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# HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4 Semester) Roll Number - 511025273

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http://www.scribd.com/Harvinder_chauhan

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Book ID: B0902

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HARVINDER SINGH

Find the half plane that is related to the given inequality. since a linear function attains extreme (maximum or minimum) values only on boundary of the region. it is sufficient to consider the vertices of the polygon and find the value of the objective function in these vertices.0) are two points on the straight line a1x1 +a2x2 = b.P.4. x2 ≥ 0 Ans: A LPP with 2 decision variables x1 and x2 can be solved easily by graphical method. If x2 = 0. . which is the space enclosed by the constraints. Join these two points and extend this line to get the straight line which represents a1x1 + a2x2 = b. which are a1x1+ a2x2 clip_image047 [1] b (one side) and a1x1 + a2x2 clip_image055 b (another side). We consider the x1 x2 – plane where we plot the solution space. l) = (0. By comparing the vertices of the objective function at these vertices. Find two distinct points (k.com/Harvinder_chauhan July 2011 Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 4 MC0079 – Computer Based Optimization Methods – 4 Credits (Book ID: B0902) Assignment Set – 1 1. The method of solving a LPP on the basis of the above analysis is known as the graphical method.511025273 http://www.P. clip_image049 [1]) and (c. then we cannot solve it by graphical method).HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) Roll Number .1 An Algorithm for solving a linear programming problem by Graphical Method: (This algorithm can be applied only for problems with two variables). Then consider the relation a1x1 + a2x2 = b. Therefore (k. l).2. (c. Maximize Z = 5x1 + 3x2 Subject to 3x1 + 5x2 ≤ 15 5x1 + 2x2 ≤ 10 x1. d) on the graph which denotes X–Y-axis plane. Step – II: Consider a given inequality. then x2 = clip_image049. then x1 = clip_image051. This can be found easily: If x1 = 0. Usually the solution space is a convex set which is bounded by a polygon. Step – III: Represent these two points (k. Step – I: Formulate the linear programming problem with two variables (if the given problem has more than two variables. d) = (clip_image051 [1]. we obtain the optimal solution of the problem. l). d) that lie on the straight line a1x1 + a2x2 = b. Step – IV: a1x1 + a2x2 = b divides the whole plane into two half planes.scribd. Use graphical method and solve the L. (c. Suppose it is in the form a1x1 + a2x2 clip_image047 b (or a1x1 + a2x2 clip_image015 [8] b).

Join these two points and extend this line to get the straight line which represents a1x1+ a2x2= b.511025273 http://www. B. 2. d) = (b / a1. Find two distinct points (k. then the maximum (minimum) value of z among the values of z at the corner/extreme points of the feasible region is the optimal value of z. Step – VIII: If the problem is a maximization (minimization) problem. subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints. l). An Algorithm for solving a linear programming problem by Graphical Method: (This algorithm can be applied only for problems with two variables). Explain the algorithm for solving a linear programming problem by graphical method. then x2 = b / a2. l) = (0. a linear programming method will find a point on the polytope where this function has the smallest (or largest) value if such point exists. Now find this feasible region. then we say that the solution x1 = u and x2 = v is an optimal feasible solution. Suppose it is in the forma1x1 + a2x2 <= b (or a1x1 + a2x2 >= b).x2 clip_image055[2] 0 . These corner points are called as extreme points. by searching through the polytope vertices. l). (c. then we cannot solve it by graphical method). The intersection of the halfplanes related to all the inequalities and x1 clip_image055 [1] 0. C.com/Harvinder_chauhan Step – V: Do step-II to step-IV for all the inequalities given in the problem. and the co-ordinates of the corner point at which the optimum value of z exists). If the optimal value exists at the corner/extreme point. Step – IX: Write the conclusion (that include the optimum value of z. .If x2=0. Step – VII: Find the values of the objective function at all these corner/ extreme points.scribd. Then consider the relation a1x1+ a2x2=b. 0) are two points on the straight line a1x1+a2x2= b. …(say). Ans: Linear programming (LP) is a mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear equations. More formally. Step – VI: The feasible region is a multisided figure with corner points A. then x1 = b / a1.Find the coordinates for all these corner points. Given a polytope and a real-valued affine function defined on this polytope. Step – III: Represent these two points (k. This can be found easily: If x1= 0. d) on the graph which denotes X–Y-axis plane. d) that lie on the straight line a1x1+ a2x2= b. b / a2) and (c. Step – II: Consider a given inequality. say A(u. v). Therefore (k.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) Roll Number . linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective function. is called the feasible region ( or feasible solution space). Step – I: Formulate the linear programming problem with two variables (if the given problem has more than two variables. (c.

20. Step – VIII: If the problem is a maximization (minimization) problem. Now find this feasible region. Step – IX: Write the conclusion (that include the optimum value of z. Then total profit from these units is Z = 20 x1 + 6 x2 + 8 x3 To produce these units the management requires 8x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 machine hours of Milling Machine . Step – VII: Find the values of the objective function at all these corner/extreme points. 3. … (say). x2.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) Roll Number .scribd. v).511025273 http://www. These corner points are called as extreme points. The available capacity on the machines which might limit output are given below: Machine Type Milling Machine Lathe Grinder Available Time (in machine hours per week) 250 150 50 The number of machine-hours required for each unit of the respective product is given below: Machine Type Milling Machine Lathe Grinder Productivity (in Machine hours/Unit) Product 1 Product 2 Product 3 8 2 3 4 3 0 2 – 1 The unit profit would be Rs. This created considerable excess production capacity. Step – VI: The feasible region is a multisided figure with corner points A. The intersection of the halfplanes related to all the inequalities and x1 >= 0. Step – V: Do step-II to step-IV for all the inequalities given in the problem. 6 and Rs. If the optimal value exists at the corner/extreme point. is called the feasible region (or feasible solution space). 2 and 3. then we say that the solution x1= u andx2= v is an optimal feasible solution. say A (u. Find how much of each product the firm should produce in order to maximize profit? Ans: Let x1.x2 >= 0 . Find the half plane that is related to the given inequality. 2 and 3. 2 and 3 are produced in a week. which area1x1+ a2x2 <= b (one side) and a1x1+ a2x2 >= b (another side). 8 for products 1. Rs. Find the coordinates for all these corner points. x3 units of products 1. and the co-ordinates of the corner point at which the optimum value of z exists). then the maximum (minimum) value of z among the values of z at the corner/extreme points of the feasible region is the optimal value of z.C. Management is considering to devote this excess capacity to one or more of three products: call them product 1.com/Harvinder_chauhan Step – IV: a1x1 + a2x2= b divides the whole plane into two half planes. B. A manufacturing firm has discontinued production of a certain unprofitable product line.

x2. x3 ≥ 0. S 3 ≥ 0.scribd. The initial basic solution is X0= = The initial simplex table is given by . 150 and 50 hours respectively. x1.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) ) Roll Number .511025273 http://www. x3 ³ 0 Thus the problem is to Maximize Z = 20x1 + 6x2 + 8x3 Subject to 8x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 ≤ 250 4x1 + 3x2 ≤ 150 2x1 + x3 ≤ 50. Obviously x1. x2. x3. we have respectively 8x1 +2x2 + 3x3 ≤ 250 4x1 + 3x2 ≤ 150 2x1 + x3 ≤ 50. S1. S2. x1.com/Harvinder_chauhan 4x1 + 3x2 + 0 x3 machine hours of Lathe and 2x1 + x3 machine hours of Grinder 1 Since time available for these three machines are 250. x2. Rewriting in the standard form Maximize Z = 20x1 + 6x2 + 8x3 + 0S1 + 0S 2 + 0S 3 Subject to 8x1 + 2x2 + 3x3 + S1 = 250 4x1 + 3x2 + S2 = 150 2x1 + x3 + S3 = 50.

.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) ) Roll Number . 700/which is achieved by producing 50 units of product 2 and 50 units of product 3 .i. The second iteration gives the following table: x3 enters the basic set of variables replacing the variable x1.com/Harvinder_chauhan x1 enters the basic set of variables replacing the variable S3. The third iteration yields the following table: Since all zj – cj ≥ 0 in the last row. the maximum profit is Rs. The first iterationgives the following table: x2 enters the basic set of variables replacing the variable s2.511025273 http://www.e. the optimum solution is 700 .scribd.

This is done in the following table. we shall introduce a dummy market. Obtain the initial solution by VAM.com/Harvinder_chauhan 4. The improved solution is: Therefore the total cost is: Rs.how does this affect the overall completion time of the project?) Definition: In CPM activities are shown as a network of precedence relationships using activity activity-onnode network construction Single estimate of activity time Deterministic activity times . with all cost elements equal to zero. This solution is found to be non non-optimal. P3M5. for certain activities it may be possible to decrease their completion times by spending more money . North – west corner method 2.scribd. and P4M3 are independent while others are not. since it contains only seven basic variables (since there are only 7 variables cells occupied and not 8 (= 4 + 5 -1) required for non-degeneracy). M5. P2M3. For removing degeneracy place ∑ in the cell P3M5and then test it for optimality. The solution is given in a one table.511025273 http://www. P3M4. degeneracy).Here empty cells P1M3. P3M2.Here P3M1.g. Minimum Matrix Method (MMM) 3. Determine optimal solution to the problem given below. Vogel’s Approximation Method (VAM) Since the aggregate supply is 220 units and the aggregate demand is 200 units.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) ) Roll Number . for an amount equal to 20 (the difference between the aggregate supply and demand). The initial solution obtained by VAM is degenerate. CPM was developed by Du Pont and the emphasis was on the trade off between the cost of the trade-off project and its overall completion time (e. Ans: Various Methods for finding initial solution to a transportation problem 1. Write down the differences between PERT and CPM. (6 30) + (1 10) + (3 20) + (0 50) + (7 60) + (1 30) = 700.

In addition PERT had the ability to cope with uncertain activity completion times (e. Project Planning. 2. 3. Since CPM was developed in connection with a construction project which consisted of routine tasks whose resources requirement and duration was known with certainty. 1. CPM: 1. 2.511025273 http://www. for a particular activity the most likely completion time is 4 weeks but it could be anywhere between 3 weeks and 8 weeks). Project scheduling by PERT-CPM: It consists of three basic phases: planning. In PERT. PERT: 1. PERT was developed by the US Navy for the planning and control of the Polaris missile program and the emphasis was on completing the program in the shortest possible time. total project duration is regarded as a random variable and therefore associated probabilities are calculated so as to characterize it. 2. Since PERT was developed in connection with an R and D work.g. Scheduling. CPM is used for projects involving activities of repetitive nature. scheduling and controlling. 3. It helps in pinpointing critical areas in a project so that necessary adjustment can be made to meet the scheduled completion date of the project. 4. It is an event-oriented network because in the analysis of network emphasis is given important stages of completion of task rather than the activities required to be performed to reach to a particular event or task. . 3.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) Roll Number .for the jobs of repetitive in nature where the activity time estimates can be predicted with considerable certainty due to the existence of past experience. PERT is normally used for projects involving activities of non-repetitive nature in which time estimates are uncertain.com/Harvinder_chauhan USED IN: Production management . therefore it had to cope with the uncertainties which are associated with R and D activities. CPM is suitable for establishing a trade-off for optimum balancing between schedule time and cost of the project. therefore it is basically deterministic.scribd. Project Control. Basic difference between PERT and CPM: Though there are no essential differences between PERT and CPM as both of them share in common the determination of a critical path and are based on the network representation of activities and their scheduling that determines the most critical activities to be controlled so as to meet the completion date of the project.

The Network Diagram In a project.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) ) Roll Number . an activity is a task that must be performed and an event is a milestone marking the completion of one or more activities. some of which must be performed sequentially and others that can be performed in parallel with other activities.511025273 http://www. Incrementing the numbers by 10allows for new ones to be inserted without modifying the numbering of the entire diagram. Project network models represent activities and milestones by arcs and nodes. some people began to use PERT as an activity on node network. PERT was developed in the late 1950's for the U. CPM is a deterministic method that uses a fixed time estimate for each activity. It has the potential to reduce both the time and cost required to complete a project. The following is a very simple example of a PERT diagram: PERT Chart The milestones generally are numbered so that the ending node of an activity has a higher number than the beginning node. Explain Project Management (PERT). variations that can have a great impact on the completion time of a complex project. Ans: PERT: Complex projects require a series of activities. Navy's Polaris project having thousands of contractors. For this discussion. The Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a network model that allows for randomness randomne in activity completion times. Over time. PERT activities originally was an activity on arc network. This collection of series and parallel tasks can be modeled as a network . in which the activities are represented on the lines and milestones on the nodes. The activities in the above diagram are labeled with letters along with the expected time required to complete the activity. it does not consider the time vity. all of its predecessor activities must be completed.com/Harvinder_chauhan 5. we will use the original form of activity on arc.In 1957the Critical Path Method (CPM) was developed as a network model for project management. ion. Before an activity can begin. The PERT chart may have multiple pages with many sub sub-tasks. ed Steps in the PERT Planning Process .S.scribd. While CPM is easy to understand and use.

Estimate the time required for each activity. Construct a network diagram. Determine the critical path.511025273 http://www.HARVINDER SINGH (MCA – 4th Semester) Roll Number .com/Harvinder_chauhan PERT planning involves the following steps: Identify the specific activities and milestones.scribd. Determine the proper sequence of the activities. Update the PERT chart as the project progresses .