a pious lady. Muawiya's, brother Yazeed (a son of Abu Sufyan ) appointed as Governor of Syria(Sham) by second Khalifa,. Within few years, Yazeed son of Abu Sufyan died in some disease, now Khalifa appointed to Muawiya as governor to Syria ( Sham) in his brother's place.

With coming in power, Muawiya took advantage of public treasury of Syria (baitul Maal) using for personal use and to buy favors and influence of people rather than serving to poor Muslims. In later years he forms a strong network of Munafiqeen Muslims who had enemy with Ahlul Bayt (a.s.) and their devotees. Muawiya was using of abusive language with reference to Ahlul Bayt (cursing Imam Ali(a.s.) after every Salat of Jumu’a he arise as a great danger to friends and companions of Imam Ali (a.s.) along with all their women and children who lives in his territory. Imam Ali(a.s.) martyr on on 21st of Ramadan month 14th Hijri by Ibne muljim. PEACE AGREEMENT BETWEEN IMAM IMAM HASAN (A.S.) Ibne Ali (A.S.) AND MUAWIYA: Imam Hasan (a.s.) observed that fear, anxiety and much distress were ever present in Kufa, Basrah, Medina and other towns. The anxiety, uncertainty and insecurity were caused by Muawiya's ill dealing of sincere Muslims. Muawiya had spread secret agents all over to defame Ahlul Bayt. Imam Hasan knew that his father Imam Ali (a.s.) had stood like a lion in all difficulties and fought battles against Muawiya, but these confrontations had resulted in heavy casualties on both sides. Considering all circumstances, Imam Hasan (a.s.) discussed the matter with his brother Husain (a.s.) and other relatives. He revealed to them that in order to end the bloodshed and to provide a reasonable safety and security to the Ummate-Muslims, he would make a peace agreement with Muawiya and abdicate until after Muawiya's death. After a few days of careful consideration, Imam Hasan (a.s.) accepted an agreement as per the terms dictated by the Imam and agreed to by Muawiya. three noteworthy terms of this agreement were:    People of Syria, Iraq, Hijaz, Yemen and other places shall enjoy amnesty against persecution, Friends and companions of Imam Ali (a.s.) and all their women and children shall be protected from all dangers, Muawiya is to immediately stop the use of abusive language with reference to Ahlul Bayt (cursing Imam Ali) after Salat of Jumu'a), and Muawiya shall not appoint anyone as his successor of him only descendent of Mohammad (SAW) will rule for Islam.

Once the agreement was signed, Imam Hasan (a.s.) and brother Husain (a.s.) moved out from Kufa and settled in Medina. Over there both Imams spending time in holding meetings for Islamic discussions, the meetings proved very successful and gained incredible popularity. More & more people started to attend and to pay attention the Imams speeches of spreading fountain of knowledge about Islam and its moral teachings. The reputation of these meetings began to call distant places. People from as far away as Egypt, Iraq, Yemen, and other remote areas travelled to Medina to learn Islamic values. In meantime, Muawiya, disrespect the terms of his agreement with Imam Imam Hasan (a.s.) . a.s. He sent his driving force to terrify, kidnap, or even kill innocent people who were loyal to Ahlul Bayt (a.s.).Muawiya gathered a very large number of teammate who would do anything for money. As It was Muawiya's zealous desire to impose his son Yazeed by making him the succeeding Khalifa of muslims, but the peace agreement would not permit Muawiya to appoint Yazeed as his successor, (According to the agreement Imam Hasan would immediately become Khalifa upon Muawiya's death).Therefore, it was obvious to Muawiya that, if Imam Hasan (a.s.) did not outlive him, Muawiya could do as he pleased. Thus Muawiya planned to kill Imam Hasan (a.s.) in order to cover the way for his son Yazeed to be his successor,Muawiya sent one of his agents to contact Imam Hasan (a.s.) 's wife Joda who was the daughter of Al-Ash'ath (once a secret agent for Muawiya against Imam Ali in the Battle of Siffin). Joda

was asked a small favor, i.e., to put a little poison in Imam Hasan (a.s.) 's food, and in return Muawiya would give her a large sum of money and also make her wife of his son Yazeed. She found the offer too attractive to ignore, and foolishly agreed to accept it. A few days later, she mixed poison in honey and gave it to the Imam. As soon as the Imam took the poisoned honey he became seriously ill. Sensing that his death was imminent, the Imam designated his brother Al-Husain (a.s.) to be the third Imam. Although Imam Imam Hasan (a.s.) knew he was poisoned, he did not reveal that to anyone but to his brother Husain(a.s.). One thing Imam Hasan (a.s.) had wished was to have his burial by the side of his grandfather the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Imam Husain made all the arrangements to fulfill that wish but Muawiya's governor over Medina did not let that happen and used military force to stop it. Imam Hasan (a.s.) was 47 year old when he died of poisoning. When Imam Husain (a.s.) was designated as the 3rd Imam he was 46 years old. Imam Husain (a.s.) carried on with his mission of teaching Islam as before. YAZEED BECOMES RULER: Muawiya died on Rajab 22, 60 AH (680 AD), In violation of Islamic tradition and his own written agreement with Hasan ibn Ali A.S., with appointing his son Yazeed as his successor, converting the Islam into his own empire. On Muawiya's death, Yazeed, managed to impose himself on the people and become the Khalifa for Islam. At first people refused to accept him as a representative of the Prophet (SAW) and Islamic Ummat-e-Muslims, but Yazeed approached people in mosques for their favors. Like his father Muawiya, Yazeed used all possible means like bribery, strength, pressure, threats, and force to receive the people's acceptance of him as the rightful ruler. Many people were worried, threats to their lives and livelihood were too frightening, and so they bitterly and unwillingly gave in recognition to his leadership for Islam. But, Imam Husain (a.s.) his family and true followers of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), did not recognize his Khilafat. As the true representative of Prophet Muhammad (SAW), Husain Ibne Ali A.S., completely refused accepting Yazeed either as a Khalifa or a leader of Islam. Imam stood firm in his decision and chose to challenge Bani Umayya's authorities. LIFESTYLE of YAZEED: Yazeed was very opposite to teachings of Islam, continuously violated the Islamic principles. Yazeed was living a very luxurious life, he was a playboy of that era, he was having many evil habits like gambling, heavy drinking, and indulgence in the pleasures of the flesh he was looking to make many changes in Islam towards evil trends which are forbidden in Islam. Yazeed loved worldly vices, would drink, listen to kept the company of boys with no facial hair, played drums, kept dogs , not a day would go by when he was not in a drunken state. Yazeed is a villain of Islamic history as he carries out the great tragedy of ”Karbala” in which he ordered to kill Husain Ibne Ali A.S. the grandson of Mohammad(SAW) was killed along with 72 other members of house hold of Mohammad(SAW) or his companions. The main tragedy committed by Yazeed was that he sent an army to Makkah to crush the rebellion of Abdullah bin Zubair, which attacked Holy Ka'aba and damaged a part of God's House by throwing firestones.

Views of various authors about Yazeed Ali ibn al-Athir Ali ibn al-Athir, a 13th century Sunni Islamic scholar transmitted [20]: A narration attributed to Munzir ibn Zabeer reports: “ Verily Yazeed rewarded me with 100,000 dirhams but this cannot stop me from highlighting his state, By Allah he is a drunkard…

Al-Dhahabi Al-Dhahabi, a 14th century Sunni Shafai Islamic scholar transmitted [21]: A narration attributed to Ziyad Hurshee reports: “ Yazeed gave me alcohol to drink, I had never drunk alcohol like that before and I enquired where he had obtained its ingredients'. Yazeed replied 'it is made of sweet pomegranate, honey from Isfahan, sugar from Hawaz and grapes from Burdah…Yazeed indulged in alcohol and would participate in actions that opposed the dictates set by Allah

Ibn Jauzi Ibn Jauzi in Wafa al-Wafa “ Yazeed appointed his cousin Uthman bin Muhammad bin Abu Sufyan as Governor of Madina. He sent a delegation to visit Yazeed who bore gifts so that they might take the oath of allegiance to him. Upon their return they said 'We have returned having visited a man who has no religion, he drinks, plays instruments, keeps the company of singers and dogs [16], we declare that we have broken our allegiance to him. Abdullah bin Abi Umro bin Hafs Mukhzumee commented 'Yazeed gave me gifts. But the reality is this man is an enemy of Allah and a drunkard. I shall separate myself from him in the same way that I remove my turban [from my head]….

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, a 16th century Sunni Shafi'i Islamic scholar calls Yazeed one of the most debased men in history. “ One group have deemed Yazeed to be a kaafir, another has stated he was a Muslim but a fasiq (transgressor), a fajir (one that commits debauchery) and a drunkard. There is consensus over his fisq (transgression). One party of Ulema have stated that you can curse him by name, this includes individuals such as Ibn Jauzi and Ahmad. One group made up of individuals such as Ibn Jauzi deem Yazeed a kaafir, others say he was not a kaafir but rather this is a matter that has caused a difference of opinion. The majority of Ahl'ul Sunnah all agree that he was a fasiq (transgressor), a fajir (one that commits debauchery) and a drunkard. Waqidi had recorded a narration 'Verily we opposed ”

Yazeed fearing Allah would reign stones down on us, Yazeed considered nikah (marriage) with mothers and sisters to be permissible and drank alcohol". "Dhahabi narrates that when Abdullah bin Kuzai returned from Damascus he stated that Yazeed performs zina with his mother, sister and daughters. We had better start a movement to oppose Yazeed otherwise stones may reign down on us [22] Shah Abdul Aziz Shah Abdul Aziz, a 19th century Sunni Hanafi Islamic scholar states: “ Imam Husayn did not give baiah to Yazeed because he was a drunkard, a fasiq and Dhaalim.

Also: “ "Upon the orders of Yazeed the disgraceful people from Syria and Iraq killed Imam Husayn.[24]: ”

Ibn Taymiya Ibn Taymiya, a 14th century Sunni Hanbali Salafi Islamic scholar writes: “ Yazeed had the sword and hence he had the power to deal with anyone that opposed him. He had the power to reward his subjects with the contents of the treasury, and could also withhold their rights. He had the power to punish criminals; it is in this context that we can understand that he was the khalifah and king. Issues such as Yazeed's piety or lack of it, or his honesty or lack of it, is another matter. In all of his actions Yazeed was not just, there is no dispute amongst the people of Islam on this matter.[25]

Ibn Khaldun Ibn Khaldun, a 14th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes: “ “A majority of the companions were with Yazeed and they did not hold it permissible to rebel against him.” (Muqaddimah Ibn Khaldoon (pg.217). None of the four Imaams and the authors of the six well-known books of hadeeth declared Yazeed to be a disbeliever or a heretic Yazeed's time of governance can be seen as fisq and debauchery, and the blame is on Mu'awiya who should have controlled him [26]

Abu al-Fida Abu al-Fida, a 14th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes: “ Yazeed played the tambourine, drank alcohol and raised bears [16][27] ”

Qadi Thanaullah Panipati Qadi Thanaullah Panipati, a 19th century Sunni Hanafi Islamic scholar wrote: “ Yazeed deemed drinking alcohol to be Halaal, and he recited these couplets 'if the Deen of Ahmad deems alcohol to be haraam… [28]

The Banu Umayya were initially kaafir, then some of them presented themselves as Muslim. Yazeed then became a kaafir. The Banu Umayya maintained their enmity towards the family of the Prophet (sawas), and killed Husayn in a cruel manner. The kaafir Yazeed committed kufr in relation to the Deen of Muhammad (sawas) proven by the fact that at the time of the killing of Husayn he made a pointed reference to avenging the deaths of his kaafir ancestors slain in Badr. He acted against the family of Muhammad (sawas), Banu Hashim and in his drunken state he praised the Banu Umayya and cursed the Banu Hashim from the pulpit [29]

M Amjad 'Ali Azami in Bahar e Shariat Bahar e Shariat by Amjad 'Ali Azami stated: “ Some say 'Why should we discuss such a thing since he [Yazeed] was a King and he [Husayn] was also a King' - one who makes such comments (refusing to hold opinion on Yazeed and Husayn) is accursed, a Kharijee, Nasibi and hell bound. The dispute is over whether he [Yazeed] was a kaafir. The madhab of Abu Hanifastipulates that he was a fasiq and fajir, nor was he a kaafir nor a Muslim [30]

Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi Muhammad Zakariya al-Kandahlawi, a 20th century Deobandi Islamic scholar wrote: “ The army that Yazeed had sent to Medina comprised 60,000 horsemen and 15,000 foot soldiers. For three days they shed blood freely, 1000 women were raped and 700 from the Quraysh and Ansar were killed. Ten thousand women and children were made slaves. Muslim bin Uqba forced people to give bayya to Yazeed in such a manner that people were enslaved and Yazeed could sell them as he pleased, no Sahaba who were [with the Prophet (saws)] at Hudaibiya were spared". All the BadrSahaba were killed in this battle.[31]

Mahmud al-Alusi Mahmud al-Alusi, a 19th century Sunni Islamic scholar wrote: “ Yazeed the impure denied the Prophethood of Rasulullah (s). The treatment that he meted out to the people of Makka, Medina and the family of the Prophet proves that he was a kaafir [32] The wicked Yazeed failed to testify to the Prophethood of Hadhrath Muhammad (sawas). He also perpetrated acts against the residents of Makka, Medina and the family of the Prophet (sawas). He indulged in these acts against them during their lives and after their deaths. These acts are so conclusively proven that had he placed the Qur'an in his hands it would have testified to his kuffar. His being a fasiq and fajir did not go unnoticed by the Ulema of Islam, but the Salaf had no choice but to remain silent as they were living under threat.[33] Amongst the Shaafi's we are in agreement that it is permissible to curse Yazeed [34] ”

In Hayaath al Haywaan: “ Yazeed would hunt with cheetas, play chess and drink alcohol [26] ”

In Tareekh Kamil:

Ibn Khaldun, a 14th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes: “ The narrator states 'By Allah, Yazeed drinks alcohol and abandons Salat [26] ”

Tareekh Kamil: [[Ibn Abbas replied to a letter of Yazeed stating 'You killed Husayn ibn 'Ali as well as the youth from Banu Abdul Muttalib, who were beacons of guidance." [26]]], a 21st century Sunni Islamic scholar In Tareekh Khamees: “ The people of Medina broke the baiah to Yazeed on account of his bad acts, he used to drink alcohol[26]

Citing Tadhkira, Maqathil and Shazarath al Dhabah. This is also found in the Arabic (non-Leiden) version of the History of Al-Tabari [26]: “ When the head of Husayn (R), the grandson of the Holy Prophet (saws), was presented before Yazeed he recited the couplets of the kaafir Zubayri: "Banu Hashim staged a play for Kingdom there was no news from the skies neither was there any revelation" Sharh Fiqh Akbar: “ Following the murder of Husayn, Yazeed said 'I avenged the killing of my kaafir relatives in Badr through killing the family of the Prophet.[26] ”

Maqathil Husayn: “ Yazeed wrote a letter to Waleed the Governor of Medina, in which he stated 'Force Husayn to give bayya. Should he refuse then strike off his head and return it to me.'[26]

Maqathil al Husayn: “ Ibn Umar wrote to Yazeed, 'Hasn't your heart gone black yet? You murdered the family of the Prophet?'[26]

Mutaalib al Saul: “ Ibn Ziyad wrote to Husayn 'I have received information that you have arrived in Kerbala, and Yazeed has told me not to kill you, provided you accept his authority and mine.' [26]

Yazid's Army Stoned The Ka'aba Afterwards, Yazid ordered the army to attack the Ka'aba in Makkah. Accordingly, Yazid's army set up their cannons and stoned the Ka'aba, because of which the curtain of the Ka'aba caught fire. It is written in Tarikh Kamil, Vol 3, Pg. No. 464,

BRIEF OF KARBALA The events of Karbala reflect the clash in between accurate of Islam versus the immorality and wickedness of so called Muslim leadership by yazeed & his companions . Versus the, Imam Husain (A.S.). Husain ibne Ali (A.S.) was a revolutionary person, a righteous, valid successor of Prophet Mohammad (SAW) and the religious authority, the Imam of Muslim Ummat-e-Muslims. As the representative of his grandfather Prophet Muhammad (SAW), Imam Husain's main concern was to safeguard and protect Islam and guide true Muslims. Imam Husain (a.s.) never recognized Mu'awiya nor his followers as representatives of true Islam. Before him Imam Ali (a.s.) had fought battles against Mu'awiya because Mu'awiya continuously violated the Islamic principles. Imam Hasan (a.s.) had to swallow the bitter pill of making a peace agreement with Mu'awiya, in order to safeguard the security of the Ummat-e-Muslims which was at risk. When Yazeed son of Mu'awiya declared himself as a ruler over the Ummat-e-Muslims, Yazeed demanded commitment of loyalty the faith (Bayat) from Imam Husain's (a.s.) . Imam Husain (a.s.) rejected Yazid's commitment of loyalty the faith (Bayat) as ruler and his behavior as leader of Mulims,But Yazid, the oppressor ruler over the Ummat-e-Muslims was inflexible in his demand. Yazid ordered his commanders to get the Imam's commitment of loyalty the faith (Bayat) at any cost or by brutal force, the commanders assemble a relatively large army. Imam Husain (a.s.) was quick to realize that giving faith (Bayat) in Yazid would put in danger to true Islam and decided to went Kufa city along with his family and friends. Kufa was a place whether his father Imam Ali (a.s.) settled to run his working as Imam. During travel to Kufa Yazid’s army stopped the caravan of Imam Husain (a.s.) at desert of karbala. Imam Husain (a.s.) camp in Karbala with his family, friends, and companions, Yazeed’s army first banned water and edible things in Imam Husain (a.s.) camp and on 10th of Moharram 61 Hijri they killed to Imam Husain (a.s.) along with his 72 family men and all companions, Imam Husain (a.s.) throat was cut, by Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan an army chief of Yazeed, Lanti Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan was saying: "I swear by God that I am raising your head while I know that you are grandson of the messenger of Allah and the best of the people by father and mother" when he raised head of Husain ibn Ali on a spear. Yazeed’s men looted all the valuables from Husain's body, there after they set ablaze in Imam Husain (a.s.) camp with arresting women & kids of Imam Husain (a.s.).

BEYOND THE KARBALA On Muharram 11 (680 AD), all imprisoned including all women and children were then loaded onto camels with neither saddle nor shade and were moved toward Kufa. As they approached Kufa, its people gathered to see them. Some women of Kufa gave veils for them upon knowing that they are relatives of Muhammad (SAW). Hazrat Ali ibn Husain the Imam ZainulAbdeen (a.s.), who was seriously ill, for which he did not went in the battle of Karbala was hand cuffed with these prisoners . Zainab bint Ali salamullah the sister of Imam Husain (a.s.) was also a captive in this caravan she pointed at the people to be quiet. Then she speak to to people of Kufa who called to Imam Husain (a.s.) in kufa : "The praise is exclusively attributed to Allah. And greetings to my father (grand father), MuhammadSAW, and to his pure and benevolent family. And then, Oh people of Kufa! Oh deceitful and renege people! Do you weep? So let tears not be dried and let groans not be finished. ... Beware, such a bad preparation you have made for yourself that Allah became angry of you and you will be at punishment forever. Do you weep and cry? Yeah, by Allah, do weep numerously and do laugh less! Since you brought its shame and fault on yourself and you will not be able to cleanse it forever. During the journey from Karbala to Kufa, and from Kufa to Damascus, Husain's sister Zainab bint Ali and Umm-Kulthoom bint Ali, and son Ali ibn Husain gave various speeches that exposed the truth about Yazid and told the Muslim world about ,various violence committed in Karbala by yazeed ‘s army on Ahlulbait. The prisoners were held in Damascus for a year. During this year, some prisoners died of grief, most notably Sakina bint Husain the beloved 3 years daughter of Imam Husain(a.s.) . After being this caravan brought to Yazid's court, in his court yazeed was abusing Prophet Mohammad and his family. Yazeed publicly said: Islam was a drama by bani Hashim’s family, there is no god no verses of Quran reveled, he further said: if my parents of Badr could see me they will gratify to see today I have taken revenge with Muslims and bani Hashim. During this statement he was playing with the head of Imam Husain and other martyrs of karbala with a long wooden stick. Than Bibi Zainab (sa) very bravely take position to Yazid and told him of his erroneous actions for which he done with Islam & family of Prophet Muhammad (SAW). In her speech, she condemned Yazid’s claim to the caliphate and praise Husain's revolution. The people present in yazeed’s court began to revolt and raise voice against Yazeed in very same court, the message of Husain was explained to the people for Husain's revolution. As public opinion against Yazid began to create in Syria and most parts of Iraq, Yazid become afraid for public revolution he ordered to release all prisoners, this caravan return to Medina under the super vision of Imaam Zainul Abdeen (a.s.), where they continued to tell the world of Husain's cause.

Dr Izzat Husain izzathusain@gmail.com

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