Kinematics of Machines {ME44}

CHAPTER - I
Mechanics: It is that branch of scientific analysis which deals with motion, time and
force.
Kinematics is the study of motion, without considering the forces which produce that
motion. Kinematics of machines deals with the study of the relative motion of machine
parts. It involves the study of position, displacement, velocity and acceleration of
machine parts.
Dynamics of machines involves the study of forces acting on the machine parts and the
motions resulting from these forces.
Plane motion: A body has plane motion, if all its points move in planes which are
parallel to some reference plane. A body with plane motion will have only three degrees
of freedom. I.e., linear along two axes parallel to the reference plane and
rotational/angular about the axis perpendicular to the reference plane. (eg. linear along X
and Z and rotational about Y.)The reference plane is called plane of motion. Plane motion
can be of three types. 1) Translation 2) rotation and 3) combination of translation and
rotation.
Translation: A body has translation if it moves so that all straight lines in the body move
to parallel positions. Rectilinear translation is a motion wherein all points of the body
move in straight lie paths. Eg. The slider in slider crank mechanism has rectilinear
translation. (link 4 in fig.1.1)
Fig.1.1
Translation, in which points in a body move along curved paths, is called curvilinear
translation. The tie rod connecting the wheels of a steam locomotive has curvilinear
translation. (link 3 in fig.1.2)
1
Fig.1.2
Rotation: In rotation, all points in a body remain at fixed distances from a line which is
perpendicular to the plane of rotation. This line is the axis of rotation and points in the
body describe circular paths about it. (Eg. link 2 in Fig.1.1 and links 2 & 4 in Fig.1.2)
Translation and rotation: It is the combination of both translation and rotation which is
exhibited by many machine parts. (Eg. link 3 in Fig.1.1)
Link or element: It is the name given to any body which has motion relative to another.
All materials have some elasticity. A rigid link is one, whose deformations are so small
that they can be neglected in determining the motion parameters of the link.
Fig.1.3
Binary link: Link which is connected to other links at two points. (Fig.1.3 a)
Ternary link: Link which is connected to other links at three points. (Fig.1.3 b)
Quaternary link: Link which is connected to other links at four points. (Fig1.3 c)
Pairing elements: the geometrical forms by which two members of a mechanism are
joined together, so that the relative motion between these two is consistent are known as
pairing elements and the pair so formed is called kinematic pair. Each individual link of a
mechanism forms a pairing element.
Fig.1.4 Kinematic pair
Fig.1.5
2
Degrees of freedom (DOF): It is the number of independent coordinates required to
describe the position of a body in space. A free body in space (fig 1.5) can have six
degrees of freedom. I.e., linear positions along x, y and z axes and rotational/angular
positions with respect to x, y and z axes.
In a kinematic pair, depending on the constraints imposed on the motion, the links may
loose some of the six degrees of freedom.
Types of kinematic pairs:
(i) Based on nature of contact between elements:
(a) Lower pair. If the joint by which two members are connected has surface contact,
the pair is known as lower pair. Eg. pin joints, shaft rotating in bush, slider in slider
crank mechanism.
Fig.1.6 Lower pairs
(b) Higher pair. If the contact between the pairing elements takes place at a point or
along a line, such as in a ball bearing or between two gear teeth in contact, it is
known as a higher pair.
Fig.1.7 Higher pairs
(ii) Based on relative motion between pairing elements:
(a) Siding pair. Sliding pair is constituted by two elements so connected that one is
constrained to have a sliding motion relative to the other. DOF = 1
3
(b) Turning pair (revolute pair). When connections of the two elements are such that
only a constrained motion of rotation of one element with respect to the other is
possible, the pair constitutes a turning pair. DOF = 1
(c) Cylindrical pair. If the relative motion between the pairing elements is the
combination of turning and sliding, then it is called as cylindrical pair. DOF = 2
Fig.1.8 Sliding pair
Fig.1.9 Turning pair
Fig.1.10 Cylindrical pair
(d) Rolling pair. When the pairing elements have rolling contact, the pair formed is
called rolling pair. Eg. Bearings, Belt and pulley. DOF = 1
Fig.1.11 (a) Ball bearing
Fig.1.11(b) Belt and pulley
(e) Spherical pair. A spherical pair will have surface contact and three degrees of
freedom. Eg. Ball and socket joint. DOF = 3
(f) Helical pair or screw pair. When the nature of contact between the elements of a
pair is such that one element can turn about the other by screw threads, it is known
as screw pair. Eg. Nut and bolt. DOF = 1
4
Fig.1.12 Ball and socket joint
Fig.1.13 Screw pair
(iii) Based on the nature of mechanical constraint.
(a) Closed pair. Elements of pairs held together mechanically due to their geometry
constitute a closed pair. They are also called form-closed or self-closed pair.
(b) Unclosed or force closed pair. Elements of pairs held together by the action of
external forces constitute unclosed or force closed pair .Eg. Cam and follower.
Fig.1.14 Closed pair Fig. 1.15 Force closed pair (cam & follower)
Constrained motion: In a kinematic pair, if one element has got only one definite
motion relative to the other, then the motion is called constrained motion.
(a) Completely constrained motion. If the constrained motion is achieved by the pairing
elements themselves, then it is called completely constrained motion.
5
Fig.1.16 completely constrained motion
(b) Successfully constrained motion. If constrained motion is not achieved by the
pairing elements themselves, but by some other means, then, it is called successfully
constrained motion. Eg. Foot step bearing, where shaft is constrained from moving
upwards, by its self weight.
(c) Incompletely constrained motion. When relative motion between pairing elements
takes place in more than one direction, it is called incompletely constrained motion. Eg.
Shaft in a circular hole.
Fig.1.17 Foot strep bearing
Fig.1.18 Incompletely constrained motion
Kinematic chain: A kinematic chain is a group of links either joined together or arranged
in a manner that permits them to move relative to one another. If the links are connected
in such a way that no motion is possible, it results in a locked chain or structure.
Fig.1.19 Locked chain or structure
6
Mechanism: A mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. This means that the motion
of any one link in the kinematic chain will give a definite and predictable motion relative
to each of the others. Usually one of the links of the kinematic chain is fixed in a
mechanism.
Fig.1.20 Slider crank and four bar mechanisms.
If, for a particular position of a link of the chain, the positions of each of the other links
of the chain can not be predicted, then it is called as unconstrained kinematic chain and it
is not mechanism.
Fig.1.21 Unconstrained kinematic chain
Machine: A machine is a mechanism or collection of mechanisms, which transmit force
from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. Though all machines are
mechanisms, all mechanisms are not machines. Many instruments are mechanisms but
are not machines, because they do no useful work nor do they transform energy. Eg.
Mechanical clock, drafter.
Fig.1.21 Drafter
Planar mechanisms: When all the links of a mechanism have plane motion, it is called
as a planar mechanism. All the links in a planar mechanism move in planes parallel to the
reference plane.
7
Degrees of freedom/mobility of a mechanism: It is the number of inputs (number of
independent coordinates) required to describe the configuration or position of all the links
of the mechanism, with respect to the fixed link at any given instant.
Grubler’s equation: Number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h. Where,
F = Degrees of freedom
n = Number of links = n
2
+ n
3
+……+n
j
, where, n
2
= number of binary links, n
3
= number
of ternary links…etc.
l = Number of lower pairs, which is obtained by counting the number of joints. If more
than two links are joined together at any point, then, one additional lower pair is to be
considered for every additional link.
h = Number of higher pairs
Examples of determination of degrees of freedom of planar mechanisms:
(i)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n
2
= 4, n = 4, l = 4 and h = 0.
F = 3(4-1)-2(4) = 1
I.e., one input to any one link will result in
definite motion of all the links.
(ii)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n
2
= 5, n = 5, l = 5 and h = 0.
F = 3(5-1)-2(5) = 2
I.e., two inputs to any two links are
required to yield definite motions in all the
links.
(iii)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n
2
= 4, n
3
=2, n = 6, l = 7 and h = 0.
F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1
I.e., one input to any one link will result in
definite motion of all the links.
8
(iv)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n
2
= 5, n
3
=1, n = 6, l = 7 (at the
intersection of 2, 3 and 4, two lower pairs
are to be considered) and h = 0.
F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1
(v)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n = 11, l = 15 (two lower pairs at the
intersection of 3, 4, 6; 2, 4, 5; 5, 7, 8; 8,
10, 11) and h = 0.
F = 3(11-1)-2(15) = 0
(vi) Determine the mobility of the following mechanisms.
(a)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n = 4, l = 5 and h = 0.
F = 3(4-1)-2(5) = -1
I.e., it is a structure
(b)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n = 3, l = 2 and h = 1.
F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1
(c)
F = 3(n-1)-2l-h
Here, n = 3, l = 2 and h = 1.
F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1
9
Inversions of mechanism: A mechanism is one in which one of the links of a kinematic
chain is fixed. Different mechanisms can be obtained by fixing different links of the same
kinematic chain. These are called as inversions of the mechanism. By changing the fixed
link, the number of mechanisms which can be obtained is equal to the number of links.
Excepting the original mechanism, all other mechanisms will be known as inversions of
original mechanism. The inversion of a mechanism does not change the motion of its
links relative to each other.
Four bar chain:
Fig 1.22 Four bar chain
One of the most useful and most common mechanisms is the four-bar linkage. In this
mechanism, the link which can make complete rotation is known as crank (link 2). The
link which oscillates is known as rocker or lever (link 4). And the link connecting these
two is known as coupler (link 3). Link 1 is the frame.
Inversions of four bar chain:
Fig.1.23 Inversions of four bar chain.
10
Crank-rocker mechanism: In this mechanism, either link 1 or link 3 is fixed. Link 2
(crank) rotates completely and link 4 (rocker) oscillates. It is similar to (a) or (b) of
fig.1.23.
Fig.1.24
Drag link mechanism. Here link 2 is fixed and both links 1 and 4 make complete
rotation but with different velocities. This is similar to 1.23(c).
Fig.1.25
Double crank mechanism. This is one type of drag link mechanism, where, links 1& 3
are equal and parallel and links 2 & 4 are equal and parallel.
Fig.1.26
11
Double rocker mechanism. In this mechanism, link 4 is fixed. Link 2 makes complete
rotation, whereas links 3 & 4 oscillate (Fig.1.23d)
Slider crank chain: This is a kinematic chain having four links. It has one sliding pair
and three turning pairs. Link 2 has rotary motion and is called crank. Link 3 has got
combined rotary and reciprocating motion and is called connecting rod. Link 4 has
reciprocating motion and is called slider. Link 1 is frame (fixed). This mechanism is used
to convert rotary motion to reciprocating and vice versa.
Fig1.27
Inversions of slider crank chain: Inversions of slider crank mechanism is obtained by
fixing links 2, 3 and 4.
(a) crank fixed (b) connecting rod fixed (c) slider fixed
Fig.1.28
Rotary engine – I inversion of slider crank mechanism. (crank fixed)
Fig.1.29
12
Whitworth quick return motion mechanism–I inversion of slider crank mechanism.
Fig.1.30
Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism – II inversion of slider
crank mechanism (connecting rod fixed).
Fig.1.31
13
Oscillating cylinder engine–II inversion of slider crank mechanism (connecting rod
fixed).
Fig.1.32
Pendulum pump or bull engine–III inversion of slider crank mechanism (slider
fixed).
Fig.1.33
14
Double slider crank chain: It is a kinematic chain consisting of two turning pairs and
two sliding pairs.
Scotch –Yoke mechanism.
Turning pairs – 1&2, 2&3; Sliding pairs – 3&4, 4&1.
Fig.1.34
Inversions of double slider crank mechanism:
Elliptical trammel. This is a device which is used for generating an elliptical profile.
Fig.1.35
In fig. 1.35, if AC = p and BC = q, then, x = q.cosθ and y = p.sinθ.
Rearranging, 1 sin cos
2 2
2 2
· + ·

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
θ θ
p
y
q
x
. This is the equation of an ellipse. The
path traced by point C is an ellipse, with major axis and minor axis equal to 2p and 2q
respectively.
15
Oldham coupling. This is an inversion of double slider crank mechanism, which is used
to connect two parallel shafts, whose axes are offset by a small amount.
Fig.1.36
References:
1. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph
Uicker,Jr. McGraw-Hill International Editions.
2. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Martin. McGraw-Hill
Publications.
3. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Mabie and Fred W.
Ocvirk. John Wiley and Sons.
4. Theory of Machines by V.P.Singh. Dhanpat Rai and Co.
5. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J.S.Rao. New age
international publishers.
6. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr.R.K.Bansal. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
16
Kinematics of Machines {ME44}
CHAPTER – I (contd.)
Quick return motion mechanisms.
Quick return mechanisms are used in machine tools such as shapers and power driven
saws for the purpose of giving the reciprocating cutting tool a slow cutting stroke and a
quick return stroke with a constant angular velocity of the driving crank. Some of the
common types of quick return motion mechanisms are discussed below. The ratio of time
required for the cutting stroke to the time required for the return stroke is called the time
ratio and is greater than unity.
Drag link mechanism
This is one of the inversions of four bar mechanism, with four turning pairs. Here, link 2
is the input link, moving with constant angular velocity in anti-clockwise direction. Point
C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post E of the machine. During cutting stroke,
tool post moves from E
1
to E
2
. The corresponding positions of C are C
1
and C
2
as shown
in the fig. 1.37. For the point C to move from C
1
to C
2
, point B moves from B
1
to B
2
, in
anti-clockwise direction. IE, cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through
angle B
1
AB
2
in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link
moves through angle B
2
AB
1
in anti-clockwise direction.
Fig.1.37
The time ratio is given by the following equation.
Whitworth quick return motion mechanism:
This is first inversion of slider mechanism, where, crank 1 is fixed. Input is given to link
2, which moves at constant speed. Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post
17
( )
( ) clockwise anti B A B
clockwise anti B A B
urnstroke Timeforret
wardstroke Timeforfor


·
1 2
2 1
ˆ
ˆ
D of the machine. During cutting stroke, tool post moves from D
1
to D
11
. The
corresponding positions of C are C
1
and C
11
as shown in the fig. 1.38. For the point C to
move from C
1
to C
11
, point B moves from B
1
to B
11
, in anti-clockwise direction. I.E.,
cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B
1
O
2
B
11
in anti-clockwise
direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B
11
O
2
B
1
in
anti-clockwise direction.
Fig.1.38
The time ratio is given by the following equation.
Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism
This is second inversion of slider mechanism, where, connecting rod is fixed. Input is
given to link 2, which moves at constant speed. Point C of the mechanism is connected to
the tool post D of the machine. During cutting stroke, tool post moves from D
1
to D
11
.
The corresponding positions of C are C
1
and C
11
as shown in the fig. 1.39. For the point C
to move from C
1
to C
11
, point B moves from B
1
to B
11
, in anti-clockwise direction. I.E.,
cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B
1
O
2
B
11
in anti-clockwise
direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B
11
O
2
B
1
in
anti-clockwise direction.
18
2
1
2
2
ˆ
ˆ
θ
θ
·
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
·
B o B
B o B
urnstroke Timeforret
wardstroke Timeforfor
Fig.1.39
The time ratio is given by the following equation.
Straight line motion mechanisms
Straight line motion mechanisms are mechanisms, having a point that moves along a
straight line, or nearly along a straight line, without being guided by a plane surface.
Condition for exact straight line motion:
If point B (fig.1.40) moves on the circumference of a circle with center O and radius OA,
then, point C, which is an extension of AB traces a straight line perpendicular to AO,
provided product of AB and AC is constant.
19
2
1
2
2
ˆ
ˆ
θ
θ
·
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
·
B o B
B o B
urnstroke Timeforret
wardstroke Timeforfor
Fig.1.40
Locus of pt.C will be a straight line, ┴ to AE if, is constant
Proof:
Peaucellier exact straight line motion mechanism:
Fig.1.41
Here, AE is the input link and point E moves along a circular path of radius AE = AB.
Also, EC = ED = PC = PD and BC = BD. Point P of the mechanism moves along exact
straight line, perpendicular to BA extended.
20
AC AB×
. .,
.
const AC ifAB const AE
const butAD
AD
AC AB
AE
AE
AB
AC
AD
ABD AEC
· × · ∴
·
×
· ∴
· ∴
∆ ≡ ∆
To prove B, E and P lie on same straight line:
Triangles BCD, ECD and PCD are all isosceles triangles having common base CD and
apex points being B, E and P. Therefore points B, E and P always lie on the perpendicular
bisector of CD. Hence these three points always lie on the same straight line.
To prove product of BE and BP is constant.
In triangles BFC and PFC,
2 2 2
FC FB BC + · and
2 2 2
FC PF PC + ·
( ) ( ) BE BP PF FB PF FB PF FB PC BC × · − + · − · − ∴
2 2 2 2
But since BC and PC are constants, product of BP and BE is constant, which is the
condition for exact straight line motion. Thus point P always moves along a straight line
perpendicular to BA as shown in the fig.1.41.
Approximate straight line motion mechanism: A few four bar mechanisms with
certain modifications provide approximate straight line motions.
Robert’s mechanism
Fig.1.42
This is a four bar mechanism, where, PCD is a single integral link. Also, dimensions AC,
BD, CP and PD are all equal. Point P of the mechanism moves very nearly along line AB.
21
Intermittent motion mechanisms
An intermittent-motion mechanism is a linkage which converts continuous motion into
intermittent motion. These mechanisms are commonly used for indexing in machine
tools.
Geneva wheel mechanism
Fig.1.43
In the mechanism shown (Fig.1.43), link A is driver and it contains a pin which engages
with the slots in the driven link B. The slots are positioned in such a manner, that the pin
enters and leaves them tangentially avoiding impact loading during transmission of
motion. In the mechanism shown, the driven member makes one-fourth of a revolution
for each revolution of the driver. The locking plate, which is mounted on the driver,
prevents the driven member from rotating except during the indexing period.
Ratchet and pawl mechanism
Fig.1.44
Ratchets are used to transform motion of rotation or translation into intermittent rotation
or translation. In the fig.1.44, A is the ratchet wheel and C is the pawl. As lever B is made
22
to oscillate, the ratchet wheel will rotate anticlockwise with an intermittent motion. A
holding pawl D is provided to prevent the reverse motion of ratchet wheel.
Other mechanisms
Toggle mechanism
Fig.1.45
Toggle mechanisms are used, where large resistances are to be overcome through short
distances. Here, effort applied will be small but acts over large distance. In the
mechanism shown in fig.1.45, 2 is the input link, to which, power is supplied and 6 is the
output link, which has to overcome external resistance. Links 4 and 5 are of equal length.
Considering the equilibrium condition of slider 6,
For small angles of α, F (effort) is much smaller than P(resistance).
This mechanism is used in rock crushers, presses, riveting machines etc.
23
α
α
tan 2
2
tan
P F
P
F
· ∴
·
Pantograph
Pantographs are used for reducing or enlarging drawings and maps. They are also used
for guiding cutting tools or torches to fabricate complicated shapes.
Fig.1.46
In the mechanism shown in fig.1.46 path traced by point A will be magnified by point E
to scale, as discussed below.
In the mechanism shown, AB = CD; AD =BC and OAE lie on a straight line.
When point A moves to A′ , E moves to E′ and E A O ′ ′ also lies on a straight line.
From the fig.1.46, OCE ODA ∆ ≡ ∆ and E C O A D O ′ ′ ∆ ≡ ′ ′ ∆ .
CE
DA
OE
OA
OC
OD
· · ∴ and
E C
A D
E O
A O
C O
D O
′ ′
′ ′
·


·


But, . ; ; E OE A OA
E O
A O
OE
OA
C O
D O
OC
OD
′ ∆ ≡ ′ ∆ ∴


· ∴


·
A A E E ′ ′ ∴ //
And
OD
OC
OA
OE
A A
E E
· ·

,
_

¸
¸
′ · ′ ∴
OD
OC
A A E E
Where
,
_

¸
¸
OD
OC
is the magnification factor.
24
Hooke’s joint (Universal joints)
Hooke’s joins is used to connect two nonparallel but intersecting shafts. In its basic
shape, it has two U –shaped yokes ‘a’ and ‘b’ and a center block or cross-shaped piece, C.
(fig.1.47(a))
The universal joint can transmit power between two shafts intersecting at around 30
0
angles (α). However, the angular velocity ratio is not uniform during the cycle of
operation. The amount of fluctuation depends on the angle (α) between the two shafts.
For uniform transmission of motion, a pair of universal joints should be used
(fig.1.47(b)). Intermediate shaft 3 connects input shaft 1 and output shaft 2 with two
universal joints. The angle α between 1 and 2 is equal to angle α between 2 and 3. When
shaft 1 has uniform rotation, shaft 3 varies in speed; however, this variation is
compensated by the universal joint between shafts 2 and 3. One of the important
applications of universal joint is in automobiles, where it is used to transmit power from
engine to the wheel axle.
Fig.1.47(a)
Fig.1.47(b)
Steering gear mechanism
The steering mechanism is used in automobiles for changing the directions of the wheel
axles with reference to the chassis, so as to move the automobile in the desired path.
25
Usually, the two back wheels will have a common axis, which is fixed in direction with
reference to the chassis and the steering is done by means of front wheels.
In automobiles, the front wheels are placed over the front axles (stub axles), which are
pivoted at the points A & B as shown in the fig.1.48. When the vehicle takes a turn, the
front wheels, along with the stub axles turn about the pivoted points. The back axle and
the back wheels remain straight.
Always there should be absolute rolling contact between the wheels and the road surface.
Any sliding motion will cause wear of tyres. When a vehicle is taking turn, absolute
rolling motion of the wheels on the road surface is possible, only if all the wheels
describe concentric circles. Therefore, the two front wheels must turn about the same
instantaneous centre I which lies on the axis of the back wheel.
Condition for perfect steering
The condition for perfect steering is that all the four wheels must turn about the same
instantaneous centre. While negotiating a curve, the inner wheel makes a larger turning
angle θ than the angle φ subtended by the axis of the outer wheel.
In the fig.1.48, a = wheel track, L = wheel base, w = distance between the pivots of front
axles.
Fig.1.48
From
, IAE ∆
cotθ =
L
AE
EI
AE
· and
from
, BEI ∆
cotφ =
( ) ( )
L
w
L
w
L
EA
L
w EA
EI
AB EA
EI
EB
+ · + ·
+
·
+
· θ cot
26
L
w
· − ∴ θ φ cot cot . This is the fundamental equation for correct steering. If this
condition is satisfied, there will be no skidding of the wheels when the vehicle takes a
turn.
Ackermann steering gear mechanism
Fig.1.49
R
S
A B
A'
B'
d
x
x
d
c
P
Q
fig.1.50
Ackerman steering mechanism, RSAB is a four bar chain as shown in fig.1.50. Links RA
and SB which are equal in length are integral with the stub axles. These links are
connected with each other through track rod AB. When the vehicle is in straight ahead
position, links RA and SB make equal angles α with the center line of the vehicle. The
dotted lines in fig.1.50 indicate the position of the mechanism when the vehicle is turning
left.
27
Let AB=l, RA=SB=r; α · · B S Q A R P
ˆ ˆ
and in the turned position, φ θ · ·
1 1
ˆ
&
ˆ
B S B A R A .
IE, the stub axles of inner and outer wheels turn by θ and φ angles respectively.
Neglecting the obliquity of the track rod in the turned position, the movements of A and
B in the horizontal direction may be taken to be same (x).
Then, ( )
r
x d +
· +θ α sin and ( )
r
x d −
· −φ α sin
Adding, ( ) ( ) α φ α θ α sin 2
2
sin sin · · − + +
r
d
[1]
Angle α can be determined using the above equation. The values of θ and φ to be taken in
this equation are those found for correct steering using the equation
L
w
· − θ φ cot cot . [2]
This mechanism gives correct steering in only three positions. One, when θ = 0 and other
two each corresponding to the turn to right or left (at a fixed turning angle, as determined
by equation [1]).
The correct values of φ, [φ
c
] corresponding to different values of θ, for correct steering
can be determined using equation [2]. For the given dimensions of the mechanism, actual
values of φ, [φ
a
] can be obtained for different values of θ. T he difference between φ
c
and
φ
a
will be very small for small angles of θ, but the difference will be substantial, for
larger values of θ. Such a difference will reduce the life of tyres because of greater wear
on account of slipping.
But for larger values of θ, the automobile must take a sharp turn; hence is will be moving
at a slow speed. At low speeds, wear of the tyres is less. Therefore, the greater difference
between φ
c
and φ
a
larger values of θ ill not matter.
As this mechanism employs only turning pairs, friction and wear in the mechanism will
be less. Hence its maintenance will be easier and is commonly employed in automobiles.
References:
7. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph
Uicker,Jr. McGraw-Hill International Editions.
8. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Martin. McGraw-Hill
Publications.
9. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Mabie and Fred W.
Ocvirk. John Wiley and Sons.
10. Theory of Machines by V.P.Singh. Dhanpat Rai and Co.
11. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J.S.Rao. New age
international publishers.
6. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr.R.K.Bansal. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
Chapter VI
28
CAMS
INTRODUCTION
A cam is a mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact. The
driver is called the cam and the driven member is called the follower. In a cam follower
pair, the cam normally rotates while the follower may translate or oscillate. A familiar
example is the camshaft of an automobile engine, where the cams drive the push rods
(the followers) to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the
pistons.
Types of cams
Cams can be classified based on their physical shape.
a) Disk or plate cam (Fig. 6.1a and b): The disk (or plate) cam has an irregular contour
to impart a specific motion to the follower. The follower moves in a plane perpendicular
to the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is held in contact with the cam by springs or
gravity.
Fig. 6.1 Plate or disk cam.
b) Cylindrical cam (Fig. 6.2): The cylindrical cam has a groove cut along its cylindrical
surface. The roller follows the groove, and the follower moves in a plane parallel to the
axis of rotation of the cylinder.
Fig. 6.2 Cylindrical cam.
c) Translating cam (Fig. 6.3a and b). The translating cam is a contoured or grooved
plate sliding on a guiding surface(s). The follower may oscillate (Fig. 6.3a) or reciprocate
29
(Fig. 6.3b). The contour or the shape of the groove is determined by the specified motion
of the follower.
Fig. 6.3 Translating cam
Types of followers:
(i) Based on surface in contact. (Fig.6.4)
(a) Knife edge follower
(b) Roller follower
(c) Flat faced follower
(d) Spherical follower
Fig. 6.4 Types of followers
(ii) Based on type of motion: (Fig.6.5)
(a) Oscillating follower
(b) Translating follower
30
Fig.6.5
(iii) Based on line of motion:
(a) Radial follower: The lines of movement of in-line cam followers pass through the
centers of the camshafts (Fig. 6.4a, b, c, and d).
(b) Off-set follower: For this type, the lines of movement are offset from the centers
of the camshafts (Fig. 6.6a, b, c, and d).
Fig.6.6 Off set followers
Cam nomenclature (Fig. 6.7):
31
Fig.6.7
Cam Profile The contour of the working surface of the cam.
Tracer Point The point at the knife edge of a follower, or the center of a roller, or the
center of a spherical face.
Pitch Curve The path of the tracer point.
Base Circle The smallest circle drawn, tangential to the cam profile, with its center on
the axis of the camshaft. The size of the base circle determines the size of
the cam.
Prime Circle The smallest circle drawn, tangential to the pitch curve, with its center on
the axis of the camshaft.
Pressure Angle The angle between the normal to the pitch curve and the direction of
motion of the follower at the point of contact.
Types of follower motion:
Cam follower systems are designed to achieve a desired oscillatory motion. Appropriate
displacement patterns are to be selected for this purpose, before designing the cam
surface. The cam is assumed to rotate at a constant speed and the follower raises, dwells,
returns to its original position and dwells again through specified angles of rotation of the
cam, during each revolution of the cam.
Some of the standard follower motions are as follows:
They are, follower motion with,
32
(a) Uniform velocity
(b) Modified uniform velocity
(c) Uniform acceleration and deceleration
(d) Simple harmonic motion
(e) Cycloidal motion
Displacement diagrams: In a cam follower system, the motion of the follower is very
important. Its displacement can be plotted against the angular displacement θ of the cam
and it is called as the displacement diagram. The displacement of the follower is plotted
along the y-axis and angular displacement θ of the cam is plotted along x-axis. From the
displacement diagram, velocity and acceleration of the follower can also be plotted for
different angular displacements θ of the cam. The displacement, velocity and acceleration
diagrams are plotted for one cycle of operation i.e., one rotation of the cam. Displacement
diagrams are basic requirements for the construction of cam profiles. Construction of
displacement diagrams and calculation of velocities and accelerations of followers with
different types of motions are discussed in the following sections.
(a) Follower motion with Uniform velocity:
Fig.6.8 shows the displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns of a follower having
uniform velocity type of motion. Since the follower moves with constant velocity, during
rise and fall, the displacement varies linearly with θ. Also, since the velocity changes
from zero to a finite value, within no time, theoretically, the acceleration becomes infinite
at the beginning and end of rise and fall.
33
Fig.6.8
(b) Follower motion with modified uniform velocity:
It is observed in the displacement diagrams of the follower with uniform velocity that the
acceleration of the follower becomes infinite at the beginning and ending of rise and
return strokes. In order to prevent this, the displacement diagrams are slightly modified.
In the modified form, the velocity of the follower changes uniformly during the
beginning and end of each stroke. Accordingly, the displacement of the follower varies
parabolically during these periods. With this modification, the acceleration becomes
34
constant during these periods, instead of being infinite as in the uniform velocity type of
motion. The displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig.6.9.
fig.6.9
(c) Follower motion with uniform acceleration and retardation (UARM):
Here, the displacement of the follower varies parabolically with respect to angular
displacement of cam. Accordingly, the velocity of the follower varies uniformly with
respect to angular displacement of cam. The acceleration/retardation of the follower
becomes constant accordingly. The displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns are
shown in fig. 6.10.
35
Fig.6.10
s = Stroke of the follower
θ
o
and θ
r
= Angular displacement of the cam during outstroke and return stroke.
ω = Angular velocity of cam.
Time required for follower outstroke = t
o
=
ω
θ
o
Time required for follower return stroke = t
r
=
ω
θ
r
36
Average velocity of follower =
t
s
Average velocity of follower during outstroke =
2
2
2 max min
vo vo
t
s
t
s
o
o
+
· ·
vo
min
= 0
o o
s
t
s
vo
θ
ω 2 2
max
· · ∴
= Max. velocity during outstroke.
Average velocity of follower during return stroke =
2
2
2 max min
vr vr
t
s
t
s
r
r
+
· ·
vr
min
= 0
r r
s
t
s
vr
θ
ω 2 2
max
· · ∴
= Max. velocity during return stroke.
Acceleration of the follower during outstroke =
2
2
max
4
2
o
o
o
s
t
vo
a
θ
ω
· ·
Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke =
2
2
4
r
r
s
a
θ
ω
·
(d) Simple Harmonic Motion: In fig.6.11, the motion executed by point P
l
, which is the
projection of point P on the vertical diameter is called simple harmonic motion. Here, P
moves with uniform angular velocity ω
p
, along a circle of radius r (r = s/2).
a
x
y
y
p
p'
r
37
Fig.6.11
Displacement =
t r r y
p
ω α sin sin · ·
;
r y ·
max
[d1]
Velocity =
t r y
p p
ω ω cos · 
;
p
r y ω ·
max

[d2]
Acceleration = y t r y
p p p
2 2
sin ω ω ω − · − ·  
;
2
max p
r y ω − ·  
[d3]
Fig.6.11
s= Stroke or displacement of the follower.
θ
o
= Angular displacement during outstroke.
θ
r
= Angular displacement during return stroke
ω = Angular velocity of cam.
t
o
= Time taken for outstroke =
ω
θ
o
t
r
= Time taken for return stroke =
ω
θ
r
Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vo
max
= rω
p
(from d2)
38
vo
max
=
o o
s
t
s
θ
πω π
2 2
·
Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = , vr
max
=
r r
s
t
s
θ
πω π
2 2
·
Max. acceleration during outstroke = ao
max
= rω
2
p
(from d3) =
2
2 2
2
2
2
o
o
s
t
s
θ
ω π π
·

,
_

¸
¸
Similarly, Max. acceleration during return stroke = ar
max
=
r
r
s
t
s
2
2 2
2
2 2 θ
ω π π
·

,
_

¸
¸
39
(e) Cycloidal motion:
Cycloid is the path generated by a point on the circumference of a circle, as the circle
rolls without slipping, on a straight/flat surface. The motion executed by the follower
here, is similar to that of the projection of a point moving along a cyloidal curve on a
vertical line as shown in figure 6.12.
21
a
a1
a2
a3
a4
a5
a6
a7
CYCLOIDAL
MOTION
F
O
L
L
O
W
E
R

M
O
T
I
O
N
66
Fig.6.12
The construction of displacement diagram and the standard patterns of velocity and
acceleration diagrams are shown in fig.6.13. Compared to all other follower motions,
cycloidal motion results in smooth operation of the follower.
The expressions for maximum values of velocity and acceleration of the follower are
shown below.
s = Stroke or displacement of the follower.
d = dia. of cycloid generating circle =
π
s
θ
o
= Angular displacement during outstroke.
θ
r
= Angular displacement during return stroke
ω = Angular velocity of cam.
t
o
= Time taken for outstroke =
ω
θ
o
t
r
= Time taken for return stroke =
ω
θ
r
vo
max
= Max. velocity of follower during outstroke =
o
s
θ
ω 2
40
vr
max
= Max. velocity of follower during return stroke =
r
s
θ
ω 2
ao
max
= Max. acceleration during outstroke =
2
2
2
o
s
θ
πω
ar
max
= Max. acceleration during return stroke =
r
s
2
2
2
θ
πω
Fig. 6.13
41
42
Solved problems
(1) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = Knife edged, in-line; lift = 50mm; base circle radius = 50mm; out stroke
with SHM, for 60
0
cam rotation; dwell for 45
0
cam rotation; return stroke with SHM, for
90
0
cam rotation; dwell for the remaining period. Determine max. velocity and
acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1000 rpm in
clockwise direction.
Displacement diagram:
OUTSTROKE
DWELL
RETURNSTROKE DWELL
LIFT=50mm
0 1
2
3
4
5 6 7 8 9
10 11 12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
1
2
3
4
5
6
l
Cam profile: Construct base circle. Mark points 1,2,3…..in direction opposite to the
direction of cam rotation. Transfer points a,b,c…..l from displacement diagram to the
cam profile and join them by a smooth free hand curve. This forms the required cam
profile.
43
1
2
3
4
5
6
a
b
c
d
e
f
7
g
6
0
°
4
5
°
8
9
10
11
12
h
i
j
k
l
9
0
°
50
Calculations:
Angular velocity of cam =
60
1000 2
60
2 × ×
· ·
π π
ω
N
=104.76 rad/sec
Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vo
max
=
o
s
θ
πω
2
=
=
3
2
50 76 . 104
π
π
×
× ×
=7857mm/sec =7.857m/sec
Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = , vr
max
=
r
s
θ
πω
2
=
=
2
2
50 76 . 104
π
π
×
× ×
= 5238mm/sec = 5.238m/sec
Max. acceleration during outstroke = ao
max
= rω
2
p
(from d3) =
2
2 2
2
o
s
θ
ω π
=
44
=
( )
( )
·
×
× ×
2
2 2
3
2
50 76 . 104
π
π
2469297.96mm/sec
2
= 2469.3m/sec
2
Similarly, Max. acceleration during return stroke = ar
max
=
r
s
2
2 2

ω π
=
=
( )
( )
·
×
× ×
2
2 2
2
2
50 76 . 104
π
π
1097465.76mm/sec
2
= 1097.5m/sec
2
45
(2) Draw the cam profile for the same operating conditions of problem (1), with the
follower off set by 10 mm to the left of cam center.
Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.
Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case, except that the lines drawn from
1,2,3…. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. as shown in the fig.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
a
b
c d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
6
0
°
4
5
°
9
0
°
50mm
10
46
(3) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, in-line; lift = 25mm; base circle radius = 20mm; roller
radius = 5mm; out stroke with UARM, for 120
0
cam rotation; dwell for 60
0
cam rotation;
return stroke with UARM, for 90
0
cam rotation; dwell for the remaining period.
Determine max. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam
rotates at 1200 rpm in clockwise direction.
Displacement diagram:
2
5
0
1 2 3
4
5
6 7 8
9
10 11
12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
OUTSTROKE DWELL RETURNSTROKE DWELL
LIFT
Cam profile: Construct base circle and prime circle (25mm radius). Mark points
1,2,3…..in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation, on prime circle. Transfer
points a,b,c…..l from displacement diagram. At each of these points a,b,c… draw circles
of 5mm radius, representing rollers. Starting from the first point of contact between roller
and base circle, draw a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all successive roller
positions. This forms the required cam profile.
47
1
2
0
°
6
0
°
9
0
°
0 1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8
9
10
11
12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
20mm
Calculations:
Angular velocity of the cam = ·
× ×
· ·
60
1200 2
60
2 π π
ω
N
125.71rad/sec
Max. velocity during outstroke =
o o
s
t
s
vo
θ
ω 2 2
max
· ·
=
=
·
×
× ×
3
2
25 71 . 125 2
π
2999.9mm/sec =2.999m/sec
Max. velocity during return stroke =
·
× ×
· · ·
2
25 71 . 125 2 2 2
max
π
θ
ω
r r
s
t
s
vr
= 3999.86mm/sec = 3.999m/sec
Acceleration of the follower during outstroke =
2
2
max
4
2
o
o
o
s
t
vo
a
θ
ω
· ·
=
=
( )
( )
·
×
× ×
2
2
3
2
25 71 . 125 4
π
359975mm/sec
2
= 359.975m/sec
2
Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke =
2
2
4
r
r
s
a
θ
ω
·
=
48
=
( )
( )
·
× ×
2
2
2
25 71 . 125 4
π
639956mm/sec
2
= 639.956m/sec
2
49
(4) Draw the cam profile for conditions same as in (3), with follower off set to right
of cam center by 5mm and cam rotating counter clockwise.
Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.
Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case, except that the lines drawn from
1,2,3…. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. as shown in the fig.
6
0
°
1
2
0
°
9
0
°
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
20mm
5
50
(5) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, off set to the right of cam axis by 18mm; lift = 35mm;
base circle radius = 50mm; roller radius = 14mm; out stroke with SHM in 0.05sec; dwell
for 0.0125sec; return stroke with UARM, during 0.125sec; dwell for the remaining
period. During return stroke, acceleration is 3/5 times retardation. Determine max.
velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 240
rpm.
Calculations:
Cam speed = 240rpm. Therefore, time for one rotation = sec 25 . 0
240
60
·
Angle of out stroke =
0
72 360
25 . 0
05 . 0
· × ·
o
θ
Angle of first dwell =
0
1
18 360
25 . 0
0125 . 0
· × ·
w
θ
Angle of return stroke =
0
180 360
25 . 0
125 . 0
· × ·
r
θ
Angle of second dwell =
0
2
90 ·
w
θ
Since acceleration is 3/5 times retardation during return stroke,
r a
5
3
· (from acceleration diagram)
5
3
· ∴
r
a
But
5
3
;
max max
· · ∴ · ·
a
r
r a
t
t
r
a
t
v
r
t
v
a
Displacement diagram is constructed by selecting t
a
and t
r
accordingly.
51
OUTSTROKE
DWELL
RETURNSTROKE DWELL
LIFT=35mm
0 1
2
3
4
5 6 7
a
b
c
d
e
f
1
2
3
4
5
6
8 9 10 11 12 13 14
g
h i
j
k
l
m
n
v
a
vr-max
a
r
ta
tr
Angular velocity of cam =
60
240 2
60
2 × ×
· ·
π π
ω
N
=25.14 rad/sec
Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vo
max
=
o
s
θ
πω
2
=
=
( )
5
2 2
35 14 . 25
π
π
× ×
× ×
= 1099.87mm/sec =1.1m/sec
Similarly Max. velocity during return stroke =
·
× ×
· ·
π θ
ω 35 14 . 25 2 2
max
r
s
vr
= 559.9 mm/sec = 0.56m/sec
Max. acceleration during outstroke = ao
max
= rω
2
p
(from d3) =
2
2 2
2
o
s
θ
ω π
=
=
( )
( )
·
×
×
× ×
2
2 2
5
2
2
35 14 . 25
π
π
69127.14mm/sec
2
= 69.13m/sec
2
52
acceleration of the follower during return stroke =
( )
π π θ π
ω
ω
π
θ
ω
× ×
× ×
·
× ×
× ×
·
×
×
· ·
5
35 14 . 25 16
5
16
8
5
2
2 2
max
r
r
a
r
s
s
t
vr
a = 7166.37 mm/sec
2
=
7.17m/sec
2
similarly retardation of the follower during return stroke =
( )
π π θ π
ω
ω
π
θ
ω
× ×
× ×
·
× ×
× ×
·
×
×
· ·
3
35 14 . 25 16
3
16
8
3
2
2 2
max
r
r
r
r
s
s
t
vr
r = 11943.9 mm/sec
2
=
11.94m/sec
2
72°
18°
180°
18
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
a b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
53
(6) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = knife edged follower, in line; lift = 30mm; base circle radius = 20mm;
out stroke with uniform velocity in 120
0
of cam rotation; dwell for 60
0
; return stroke with
uniform velocity, during 90
0
of cam rotation; dwell for the remaining period.
Displacement diagram:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
30mm
OUT STROKE RETURNSTROKE DWELL DWELL
Cam profile:
1
2
0
°
6
0
°
9
0
°
9
0
°
1
3
2
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
54
55
(7) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = oscillating follower with roller as shown in fig.; base circle radius =
20mm; roller radius = 7mm; follower to rise through 40
0
during 90
0
of cam rotation with
cycloidal motion; dwell for 30
0
; return stroke with cycloidal motion during 120
0
of cam
rotation; dwell for the remaining period. Also determine the max. velocity and
acceleration during outstroke and return stroke, if the cam rotates at 600 rpm.
76
36
4
0
°
76
A
B
O
Lift of the follower = S = length AB

arc AB =
180
40 76
π
θ × × · × OA = 53 mm.
Radius of cycloid generating circle =
π × 2
53
= 8.4 mm
Displacement diagram;
56
1 2
3
4 5
6
1 2 3 4 5 6
7
8
9
10
11
12
7 8 9 10 11 12
53
16.8
OUT STROKE
RETURNSTROKE
DWELL
DWELL
a
b
c
d
e
f g
h
i
j
k
l
57
Angular velocity of cam =
60
600 2
60
2 × ×
· ·
π π
ω
N
= 62.86 rad/sec
vo
max
= Max. velocity of follower during outstroke =
2
53 86 . 62 2 2
π
θ
ω × ×
·
o
s
= 4240.2
mm/sec
vr
max
= Max. velocity of follower during return stroke =
3
2
53 86 . 62 2 2
π
θ
ω
×
× ×
·
r
s
= 3180
mm/sec
ao
max
= Max. acceleration during outstroke =
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
2
53 86 . 62 2 2
π
π
θ
πω × × ×
·
o
s
= 533077
mm/sec
2
= 533.1 m/sec
2
.
ar
max
= Max. acceleration during return stroke =
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
3
2
53 86 . 62 2 2
π
π
θ
πω
×
× × ×
·
r
s
=
= 299855.8mm/sec
2
= 299.8
m/sec
2
.
Cam profile: Draw base circle and prime circle. Draw another circle of radius equal to
the distance between cam center and follower pivot point. Take the line joining cam
center and pivot point as reference and draw lines indicating successive angular
displacements of cam. Divide these into same number of divisions as in the displacement
diagram. Show points 1’, 2’, 3’… on the outer circle. With these points as centers and
radius equal to length of follower arm, draw arcs, cutting the prime circle at 1,2,3….
Transfer points a,b,c.. on to these arcs from displacement diagram. At each of these points
a,b,c… draw circles of 7mm radius, representing rollers. Starting from the first point of
contact between roller and base circle, draw a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all
successive roller positions. This forms the required cam profile.
58
9
0
°
30°
1
2
0
°
120°
1
2
3
4
5
6
a
b
c
d
e
f
7
8
9 10 11
12
g
h
i
k
l
m
36
76
1'
2'
3'
4'
5'
6'
7'
8'
9'
10'
11'
12'
59
(8) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = knife edged follower, in line; follower rises by 24mm with SHM in 1/4
rotation, dwells for 1/8 rotation and then raises again by 24mm with UARM in 1/4
rotation and dwells for 1/16 rotation before returning with SHM. Base circle radius =
30mm.
Angle of out stroke (1) = θ
01
=
0 0
90 360
4
1
· ×
Angle of dwell (1) =
0 0
45 360
8
1
· ×
Angle of out stroke (2) = θ
02
=
0 0
90 360
4
1
· ×
Angle of dwell (2) =
0 0
5 . 22 360
16
1
· ×
Angle of return stroke = θ
r
=
0 0
5 . 112 360
16
5
360
16
1
4
1
8
1
4
1
1 · × · ×
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + + −
Displacement diagram:
1 2 3 4 5
6 7 8
9 10 11 12 13
14 15 16 17 18 19
a
b
c
d
e
f g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
OUTSTROKE1
DWELL1 OUTSTROKE2
DWELL2
RETURNSTROKE
24mm
24
Cam profile:
60
90°
45°
90°
22.5°
112.5°
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12 13
14
15
16
17
18
19
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
60
61
(9) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = flat faced follower, in line; follower rises by 20mm with SHM in 120
0
of
cam rotation, dwells for 30
0
of cam rotation; returns with SHM in 120
0
of cam rotation
and dwells during the remaining period. Base circle radius = 25mm.
Displacement diagram:
1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
a
b
c
d
e
f g
h
i
j
k
l
2
0
OUT STROKE RETURNSTROKE
DWELL
DWELL
Cam profile: Construct base circle. Mark points 1,2,3…..in direction opposite to the
direction of cam rotation, on prime circle. Transfer points a,b,c…..l from displacement
diagram. At each of these points a,b,c… draw perpendicular lines to the radials,
representing flat faced followers. Starting from the first point of contact between follower
and base circle, draw a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all successive follower
positions. This forms the required cam profile.
62
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
25
1
2
0
°
3
0
°
1
2
0
°
9
0
°
63
(10) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, in line; roller dia. = 5mm; follower rises by 25mm with
SHM in 180
0
of cam rotation, falls by half the distance instantaneously; returns with
Uniform velocity in 180
0
of cam rotation. Base circle radius = 20m.
Displacement diagram:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
a
b
c
d e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
25
12.5
OUT STROKE RETURNSTROKE
Cam profile:
45
20 R
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
64
(11) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:
Follower type = roller follower, off-set to the right by 5mm; lift = 30mm; base circle
radius = 25mm; roller radius = 5mm; out stroke with SHM, for 120
0
cam rotation; dwell
for 60
0
cam rotation; return stroke during 120
0
cam rotation; first half of return stroke
with Uniform velocity and second half with UARM; dwell for the remaining period.
Displacement diagram:
1 2 3 4 5
6
7 8 9
10 11 12 13 14
15 1617 18
a
b
c
d e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
30
Cam profile:
65
120°
60°
120°
60°
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
5
(12) A push rod of valve of an IC engine ascends with UARM, along a path inclined to
the vertical at 60
0
. The same descends with SHM. The base circle diameter of the cam is
50mm and the push rod has a roller of 60mm diameter, fitted to its end. The axis of the
roller and the cam fall on the same vertical line. The stroke of the follower is 20mm. The
angle of action for the outstroke and the return stroke is 60
0
each, interposed by a dwell
period of 60
0
. Draw the profile of the cam.
Displacement diagram:
66
20
OUT STROKE
DWELL RETURNSTROKE DWELL
1
2
3 4 5 6
7 8 9 10 11 12
a
b
c
d
e
f g
h
i
j
k
l
Cam profile:
60°
1
2
3
4
5
6
a
b
c
d e
f
7
8
9
10
11
12
g
h
i
j
k
l
50 66
16
60°
60°
60°
67
4.0 Gears:
Introduction: The slip and creep in the belt or rope drives is a common phenomenon, in the
transmission of motion or power between two shafts. The effect of slip is to reduce the
velocity ratio of the drive. In precision machine, in which a definite velocity ratio is
importance (as in watch mechanism, special purpose machines..etc), the only positive drive
is by means of gears or toothed wheels.
Friction Wheels: Kinematiclly, the motion and
power transmitted by gears is equivalent to that
transmitted by friction wheels or discs in contact
with sufficient friction between them. In order to
understand motion transmitted by two toothed
wheels, let us consider the two discs placed
together as shown in the figure 4.1.
When one of the discs is rotated, the other disc will be rotate as long as the tangential force
exerted by the driving disc does not exceed the maximum frictional resistance between the
two discs. But when the tangential force exceeds the frictional resistance, slipping will take
place between the two discs. Thus the friction drive is not positive a drive, beyond certain
limit.
Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth.
The gear teeth act like small levers. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily
rolling contact between the teeth, thus the motion transmitted is considered as positive.
Gears essentially allow positive engagement between teeth so high forces can be transmitted
while still undergoing essentially rolling contact. Gears do not depend on friction and do best
when friction is minimized.
Some common places that gears can normally be found are:
Printing machinery parts Newspaper Industry Book binding machines
Rotary die cutting
machines
Plastics machinery builders Injection molding machinery
Blow molding machinery Motorcycle Transmissions (street
and race applications)
Heavy earth moving to
personal vehicles
Agricultural equipment Polymer pumps High volume water pumps for
municipalities
High volume vacuum
pumps
Turbo boosters for automotive
applications
Marine applications
Boat out drives Special offshore racing drive
systems
Canning and bottling
machinery builders
Hoists and Cranes Commercial and Military Military offroad vehicles
68
Figure 4.1
operations
Automotive prototype and
reproduction
Low volume automotive
production
Stamping presses
Diesel engine builders Special gear box builders Many different special
machine tool builders
4.1 Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the
axes of revolution. The axes may be
1. Gears for connecting parallel shafts,
2. Gears for connecting intersecting shafts,
3. Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts.
Gears for connecting parallel shafts
1. Spur gears: Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth,
and are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to
create very large gear reductions. Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other
gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a noise. It also increases the stress on the
gear teeth. To reduce the noise and stress in the gears, most of the gears in your car are
helical.

Spur gears are the most commonly used gear type. They are characterized by teeth, which
are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are most commonly available, and are
generally the least expensive.
• Limitations: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the
two shafts is required.
• Advantages: Spur gears are easy to find, inexpensive, and efficient.
2. Parallel helical gears: The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the
gear. When two teeth on a helical gear system engage, the contact starts at one end of
the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate, until the two teeth are in full
engagement.
69
External contact
Iinternal contact
Spur gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp)
Helical gears
(EmersonPower Transmission Corp) Herringbone gears
(or double-helical gears)
This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than
spur gears. For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all car transmission.
Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a thrust load on the gear when
they mesh. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load.
One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct,
they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees.
Helical gears to have the following differences from spur gears of the same size:
o Tooth strength is greater because the teeth are longer,
o Greater surface contact on the teeth allows a helical gear to carry more load than a
spur gear
o The longer surface of contact reduces the efficiency of a helical gear relative to a spur
gear
Rack and pinion (The rack is like a gear whose axis is at
infinity.): Racks are straight gears that are used to convert
rotational motion to translational motion by means of a
gear mesh. (They are in theory a gear with an infinite pitch
diameter). In theory, the torque and angular velocity of the
pinion gear are related to the Force and the velocity of the
rack by the radius of the pinion gear, as is shown.
Perhaps the most well-known application of a rack is the rack and pinion steering system
used on many cars in the past
Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of
a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90
degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.
The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid. Straight bevel gear teeth actually
have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth, as each tooth engages; it impacts the
corresponding tooth all at once.
70

Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. These spiral
teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively
spreads across the whole tooth.
Straight bevel gears Spiral bevel
gears
On straight and spiral bevel gears, the shafts must
be perpendicular to each other, but they must also
be in the same plane. The hypoid gear, can engage
with the axes in different planes.
This feature is used in many car differentials. The
ring gear of the differential and the input pinion
gear are both hypoid. This allows the input pinion
to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear.
Figure shows the input pinion engaging the ring
gear of the differential. Since the driveshaft of the
car is connected to the input pinion, this also
lowers the driveshaft. This means that the
driveshaft doesn't pass into the passenger compartment of the car as much, making more
room for people and cargo.
Neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Helical gears may be used to mesh two shafts
that are not parallel, although they are still primarily use in parallel shaft applications. A
special application in which helical gears are used is a crossed gear mesh, in which the
two shafts are perpendicular to each other.

Crossed-helical gears
Worm and worm gear: Worm gears are used when
large gear reductions are needed. It is common for
worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up
to 300:1 or greater.
71
Hypoid gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp)
Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can
easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is because the angle on the
worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between the gear and
the worm holds the worm in place.
This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems,
in which the locking feature can act as a brake for the
conveyor when the motor is not turning. One other very
interesting usage of worm gears is in the Torsen differential,
which is used on some high-performance cars and trucks.
4.3 Terminology for Spur Gears
72
Figure 4-4 Spur Gear
73
Terminology:
Addendum: The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth.
Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the
engagement of a given pair of teeth.
Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear
teeth and the Pitch Point.
Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of
contact of the gear teeth.
Backlash: Play between mating teeth.
Base Circle: The circle from which is generated the involute curve upon which the tooth
profile is based.
Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears.
Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord, passing through the points where the
Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile, and the tooth top.
Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the
points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile.
Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth.
Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch
Circle
Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it
fits on the meshing gear.
74
Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.
Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle.
Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter.
Face: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the top of
the tooth.
Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis.
Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the
bottom of the teeth
Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. If both gears are the same size, they are both called
"gears".
Land: The top surface of the tooth.
Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels,
between the first point of contact and the last.
Module: Millimeter of Pitch Diameter to Teeth.
Pinion: The smaller of two meshed gears.
Pitch Circle: The circle, the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the
gear to the pitch point.
Diametral pitch: Teeth per millimeter of pitch diameter.
Pitch Point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears, where the Line
of Centers crosses the pitch circles.
Pressure Angle: Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of
Centers.
Profile Shift: An increase in the Outer Diameter and Root Diameter of a gear, introduced to
lower the practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance.
Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears.
Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces.
Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle.
75
Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the
mating gear.
4.2 Gear-Tooth Action
4.2.1 Fundamental Law of Gear-Tooth
Action
Figure 5.2 shows two mating gear teeth, in
which
• Tooth profile 1 drives tooth profile 2 by
acting at the instantaneous contact point K.
• N
1
N
2
is the common normal of the two
profiles.
• N
1
is the foot of the perpendicular from O
1
to N
1
N
2

• N
2
is the foot of the perpendicular from O
2
to N
1
N
2
.
Although the two profiles have different
velocities V
1
and V
2
at point K, their velocities
along N
1
N
2
are equal in both magnitude and
direction. Otherwise the two tooth profiles
would separate from each other. Therefore, we
have
( ) 1 . 4
2 2 2 1 1 1
ω ω N O N O ·
or
( ) 2 . 4
1 1
2 2
2
1
N O
N O
·
ω
ω
We notice that the intersection of the tangency N
1
N
2
and the line of center O
1
O
2
is point
P, and from the similar triangles,
( ) 3 . 4
2 2 1 1
P N O P N O ∆ · ∆
Thus, the relationship between the angular velocities of the driving gear to the driven gear, or
velocity ratio, of a pair of mating teeth is
76
Figure 5-2 Two gearing tooth profiles
φ
( ) 4 . 4
1
2
2
1
P O
P O
·
ω
ω
Point P is very important to the velocity ratio, and it is called the pitch point. Pitch point
divides the line between the line of centers and its position decides the velocity ratio of the
two teeth. The above expression is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action.
From the equations 4.2 and 4.4, we can write,
( ) 5 . 4
1 1
2 2
1
2
2
1
N O
N O
P O
P O
· ·
ω
ω
which determines the ratio of the radii of the two base circles. The radii of the base circles is
given by:
( ) 6 . 4 cos cos
2 2 2 1 1 1
φ φ P O N O and P O N O · ·
Also the centre distance between the base circles:
( ) 7 . 4
cos cos cos
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
φ φ φ
N O N O N O N O
P O P O O O
+
· + · + ·
where φ is the pressure angle or the angle of obliquity. It is the angle which the common
normal to the base circles make with the common tangent to the pitch circles.
4.2.2 Constant Velocity Ratio
For a constant velocity ratio, the position of P should remain unchanged. In this case, the
motion transmission between two gears is equivalent to the motion transmission between
two imagined slip-less cylinders with radius R
1
and R
2
or diameter D
1
and D
2
. We can get two
circles whose centers are at O
1
and O
2
, and through pitch point P. These two circles are
termed pitch circles. The velocity ratio is equal to the inverse ratio of the diameters of pitch
circles. This is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action.
The fundamental law of gear-tooth action may now also be stated as follow (for gears with
fixed center distance)
A common normal (the line of action) to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must, in
all positions of the contacting teeth, pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called
the pitch point
Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are
conjugate curves, and the relative rotation speed of the gears will be constant(constant
velocity ratio).
77
4.2.3 Conjugate Profiles
To obtain the expected velocity ratio of two tooth profiles, the normal line of their profiles
must pass through the corresponding pitch point, which is decided by the velocity ratio. The
two profiles which satisfy this requirement are called conjugate profiles. Sometimes, we
simply termed the tooth profiles which satisfy the fundamental law of gear-tooth action the
conjugate profiles.
Although many tooth shapes are possible for which a mating tooth could be designed to
satisfy the fundamental law, only two are in general use: the cycloidal and involute profiles.
The involute has important advantages; it is easy to manufacture and the center distance
between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. Thus
close tolerances between shaft locations are not required when using the involute profile. The
most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve. (Erdman & Sandor).
conjugate action : It is essential for correctly meshing gears, the size of the teeth ( the
module ) must be the same for both the gears.
Another requirement - the shape of teeth necessary for the speed ratio to remain constant
during an increment of rotation; this behavior of the contacting surfaces (ie. the teeth flanks)
is known as conjugate action.
4.3 Involute Curve
The following examples are involute spur gears. We use the word involute because the
contour of gear teeth curves inward. Gears have many terminologies, parameters and
principles. One of the important concepts is the velocity ratio, which is the ratio of the rotary
velocity of the driver gear to that of the driven gears.
4.1 Generation of the Involute Curve
The curve most commonly used for gear-tooth
profiles is the involute of a circle. This involute
curve is the path traced by a point on a line as
the line rolls without slipping on the
circumference of a circle. It may also be defined
78
Figure 4.3 Involute curve
as a path traced by the end of a string, which is originally wrapped on a circle when the
string is unwrapped from the circle. The circle from which the involute is derived is called
the base circle.
4.2 Properties of Involute Curves
1. The line rolls without slipping on the circle.
2. For any instant, the instantaneous center of the motion of the line is its point of tangent
with the circle.
Note: We have not defined the term instantaneous center previously. The instantaneous
center or instant center is defined in two ways.
1. When two bodies have planar relative motion, the instant center is a point on one body
about which the other rotates at the instant considered.
2. When two bodies have planar relative motion, the instant center is the point at which the
bodies are relatively at rest at the instant considered.
3. The normal at any point of an involute is tangent to the base circle. Because of the
property (2) of the involute curve, the motion of the point that is tracing the involute is
perpendicular to the line at any instant, and hence the curve traced will also be
perpendicular to the line at any instant.
There is no involute curve within the base circle.
Cycloidal profile:
Epicycliodal Profile:
79

Hypocycliodal Profile:
The involute profile of gears has important advantages;
• It is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can
be varied without changing the velocity ratio. Thus close tolerances between shaft
locations are not required. The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the
involute curve. (Erdman & Sandor).
2. In involute gears, the pressure angle, remains constant between the point of tooth
engagement and disengagement. It is necessary for smooth running and less wear of gears.
But in cycloidal gears, the pressure angle is maximum at the beginning of engagement,
reduces to zero at pitch point, starts increasing and again becomes maximum at the end of
engagement. This results in less smooth running of gears.
3. The face and flank of involute teeth are generated by a single curve where as in cycloidal
gears, double curves (i.e. epi-cycloid and hypo-cycloid) are required for the face and flank
respectively. Thus the involute teeth are easy to manufacture than cycloidal teeth.
In involute system, the basic rack has straight teeth and the same can be cut with simple
tools.
Advantages of Cycloidal gear teeth:
1. Since the cycloidal teeth have wider flanks, therefore the cycloidal gears are stronger than
the involute gears, for the same pitch. Due to this reason, the cycloidal teeth are preferred
specially for cast teeth.
2. In cycloidal gears, the contact takes place between a convex flank and a concave surface,
where as in involute gears the convex surfaces are in contact. This condition results in less
wear in cycloidal gears as compared to involute gears. However the difference in wear is
negligible
80
3. In cycloidal gears, the interference does not occur at all. Though there are advantages of
cycloidal gears but they are outweighed by the greater simplicity and flexibility of the
involute gears.
Properties of involute teeth:
1. A normal drawn to an involute at pitch point is a tangent to the base circle.
2. Pressure angle remains constant during the mesh of an involute gears.
3. The involute tooth form of gears is insensitive to the centre distance and depends only on
the dimensions of the base circle.
4. The radius of curvature of an involute is equal to the length of tangent to the base circle.
5. Basic rack for involute tooth profile has straight line form.
6. The common tangent drawn from the pitch point to the base circle of the two involutes is
the line of action and also the path of contact of the involutes.
7. When two involutes gears are in mesh and rotating, they exhibit constant angular velocity
ratio and is inversely proportional to the size of base circles. (Law of Gearing or conjugate
action)
8. Manufacturing of gears is easy due to single curvature of profile.
The 14½
O
composite system is used for general purpose gears.
It is stronger but has no interchangeability. The tooth profile of this system has cycloidal
curves at the top and bottom and involute curve at the middle portion.
The teeth are produced by formed milling cutters or hobs.
System of Gear Teeth
The following four systems of gear teeth are commonly used in practice:
1. 14 ½
O
Composite system
2. 14 ½
O
Full depth involute system
3. 20
O
Full depth involute system
4. 20
O
Stub involute system
81
The tooth profile of the 14½
O
full depth involute system was developed using gear hobs for
spur and helical gears.
The tooth profile of the 20
o
full depth involute system may be cut by hobs.
The increase of the pressure angle from 14½
o
to 20
o
results in a stronger tooth, because the
tooth acting as a beam is wider at the base.
The 20
o
stub involute system has a strong tooth to take heavy loads.
Involutometry
The study of the geometry of the involute profile for gear teeth is called involumetry.
Consider an involute of base circle radius ra and two points B and C on the involute as
shown in figure. Draw normal to the involute from the points B and C. The normal BE and
CF are tangents to the Base circle.
Let
r
a
= base circle radius of gear
r
b
= radius of point B on the involute
r
c
= radius of point C on the involute
and
Φ
b
= pressure angle for the point B
Φ
c
= pressure angle for the point C
82
ra
Pitch Circle
Addendum Circle
Base Circle
E
F
B
C
Gear
O
A
r
t
b
= tooth thickness along the arc at B
t
c
= tooth thickness along the arc at C
From the properties of the Involute:
Arc AE = Length BE and
Arc AF = Length CF
Similarly:
83
( ) 2 cos
) 1 ( cos
c c a
b b a
r r
r r
OCF
and OBE From
φ
φ
× ·
× ·


c c b b
r r
Therefore
φ φ cos cos × · ×
( )
1
]
1

¸

− · ∴
− · − ∠ · ∠
· · · ∠
function involute called
is Expression
Inv
AOE AOB
OE
BE
OE
ArcAE
AOE
b b
b b b
b b b
b
φ φ
φ φ φ
φ φ φ
φ
tan
tan .
tan
tan
c c c
C C c
c
Inv
AOF AOC
OF
BE
OF
ArcAF
AOF
φ φ φ
φ φ φ
φ
− · ∴
− · − ∠ · ∠
· · · ∠
tan .
tan
tan
b
b
b b
b
b
r
t
r
t
AOB AOD
B po the At
2
tan
2
int
+ − ·
+ ∠ · ∠
φ φ
c
c
c c
b
c
r
t
r
t
AOC AOD
C po the At
2
tan
2
int
+ − ·
+ ∠ · ∠
φ φ
Using this equation and knowing tooth thickness at any point on the tooth, it is possible to
calculate the thickness of the tooth at any point
Path of contact:
Consider a pinion driving wheel as shown in figure. When the pinion rotates in clockwise,
the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K (on the near the base circle of pinion
or the outer end of the tooth face on the wheel) and ends at L (outer end of the tooth face on
the pinion or on the flank near the base circle of wheel).
MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base
circles. The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common
tangent. The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common
tangent.
The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the addendum
circles of the wheel and the pinion. Thus the length of part of contact is KL which is the sum
84
Pitch
Circle
Pinion
Wheel
O2
O1
P
Base Circle
Base Circle
Pitch
Circle
Addendum
Circles
φ
φ
φ
r
ra
RA
R
N
K
L
M
C at thickness tooth
r
r
t
inv inv t
r
t
inv
r
t
inv
r
t
r
t
equations above the Equating
c
b
b
c b c
c
c
c
b
b
b
c
c
c c
b
b
b b
·

,
_

¸
¸
+ − ·
+ · +
+ − · + −
2
2
. .
2
.
2
.
2
tan
2
tan
:
φ φ
φ φ
φ φ φ φ
of the parts of path of contacts KP and PL. Contact length KP is called as path of approach
and contact length PL is called as path of recess.
r
a
= O
1
L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion,
and
R
A
= O
2
K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel
r = O
1
P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion,
and
R = O
2
P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel.
Radius of the base circle of pinion = O
1
M = O
1
P cosφ = r cosφ
and
radius of the base circle of wheel = O2N = O2P cos φ = R cosφ
From right angle triangle O
2
KN
Path of approach: KP
Similarly from right angle triangle O
1
ML
Path of recess: PL
Length of path of contact = KL
85
( ) ( )
( ) φ
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
cos R R
N O K O KN
A
− ·
− ·
φ φ sin sin
2
R P O PN · ·
( ) φ φ sin cos
2 2 2
R R R
PN KN KP
A
− − ·
− ·
( ) ( )
( ) φ
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
cos r r
M O L O ML
a
− ·
− ·
φ φ sin sin
1
r P O MP · ·
( ) φ φ sin cos
2 2 2
r r r
MP ML PL
a
− − ·
− ·
( ) ( ) ( ) φ φ φ sin cos cos
2 2 2 2 2 2
r R r r R R
PL KP KL
a A
+ − − + − ·
+ ·
Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the
beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. In Figure, the arc of contact is
EPF or GPH.
Considering the arc of contact GPH.
The arc GP is known as arc of approach and the arc PH is called arc of recess. The angles
subtended by these arcs at O
1
are called angle of approach and angle of recess respectively.
Length of arc of approach = arc GP
Length of arc of recess = arc PH
Length of arc contact = arc GPH = arc GP + arc PH
Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact)
The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the
length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch.
Mathematically,
86
M
L
K
N
R
RA
ra
r
φ
φ
φ
Addendum
Circles
Pitch
Circle
Base Circle
P
O1
O2
Pinion
Pitch
Circle
H
F
E
G
Gear
Profile
Wheel
φ φ cos cos
KP approach of path of Lenght
· ·
φ φ cos cos
PL recess of path of Lenght
· ·
φ φ φ φ cos cos cos cos
contact of path of Length KL PL KP
· · + ·
C
P
contact of arc the of Length
ratio Contat ·
Where: and m = Module.
87
m pitch Circular P
C
× · · π
Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact
Continuous motion transfer requires two pairs of teeth in contact at the ends of the path
of contact, though there is only one pair in contact in the middle of the path, as in Figure.
The average number of teeth in contact is an important parameter - if it is too low due to the
use of inappropriate profile shifts or to an excessive centre distance.The manufacturing
inaccuracies may lead to loss of kinematic continuity - that is to impact, vibration and noise.
The average number of teeth in contact is also a guide to load sharing between teeth; it is
termed the contact ratio
Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion:
88
R
r
RACK
c
T
a
b
h
Pc
PITCH LINE
Base Circle
φ°
c
φ
φ
RACK
PINION
PITCH LINE
Let
r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = O
1
P
Φ = Pressure angle
r
a
. = Addendu m radius of the pinion
a = Addendum of rack
EF = Length of path of contact
EF = Path of approach EP + Path of recess PF
From triangle O
1
NF:
Exercise problems refer presentation slides
Interference in Involute Gears
89
φ φ
φ φ
φ
φ
cos cos
sin sin
:
) 3 (
) 2 (
sin
) 1 ( sin
1 1
1
1
r P O N O
r P O NP
NP O triangle From
NP NF PF recess of Path
a
EP approach of Path
EP
a
EP
AP
· ·
· ·
− · ·
· ·
· ·
( ) ( )
( )
( ) φ φ
φ
φ φ
φ
sin cos
sin
sin cos
) 3 (
cos
2
1
2 2 2
2
1
2 2 2
2
1
2 2 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
r r r
a
PF EP EF contact of length of Path
r r r PF racess of Path
equation the in values NF and NP ng Substituti
r r N O F O NF
a
a
a
− − + ·
+ · · ∴
− − · ·
− · − ·
Pitch
Circle
Pinion
Wheel
O2
O1
P
Base Circle
Base Circle
Pitch
Circle
Addendum
Circles
φ
φ
φ
r
ra
RA
R
N
K
L
M
Figure shows a pinion and a gear in mesh with their center as O
1
andO
2
respectively. MN is
the common tangent to the basic circles and KL is the path of contact between the two
mating teeth.
Consider, the radius of the addendum circle of pinion is increased to O
1
N, the point of
contact L will moves from L to N. If this radius is further increased, the point of contact L
will be inside of base circle of wheel and not on the involute profile of the pinion.
The tooth tip of the pinion will then
undercut the tooth on the wheel at the
root and damages part of the involute
profile. This effect is known as
interference, and occurs when the teeth
are being cut and weakens the tooth at its
root.
In general, the phenomenon, when the tip
of tooth undercuts the root on its mating
gear is known as interference.
Similarly, if the radius of the addendum circles of the wheel increases beyond O
2
M, then the
tip of tooth on wheel will cause interference with the tooth on pinion. The points M and N
are called interference points.
Interference may be avoided if the path of the contact does not extend beyond interference
points. The limiting value of the radius of the addendum circle of the pinion is O
1
N and of
the wheel is O
2
M.
The interference may only be prevented, if the point of contact between the two teeth is
always on the involute profiles and if the addendum circles of the two mating gears cut the
common tangent to the base circles at the points of tangency.
When interference is just prevented, the maximum length of path of contact is MN.
90
Wheel
Undercut Pinion
φ sin r MP approach of path Maximum · ·
φ sin R PN recess of path Maximum · ·
( ) φ sin R r PN MP MN
MN contact of path of length Maximum
+ · + ·
·
( )
( ) φ
φ
φ
tan
cos
sin
R r
R r
contact of arc of length Maximum + ·
+
·
Methods to avoid Interference
1. Height of the teeth may be reduced.
2. Under cut of the radial flank of the pinion.
3. Centre distance may be increased. It leads to increase in pressure angle.
4. By tooth correction, the pressure angle, centre distance and base circles remain unchanged,
but tooth thickness of gear will be greater than the pinion tooth thickness.
Minimum number of teeth on the pinion avoid Interference
The pinion turns clockwise and drives the gear as shown in Figure.
Points M and N are called interference points. i.e., if the contact takes place beyond M and
N, interference will occur.
The limiting value of addendum circle radius of pinion is O
1
N and the limiting value of
addendum circle radius of gear is O
2
M. Considering the critical addendum circle radius of
gear, the limiting number of teeth on gear can be calculated.
Let
Ф = pressure angle
R = pitch circle radius of gear = ½mT
r = pitch circle radius of pinion = ½mt
T & t = number of teeth on gear & pinion
m = module
91
Pitch
Circle
Pinion
Wheel
O2
O1
P
Base Circle
Base Circle
Pitch
Circle
Max.
Addendum
Circles
φ
φ
φ
r
ra
RA
R
N
K
L
M
a
w
= Addendum constant of gear (or) wheel
a
p
= Addendum constant of pinion
a
w
. m = Addendum of gear a
p
. m = Addendum of pinion
G = Gear ratio = T/t
From triangle O
1
NP, Applying cosine rule
Limiting radius of the pinion addendum circle:
Addendum of the pinion = O
1
N - O
1
P
Addendum of the pinion = O
1
N - O
1
P
92
( )
( ) φ φ
φ
φ φ
φ φ
φ φ φ
sin sin
sin 2 1
sin 2 sin
1
sin 2 sin
90 cos sin 2 sin
cos 2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
1 1
2 2
1
2
1
R P O PN
r
R
r
R
r
r
R
r
R
r
R r R r
R r R r
PN O PN P O NP P O N O
· ·
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
1
]
1

¸

+ + ·
+ + ·
+ − + ·
× × − + ·
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
sin 2 1
2
sin 2 1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + · φ φ
t
T
t
T mt
r
R
r
R
r N O
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·

1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
1 sin 2 1
2
2
sin 2 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
φ
φ
t
T
t
T mt
mt
t
T
t
T mt
m a
p
( ) ( )
1
]
1

¸

− + +
·
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
1 sin 2 1
2
1 sin 2 1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
φ
φ
G G
a
t
t
T
t
T t
a
p
p
The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the pinion to avoid interference.
If the number of teeth on pinion and gear is same: G=1
1. 14 ½
O
Composite system = 12
2. 14 ½
O
Full depth involute system = 32
3. 20
O
Full depth involute system = 18
4. 20
O
Stub involute system = 14
Minimum number of teeth on the wheel avoid Interference
From triangle O2MP, applying cosine rule and simplifying, The limiting radius of wheel addendum
circle:
Addendum of the pinion = O
2
M- O
2
P
93
( )
1
]
1

¸

− +
·
1 sin 3 1
2
2
1
2
φ
p
a
t
Pitch
Circle
Pinion
Wheel
O2
O1
P
Base Circle
Base Circle
Pitch
Circle
Max.
Addendum
Circles
φ
φ
φ
r
ra
RA
R
N
K
L
M
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
sin 2 1
2
sin 2 1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + ·
φ
φ
T
t
T
t mT
R
r
R
r
R M O
The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the wheel to avoid interference.
Minimum number of teeth on the pinion for involute rack to avoid Interference
The rack is part of toothed wheel of
infinite diameter. The base circle
diameter and profile of the involute
teeth are straight lines.
94
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + · 1 sin 2 1
2
2
1
2
φ
T
t
T
t mT
m a
w
1
1
1
]
1

¸

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ + · 1 sin 2 1
2
2
1
2
φ
T
t
T
t T
a
w
1
1
1
]
1

¸


,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
+ +
·
1 sin 2
1 1
1
2
2
1
2
φ
G G
a
T
W
φ°
φ
PITCH LINE
φ
Pc
T
h
a
b RACK
c
PITCH LINE
PINION
RACK
φ
c
φ°
M
L
H
P
K
Let
t = Minimum number of teeth on the pinion
r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = ½ mt
Φ = Pressure angle
A
R
.m = Addendum of rack
The straight profiles of the rack are tangential to the pinion profiles at the point of contact
and perpendicular to the tangent PM. Point L is the limit of interference.
Addendum of the rack:
Backlash:
The gap between the non-drive face of the pinion tooth and the adjacent wheel tooth is
known as backlash.
If the rotational sense of the pinion were to reverse, then a period of unrestrained pinion
motion would take place until the backlash gap closed and contact with the wheel tooth re-
established impulsively.
Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. The term "backlash"
can also be used to refer to the size of the gap, not just the phenomenon it causes; thus, one
could speak of a pair of gears as having, for example, "0.1 mm of backlash."
A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash, but this would presuppose
perfection in manufacturing, uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the
system, and no lubricant.
Therefore, gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. It is usually provided by reducing
the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance.
95
( )
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ φ
φ
2
2
2
2
sin
2
: ce interferen
sin
2
sin
sin
sin sin
sin
R
R
A
t avoid To
mt
r
OP
OP
PL LH m A
· ∴
·
·
·
·
· · ×
In the case of a large gear and a small pinion, however, the backlash is usually taken entirely
off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth.
Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. For situations, such as
instrumentation and control, where precision is important, backlash can be minimised
through one of several techniques.
Let
r = standard pitch circle radius of pinion
R = standard pitch circle radius of wheel
c = standard centre distance = r +R
r’ = operating pitch circle radius of pinion
R’ = operating pitch circle radius of wheel
c’ = operating centre distance = r’ + R’
Ф = Standard pressure angle
Ф’ = operating pressure angle
h = tooth thickness of pinion on standard pitch circle= p/2
96
M'
N'
R
R'
r'
r
Base Circle
Base Circle
P
O1
O2
M
N
R
RA
ra
r
φ
φ
φ
P
O1
O2
Wheel
Pinion
Standard
(cutting)
Pitch Circle
Standard
(cutting)
Pitch Circle
c
Standard
(cutting)
Pitch Circle
Standard
(cutting)
Pitch Circle
∆c
c'
Operating
Pitch Circle
φ'
φ'
Figure a
Pinion
Figure b
Wheel
h’ = tooth thickness of pinion on operating pitch circle
Let
H = tooth thickness of gear on standard pitch circle
H1 = tooth thickness of gear on operating pitch circle
p = standard circular pitch = 2п r/ t = 2пR/T
p’ = operating circular pitch = 2п r1/t = 2пR1/T
∆C = change in centre distance
B = Backlash
t = number of teeth on pinion
T = number of teeth on gear.
Involute gears have the invaluable ability of providing conjugate action when the gears'
centre distance is varied either deliberately or involuntarily due to manufacturing and/or
mounting errors.
On the operating pitch circle:
97
1
]
1

¸

− · − · − · ∆
· ∴
× · ×
· ·
1
' cos
cos
' cos
cos
'
' cos
cos
'
cos ' cos '
' ' '
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ
φ φ
c c c c c c Now
c c
c c
c
c
R
R
r
r
) 1 ( ' ' ' B H h p
Backlash thickness tooth of sum pitch Operating
+ + ·
+ ·
1
]
1

¸

+ − ·
1
]
1

¸

+ − ·
R
h
inv inv R H
r
h
inv inv r h
try involutome By
2
' . . ' 2 '
2
' . . ' 2 '
:
φ φ
φ φ
Substituting h’ and H’ in the equation (1):
There is an infinite number of possible centre distances for a given pair of profile shifted
gears, however we consider only the particular case known as the extended centre distance.
Non Standard Gears:
The important reason for using non standard gears are to eliminate undercutting, to prevent
interference and to maintain a reasonable contact ratio.
The two main non- standard gear systems:
(1) Long and short Addendum system and
(2) Extended centre distance system.
Long and Short Addendum System:
The addendum of the wheel and the addendum of the pinion are generally made of equal
lengths.
Here the profile/rack cutter is advanced to a certain increment towards the gear blank and
the same quantity of increment will be withdrawn from the pinion blank.
98
( ) ( )
B inv c inv c
c
c
c
c
h p
B R r inv R r inv
R
R
r
r
h p
B
R
h
inv inv R
r
h
inv inv r p
+ − +
,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
+ + − + +
,
_

¸
¸
+ ·
+
1
]
1

¸

+ − +
1
]
1

¸

+ − ·
' . ' 2 . ' 2
' '
'
' ' ' . 2 ' ' . 2
' '
'
2
' . . ' 2
2
' . . ' 2 '
φ φ
φ φ
φ φ φ φ
[ ]
[ ]
[ ] φ φ
π
φ φ
π π
φ φ
. ' . ' 2
'
'
2
. ' . ' 2
'
2
2
2
' 2
. ' . ' 2
'
2
inv inv c
c
c
r r
t
B
inv inv c
c
c
t
r
t
r
B
inv inv c
c
c
h p B
− +
,
_

¸
¸
− ·
− + − ·
− + − · ∴
[ ]
[ ] φ φ
φ φ
π
. ' . ' 2
. ' . ' 2
'
'
2
inv inv c B Backlash
inv inv c
r
r
r r
t
B
− · ·
− +
,
_

¸
¸
− ·
Therefore an increased addendum for the pinion and a decreased addendum for the gear is
obtained. The amount of increase in the addendum of the pinion should be exactly equal to
the addendum of the wheel is reduced.
The effect is to move the contact region from the pinion centre towards the gear centre, thus
reducing approach length and increasing the recess length. In this method there is no change
in pressure angle and the centre distance remains standard.
Extended centre distance system:
Reduction in interference with constant contact ratio can be obtained by increasing the centre
distance. The effect of changing the centre distance is simply in increasing the pressure
angle.
In this method when the pinion is being cut, the profile cutter is withdrawn a certain amount
from the centre of the pinion so the addendum line of the cutter passes through the
interference point of pinion. The result is increase in tooth thickness and decrease in tooth
space.
Now If the pinion is meshed with the gear, it will be found that the centre distance has been
increased because of the decreased tooth space. Increased centre distance will have two
undesirable effects.
NOTE: Please refer presentation slides also for more figure, photos and exercise
problems
References:
12. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph
Uicker,Jr. McGraw-Hill International Editions.
13. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Martin. McGraw-Hill
Publications.
14. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Mabie and Fred W.
Ocvirk. John Wiley and Sons.
15. Theory of Machines by V.P.Singh. Dhanpat Rai and Co.
16. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J.S.Rao. New age
international publishers.
17. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr.R.K.Bansal. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.
18. Internet: Many Web based e notes
99
Chapter 5: Gears Trains
A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a
system to generate power and speed. It reduces speed and increases torque. To create large gear ratio,
gears are connected together to form gear trains. They often consist of multiple gears in the train.
The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type
can be spur, helical or herringbone. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio.
Any combination of gear wheels employed to transmit motion from one
shaft to the other is called a gear train. The meshing of two gears may be
idealized as two smooth discs with their edges touching and no slip
between them. This ideal diameter is called the Pitch Circle Diameter
(PCD) of the gear.
Simple Gear Trains
The typical spur gears as shown in diagram. The direction of rotation is reversed from one gear to
another. It has no affect on the gear ratio. The teeth on the gears must all be the same size so if gear A
advances one tooth, so does B and C.
The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears, otherwise they would be
slipping.
100
(Idler gear)
GEAR 'C' GEAR 'B'
GEAR 'A'
v
v
C
ω B
ω
A
ω
.
module
module
mesh would not rwise they gears othe
all e same for must be th
and

t
D
= m =
in rpm N = speed meter, circle dia D = Pitch
r, on the gea of teeth t = number
r =
D
cle. v = on the cir velocity v = linear
. r velocity = angula
= m t D and = m t D ; = m t D
t
D
=
t
D
=
t
D
m =
C C B B A A
C
C
B
B
A
A
ω ω
ω
2
C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C C B B A A
C
C
B
B
A
A
t N t N t N
rev of terms in or
t t t
t m t m t m
D D D
D D D
v
· ·
· ·
· ·
· ·
· · ·
min /
2 2 2
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
ω ω ω
Application:
a) to connect gears where a large center distance is required
b) to obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear ( CW or CCW)
c) to obtain high speed ratio
Torque & Efficiency
The power transmitted by a torque T N-m applied to a shaft rotating at N rev/min is given by:
In an ideal gear box, the input and output powers are the same so;
It follows that if the speed is reduced, the torque is increased and vice versa. In a real gear box, power
is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. The efficiency is defined
as:
Because the torque in and out is different, a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case or
body rotating. A holding torque T
3
must be applied to the body through the clamps.
The total torque must add up to zero.
T1 + T2 + T3 = 0
If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine the
holding torque. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the gear box.
Compound Gear train
101
60
2 T N
P
π
·
GR
N
N
T
T
T N T N
T N T N
P
· · ⇒ ·
· ·
2
1
1
2
2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1
60
2
60
2 π π
1 1
2 2
1 1
2 2
60 2
60 2
T N
T N
T N
T N
In Power
out Power
·
× ×
× ×
· ·
π
π
η
GEAR 'A'
GEAR 'B'
GEAR 'C'
GEAR 'D'
Compound Gears
A
C
B
D
Output
Input
Compound gears are simply a chain of simple gear
trains with the input of the second being the output of the
first. A chain of two pairs is shown below. Gear B is
the output of the first pair and gear C is the input of the
second pair. Gears B and C are locked to the same shaft
and revolve at the same speed.
For large velocities ratios, compound gear train
arrangement is preferred.
The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so:
ω
A
t
A
= ω
B
t
B
-as they are simple gears.
Likewise for C and D, ω
C
t
C
= ω
D
t
D
.
Reverted Gear train
The driver and driven axes lies on the same line. These are used in speed reducers, clocks and
machine tools.
If R and T=Pitch circle radius & number of teeth of the gear
R
A
+ R
B
= R
C
+ R
D
and t
A
+ t
B
= t
C
+ t
D
102
C
D
A
B
D B
C A
C
D D
A
B B
C A
C
D D
C
A
B B
A
C
D
D
C
A
B
B
A
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
T
t
and
t
t
t t
and
t t
× ·
×
×
×
×
×
· ×
×
·
×
·
· ·
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω ω ω
( )
( )
GR
t
t
t
t
Out N
In N
as written
be may ratio gear The
N Since
GR
t
t
t
t
shaft same the on are C and B gear Since
C
D
A
B
C
D
A
B
D
A
C B
· × ·
× × ·
· × ·
·
:
2 π ω
ω
ω
ω ω
C A
D B
D
A
t t
t t
N
N
GR
×
×
· ·
Epicyclic gear train:
Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and
around another. The design involves planet and
sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet
around the sun. Here is a picture of a typical gear
box.
This design can produce large gear ratios in a
small space and are used on a wide range of
applications from marine gearboxes to electric
screwdrivers.
Basic Theory
103
Arm 'A'
B
C
Planet wheel
Sun wheel
Arm
B
C
The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear
B meshes with gear C and revolves around it when the
arm is rotated. B is called the planet gear and C the sun.
First consider what happens when the planet gear orbits
the sun gear.
Observe point p and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. Any object orbiting
around a center must rotate once. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and meshes with C.
Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. B spins about its own center and the
number of revolutions it makes is the ratio
B
C
t
t
. B will rotate by this number for every complete
revolution of C.
Now consider that C is unable to rotate and the arm A is revolved once. Gear B will revolve
B
C
t
t
+ 1

because of the orbit. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion. One way to get round this is to
imagine that the whole system is revolved once. Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it
back one revolution. Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up. The following
tabular method makes it easy.
Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine how many revolutions the
planet gear B makes.
Step 1 is to revolve everything once about the center.
Step 2 identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm fixed as
it should only do one revolution in total. Work out the revolutions of B.
Step 3 is simply add them up and we find the total revs of C is zero and for the arm is 1.
Step Action A B C
1 Revolve all once 1 1 1
2
Revolve C by –1 revolution,
keeping the arm fixed
0
B
C
t
t
+
-1
3 Add 1
B
C
t
t
+ 1
0
The number of revolutions made by B is

,
_

¸
¸
+
B
C
t
t
1
Note that if C revolves -1, then the direction of B
is opposite so
B
C
t
t
+
.

Example: A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50
teeth. If the arm is revolved once, how many times does the planet gear revolve?
Solution:
Step Action A B C
1 Revolve all once 1 1 1
2
Revolve C by –1 revolution,
keeping the arm fixed
0
50
100
+ -1
3 Add 1 3 0
104
Gear B makes 3 revolutions for every one of the arm.
The design so far considered has no identifiable input and output. We need a design that puts an input
and output shaft on the same axis. This can be done several ways.
Problem 1: In an ecicyclic gear train shown in figure, the arm A is fixed to the shaft S. The wheel B
having 100 teeth rotates freely on the shaft S. The wheel F having 150 teeth driven separately. If the
arm rotates at 200 rpm and wheel F at 100 rpm in the same direction; find (a) number of teeth on the
gear C and (b) speed of wheel B.
Solution:
T
B
=100; T
F
=150; N
A
=200rpm; N
F
=100rpm:
C gears on teeth of Number T
T
T T T
r r r
gears all for same is ule the Since
C
C
C B F
C B F
→ ·
× + ·
+ · ⇒
+ · ∴
25
2 100 150
2
2
: cirlce pitch the to al proportion is gears on the teeth of number the
: mod
The gear B and gear F rotates in the opposite directions:
105
Arm A
C
S
B100 B
F150
C
200 rpm
100 rpm
350
200
200 100
150
100
) exp (
· ⇒


· −


· − ∴


·


·
− · ∴
E
B
A B
A F
F
B
A B
A F
Arm F
Arm L
F
B
N
N
N N
N N
T
T
train gear epicyclic for ression general
N N
N N
N N
N N
TV also
T
T
value Train
The Gear B rotates at 350 rpm in the same direction of gears F and Arm A.
Problem 2: In a compound epicyclic gear train as shown in the figure, has gears A and an annular
gears D & E free to rotate on the axis P. B and C is a compound gear rotate about axis Q. Gear A
rotates at 90 rpm CCW and gear D rotates at 450 rpm CW. Find the speed and direction of rotation of
arm F and gear E. Gears A,B and C are having 18, 45 and 21 teeth respectively. All gears having
same module and pitch.
Solution:
T
A
=18 ; T
B
=45; T
C
=21;N
A
= -90rpm; N
D
=450rpm:
D gear on teeth T
T T T T
r r r r
and
D
C B A D
C B A D
84 21 45 18
: cirlce pitch the to al proportion is gears on the teeth of number the
: gears all for same are pitch module the Since
· + + ·
+ + · ⇒
+ + · ∴
106
Q
P
C
Arm F
D
A
E
B
Annular 'A'
Spider 'L'
Sun Wheel 'S'
Planet Wheel 'P'
Gears A and D rotates in the opposite directions:
CW rpm Arm of Speed N
N
N
N N
N N
T
T
T
T
N N
N N
N N
N N
TV also
T
T
T
T
value Train
F
F
F
F A
F D
D
C
B
A
F A
F D
Arm F
Arm L
D
C
B
A
− · · ⇒
− −

·
×
×



· × − ∴


·


·
× − · ∴
9 . 400
90
450
84 45
21 18
Now consider gears A, B and E:

E gear on teeth of Number T
T
T T T
r r r
E
E
B A E
B A E
→ ·
× + ·
+ · ⇒
+ ·
108
45 2 18
2
2
Gears A and E rotates in the opposite directions:
CW rpm E gear of Speed N
N
N N
N N
T
T
N N
N N
TV also
T
T
value Train
E
E
F A
F E
E
A
F A
F E
E
A
− · · ⇒
− −

· −


· − ∴


·
− · ∴
72 . 482
9 . 400 90
9 . 400
108
18
Problem 3: In an epicyclic gear of sun and planet type shown in figure 3, the pitch circle diameter of
the annular wheel A is to be nearly 216mm and module 4mm. When the annular ring is stationary, the
spider that carries three planet wheels P of equal size to make one revolution for every five revolution
of the driving spindle carrying the sun wheel.
Determine the number of teeth for all the wheels and the exact pitch circle diameter of the annular
wheel. If an input torque of 20 N-m is applied to the spindle carrying the sun wheel, determine the
fixed torque on the annular wheel.
107
Solution: Module being the same for all the meshing gears:
T
A
= T
S
+ 2T
P

teeth
m
A of PCD
T
A
54
4
216
· · ·
Operation
Spider
arm L
Sun Wheel S
T
S
Planet wheel P
T
P
Annular wheel A
T
A
= 54
Arm L is fixed &
Sun wheel S is
given +1 revolution
0 +1
P
S
T
T

A
S
A
P
P
S
T
T
T
T
T
T
− · × −
Multiply by m
(S rotates through
m revolution)
0 m
m
T
T
P
S

m
T
T
A
S

Add n revolutions
to all elements
n m+n
m
T
T
n
P
S
− m
T
T
n
A
S

If L rotates +1 revolution: ∴ n = 1 (1)
The sun wheel S to rotate +5 revolutions correspondingly:
∴ n + m = 5 (2)
From (1) and (2) m = 4
When A is fixed:
teeth T
T T m
T
T
n
S
S A
A
S
5 . 13
4
54
4 0
· · ∴
· ⇒ · −
But fractional teeth are not possible; therefore T
S
should be either 13 or 14 and T
A
correspondingly 52 and 56.
Trial 1: Let T
A
= 52 and T
S
= 13
108
Figure 4
C
Arm
B
D
A
H
G
E
F
teeth
T T
T
S A
P
5 . 19
4
13 52
2
·

·

· ∴ - This is impracticable
Trial 2: Let T
A
= 56 and T
S
= 14
teeth
T T
T
S A
P
21
4
14 56
2
·

·

· ∴ - This is practicable
∴ T
A
= 56, T
S
= 14 and T
P
= 21
⇒ PCD of A = 56 × 4 = 224 mm
Also
Torque on L × ω
L
= Torque on S × ω
S
Torque on L × ω
L
= m N − · × 100
1
5
20
∴ Fixing torque on A = (T
L
– T
S
) = 100 – 20 = 80 N-m
]
Problem 4: The gear train shown in figure 4
is used in an indexing mechanism of a milling
machine. The drive is from gear wheels A and
B to the bevel gear wheel D through the gear
train. The following table gives the number of
teeth on each gear.
How many revolutions does D makes for one
revolution of A under the following
situations:
a. If A and B are having the same speed and same direction
b. If A and B are having the same speed and opposite direction
c. If A is making 72 rpm and B is at rest
d. If A is making 72 rpm and B 36 rpm in the same direction
Solution:
Gear D is external to the epicyclic train and thus C and D constitute an ordinary train.
Operation
Arm
C (60)
E (28) F (24) A (72) B (72) G (28) H (24)
Gear A B C D E F
Number of
teeth
72 72 60 30 28 24
Diametral
pitch in mm
08 08 12 12 08 08
109
P2
A2
A1
P1
P
S1
S2
Q
Figure 5
Arm or C is fixed
& wheel A is given
+1 revolution
0 -1
6
7
24
28
− · − +1 -1 +1
6
7
24
28
·
Multiply by m
(A rotates through
m revolution)
0 -m m
6
7
− +m -m +m m
6
7
Add n revolutions
to all elements
n n - m m n
6
7
− n + m n - m n + m m n
6
7
+
(i) For one revolution of A: n + m = 1 (1)
For A and B for same speed and direction: n + m = n – m (2)
From (1) and (2): n = 1 and m = 0
∴ If C or arm makes one revolution, then revolution made by D is given by:
C D
D
C
C
D
N N
T
T
N
N
2
2
30
60
· ∴
· · ·
(ii) A and B same speed, opposite direction: (n + m) = - (n – m) (3)
n = 0; m = 1
∴ When C is fixed and A makes one revolution, D does not make any revolution.
(iii) A is making 72 rpm: (n + m) = 72
B at rest (n – m) = 0 ⇒ n = m = 36 rpm
∴ C makes 36 rpm and D makes rpm 72
30
60
36 · ×
(iv) A is making 72 rpm and B making 36 rpm
(n + m) = 72 rpm and (n – m) = 36 rpm
(n + (n – m)) = 72; ⇒ n = 54
∴ D makes rpm 108
30
60
54 · ×
Problem 5: Figure 5 shows a compound
epicyclic gear train, gears S
1
and S
2
being
rigidly attached to the shaft Q. If the shaft
P rotates at 1000 rpm clockwise, while
the annular A
2
is driven in counter
clockwise direction at 500 rpm,
determine the speed and direction of
rotation of shaft Q. The number of teeth
in the wheels are S
1
= 24; S
2
= 40; A
1
=
100; A
2
= 120.
Solution: Consider the gear train P A
1
S
1
:
110
Operation
Arm
P
A
1
(100)
S
1
(24) Operation
Arm
P
A
1
(100
)
S
1
(24)
Arm P is fixed &
wheel A
1
is given
+1 revolution
0 +1
6
25
24
100
1
1
− ·
− × +
P
P
OR
Arm P is fixed
& wheel A
1
is
given -1
revolution
0 -1
1
1
1
1
1
1
S
A
S
P
P
A
+ ·
− × −
Multiply by m
(A
1
rotates through
m revolution)
0 +m m
6
25
− 0 -1
6
25
24
100
·
Add n revolutions
to all elements
n n+ m m n
6
25

Add +1
revolutions to
all elements
+1 0
6
31
1
6
25
· +
If A
1
is fixed: n+ m; gives n = - m

1
6
31
6
25
1
31
6
31
6 1
S P
S
P
N N
n n
n
N
N
· ∴
· ·
+
·
Now consider whole gear train:
Operation
A
1
(100)
A
2
(120)
S
1
(24), S
2
(40)
and Q
Arm P
A
1
is fixed &
wheel A
2
is given
+1 revolution
0 +1
3
40
120
2
2
− ·
− × +
P
P
31
18
31
6
3
− ·
× −
Multiply by m
(A
1
rotates through
m revolution)
0 +m m 3 −
m
31
18

Add n revolutions
to all elements
n n+ m m n 3 − m n
31
18

When P makes 1000 rpm: m n
31
18
− = 1000 (1)
and A
2
makes – 500 rpm: n+ m = -500 (2)
111
from (1) and (2): 1000
31
18
500 · − − − m m
( ) ( )
rpm n and
rpm m
m
449 500 949
949
49 31 500 1000 31
· − ·
− · ∴
− · × + ×
∴ N
Q
= n – 3 m = 449 – (3 × -949) = 3296 rpm
Problem 6. An internal
wheel B with 80 teeth is
keyed to a shaft F. A fixed
internal wheel C with 82
teeth is concentric with B. A
Compound gears D-E
meshed with the two
internal wheels. D has 28
teeth and meshes with
internal gear C while E
meshes with B. The
compound wheels revolve
freely on pin which projects
from a arm keyed to a shaft
A co-axial with F. if the
wheels have the same pitch
and the shaft A makes 800
rpm, what is the speed of the
shaft F? Sketch the
arrangement.
Data: t
B
= 80; t
C
= 82; D = 28; N
A
= 800 rpm
Solution: The pitch circle radius is proportional to the number of teeth:

112
F
D
E
C
A
B
Arm
C
B
E
D
A
B80
C82
D28
NA=800rpm
E gear on teeth of number
t
t
t t t t
r r r r
E
E
E B D C
E B D C

·
− · −
− · −
− · −
26
80 28 82
m+n n
Add n
revolutions to all
elements
+m 0
Multiply by m
(B rotates
through m
revolution)
+1 0
Arm is fixed & B
is given ONE
revolution (CW)
D (28) E(26)
C (82)
Compound Gear wheel
B (80) Arm Operation
m+n n
Add n
revolutions to all
elements
+m 0
Multiply by m
(B rotates
through m
revolution)
+1 0
Arm is fixed & B
is given ONE
revolution (CW)
D (28) E(26)
C (82)
Compound Gear wheel
B (80) Arm Operation
26
80
+
26
80
+
82
28
26
80
× +
m
13
40
+
m
13
40
+
m
41
14
13
40
× +
n m+
13
40
n m+
13
40
n m+ ×
41
14
13
40
Since the wheel C is fixed and the arm (shaft) A makes 800 rpm,
Problem 7: The fig shows an Epicyclic gear train. Wheel E is fixed and wheels C and D are
integrally cast and mounted on the same pin. If arm A makes one revolution per sec (Counter
clockwise) determine the speed and direction of rotation of the wheels B and F.
113
rpm m
m
n m
rpm n
42 . 761
0 800
41
14
13
40
0
41
14
13
40
800
− ·
· + ×
· + ×
· ⇒
rpm F shaft of Speed B gear of Speed
rpm n m B gear of Speed
58 . 38
58 . 38 800 42 . 761
· ·
· + − · + ·
Arm
B20
C35
D15
E20
F30
Solution:
Data: tB = 20; tC = 35; tD = 15; tE = 20; tF = 30 NA = 1rps-(CCW)
Since the wheel E is fixed and the arm A makes 1 rps-CCW
Problem 7: In the gear train shown, the wheel C is fixed, the gear B, is keyed to the input shaft and
the gear F is keyed to the output shaft.
114
m+n n
Add n
revolutions to
all elements
+m 0
Multiply by m
(B rotates
through m
revolution)
+1 0
Arm is fixed &
B is given
ONE
revolution
(CW)
C (35) D (15)
F (30) E (20)
Compound Gear
wheel
B (20) Arm Operation
m+n n
Add n
revolutions to
all elements
+m 0
Multiply by m
(B rotates
through m
revolution)
+1 0
Arm is fixed &
B is given
ONE
revolution
(CW)
C (35) D (15)
F (30) E (20)
Compound Gear
wheel
B (20) Arm Operation
15
20

3
7
20
35
3
4
+ ·
− × −
30
20
3
7
− ×
15
20

m
3
4

m
3
4
− m
3
7
m
9
14

m n
3
4

n m+
3
7
m n
9
14
− m n
3
4

429 . 0
7
3
0 1
3
7
0
3
7
1
· · ⇒ · −
· + − · ⇒
m m
n m and rps n
) ( 667 . 1 429 . 0
9
14
1
9
14
) ( 571 . 0 1 429 . 0
CCW m n F gear of Speed
CCW rps n m B gear of Speed
− · − − · − ·
− · − · + ·
D
6
0
C80
B20
F32
E30
Input
Shaft
Output
Shaft
A
The arm A, carrying the compound wheels D and E turns freely on the out put shaft. If the input
speed is 1000 rpm (ccw) when seen from the right, determine the speed of the output shaft. The
number of teeth on each gear is indicated in the figures. Find the output torque to keep the wheel C
fixed if the input power is 7.5 kW.
Solution:
Data :
t
B
= 20; t
C
= 80; t
D
= 60; t
E
= 30; t
F
= 32; N
B
= 1000 rpm (ccw) (input speed); P = 7.5 kW
Input shaft speed = 1000 rpm (ccw)
i.e., gear B rotates – 1000 rpm
115
m+n n
Add n
revolutions to
all elements
m 0
Multiply by m
(B rotates
through m
revolution)
+1 0
Arm is fixed &
B is given +1
revolution
E (30) D (60)
F (32) C (80)
Compound Gear
wheel
B (20)
Input
Arm Operation
m+n n
Add n
revolutions to
all elements
m 0
Multiply by m
(B rotates
through m
revolution)
+1 0
Arm is fixed &
B is given +1
revolution
E (30) D (60)
F (32) C (80)
Compound Gear
wheel
B (20)
Input
Arm Operation
3
1
60
20
·
4
1
80
60
3
1
− ·
− ×
16
5
32
30
3
1

− ×
3
1
m
3
1
m
3
1
m
4
1

m
16
5

m n
4
1

m n
16
5
− n m+
3
1
n m+
3
1
200 800 1000
800
25 . 1
1000
0 25 . 0 1000
0
4
1
;
1000
− · + − ·
− · − ·
· − − −
· −
− · +
n
m
m m
m n fixed is C Gear
n m
Figure 6
A2
A1
S2
P2
P1
S1
The Torque required to hold the wheel C = 1360.21 Nm in the same direction of wheel
Problem 8: Find the velocity ratio of two co-
axial shafts of the epicyclic gear train as shown
in figure 6. S
1
is the driver. The number of teeth
on the gears are S
1
= 40, A
1
= 120, S
2
= 30, A
2
=
100 and the sun wheel S
2
is fixed. Determine also
the magnitude and direction of the torque
required to fix S
2
, if a torque of 300 N-m is
applied in a clockwise direction to S
1

116
) ( 50
50
16
5
800 200
16
5
CW rpm F shaft output the of Speed
m n F of Speed
+ ·
· + − ·
− ·
Nm T
T
T N
P power Input
B
B B
59 . 71
1000 2
60 7500
60
1000 2
1000 5 . 7
60
2
− ·
× ×
×
− ·
× − × ×
· ×
× ×
· ·
π
π
π
B
Nm T
T
N T N T
N fixed is C Since
N T N T N T
equation energy the From
F
F
F F B
C
C C F F B
8 . 1431
0 50 1000 59 . 71
0
0 :
0
;
+ ·
· × + × −
· +
·
· + +
B
B
Nm T
T
T T T
equation torque the From
C
C
C F
21 . 1360
0 8 . 1431 59 . 71
0
:
− · ∴
· + + −
· + +
B
2 A
T
2 S
T
2 A
ω
1 S
ω
1 S
T
Solution: Consider first the gear train S
1,
A
1
and
A
2
for which A
2
is the arm, in order to find the
speed ratio of S
1
to A
2,
when A
1
is fixed.
(a) Consider gear train S
1,
A
1
and A
2
:
Operation
A
2
(100)
A
1
(120)
S
1
(40)
A
2
is fixed &
wheel A
1
is given
+1 revolution
0 +1 3
40
120
− · −
Multiply by m
(A
1
rotates through
m revolution)
0 +m
m 3 −
Add n revolutions
to all elements
n n+ m
m n 3 −
A
1
is fixed:
n m − ·
2 1
2
1
4
4
3
A S
A
S
N N
n
n n
N
N
· ∴
·
+
·
(b) Consider complete gear train:
Operation A
1
(120) A
2
(100) S
1
(40) S
2
(30)
A
1
is fixed & wheel S
2
is given
+1 revolution
0
10
3
100
30
− · −
5
6
4
10
3
− · × − +1
Multiply by m
(A
1
rotates through m revolution)
0 m
10
3
− · m
5
6

+m
Add n revolutions to all elements n m n
10
3
− m n
5
6

n+ m
S
2
is fixed ⇒ m = - n
13
22
13
10
5
11
10
3
5
6
2
1
· × ·
+
+
·
n n
n n
N
N
A
S
Input torque on S
1
= T
S1
= 300 N-m, in the direction of rotation.
∴ Resisting torque on A
2
;
117

rotation of directiojn to opposite
m N T
A

− · × · 7 . 507
13
22
300
2
∴ Referring to the figure:

) ( 7 . 207 300 7 . 507
2
CW m N T
S
− · − ·
118
Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
Session – I
• Introduction
Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines.
Kinematics does not involve study of forces. Thus motion leads study of displacement,
velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine.
Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their
velocities and accelerations at different moments.
As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of
velocities, study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of
a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as
configuration diagram. The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well
as analytical method.
• Some important Definitions
Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance
is known, linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’.
A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in
circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’.
Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity
of angular velocity.
Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V =
dt
dx
Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω =
dt

Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.
x = rθ
dt
dx
= r
dt

119
V = rω
ω =
dt

Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity
f =
2
2
dt
x d
dt
dv
· Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity)
Thirdly α =
2
2
dt
d
dt
d θ ω
· Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity)
We also have,
Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point).
V
a
= ω
2
x r
V
a
= ω
2
x O
2
A
Ex: Vao
2
is absolute velocity.

Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’
Ex: V
ba
 Velocity of point B with respect to A
Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are used for
velocity vector diagram.
O
2
ω
2
A
O
2
O
4
2
A
3
B
4
120
This is absolute velocity
Velocity of point A with respect to O
2
fixed point, zero velocity point.
V
ba
= or V
ab
V
ba
= or V
ab
Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
V
b
 Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O
4
(fixed point, zero velocity
point)
Velocity vector diagram
Vector a O
2
= V
a
= Absolute velocity
Vector
ab
= V
ab

ba
= V
a
V
ab
is equal magnitude with V
ba
but is apposite in direction.
A
3
B
O
4
B
b
V
ba
V
ab
V
b
O
2
, O
4
a
121
Relative velocity
Vector b O
4
= V
b
absolute velocity.
To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Let, us
consider a simple situation.
A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30
o
to the
horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically
upwards. Find velocity of B.
V
a
= 4 m/s
ab
Absolute velocity Horizontal direction
(known in magnitude and directors)
V
b
= ?
ab
Absolute velocity Vertical direction
(known in directors only)
Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect
to B but opposite in direction.
• Relative Velocity Equation
C
O
V
b
V
ba
a
V
a
V
ab
30
o
B
4 m/s
A
O
4
y
a
y
R
A
θ
x
A
x
Rigid body
O
122
Fig. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body.
Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre.
Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O, as shown in figure. The
distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link
x
A
= R cos θ, y
A
= R sin θ.
Differentiating x
A
with respect to time gives velocity.
( )
dt
d
sin R
dt
d
xA
θ
θ − ·
= - Rω sin θ
Similarly, ( )
dt
θ d
θ cos R
dt
dy
A
− ·
= - Rω cos θ
Let,
x
A
xA
V
dt
d
·
y
A
yA
V
dt
d
·
ω =
dt
θ d
= angular velocity of OA
x
A
V ∴ = - Rω sin θ

y
A
V = - Rω cos θ
∴ Total velocity of point A is given by
V
A
=
( ) ( )
2 2
θ cos sin ω θ ω R R − + −
V
A
= Rω
• Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link
123
Fig. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body
From Fig. 2
x
B
= x
A
+ R cos θ y
B
= y
A
+ R sin θ
Differentiating x
B
and y
B
with respect to time
we get,
( )
dt
d
sin R
dt
d
V
dt
d
xA x
B
xB
θ
θ − + · ·
θ ω ω sin V θ sin R R
dt
d
x
A
xA
− · + ·
Similarly, ( )
dt
θ d
θ os c R
dt
d
V
dt
d
yA y
B
yB
+ · ·
θ cos V θ cos ω ω R R
dt
d
y
A
yA
− · + ·
V
A
=
x
A
V

y
A
V
= Total velocity of point A
Similarly, V
B
=
x
B
V

y
B
V
= Total velocity of point B
=
x
A
V
(Rω sin θ)
y
A
V
Rω cos θ
x
A
R sin θ
A
y
B
x
Rigid body
y
A
B
R cos θ
x
B
124
= (
x
A
V
y
A
V
) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ)
= (
x
A
V
y
A
V
) V
A
Similarly, ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω
∴V
B
= V
A
Rω = V
A
V
B
A
∴V
BA
= V
B


V
A
Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods.
1. By graphical method
2. By relative velocity method
3. By instantaneous method
• By Graphical Method
The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method.
1. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale.
2. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram.
3. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity.
4. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥
r
to the link.
5. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. Start from a
point whose magnitude and direction is known.
6. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters.
To explain the method let us take a few specific examples.
1. Four – Bar Mechanism : In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm
long. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpmω (cw) while link CD rotates
about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and
BAD |
= 60
o
. Find angular velocity of link CD.
60
o
w
BA
A D
B
C
15 cm
15 cm
8 cm
125
Configuration Diagram
Velocity vector diagram
V
b
= ωr = ω
ba
x AB = 4 x
60
120 x 2π
= 50.24 cm/sec
Choose a suitable scale
1 cm = 20 m/s =
ab
V
cb
=
bc
V
c
=
dc
= 38 cm/s = V
cd

We know that V =ω R
V
cd
= ω
CD
x CD
W
cD
= 75 . 4
8
38 V
cd
· ·
CD
rad/s (cw)
2. Slider Crank Mechanism:
In a crank and slotted lover mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter
clockwise direction. Find
(i) Angular velocity of connecting rod and
(ii) Velocity of slider.

r
to CD

r
to BC

r
to AB
a, d
b
c
Vcb
126
Configuration diagram
Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0,
V
A
= ω
O1A
x O
2
A = 60 x
60
300 x 2π
= 600 π mm/sec
Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.
Velocity vector diagram
V
ab
=
ab
=1300mm/sec
ω
ba
= 66 . 8
150
1300
· ·
BA
V
ba
rad/sec
V
b
=
ob
velocity of slider
Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding.
3. Shaper Mechanism:
In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O
2
A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW
direction. Determine the velocity of slider.
60 mm
45
o
A
B
150 mm
O
V
a
a
b

r
to AB ⊥
r
to OA
Along sides B
127
Configuration diagram
Velocity vector diagram
V
a
= ω
2
x O
2
A
C O
c O
B O
b O
1
1
1
1
·
To locate point C

,
_

¸
¸
· ∴
B O
C O
b O c O
1
1
1 1
To Determine Velocity of Rubbing
4
O
1
O
2
C
B
3
2
ω
5
6
D
Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m
Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m/s
d O
1
O
2
V
DC
c
a
b
V
BA
V
AO2
= V
A
V
BO1
128
Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. When
the links are motion they rub against pin surface. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends
on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction.
For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A, B, C and D.
∴ V
ra
= ω
ab
x ratios of pin A (r
pa
)
+ sign is used ω
ab
is CW and W
bc is
CCW i.e. when angular velocities are in
opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use -
ve
sign.
V
rC
= (ω
bc
+ ω
cd
) radius r
V
rD
= ω
cd
r
pd
Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions)
Problem 1:
In a four bar mechanism, the dimensions of the links are as given below:
AB = 50 mm, BC = 66 mm
CD = 56 mm and AD = 100 mm
At a given instant when
o
60 DAB | ·
the angular velocity of link AB is 10.5
rad/sec in CCW direction.
Determine,
i) Velocity of point C
ii) Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm
iii) The angular velocity of link BC and CD
iv) The velocity of an offset point F on link BC, if BF = 45 mm, CF = 30
mm and BCF is read clockwise.
v) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD, if CG = 24 mm, DG = 44
mm and DCG is read clockwise.
vi) The velocity of rubbing of pins A, B, C and D. The ratio of the pins
are 30 mm, 40 mm, 25 mm and 35 mm respectively.
129
Solution:
Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale.
Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm
Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine
velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence, it is zero velocity point).
V
ba
= ω
BA
x BA
= 10.5 x 0.05 = 0.525 m/s
Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale, say 1 cm = 0.2 m/s.
• First locate zero velocity points.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to
0.525 m/s.
• From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BC and from d. Draw d line ⊥
r
to CD to interest at C.
• V
cb
is given vector bc V
bc
= 0.44 m/s
• V
cd
is given vector dc V
cd
= 0.39 m/s
Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC, first locate the
position of point E on velocity vector diagram. This can be done by taking corresponding
ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.e.
60
o
A
D
B
C
F
G
C
f
V
ed
a, d
e, g
V
ba
= 0.525 m/s
b
130
BC
BE
bc
be
·
∴ be =
BC
BE
x V
cb
=
066 . 0
04 . 0
x 0.44 = 0.24 m/s
Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a, d / vector
de
= V
e
=
0.415 m/s.
Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD, we know V
bc
and V
cd
.
∴ V
bc

BC
x BC
∴ W
BC
= ) ( . / 6 . 6
066 . 0
44 . 0
cw s r
BC
V
bc
· ·
Similarly, V
cd
= W
CD
x CD
∴ W
CD
= s / r 96 . 6
056 . 0
39 . 0
CD
V
cd
· · (CCW)
Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to CF from C on velocity vector diagram.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously
drawn line at ‘f’.
• From the point f to zero velocity point a, d and measure vector fa/fd to get V
f
=
0.495 m/s.
Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously
drawn line at g.
• Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G.
V
g
= s / m 305 . 0 dg ·
Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins
• Rubbing velocity at pin A will be
131
V
pa
= ω
ab
x r of pin A
V
pa
= 10.5 x 0.03 = 0.315 m/s
• Rubbing velocity at pin B will be
V
pb
= (ω
ab
+ ω
cb
) x r
ad
of point at B.

ab
CCW and ω
cb
CW]
V
pb
= (10.5 + 6.6) x 0.04 = 0.684 m/s.
• Rubbing velocity at point C will be
= 6.96 x 0.035 = 0.244 m/s
Problem 2:
In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in
a CCW direction. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm. When the crank turns
through 60
o
from Inner-dead centre.
Determine,
i) The velocity of the slider
ii) Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod
extended.
iii) The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least
absolute velocity.
iv) The angular velocity of connecting rod.
v) The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft, crank and cross head having
pins diameters 80,60 and 100 mm respectively.
Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale.
V
a
= W
oa
x OA
45
o
B
F
E
A
O G
132
V
a
= 40 x 0.2
V
a
= 8 m/s
Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector
diagram.
• Mark zero velocity point o, g.
• Draw
oa

r
to link OA equal to 8 m/s
• From a draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and from o, g draw a horizontal line (representing the
line of motion of slider B) to X
seet
the previously drawn line at b.

ab
give V
ba
=4.8 m/sec
Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn
be
= ab x
AB
BE

mark the point e on extension of vector ba. Join e to o, g. ge will give velocity of point
E.
V
e
= ge =8.4 m/sec
Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).
Draw a line ⊥
r
to
ab
passing through o, g to cut the vector ab at f. From f to o, g.
gf will have the least absolute velocity.
• To mark the position of F on link AB.
Find BF by using the relation.
AB
ab
BF
fb
·
e
a
f
b o, g
Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s
133
AB x
ab
fb
BF·
=200mm
Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.
We know that V
ab
= ω
ab
x AB
∴ ω
ab
=
AB
V
ab
= 6 rad/sec
Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins.
• V
pcrankshaft
= ω
ao
x radius of crankshaft pin
= 8 x 0.08
= 0.64 m/s
• V
Pcrank pin
= (ω
ab
+ ω
oa
) r
crank pin
= (6 +8)0.06 =0.84 m/sec
• V
P cross head
= ω
ab
x r
cross head
= 6 x 0.1 = 0.6 m/sec
• Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping
machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows.
O
1
O
2
= 800 mm, O
1
B = 300 mm, O
2
D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm
The crank O
1
B makes an angle of 45
o
with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the
CCW direction. Find:
i) Velocity of the Ram R, velocity of cutting tool, and
ii) Angular velocity of link O
2
D.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
134

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.
V
b
= ω
O1B
x O
1
B
ω
O1B
= sec / rad 18 . 4
60
40 x 2
60
N 2
B 1 O
·
π
·
π
V
b
= 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec
Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.
Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec
o Draw O
1
b ⊥
r
to link O
1
B equal to 1.254 m/s.
O
2
O
1
D
C
B
2
45
o
R
O
2
O
1
D
C on O
2
D
B on orank, O, B
R
Tool
200
r
O
1
O
2
d
b
c
135
o From b draw a line along the line of O
2
B and from O
1
O
2
draw a line ⊥
r
to O
2
B.
This intersects at c
bc
will measure velocity of sliding of slider and C O
2
will
measure the velocity of C on link O
2
C.
o Since point D is on the extension of link O
2
C measure
d O
2
such that
d O
2
=
C O
D O
C O
2
2
2 . d O
2
will give velocity of point D.
o From d draw a line ⊥
r
to link DR and from O
1
O
2
. Draw a line along the line
of stroke of Ram R (horizontal), These two lines will intersect at point r r O
2

will give the velocity of Ram R.
o To determine the angular velocity of link O
2
D determine V
d
=
d O
2
.
We know that V
d
= ω
O2D
x O
2
D.

D O
d O
2
2
d O
2
· ω r/s
• Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates
at 120 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.
• Solution:
136
Configuration Diagram
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal.
Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.
V
ao
= ω
OA
x OA
V
ao
= s / m 024 . 5 4 . 0
60
120 x 2
· ·
π
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.
o Choose a suitable scale
o Mark zero velocity points O,q
o Draw vector
oa

r
to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 m/s.
Velocity vector diagram
o From a draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and from q draw a line ⊥
r
to QB to intersect at b.
100
190
135 120
120
D
B
A
45
o
40
All the dimensions in mm
a b
D
O,q
137
bq ba
V qb and V ab · · .
o Draw a line ⊥
r
to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at
d.
) velocity slider ( V dq
d
·
• Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following
dimensions of the links.
The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2.5 r/s at the moment when crank
makes an angle of 45
o
with vertical. Calculate
a) the velocity of the Ram S
b) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level
c) the angular velocity of the link RS.
• Solution:
Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
Configuration Diagram
Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P.
V
P
= ω
OP
x OP
S
R
A
O
B
P on slider Q on
BA
45
o
138
OP (crank) = 240 mm
OA = 150 mm
AR = 165 mm
RS = 430 mm
V
ao
= s / m 6 . 0 24 . 0 x
60
240 x 2
·
π
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.
Velocity vector diagram
o Draw
op

r
link OP = 0.6 m.
o From O, a, g draw a line ⊥
r
to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to
intersect previously draw, line at q. Pq = Velocity of sliding.
aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A.
V
qa
= aq =
o Angular velocity of link RS =
SR
sr
RS
· ω
rad/sec
• Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the
links in mm. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of
links AB, BQ and BC. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction.
q
r
P
S
O, a, g
0.6 m
139
• Solution
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA
V
a
=
s / m 1507 . 0 s / m 05 . 0 03 . 0 x
60
50 x 2
· π ·
,
_

¸
¸ π
Vector velocity diagram
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.
o Draw
Oa

r
to link OA = 0.15 m/s
o From a draw a link ⊥
r
to AB and from O, q draw a link ⊥
r
to BQ to intersect at b.
B
A
100
Q
C
140
O
50 rpm
All dimensions are in mm
OA = 30
AB = 80
BQ = 100
BC = 100
b
a
O, q c
140
· ·
ba
V ab and s / m 13 . 0 V qb
b
· ·
ω
ab
=
) ccw ( s / r 74 . 0
AB
ab
·
ω
bq

) ccw ( s / r 3 . 1
aB
qb
·
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to Be and from O, q these two lines intersect at C.
s / m 106 . 0 V OC
C
· ·
· ·
Cb
V bC
) ccw ( s / r 33 . 1
BC
bc
BC
· · ω
• Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure
in mm. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA
is inclined at 30
o
to the horizontal. What will be the torque required at the crank to
overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.
Configuration diagram
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA =
s / m 26 . 1 1 . 0 x
60
120 x 2
·
,
_

¸
¸ π
200
360
400
200
600
320
500
100
100
60
o
600
M
A
B C
D
K
hz
h
2
141
Velocity vector diagram
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.
o Draw
Oa

r
to link OA = 1.26 m/s
o From a draw a link ⊥
r
to AB and from q draw a link ⊥
r
to BQ to intersect at b.
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BC and from a, draw a line ⊥
r
to AC to intersect at c.
o From c draw a line ⊥
r
to CD and from m draw a line ⊥
r
to MD to intersect at d.
o From d draw a line ⊥
r
to KD and from m draw a line ⊥
r
to KM to x intersect the
previously drawn line at k.
o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal
force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o, q, m and c line ⊥
r
to this
line from k.
( ) ( )
P
O
P
I
T T ω · ω ∴
V = ω
R
T = F x P F =
r
T
∴ ω
OA
T
OA
= F
k
V
k
horizontal
∴ T
OA
=
( )
OA
hz k k
V F
ω
T
OA
=
6 . 12
45 . 0 X 40000
= N-m
c a
d
b
k
V
k
(hz)
o, q, m
142
• Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm, AC = 680 mm and
OQ = 650 mm.
Determine,
i) The angular velocity of the cylinder
ii) The sliding velocity of the plunger
iii) The absolute velocity of the plunger
When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram
o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA = 20 x 0.32 = 6.4 m/s
o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram.
o Mark the zero velocity point. Draw vector
oa

r
to link OA equal to 6.4 m/s.
o From a draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and from o, q, draw a line perpendicular to AB.
A
O R
B on AR (point on AR
below Q)
60
o C
O, q
b
c
a
143
o To mark point c on
ab
We know that
AC
AB
ac
ab
·

AB
AC x ab
ac · =
o Mark point c on
ab
and joint this to zero velocity point.
o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.
ω
ab
=
AB
V
ab
= 5.61 rad/sec (cω)
o Studying velocity of player will be
qb = 4.1 m/s
o Absolute velocity of plunger =
qc
OC
= 4.22 m/s
• Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving
crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. The length of the various links are:
Determine,
i) The velocity of slider block S
ii) The angular velocity of link EF
iii) The velocity of link EF in the swivel block.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
144
AB = 650 mm
AB = 100 mm
BC = 800 mm
DC = 250 mm
BE = CF
EF = 400 mm
OF = 240 mm
FS = 400 mm
Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A.
V
b
= ω
BA
x BA
V
b
=
60
300 x 2π
x 0.1 = 3.14 m/s
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale.
o Mark zero velocity point a, d, o, g.
Velocity vector diagram
o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and equal to 3.14 m/s.
o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥
r
to DC to intersect at C.
45
o
300
400
400
B
E
O
A D
P
S
G
F
a, d, o, g
c
b
P
f
S
145
o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that
BC
BE
x bc be ·
o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥
r
to PE and from ‘a,d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P.
o Extend the vector ep to ef such that
EF x
EP
ef
ef ·
o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥
r
to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the
slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S.
o Velocity of slider s / m 6 . 2 gS · . Angular Velocity of link EF.
o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = s / m 85 . 1 OP · .
• Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1. The
angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec. Determine the angular velocity
of links 3 and 4, and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
Step 2: Given ω
2
= 10 rad/sec. Calculate velocity of B with respect to G.
V
b
= ω
2
x BG
V
b
= 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec.
φ 50 mm
φ 40 mm
30
o
60 mm
3
ω
2
G
2
B
C
D
F
4
A
146
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.
Redrawn configuration diagram
• Velocity vector diagram
o Draw gb = 0.43 m/s ⊥
r
to BG.
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥
r
to CF to intersect at C.
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BE and from g, f draw a line ⊥
r
to GE to intersect at e.
o From c draw a line ⊥
r
to CD and from f draw a line ⊥
r
to FD to intersect at d.
• Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular
velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.
i) Velocity of point D.
ii) Angular velocity of link BD.
30
o
G
E
B
F
D
C
50 mm
e g, f
d
b
c
147
iii) Velocity of slider C.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.
Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O
2
.
V
b
= ω
2
x O
2
A
V
b
= 1 x 50.8 = 50.8 mm/sec.
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram, locate zero velocity points O
2
O
6
.
o From O
2
, O
6
draw a line ⊥
r
to O
2
A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.8
mm/sec.
4
C
O
2
= 50.8 mm
AB = 102 mm
BD = 102 mm
DO
6
= 102 mm
AC = 203 mm
102 mm
A
O
6
D
5
6
B
3
O
2
45
o
O
2
O
6
C
b
V
d
a
d
U
db
148
o From a draw a line ⊥
r
to Ac and from O
2
, O
6
draw a line along the line of stocks
of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c.
o Mark point b on vector ac such that
AB x
AC
ab
ab ·
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BD and from O
2
, O
6
draw a line ⊥
r
to O
6
D to intersect at
d.
Step 4: V
d
= d O
6
= 32 mm/sec
ω
bd
=
BD
bd
=
V
c
= C O
2
=
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE
• Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance
of 50 mm from the centre C. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively
crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. Draw the velocity vector
diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB.
• Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C,
E and F and the angular velocities of links, BC, CDE and EF.
A
C
50 mm
B
149
• The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100
rpm in the CCW direction. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm, OA = 300
mm, AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular
to ⊥
r
AO and in 120 mm from O. Determine the velocity of the slider when
AOP |
is
135
o
and also mention the maximum velocity of slider.
• Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure.
The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW, link O
2
P = 40 mm.
F
E
C
B
A
120
D
150
100
50
100

rpm
60
120
o
120
All dimensions are in mm
D
B
O
45
o
A
C
45
o
3
P
4
2
Q on link 4
150
• Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω
direction at 240 rpm. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF.
F
B
A
E C
45
o
AB = 160 mm
BC = 160 mm
CD = 100 mm
AD = 200 mm
EF = 200 mm
CE = 40 mm
100 mm
151

II Method
• Instantaneous Method
To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear
motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having
velocities as V
a
and V
b
respectively in the direction shown.
Fig. 1
If a line is drawn ⊥
r
to V
a
, at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some
point on the line. Thirdly, centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥
r
to the
direction of V
b
at B. If the intersection of the two lines is at I, the body P will be rotating
about I at that instant. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the
body P. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body.
Fig. 2
In case of the ⊥
r
lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2.
Fig. 3
If the direction of V
a
and V
b
are parallel to the ⊥
r
at A and B met at ∞. This is the case
when the body has linear motion.
A
V
a
V
b
B
I
P
q
A
V
a
V
b
B
I
P
q
A
V
a
I at ∞
B
V
b
152
153
Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES
Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION
Session – I
• Introduction
Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines.
Kinematics does not involve study of forces. Thus motion leads study of displacement,
velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine.
Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their
velocities and accelerations at different moments.
As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of
velocities, study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of
a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as
configuration diagram. The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well
as analytical method.
• Some important Definitions
Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance
is known, linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’.
A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in
circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’.
Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity
of angular velocity.
Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V =
dt
dx
Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω =
dt

Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.
x = rθ
dt
dx
= r
dt

V = rω
154
ω =
dt

Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity
f =
2
2
dt
x d
dt
dv
· Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity)
Thirdly α =
2
2
dt
d
dt
d θ ω
· Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity)
We also have,
Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point).
V
a
= ω
2
x r
V
a
= ω
2
x O
2
A
Ex: Vao
2
is absolute velocity.

Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’
Ex: V
ba
 Velocity of point B with respect to A
Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are used for
velocity vector diagram.
This is absolute velocity
O
2
ω
2
A
O
2
O
4
2
A
3
B
4
155
Velocity of point A with respect to O
2
fixed point, zero velocity point.
V
ba
= or V
ab
V
ba
= or V
ab
Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
V
b
 Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O
4
(fixed point, zero velocity
point)
Velocity vector diagram
Vector a O
2
= V
a
= Absolute velocity
Vector
ab
= V
ab

ba
= V
a
V
ab
is equal magnitude with V
ba
but is apposite in direction.
Vector b O
4
= V
b
absolute velocity.
A
3
B
O
4
B
b
V
ba
V
ab
V
b
O
2
, O
4
a
156
Relative velocity
To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Let, us
consider a simple situation.
A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30
o
to the
horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically
upwards. Find velocity of B.
157
V
a
= 4 m/s
ab
Absolute velocity Horizontal direction
(known in magnitude and directors)
V
b
= ?
ab
Absolute velocity Vertical direction
(known in directors only)
Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect
to B but opposite in direction.
• Relative Velocity Equation
Fig. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body.
Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre.
Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O, as shown in figure. The
distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link
x
A
= R cos θ, y
A
= R sin θ.
C
O
V
b
V
ba
a
V
a
V
ab
30
o
B
4 m/s
A
O
4
y
a
y
R
A
θ
x
A
x
Rigid body
O
158
Differentiating x
A
with respect to time gives velocity.
( )
dt
d
sin R
dt
d
xA
θ
θ − ·
= - Rω sin θ
Similarly, ( )
dt
θ d
θ cos R
dt
dy
A
− ·
= - Rω cos θ
Let,
x
A
xA
V
dt
d
·
y
A
yA
V
dt
d
·
ω =
dt
θ d
= angular velocity of OA
x
A
V ∴ = - Rω sin θ

y
A
V = - Rω cos θ
∴ Total velocity of point A is given by
V
A
=
( ) ( )
2 2
θ cos sin ω θ ω R R − + −
V
A
= Rω
• Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link
159
Fig. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body
From Fig. 2
x
B
= x
A
+ R cos θ y
B
= y
A
+ R sin θ
Differentiating x
B
and y
B
with respect to time
we get,
( )
dt
d
sin R
dt
d
V
dt
d
xA x
B
xB
θ
θ − + · ·
θ ω ω sin V θ sin R R
dt
d
x
A
xA
− · + ·
Similarly, ( )
dt
θ d
θ os c R
dt
d
V
dt
d
yA y
B
yB
+ · ·
θ cos V θ cos ω ω R R
dt
d
y
A
yA
− · + ·
V
A
=
x
A
V

y
A
V
= Total velocity of point A
Similarly, V
B
=
x
B
V

y
B
V
= Total velocity of point B
=
x
A
V
(Rω sin θ)
y
A
V
Rω cos θ
x
A
R sin θ
A
y
B
x
Rigid body
y
A
B
R cos θ
x
B
160
= (
x
A
V
y
A
V
) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ)
= (
x
A
V
y
A
V
) V
A
Similarly, ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω
∴V
B
= V
A
Rω = V
A
V
B
A
∴V
BA
= V
B


V
A
Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods.
4. By graphical method
5. By relative velocity method
6. By instantaneous method
• By Graphical Method
The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method.
7. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale.
8. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram.
9. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity.
10. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥
r
to the link.
11. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. Start from a
point whose magnitude and direction is known.
12. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters.
To explain the method let us take a few specific examples.
4. Four – Bar Mechanism : In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm
long. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpm (cw) while link CD rotates about
D is 8 cm long BC = AD and
BAD |
= 60
o
. Find angular velocity of link CD.
161
Configuration Diagram
Velocity vector diagram
V
b
= ωr = ω
ba
x AB = 4 x
60
120 x 2π
= 50.24 cm/sec
Choose a suitable scale
1 cm = 20 m/s =
ab
V
cb
=
bc
V
c
=
dc
= 38 cm/sec = V
cd

We know that V =ω R
V
cd
= ω
CD
x CD
ω
cD
= 75 . 4
8
38 V
cd
· ·
CD
rad/sec (cw)
5. Slider Crank Mechanism:
60
o
ω
BA
A D
B
C
15 cm
15 cm
8 cm

r
to CD

r
to BC

r
to AB
a, d
b
c
Vcb
162
In a crank and slotted lever mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter
clockwise direction. Find
(iii) Angular velocity of connecting rod and
(iv) Velocity of slider.
Configuration diagram
Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0,
V
A
= ω
O1A
x O
2
A = 60 x
60
300 x 2π
= 600 π mm/sec
Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.
Velocity vector diagram
V
ab
=
ab
=1300mm/sec
ω
ba
= 66 . 8
150
1300
· ·
BA
V
ba
rad/sec
V
b
=
ob
velocity of slider
Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding.
60 mm
45
o
A
B
150 mm
O
V
a
a
b

r
to AB ⊥
r
to OA
Along sides B
163
6. Shaper Mechanism:
In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O
2
A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW
direction. Determine the velocity of slider.
Configuration diagram
Velocity vector diagram
V
a
= ω
2
x O
2
A
C O
c O
B O
b O
1
1
1
1
·
To locate point C

,
_

¸
¸
· ∴
B O
C O
b O c O
1
1
1 1
4
O
1
O
2
C
B
3
2
ω
5
6
D
Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m
Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m/s
d O
1
O
2
V
DC
c
a
b
V
BA
V
AO2
= V
A
V
BO1
164
To Determine Velocity of Rubbing
Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. When
the links are motion they rub against pin surface. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends
on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction.
For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A, B, C and D.
∴ V
ra
= ω
ab
x ratios of pin A (r
pa
)
+ sign is used ω
ab
is CW and W
bc is
CCW i.e. when angular velocities are in
opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use -
ve
sign.
V
rb
= (ω
ab
+ ω
bc
) radius r
pb
V
rC
= (ω
bc
+ ω
cd
) radius r
pc
V
rD
= ω
cd
r
pd
Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions)
Problem 1:
In a four bar mechanism, the dimensions of the links are as given below:
AB = 50 mm, BC = 66 mm
CD = 56 mm and AD = 100 mm
At a given instant when
o
60 DAB | ·
the angular velocity of link AB is 10.5
rad/sec in CCW direction.
Determine,
i) Velocity of point C
ii) Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm
iii) The angular velocity of link BC and CD
iv) The velocity of an offset point F on link BC, if BF = 45 mm, CF = 30
mm and BCF is read clockwise.
165
v) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD, if CG = 24 mm, DG = 44
mm and DCG is read clockwise.
vi) The velocity of rubbing of pins A, B, C and D. The ratio of the pins
are 30 mm, 40 mm, 25 mm and 35 mm respectively.
Solution:
Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale.
Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm
Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine
velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence, it is zero velocity point).
V
ba
= ω
BA
x BA
= 10.5 x 0.05 = 0.525 m/s
Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale, say 1 cm = 0.2 m/s.
• First locate zero velocity points.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to
0.525 m/s.
• From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BC and from d. Draw d line ⊥
r
to CD to interest at C.
• V
cb
is given vector bc V
bc
= 0.44 m/s
60
o
A
D
B
C
F
G
C
f
V
ed
a, d
e, g
V
ba
= 0.525 m/s
b
166
• V
cd
is given vector dc V
cd
= 0.39 m/s
Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC, first locate the
position of point E on velocity vector diagram. This can be done by taking corresponding
ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.e.
BC
BE
bc
be
·
∴ be =
BC
BE
x V
cb
=
066 . 0
04 . 0
x 0.44 = 0.24 m/s
Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a, d / vector
de
= V
e
=
0.415 m/s.
Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD, we know V
bc
and V
cd
.
∴ V
bc

BC
x BC
∴ ω
BC
= ) ( . / 6 . 6
066 . 0
44 . 0
cw s r
BC
V
bc
· ·
Similarly, V
cd
= ω
CD
x CD
∴ ω
CD
= s / r 96 . 6
056 . 0
39 . 0
CD
V
cd
· · (CCW)
Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to CF from C on velocity vector diagram.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously
drawn line at ‘f’.
• From the point f to zero velocity point a, d and measure vector fa to get
V
f
= 0.495 m/s.
Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.
• Draw a line ⊥
r
to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously
drawn line at g.
• Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G.
167
V
g
= s / m 305 . 0 dg ·
Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins
• Rubbing velocity at pin A will be
V
pa
= ω
ab
x r of pin A
V
pa
= 10.5 x 0.03 = 0.315 m/s
• Rubbing velocity at pin B will be
V
pb
= (ω
ab
+ ω
cb
) x r
pb
of point at B.

ab
CCW and ω
cb
CW]
V
pb
= (10.5 + 6.6) x 0.04 = 0.684 m/s.
• Rubbing velocity at point C will be
= 6.96 x 0.035 = 0.244 m/s
Problem 2:
In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in
a CCW direction. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm. When the crank turns
through 60
o
from Inner-dead centre.
Determine,
vi) The velocity of the slider
vii) Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod
extended.
viii) The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least
absolute velocity.
ix) The angular velocity of connecting rod.
x) The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft, crank and cross head having
pins diameters 80,60 and 100 mm respectively.
Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale.
168
V
a
= W
oa
x OA
V
a
= 40 x 0.2
V
a
= 8 m/s
Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector
diagram.
• Mark zero velocity point o, g.
• Draw
oa

r
to link OA equal to 8 m/s
• From a draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and from o, g draw a horizontal line (representing the
line of motion of slider B) to intersect the previously drawn line at b.

ab
give V
ba
=4.8 m/sec
Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn
be
= ab x
AB
BE

mark the point e on extension of vector ba. Join e to o, g. ge will give velocity of point
E.
V
e
= ge =8.4 m/sec
Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).
45
o
B
F
E
A
O G
e
a
f
b o, g
Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s
169
Draw a line ⊥
r
to
ab
passing through o, g to cut the vector ab at f. From f to o, g.
gf will have the least absolute velocity.
• To mark the position of F on link AB.
Find BF by using the relation.
AB
ab
BF
fb
·
AB x
ab
fb
BF·
=200mm
Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.
We know that V
ab
= ω
ab
x AB
∴ ω
ab
=
AB
V
ab
= 6 rad/sec
Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins.
• V
pcrankshaft
= ω
ao
x radius of crankshaft pin
= 8 x 0.08
= 0.64 m/s
• V
Pcrank pin
= (ω
ab
+ ω
oa
) r
crank pin
= (6 +8)0.06 =0.84 m/sec
• V
P cross head
= ω
ab
x r
cross head
= 6 x 0.1 = 0.6 m/sec
170
• Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping
machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows.
O
1
O
2
= 800 mm, O
1
B = 300 mm, O
2
D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm
The crank O
1
B makes an angle of 45
o
with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the
CCW direction. Find:
iii) Velocity of the Ram R, velocity of cutting tool, and
iv) Angular velocity of link O
2
D.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.
V
b
= ω
O1B
x O
1
B
ω
O1B
= sec / rad 18 . 4
60
40 x 2
60
N 2
B 1 O
·
π
·
π
V
b
= 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec
O
2
O
1
D
C
B
2
45
o
R
O
2
O
1
D
C on O
2
D
B on orank, O, B
R
Tool
200
171
172
Step 3 : Draw velocity vector diagram.
Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec
o Draw O
1
b ⊥
r
to link O
1
B equal to 1.254 m/s.
o From b draw a line along the line of O
2
B and from O
1
O
2
draw a line ⊥
r
to O
2
B.
This intersects at c
bc
will measure velocity of sliding of slider and C O
2
will
measure the velocity of C on link O
2
C.
o Since point D is on the extension of link O
2
C measure
d O
2
such that
d O
2
=
C O
D O
C O
2
2
2 . d O
2
will give velocity of point D.
o From d draw a line ⊥
r
to link DR and from O
1
O
2
. Draw a line along the line
of stroke of Ram R (horizontal), These two lines will intersect at point r r O
2

will give the velocity of Ram R.
o To determine the angular velocity of link O
2
D determine V
d
=
d O
2
.
We know that V
d
= ω
O2D
x O
2
D.

D O
d O
2
2
d O
2
· ω r/s
r
O
1
O
2
d
b
c
173
• Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates
at 120 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.
• Solution:
Configuration Diagram
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal.
Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.
V
ao
= ω
OA
x OA
V
ao
= s / m 024 . 5 4 . 0
60
120 x 2
· ·
π
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.
o Choose a suitable scale
o Mark zero velocity points O,q
o Draw vector
oa

r
to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 m/s.
100
190
135 120
120
D
B
A
45
o
40
All the dimensions in mm
174
Velocity vector diagram
o From a draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and from q draw a line ⊥
r
to QB to intersect at b.
bq ba
V qb and V ab · · .
o Draw a line ⊥
r
to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at
d.
) velocity slider ( V dq
d
·
• Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following
dimensions of the links.
The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2.5 r/s at the moment when crank
makes an angle of 45
o
with vertical. Calculate
d) the velocity of the Ram S
e) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level
f) the angular velocity of the link RS.
• Solution:
Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
a b
D
O,q
175
OP (crank) = 240 mm
OA = 150 mm
AR = 165 mm
RS = 430 mm
Configuration Diagram
S
R
A
O
B
P on slider Q on
BA
45
o
176
Step 2 : To determine the absolute velocity of point P.
V
P
= ω
OP
x OP
V
ao
= s / m 6 . 0 24 . 0 x
60
240 x 2
·
π
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.
Velocity vector diagram
o Draw
op

r
link OP = 0.6 m.
o From O, a, g draw a line ⊥
r
to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to
intersect previously draw, line at q. Pq = Velocity of sliding.
aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A.
V
qa
= aq =
o Angular velocity of link RS =
SR
sr
RS
· ω
rad/sec
q
r
P
S
O, a, g
0.6 m
177
• Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the
links in mm. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of
links AB, BQ and BC. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction.
• Solution
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA
V
a
=
s / m 1507 . 0 s / m 05 . 0 03 . 0 x
60
50 x 2
· π ·
,
_

¸
¸ π
B
A
100
Q
C
140
O
50 rpm
All dimensions are in mm
OA = 30
AB = 80
BQ = 100
BC = 100
178
Vector velocity diagram
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.
o Draw
Oa

r
to link OA = 0.15 m/s
o From a draw a link ⊥
r
to AB and from O, q draw a link ⊥
r
to BQ to intersect at b.
· ·
ba
V ab and s / m 13 . 0 V qb
b
· ·
ω
ab
=
) ccw ( s / r 74 . 0
AB
ab
·
ω
bq

) ccw ( s / r 3 . 1
aB
qb
·
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to Be and from O, q these two lines intersect at C.
s / m 106 . 0 V OC
C
· ·
· ·
Cb
V bC
) ccw ( s / r 33 . 1
BC
bc
BC
· · ω
• Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure
in mm. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA
is inclined at 30
o
to the horizontal. What will be the torque required at the crank to
overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.
b
a
O, q c
179
Configuration diagram
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
200
360
400
200
600
320
500
100
100
60
o
600
M
A
B C
D
K
hz
h
2
180
Step 2 : Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA =
s / m 26 . 1 1 . 0 x
60
120 x 2
·
,
_

¸
¸ π
Velocity vector diagram
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.
o Draw
Oa

r
to link OA = 1.26 m/s
o From a draw a link ⊥
r
to AB and from q draw a link ⊥
r
to BQ to intersect at b.
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BC and from a, draw a line ⊥
r
to AC to intersect at c.
o From c draw a line ⊥
r
to CD and from m draw a line ⊥
r
to MD to intersect at d.
o From d draw a line ⊥
r
to KD and from m draw a line ⊥
r
to KM to x intersect the
previously drawn line at k.
o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal
force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o, q, m and c line ⊥
r
to this
line from k.
( ) ( )
P
O
P
I
T T ω · ω ∴
V = ω
R
T = F x P F =
r
T
∴ ω
OA
T
OA
= F
k
V
k
horizontal
c a
d
b
k
V
k
(hz)
o, q, m
181
∴ T
OA
=
( )
OA
hz k k
V F
ω
T
OA
=
6 . 12
45 . 0 X 40000
= N-m
• Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm, AC = 680 mm and
OQ = 650 mm.
Determine,
iv) The angular velocity of the cylinder
v) The sliding velocity of the plunger
vi) The absolute velocity of the plunger
When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram
o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA = 20 x 0.32 = 6.4 m/s
o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram.
o Mark the zero velocity point. Draw vector
oa

r
to link OA equal to 6.4 m/s.
A
O R
B on AR (point on AR
below Q)
60
o C
182
o From a draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and from o, q, draw a line perpendicular to AB.
o To mark point c on
ab
We know that
AC
AB
ac
ab
·

AB
AC x ab
ac · =
o Mark point c on
ab
and joint this to zero velocity point.
o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.
ω
ab
=
AB
V
ab
= 5.61 rad/sec (cω)
o Studying velocity of player will be
qb = 4.1 m/s
o Absolute velocity of plunger =
qc
OC
= 4.22 m/s
• Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving
crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. The length of the various links are:
Determine,
iv) The velocity of slider block S
v) The angular velocity of link EF
vi) The velocity of link EF in the swivel block.
O, q
b
c
a
183
AB = 650 mm
AB = 100 mm
BC = 800 mm
DC = 250 mm
BE = CF
EF = 400 mm
OF = 240 mm
FS = 400 mm
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A.
V
b
= ω
BA
x BA
V
b
=
60
300 x 2π
x 0.1 = 3.14 m/s
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale.
o Mark zero velocity point a, d, o, g.
45
o
300
400
400
B
E
O
A D
P
S
G
F
a, d, o, g
c
b
P
f
S
184
Velocity vector diagram
o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥
r
to AB and equal to 3.14 m/s.
o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥
r
to DC to intersect at C.
o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that
BC
BE
x bc be ·
o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥
r
to PE and from ‘a,d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P.
o Extend the vector ep to ef such that
EF x
EP
ef
ef ·
o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥
r
to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the
slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S.
o Velocity of slider s / m 6 . 2 gS · . Angular Velocity of link EF.
o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = s / m 85 . 1 OP · .
• Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1. The
angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec. Determine the angular velocity
of links 3 and 4, and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
φ 50 mm
φ 40 mm
30
o
60 mm
3
ω
2
G
2
B
C
D
F
4
A
185
Step 2: Given ω
2
= 10 rad/sec. Calculate velocity of B with respect to G.
V
b
= ω
2
x BG
V
b
= 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec.
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.
Redrawn configuration diagram
30
o
G
E
B
F
D
C
50 mm
186
• Velocity vector diagram
o Draw gb = 0.43 m/s ⊥
r
to BG.
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥
r
to CF to intersect at C.
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BE and from g, f draw a line ⊥
r
to GE to intersect at e.
o From c draw a line ⊥
r
to CD and from f draw a line ⊥
r
to FD to intersect at d.
• Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular
velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.
iv) Velocity of point D.
v) Angular velocity of link BD.
vi) Velocity of slider C.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.
e g, f
d
b
c
187
Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O
2
.
V
b
= ω
2
x O
2
A
V
b
= 1 x 50.8 = 50.8 mm/sec.
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram, locate zero velocity points O
2
O
6
.
o From O
2
, O
6
draw a line ⊥
r
to O
2
A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.8
mm/sec.
o From a draw a line ⊥
r
to Ac and from O
2
, O
6
draw a line along the line of stocks
of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c.
o Mark point b on vector ac such that
AB x
AC
ab
ab ·
o From b draw a line ⊥
r
to BD and from O
2
, O
6
draw a line ⊥
r
to O
6
D to intersect at
d.
4
C
O
2
= 50.8 mm
AB = 102 mm
BD = 102 mm
DO
6
= 102 mm
AC = 203 mm
102 mm
A
O
6
D
5
6
B
3
O
2
45
o
O
2
O
6
C
b
V
d
a
d
U
db
188
Step 4: V
d
= d O
6
= 32 mm/sec
ω
bd
=
BD
bd
=
V
c
= C O
2
=
ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE
• Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance
of 50 mm from the centre C. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively
crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. Draw the velocity vector
diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB.
• Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C,
E and F and the angular velocities of links, BC, CDE and EF.
• The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100
rpm in the CCW direction. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm, OA = 300
mm, AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular
A
C
50 mm
B
F
E
C
B
A
120
D
150
100
50
100

rpm
60
120
o
120
All dimensions are in mm
189
to ⊥
r
AO and in 120 mm from O. Determine the velocity of the slider when
AOP |
is
135
o
and also mention the maximum velocity of slider.
D
B
O
45
o
A
C
190
• Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure.
The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW, link O
2
P = 40 mm.
• Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω
direction at 240 rpm. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF.
45
o
3
P
4
2
Q on link 4
F
B
A
E C
45
o
AB = 160 mm
BC = 160 mm
CD = 100 mm
AD = 200 mm
EF = 200 mm
CE = 40 mm
100 mm
191

II Method
• Instantaneous Method
To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear
motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having
velocities as V
a
and V
b
respectively in the direction shown.
Fig. 1
If a line is drawn ⊥
r
to V
a
, at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some
point on the line. Thirdly, centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥
r
to the
direction of V
b
at B. If the intersection of the two lines is at I, the body P will be rotating
about I at that instant. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the
body P. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body.
Fig. 2
In case of the ⊥
r
lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2.
Fig. 3
If the direction of V
a
and V
b
are parallel to the ⊥
r
at A and B met at ∞. This is the case
when the body has linear motion.
A
V
a
V
b
B
I
P
q
A
V
a
V
b
B
I
P
q
A
V
a
I at ∞
B
V
b
192
• Number of Instantaneous Centers
The number of instantaneous centers in a mechanism depends upon number of
links. If N is the number of instantaneous centers and n is the number of links.
N =
( )
2
1 n n −
• Types of Instantaneous Centers
There are three types of instantaneous centers namely fixed, permanent and
neither fixed nor permanent.
Example: Four bar mechanism. n = 4.
N =
( )
2
1 n n −
=
( )
6
2
1 4 4
·

Fixed instantaneous center I
12
, I
14
Permanent instantaneous center I
23
, I
34
Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I
13
, I
24
• Arnold Kennedy theorem of three centers:
I
24
I
23
I
13
I
12
I
14
I
34
2
1
3
4
193
Statement: If three bodies have motion relative to each other, their instantaneous centers
should lie in a straight line.
194
Proof:
Consider a three link mechanism with link 1 being fixed link 2 rotating about I
12
and link 3 rotating about I
13
. Hence, I
12
and I
13
are the instantaneous centers for link 2 and
link 3. Let us assume that instantaneous center of link 2 and 3 be at point A i.e. I
23
. Point
A is a coincident point on link 2 and link 3.
Considering A on link 2, velocity of A with respect to I
12
will be a vector V
A2

r
to
link A I
12
. Similarly for point A on link 3, velocity of A with respect to I
13
will be ⊥
r
to A
I
13
. It is seen that velocity vector of V
A2
and V
A3
are in different directions which is
impossible. Hence, the instantaneous center of the two links cannot be at the assumed
position.
It can be seen that when I
23
lies on the line joining I
12
and I
13
the V
A2
and V
A3
will
be same in magnitude and direction. Hence, for the three links to be in relative motion all
the three centers should lie in a same straight line. Hence, the proof.
Steps to locate instantaneous centers:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
Step 2: Identify the number of instantaneous centers by using the relation N
=
( )
2
n 1 n −
.
Step 3: Identify the instantaneous centers by circle diagram.
Step 4: Locate all the instantaneous centers by making use of Kennedy’s theorem.
To illustrate the procedure let us consider an example.
I
12
V
A32
2
V
A22
I
13
I
23
A
3
1
195
196
A slider crank mechanism has lengths of crank and connecting rod equal to 200
mm and 200 mm respectively locate all the instantaneous centers of the mechanism for
the position of the crank when it has turned through 30
o
from IOC. Also find velocity of
slider and angular velocity of connecting rod if crank rotates at 40 rad/sec.
Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
Step 2: Determine the number of links in the mechanism and find number of
instantaneous centers.
N =
( )
2
n 1 n −
n = 4 links N =
( )
2
1 4 4 −
= 6
Step 3: Identify instantaneous centers.
o Suit it is a 4-bar link the resulting figure will be a square.
30
o
I
12
I
12
4
B
I
13
A
3
800
I
23
200
2
I
24
O 1
1
I
14
to ∞ I
14
to ∞
197
o Locate fixed and permanent instantaneous centers. To locate neither fixed nor
permanent instantaneous centers use Kennedy’s three centers theorem.
Step 4: Velocity of different points.
V
a
= ω
2
AI
12
= 40 x 0.2 = 8 m/s
also V
a
= ω
2
x A
13

∴ ω
3
=
13
a
AI
V
V
b
= ω
3
x BI
13
= Velocity of slider.
• Problem 2:
A four bar mechanisms has links AB = 300 mm, BC = CD = 360 mm and AD =
600 mm. Angle
o
60 BAD | ·
. Crank AB rotates in Cω direction at a speed of 100 rpm.
Locate all the instantaneous centers and determine the angular velocity of link BC.
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.
Step 2: Find the number of Instantaneous centers
N =
( )
2
n 1 n −
=
( )
2
1 4 4 −
= 6
Step 3: Identify the IC’s by circular method or book keeping method.
1
I
12
2
4
I
34
3
I
41
I
23
I
24
I
13
I
12
I
23
I
34
1 2 3 4
I
13
I
24
I
14
OR
198
Step 4: Locate all the visible IC’s and locate other IC’s by Kennedy’s theorem.
V
b
= ω
2
x BI
12
= sec / m 3 . 0 x
60
100 x 2
·
π
Also V
b
= ω
3
x BI
13

ω
3
=
sec / rad
BI
V
13
b
·
• For a mechanism in figure crank OA rotates at 100 rpm clockwise using I.C. method
determine the linear velocities of points B, C, D and angular velocities of links AB,
BC and CD.
OA = 20 cm AB = 150 cm BC = 60 cm
1
I
12
2
4
I
34
3
I
14
I
23
I
12
I
13
I
12
I
23
I
34
1 2 3 4
I
13
I
24
I
14
OR
I
24
I
23
I
13
I
12
I
14
I
34
2
1
3
4
B
A
D
C
199
CD = 50 cm BE = 40 cm OE = 135 cm
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA
V
a
= s / m 1 . 2 2 . 0 x
60
100 x 2
·
π
n = 6 links
N =
( )
15
2
1 n n
·

3
5
2
30
o
A
6
10 mm
D
1
O 4
B
C
E
1 2 3 4 5 6
12 23 34 45 56
13 24 35 46
14 25 36
15 26
16
5
4
3
2
1
---
15
---
2
1
I
12
I
23
I
13
I
16
@ ∞
I
14
I
45
I
16
@ ∞ I
16
@ ∞
I
56
I
34
I
15
3
5
6
200
V
a
= ω
3
AI
13
ω
3
=
sec / rad 5 . 2
AI
V
13
a
·
V
b
= ω
3
x BI
13
= 2.675 m/s

Also V
b
= ω
4
x BI
14
ω
4
=
sec / rad 37 . 6
BI
V
14
b
·
V
C
= ω
4
x CI
14
= 1.273 m/s

A
I
13
B
3
Link 3
4
C
I
14
B
Link 4
C
I
15
5
D Link 5
201
V
C
= ω
5
x CI
15
ω
5
=
sec / rad 72 . 1
AI
V
15
C
·
V
d
= ω
5
x DI
15
= 0.826 m/s

• In the toggle mechanism shown in figure the slider D is constrained to move in a
horizontal path the crank OA is rotating in CCW direction at a speed of 180 rpm the
dimensions of various links are as follows:
OA = 180 mm CB = 240 mm
AB = 360 mm BD = 540 mm
Find,
i) Velocity of slider
ii) Angular velocity of links AB, CB and BD.
n = 6 links
N =
( )
15
2
1 n n
·

D
C
B
45
o
A
O
360
105
202
Answers
V
b
= 2.675 m/s
V
C
= 1.273 m/s
V
d
= 0.826 m/s
ω
ab
= 2.5 rad/sec
ω
bc
= 6.37 rad/sec
ω
cd
= 1.72 rad/sec
V
a
= ω
2
x AI
12
= 3.4 m/s

V
a
= ω
3
x AI
13
ω
3
=
sec / rad 44 . 2
AI
V
13
a
·
V
b
= ω
3
x BI
13
1 2 3 4 5 6
12 23 34 45 56
13 24 35 46
14 25 36
15 26
16
5
4
3
2
1
---
15
---
4
B
6
C
I
24
I
56
O
I
46
I
12
I
23
I
15
I
34
I
35
2
3
5
A
I
45
I
13
I
16
@ ∞ I
16
@ ∞
I
16
@ ∞
A
I
13
B
ω
3
Link 3
203
V
b
= ω
4
x BI
14
ω
4
=
sec / rad 875 . 11
AI
V
14
b
·
V
b
= ω
5
x BI
15
ω
5
=
sec / rad 37 . 4
AI
V
15
b
·
V
d
= ω
5
x DI
15
= 2 m/s

• Figure shows a six link mechanism. What will be the velocity of cutting tool D and
the angular velocities of links BC and CD if crank rotates at 10 rad/sec.
B
I
14
C
ω
4
Link 4
B
D
5
I
15
Link 5
204
Answers
V
d
= 2 m/s
ω
ab
= 2.44 rad/sec
ω
bc
= 11.875 rad/sec
ω
cd
= 4.37 rad/sec
D
Q
45
B
30
o
15
O
45
15
C
60
All dimensions
are in mm
15
25
A
90
o
205
V
a
= ω
2
x AI
12
= 10 x 0.015
V
a
= ω
2
x AI
12
= 0.15 m/s

V
a
= ω
3
x AI
13
ω
3
=
13
a
AI
V
V
b
= ω
3
x BI
13
6
O
I
56
I
16
@ ∞
I
16
@ ∞
I
16
@ ∞
I
12
I
23
I
24
I
45
I
46
I
34
I
14
3
2
5
4
I
26
I
13
I
15
A
I
13
B
ω
3
Link 3
206
V
b
= ω
4
x BI
14
ω
4
=
sec / rad 25 . 4
BI
V
14
b
·
V
C
= ω
4
x CI
14
V
C
= ω
5
x CI
15
ω
5
=
sec / rad 98 . 1
AI
V
15
C
·
V
d
= ω
5
x DI
15
= 1.66 m/s

• A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has a fixed link OA and crank
OP having length 200 mm and 350 mm respectively. Other lengths are AR = 200 mm
and RS = 40 mm. Find the velocity of the rotation using IC method when crank
makes an angle of 120
o
with fixed link and rotates at 10 rad/sec.
C
I
14
Q
ω
4
B
Link 4
D
I
15
C
5
Link 5
207
Answers
V
d
= 1.66 m/s
ω
bc
= 4.25 rad/sec
ω
cd
= 1.98 rad/sec
Locate the IC’s
n = 6 links
N =
( )
15
2
1 n n
·

6
S
3
A
R
5
4
P
B
1
O 2
1 2 3 4 5 6
12 23 34 45 56
13 24 35 46
14 25 36
15 26
16
5
4
3
2
1
---
15
---
208
V
P
= ω
2
x OP

= ……… m/s

• Acceleration Analysis
Rate of change of velocity is acceleration. A change in velocity requires any one
of the following conditions to be fulfilled:
o Change in magnitude only
o Change in direction only
o Change in both magnitude and direction
When the velocity of a particle changes in magnitude and direction it has two
component of acceleration.
1. Radial or centripetal acceleration
f
c
= ω
2
r
Acceleration is parallel to the link and acting towards centre.
I
15
5
1
6
I
46
I
45
I
56
I
14
I
23
I
34
3
I
24
I
12
4
2
I
16
@ ∞
209
Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r
Velocity of A parallel to OA = 0
Velocity of A’ parallel to OA = Va’ sin δ θ
Therefore change in velocity = Va’ sin δ θ – 0
Centripetal acceleration = f
c
=
( )
t
r t
δ
δθ αδ ω sin +
as δt tends to Zero sin δ θ tends to δ θ


( )
t
t r r
δ
δθδ α δθ ω +

f
c
= ωr (dθ/ dt) =ω
2
r
But V = ωr or ω = V/r

Hence, f
c

2
r = V
2
/r
2. Tnagential Acceleration:
Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r
Velocity of A perpendicular to OA = Va
Velocity of A’ perpendicular to OA = Va’ cos δ θ
Therefore change in velocity = Va’ cos δ θ – Va
Tnagnetial acceleration = f
t
=
( )
t
r r t
δ
ω δθ αδ ω − + cos
V
a
A
O
r
A’
δθ
δθ
Va’ cosδθ
Va’ sinδθ
Va’
O
1
o
a
a
1
f
t

oa
f
c
oa
f
oa
210
as δt tends to Zero cos δ θ tends to 1


( )
t
r t r r
δ
ω δ α ω − +

f
t
= αr
Example:
f
C
ab
= ω
2
AB
Acts parallel to BA and acts from B to A.
f
t
= αBA acts ⊥
r
to link.
f
BA
= f
r
BA
+ f
t
BA
• Problem 1: Four bar mechanism. For a 4-bar mechanism shown in figure draw
velocity and acceleration diagram.
B
A
f
r
ab
f
ab
f
t
ab
211
60
o
A D
B
C
66
56
ω = 10.5 rad/sec
50
100
All dimensions
are in mm
212
• Solution:
Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a scale.
Step 2: Draw velocity vector diagram to a scale.
V
b
= ω
2
x AB
V
b
= 10.5 x 0.05
V
b
= 0.525 m/s
Step 3: Prepare a table as shown below:
Sl.
No.
Link Magnitude Direction Sense
1. AB f
c
= ω
2
AB
r
f
c
= (10.5)
2
/0.525
f
c
= 5.51 m/s
2
Parallel to AB
 A
2. BC f
c
= ω
2
BC
r
f
c
= 1.75
f
t
= αr
Parallel

to BC

r
to BC
 B

3. CD f
c
= ω
2
CD
r
f
c
= 2.75
f
t
= ?
Parallel to DC

r
to DC
 D

Step 4: Draw the acceleration diagram.
a
1
d
V
c
C
b
V
bc
213

o Choose a suitable scale to draw acceleration diagram.
o Mark the zero acceleration point a
1
d
1
.
o Link AB has only centripetal acceleration. Therefore, draw a line parallel to AB
and toward A from a
1
d
1
equal to 5.51 m/s
2
i.e. point b
1
.
o From b
1
draw a vector parallel to BC points towards B equal to 1.75 m/s
2
(b
1
1
).
o From b
1
1
draw a line ⊥
r
to BC. The magnitude is not known.
o From a
1
d
1
draw a vector parallel to AD and pointing towards D equal to 2.72 m/s
2
i.e. point c
1
.
o From c
1
1
draw a line ⊥
r
to CD to intersect the line drawn ⊥
r
to BC at c
1
,
1 1
c d = f
CD
and
1 1
c b = f
bc
.
To determine angular acceleration.
α
BC
=
sec / rad 09 . 34
BC
b c
BC
f
1
1 1
t
bc
· ·
) CCW (
α
CD
=
) CCW ( sec / rad 11 . 79
CD
c c
CD
f
1
1 1
t
cd
· ·
• Problem 2: For the configuration of slider crank mechanism shown in figure below.
Calculate
i) Acceleration of slider B.
ii) Acceleration of point E.
iii) Angular acceleration of link AB.
If crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec CCW.
• Solution:
c
1
a
1
d
1
c
1′
11
el
to CD
11
el
to CD

γ
to BC
b
1
11
el
to AB
11
el
to BC
f
bc
b
1
214

Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.
Step 2: Find velocity of A with respect to O.
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA
V
a
= 20 x 0.48
V
a
= 9.6 m/s
Step 4: Draw velocity vector diagram.
Step 4:
Sl.
No.
Link Magnitude Direction Sense
1. OA f
c
aO
= ω
2
OA
r = 192 Parallel to OA
 O
2. AB f
c
ab
= ω
2
ab
r = 17.2
f
t
ab

Parallel

to AB

r
to AB
 A

3. Slider B – Parallel

to Slider –
All dimensions
are mm
480
60
o
A
B
1600
G
E
450
O
1
g
a
9.7
e
b
5.25
215
Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale.
f
b
o
1
g
1
f
ab
f
t
ab
192
172
a
1
e
1
f
c
ab
e
e1
b
1
1
216
o Mark o
1
g
1
(zero acceleration point)
o Draw
1 1
g o
= C acceleration of OA towards ‘O’.
o From a
1
draw a
1
b
1
1
= 17.2 m/s
2
towards ‘A’ from b
1
1

draw a line ⊥
r
to AB.
o From o
1
g
1
draw a line along the slider B to intersect previously drawn line at b
1
,
ab 1 1
f b a ·
1 1
b g = f
b
= 72 m/s
2
.
o Extend
1 1
b a
=
1 1
e a
such that
AE
R A
AB
b a
1 1 1 1
·
.
o Join e
1
to δ
1
g
1
,
1 1
e g = f
e
= 236 m/s
2
.
o α
ab
=
6 . 1
167
AB
b b
AB
f
1 1
t
ab
· ·
= 104 rad/sec
2
(CCW).
Answers:
f
b
= 72 m/sec
2
f
e
= 236 m/sec
2
α
ab
= 104 rad/sec
2
• Problem 3: In a toggle mechanism shown in figure the crank OA rotates at 210 rpm
CCW increasing at the rate of 60 rad/s
2
.
• Velocity of slider D and angular velocity of link BD.
• Acceleration of slider D and angular acceleration of link BD.
217
Step 1 Draw the configuration diagram to a scale.
Step 2 Find
V
a
= ω
OA
x OA
V
a
=
( )
2 . 0 x
60
210 2π
= 4.4 m/s
Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.
Step 4:
Sl.
No.
Link Magnitude m/s
2
Direction Sense
1.
AO
f
c
aO
= ω
2
r = 96.8
f
t
aO
= αr = 12
Parallel to OA

r
to OA
 O

400
300 500
D
B
A
200
45
o
Q
D
G
150
d
b a
o
1
,q,g
218
2.
AB
f
c
ab
= ω
2
r = 5.93
f
t
ab
= αr =
Parallel

to AB

r
to AB
 A

3.
BQ
f
c
bq
= ω
2
r = 38.3
f
t
bq
= αr =
Parallel to BQ

r
to BQ
 Q

4. BD f
c
bd
= ω
2
r = 20 ⊥
r
to BD  B
5.
Slider D
f
t
bd
= αr =


r
to BD
Parallel to slider motion


Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale.
o Mark zero acceleration point.
o Draw o
1
a
1
1
= f
c
OA
and a
1
1
a = f
t
OA

r
to OA from
o
1 1
a o
= f
a
o From a
1
draw
ab
c
1 1
f b a · , from b
1
1

draw a line ⊥
r
to AB.
o From o
1
q
1
g
1
draw
1
1
1
q o
= f
c
bq
and from q
1
1
draw a line a line ⊥
r
to BQ to intersect
the previously drawn line at b
1

bq 1 1
f b q ·
1 1
b a = f
ab

o From b
1
draw a line parallel to BD = f
c
bd
such that
1
1
1
d b
= f
c
bd
.
o From d
1
1
draw a line ⊥
r
to BD, from o
1
q
1
g
1
draw a line along slider D to meet the
previously drawn line at .
q
1
1
b
1
1
a
1
f
t
OA
d
1
1
f
c
OA
O
1
q
1
g
1
b
1
d
1
f
d
f
bd
a
1
1
fab
219
o
d 1 1
f d g ·
= 16.4 m/sec
2
.
o
bd 1 1
f d b ·
= 5.46 m/sec
2
.
o α
BD
=
2 bd
sec / rad 2 . 109
5 . 0
46 . 5
BD
f
·
Answers:
V
d
= 2.54 m/s
ω
bd
= 6.32 rad/s
F
d
= 16.4 m/s
2
α
bd
= 109.2 rad/s
2
220
• Coriolis Acceleration: It has been seen that the acceleration of a body may have two
components.
• Centripetal acceleration and
• Tangential acceleration.
However, in same cases there will be a third component called as corilis
acceleration to illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever
mechanisms.
Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity ω
2
, in its motions from OP to OP
1
in a small interval of time δ
t
. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B
to B
2
. Assume this motion also to have constant velocity V
B/A
. Consider the motion of
slider from B to B
2
in 3 stages.
1. B to A
1
due to rotation of link 2.
2. A
1
to B
1
due to outward velocity of slider V
B/A
.
3. B
1
to B
2
due to acceleration ⊥
r
to link 2 this component in the coriolis component
of acceleration.
We have Arc B
1
B
2
= Arc QB
2
– Arc QB
1
= Arc QB
2
– Arc AA
1
∴ Arc B
1
B
2
= OQ dθ - AO dθ
A on link 2
B on link 3
O
d
θ
ω
2
A
1
B
2
P
1
B
1
2
P
3
d
θ
Q
221
= A
1
B
1

= V
B/A
ω
2
dt
2
The tangential component of velocity is ⊥
r
to the link and is given by V
t
= ωr. In
this case ω has been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant
velocity. Therefore, tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in
uniform increase in tangential velocity. The equation V
t
= ωr remain same but r increases
uniformly i.e. there is a constant acceleration ⊥
r
to rod.
∴ Displacement B
1
B
2
= ½ at
2
= ½ f (dt)
2
∴ ½ f (dt)
2
= V
B/A

ω
2
dt
2
f
cr
B/A
= 2ω
2
V
B/A
coriolis acceleration

The direction of coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector for
the two coincident points rotated at 90
o
in the direction of angular velocity of rotation of
the link.
Figure below shows the direction of coriolis acceleration in different situation.
(a) Rotation CW slider
moving up
(b) Rotation CW slider
moving down
ω
2
ω
2
f
cr
ω
2
f
cr
222
A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping
machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows.
O
1
O
2
= 800 mm, O
1
B = 300 mm, O
2
D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm
The crank O
1
B makes an angle of 45
o
with the vertical and rotates at 40
rpm in the CCW direction. Find:
v) Acceleration of the Ram R, velocity of cutting tool, and
vi) Angular Acceleration of link AD.
Solution:
Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.
(c) Rotation CCW slider
moving up
(d) Rotation CCW slider
moving down
ω
2
ω
2
f
cr
f
cr
223

A

O

D

C

B

2

45
o
R

A

O

D

C on AD
B on orank, A B

R

Tool

200

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.
V
b
= ω
OB
x OB
ω
OB
= sec / rad 18 . 4
60
40 x 2
60
N 2
B 1 O
·
π
·
π
V
b
= 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec
224
Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.
Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec

r
o.a

d
b
c
Step 4: prepare table showing the acceleration components
Sl.
No.
Link Magnitude m/s
2
Direction Sense
1. OB
f
c
ob
= ω
2
r =5.24

Parallel to OB

 O

2. AC
f
c
ac
= ω
2
r
f
t
ac
= αr
Parallel

to AB

r
to AB
 A

3. BC
f
s
bc
=αr
f
cc
bc
= 2vω =
Parallel to AB

r
to AC
_

4. DR
f
c
bd
= ω
2
r = 20
f
t
bd
=α r

Parallel to DR

r
to BD
 D
_
5. Slider R
f
t
bd
= αr

Parallel to slider motion



Acceleration of Ram = fr = o
1
r
Angular Acceleration of link AD
α
bd
=
KLENIN’S Construction
This method helps us to draw the velocity and acceleration diagrams on the
construction diagram itself. The crank of the configuration diagram
represents the velocity and acceleration line of the moving end (crank).
o
1
a
1
b
1
b
1
’’
b
1

b
1
’’’
d
1
r
1

r
1
f
c
ob
f
t
ab
f
s
ab
f
cc
bc
f
ob
f
ad
f
r
f
t
dr
f
c
dr
225
BD
f
bd
The procedure is given below for a slider crank mechanism.
To draw the velocity vector diagram:
Link OA represents the velocity vector of A with respect to O.
V
oa
= oa = ω r = ω OA.
Draw a line perpendicular at O, extend the line BA to meet this
perpendicular line at b. oab is the velocity vector diagram rotated through
90º opposite to the rotation of the crank.
Acceleration diagram:
The line representing Crank OA represents the acceleration of A with respect
to O. To draw the acceleration diagram follow the steps given below.
• Draw a circle with OA as radius and A as centre.
• Draw another circle with AB as diameter.
• The two circles intersect each other at two points C and D.
O
A
B
200
800
45º
ω
o
a
b
200
800
45º
ω
a
o
b
226
• Join C and D to meet OB at b
1
and AB at E.
O
1,
a
1,
b
a1
and b
1
is the required acceleration diagram rotated through 180º.
O
1
a
1
b
1
200
800
45º
ω
ba1
B
O1
a
f
a
b
a1
f
c
ab
b
1
f
t
ab
f
ab
f
b
227

Fig.1.2 Rotation: In rotation, all points in a body remain at fixed distances from a line which is perpendicular to the plane of rotation. This line is the axis of rotation and points in the body describe circular paths about it. (Eg. link 2 in Fig.1.1 and links 2 & 4 in Fig.1.2) Translation and rotation: It is the combination of both translation and rotation which is exhibited by many machine parts. (Eg. link 3 in Fig.1.1) Link or element: It is the name given to any body which has motion relative to another. All materials have some elasticity. A rigid link is one, whose deformations are so small that they can be neglected in determining the motion parameters of the link.

Fig.1.3 Binary link: Link which is connected to other links at two points. (Fig.1.3 a) Ternary link: Link which is connected to other links at three points. (Fig.1.3 b) Quaternary link: Link which is connected to other links at four points. (Fig1.3 c) Pairing elements: the geometrical forms by which two members of a mechanism are joined together, so that the relative motion between these two is consistent are known as pairing elements and the pair so formed is called kinematic pair. Each individual link of a mechanism forms a pairing element.

Fig.1.4 Kinematic pair

Fig.1.5

2

Degrees of freedom (DOF): It is the number of independent coordinates required to describe the position of a body in space. A free body in space (fig 1.5) can have six degrees of freedom. I.e., linear positions along x, y and z axes and rotational/angular positions with respect to x, y and z axes. In a kinematic pair, depending on the constraints imposed on the motion, the links may loose some of the six degrees of freedom. Types of kinematic pairs: (i) Based on nature of contact between elements: (a) Lower pair. If the joint by which two members are connected has surface contact, the pair is known as lower pair. Eg. pin joints, shaft rotating in bush, slider in slider crank mechanism.

Fig.1.6 Lower pairs (b) Higher pair. If the contact between the pairing elements takes place at a point or along a line, such as in a ball bearing or between two gear teeth in contact, it is known as a higher pair.

Fig.1.7 Higher pairs (ii) Based on relative motion between pairing elements: (a) Siding pair. Sliding pair is constituted by two elements so connected that one is constrained to have a sliding motion relative to the other. DOF = 1

3

(b) Turning pair (revolute pair). When connections of the two elements are such that only a constrained motion of rotation of one element with respect to the other is possible, the pair constitutes a turning pair. DOF = 1 (c) Cylindrical pair. If the relative motion between the pairing elements is the combination of turning and sliding, then it is called as cylindrical pair. DOF = 2

Fig.1.8 Sliding pair

Fig.1.9 Turning pair

Fig.1.10 Cylindrical pair

(d) Rolling pair. When the pairing elements have rolling contact, the pair formed is called rolling pair. Eg. Bearings, Belt and pulley. DOF = 1

Fig.1.11 (a) Ball bearing

Fig.1.11(b) Belt and pulley

(e) Spherical pair. A spherical pair will have surface contact and three degrees of freedom. Eg. Ball and socket joint. DOF = 3 (f) Helical pair or screw pair. When the nature of contact between the elements of a pair is such that one element can turn about the other by screw threads, it is known as screw pair. Eg. Nut and bolt. DOF = 1

4

Elements of pairs held together mechanically due to their geometry constitute a closed pair. Cam and follower.15 Force closed pair (cam & follower) Constrained motion: In a kinematic pair. If the constrained motion is achieved by the pairing elements themselves. 5 . Fig.1.13 Screw pair (a) Closed pair. (b) Unclosed or force closed pair.1. if one element has got only one definite motion relative to the other.Eg. Fig.1.12 Ball and socket joint (iii) Based on the nature of mechanical constraint.Fig. They are also called form-closed or self-closed pair. then the motion is called constrained motion. then it is called completely constrained motion. (a) Completely constrained motion.14 Closed pair Fig. Elements of pairs held together by the action of external forces constitute unclosed or force closed pair . 1.

it is called successfully constrained motion. Eg.Fig. it is called incompletely constrained motion. by its self weight.1.1.16 completely constrained motion (b) Successfully constrained motion. (c) Incompletely constrained motion.18 Incompletely constrained motion Kinematic chain: A kinematic chain is a group of links either joined together or arranged in a manner that permits them to move relative to one another.19 Locked chain or structure 6 . Fig. it results in a locked chain or structure. then. where shaft is constrained from moving upwards. If the links are connected in such a way that no motion is possible. If constrained motion is not achieved by the pairing elements themselves.1. Foot step bearing. Shaft in a circular hole. but by some other means.1. Eg.17 Foot strep bearing Fig. Fig. When relative motion between pairing elements takes place in more than one direction.

all mechanisms are not machines. Fig. then it is called as unconstrained kinematic chain and it is not mechanism. for a particular position of a link of the chain.1.20 Slider crank and four bar mechanisms.1. the positions of each of the other links of the chain can not be predicted.21 Drafter Planar mechanisms: When all the links of a mechanism have plane motion. All the links in a planar mechanism move in planes parallel to the reference plane. This means that the motion of any one link in the kinematic chain will give a definite and predictable motion relative to each of the others. Usually one of the links of the kinematic chain is fixed in a mechanism. it is called as a planar mechanism. 7 . because they do no useful work nor do they transform energy.1. Eg. drafter. Though all machines are mechanisms. If. Mechanical clock.21 Unconstrained kinematic chain Machine: A machine is a mechanism or collection of mechanisms. Fig. Fig.Mechanism: A mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. which transmit force from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. Many instruments are mechanisms but are not machines.

n2 = number of binary links. If more than two links are joined together at any point. with respect to the fixed link at any given instant.e. two inputs to any two links are required to yield definite motions in all the links. one input to any one link will result in definite motion of all the links. l = 5 and h = 0. l = 7 and h = 0.. h = Number of higher pairs Examples of determination of degrees of freedom of planar mechanisms: (i) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. where. F = 3(5-1)-2(5) = 2 I. n = 5. n3 = number of ternary links…etc. n = 4. one additional lower pair is to be considered for every additional link.. (ii) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. which is obtained by counting the number of joints.e. n2 = 5.. n = 6. l = Number of lower pairs. Grubler’s equation: Number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by F = 3(n-1)-2l-h. F = Degrees of freedom n = Number of links = n2 + n3 +……+nj. 8 .Degrees of freedom/mobility of a mechanism: It is the number of inputs (number of independent coordinates) required to describe the configuration or position of all the links of the mechanism. l = 4 and h = 0. F = 3(4-1)-2(4) = 1 I. (iii) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1 I.e. n2 = 4. Where. n3 =2. n2 = 4. one input to any one link will result in definite motion of all the links. then.

F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1 9 .. F = 3(4-1)-2(5) = -1 I. (a) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here.(iv) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. 4. l = 15 (two lower pairs at the intersection of 3.e. F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1 (c) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. 3 and 4. 2. n3 =1. n = 3. l = 7 (at the intersection of 2. 5. 5. n = 4. F = 3(11-1)-2(15) = 0 (vi) Determine the mobility of the following mechanisms. l = 2 and h = 1. n = 11. n = 3. 10. two lower pairs are to be considered) and h = 0. l = 2 and h = 1. F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1 (v) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. 4. n = 6. 6. it is a structure (b) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. n2 = 5. l = 5 and h = 0. 8. 11) and h = 0. 7. 8.

Different mechanisms can be obtained by fixing different links of the same kinematic chain.23 Inversions of four bar chain. The inversion of a mechanism does not change the motion of its links relative to each other. all other mechanisms will be known as inversions of original mechanism. Four bar chain: Fig 1. Inversions of four bar chain: Fig. the number of mechanisms which can be obtained is equal to the number of links. Excepting the original mechanism. the link which can make complete rotation is known as crank (link 2). The link which oscillates is known as rocker or lever (link 4). By changing the fixed link. In this mechanism. Link 1 is the frame.22 Four bar chain One of the most useful and most common mechanisms is the four-bar linkage.1. And the link connecting these two is known as coupler (link 3). 10 .Inversions of mechanism: A mechanism is one in which one of the links of a kinematic chain is fixed. These are called as inversions of the mechanism.

This is one type of drag link mechanism.25 Double crank mechanism.1. Link 2 (crank) rotates completely and link 4 (rocker) oscillates.1. Fig. links 1& 3 are equal and parallel and links 2 & 4 are equal and parallel.Crank-rocker mechanism: In this mechanism.23. This is similar to 1. either link 1 or link 3 is fixed.1.26 11 .24 Drag link mechanism.1.23(c). It is similar to (a) or (b) of fig. Here link 2 is fixed and both links 1 and 4 make complete rotation but with different velocities. Fig. where. Fig.

1. It has one sliding pair and three turning pairs.1.28 (c) slider fixed Rotary engine – I inversion of slider crank mechanism. Link 1 is frame (fixed). In this mechanism. Fig1. (a) crank fixed (b) connecting rod fixed Fig. whereas links 3 & 4 oscillate (Fig. (crank fixed) Fig. 3 and 4.29 12 .1. This mechanism is used to convert rotary motion to reciprocating and vice versa.27 Inversions of slider crank chain: Inversions of slider crank mechanism is obtained by fixing links 2. Link 4 has reciprocating motion and is called slider. Link 2 makes complete rotation.Double rocker mechanism.23d) Slider crank chain: This is a kinematic chain having four links. Link 3 has got combined rotary and reciprocating motion and is called connecting rod. Link 2 has rotary motion and is called crank. link 4 is fixed.

30 Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism – II inversion of slider crank mechanism (connecting rod fixed). Fig.31 13 .1. Fig.Whitworth quick return motion mechanism–I inversion of slider crank mechanism.1.

33 14 . Fig.1.Oscillating cylinder engine–II inversion of slider crank mechanism (connecting rod fixed). Fig.1.32 Pendulum pump or bull engine–III inversion of slider crank mechanism (slider fixed).

2&3. then. Turning pairs – 1&2.1. Fig. Fig. Sliding pairs – 3&4. 2 2 15 . 1.sinθ. This is a device which is used for generating an elliptical profile.cosθ and y = p.1. with major axis and minor axis equal to 2p and 2q respectively. x  y Rearranging.34 Inversions of double slider crank mechanism: Elliptical trammel. Scotch –Yoke mechanism. 4&1. The q  p     path traced by point C is an ellipse.35.   +   = cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1 . This is the equation of an ellipse. x = q. if AC = p and BC = q.35 In fig.Double slider crank chain: It is a kinematic chain consisting of two turning pairs and two sliding pairs.

New age international publishers.Bansal. 16 . 5.Martin.P. 2.R. whose axes are offset by a small amount. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr. This is an inversion of double slider crank mechanism. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.Singh. McGraw-Hill International Editions. John Wiley and Sons. Dhanpat Rai and Co.S. Fig.36 References: 1. 6. Ocvirk. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker. which is used to connect two parallel shafts.K.Oldham coupling.Rao. 4.1. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. McGraw-Hill Publications. Theory of Machines by V. 3. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Jr. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J. Mabie and Fred W.

Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post 17 . IE. where. Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post E of the machine. cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B1AB2 in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B2AB1 in anti-clockwise direction. link 2 is the input link. Here. During cutting stroke. Input is given to link 2. Some of the common types of quick return motion mechanisms are discussed below. Quick return mechanisms are used in machine tools such as shapers and power driven saws for the purpose of giving the reciprocating cutting tool a slow cutting stroke and a quick return stroke with a constant angular velocity of the driving crank. tool post moves from E1 to E2. ˆ Timeforforwardstroke B1 AB2 ( anti − clockwise ) = ˆ Timeforreturnstroke B2 AB1 ( anti − clockwise ) Whitworth quick return motion mechanism: This is first inversion of slider mechanism. The corresponding positions of C are C1 and C2 as shown in the fig. which moves at constant speed.1.) Quick return motion mechanisms. in anti-clockwise direction. Drag link mechanism This is one of the inversions of four bar mechanism. The ratio of time required for the cutting stroke to the time required for the return stroke is called the time ratio and is greater than unity.37 The time ratio is given by the following equation. For the point C to move from C1 to C2.37. point B moves from B1 to B2. Fig. with four turning pairs. 1. crank 1 is fixed.Kinematics of Machines {ME44} CHAPTER – I (contd. moving with constant angular velocity in anti-clockwise direction.

. which moves at constant speed. tool post moves from D1 to D11. in anti-clockwise direction. The corresponding positions of C are C1 and C11 as shown in the fig. tool post moves from D1 to D11.E. cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B1O2B11 in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B 11O2B1 in anti-clockwise direction. Fig.1. point B moves from B1 to B11. 1. During cutting stroke.39.E. For the point C to move from C1 to C11. Input is given to link 2. During cutting stroke. connecting rod is fixed.. 1. point B moves from B1 to B11. ˆ Timeforforwardstroke B′o2 B′′ θ1 = = ˆ Timeforreturnstroke B′′o2 B′ θ 2 Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism This is second inversion of slider mechanism. cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B1O2B11 in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B 11O2B1 in anti-clockwise direction. in anti-clockwise direction. For the point C to move from C1 to C11. I. Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post D of the machine.D of the machine.38.38 The time ratio is given by the following equation. 18 . The corresponding positions of C are C1 and C11 as shown in the fig. where. I.

Condition for exact straight line motion: If point B (fig. point C. 19 . having a point that moves along a straight line. provided product of AB and AC is constant.Fig. without being guided by a plane surface.1. ˆ Timeforforwardstroke B′o2 B′′ θ1 = = ˆ Timeforreturnstroke B′′o2 B′ θ 2 Straight line motion mechanisms Straight line motion mechanisms are mechanisms.39 The time ratio is given by the following equation. then. which is an extension of AB traces a straight line perpendicular to AO.40) moves on the circumference of a circle with center O and radius OA.1. or nearly along a straight line.

41 Here. ifAB × AC = const. AE is the input link and point E moves along a circular path of radius AE = AB. Peaucellier exact straight line motion mechanism: Fig. perpendicular to BA extended.1. EC = ED = PC = PD and BC = BD. ∴ AE = const.40 Locus of pt. ┴ to AE if.C will be a straight line. 20 . AB × AC is constant Proof: ∆AEC ≡ ∆ABD AD AB ∴ = AC AE AB × AC ∴ AE = AD butAD = const. Point P of the mechanism moves along exact straight line.. Also.Fig.1.

E and P. product of BP and BE is constant. BD. Also. Hence these three points always lie on the same straight line. E and P lie on same straight line: Triangles BCD.42 This is a four bar mechanism. To prove product of BE and BP is constant. ECD and PCD are all isosceles triangles having common base CD and apex points being B.To prove B. CP and PD are all equal. E and P always lie on the perpendicular bisector of CD. dimensions AC. Point P of the mechanism moves very nearly along line AB. 21 . PCD is a single integral link.1.41. Approximate straight line motion mechanism: A few four bar mechanisms with certain modifications provide approximate straight line motions. In triangles BFC and PFC. Thus point P always moves along a straight line perpendicular to BA as shown in the fig. BC 2 = FB 2 + FC 2 and PC 2 = PF 2 + FC 2 ∴ BC 2 − PC 2 = FB 2 − PF 2 = ( FB + PF )( FB − PF ) = BP × BE But since BC and PC are constants. Therefore points B.1. where. Robert’s mechanism Fig. which is the condition for exact straight line motion.

In the mechanism shown.44 Ratchets are used to transform motion of rotation or translation into intermittent rotation or translation. that the pin enters and leaves them tangentially avoiding impact loading during transmission of motion. link A is driver and it contains a pin which engages with the slots in the driven link B.1. Ratchet and pawl mechanism Fig. which is mounted on the driver. In the fig.Intermittent motion mechanisms An intermittent-motion mechanism is a linkage which converts continuous motion into intermittent motion.1. The slots are positioned in such a manner.43). The locking plate. the driven member makes one-fourth of a revolution for each revolution of the driver. Geneva wheel mechanism Fig. prevents the driven member from rotating except during the indexing period. These mechanisms are commonly used for indexing in machine tools.43 In the mechanism shown (Fig. As lever B is made 22 .1. A is the ratchet wheel and C is the pawl.1.44.

to which. power is supplied and 6 is the output link. where large resistances are to be overcome through short distances.to oscillate. Other mechanisms Toggle mechanism Fig. which has to overcome external resistance.1.45. the ratchet wheel will rotate anticlockwise with an intermittent motion. This mechanism is used in rock crushers.1. 2 is the input link. presses. Here. effort applied will be small but acts over large distance.45 Toggle mechanisms are used. F (effort) is much smaller than P(resistance). Links 4 and 5 are of equal length. Considering the equilibrium condition of slider 6. F 23 . A holding pawl D is provided to prevent the reverse motion of ratchet wheel. In the mechanism shown in fig. riveting machines etc. 2 P ∴ F = 2 P tan α tan α = For small angles of α.

From the fig.Pantograph Pantographs are used for reducing or enlarging drawings and maps.46 In the mechanism shown in fig. In the mechanism shown. ∴ EE ′ // AA′ And  OC  ∴ EE ′ = AA′   OD   OC   is the magnification factor. as discussed below. OC OC ′ OE OE ′ EE ′ OE OC = = AA′ OA OD But. ∆ODA ≡ ∆OCE and ∆OD ′A′ ≡ ∆OC ′E ′ .1.∴ ∆OAA′ ≡ ∆OEE ′.46. AB = CD.46 path traced by point A will be magnified by point E to scale. AD =BC and OAE lie on a straight line. When point A moves to A′ . They are also used for guiding cutting tools or torches to fabricate complicated shapes. E moves to E ′ and OA′E ′ also lies on a straight line. Where   OD  24 . Fig. ∴ OD OA DA OD ′ OA′ D ′A′ = = = = and OC OE CE OC ′ OE ′ C ′E ′ OD OD ′ OA OA′ = .∴ = .1.1.

this variation is compensated by the universal joint between shafts 2 and 3. One of the important applications of universal joint is in automobiles. Fig. shaft 3 varies in speed.Hooke’s joint (Universal joints) Hooke’s joins is used to connect two nonparallel but intersecting shafts. where it is used to transmit power from engine to the wheel axle.47(b) Steering gear mechanism The steering mechanism is used in automobiles for changing the directions of the wheel axles with reference to the chassis. (fig.47(b)). 25 .1. Intermediate shaft 3 connects input shaft 1 and output shaft 2 with two universal joints. The angle α between 1 and 2 is equal to angle α between 2 and 3.1.1. When shaft 1 has uniform rotation. it has two U –shaped yokes ‘a’ and ‘b’ and a center block or cross-shaped piece. a pair of universal joints should be used (fig.1.47(a) Fig. The amount of fluctuation depends on the angle (α) between the two shafts.47(a)) The universal joint can transmit power between two shafts intersecting at around 300 angles (α). however. so as to move the automobile in the desired path. For uniform transmission of motion. C. In its basic shape. the angular velocity ratio is not uniform during the cycle of operation. However.

the two back wheels will have a common axis. w = distance between the pivots of front axles.48. When the vehicle takes a turn. L = wheel base.1. a = wheel track. Always there should be absolute rolling contact between the wheels and the road surface.1. absolute rolling motion of the wheels on the road surface is possible. The back axle and the back wheels remain straight. the front wheels are placed over the front axles (stub axles).48 From ∆IAE .48. In automobiles. Any sliding motion will cause wear of tyres.Usually. While negotiating a curve. which is fixed in direction with reference to the chassis and the steering is done by means of front wheels. In the fig. the inner wheel makes a larger turning angle θ than the angle φ subtended by the axis of the outer wheel. Therefore. along with the stub axles turn about the pivoted points. cotφ = AE AE = and EI L EB ( EA + AB ) ( EA + w) EA w w = = = + = cot θ + EI EI L L L L 26 . When a vehicle is taking turn. which are pivoted at the points A & B as shown in the fig. the two front wheels must turn about the same instantaneous centre I which lies on the axis of the back wheel. the front wheels.1. Fig. cotθ = from ∆BEI . only if all the wheels describe concentric circles. Condition for perfect steering The condition for perfect steering is that all the four wheels must turn about the same instantaneous centre.

49 c R S A ' A B d P x x B ' d Q fig. Links RA and SB which are equal in length are integral with the stub axles. RSAB is a four bar chain as shown in fig. If this L condition is satisfied. there will be no skidding of the wheels when the vehicle takes a turn.∴ cot φ − cot θ = w . This is the fundamental equation for correct steering.50 indicate the position of the mechanism when the vehicle is turning left. Ackermann steering gear mechanism Fig.1.1.50. These links are connected with each other through track rod AB.1.50 Ackerman steering mechanism. links RA and SB make equal angles α with the center line of the vehicle.1. The dotted lines in fig. When the vehicle is in straight ahead position. 27 .

McGraw-Hill International Editions. the stub axles of inner and outer wheels turn by θ and φ angles respectively. 8. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd. References: 7.Martin. T he difference between φc and φa will be very small for small angles of θ. [φa] can be obtained for different values of θ. the movements of A and B in the horizontal direction may be taken to be same (x). Hence its maintenance will be easier and is commonly employed in automobiles. The correct values of φ. As this mechanism employs only turning pairs.Bansal. John Wiley and Sons. PRA = QSB = α and in the turned position. ARA1 = θ & BSB 1 = φ . sin ( α + θ ) + sin ( α − φ ) = Angle α can be determined using the above equation. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J. the greater difference between φc and φa larger values of θ ill not matter. For the given dimensions of the mechanism. 11.Jr. Neglecting the obliquity of the track rod in the turned position. sin ( α + θ ) = d+x d−x and sin ( α − φ ) = r r 2d = 2 sin α r [1] Adding. for correct steering can be determined using equation [2].P. Theory of Machines by V. when θ = 0 and other two each corresponding to the turn to right or left (at a fixed turning angle. but the difference will be substantial. Mabie and Fred W. The values of θ and φ to be taken in w this equation are those found for correct steering using the equation cot φ − cot θ = . Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. friction and wear in the mechanism will be less.Singh.K. hence is will be moving at a slow speed. At low speeds. Therefore.S. actual values of φ. the automobile must take a sharp turn. [2] L This mechanism gives correct steering in only three positions. McGraw-Hill Publications. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H. New age international publishers. Then. 9. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr. 6. But for larger values of θ. wear of the tyres is less. Dhanpat Rai and Co. Chapter VI 28 . One.Rao. for larger values of θ. as determined by equation [1]). RA=SB=r.ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Let AB=l. [φc] corresponding to different values of θ. Such a difference will reduce the life of tyres because of greater wear on account of slipping. 10.R. IE. Ocvirk.

The roller follows the groove. 6.1a and b): The disk (or plate) cam has an irregular contour to impart a specific motion to the follower. 6. the cam normally rotates while the follower may translate or oscillate. The follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is held in contact with the cam by springs or gravity. where the cams drive the push rods (the followers) to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the pistons.2): The cylindrical cam has a groove cut along its cylindrical surface. The driver is called the cam and the driven member is called the follower.CAMS INTRODUCTION A cam is a mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact.1 Plate or disk cam. The follower may oscillate (Fig. and the follower moves in a plane parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylinder. 6. a) Disk or plate cam (Fig. Fig. The translating cam is a contoured or grooved plate sliding on a guiding surface(s). In a cam follower pair. Fig.3a) or reciprocate 29 . c) Translating cam (Fig. b) Cylindrical cam (Fig. A familiar example is the camshaft of an automobile engine. 6. Types of cams Cams can be classified based on their physical shape. 6.3a and b). 6.2 Cylindrical cam.

The contour or the shape of the groove is determined by the specified motion of the follower. 6. Fig. 6. 6.3b).3 Translating cam Types of followers: (i) Based on surface in contact.5) (a) Oscillating follower (b) Translating follower 30 . (Fig.(Fig.6.4) (a) Knife edge follower (b) Roller follower (c) Flat faced follower (d) Spherical follower Fig.6.4 Types of followers (ii) Based on type of motion: (Fig.

the lines of movement are offset from the centers of the camshafts (Fig.5 (iii) Based on line of motion: (a) Radial follower: The lines of movement of in-line cam followers pass through the centers of the camshafts (Fig.6. Fig. and d). b.7): 31 .4a. 6.Fig. 6. (b) Off-set follower: For this type.6. 6. c. b.6 Off set followers Cam nomenclature (Fig.6a. c. and d).

Fig. dwells. with its center on the axis of the camshaft. during each revolution of the cam. with its center on the axis of the camshaft.7 Cam Profile The contour of the working surface of the cam. Pitch Curve Base Circle The path of the tracer point. Some of the standard follower motions are as follows: They are.6. Prime Circle Pressure Angle The angle between the normal to the pitch curve and the direction of motion of the follower at the point of contact. or the center of a roller. returns to its original position and dwells again through specified angles of rotation of the cam. Types of follower motion: Cam follower systems are designed to achieve a desired oscillatory motion. The cam is assumed to rotate at a constant speed and the follower raises. Appropriate displacement patterns are to be selected for this purpose. 32 . The size of the base circle determines the size of the cam. The smallest circle drawn. Tracer Point The point at the knife edge of a follower. or the center of a spherical face. before designing the cam surface. tangential to the pitch curve. tangential to the cam profile. follower motion with. The smallest circle drawn.

one rotation of the cam.(a) Uniform velocity (b) Modified uniform velocity (c) Uniform acceleration and deceleration (d) Simple harmonic motion (e) Cycloidal motion Displacement diagrams: In a cam follower system. since the velocity changes from zero to a finite value. Since the follower moves with constant velocity. From the displacement diagram.6. during rise and fall. within no time. Displacement diagrams are basic requirements for the construction of cam profiles.8 shows the displacement. the acceleration becomes infinite at the beginning and end of rise and fall. The displacement. Its displacement can be plotted against the angular displacement θ of the cam and it is called as the displacement diagram. The displacement of the follower is plotted along the y-axis and angular displacement θ of the cam is plotted along x-axis. Construction of displacement diagrams and calculation of velocities and accelerations of followers with different types of motions are discussed in the following sections. the motion of the follower is very important. velocity and acceleration patterns of a follower having uniform velocity type of motion. theoretically. the displacement varies linearly with θ. Also.e. velocity and acceleration diagrams are plotted for one cycle of operation i. 33 . (a) Follower motion with Uniform velocity: Fig.. velocity and acceleration of the follower can also be plotted for different angular displacements θ of the cam.

8 (b) Follower motion with modified uniform velocity: It is observed in the displacement diagrams of the follower with uniform velocity that the acceleration of the follower becomes infinite at the beginning and ending of rise and return strokes. Accordingly. In the modified form.Fig. With this modification. the acceleration becomes 34 . the displacement diagrams are slightly modified. In order to prevent this.6. the velocity of the follower changes uniformly during the beginning and end of each stroke. the displacement of the follower varies parabolically during these periods.

6. The displacement. Accordingly.10.6. velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig. 35 . fig. the displacement of the follower varies parabolically with respect to angular displacement of cam. The displacement. The acceleration/retardation of the follower becomes constant accordingly. instead of being infinite as in the uniform velocity type of motion.9.6. the velocity of the follower varies uniformly with respect to angular displacement of cam. velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig.constant during these periods.9 (c) Follower motion with uniform acceleration and retardation (UARM): Here.

Fig. Time required for follower outstroke = to = θo ω Time required for follower return stroke = tr = θr ω 36 . ω = Angular velocity of cam.10 s = Stroke of the follower θo and θr = Angular displacement of the cam during outstroke and return stroke.6.

Average velocity of follower =

s t s 2 = s = vomin + vomax to 2 2

Average velocity of follower during outstroke = t o vomin = 0 ∴ vomax =

2s 2ωs = = Max. velocity during outstroke. to θo s 2 = s = vrmin + vrmax tr 2 2

Average velocity of follower during return stroke = t r vrmin = 0 ∴ vrmax =

2 s 2ωs = = Max. velocity during return stroke. tr θr

vo 4ω 2 s a o = max = 2 Acceleration of the follower during outstroke = to θo 2 Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke = a r = 4ω 2 s

θr

2

(d) Simple Harmonic Motion: In fig.6.11, the motion executed by point Pl, which is the projection of point P on the vertical diameter is called simple harmonic motion. Here, P moves with uniform angular velocity ωp, along a circle of radius r (r = s/2).

y

p ' y r a

p

x

37

Fig.6.11 Displacement = y = r sin α = r sin ω p t ; y max = r   Velocity = y = ω p r cos ω p t ; y max = rω p
2 2 2 y y Acceleration =  = −ω p r sin ω p t = −ω p y ;  max = − rω p

[d1] [d2] [d3]

Fig.6.11 s= Stroke or displacement of the follower. θo = Angular displacement during outstroke. θr = Angular displacement during return stroke ω = Angular velocity of cam. to = Time taken for outstroke =

θo ω

tr = Time taken for return stroke =

θr ω

Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vomax = rωp (from d2)

38

vomax =

s π πωs = 2 t o 2θ o s π πωs = 2 t r 2θ r  π 2ω 2 s  = 2  2θ o 
2

Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = , vrmax = sπ Max. acceleration during outstroke = aomax = rω p (from d3) =  2  to 
2

sπ Similarly, Max. acceleration during return stroke = armax =  2  tr 

 π 2ω 2 s  =  2θ 2 r 

2

39

(e) Cycloidal motion: Cycloid is the path generated by a point on the circumference of a circle, as the circle rolls without slipping, on a straight/flat surface. The motion executed by the follower here, is similar to that of the projection of a point moving along a cyloidal curve on a vertical line as shown in figure 6.12.
a7 a6 C L ID L YCO A MT N OIO a5 a4 a3 a2 a1
F O L L O W E R M O T I O N

66

a
21

Fig.6.12 The construction of displacement diagram and the standard patterns of velocity and acceleration diagrams are shown in fig.6.13. Compared to all other follower motions, cycloidal motion results in smooth operation of the follower. The expressions for maximum values of velocity and acceleration of the follower are shown below. s = Stroke or displacement of the follower. d = dia. of cycloid generating circle = s π

θo = Angular displacement during outstroke. θr = Angular displacement during return stroke ω = Angular velocity of cam. to = Time taken for outstroke =

θo ω
θr ω
2ωs θo

tr = Time taken for return stroke =

vomax = Max. velocity of follower during outstroke =

40

acceleration during return stroke = θ 2r Fig. acceleration during outstroke = 2πω 2 s 2ωs θr θo 2 2πω 2 s armax = Max. 6.vrmax = Max.13 41 . velocity of follower during return stroke = aomax = Max.

42 .

for 600 cam rotation. Displacement diagram: 5 4 3 2 1 0 b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 c 6 e d f g h i j k l 1 2 D EL WL L =5 m IFT 0 m OT S R K U T OE RT R S RK E U N T OE Cam profile: Construct base circle. base circle radius = 50mm. out stroke with SHM.3…. return stroke with SHM.2. for 900 cam rotation. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1000 rpm in clockwise direction.Solved problems (1) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = Knife edged.. Transfer points a. lift = 50mm. in-line. dwell for the remaining period.c….. Mark points 1.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. 43 .b. This forms the required cam profile. Determine max. dwell for 450 cam rotation.l from displacement diagram to the cam profile and join them by a smooth free hand curve.

vrmax = π × 104.857m/sec 2×π 3 πωs = 2θ r Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = .76 × 50 =7857mm/sec =7.76 rad/sec 60 60 Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vomax = = πωs = 2θ o π × 104. acceleration during outstroke = aomax = rω p (from d3) = = 2 2θ o 2 44 .e f d c b 2 60° a 1 4 6 5 3 4° 5 5 0 7 g 8 9 1 0 h i 1 1 1 2 l j k 90° Calculations: Angular velocity of cam = ω = 2πN 2 × π × 1000 = =104.76 × 50 = = 5238mm/sec = 5.238m/sec 2×π 2 π 2ω 2 s Max.

96mm/sec2 = 2469. Max.3m/sec2 2 = 2× π 3 ( ) π 2ω 2 s Similarly.76 ) 2 × 50 = 1097465.76mm/sec2 = 1097.π 2 × (104.76 ) 2 × 50 = 2469297. acceleration during return stroke = armax = = 2θ 2 r π 2 × (104.5m/sec2 2 = 2× π 2 ( ) 45 .

e f d c b 2 a 1 1 0 3 4 5 6 ° 60 5m 0m 5 4° 7 g 8 9 1 0 9° 0 1 1 1 2 l h i k j 46 . Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.2. as shown in the fig. except that the lines drawn from 1. Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case.(2) Draw the cam profile for the same operating conditions of problem (1). are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. with the follower off set by 10 mm to the left of cam center.3….

47 25 .. for 900 cam rotation. draw a smooth free hand curve. on prime circle.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1200 rpm in clockwise direction. return stroke with UARM. Displacement diagram: e d c b a 0 1 2 3 4 5 f g h i j k l L IFT 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 OT S R K U T OE D EL WL RT R SR K E U N T OE D EL WL Cam profile: Construct base circle and prime circle (25mm radius). out stroke with UARM. At each of these points a. in-line. This forms the required cam profile. tangential to all successive roller positions. Determine max. Transfer points a. representing rollers.(3) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower.2. dwell for 600 cam rotation. lift = 25mm.l from displacement diagram. roller radius = 5mm.c…. Mark points 1. Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle. for 1200 cam rotation.c… draw circles of 5mm radius. dwell for the remaining period. base circle radius = 20mm..b.b.3….

71rad/sec 60 60 2 s 2ωs = = to θo Max.9mm/sec =2.71) × 25 2 (2 × π 3 ) 2 = 359975mm/sec2 = 359.71 × 25 = 2999. velocity during outstroke = vomax = = 2 × 125.999m/sec vo 4ω 2 s a o = max = 2 Acceleration of the follower during outstroke = to θo = 2 = 4 × (125.999m/sec 2×π 3 2 s 2ωs 2 × 125. velocity during return stroke = vrmax = t = θ = π r r 2 = 3999.86mm/sec = 3.b c d 4 5 e 6 f 3 2 a 1 0 10 2° 60° 7 2m 0m 90 ° 1 1 8 9 1 0 1 l 2 k j i h g Calculations: Angular velocity of the cam = ω = 2πN 2 × π × 1200 = = 125.975m/sec2 4ω 2 s Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke = a r = θr 2 = 48 .71 × 25 = Max.

71) × 25 2 (π 2 ) 2 = 639956mm/sec2 = 639.956m/sec2 49 .= 4 × (125.

(4) Draw the cam profile for conditions same as in (3). a 1 b 2 3 4 c 5 20 m m 2 1 0° d 2 l 1 90° 1 1 k 1 0 j 9 60° 6 7 5 e 8 f i h g 50 . Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia.2.3…. Displacement diagram: Same as previous case. with follower off set to right of cam center by 5mm and cam rotating counter clockwise. as shown in the fig. except that the lines drawn from 1.

(5) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. acceleration is 3/5 times retardation. roller radius = 14mm. during 0. off set to the right of cam axis by 18mm. lift = 35mm.125 × 360 = 180 0 Angle of return stroke = θ r = 0. base circle radius = 50mm. 3 a 3 a = r (from acceleration diagram) ∴ = 5 r 5 v max v a t 3 .05 × 360 = 72 0 0.25 sec 240 0. During return stroke. return stroke with UARM. 51 .25 0 Angle of second dwell = θ w 2 = 90 Since acceleration is 3/5 times retardation during return stroke.25 0. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 240 rpm. dwell for 0.05sec.0125 × 360 = 18 0 Angle of first dwell = θ w1 = 0.0125sec. Calculations: Cam speed = 240rpm.25 0. Therefore. Determine max. out stroke with SHM in 0. time for one rotation = Angle of out stroke = θ o = 60 = 0. dwell for the remaining period. r = max ∴ = r = But a = ta tr r ta 5 Displacement diagram is constructed by selecting ta and tr accordingly.125sec.

14mm/sec2 = 69. velocity of follower during outstroke = vomax = = 2θ o π × 25.9 mm/sec = 0. acceleration during outstroke = aomax = rω2p (from d3) = = 2 2θ o Angular velocity of cam = ω = ( ) π 2 × ( 25.14 × 35 = = 1099.14 rad/sec 60 60 πωs Max.56m/sec π 2ω 2 s Max.87mm/sec =1.14 ) 2 × 35 = 69127.13m/sec2 2 = 2×π 2× 5 ( ) 52 .1m/sec 2× 2×π 5 2ωs 2 × 25.14 × 35 = = Similarly Max. velocity during return stroke = vrmax = θr π = 559.5 4 3 2 1 0 6 e d c b a 1 2 3 4 5 f g h i j k l m n 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 D EL WL L =3 m IFT 5 m OTS R K U T OE v RT R S R K E U N T OE ta tr v ax r-m a r a 2πN 2 × π × 240 = =25.

94m/sec2 1 8 7166.acceleration of the follower during return stroke = 2ωs 2 vrmax θr 16 × ω 2 × s 16 × ( 25.37 mm/sec2 = 11943.9 mm/sec2 = a 1 2 b c d 3 4 e 72° 5 6 1 8° f n 1 4 7 1 3 m 1 2 1 1 l 9 1 0 h 1 80° g 8 k j i 53 .17m/sec2 similarly retardation of the follower during return stroke = 2ωs 2 vrmax θr 16 × ω 2 × s 16 × ( 25.14 ) × 35 = rr = = = = 3×π tr 3× π ×θr 3×π ×π 8×ω 11.14) × 35 = ar = = = = 5×π ta 5 × π ×θr 5×π ×π 8×ω 7.

lift = 30mm. return stroke with uniform velocity. in line. Displacement diagram: a 1 b 2 c d e f g h i j 3m 0m l k 3 4 5 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 1 1 0 1 2 D EL WL OT S R K U T OE Cam profile: RT R S RK E U N T OE c d e b 2 3 4 5 6 10 2° a 1 ° 90 60° ° 90 f 7 8 9 1 2 l 1 1 1 k 0 j i g h 54 . base circle radius = 20mm. out stroke with uniform velocity in 1200 of cam rotation.(6) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = knife edged follower. dwell for the remaining period. dwell for 600. during 900 of cam rotation.

55 .

follower to rise through 400 during 900 of cam rotation with cycloidal motion. Also determine the max. dwell for 300.(7) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = oscillating follower with roller as shown in fig.4 mm 2×π π = 53 mm. roller radius = 7mm.. return stroke with cycloidal motion during 1200 of cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. 76 36 76 B 4° 0 O A Lift of the follower = S = length AB ≈ arc AB = OA × θ = 76 × 40 × Radius of cycloid generating circle = Displacement diagram. base circle radius = 20mm. velocity and acceleration during outstroke and return stroke. 180 56 . 53 = 8. if the cam rotates at 600 rpm.

9 1 1 6.8 0 8 7 1 1 e d c b a 4 3 2 1 OT S R K U T OE 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 f g h i j k l 53 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 D EL WL RT R S RK E UN T OE D EL WL 57 .

3’… on the outer circle. acceleration during return stroke = θ 2 r = 2×π 3 = 299855.1 m/sec2. 2’. draw a smooth free hand curve.86 × 53 vomax = Max. acceleration during outstroke = = 533077 θo π 2 mm/sec2 = 533. Cam profile: Draw base circle and prime circle. Transfer points a. velocity of follower during return stroke = θ = = 3180 2×π r 3 mm/sec 2 2πω 2 s 2 × π × ( 62. This forms the required cam profile.86 ) × 53 = 2 2 aomax = Max.8mm/sec2 = 299.8 m/sec2. Show points 1’.2.3…. With these points as centers and radius equal to length of follower arm.2 π o 2 mm/sec 2ωs 2 × 62. representing rollers.86 rad/sec 60 60 2ωs 2 × 62.86 ) × 53 = 2 armax = Max. cutting the prime circle at 1..c… draw circles of 7mm radius. Divide these into same number of divisions as in the displacement diagram. on to these arcs from displacement diagram. Angular velocity of cam = ω = ( ) ( ) 58 .b. Draw another circle of radius equal to the distance between cam center and follower pivot point. Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle. At each of these points a. 2 2πω 2 s 2 × π × ( 62. tangential to all successive roller positions.2πN 2 × π × 600 = = 62.b.c. velocity of follower during outstroke = θ = = 4240. draw arcs.86 × 53 vrmax = Max. Take the line joining cam center and pivot point as reference and draw lines indicating successive angular displacements of cam.

76 c d 36 b 3 2 a 1 20 1 ° 1 ' 1 2' e 4 5 6 2' f 10 2° 0 9° 7 8 3° 0 1' 1 3 ' 9 1 0 1 1 l 1 2 m 1' 0 4 ' g h i 6' 7' 8' k 9 ' 5 ' 59 .

5 0 Angle of dwell (2) = 16   1 1 1 1  5 0 0 Angle of return stroke = θr = 1 −  + + +  × 360 = × 360 = 112. follower rises by 24mm with SHM in 1/4 rotation. Base circle radius = 30mm. dwells for 1/8 rotation and then raises again by 24mm with UARM in 1/4 rotation and dwells for 1/16 rotation before returning with SHM.5 4 8 4 16  16   Displacement diagram: m k l n o p q r s 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 D E L1 WL OTS R K 2 U T OE 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 R TU NS R K E R T OE 24 d c b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 OTS R K 1 U T OE e f g h i j 2m 4m D E L2 WL Cam profile: 60 . in line.(8) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = knife edged follower. Angle of out stroke (1) = θ01 = Angle of dwell (1) = 1 × 360 0 = 90 0 4 1 × 360 0 = 45 0 8 1 0 0 Angle of out stroke (2) = θ02 = × 360 = 90 4 1 × 360 0 = 22.

5° 90° 1 2 1 3 o 1 4 n g h i j k l m 61 .c d e 5 4 b 3 2 a 1 1 9 s 1 8 r q p 1 6 1 5 90° 1 2.5° 1 1 7 f 6 60 45° 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 22.

c….in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. dwells for 300 of cam rotation. Mark points 1. Transfer points a..l from displacement diagram. tangential to all successive follower positions. in line. Starting from the first point of contact between follower and base circle. 20 c d i j 62 . At each of these points a.3….2. returns with SHM in 1200 of cam rotation and dwells during the remaining period. on prime circle. representing flat faced followers.b.. follower rises by 20mm with SHM in 1200 of cam rotation.b. Displacement diagram: e f g h a 1 b 2 k l 3 4 5 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 D EL WL OTS R K U T OE RT R S R K E U N T OE Cam profile: Construct base circle.(9) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = flat faced follower.c… draw perpendicular lines to the radials. draw a smooth free hand curve. This forms the required cam profile. Base circle radius = 25mm.

25 b c d 3 4 5 e f 6 2 a 1 ° 90 10 2° 2° 10 9 1 0 1 l 2 1 1 k 7 ° 30 8 h g i j 63 .

follower rises by 25mm with SHM in 1800 of cam rotation. roller dia.(10) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower.5 OTS R K U T OE Cam profile: RT R SRK E U N T OE a b 2 c 2 R 0 d 3 4 5 e 6 1 1 1 l k 1 0 9 8 7 h g f i j 45 64 . = 5mm. falls by half the distance instantaneously. in line. Base circle radius = 20m. returns with Uniform velocity in 1800 of cam rotation. Displacement diagram: f d e g h 3 4 5 6 7 i 8 j 9 k 1 0 l 1 1 25 a 1 c b 2 1 2.

base circle radius = 25mm. lift = 30mm. Displacement diagram: f d c b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 e g h i j k l m n o 30 p q r 7 8 91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cam profile: 65 . return stroke during 1200 cam rotation. off-set to the right by 5mm. for 1200 cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. roller radius = 5mm.(11) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. out stroke with SHM. dwell for 600 cam rotation. first half of return stroke with Uniform velocity and second half with UARM.

The angle of action for the outstroke and the return stroke is 600 each. Draw the profile of the cam. along a path inclined to the vertical at 600. The stroke of the follower is 20mm. fitted to its end. interposed by a dwell period of 600. Displacement diagram: 66 . The base circle diameter of the cam is 50mm and the push rod has a roller of 60mm diameter. The same descends with SHM. The axis of the roller and the cam fall on the same vertical line.5 1 r 1 8 q p o n m l k j i h g 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 a 2 b c 3 60° 1 20° 1 20° 60° 6 9 8 4 5 d e 7 f (12) A push rod of valve of an IC engine ascends with UARM.

e d c b 2 3 4 5 f g h i 20 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 j k 1 0 1 1 l 1 2 D EL WL a 1 OT S R K U T OE RT R SR K E U N T OE Cam profile: 60° 1 6 cd e f b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 60° 60° 66 50 60° g 7 i h 8 9 1 1 1 j 2 1 0 k l 67 .

But when the tangential force exceeds the frictional resistance. Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth.1 When one of the discs is rotated. the only positive drive is by means of gears or toothed wheels. the other disc will be rotate as long as the tangential force exerted by the driving disc does not exceed the maximum frictional resistance between the two discs. Friction Wheels: Kinematiclly. special purpose machines. Some common places that gears can normally be found are: Printing machinery parts Rotary die cutting machines Blow molding machinery Agricultural equipment High volume vacuum pumps Boat out drives Hoists and Cranes Newspaper Industry Plastics machinery builders Book binding machines Injection molding machinery Motorcycle Transmissions (street Heavy earth moving to and race applications) personal vehicles Polymer pumps High volume water pumps for municipalities Turbo boosters for automotive Marine applications applications Special offshore racing drive Canning and bottling systems machinery builders Commercial and Military Military offroad vehicles 68 . slipping will take place between the two discs. The effect of slip is to reduce the velocity ratio of the drive. let us consider the two discs placed together as shown in the figure 4. Figure 4.1. In order to understand motion transmitted by two toothed wheels. the motion and power transmitted by gears is equivalent to that transmitted by friction wheels or discs in contact with sufficient friction between them. Gears essentially allow positive engagement between teeth so high forces can be transmitted while still undergoing essentially rolling contact. thus the motion transmitted is considered as positive. in which a definite velocity ratio is importance (as in watch mechanism. In precision machine. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily rolling contact between the teeth.etc).0 Gears: Introduction: The slip and creep in the belt or rope drives is a common phenomenon.. in the transmission of motion or power between two shafts. beyond certain limit. Thus the friction drive is not positive a drive. The gear teeth act like small levers.4. Gears do not depend on friction and do best when friction is minimized.

many spur gears are used at once to create very large gear reductions. most of the gears in your car are helical. They have straight teeth. inexpensive. Sometimes. Spur gearsgears most commonly used gear type. Gears for connecting parallel shafts 1. Parallel helical gears: The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. Gears for connecting parallel shafts. They are characterized by teeth. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. and efficient. The axes may be 1. the contact starts at one end of the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate. 69 . Advantages: Spur gears are easy to find.1 Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the axes of revolution. and are mounted on parallel shafts. Spur gears: Spur gears are the most common type of gears. When two teeth on a helical gear system engage. Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts. • Iinternal contact 2. 2. the teeth collide. Spur gears are most commonly available. 3.Automotive prototype and reproduction Diesel engine builders operations Low volume automotive production Special gear box builders Stamping presses Many different special machine tool builders 4. and this impact makes a noise. Gears for connecting intersecting shafts. until the two teeth are in full engagement. To reduce the noise and stress in the gears. and are generally the least expensive. Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear. which are the Spur External contact are perpendicular(Emerson Power Transmission Corp) to the face of the gear. • Limitations: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the two shafts is required.

(They are in theory a gear with an infinite pitch diameter). they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts. they create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh. For this reason. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth. helical gears are used in almost all car transmission. it impacts the corresponding tooth all at once. as is shown. but can be designed to work at other angles as well. spiral or hypoid. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight. Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears. Perhaps the most well-known application of a rack is the rack and pinion steering system used on many cars in the past Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct. adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees. 70 . as each tooth engages. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load. the torque and angular velocity of the pinion gear are related to the Force and the velocity of the rack by the radius of the pinion gear.Helical gears (EmersonPower Transmission Corp) Herringbone gears (or double-helical gears) This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears.): Racks are straight gears that are used to convert rotational motion to translational motion by means of a gear mesh. In theory. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart. Helical gears to have the following differences from spur gears of the same size: o o o Tooth strength is greater because the teeth are longer. Greater surface contact on the teeth allows a helical gear to carry more load than a spur gear The longer surface of contact reduces the efficiency of a helical gear relative to a spur gear Rack and pinion (The rack is like a gear whose axis is at infinity.

Since the driveshaft of the car is connected to the input pinion. Spiral bevel This feature is used in many car differentials. A special application in which helical gears are used is a crossed gear mesh. This means that the driveshaft doesn't pass into the passenger compartment of the car as much. to 71 . Crossed-helical gears Worm and worm gear: Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed.Just like with spur gears. in which the two shafts are perpendicular to each other. the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. The hypoid gear. This allows the input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear. Neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Helical gears may be used to mesh two shafts that are not parallel. and even up 300:1 or greater. the shafts must be perpendicular to each other. but they must also be in the same plane. although they are still primarily use in parallel shaft applications. this also Hypoid gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp) lowers the driveshaft. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. can engage with the axes in different planes. Figure shows the input pinion engaging the ring gear of the differential. It is common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1. Straight bevel gears gears On straight and spiral bevel gears. making more room for people and cargo. These spiral teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively spreads across the whole tooth.

the friction between the gear and the worm holds the worm in place. in which the locking feature can act as a brake for the conveyor when the motor is not turning. One other very interesting usage of worm gears is in the Torsen differential. 4. but the gear cannot turn the worm.3 Terminology for Spur Gears 72 . This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems.Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can easily turn the gear. This is because the angle on the worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it. which is used on some high-performance cars and trucks.

Figure 4-4 Spur Gear 73 .

Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth. Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of contact of the gear teeth. Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile. Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the engagement of a given pair of teeth. 74 . Backlash: Play between mating teeth. Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord. passing through the points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile. Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch Circle Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it fits on the meshing gear. Base Circle: The circle from which is generated the involute curve upon which the tooth profile is based. Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear teeth and the Pitch Point. and the tooth top. Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears.Terminology: Addendum: The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth.

Pressure Angle: Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of Centers. located between the pitch diameter and the bottom of the teeth Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. where the Line of Centers crosses the pitch circles. located between the pitch diameter and the top of the tooth. Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter. Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle. Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle. Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth. 75 . Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels. If both gears are the same size. Module: Millimeter of Pitch Diameter to Teeth. Pitch Circle: The circle. Land: The top surface of the tooth. Profile Shift: An increase in the Outer Diameter and Root Diameter of a gear. the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the gear to the pitch point. Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears. Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces. Pinion: The smaller of two meshed gears. Diametral pitch: Teeth per millimeter of pitch diameter. Face: The working surface of a gear tooth. Pitch Point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears. they are both called "gears". introduced to lower the practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance. Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis. between the first point of contact and the last.Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.

2) Figure 5-2 Two gearing tooth profiles We notice that the intersection of the tangency N1N2 and the line of center O1O2 is point P.1) ω1 O2 N 2 = ω 2 O1 N 1 ( 4.2. Otherwise the two tooth profiles would separate from each other. N1 is the foot of the perpendicular from O1 to N1N2 N2 is the foot of the perpendicular from O2 to N1N2. 4. or velocity ratio.2 Gear-Tooth Action 4. and from the similar triangles. Therefore.Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the mating gear. ∆O1 N 1 P = ∆O2 N 2 P ( 4. of a pair of mating teeth is 76 . N1N2 is the common normal of the two profiles. the relationship between the angular velocities of the driving gear to the driven gear. their velocities along N1N2 are equal in both magnitude and direction.1 Fundamental Law of Gear-Tooth Action Figure 5. we have O1 N 1 ω1 = O2 N 2 ω 2 or ( 4.3) Thus.2 shows two mating gear teeth. in which • Tooth profile 1 drives tooth profile 2 by acting at the instantaneous contact point K. φ • • • Although the two profiles have different velocities V1 and V2 at point K.

and the relative rotation speed of the gears will be constant(constant velocity ratio). we can write.2 Constant Velocity Ratio For a constant velocity ratio. and it is called the pitch point. The above expression is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action.2 and 4. We can get two circles whose centers are at O1 and O2. This is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action. ω1 O2 P O2 N 2 = = ω 2 O1 P O1 N 1 ( 4. From the equations 4. and through pitch point P. The fundamental law of gear-tooth action may now also be stated as follow (for gears with fixed center distance) A common normal (the line of action) to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must.6) Also the centre distance between the base circles: O1O2 = O1 P + O2 P = O1 N 1 O2 N 2 O1 N 1 + O2 N 2 + = cos φ cos φ cos φ ( 4. Pitch point divides the line between the line of centers and its position decides the velocity ratio of the two teeth.4) Point P is very important to the velocity ratio. The velocity ratio is equal to the inverse ratio of the diameters of pitch circles. These two circles are termed pitch circles. in all positions of the contacting teeth. The radii of the base circles is given by: O1 N 1 = O1 P cos φ and O2 N 2 = O2 P cos φ ( 4. the motion transmission between two gears is equivalent to the motion transmission between two imagined slip-less cylinders with radius R1 and R2 or diameter D1 and D2.2. In this case. 4.4. the position of P should remain unchanged.5) which determines the ratio of the radii of the two base circles. It is the angle which the common normal to the base circles make with the common tangent to the pitch circles. 77 .ω1 O2 P = ω 2 O1 P ( 4.7 ) where φ is the pressure angle or the angle of obliquity. pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called the pitch point Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are conjugate curves.

The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve.the shape of teeth necessary for the speed ratio to remain constant during an increment of rotation. 4. Another requirement . which is the ratio of the rotary velocity of the driver gear to that of the driven gears. the size of the teeth ( the module ) must be the same for both the gears. only two are in general use: the cycloidal and involute profiles. this behavior of the contacting surfaces (ie. It may also be defined 78 Figure 4. Although many tooth shapes are possible for which a mating tooth could be designed to satisfy the fundamental law. conjugate action : It is essential for correctly meshing gears. the teeth flanks) is known as conjugate action. Thus close tolerances between shaft locations are not required when using the involute profile.2. The involute has important advantages. The two profiles which satisfy this requirement are called conjugate profiles.4. Gears have many terminologies.3 Conjugate Profiles To obtain the expected velocity ratio of two tooth profiles. We use the word involute because the contour of gear teeth curves inward. we simply termed the tooth profiles which satisfy the fundamental law of gear-tooth action the conjugate profiles. One of the important concepts is the velocity ratio. 4. This involute curve is the path traced by a point on a line as the line rolls without slipping on the circumference of a circle.3 Involute Curve The following examples are involute spur gears.1 Generation of the Involute Curve The curve most commonly used for gear-tooth profiles is the involute of a circle. (Erdman & Sandor). parameters and principles. it is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. which is decided by the velocity ratio. Sometimes. the normal line of their profiles must pass through the corresponding pitch point.3 Involute curve .

and hence the curve traced will also be perpendicular to the line at any instant. Cycloidal profile: Epicycliodal Profile: 79 . 3. For any instant. 2. the motion of the point that is tracing the involute is perpendicular to the line at any instant. the instantaneous center of the motion of the line is its point of tangent with the circle. When two bodies have planar relative motion.as a path traced by the end of a string. When two bodies have planar relative motion. Note: We have not defined the term instantaneous center previously. 1. The line rolls without slipping on the circle. 2.2 Properties of Involute Curves 1. the instant center is a point on one body about which the other rotates at the instant considered. The circle from which the involute is derived is called the base circle. The normal at any point of an involute is tangent to the base circle. The instantaneous center or instant center is defined in two ways. Because of the property (2) of the involute curve. which is originally wrapped on a circle when the string is unwrapped from the circle. 4. There is no involute curve within the base circle. the instant center is the point at which the bodies are relatively at rest at the instant considered.

In cycloidal gears. 2. the pressure angle. Thus the involute teeth are easy to manufacture than cycloidal teeth. epi-cycloid and hypo-cycloid) are required for the face and flank respectively. The face and flank of involute teeth are generated by a single curve where as in cycloidal gears. The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve. remains constant between the point of tooth engagement and disengagement. 2. the basic rack has straight teeth and the same can be cut with simple tools. reduces to zero at pitch point. In involute gears. But in cycloidal gears. the contact takes place between a convex flank and a concave surface. double curves (i. Since the cycloidal teeth have wider flanks. • It is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. starts increasing and again becomes maximum at the end of engagement. the pressure angle is maximum at the beginning of engagement. This condition results in less wear in cycloidal gears as compared to involute gears. Advantages of Cycloidal gear teeth: 1. the cycloidal teeth are preferred specially for cast teeth. However the difference in wear is negligible 80 . Due to this reason. It is necessary for smooth running and less wear of gears. (Erdman & Sandor). for the same pitch. Thus close tolerances between shaft locations are not required. This results in less smooth running of gears. In involute system. therefore the cycloidal gears are stronger than the involute gears. where as in involute gears the convex surfaces are in contact.e.Hypocycliodal Profile: The involute profile of gears has important advantages. 3.

Manufacturing of gears is easy due to single curvature of profile. The involute tooth form of gears is insensitive to the centre distance and depends only on the dimensions of the base circle. 2. they exhibit constant angular velocity ratio and is inversely proportional to the size of base circles. 4. The tooth profile of this system has cycloidal curves at the top and bottom and involute curve at the middle portion. The common tangent drawn from the pitch point to the base circle of the two involutes is the line of action and also the path of contact of the involutes. 81 . When two involutes gears are in mesh and rotating. Properties of involute teeth: 1. 7. In cycloidal gears. A normal drawn to an involute at pitch point is a tangent to the base circle. 20O Full depth involute system 4. 14 ½O Full depth involute system 3. 6. The teeth are produced by formed milling cutters or hobs.3. 5. 20O Stub involute system The 14½O composite system is used for general purpose gears. Basic rack for involute tooth profile has straight line form. Pressure angle remains constant during the mesh of an involute gears. 3. It is stronger but has no interchangeability. (Law of Gearing or conjugate action) 8. Though there are advantages of cycloidal gears but they are outweighed by the greater simplicity and flexibility of the involute gears. the interference does not occur at all. 14 ½O Composite system 2. The radius of curvature of an involute is equal to the length of tangent to the base circle. System of Gear Teeth The following four systems of gear teeth are commonly used in practice: 1.

because the tooth acting as a beam is wider at the base. The tooth profile of the 20o full depth involute system may be cut by hobs. Consider an involute of base circle radius ra and two points B and C on the involute as shown in figure. Involutometry Addendum Circle Pitch Circle C B A r ra Gear E F Base Circle O The study of the geometry of the involute profile for gear teeth is called involumetry. Let ra= base circle radius of gear rb= radius of point B on the involute rc= radius of point C on the involute and Φb= pressure angle for the point B Φc= pressure angle for the point C 82 . Draw normal to the involute from the points B and C. The normal BE and CF are tangents to the Base circle.The tooth profile of the 14½O full depth involute system was developed using gear hobs for spur and helical gears. The 20o stub involute system has a strong tooth to take heavy loads. The increase of the pressure angle from 14½o to 20o results in a stronger tooth.

φb = tan φb − φb  Expression ( tan φb − φb ) is  called involute function    Similarly: ArcAF BE = = tan φc OF OF ∠ AOC = ∠AOF − φc = tan φC − φC ∠ AOF = ∴ Inv.tb= tooth thickness along the arc at B tc= tooth thickness along the arc at C From ∆OBE and ∆OCF ra = rb × cos φb (1) ra = rc × cos φc ( 2) Therefore rb × cos φb = rc × cos φc From the properties of the Involute: Arc AE = Length BE and Arc AF = Length CF ArcAE BE = = tan φb OE OE ∠ AOB = ∠AOE − φb = tan φb − φb ∠ AOE = ∴ Inv.φc = tan φc − φc At the po int B ∠AOD = ∠AOB + tb 2rb tb 2rb tc 2rb tc 2rc = tan φb − φb + At the po int C ∠AOD = ∠AOC + = tan φc − φc + 83 .

Thus the length of part of contact is KL which is the sum 84 . The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the wheel and the pinion. it is possible to calculate the thickness of the tooth at any point Path of contact: O2 RA R N L K M φ O1 r ra Pitch Circle Base Circle P φ Wheel Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Addendum Circles Pinion Consider a pinion driving wheel as shown in figure.Equating the above equations : t t tan φb − φb + b = tan φc − φc + c 2rb 2rc inv.φc + c 2rb 2rc  t  t c =  inv. φc + b 2rc  2rb    = tooth thickness at C Using this equation and knowing tooth thickness at any point on the tooth. φb + tb t = inv. the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K (on the near the base circle of pinion or the outer end of the tooth face on the wheel) and ends at L (outer end of the tooth face on the pinion or on the flank near the base circle of wheel). The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common tangent. When the pinion rotates in clockwise. The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common tangent.φb − inv. MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base circles.

and R A = O2K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel r = O1P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion.of the parts of path of contacts KP and PL. Radius of the base circle of pinion = O1M = O1P cosφ = r cosφ and radius of the base circle of wheel = O2N = O2P cos φ = R cosφ From right angle triangle O2KN KN = ( O2 K ) 2 − ( O2 N ) 2 2 = ( RA ) − R 2 cos 2 φ PN = O2 P sin φ = R sin φ Path of approach: KP KP = KN − PN = ( RA ) − R 2 cos 2 φ − R sin φ Similarly from right angle triangle O1ML 2 ML = = ( O1L ) 2 − ( O1M ) 2 ( ra ) 2 − r 2 cos 2 φ MP = O1 P sin φ = r sin φ Path of recess: PL PL = ML − MP = ( r ) − r 2 cos 2 φ − r sin φ Length of path of contact = KL a 2 KL = KP + PL = ( RA ) 2 − R 2 cos 2 φ + ( ra ) 2 − r 2 cos 2 φ − ( R + r ) sin φ 85 . and R = O2P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel. Contact length KP is called as path of approach and contact length PL is called as path of recess. ra = O1L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion.

The arc GP is known as arc of approach and the arc PH is called arc of recess.Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. Length of arc of approach = arc GP = Lenght of path of approach KP = cos φ cos φ Length of arc of recess = arc PH = Lenght of path of recess PL = cos φ cos φ Length of arc contact = arc GPH = arc GP + arc PH = KP PL KL Length of path of contact + = = cos φ cos φ cos φ cos φ Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact) The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch. Mathematically. In Figure. Contat ratio = Length of the arc of contact PC 86 . the arc of contact is EPF or GPH. The angles subtended by these arcs at O1 are called angle of approach and angle of recess respectively. O2 RA R L Gear Profile E G M P K r ra O1 N F H φ Wheel φ Pitch Circle Addendum Circles Pitch Circle φ Pinion Base Circle Considering the arc of contact GPH.

Where: PC = Circular pitch = π × m and m = Module. 87 .

The manufacturing inaccuracies may lead to loss of kinematic continuity . The average number of teeth in contact is also a guide to load sharing between teeth. though there is only one pair in contact in the middle of the path. vibration and noise. it is termed the contact ratio Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion: PITCH LINE Pc h a b T RACK c Base Circle PINION φ φ PITCH LINE φ° c RACK 88 .that is to impact. as in Figure. R r The average number of teeth in contact is an important parameter .Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact Continuous motion transfer requires two pairs of teeth in contact at the ends of the path of contact.if it is too low due to the use of inappropriate profile shifts or to an excessive centre distance.

= Addendu m radius of the pinion a = Addendum of rack EF = Length of path of contact EF = Path of approach EP + Path of recess PF sin φ = AP a = EP EP (1) (2) (3) a sin φ Path of recess = PF = NF − NP From triangle O1 NP : Path of approach = EP = From triangle O1NF: NP = O1 P sin φ = r sin φ O1 N = O1 P cos φ = r cos φ 1 1 NF = ( O1 F 2 − O1 N 2 ) 2 = ( ra2 − r 2 cos 2 φ ) 2 Substituting NP and NF values in the equation (3) Path of racess = PF = ( ra2 − r 2 cos 2 φ ) 2 − r sin φ 1 ∴ Path of length of contact = EF = EP + PF = Exercise problems refer presentation slides Interference in Involute Gears RA R L P K M φ O1 r ra Pitch Circle Base Circle N O2 φ 1 a + ( ra2 − r 2 cos 2 φ ) 2 − r sin φ sin φ Wheel Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Addendum Circles 89 Pinion .Let r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = O1P Φ = Pressure angle ra.

then the tip of tooth on wheel will cause interference with the tooth on pinion.Figure shows a pinion and a gear in mesh with their center as O1andO2 respectively. the radius of the addendum circle of pinion is increased to O1N. The interference may only be prevented. The limiting value of the radius of the addendum circle of the pinion is O1N and of the wheel is O2M. and occurs when the teeth are being cut and weakens the tooth at its root. The points M and N are called interference points. the phenomenon. Consider. If this radius is further increased. Interference may be avoided if the path of the contact does not extend beyond interference points. When interference is just prevented. Maximum path of approach = MP = r sin φ Maximum path of recess = PN = R sin φ Maximum length of path of contact = MN MN = MP + PN = ( r + R ) sin φ ( r + R ) sin φ = ( r + R ) tan φ Maximum length of arc of contact = cos φ 90 . when the tip of tooth undercuts the root on its mating gear is known as interference. the point of contact L will moves from L to N. the point of contact L will be inside of base circle of wheel and not on the involute profile of the pinion. In general. Wheel Undercut Pinion Similarly. if the radius of the addendum circles of the wheel increases beyond O 2M. if the point of contact between the two teeth is always on the involute profiles and if the addendum circles of the two mating gears cut the common tangent to the base circles at the points of tangency. MN is the common tangent to the basic circles and KL is the path of contact between the two mating teeth. The tooth tip of the pinion will then undercut the tooth on the wheel at the root and damages part of the involute profile. the maximum length of path of contact is MN. This effect is known as interference.

. Height of the teeth may be reduced. Let Ф = pressure angle R = pitch circle radius of gear = ½mT r = pitch circle radius of pinion = ½mt T & t = number of teeth on gear & pinion m = module O2 RA R L P K M φ O1 r φ Wheel N Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Max. By tooth correction. the pressure angle. 2. interference will occur. The limiting value of addendum circle radius of pinion is O1N and the limiting value of addendum circle radius of gear is O2M. Under cut of the radial flank of the pinion. but tooth thickness of gear will be greater than the pinion tooth thickness. the limiting number of teeth on gear can be calculated. Centre distance may be increased.e. 3. It leads to increase in pressure angle. Points M and N are called interference points. Minimum number of teeth on the pinion avoid Interference The pinion turns clockwise and drives the gear as shown in Figure. centre distance and base circles remain unchanged. i.Methods to avoid Interference 1. Considering the critical addendum circle radius of gear. Addendum Circles ra Pitch Circle Base Circle Pinion 91 . if the contact takes place beyond M and N. 4.

m = Addendum of pinion O1 N 2 = O1P 2 + NP 2 − 2 × O1 P × PN cos O1 PN = r 2 + R 2 sin 2 φ + 2 r R sin 2 φ = r 2 + R 2 sin 2 φ − 2 r R sin φ cos( 90 + φ ) (  R 2 sin 2 φ 2 R sin 2 φ  RR  2  2 = r 2 1 + +  = r 1 +  + 2  sin φ  2 r r   rr    PN = O2 P sin φ = R sin φ ) Limiting radius of the pinion addendum circle:  RR  2 mt  T  T 2   O1 N = r 1 +  + 2  sin 2 φ  = 1 +  + 2  sin 2 φ  2  t t    rr    1 1 Addendum of the pinion = O1N .O1P  2 mt mt  T  T  apm = 1 +  + 2  sin 2 φ  − 2  t t 2     mt  T = 1 + 2  t   1  2  T   2  + 2  sin φ  − 1   t     1 Addendum of the pinion = O1N .aw = Addendum constant of gear (or) wheel ap = Addendum constant of pinion aw. Applying cosine rule ap. m = Addendum of gear G = Gear ratio = T/t From triangle O1NP.O1P 1   t  T  T  2 2  a p = 1 +  + 2  sin φ  − 1   2  tt       2a p t= 1  (1 + G( G + 2) sin 2 φ ) 2 − 1     92 .

O2P O2 RA R L P K M φ O1 r φ Wheel N Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Max.The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the pinion to avoid interference. If the number of teeth on pinion and gear is same: G=1 2a p 1. 14 ½O Composite system = t= O 2. applying cosine rule and simplifying. The limiting radius of wheel addendum circle:  rr 2  O2 M = R 1 +  + 2  sin 2 φ    RR  mT = 2  tt 2  1 +  + 2  sin 2 φ   T T     1 1 Addendum of the pinion = O2 M. 14 ½ Full depth involute system =  2 3. 20O Full depth involute system  1 + 3 sin =φ 4. Addendum Circles ra Pitch Circle Base Circle Pinion 93 . 20O Stub involute system =  ( ) 1 2 12 32  −18 1 14  Minimum number of teeth on the wheel avoid Interference From triangle O2MP.

PITCH LINE φ φ Pc h φ° a RACK T c b φ PINION PITCH LINE P K M L H φ° RACK c 94 .1   mT  tt  2 2  aw m = 1 +  + 2  sin φ  − 1   2  T  T       1   2  T  t t  2 aw = 1 +  + 2  sin φ  − 1   2  T  T        2aW T = 1    11  2 2  1 +  + 2  sin φ  − 1  G  G        The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the wheel to avoid interference. Minimum number of teeth on the pinion for involute rack to avoid Interference The rack is part of toothed wheel of infinite diameter. The base circle diameter and profile of the involute teeth are straight lines.

m = Addendum of rack The straight profiles of the rack are tangential to the pinion profiles at the point of contact and perpendicular to the tangent PM. Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. Point L is the limit of interference. gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. thus. It is usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance. but this would presuppose perfection in manufacturing. "0. and no lubricant. Addendum of the rack: AR × m = LH = PL sin φ = OP sin 2 φ = ( OP sin φ ) sin φ = r sin 2 φ mt 2 = sin φ 2 2 AR ∴To avoid interference : t = sin 2 φ Backlash: The gap between the non-drive face of the pinion tooth and the adjacent wheel tooth is known as backlash. If the rotational sense of the pinion were to reverse. for example.Let t = Minimum number of teeth on the pinion r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = ½ mt Φ = Pressure angle AR. not just the phenomenon it causes. one could speak of a pair of gears as having." A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash. 95 . The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap. Therefore. uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the system. then a period of unrestrained pinion motion would take place until the backlash gap closed and contact with the wheel tooth reestablished impulsively.1 mm of backlash.

backlash can be minimised through one of several techniques. For situations. where precision is important. Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. such as instrumentation and control. Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle RA R O2 φ O2 Wheel N R' Wheel R N' Base Circle φ c c' M' P φ ' P M φ Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle O1 r ra Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle Operating Pitch Circle Pinion φ ' O1 r r' Pinion Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle Base Circle Figure a ∆ c Figure b Let r = standard pitch circle radius of pinion R = standard pitch circle radius of wheel c = standard centre distance = r +R r’ = operating pitch circle radius of pinion R’ = operating pitch circle radius of wheel c’ = operating centre distance = r’ + R’ Ф = Standard pressure angle Ф’ = operating pressure angle h = tooth thickness of pinion on standard pitch circle= p/2 96 . the backlash is usually taken entirely off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth.In the case of a large gear and a small pinion. however.

Involute gears have the invaluable ability of providing conjugate action when the gears' centre distance is varied either deliberately or involuntarily due to manufacturing and/or mounting errors.φ − inv.φ '+ 2R    97 .h’ = tooth thickness of pinion on operating pitch circle Let H = tooth thickness of gear on standard pitch circle H1 = tooth thickness of gear on operating pitch circle p = standard circular pitch = 2п r/ t = 2пR/T p’ = operating circular pitch = 2п r1/t = 2пR1/T ∆C = change in centre distance B = Backlash t = number of teeth on pinion T = number of teeth on gear.φ '+  2r   h   H ' = 2 R' inv.φ − inv. r R c = = r ' R ' c' c'× cos φ ' = c × cos φ ∴ c' = c Now cos φ cos φ ' ∆c = c'−c = c  cos φ  cos φ − c = c −1 cos φ ' cos φ '    On the operating pitch circle: Operating pitch = sum of tooth thickness + Backlash p' = h'+ H '+ B (1) By involutometry : h  h' = 2r ' inv.

Here the profile/rack cutter is advanced to a certain increment towards the gear blank and the same quantity of increment will be withdrawn from the pinion blank.φ '+  + 2 R' inv.φ − inv.φ ] t  c 2π  r'   r '− r  + 2c ' [ inv.φ '−inv.Substituting h’ and H’ in the equation (1): h h    p ' = 2r ' inv.φ '−inv.φ ] t 2t c 2π  c'  B=  r '− r  + 2c' [ inv. The two main non.φ '−inv.φ '−inv.φ '+ +B 2r  2R      r ' R'  p ' = h +  + 2 inv.φ ] c 2πr ' 2πr c' B= −2 + 2c' [ inv.φ '−inv.φ − inv. to prevent interference and to maintain a reasonable contact ratio.φ ( r '+ R ') − 2 inv.φ ] B= There is an infinite number of possible centre distances for a given pair of profile shifted gears.φ ' ( r '+ R ') + B r R  c' c'  p ' = h +  + 2 c' inv. 98 .standard gear systems: (1) Long and short Addendum system and (2) Extended centre distance system. Long and Short Addendum System: The addendum of the wheel and the addendum of the pinion are generally made of equal lengths.φ − 2 c ' inv.φ ] t  r Backlash = B = 2c ' [ inv. however we consider only the particular case known as the extended centre distance.φ '+ B c c c' ∴ B = p − 2h + 2c ' [ inv. Non Standard Gears: The important reason for using non standard gears are to eliminate undercutting.

A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr. In this method there is no change in pressure angle and the centre distance remains standard. photos and exercise problems References: 12. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Theory of Machines by V. McGraw-Hill Publications.R. The result is increase in tooth thickness and decrease in tooth space.Rao. John Wiley and Sons.Jr. The amount of increase in the addendum of the pinion should be exactly equal to the addendum of the wheel is reduced.Singh. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.K. In this method when the pinion is being cut. The effect of changing the centre distance is simply in increasing the pressure angle. thus reducing approach length and increasing the recess length. it will be found that the centre distance has been increased because of the decreased tooth space. Extended centre distance system: Reduction in interference with constant contact ratio can be obtained by increasing the centre distance.P. The effect is to move the contact region from the pinion centre towards the gear centre. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J. Now If the pinion is meshed with the gear. Dhanpat Rai and Co. the profile cutter is withdrawn a certain amount from the centre of the pinion so the addendum line of the cutter passes through the interference point of pinion. Internet: Many Web based e notes 99 . 18.Therefore an increased addendum for the pinion and a decreased addendum for the gear is obtained.Bansal. Increased centre distance will have two undesirable effects. NOTE: Please refer presentation slides also for more figure. Mabie and Fred W. 17. 15. 14. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker. McGraw-Hill International Editions.Martin. New age international publishers. 16. 13. Ocvirk.S.

Any combination of gear wheels employed to transmit motion from one shaft to the other is called a gear train. They often consist of multiple gears in the train. helical or herringbone. N = speed in rpm D m = module = t and module must be the same for all gears otherwise they would not mesh. To create large gear ratio. This ideal diameter is called the Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) of the gear. It has no affect on the gear ratio. The meshing of two gears may be idealized as two smooth discs with their edges touching and no slip between them. so does B and C. It reduces speed and increases torque. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. ω = angular velocity. v = ω = ω r 2 The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears. Simple Gear Trains The typical spur gears as shown in diagram. m= DA DB D = = C tA tB tC DB = m t B and DC = m tC GEAR 'A' GEAR 'B' (Idler gear) GEAR 'C' v v ωA ωB ωC D A = m t A. The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The direction of rotation is reversed from one gear to another.Chapter 5: Gears Trains A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. D v = linear velocity on the circle. The teeth on the gears must all be the same size so if gear A advances one tooth. gears are connected together to form gear trains. otherwise they would be DC DA DB slipping. v = ωA = ωB = ωC 2 2 2 ω A DA = ω B DB = ωC DC ω A m t A = ω B m t B = ωC m t C ω A t A = ω B t B = ωC t C or in terms of rev / min N A t A = N B t B = N C tC 100 . t = number of teeth on the gear. D = Pitch circle diameter. The teeth of this type can be spur.

T1 + T2 + T3 = 0 If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine the holding torque. Gears B and C are locked to the same shaft and revolve at the same speed. P= P= 2π N1 T1 2π N 2 T2 = 60 60 T2 N N1 T1 = N 2 T2 ⇒ = 1 = GR T1 N2 It follows that if the speed is reduced. The efficiency is defined as: Power out 2π × N 2 T2 × 60 N T η= = = 2 2 Power In 2π × N1 T1 × 60 N1 T1 Because the torque in and out is different. In a real gear box. Compound Gear train Compound gears are simply a chain of simple gear trains with the input of the second being the output of the first. Likewise for C and D.Application: a) to connect gears where a large center distance is required b) to obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear ( CW or CCW) c) to obtain high speed ratio Torque & Efficiency The power transmitted by a torque T N-m applied to a shaft rotating at N rev/min is given by: 2π N T 60 In an ideal gear box. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the gear box. Input B A C Compound Gears GEAR 'B' D Output GEAR 'A' GEAR 'D' GEAR 'C' 101 . power is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. For large velocities ratios. the input and output powers are the same so. compound gear train arrangement is preferred. Gear B is the output of the first pair and gear C is the input of the second pair. the torque is increased and vice versa. ωC tC = ωD tD. The total torque must add up to zero. A chain of two pairs is shown below. A holding torque T3 must be applied to the body through the clamps. a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case or body rotating. The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so: ωA tA = ωB tB -as they are simple gears.

N t ×t GR = A = B D N D t A × tC If R and T=Pitch circle radius & number of teeth of the gear RA + RB = RC + RD and tA + tB = tC + tD 102 . These are used in speed reducers. clocks and machine tools.ωC ω D ω A ωB = and = tB tA tD tC t × ωB t × ωD ωA = B and ωC = D tA TC t × ωB t D × ωD ω A × ωC = B × tA tC ω A × ωC t B t D = × ω B × ω D t A tC Since gear B and C are on the same shaft ω B = ωC ωA tB tD = × = GR ω D t A tC Since ω = 2 × π × N The gear ratio may be written as : N ( In ) t B t D = × = GR N ( Out ) t A t C Reverted Gear train The driver and driven axes lies on the same line.

Here is a picture of a typical gear box.Epicyclic gear train: Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. C C Sun wheel Planet wheel B Arm 'A' B Arm 103 . B is called the planet gear and C the sun. The design involves planet and sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet around the sun. Basic Theory The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear B meshes with gear C and revolves around it when the arm is rotated. First consider what happens when the planet gear orbits the sun gear. This design can produce large gear ratios in a small space and are used on a wide range of applications from marine gearboxes to electric screwdrivers.

Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it back one revolution. tB Example: A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50 teeth. tC Now consider that C is unable to rotate and the arm A is revolved once. Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Any object orbiting around a center must rotate once. One way to get round this is to imagine that the whole system is revolved once. Gear B will revolve 1 + tB because of the orbit. then the direction of B  tB    tC is opposite so + . The following tabular method makes it easy. Work out the revolutions of B. Step 3 is simply add them up and we find the total revs of C is zero and for the arm is 1. Step 1 2 3 Action Revolve all once Revolve C by –1 revolution. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion. Determine how many revolutions the planet gear B makes. keeping the arm fixed Add A 1 0 1 B 1 t + C tB 1+ tC tB C 1 -1 0  tC  The number of revolutions made by B is 1 +  Note that if C revolves -1. Step 1 is to revolve everything once about the center. If the arm is revolved once. how many times does the planet gear revolve? Solution: Step 1 2 3 Action Revolve all once Revolve C by –1 revolution. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and meshes with C. keeping the arm fixed Add A 1 0 1 B 1 100 + 50 3 C 1 -1 0 104 . Step 2 identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm fixed as it should only do one revolution in total. B will rotate by this number for every complete tB revolution of C.Observe point p and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. B spins about its own center and the tC number of revolutions it makes is the ratio . Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up.

TF=150.Gear B makes 3 revolutions for every one of the arm. If the arm rotates at 200 rpm and wheel F at 100 rpm in the same direction. Problem 1: In an ecicyclic gear train shown in figure. The wheel B having 100 teeth rotates freely on the shaft S. NA=200rpm. C 100 rpm F150 S B100 B C Arm A 200 rpm Solution: TB=100. This can be done several ways. NF=100rpm: Since the mod ule is same for all gears : the number of teeth on the gears is proportional to the pitch cirlce : ∴ rF = rB + 2rC ⇒ TF = TB + 2TC 150 = 100 + 2 × TC TC = 25 → Number of teeth on gears C The gear B and gear F rotates in the opposite directions: 105 . The wheel F having 150 teeth driven separately. The design so far considered has no identifiable input and output. find (a) number of teeth on the gear C and (b) speed of wheel B. the arm A is fixed to the shaft S. We need a design that puts an input and output shaft on the same axis.

Gear A rotates at 90 rpm CCW and gear D rotates at 450 rpm CW. ND=450rpm: Since the module and pitch are same for all gears : the number of teeth on the gears is proportional to the pitch cirlce : ∴ rD = rA + rB + rC ⇒ TD = T A + TB + TC TD = 18 + 45 + 21 = 84 teeth on gear D 106 . Find the speed and direction of rotation of arm F and gear E. All gears having same module and pitch. Gears A. B and C is a compound gear rotate about axis Q. has gears A and an annular gears D & E free to rotate on the axis P.B and C are having 18. Problem 2: In a compound epicyclic gear train as shown in the figure. D P E A B Q C Arm F Solution: TA=18 .NA = -90rpm. TB=45. 45 and 21 teeth respectively. TC=21.∴ Train value = − also ∴ TV = − − TB TF ( general exp ression for epicyclic gear train) N L − N Arm N F − N A = N F − N Arm N B − N A TB N F − N A = TF N B − N A 100 100 − 200 = ⇒ N E = 350 150 N B − 200 The Gear B rotates at 350 rpm in the same direction of gears F and Arm A.

When the annular ring is stationary. If an input torque of 20 N-m is applied to the spindle carrying the sun wheel. Spider 'L' Determine the number of teeth for all the wheels and the exact pitch circle diameter of the annular Sun Wheel 'S' wheel. the the annular wheel A is to be nearly 216mm and module 4mm.Gears A and D rotates in the opposite directions: T T ∴ Train value = − A × C TB TD also ∴ TV = − − N L − N Arm N D − N F = N F − N Arm N A − N F T A TC N D − N F × = TB TD N A − N F 18 × 21 450 − N F = 45 × 84 − 90 − N F ⇒ N F = Speed of Arm = 400.9 18 = E 108 − 90 − 400. Planet Wheel 'P' 107 . the spider that carries three planet wheels P of equal size to make one revolution for every five revolution of the driving spindle carrying the sun wheel.9 rpm − CW Now consider gears A. determine the fixed torque on the annular wheel. B and E: rE = rA + 2rB ⇒ TE = T A + 2T B TE = 18 + 2 × 45 TE = 108 → Number of teeth on gear E Gears A and E rotates in the opposite directions: ∴ Train value = − also ∴ TV = − − TA TE NE − NF NA − NF TA N E − N F = TE N A − N F ⇒ N − 400.72 rpm − CW Problem 3: In an epicyclic gear of sun and planet type shown inAnnular 'A' pitch circle diameter of figure 3.9 N E = Speed of gear E = 482.

therefore TS should be either 13 or 14 and TA correspondingly 52 and 56. Trial 1: Let TA = 52 and TS = 13 108 .Solution: Module being the same for all the meshing gears: TA = TS + 2TP PCD of A 216 TA = = = 54 teeth m 4 Operation Arm L is fixed & Sun wheel S is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (S rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements Spider arm L 0 0 n Sun Wheel S Planet wheel P Annular wheel A TS +1 m m+n TP − − TS TP − TA = 54 TS TP T × =− S TP T A TA − TS m TA TS m TA TS m TP TS m TP n− n− If L rotates +1 revolution: ∴ n=1 (1) The sun wheel S to rotate +5 revolutions correspondingly: ∴ n+m=5 (2) From (1) and (2) m=4 When A is fixed: n− ∴ TS m=0 TA TS = ⇒ 54 = 13.5 teeth 4 T A = 4 TS But fractional teeth are not possible.

Trial 2:

Let

∴ ⇒ Also

T A − TS 52 − 13 = = 19.5 teeth 2 4 TA = 56 and TS = 14 T −T 56 − 14 ∴ TP = A S = = 21teeth 2 4 TA = 56, TS = 14 and TP = 21 PCD of A = 56 × 4 = 224 mm ∴ TP =

This is impracticable

This is practicable

Torque on L × ωL = Torque on S × ωS 5 Torque on L × ωL = 20 × = 100 N − m 1 Fixing torque on A = (TL – TS) = 100 – 20 = 80 N-m

]
D

Problem 4: The gear train shown in figure 4 A is used in an indexing mechanism of a milling machine. The drive is from gear wheels A and B to the bevel gear wheel D through the gear train. The following table gives the number of teeth on each gear.

C

Arm B H G

Gear A B C D E F E Number of F 72 72 60 30 28 24 teeth Diametral 08 08 12 12 08 08 pitch in mm How many revolutions does D makes for one Figure 4 revolution of A under the following situations: a. If A and B are having the same speed and same direction b. If A and B are having the same speed and opposite direction c. If A is making 72 rpm and B is at rest d. If A is making 72 rpm and B 36 rpm in the same direction Solution: Gear D is external to the epicyclic train and thus C and D constitute an ordinary train. Operation Arm C (60) E (28) F (24) A (72) B (72) G (28) H (24)

109

Arm or C is fixed & wheel A is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements (i)

0 0 n

-1 -m n-m

28 7 =− 24 6

+1 +m n+m

-1 -m n-m

+1 +m n+m

28 7 = 24 6

7 m 6
7 m 6

7 m 6
n+ 7 m 6

n−

For one revolution of A: n+m=1 (1) For A and B for same speed and direction: From (1) and (2): n = 1 and m = 0 ∴

n+m = n–m

(2)

If C or arm makes one revolution, then revolution made by D is given by: N D T C 60 = = =2 NC TD 30

(ii)

∴ N D = 2 NC A and B same speed, opposite direction: (n + m) = - (n – m) (3) n = 0; m = 1 ∴ When C is fixed and A makes one revolution, D does not make any revolution. n = m = 36 rpm 60 ∴ C makes 36 rpm and D makes 36 × = 72 rpm 30 A is making 72 rpm and B making 36 rpm (n + m) = 72 rpm and (n – m) = 36 rpm (n + (n – m)) = 72; ⇒ n = 54 60 ∴ D makes 54 × =108 rpm A2 30
P2

(iii)

A is making 72 rpm: (n + m) = 72 B at rest (n – m) = 0 ⇒

(iv)

A1 P1 P

Problem 5: Figure 5 shows a compound epicyclic gear train, gears S1 and S2 being rigidly attached to the shaft Q. If the shaft P rotates at 1000 rpm clockwise, while the annular A2 is driven in counter clockwise direction at 500 rpm, determine the speed and direction of rotation of shaft Q. The number of teeth in the wheels are S1 = 24; S2 = 40; A1 = 100; A2 = 120. Solution: Consider the gear train P A1 S1:

Q S2 S1

Figure 5

110

Operation Arm P is fixed & wheel A1 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements If A1 is fixed:

Arm P

A1 (100)
+

S1 (24)
P 100 ×− 1 P1 24

Operation OR Arm P is fixed & wheel A1 is given -1 revolution

Arm P

A1 (100 )

S1 (24)
A1 P ×− 1 P1 S1 A1 S1

0

+1

25 =− 6

0

-1

=+

0 n

+m n+ m

25 m 6
25 m 6

0 Add +1 revolutions to all elements +1

-1 0

100 25 = 24 6
25 31 + 1= 6 6

n−

n+ m; gives n = - m

NP n 1 6 = = 31 = N S1 n + 25 n 31 6 6 ∴ NP = 6 N S1 31

Now consider whole gear train: Operation A1 is fixed & wheel A2 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements A1 (100) 0 A2 (120) +1 S1 (24), S2 (40) Arm P and Q
P 120 + ×− 2 P2 40 =−3 6 31 18 =− 31 − 3×

0 n

+m n+ m

− 3m n − 3m

18 m 31 18 m 31

n−

When P makes 1000 rpm: and A2 makes – 500 rpm:

18 m = 1000 31 n+ m = -500 n−

(1) (2)

111

from (1) and (2):

18 m = 1000 31 ( 31 × 1000) + ( 500 × 31) = − 49 m − 500 − m − ∴ m = − 949 rpm and n = 949 − 500 = 449 rpm NQ = n – 3 m = 449 – (3 × -949) = 3296 rpm
C B E F D A A B80 C82 D28 N A=800rpm Arm E D B C

∴ Problem 6. An internal wheel B with 80 teeth is keyed to a shaft F. A fixed internal wheel C with 82 teeth is concentric with B. A Compound gears D-E meshed with the two internal wheels. D has 28 teeth and meshes with internal gear C while E meshes with B. The compound wheels revolve freely on pin which projects from a arm keyed to a shaft A co-axial with F. if the wheels have the same pitch and the shaft A makes 800 rpm, what is the speed of the shaft F? Sketch the arrangement. Data: tB = 80;

tC = 82;

D = 28;

NA = 800 rpm

Solution: The pitch circle radius is proportional to the number of teeth:

rC − rD = rB − rE tC − t D = t B − t E
Operation

82 Arm B (80) − t E − 28 = 80
0 +1

Compound Gear wheel E(26) D (28)

C (82)

t Arm is fixed & BE = 26
Multiply by m (B rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements

is given ONE − number revolution (CW)

80 80 + on gear E + of teeth 26 26 + 40 m 13 + 40 m 13

+
+

80 28 × 26 82

0 n

+m

40 14 × m 13 41
112

40 40 m+n m+n m+n 13 13

40 14 × m+n 13 41

Arm B20 C35 D15 E20 F30 113 .42rpm Speed of gear B = m + n = − 761.42 + 800 = 38. Wheel E is fixed and wheels C and D are integrally cast and mounted on the same pin. ⇒ n = 800rpm 40 14 × m+n =0 13 41 40 14 × m + 800 = 0 13 41 m = −761.Since the wheel C is fixed and the arm (shaft) A makes 800 rpm.58rpm Problem 7: The fig shows an Epicyclic gear train.58rpm Speed of gear B = Speed of shaft F = 38. If arm A makes one revolution per sec (Counter clockwise) determine the speed and direction of rotation of the wheels B and F.

429 = −1. tF = 30 NA = 1rps-(CCW) Compound Gear wheel D (15) Arm is fixed & B is given ONE revolution (CW) Multiply by m (B rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements C (35) Operation Arm B (20) E (20) F (30) 0 +1 20 − 15 20 − 15 4 35 ×− 3 20 7 =+ 3 − 7 20 ×− 3 30 0 +m 4 4 − m − m 3 3 7 m 3 − 14 m 9 n m+n 7 4 4 14 n− m n− m m+n n− m 3 3 3 9 7 m+n = 0 3 3 m = = 0.667 (CCW ) 9 9 Problem 7: In the gear train shown.429 7 Since the wheel E is fixed and the arm A makes 1 rps-CCW ⇒ n = −1rps 7 m −1 = 0 3 and ⇒ Speed of gear B = m + n = 0. the gear B. tD = 15. tE = 20.429 − 1 = −0. D60 Output Shaft A E30 Input Shaft F32 B20 C80 114 .Solution: Data: tB = 20.571rps (CCW ) Speed of gear F = n − 14 14 m = −1 − 0. tC = 35. the wheel C is fixed. is keyed to the input shaft and the gear F is keyed to the output shaft.

tD = 60. NB = 1000 rpm (ccw) (input speed).The arm A. gear B rotates – 1000 rpm m + n = −1000 Gear C is fixed . Find the output torque to keep the wheel C fixed if the input power is 7..25m = 0 1000 = −800 1. determine the speed of the output shaft. tE = 30. − 1000 − m − 0.25 n = − 1000 + 800 = − 200 m=− 115 1 n− m = 0 4 . tF = 32.5 kW B (20) Input Compound Gear wheel D (60) E (30) Operation Arm C (80) F (32) Arm is fixed & B is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (B rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements 0 +1 20 1 = 60 3 1 3 1 60 ×− 3 80 1 =− 4 1 30 ×− 3 32 5 − 16 0 m 1 m 3 1 m 3 1 − m 4 − 5 m 16 n m+n 1 1 1 5 m+n m+n n− m n− m 4 3 3 16 Input shaft speed = 1000 rpm (ccw) i. P = 7.e. Solution: Data : tB = 20. carrying the compound wheels D and E turns freely on the out put shaft. If the input speed is 1000 rpm (ccw) when seen from the right.5 kW. tC = 80. The number of teeth on each gear is indicated in the figures.

Determine also the magnitude and direction of the torque required to fix S2.59 × 1000 + TF × 50 = 0 TF = +1431.P1 axial shafts of the epicyclic gear train as shown in figure 6. A1 = 120. A2 = 100 and the sun wheel S2 is fixed. TB N B + TF N F + TC N C = 0 Since C is fixed : N C = 0 TB N B + TF N F = 0 − 71.21Nm A1 The Torque required to hold the wheel C = 1360.8 + TC = 0 ∴ TC = −1360.59 Nm 2 × π ×1000 From the energy equation.21 Nm in the same direction of wheel A2 Problem 8: Find the velocity ratio of two co.59 + 1431. if a torque of 300 N-m is applied in a clockwise direction to S1 P2 S1 S2 116 Figure 6 .5 × 1000 = 60 7500 × 60 TB = − = −71.Speed of F = n − 5 m 16 5 = 50 16 Speed of the output shaft F = +50rpm (CW ) = − 200 + 800 Input power = P = 2 × π × N BTB 60 2 × π × −1000 × TB 7. The number of teeth on the gears are S1 = 40. S1 is the driver. S2 = 30.8 Nm From the torque equation : TB + TF + TC = 0 − 71.

TS 2 ωA 2 ωS 1 TS 1 117 . in order to find the speed ratio of S1 to A2. in the direction of rotation. A1 and A2: Operation A2 is fixed & wheel A1 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements A2 (100) 0 0 n A1 (120) +1 +m n+ m − S1 (40) 120 = −3 40 − 3m n − 3m m = −n A1 is fixed: N S1 n + 3n = =4 N A2 n ∴ N S1 = 4 N A2 (b) Consider complete gear train: Operation A1 is fixed & wheel S2 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements S2 is fixed ⇒ m=-n TA 2 A1 (120) 0 0 n − A2 (100) 30 3 =− 100 10 3 =− m 10 3 n− m 10 − S1 (40) 6 3 ×4=− 10 5 − n− 6 m 5 6 m 5 S2 (30) +1 +m n+ m 6 n+ n N S1 5 = 11 × 10 = 22 = 3 N A2 5 13 13 n+ n 10 Input torque on S1 = TS1 = 300 N-m.Solution: Consider first the gear train S1. ∴ Resisting torque on A2. (a) Consider gear train S1. A1 and A2 for which A2 is the arm. when A1 is fixed.

7 N − m 13 → opposite to directiojn of rotation ∴ Referring to the figure: TS 2 = 507.7 N − m (CW ) 118 .7 − 300 = 207.T A2 = 300 × 22 = 507.

Thus motion leads study of displacement. • Some important Definitions Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance is known. The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well as analytical method. Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V = dx dt dθ dt Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω = Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as configuration diagram. Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity of angular velocity. A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’. linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’. velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine. Kinematics does not involve study of forces. x = rθ dx dθ = r dt dt 119 . Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their velocities and accelerations at different moments.Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION Session – I • Introduction Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines. As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of velocities.

120 . Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point).V = rω ω= dθ dt Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity f= Thirdly α = dv d 2 x = 2 Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity) dt dt dω d 2θ = 2 Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity) dt dt We also have. A ω2 O2 Va = ω 2 x r Va = ω2 x O2 A Ex: Vao2 is absolute velocity. Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’ B A 2 O2 O4 3 4 Ex: Vba  Velocity of point B with respect to A Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are used for velocity vector diagram.

zero velocity point) b Vba Vb O2.This is absolute velocity Velocity of point A with respect to O2 fixed point. zero velocity point. O4 Vab a Velocity vector diagram Vector O 2 a = Va= Absolute velocity Vector ab = Vab ba = Va Relative velocity Vab is equal magnitude with Vba but is apposite in direction. B A 3 Vba = or Vab Vba = or Vab Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. B O4 Vb  Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O 4 (fixed point. 121 .

Find velocity of B. • Relative Velocity Equation y Rigid body Va a Vab C A 30o 4 m/s A ya R O O4 θ xA x 122 . Let. To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30 o to the horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically upwards. us consider a simple situation.Vector O 4 b = Vb absolute velocity. Va = 4 m/s ab Absolute velocity Vb = ? Horizontal direction (known in magnitude and directors) ab Absolute velocity Vertical direction (known in directors only) O Vb B Vba Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect to B but opposite in direction.

The distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link xA = R cos θ. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body. as shown in figure.Rω sin θ dy A dθ = R ( − cos θ ) dt dt = . Differentiating xA with respect to time gives velocity. Let. y = VA dθ = angular velocity of OA dt x ∴ VA = .Rω sin θ y VA = .Rω cos θ ∴ Total velocity of point A is given by VA = ( − Rω sin θ ) 2 + ( − Rω cos θ ) 2 VA = Rω • Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link 123 .Rω cos θ d xA x = VA dt ω= d yA dt Similarly. yA = R sin θ. Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre.Fig. Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O. d xA dθ = R ( − sin θ) dt dt = .

2 xB = xA + R cos θ yB = yA + R sin θ Differentiating xB and yB with respect to time we get. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body From Fig.Rigid body yB B R sin θ yA A R cos θ xA xB x Fig. x VB = VB x = VA (Rω sin θ) y VA Rω cos θ 124 . d yB dt = y = VB = + R ( cos θ ) d yA dt y + Rω cos θ = VA − Rω cos θ x VA = VA y VA = Total velocity of point A y VB = Total velocity of point B Similarly. d xB d dθ x = VB = xA + R ( − sin θ) dt dt dt = d xA x + Rω sin θ = VA − Rω sin θ dt d yA dt dθ dt Similarly.

The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥r to the link. By graphical method 2. C 15 cm B 8 cm wBA 60o A 15 cm D 125 . By instantaneous method • By Graphical Method The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method. 1. Start from a point whose magnitude and direction is known. 4.x = ( VA x = ( VA y VA ) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ) y VA ) VA Similarly. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity. Four – Bar Mechanism: In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm long. 6. 1. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram. ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω ∴VB = VA Rω = VA VBA ∴VBA = VB – VA Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. By relative velocity method 3. 1. 5. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters. 2. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale. Find angular velocity of link CD. 3. To explain the method let us take a few specific examples. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpmω (cw) while link CD rotates about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and | BAD = 60o.

75 rad/s (cw) CD 8 2.24 cm/sec 60 Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 20 m/s = ab ⊥r to CD a. d ⊥r to AB b c Vcb ⊥r to BC Vcb = bc Vc = dc = 38 cm/s = Vcd We know that V =ω R Vcd = ωCD x CD WcD = Vcd 38 = = 4. Find (i) (ii) Angular velocity of connecting rod and Velocity of slider.Configuration Diagram Velocity vector diagram Vb = ωr = ωba x AB = 2πx 120 x 4 = 50. 126 . Slider Crank Mechanism: In a crank and slotted lover mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter clockwise direction.

127 . a ⊥r to AB Va ⊥r to OA b Along sides B O Velocity vector diagram Vab = ab =1300mm/sec ωba = Vba 1300 = = 8.66 rad/sec BA 150 Vb = ob velocity of slider Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding. VA = ωO1A x O2A = 2π x 300 x 60 60 150 mm B = 600 π mm/sec Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram. Shaper Mechanism: In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O2A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW direction.A 60 mm 45o Configuration diagram Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0. 3. Determine the velocity of slider.

m/s c VBA b VBO1 VDC d O1O2 Velocity vector diagram Va = ω2 x O2A O1 b O 1 c = O1 B O1C To locate point C O C ∴ O1 c = O 1 b  1  O B  1  To Determine Velocity of Rubbing a VAO2 = VA 128 . m C ω O2 2 3 B 4 O1 Configuration diagram Scale 1 cm = ……x….6 D 5 Scale 1 cm = ……x….

25 mm and 35 mm respectively. if BF = 45 mm. B. For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A. the dimensions of the links are as given below: AB = 50 mm. C and D.e. 40 mm. When the links are motion they rub against pin surface. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Velocity of point C Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm The angular velocity of link BC and CD The velocity of an offset point F on link BC. 129 . B. The velocity of rubbing of pins A. DG = 44 mm and DCG is read clockwise. The ratio of the pins are 30 mm. CF = 30 mm and BCF is read clockwise.Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. The velocity of an offset point G on link CD.5 rad/sec in CCW direction.ve sign. if CG = 24 mm. VrC = (ωbc + ωcd) radius r VrD = ω cd rpd Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions) Problem 1: In a four bar mechanism. when angular velocities are in opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use . C and D. Determine. ∴ Vra = ωab x ratios of pin A (rpa) + sign is used ωab is CW and Wbc is CCW i. CD = 56 mm and BC = 66 mm AD = 100 mm o At a given instant when | DAB = 60 the angular velocity of link AB is 10. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction.

525 m/s Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale. • • First locate zero velocity points. Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm C G F B 60o A D Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence. Draw d line ⊥r to CD to interest at C.Solution: Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale. Draw a line ⊥r to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to 0. Vba = ωBA x BA = 10. 130 . Vcb is given vector bc Vcd is given vector dc Vbc = 0. first locate the position of point E on velocity vector diagram.44 m/s Vcd = 0.39 m/s Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC. it is zero velocity point). This can be done by taking corresponding ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i. say 1 cm = 0. g f C • • • Ved a.525 m/s. b Vba = 0.525 m/s e.5 x 0.2 m/s. d From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from d.e.05 = 0.

056 Vcd = WCD x CD ∴ WCD = Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F • • • Draw a line ⊥r to CF from C on velocity vector diagram. Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G. we know Vbc and Vcd.305 m / s Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins • Rubbing velocity at pin A will be 131 .495 m/s.066 Vcd 0. d / vector de = Ve = 0.6 r / s .04 x Vcb = x 0. Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point. From the point f to zero velocity point a.44 = 0.066 ∴ be = Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a. Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD. Vbc 0. • • • Draw a line ⊥r to GC from C on velocity vector diagram. ∴ Vbc =ω BC x BC ∴ WBC = Similarly.39 = = 6.96 r / s (CCW) CD 0.415 m/s. Draw a line ⊥r to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously drawn line at g. Draw a line ⊥r to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously drawn line at ‘f’.44 = = 6.be BE = bc BC BE 0. (cw) BC 0.24 m/s BC 0. Vg = dg = 0. d and measure vector fa/fd to get V f = 0.

The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least absolute velocity.Vpa = ωab x r of pin A Vpa = 10. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale. • Rubbing velocity at point C will be = 6.5 x 0. The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft.244 m/s Problem 2: In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in a CCW direction. The angular velocity of connecting rod. [ωab CCW and ωcbCW] Vpb = (10.04 = 0.035 = 0. Va = Woa x OA 132 .315 m/s • Rubbing velocity at pin B will be Vpb = (ωab + ωcb) x rad of point at B. Determine. E A F 45o O G B The velocity of the slider Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod extended. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm.60 and 100 mm respectively. crank and cross head having pins diameters 80.96 x 0. When the crank turns through 60o from Inner-dead centre.5 + 6.6) x 0.684 m/s.03 = 0.

fb ab = BF AB 133 . ge will give velocity of point E.8 m/sec BE x ab AB mark the point e on extension of vector ba. g. Draw oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 8 m/s e a f b o. Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn be = Ve = ge =8.4 m/sec Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute). Draw a line ⊥r to ab passing through o.2 Va = 8 m/s Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector diagram. • To mark the position of F on link AB. g to cut the vector ab at f. ab give Vba=4. g Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s • • From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. gf will have the least absolute velocity. Join e to o. • • Mark zero velocity point o. Find BF by using the relation. g. g. g draw a horizontal line (representing the line of motion of slider B) to Xseet the previously drawn line at b. From f to o.Va = 40 x 0.

O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction.06 =0.BF = fb x AB =200mm ab Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod. Find: i) ii) • Velocity of the Ram R.6 m/sec Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig.08 = 0. O1O2 = 800 mm. 134 . the dimensions of various links are as follows.84 m/sec VP cross head = ωab x rcross head = 6 x 0.1 = 0. velocity of cutting tool. Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. O1B = 300 mm. and Angular velocity of link O2D.64 m/s • • • VPcrank pin = (ωab + ωoa) rcrank pin= (6 +8)0. We know that Vab = ωab x AB ∴ ω ab = Vab = 6 rad/sec AB Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins. • Vpcrankshaft = ωao x radius of crankshaft pin = 8 x 0.

R Tool R D 200 D B 2 45o O1 C

B on orank, O, B C on O2D O1

O2 O2

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B. Vb = ωO1B x O1B ωO1B = 2πN O1B 2π x 40 = = 4.18 rad / sec 60 60

Vb = 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram. Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec b d c r o Draw O1b ⊥r to link O1B equal to 1.254 m/s. O1O2

135

o From b draw a line along the line of O2B and from O1O2 draw a line ⊥r to O2B. This intersects at c bc will measure velocity of sliding of slider and O 2 C will measure the velocity of C on link O2C. o Since point D is on the extension of link O2C measure O 2 d such that O 2d = O 2C O2D . O 2 d will give velocity of point D. O 2C

o From d draw a line ⊥r to link DR and from O1O2. Draw a line along the line of stroke of Ram R (horizontal), These two lines will intersect at point r O 2 r will give the velocity of Ram R. o To determine the angular velocity of link O2D determine Vd = O 2 d . We know that Vd = ωO2D x O2D.
O 2d r/s O 2D

∴ ωO2d = •

Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates at 120 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D. Solution:

136

All the dimensions in mm 45o 40 190 A

120

100 135 D B 120

Configuration Diagram Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal. Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O. Vao = ωOA x OA Vao = 2π x 120 = 0.4 = 5.024 m / s 60

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. o Choose a suitable scale o Mark zero velocity points O,q o Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 m/s. a b

O,q Velocity vector diagram

D

o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from q draw a line ⊥r to QB to intersect at b.

137

ab = Vba and qb = Vbq . o Draw a line ⊥r to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at d. dq = Vd (slider velocity) • Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following dimensions of the links.

The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2.5 r/s at the moment when crank makes an angle of 45o with vertical. Calculate OP (crank) = 240 mm a) the velocity of the Ram S OA = 150 mm b) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level AR = 165 mm c) the angular velocity of the link RS. RS = 430 mm • Solution:

Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. R

S

A

O 45
o

P on slider Q on BA B

Configuration Diagram Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P. VP = ωOP x OP

138

P 0. BQ and BC.Vao = 2π x 240 x 0. a. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction. line at q. a. q 139 . g r Velocity vector diagram o Draw op ⊥r link OP = 0. aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A. Vqa = aq = o Angular velocity of link RS = ω RS = sr rad/sec SR • Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the links in mm. Pq = Velocity of sliding.24 = 0. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of links AB. g draw a line ⊥r to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to intersect previously draw.6 m S O.6 m.6 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. o From O.

o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 0. q c Vector velocity diagram Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.15 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from O. q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b.05 π m / s = 0. Va = ωOA x OA  2π x 50   x 0. Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.1507 m / s Va =   60  b a O.C Q 100 B 140 OA = 30 AB = 80 BQ = 100 BC = 100 All dimensions are in mm • Solution O A 50 rpm Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.03 = 0. 140 .

If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’.74 r / s (ccw ) ωbq =1.26 m / s Va = ωOA x OA =  60   141 .  2π x 120   x 0. What will be the torque required at the crank to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.13 m / s ab qb = 0. 500 60o 100 A hz h2 100 M 200 400 600 600 D K 360 B 200 C 320 Configuration diagram • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.ab = Vba = ωab = and qb = Vb = 0. OC = VC = 0.1 = 1.106 m / s bC = VCb = ω BC = • bc = 1. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA is inclined at 30o to the horizontal.33 r / s (ccw ) BC Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure in mm.3 r / s (ccw ) AB aB o From b draw a line ⊥r to Be and from O. q these two lines intersect at C.

6 N-m 142 . m k b c Velocity vector diagram a Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale. o From d draw a line ⊥r to KD and from m draw a line ⊥r to KM to x intersect the previously drawn line at k.26 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b. o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from m draw a line ⊥r to MD to intersect at d. o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 1.45 = 12. draw a line ⊥r to AC to intersect at c. q. ∴ ( ωT ) I = ( ωT ) O P P V = ωR T=FxP F= T r ∴ ωOA TOA = Fk Vk horizontal ∴ TOA = TOA = Fk Vk ( hz ) ω OA 40000 X 0. m and c line ⊥r to this line from k. o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o. q. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from a.d Vk(hz) o.

AC = 680 mm and OQ = 650 mm. o Mark the zero velocity point. i) ii) iii) • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. The angular velocity of the cylinder The sliding velocity of the plunger The absolute velocity of the plunger When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise.4 m/s. a O. Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 6.32 = 6. q b c o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. Determine.4 m/s o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram. draw a line perpendicular to AB. A B on AR (point on AR below Q) C 60o O Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram R o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O. q.• Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm. Va = ωOA x OA = 20 x 0. 143 .

The length of the various links are: AB = 650 mm The velocity of slider block S The angular velocity of link EF The velocity of link EF in the swivel block. AB = 100 mm BC = 800 mm DC = 250 mm BE = CF EF = 400 mm i) ii) iii) Determine. • Solution: OF = 240 mm FS = 400 mm Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. ωab = Vab = 5.61 rad/sec (cω) AB o Studying velocity of player will be qb = 4.22 m/s • Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise.1 m/s o Absolute velocity of plunger = OC qc = 4. 144 .o To mark point c on ab We know that ∴ ac = ab ac = AB AC ab x AC = AB o Mark point c on ab and joint this to zero velocity point. o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.

d. o.14 m/s. o Mark zero velocity point a. f P b S a. Vb = ωBA x BA Vb = 2π x 300 x 0. d.1 = 3.400 F S O P G 400 B 45o A D E 300 Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A.14 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale. g c Velocity vector diagram o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥r to AB and equal to 3. o. o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥r to DC to intersect at C. 145 . g.

Step 2: Given ω2 = 10 rad/sec. o Extend the vector ep to ef such that ef = ef x EF EP o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S. φ 50 mm φ 40 mm B 30 A 2 G D 4 F o 3 60 mm C ω2 • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = OP = 1. Calculate velocity of B with respect to G. and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E.d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P. The angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec.o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that be = bc x BE BC o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥r to PE and from ‘a. o Velocity of slider gS = 2. Angular Velocity of link EF.85 m / s . Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4. Vb = ω2 x BG Vb = 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec. • Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1.6 m / s . 146 .

o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from f draw a line ⊥r to FD to intersect at d. d g. i) ii) Velocity of point D. Angular velocity of link BD. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BE and from g. f o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to CF to intersect at C.43 m/s ⊥r to BG.Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. 147 . B 30o E D C G 50 mm F Redrawn configuration diagram • Velocity vector diagram c b e o Draw gb = 0. f draw a line ⊥r to GE to intersect at e. • Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. 148 .8 = 50. Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.8 mm AB = 102 mm BD = 102 mm DO6 = 102 mm AC = 203 mm A 3 45o O2 B C 4 Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O2.iii) • Velocity of slider C. Vb = ω2 x O2A Vb = 1 x 50. 6 O6 5 102 mm D O2 = 50. d Vd a Udb b O2O6 C o From O2. O6 draw a line ⊥r to O2A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.8 mm/sec.8 mm/sec. locate zero velocity points O2O6.

O6 draw a line along the line of stocks of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c. O6 draw a line ⊥r to O6D to intersect at d. o Mark point b on vector ac such that ab = ab x AB AC o From b draw a line ⊥r to BD and from O2. B A 50 mm C • Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C. 149 . BC. Step 4: Vd = O 6 d = 32 mm/sec ωbd = bd = BD Vc = O 2 C = ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE • Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance of 50 mm from the centre C. Draw the velocity vector diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. CDE and EF.o From a draw a line ⊥r to Ac and from O2. E and F and the angular velocities of links.

AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm. P 3 2 Q on link 4 45o 4 150 . 45o O C B D A • Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure. link O2P = 40 mm. The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular to ⊥r AO and in 120 mm from O. Determine the velocity of the slider when | AOP is 135o and also mention the maximum velocity of slider. OA = 300 mm.C 120 B 100 60 rpm A 120 o All dimensions are in mm E 100 120 150 F 50 D • The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100 rpm in the CCW direction. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm.

Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF. E B A 45 o C AB = 160 mm BC = 160 mm CD = 100 mm AD = 200 mm EF = 200 mm CE = 40 mm 100 mm F 151 .• Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω direction at 240 rpm.

2 In case of the ⊥r lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2. Thirdly. This is the case when the body has linear motion. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body. A Va B P Vb q I Fig.II Method • Instantaneous Method To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having velocities as Va and Vb respectively in the direction shown. If the intersection of the two lines is at I. 152 . A I Va B P Vb q Fig. A Va B Vb I at ∞ Fig. the body P will be rotating about I at that instant. 3 If the direction of Va and Vb are parallel to the ⊥r at A and B met at ∞. at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some point on the line. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the body P. 1 If a line is drawn ⊥r to Va. centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥r to the direction of Vb at B.

153 .

Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION Session – I • Introduction Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines. Thus motion leads study of displacement. x = rθ dx dθ = r dt dt V = rω 154 . The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well as analytical method. Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V = dx dt dθ dt Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω = Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. • Some important Definitions Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance is known. linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’. As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of velocities. Kinematics does not involve study of forces. A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’. study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of a machine. velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine. Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their velocities and accelerations at different moments. Velocity can be linear velocity of angular velocity. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as configuration diagram.

This is absolute velocity 155 . Small letters are used for velocity vector diagram. A ω2 O2 Va = ω 2 x r Va = ω2 x O2 A Ex: Vao2 is absolute velocity.ω= dθ dt Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity f= Thirdly α = dv d 2 x = 2 Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity) dt dt dω d 2θ = 2 Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity) dt dt We also have. Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point). Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’ B A 2 O2 O4 3 4 Ex: Vba  Velocity of point B with respect to A Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram.

Vector O 4 b = Vb absolute velocity. B O4 Vb  Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O 4 (fixed point.Velocity of point A with respect to O2 fixed point. O4 Vab a Velocity vector diagram Vector O 2 a = Va= Absolute velocity Vector ab = Vab ba = Va Relative velocity Vab is equal magnitude with Vba but is apposite in direction. zero velocity point) b Vba Vb O2. zero velocity point. 156 . B A 3 Vba = or Vab Vba = or Vab Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Find velocity of B. us consider a simple situation. 157 . Let. A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30 o to the horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically upwards.

Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O. Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre. • Relative Velocity Equation y Rigid body A ya R O O4 θ xA x Fig. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body.Va = 4 m/s ab Absolute velocity Vb = ? Horizontal direction (known in magnitude and directors) ab Absolute velocity Vertical direction (known in directors only) O Vb Va a Vab C Vba A 30 o 4 m/s B Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect to B but opposite in direction. The distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link xA = R cos θ. 158 . yA = R sin θ. as shown in figure.

Rω sin θ y VA = . d xA dθ = R ( − sin θ) dt dt = .Rω cos θ ∴ Total velocity of point A is given by VA = ( − Rω sin θ ) 2 + ( − Rω cos θ ) 2 VA = Rω • Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link 159 . y = VA dθ = angular velocity of OA dt x ∴ VA = .Differentiating xA with respect to time gives velocity.Rω cos θ d xA x = VA dt ω= d yA dt Similarly.Rω sin θ dy A dθ = R ( − cos θ ) dt dt = . Let.

Rigid body yB B R sin θ yA A R cos θ xA xB x Fig. d xB d dθ x = VB = xA + R ( − sin θ) dt dt dt = d xA x + Rω sin θ = VA − Rω sin θ dt d yA dt dθ dt Similarly. 2 xB = xA + R cos θ yB = yA + R sin θ Differentiating xB and yB with respect to time we get. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body From Fig. d yB dt = y = VB = + R ( cos θ ) d yA dt y + Rω cos θ = VA − Rω cos θ x VA = VA y VA = Total velocity of point A y VB = Total velocity of point B Similarly. x VB = VB x = VA (Rω sin θ) y VA Rω cos θ 160 .

By graphical method 5. 12. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram. 11. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpm (cw) while link CD rotates about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and | BAD = 60o. 7. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. 4. By relative velocity method 6. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale. 161 . 4. To explain the method let us take a few specific examples. By instantaneous method • By Graphical Method The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method. ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω ∴VB = VA Rω = VA VBA ∴VBA = VB – VA Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods. Four – Bar Mechanism: In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm long. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters. Start from a point whose magnitude and direction is known. 10.x = ( VA x = ( VA y VA ) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ) y VA ) VA Similarly. 8. Find angular velocity of link CD. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity. 9. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥r to the link.

75 rad/sec (cw) CD 8 5.C 15 cm B 8 cm ωBA 60o A 15 cm Configuration Diagram Velocity vector diagram Vb = ωr = ωba x AB = 2πx 120 x 4 = 50.24 cm/sec 60 D Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 20 m/s = ab ⊥r to CD a. Slider Crank Mechanism: 162 . d ⊥r to AB b c Vcb ⊥r to BC Vcb = bc Vc = dc = 38 cm/sec = Vcd We know that V =ω R Vcd = ωCD x CD ωcD = Vcd 38 = = 4.

Find (iii) (iv) Angular velocity of connecting rod and Velocity of slider. 163 . A 60 mm 45o Configuration diagram Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0.In a crank and slotted lever mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter clockwise direction. VA = ωO1A x O2A = 2π x 300 x 60 60 150 mm B = 600 π mm/sec Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.66 rad/sec BA 150 Vb = ob velocity of slider Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding. a ⊥r to AB Va ⊥r to OA b Along sides B O Velocity vector diagram Vab = ab =1300mm/sec ωba = Vba 1300 = = 8.

6 D Scale 1 cm = ……x….6. m C ω O2 2 3 B 5 4 O1 Configuration diagram Scale 1 cm = ……x…. Shaper Mechanism: In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O2A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW direction. m/s c VBA b VBO1 VDC d O1O2 Velocity vector diagram Va = ω2 x O2A O1 b O 1 c = O1 B O1C To locate point C O C ∴ O1 c = O 1 b  1  O B  1  164 a VAO2 = VA . Determine the velocity of slider.

Vrb = (ω ab + ω bc) radius rpb VrC = (ω bc + ω cd) radius rpc VrD = ω cd rpd Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions) Problem 1: In a four bar mechanism. B. if BF = 45 mm. CD = 56 mm and BC = 66 mm AD = 100 mm o At a given instant when | DAB = 60 the angular velocity of link AB is 10. ∴ Vra = ωab x ratios of pin A (rpa) + sign is used ωab is CW and Wbc is CCW i. C and D.To Determine Velocity of Rubbing Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. 165 . Determine. i) ii) iii) iv) Velocity of point C Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm The angular velocity of link BC and CD The velocity of an offset point F on link BC. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction. when angular velocities are in opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use . When the links are motion they rub against pin surface.e. For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A. the dimensions of the links are as given below: AB = 50 mm.5 rad/sec in CCW direction. CF = 30 mm and BCF is read clockwise.ve sign.

v) vi) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD. say 1 cm = 0. Vcb is given vector bc Vbc = 0. 40 mm. if CG = 24 mm.5 x 0. C and D. The ratio of the pins are 30 mm. B. Vba = ωBA x BA = 10. d From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from d. b Vba = 0.525 m/s e.525 m/s Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale. Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm C G F B 60o A D Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence. Draw a line ⊥r to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to 0. • • First locate zero velocity points.2 m/s. 25 mm and 35 mm respectively.44 m/s 166 . it is zero velocity point). DG = 44 mm and DCG is read clockwise. g f C • • Ved a.05 = 0. Solution: Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale. Draw d line ⊥r to CD to interest at C. The velocity of rubbing of pins A.525 m/s.

415 m/s. This can be done by taking corresponding ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.e. Draw a line ⊥r to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously drawn line at ‘f’.495 m/s.96 r / s (CCW) CD 0. Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.24 m/s BC 0. d and measure vector fa to get Vf = 0. first locate the position of point E on velocity vector diagram. we know Vbc and Vcd. Vbc 0.056 Vcd = ωCD x CD ∴ ωCD = Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F • • • Draw a line ⊥r to CF from C on velocity vector diagram. d / vector de = Ve = 0. be BE = bc BC BE 0.066 ∴ be = Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a.44 = = 6. Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD. Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G. From the point f to zero velocity point a.39 = = 6. (cw) BC 0. Draw a line ⊥r to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously drawn line at g.04 x Vcb = x 0.• Vcd is given vector dc Vcd = 0.6 r / s .39 m/s Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC.066 Vcd 0.44 = 0. ∴ Vbc =ω BC x BC ∴ ωBC = Similarly. 167 . • • • Draw a line ⊥r to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.

crank and cross head having pins diameters 80. The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least absolute velocity.5 x 0.5 + 6. 168 . [ωab CCW and ωcbCW] Vpb = (10.035 = 0. • Rubbing velocity at point C will be = 6.60 and 100 mm respectively.96 x 0. When the crank turns through 60o from Inner-dead centre. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm.315 m/s • Rubbing velocity at pin B will be Vpb = (ωab + ωcb) x rpb of point at B. vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale.305 m / s Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins • Rubbing velocity at pin A will be Vpa = ωab x r of pin A Vpa = 10.Vg = dg = 0.6) x 0. The velocity of the slider Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod extended.244 m/s Problem 2: In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in a CCW direction. The angular velocity of connecting rod. The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft.04 = 0.03 = 0. Determine.684 m/s.

ab give Vba=4. • • Mark zero velocity point o. g. ge will give velocity of point E.4 m/sec Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).8 m/sec BE x ab AB mark the point e on extension of vector ba. g draw a horizontal line (representing the line of motion of slider B) to intersect the previously drawn line at b.2 Va = 8 m/s Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector diagram. g Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s • • From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. g. Join e to o.E A F 45o O G B Va = Woa x OA Va = 40 x 0. 169 . Draw oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 8 m/s e a f b o. Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn be = Ve = ge =8.

gf will have the least absolute velocity. We know that Vab = ωab x AB ∴ ω ab = Vab = 6 rad/sec AB Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins. Find BF by using the relation.6 m/sec 170 .06 =0.Draw a line ⊥r to ab passing through o.84 m/sec VP cross head = ωab x rcross head = 6 x 0. • To mark the position of F on link AB. From f to o. fb ab = BF AB BF = fb x AB =200mm ab Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.64 m/s • • VPcrank pin = (ωab + ωoa) rcrank pin= (6 +8)0.1 = 0. g to cut the vector ab at f. g. • Vpcrankshaft = ωao x radius of crankshaft pin = 8 x 0.08 = 0.

254 m/sec 171 .18 x 0. and Angular velocity of link O2D. velocity of cutting tool.18 rad / sec 60 60 Vb = 4. Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.• Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows. O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction. O1B = 300 mm. Find: iii) iv) • Velocity of the Ram R. O. O1O2 = 800 mm. R Tool R D 200 D B 2 45o O1 C B on orank. B C on O2D O1 O2 O2 Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.3 = 1. Vb = ωO1B x O1B ωO1B = 2πN O1B 2π x 40 = = 4.

172 .

Draw a line along the line of stroke of Ram R (horizontal). o To determine the angular velocity of link O2D determine Vd = O 2 d . o Since point D is on the extension of link O2C measure O 2 d such that O 2d = O 2C O2D . o From b draw a line along the line of O2B and from O1O2 draw a line ⊥r to O2B. This intersects at c bc will measure velocity of sliding of slider and O 2 C will measure the velocity of C on link O2C.Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.3 m/sec b d c r o Draw O1b ⊥r to link O1B equal to 1. O 2d r/s O 2D ∴ ωO2d = 173 . O 2C O1O2 o From d draw a line ⊥r to link DR and from O1O2.254 m/s. O 2 d will give velocity of point D. Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0. We know that Vd = ωO2D x O2D. These two lines will intersect at point r O 2 r will give the velocity of Ram R.

Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.024 m/s. Solution: All the dimensions in mm 45o 40 190 A 120 • 100 135 D B 120 Configuration Diagram Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal. o Choose a suitable scale o Mark zero velocity points O.024 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.4 = 5. 174 . Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.q o Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA and magnitude = 5.• Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates at 120 rpm. Vao = ωOA x OA Vao = 2π x 120 = 0.

RS = 430 mm • Solution: Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2. dq = Vd (slider velocity) • Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following dimensions of the links.q Velocity vector diagram D o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from q draw a line ⊥r to QB to intersect at b.5 r/s at the moment when crank makes an angle of 45o with vertical. o Draw a line ⊥r to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at d. 175 . ab = Vba and qb = Vbq .a b O. Calculate OP (crank) = 240 mm d) the velocity of the Ram S OA = 150 mm e) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level AR = 165 mm f) the angular velocity of the link RS.

R S A O 45 o P on slider Q on BA B Configuration Diagram 176 .

g draw a line ⊥r to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to intersect previously draw.6 m S O.24 = 0. o From O. Pq = Velocity of sliding. line at q.6 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. a. g r Velocity vector diagram o Draw op ⊥r link OP = 0. P 0. a. Vqa = aq = o Angular velocity of link RS = ω RS = sr rad/sec SR q 177 . aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A.Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P. VP = ωOP x OP Vao = 2π x 240 x 0.6 m.

1507 m / s Va =   60  178 . C Q 100 B 140 OA = 30 AB = 80 BQ = 100 BC = 100 All dimensions are in mm O A 50 rpm • Solution Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction.• Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the links in mm. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of links AB. BQ and BC. Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.03 = 0. Va = ωOA x OA  2π x 50   x 0.05 π m / s = 0.

Find the velocity of point K when crank OA is inclined at 30o to the horizontal.3 r / s (ccw ) AB aB o From b draw a line ⊥r to Be and from O. o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 0. q these two lines intersect at C.13 m / s ab qb = 0.74 r / s (ccw ) ωbq =1. q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b.b a O. OC = VC = 0. q c Vector velocity diagram Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. ab = Vba = ωab = and qb = Vb = 0. What will be the torque required at the crank to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.15 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from O. 179 .33 r / s (ccw ) BC Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure in mm.106 m / s bC = VCb = ω BC = • bc = 1.

500 60o 100 A hz h2 100 M 200 400 600 600 D K 360 B 200 C 320 Configuration diagram • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. 180 .

o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o.Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’. draw a line ⊥r to AC to intersect at c. o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from m draw a line ⊥r to MD to intersect at d. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from a. ∴ ( ωT ) I = ( ωT ) O P P V = ωR T=FxP F= T r ∴ ωOA TOA = Fk Vk horizontal 181 .1 = 1. m and c line ⊥r to this line from k.  2π x 120   x 0. m k b c Velocity vector diagram a Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.26 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b.26 m / s Va = ωOA x OA =  60   d Vk(hz) o. q. o From d draw a line ⊥r to KD and from m draw a line ⊥r to KM to x intersect the previously drawn line at k. q. o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 1.

The angular velocity of the cylinder The sliding velocity of the plunger The absolute velocity of the plunger When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise. Va = ωOA x OA = 20 x 0.45 = 12. iv) v) vi) • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.4 m/s. o Mark the zero velocity point. AC = 680 mm and OQ = 650 mm.∴ TOA = TOA = • Fk Vk ( hz ) ω OA 40000 X 0. 182 . Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 6.4 m/s o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram.6 N-m Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm. Determine.32 = 6. A B on AR (point on AR below Q) C 60o O Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram R o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.

a O. q.61 rad/sec (cω) AB o Studying velocity of player will be qb = 4. o Angular velocity of cylinder will be. AB = 100 mm BC = 800 mm DC = 250 mm BE = CF EF = 400 mm OF = 240 mm FS = 400 mm 183 iv) v) vi) Determine. .22 m/s • Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. The length of the various links are: AB = 650 mm The velocity of slider block S The angular velocity of link EF The velocity of link EF in the swivel block. q b c o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. o To mark point c on ab We know that ∴ ac = ab ac = AB AC ab x AC = AB o Mark point c on ab and joint this to zero velocity point. ωab = Vab = 5. draw a line perpendicular to AB.1 m/s o Absolute velocity of plunger = OC qc = 4.

o. Vb = ωBA x BA Vb = 2π x 300 x 0. f P b S a.• Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. g. o. 400 F S O P G 400 B 45o A D E 300 Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A. o Mark zero velocity point a. d. g c 184 .1 = 3. d.14 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale.

and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E. o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥r to DC to intersect at C. The angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec.14 m/s. • Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1. o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that be = bc x BE BC o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥r to PE and from ‘a.85 m / s . o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = OP = 1.Velocity vector diagram o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥r to AB and equal to 3. o Velocity of slider gS = 2.6 m / s .d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P. 185 . φ 50 mm φ 40 mm B 30 A 2 G D 4 F o 3 60 mm C ω2 • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. o Extend the vector ep to ef such that ef = ef x EF EP o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4. Angular Velocity of link EF.

Calculate velocity of B with respect to G. B 30o E D C G 50 mm F Redrawn configuration diagram 186 .Step 2: Given ω2 = 10 rad/sec. Vb = ω2 x BG Vb = 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec. Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

f o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to CF to intersect at C. d g. o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from f draw a line ⊥r to FD to intersect at d. iv) v) vi) • Velocity of point D. f draw a line ⊥r to GE to intersect at e. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BE and from g.43 m/s ⊥r to BG.• Velocity vector diagram c b e o Draw gb = 0. 187 . Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram. Angular velocity of link BD. Velocity of slider C. • Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

O6 draw a line ⊥r to O2A in the direction of rotation equal to 50. O6 draw a line along the line of stocks of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c.8 mm AB = 102 mm BD = 102 mm DO6 = 102 mm AC = 203 mm A 3 45o O2 B C 4 Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O2.6 O6 5 102 mm D O2 = 50. O6 draw a line ⊥r to O6D to intersect at d. Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. 188 . o From a draw a line ⊥r to Ac and from O2.8 = 50. d Vd a Udb b O2O6 C o From O2. Vb = ω2 x O2A Vb = 1 x 50. o Mark point b on vector ac such that ab = ab x AB AC o From b draw a line ⊥r to BD and from O2.8 mm/sec.8 mm/sec. locate zero velocity points O2O6.

B A 50 mm C • Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. E and F and the angular velocities of links. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular 189 . Draw the velocity vector diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB. OA = 300 mm. BC.Step 4: Vd = O 6 d = 32 mm/sec ωbd = bd = BD Vc = O 2 C = ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE • Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance of 50 mm from the centre C. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm. CDE and EF. C 120 B 100 60 rpm A 120 o All dimensions are in mm E 100 120 150 F 50 D • The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100 rpm in the CCW direction. AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm.

Determine the velocity of the slider when | AOP is 135o and also mention the maximum velocity of slider. 45o O C B D A 190 .to ⊥r AO and in 120 mm from O.

• Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF. link O2P = 40 mm. E B A 45o 100 mm C AB = 160 mm BC = 160 mm CD = 100 mm AD = 200 mm EF = 200 mm F CE = 40 mm 191 . P 3 2 Q on link 4 45o 4 • Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω direction at 240 rpm. The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW.

The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body. 1 If a line is drawn ⊥r to Va. A Va B P Vb q I Fig.II Method • Instantaneous Method To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having velocities as Va and Vb respectively in the direction shown. 192 . the body P will be rotating about I at that instant. 3 If the direction of Va and Vb are parallel to the ⊥r at A and B met at ∞. If the intersection of the two lines is at I. 2 In case of the ⊥r lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2. centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥r to the direction of Vb at B. This is the case when the body has linear motion. A I Va B P Vb q Fig. Thirdly. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the body P. A Va B Vb I at ∞ Fig. at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some point on the line.

N= n = 4. If N is the number of instantaneous centers and n is the number of links. permanent and neither fixed nor permanent. I14 Permanent instantaneous center I23. I24 • Arnold Kennedy theorem of three centers: 193 . N= n ( n − 1) 2 • Types of Instantaneous Centers There are three types of instantaneous centers namely fixed. Example: Four bar mechanism.• Number of Instantaneous Centers The number of instantaneous centers in a mechanism depends upon number of links. I34 Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I13. n ( n − 1) 4( 4 − 1) =6 = 2 2 I13 I34 3 I23 4 2 I24 I12 1 I14 Fixed instantaneous center I12.

their instantaneous centers should lie in a straight line.Statement: If three bodies have motion relative to each other. 194 .

Step 4: Locate all the instantaneous centers by making use of Kennedy’s theorem. the instantaneous center of the two links cannot be at the assumed position. I12 and I13 are the instantaneous centers for link 2 and link 3. I 23. 2 Step 3: Identify the instantaneous centers by circle diagram. To illustrate the procedure let us consider an example. Let us assume that instantaneous center of link 2 and 3 be at point A i. the proof. It is seen that velocity vector of VA2 and VA3 are in different directions which is impossible. Similarly for point A on link 3. for the three links to be in relative motion all the three centers should lie in a same straight line. 195 N . Hence. velocity of A with respect to I12 will be a vector VA2 ⊥r to link A I12. Steps to locate instantaneous centers: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. Hence.e. Point A is a coincident point on link 2 and link 3. Step 2: Identify the number of instantaneous centers by using the relation ( n − 1) n = . Hence. velocity of A with respect to I13 will be ⊥r to A I13.Proof: 1 I12 VA32 VA22 I13 2 I23 3 A Consider a three link mechanism with link 1 being fixed link 2 rotating about I12 and link 3 rotating about I13. Hence. Considering A on link 2. It can be seen that when I23 lies on the line joining I12 and I13 the VA2 and VA3 will be same in magnitude and direction.

196

A slider crank mechanism has lengths of crank and connecting rod equal to 200 mm and 200 mm respectively locate all the instantaneous centers of the mechanism for the position of the crank when it has turned through 30 o from IOC. Also find velocity of slider and angular velocity of connecting rod if crank rotates at 40 rad/sec. Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. Step 2: Determine the number of links in the mechanism and find number of instantaneous centers. N=

( n − 1) n
2 N= 4( 4 − 1) =6 2 I13

n = 4 links

I24 A 200 I12 O 1 I14 to ∞ Step 3: Identify instantaneous centers. o Suit it is a 4-bar link the resulting figure will be a square. 30o 1 2 I23 3 800 B 4 I12

I14 to ∞

197

1

I12 I24

2 1 I12 I23 I13 2 I23 I13 I14 3 3 I34 I24 4

I41

OR

4

I34

o Locate fixed and permanent instantaneous centers. To locate neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous centers use Kennedy’s three centers theorem. Step 4: Velocity of different points. Va = ω2 AI12 = 40 x 0.2 = 8 m/s also Va = ω2 x A13 ∴ ω3 = Va AI13

Vb = ω3 x BI13 = Velocity of slider. • Problem 2:

A four bar mechanisms has links AB = 300 mm, BC = CD = 360 mm and AD = o 600 mm. Angle | BAD = 60 . Crank AB rotates in Cω direction at a speed of 100 rpm. Locate all the instantaneous centers and determine the angular velocity of link BC. • Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. Step 2: Find the number of Instantaneous centers N=

( n − 1) n
2

=

4( 4 − 1) =6 2

Step 3: Identify the IC’s by circular method or book keeping method.

198

1

I12 I12

2 1 I23 I13 OR I12 I13 I14 3 2 I23 I24 3 I34 4

I14

4

I34

Step 4: Locate all the visible IC’s and locate other IC’s by Kennedy’s theorem. I13

3 B I23 2 I24 A I12 1

C I34 4

I14

D

Vb = ω2 x BI12 = Also Vb = ω3 x BI13 ω3 = •

2π x 100 x 0.3 = m / sec 60

Vb = rad / sec BI13

For a mechanism in figure crank OA rotates at 100 rpm clockwise using I.C. method determine the linear velocities of points B, C, D and angular velocities of links AB, BC and CD. OA = 20 cm AB = 150 cm BC = 60 cm 199

2 = 2.CD = 50 cm A 2 1 O 30o BE = 40 cm C 3 OE = 135 cm 5 E 4 B D 6 10 mm Va = ωOA x OA Va = 2π x 100 x 0.1 m / s 60 n ( n − 1) = 15 2 2 12 13 14 15 16 I16 @ ∞ I13 I45 I23 2 1 I12 I34 I15 5 3 I14 6 I56 I16 @ ∞ I16 @ ∞ 23 24 25 26 3 34 35 36 4 45 46 5 56 6 5 4 3 2 1 --15 --- n = 6 links N= 1 200 .

273 m/s Link 5 C D 5 I15 201 .5 rad / sec AI13 Vb = ω3 x BI13 = 2.675 m/s C I14 4 B Also Vb = ω4 x BI14 ω4 = Vb = 6.37 rad / sec BI14 Link 4 VC = ω4 x CI14 = 1.Link 3 I13 A 3 B Va = ω3AI13 ω3 = Va = 2.

5 rad/sec ωbc = 6.273 m/s Vd = 0.675 m/s VC = 1.826 m/s Answers Vb = 2. i) ii) Velocity of slider Angular velocity of links AB.826 m/s ωab = 2.37 rad/sec ωcd = 1. CB and BD.72 rad/sec • In the toggle mechanism shown in figure the slider D is constrained to move in a horizontal path the crank OA is rotating in CCW direction at a speed of 180 rpm the dimensions of various links are as follows: OA = 180 mm AB = 360 mm CB = 240 mm BD = 540 mm Find. A 45o O 360 105 B D C n = 6 links N= n ( n − 1) = 15 2 202 .VC = ω5 x CI15 VC =1.72 rad / sec ω5 = AI15 Vd = ω5 x DI15 = 0.

1 12 2 23 13 14 3 34 24 25 15 16 4 45 35 36 26 5 56 46 6 5 4 3 2 1 --15 --- I16 @ ∞ I16 @ ∞ A 2 I15 I23 I16 @ ∞ I46 I12 I13 4 O I45 I34 3 B I35 5 C 6 I24 Va = ω2 x AI12 = 3.4 m/s A I56 Link 3 ω3 I13 B Va = ω3 x AI13 ω3 = Va = 2.44 rad / sec AI13 Vb = ω3 x BI13 203 .

875 rad / sec AI14 I15 B 5 D Vb = ω5 x BI15 Answers Vd = 2 m/s ωab = 2.875 rad/sec Vd = ω5 x DI15 = 2 m/s ωcd = 4. Vb = 4.Link 4 ω4 C Vb = ω4 x BI14 ω4 = Link 5 I14 B Vb =11.37 rad / sec ω5 = AI15 • 204 .44 rad/sec ωbc = 11. What will be the velocity of cutting tool D and the angular velocities of links BC and CD if crank rotates at 10 rad/sec.37 rad/sec Figure shows a six link mechanism.

Q 25 90o 15 B 15 C All dimensions are in mm 45 45 60 A 15 30 o O D 205 .

I13 I16 @ ∞ I14 4 3 I24 I23 I16 @ ∞ I26 2 I12 I34 I46 I45 5 O I56 Va = ω2 x AI12 = 10 x 0.015 Va = ω2 x AI12 = 0.15 m/s Link 3 I13 ω3 6 I16 @ ∞ I15 B A Va = ω3 x AI13 ω3 = Va AI13 Vb = ω3 x BI13 206 .

98 rad/sec A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has a fixed link OA and crank OP having length 200 mm and 350 mm respectively. Find the velocity of the rotation using IC method when crank makes an angle of 120o with fixed link and rotates at 10 rad/sec.98 rad / sec ω5 = AI15 Vd = ω5 x DI15 = 1.25 rad / sec BI14 VC = ω4 x CI14 Link 5 C 5 D VC = ω5 x CI15 VC = 1.66 m/s • I15 Answers Vd = 1.25 rad/sec ωcd = 1. Other lengths are AR = 200 mm and RS = 40 mm. 207 .66 m/s ωbc = 4.Link 4 Q I14 B ω4 C Vb = ω4 x BI14 ω4 = Vb = 4.

R 5 S 6 A 4 1 O 2 P 3 B Locate the IC’s n = 6 links N= n ( n − 1) = 15 2 2 12 13 14 15 16 23 24 25 26 3 34 35 36 4 45 46 5 56 6 5 4 3 2 1 --15 --- 1 208 .

1. A change in velocity requires any one of the following conditions to be fulfilled: o Change in magnitude only o Change in direction only o Change in both magnitude and direction When the velocity of a particle changes in magnitude and direction it has two component of acceleration. Radial or centripetal acceleration fc = ω2r Acceleration is parallel to the link and acting towards centre.I15 I16 @ ∞ I45 6 5 I14 I56 1 I12 2 4 I23 3 I34 I46 I24 VP = ω2 x OP = ……… m/s • Acceleration Analysis Rate of change of velocity is acceleration. 209 .

fc =ω2r = V2/r 2. Tnagential Acceleration: Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r Velocity of A perpendicular to OA = Va Velocity of A’ perpendicular to OA = Va’ cos δ θ Therefore change in velocity = Va’ cos δ θ – Va Tnagnetial acceleration = ft = ( ω + αδt ) r cos δθ − ωr δt 210 .A A’ δθ Va Va’ cosδθ δθ fcoa Va’ Va’ sinδθ f oa a1 O1 ft oa oa r O Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r Velocity of A parallel to OA = 0 Velocity of A’ parallel to OA = Va’ sin δ θ Therefore change in velocity = Va’ sin δ θ – 0 Centripetal acceleration = fc = ( ω + αδt ) r sin δθ δt as δt tends to Zero sin δ θ tends to δ θ ∴ ( ωrδθ + αrδθδt ) δt fc = ωr (dθ/ dt) =ω2r But V = ωr or ω = V/r Hence.

fBA = frBA + ftBA • Problem 1: Four bar mechanism. For a 4-bar mechanism shown in figure draw velocity and acceleration diagram.as δt tends to Zero cos δ θ tends to 1 ∴ ( ωr + αrδt ) − ωr δt ft = αr Example: B A fCab = ω2AB Acts parallel to BA and acts from B to A. frab fab ftab ft = αBA acts ⊥r to link. 211 .

All dimensions are in mm B 50 60o A C 66 56 ω = 10.5 rad/sec D 100 212 .

⊥r to DC – ⊥r to BC Parallel to DC – D Parallel to BC B Direction Parallel to AB Sense A C 213 .5 x 0.525 fc = 5.51 m/s2 2.• Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a scale.75 ft = αr 3. 1. Step 2: Draw velocity vector diagram to a scale. BC fc = ω2BCr fc = 1.75 ft = ? Step 4: Draw the acceleration diagram.05 Vb = 0. AB Link Magnitude fc = ω2ABr fc = (10. CD fc = ω2CDr fc = 2. Vb = ω2 x AB Vb = 10.5)2/0. No.525 m/s Vc a1d Vbc b Step 3: Prepare a table as shown below: Sl.

Angular acceleration of link AB. draw a line parallel to AB and toward A from a1d1 equal to 5. o From b11 draw a line ⊥r to BC. point c1.e. i) ii) iii) Acceleration of slider B. Therefore.51 m/s2 i. o From a1d1 draw a vector parallel to AD and pointing towards D equal to 2. point b1.09 rad / sec (CCW ) BC BC t 1 αCD = f cd = c1c1 = 79.11el to CD a1d1 11el to CD ⊥γ to BC c1 fbc b1 11el to BC b1 c1′ 11el to AB o Choose a suitable scale to draw acceleration diagram.72 m/s 2 i. If crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec CCW. d1c1 = fCD and b1c1 = fbc. Calculate • Solution: 214 . Acceleration of point E.e. o Mark the zero acceleration point a1d1. o From b1 draw a vector parallel to BC points towards B equal to 1. o From c11 draw a line ⊥r to CD to intersect the line drawn ⊥r to BC at c1.75 m/s2 (b11). t 1 αBC = f bc = c1b1 = 34.11 rad / sec (CCW ) CD CD • Problem 2: For the configuration of slider crank mechanism shown in figure below. o Link AB has only centripetal acceleration. The magnitude is not known. To determine angular acceleration.

2 ftab – – Direction Parallel to OA Parallel to AB ⊥r to AB Parallel to Slider Sense O A – – O1g 9. 3.48 Va = 9. OA AB Slider B Link Magnitude fcaO = ω2OAr = 192 fcab = ω2abr = 17. Va = ωOA x OA Va = 20 x 0. 1.E 450 A 1600 60o All dimensions are mm 480 B G Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.25 b Step 4: Sl. e a 5.6 m/s Step 4: Draw velocity vector diagram. No. Step 2: Find velocity of A with respect to O.7 215 . 2.

fb fab f ab t o1g1 b11 fcab 192 172 e1 a1 ee1 216 .Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale.

o αab = Answers: fb = 72 m/sec2 fe = 236 m/sec2 αab = 104 rad/sec2 • Problem 3: In a toggle mechanism shown in figure the crank OA rotates at 210 rpm CCW increasing at the rate of 60 rad/s2. a 1 b1 = f ab g 1 b1 = fb = 72 m/s2. Acceleration of slider D and angular acceleration of link BD. = AB AE o Join e1 to δ1g1. = 1 1 = AB AB 1.2 m/s2 towards ‘A’ from b11 draw a line ⊥r to AB. t f ab bb 167 = 104 rad/sec2 (CCW). o From a1 draw a1b11 = 17. • • Velocity of slider D and angular velocity of link BD. o Extend a 1 b1 = a 1e1 such that a 1 b1 A1 R 1 .6 217 .o Mark o1g1 (zero acceleration point) o Draw o1g1 = C acceleration of OA towards ‘O’. g 1e1 = fe = 236 m/s2. o From o1g1 draw a line along the slider B to intersect previously drawn line at b1.

a b d Step 4: Sl.150 A 200 45o 400 300 D Q B 500 D G Step 1 Draw the configuration diagram to a scale. Step 2 Find Va = ωOA x OA Va = 2π ( 210 ) x 0.4 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.8 ftaO = αr = 12 o1. 1. AO Link Magnitude m/s2 fcaO = ω2r = 96. No.g Direction Parallel to OA ⊥ to OA r Sense O – 218 .q.2 = 4.

fbd d1 q11 fab b11 a1 ftOA fcOA d11 b1 fd O1q1g1 a11 o Draw o1a11 = fcOA and a11a = ftOA ⊥r to OA from o o1a1 = fa o From a1 draw a 1 b1 = f c ab . 219 . 5. Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale. from o1q1g1 draw a line along slider D to meet the previously drawn line at . BQ BD Slider D fcbq = ω2r = 38.3 ftbq = αr = fcbd = ω2r = 20 ftbd = αr = – Parallel to BQ ⊥r to BQ ⊥r to BD ⊥r to BD Parallel to slider motion 4. from b11 draw a line ⊥r to AB. o Mark zero acceleration point. AB fcab = ω2r = 5. o From d11 draw a line ⊥r to BD.93 f = αr = t ab Parallel to AB ⊥ to AB r A – Q – B – – 3. o From o1q1g1 draw o1q11 = fcbq and from q11 draw a line a line ⊥r to BQ to intersect the previously drawn line at b1 q 1 b1 = f bq a 1 b1 = fab o From b1 draw a line parallel to BD = fcbd such that b1d 11 = fcbd.2.

32 rad/s Fd = 16.4 m/s2 αbd = 109.5 o αBD = Answers: Vd = 2.2 rad/s2 220 .46 m/sec2.46 = 109.4 m/sec2. b1d 1 = f bd = 5. f bd 5.o o g 1d 1 = f d = 16.2 rad / sec 2 BD 0.54 m/s ωbd = 6.

• • Centripetal acceleration and Tangential acceleration. 1. B to A1 due to rotation of link 2.AO dθ 221 .• Coriolis Acceleration: It has been seen that the acceleration of a body may have two components. 2. Assume this motion also to have constant velocity VB/A. P 2 Q B1 dθ A1 ω2 P1 B2 B on link 3 3 A on link 2 dθ O Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity ω2. B1 to B2 due to acceleration ⊥r to link 2 this component in the coriolis component of acceleration. However. Consider the motion of slider from B to B2 in 3 stages. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B to B2. 3. in same cases there will be a third component called as corilis acceleration to illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever mechanisms. in its motions from OP to OP1 in a small interval of time δt. A1 to B1 due to outward velocity of slider VB/A. We have Arc B1B2 = Arc QB2 – Arc QB1 = Arc QB2 – Arc AA1 ∴ Arc B1B2 = OQ dθ .

= A1B1 dθ = VB/A ω 2dt2 The tangential component of velocity is ⊥r to the link and is given by Vt = ωr. The equation Vt = ωr remain same but r increases uniformly i. tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in uniform increase in tangential velocity. Therefore. there is a constant acceleration ⊥r to rod.e. fcr ω2 ω2 fcr ω2 (a) Rotation CW slider moving up (b) Rotation CW slider moving down 222 . ∴ Displacement B1B2 = ½ at2 = ½ f (dt)2 ∴ ½ f (dt)2 = VB/A ω2 dt2 fcrB/A = 2ω 2 VB/A coriolis acceleration The direction of coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector for the two coincident points rotated at 90o in the direction of angular velocity of rotation of the link. Figure below shows the direction of coriolis acceleration in different situation. In this case ω has been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant velocity.

B on orank. Find: v) vi) Acceleration of the Ram R. A B O C C on AD O A A 223 . Tool R D R 200 D B 2 45 o Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. velocity of cutting tool. O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and rotates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction. and Angular Acceleration of link AD. O1O2 = 800 mm. the dimensions of various links are as follows.fcr ω2 ω2 fcr (c) Rotation CCW slider moving up (d) Rotation CCW slider moving down A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig. O1B = 300 mm.

Slider R ftbd = αr Parallel to slider motion – 224 .Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.a r s Parallel to AB f bc =αr _ 3. Step 4: prepare table showing the acceleration components Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0. OB – c c 2 Parallel to AB f ac = ω r A 2. BC r cc – ⊥ to AC f bc = 2vω = c 2 f bd = ω r = 20 Parallel to DR D 4.18 rad / sec 60 60 Vb = 4.24 1.254 m/sec Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram. Vb = ω OB x OB ω OB = 2πNO1B 2π x 40 = = 4.3 = 1. AC r t – ⊥ to AB f ac = αr o.3 m/sec Sl. DR ftbd =α r r _ ⊥ to BD 5. b d Parallel to OB O fcob = ω2r =5.18 x 0. Link Magnitude m/s2 Direction Sense No.

r1 f t dr fr o 1a 1 b1’’ fad d1 f dr c fcob ftab b 1’ r1 ’ fob b1 fccbc fsab b1’’’ Acceleration of Ram = fr = o1 r Angular Acceleration of link AD α bd = f bd BD KLENIN’S Construction This method helps us to draw the velocity and acceleration diagrams on the construction diagram itself. 225 . The crank of the configuration diagram represents the velocity and acceleration line of the moving end (crank).

• Draw another circle with AB as diameter.The procedure is given below for a slider crank mechanism. 226 . Acceleration diagram: The line representing Crank OA represents the acceleration of A with respect to O. ω 200 45º O A 800 B To draw the velocity vector diagram: Link OA represents the velocity vector of A with respect to O. • Draw a circle with OA as radius and A as centre. oab is the velocity vector diagram rotated through 90º opposite to the rotation of the crank. b b a 200 45º o ω 800 a o Draw a line perpendicular at O. Voa = oa = ω r = ω OA. extend the line BA to meet this perpendicular line at b. To draw the acceleration diagram follow the steps given below. • The two circles intersect each other at two points C and D.

• Join C and D to meet OB at b1 and AB at E. b1 ftab ba1 a1 ba1 45º O1 b1 800 fcab fab fb O1 fa a ω 200 B 227 . O1.ba1and b1 is the required acceleration diagram rotated through 180º.a1.