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Nutrient Exchange and Delivery (Part 3)

Nutrient Exchange and Delivery (Part 3)

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Published by: Savannah Simone Petrachenko on Dec 05, 2011
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05/13/2014

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Nutrient Exchange & Delivery (part 3

)
1he Med|um for 1ransport
O Blood consisting of plasma (liquid medium)
4 Can carry ~0.3mL O
2
per 100mL
O Erythrocytes (red blood cells) containing hemoglobin
4 Increases O
2
carrying capacity to ~20mL O
2
per 100mL fluid
emog|ob|n
O 4 peptides, each with a heme (iron) group
O Each peptide able to bind 1 molecule of O
2

O Bound O
2
no longer dissolved in cytosol
4 [O
2
] in erythrocyte cytosol still low compared to surrounding
medium

n |ungsţ unt|| hemog|ob|n |s saturated
O [O
2
] in air > [O
2
] in alveolar cells > [O
2
] in plasma within capillaries
> [O
2
] in erythrocyte cytosol
O Diffusion of O
2
goes from air erythrocyte
O * Note: text uses "partial pressure.¨ More correct, but not as easy
to understand.
n t|ssues where C
2
|s needed
O Where [O
2
] low, diffusion from hemoglobin tissue
4 Only about 25% of bound O
2
is released
n t|ssues where metabo||sm |s fast
O Low [O
2
] + high [CO
2
] + lactic acid acidic fluid
O Hemoglobin has less "affinity¨ for O
2
in acid conditions more O
2

released
H+ +HCO3
-
more CO2 + H2O

n musc|e
O Myoglobin has higher affinity for O
2
than hemoglobin even more
diffusion from hemoglobin to the muscle cell myoglobin

9ut |t a|| togetherť
O Inhale fresh air, fill alveoli
O Pulmonary arteriole delivers erythrocytes (red blood cells) to
capillaries around alveoli
4 Slow speed, diffusion distance minimized
O Hemoglobin scavenges O
2
, pump and conduits rapidly deliver to
other tissues
O Capillaries in other tissues
4 Slow speed, diffusion distance minimized
O Diffusion of O
2
from hemoglobin to needy tissue
O O
2
-poor blood collected in veins, back to heart, back to pulmonary
artery
or CC2 from t|ssues
O Tissue [CO2] high, diffusion of CO2 into blood plasma favoured
O In erythrocytes, carbonic anhydrase
CO
2
+ H
2
O H
2
CO
3
H
+
+ HCO
3
-

O Reverse reaction where [CO2] low (in lungs)

|rd Lungs are D|fferent
O Birds do not breathe
tidally
O Bird lungs are not really
"blind-ended¨
O Two sets of air sacs
O Inhale: posterior air sacs
inflate, lungs contract
O Exhale: air flows from
posterior sac into lung,
lungs nflate - O
2

extracted
O Inhale: lungs contract,
air flows from lung into
anterior air sacs
O Exhale: air from anterior
sacs out
O r flow through brd
lungs s undrectonal


O Circulatory system arranged for
opt2ed extracton of O
2

4 Some birds fly high where
partial pressure of O
2
low
4 Also seen in fish - water flows
over gills in one
direction for optimizing
O
2
extraction








Nutr|ent Lxchange Ǝ De||very
Vertebratesť Nutr|ents other than C2
O Nutrients from digested food absorbed by small intestine
O Organ, tissue, cell structure maximize absorptive surface area
(folds, villi, microvilli)
O Villi well-supplied with capillaries minimize diffusion distance





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