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CHAPTER - I

Mechanics: It is that branch of scientific analysis which deals with motion, time and

force.

Kinematics is the study of motion, without considering the forces which produce that

motion. Kinematics of machines deals with the study of the relative motion of machine

parts. It involves the study of position, displacement, velocity and acceleration of

machine parts.

Dynamics of machines involves the study of forces acting on the machine parts and the

motions resulting from these forces.

Plane motion: A body has plane motion, if all its points move in planes which are

parallel to some reference plane. A body with plane motion will have only three degrees

of freedom. I.e., linear along two axes parallel to the reference plane and

rotational/angular about the axis perpendicular to the reference plane. (eg. linear along X

and Z and rotational about Y.)The reference plane is called plane of motion. Plane motion

can be of three types. 1) Translation 2) rotation and 3) combination of translation and

rotation.

Translation: A body has translation if it moves so that all straight lines in the body move

to parallel positions. Rectilinear translation is a motion wherein all points of the body

move in straight lie paths. Eg. The slider in slider crank mechanism has rectilinear

translation. (link 4 in fig.1.1)

Fig.1.1

Translation, in which points in a body move along curved paths, is called curvilinear

translation. The tie rod connecting the wheels of a steam locomotive has curvilinear

translation. (link 3 in fig.1.2)

1

Fig.1.2

Rotation: In rotation, all points in a body remain at fixed distances from a line which is

perpendicular to the plane of rotation. This line is the axis of rotation and points in the

body describe circular paths about it. (Eg. link 2 in Fig.1.1 and links 2 & 4 in Fig.1.2)

Translation and rotation: It is the combination of both translation and rotation which is

exhibited by many machine parts. (Eg. link 3 in Fig.1.1)

Link or element: It is the name given to any body which has motion relative to another.

All materials have some elasticity. A rigid link is one, whose deformations are so small

that they can be neglected in determining the motion parameters of the link.

Fig.1.3

Binary link: Link which is connected to other links at two points. (Fig.1.3 a)

Ternary link: Link which is connected to other links at three points. (Fig.1.3 b)

Quaternary link: Link which is connected to other links at four points. (Fig1.3 c)

Pairing elements: the geometrical forms by which two members of a mechanism are

joined together, so that the relative motion between these two is consistent are known as

pairing elements and the pair so formed is called kinematic pair. Each individual link of a

mechanism forms a pairing element.

Fig.1.4 Kinematic pair

Fig.1.5

2

Degrees of freedom (DOF): It is the number of independent coordinates required to

describe the position of a body in space. A free body in space (fig 1.5) can have six

degrees of freedom. I.e., linear positions along x, y and z axes and rotational/angular

positions with respect to x, y and z axes.

In a kinematic pair, depending on the constraints imposed on the motion, the links may

loose some of the six degrees of freedom.

Types of kinematic pairs:

(i) Based on nature of contact between elements:

(a) Lower pair. If the joint by which two members are connected has surface contact,

the pair is known as lower pair. Eg. pin joints, shaft rotating in bush, slider in slider

crank mechanism.

Fig.1.6 Lower pairs

(b) Higher pair. If the contact between the pairing elements takes place at a point or

along a line, such as in a ball bearing or between two gear teeth in contact, it is

known as a higher pair.

Fig.1.7 Higher pairs

(ii) Based on relative motion between pairing elements:

(a) Siding pair. Sliding pair is constituted by two elements so connected that one is

constrained to have a sliding motion relative to the other. DOF = 1

3

(b) Turning pair (revolute pair). When connections of the two elements are such that

only a constrained motion of rotation of one element with respect to the other is

possible, the pair constitutes a turning pair. DOF = 1

(c) Cylindrical pair. If the relative motion between the pairing elements is the

combination of turning and sliding, then it is called as cylindrical pair. DOF = 2

Fig.1.8 Sliding pair

Fig.1.9 Turning pair

Fig.1.10 Cylindrical pair

(d) Rolling pair. When the pairing elements have rolling contact, the pair formed is

called rolling pair. Eg. Bearings, Belt and pulley. DOF = 1

Fig.1.11 (a) Ball bearing

Fig.1.11(b) Belt and pulley

(e) Spherical pair. A spherical pair will have surface contact and three degrees of

freedom. Eg. Ball and socket joint. DOF = 3

(f) Helical pair or screw pair. When the nature of contact between the elements of a

pair is such that one element can turn about the other by screw threads, it is known

as screw pair. Eg. Nut and bolt. DOF = 1

4

Fig.1.12 Ball and socket joint

Fig.1.13 Screw pair

(iii) Based on the nature of mechanical constraint.

(a) Closed pair. Elements of pairs held together mechanically due to their geometry

constitute a closed pair. They are also called form-closed or self-closed pair.

(b) Unclosed or force closed pair. Elements of pairs held together by the action of

external forces constitute unclosed or force closed pair .Eg. Cam and follower.

Fig.1.14 Closed pair Fig. 1.15 Force closed pair (cam & follower)

Constrained motion: In a kinematic pair, if one element has got only one definite

motion relative to the other, then the motion is called constrained motion.

(a) Completely constrained motion. If the constrained motion is achieved by the pairing

elements themselves, then it is called completely constrained motion.

5

Fig.1.16 completely constrained motion

(b) Successfully constrained motion. If constrained motion is not achieved by the

pairing elements themselves, but by some other means, then, it is called successfully

constrained motion. Eg. Foot step bearing, where shaft is constrained from moving

upwards, by its self weight.

(c) Incompletely constrained motion. When relative motion between pairing elements

takes place in more than one direction, it is called incompletely constrained motion. Eg.

Shaft in a circular hole.

Fig.1.17 Foot strep bearing

Fig.1.18 Incompletely constrained motion

Kinematic chain: A kinematic chain is a group of links either joined together or arranged

in a manner that permits them to move relative to one another. If the links are connected

in such a way that no motion is possible, it results in a locked chain or structure.

Fig.1.19 Locked chain or structure

6

Mechanism: A mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. This means that the motion

of any one link in the kinematic chain will give a definite and predictable motion relative

to each of the others. Usually one of the links of the kinematic chain is fixed in a

mechanism.

Fig.1.20 Slider crank and four bar mechanisms.

If, for a particular position of a link of the chain, the positions of each of the other links

of the chain can not be predicted, then it is called as unconstrained kinematic chain and it

is not mechanism.

Fig.1.21 Unconstrained kinematic chain

Machine: A machine is a mechanism or collection of mechanisms, which transmit force

from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. Though all machines are

mechanisms, all mechanisms are not machines. Many instruments are mechanisms but

are not machines, because they do no useful work nor do they transform energy. Eg.

Mechanical clock, drafter.

Fig.1.21 Drafter

Planar mechanisms: When all the links of a mechanism have plane motion, it is called

as a planar mechanism. All the links in a planar mechanism move in planes parallel to the

reference plane.

7

Degrees of freedom/mobility of a mechanism: It is the number of inputs (number of

independent coordinates) required to describe the configuration or position of all the links

of the mechanism, with respect to the fixed link at any given instant.

Grubler’s equation: Number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h. Where,

F = Degrees of freedom

n = Number of links = n

2

+ n

3

+……+n

j

, where, n

2

= number of binary links, n

3

= number

of ternary links…etc.

l = Number of lower pairs, which is obtained by counting the number of joints. If more

than two links are joined together at any point, then, one additional lower pair is to be

considered for every additional link.

h = Number of higher pairs

Examples of determination of degrees of freedom of planar mechanisms:

(i)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n

2

= 4, n = 4, l = 4 and h = 0.

F = 3(4-1)-2(4) = 1

I.e., one input to any one link will result in

definite motion of all the links.

(ii)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n

2

= 5, n = 5, l = 5 and h = 0.

F = 3(5-1)-2(5) = 2

I.e., two inputs to any two links are

required to yield definite motions in all the

links.

(iii)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n

2

= 4, n

3

=2, n = 6, l = 7 and h = 0.

F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1

I.e., one input to any one link will result in

definite motion of all the links.

8

(iv)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n

2

= 5, n

3

=1, n = 6, l = 7 (at the

intersection of 2, 3 and 4, two lower pairs

are to be considered) and h = 0.

F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1

(v)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n = 11, l = 15 (two lower pairs at the

intersection of 3, 4, 6; 2, 4, 5; 5, 7, 8; 8,

10, 11) and h = 0.

F = 3(11-1)-2(15) = 0

(vi) Determine the mobility of the following mechanisms.

(a)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n = 4, l = 5 and h = 0.

F = 3(4-1)-2(5) = -1

I.e., it is a structure

(b)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n = 3, l = 2 and h = 1.

F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1

(c)

F = 3(n-1)-2l-h

Here, n = 3, l = 2 and h = 1.

F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1

9

Inversions of mechanism: A mechanism is one in which one of the links of a kinematic

chain is fixed. Different mechanisms can be obtained by fixing different links of the same

kinematic chain. These are called as inversions of the mechanism. By changing the fixed

link, the number of mechanisms which can be obtained is equal to the number of links.

Excepting the original mechanism, all other mechanisms will be known as inversions of

original mechanism. The inversion of a mechanism does not change the motion of its

links relative to each other.

Four bar chain:

Fig 1.22 Four bar chain

One of the most useful and most common mechanisms is the four-bar linkage. In this

mechanism, the link which can make complete rotation is known as crank (link 2). The

link which oscillates is known as rocker or lever (link 4). And the link connecting these

two is known as coupler (link 3). Link 1 is the frame.

Inversions of four bar chain:

Fig.1.23 Inversions of four bar chain.

10

Crank-rocker mechanism: In this mechanism, either link 1 or link 3 is fixed. Link 2

(crank) rotates completely and link 4 (rocker) oscillates. It is similar to (a) or (b) of

fig.1.23.

Fig.1.24

Drag link mechanism. Here link 2 is fixed and both links 1 and 4 make complete

rotation but with different velocities. This is similar to 1.23(c).

Fig.1.25

Double crank mechanism. This is one type of drag link mechanism, where, links 1& 3

are equal and parallel and links 2 & 4 are equal and parallel.

Fig.1.26

11

Double rocker mechanism. In this mechanism, link 4 is fixed. Link 2 makes complete

rotation, whereas links 3 & 4 oscillate (Fig.1.23d)

Slider crank chain: This is a kinematic chain having four links. It has one sliding pair

and three turning pairs. Link 2 has rotary motion and is called crank. Link 3 has got

combined rotary and reciprocating motion and is called connecting rod. Link 4 has

reciprocating motion and is called slider. Link 1 is frame (fixed). This mechanism is used

to convert rotary motion to reciprocating and vice versa.

Fig1.27

Inversions of slider crank chain: Inversions of slider crank mechanism is obtained by

fixing links 2, 3 and 4.

(a) crank fixed (b) connecting rod fixed (c) slider fixed

Fig.1.28

Rotary engine – I inversion of slider crank mechanism. (crank fixed)

Fig.1.29

12

Whitworth quick return motion mechanism–I inversion of slider crank mechanism.

Fig.1.30

Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism – II inversion of slider

crank mechanism (connecting rod fixed).

Fig.1.31

13

Oscillating cylinder engine–II inversion of slider crank mechanism (connecting rod

fixed).

Fig.1.32

Pendulum pump or bull engine–III inversion of slider crank mechanism (slider

fixed).

Fig.1.33

14

Double slider crank chain: It is a kinematic chain consisting of two turning pairs and

two sliding pairs.

Scotch –Yoke mechanism.

Turning pairs – 1&2, 2&3; Sliding pairs – 3&4, 4&1.

Fig.1.34

Inversions of double slider crank mechanism:

Elliptical trammel. This is a device which is used for generating an elliptical profile.

Fig.1.35

In fig. 1.35, if AC = p and BC = q, then, x = q.cosθ and y = p.sinθ.

Rearranging, 1 sin cos

2 2

2 2

· + ·

,

_

¸

¸

+

,

_

¸

¸

θ θ

p

y

q

x

. This is the equation of an ellipse. The

path traced by point C is an ellipse, with major axis and minor axis equal to 2p and 2q

respectively.

15

Oldham coupling. This is an inversion of double slider crank mechanism, which is used

to connect two parallel shafts, whose axes are offset by a small amount.

Fig.1.36

References:

1. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph

Uicker,Jr. McGraw-Hill International Editions.

2. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Martin. McGraw-Hill

Publications.

3. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Mabie and Fred W.

Ocvirk. John Wiley and Sons.

4. Theory of Machines by V.P.Singh. Dhanpat Rai and Co.

5. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J.S.Rao. New age

international publishers.

6. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr.R.K.Bansal. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

16

Kinematics of Machines {ME44}

CHAPTER – I (contd.)

Quick return motion mechanisms.

Quick return mechanisms are used in machine tools such as shapers and power driven

saws for the purpose of giving the reciprocating cutting tool a slow cutting stroke and a

quick return stroke with a constant angular velocity of the driving crank. Some of the

common types of quick return motion mechanisms are discussed below. The ratio of time

required for the cutting stroke to the time required for the return stroke is called the time

ratio and is greater than unity.

Drag link mechanism

This is one of the inversions of four bar mechanism, with four turning pairs. Here, link 2

is the input link, moving with constant angular velocity in anti-clockwise direction. Point

C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post E of the machine. During cutting stroke,

tool post moves from E

1

to E

2

. The corresponding positions of C are C

1

and C

2

as shown

in the fig. 1.37. For the point C to move from C

1

to C

2

, point B moves from B

1

to B

2

, in

anti-clockwise direction. IE, cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through

angle B

1

AB

2

in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link

moves through angle B

2

AB

1

in anti-clockwise direction.

Fig.1.37

The time ratio is given by the following equation.

Whitworth quick return motion mechanism:

This is first inversion of slider mechanism, where, crank 1 is fixed. Input is given to link

2, which moves at constant speed. Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post

17

( )

( ) clockwise anti B A B

clockwise anti B A B

urnstroke Timeforret

wardstroke Timeforfor

−

−

·

1 2

2 1

ˆ

ˆ

D of the machine. During cutting stroke, tool post moves from D

1

to D

11

. The

corresponding positions of C are C

1

and C

11

as shown in the fig. 1.38. For the point C to

move from C

1

to C

11

, point B moves from B

1

to B

11

, in anti-clockwise direction. I.E.,

cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B

1

O

2

B

11

in anti-clockwise

direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B

11

O

2

B

1

in

anti-clockwise direction.

Fig.1.38

The time ratio is given by the following equation.

Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism

This is second inversion of slider mechanism, where, connecting rod is fixed. Input is

given to link 2, which moves at constant speed. Point C of the mechanism is connected to

the tool post D of the machine. During cutting stroke, tool post moves from D

1

to D

11

.

The corresponding positions of C are C

1

and C

11

as shown in the fig. 1.39. For the point C

to move from C

1

to C

11

, point B moves from B

1

to B

11

, in anti-clockwise direction. I.E.,

cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B

1

O

2

B

11

in anti-clockwise

direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B

11

O

2

B

1

in

anti-clockwise direction.

18

2

1

2

2

ˆ

ˆ

θ

θ

·

′ ′ ′

′ ′ ′

·

B o B

B o B

urnstroke Timeforret

wardstroke Timeforfor

Fig.1.39

The time ratio is given by the following equation.

Straight line motion mechanisms

Straight line motion mechanisms are mechanisms, having a point that moves along a

straight line, or nearly along a straight line, without being guided by a plane surface.

Condition for exact straight line motion:

If point B (fig.1.40) moves on the circumference of a circle with center O and radius OA,

then, point C, which is an extension of AB traces a straight line perpendicular to AO,

provided product of AB and AC is constant.

19

2

1

2

2

ˆ

ˆ

θ

θ

·

′ ′ ′

′ ′ ′

·

B o B

B o B

urnstroke Timeforret

wardstroke Timeforfor

Fig.1.40

Locus of pt.C will be a straight line, ┴ to AE if, is constant

Proof:

Peaucellier exact straight line motion mechanism:

Fig.1.41

Here, AE is the input link and point E moves along a circular path of radius AE = AB.

Also, EC = ED = PC = PD and BC = BD. Point P of the mechanism moves along exact

straight line, perpendicular to BA extended.

20

AC AB×

. .,

.

const AC ifAB const AE

const butAD

AD

AC AB

AE

AE

AB

AC

AD

ABD AEC

· × · ∴

·

×

· ∴

· ∴

∆ ≡ ∆

To prove B, E and P lie on same straight line:

Triangles BCD, ECD and PCD are all isosceles triangles having common base CD and

apex points being B, E and P. Therefore points B, E and P always lie on the perpendicular

bisector of CD. Hence these three points always lie on the same straight line.

To prove product of BE and BP is constant.

In triangles BFC and PFC,

2 2 2

FC FB BC + · and

2 2 2

FC PF PC + ·

( ) ( ) BE BP PF FB PF FB PF FB PC BC × · − + · − · − ∴

2 2 2 2

But since BC and PC are constants, product of BP and BE is constant, which is the

condition for exact straight line motion. Thus point P always moves along a straight line

perpendicular to BA as shown in the fig.1.41.

Approximate straight line motion mechanism: A few four bar mechanisms with

certain modifications provide approximate straight line motions.

Robert’s mechanism

Fig.1.42

This is a four bar mechanism, where, PCD is a single integral link. Also, dimensions AC,

BD, CP and PD are all equal. Point P of the mechanism moves very nearly along line AB.

21

Intermittent motion mechanisms

An intermittent-motion mechanism is a linkage which converts continuous motion into

intermittent motion. These mechanisms are commonly used for indexing in machine

tools.

Geneva wheel mechanism

Fig.1.43

In the mechanism shown (Fig.1.43), link A is driver and it contains a pin which engages

with the slots in the driven link B. The slots are positioned in such a manner, that the pin

enters and leaves them tangentially avoiding impact loading during transmission of

motion. In the mechanism shown, the driven member makes one-fourth of a revolution

for each revolution of the driver. The locking plate, which is mounted on the driver,

prevents the driven member from rotating except during the indexing period.

Ratchet and pawl mechanism

Fig.1.44

Ratchets are used to transform motion of rotation or translation into intermittent rotation

or translation. In the fig.1.44, A is the ratchet wheel and C is the pawl. As lever B is made

22

to oscillate, the ratchet wheel will rotate anticlockwise with an intermittent motion. A

holding pawl D is provided to prevent the reverse motion of ratchet wheel.

Other mechanisms

Toggle mechanism

Fig.1.45

Toggle mechanisms are used, where large resistances are to be overcome through short

distances. Here, effort applied will be small but acts over large distance. In the

mechanism shown in fig.1.45, 2 is the input link, to which, power is supplied and 6 is the

output link, which has to overcome external resistance. Links 4 and 5 are of equal length.

Considering the equilibrium condition of slider 6,

For small angles of α, F (effort) is much smaller than P(resistance).

This mechanism is used in rock crushers, presses, riveting machines etc.

23

α

α

tan 2

2

tan

P F

P

F

· ∴

·

Pantograph

Pantographs are used for reducing or enlarging drawings and maps. They are also used

for guiding cutting tools or torches to fabricate complicated shapes.

Fig.1.46

In the mechanism shown in fig.1.46 path traced by point A will be magnified by point E

to scale, as discussed below.

In the mechanism shown, AB = CD; AD =BC and OAE lie on a straight line.

When point A moves to A′ , E moves to E′ and E A O ′ ′ also lies on a straight line.

From the fig.1.46, OCE ODA ∆ ≡ ∆ and E C O A D O ′ ′ ∆ ≡ ′ ′ ∆ .

CE

DA

OE

OA

OC

OD

· · ∴ and

E C

A D

E O

A O

C O

D O

′ ′

′ ′

·

′

′

·

′

′

But, . ; ; E OE A OA

E O

A O

OE

OA

C O

D O

OC

OD

′ ∆ ≡ ′ ∆ ∴

′

′

· ∴

′

′

·

A A E E ′ ′ ∴ //

And

OD

OC

OA

OE

A A

E E

· ·

′

′

,

_

¸

¸

′ · ′ ∴

OD

OC

A A E E

Where

,

_

¸

¸

OD

OC

is the magnification factor.

24

Hooke’s joint (Universal joints)

Hooke’s joins is used to connect two nonparallel but intersecting shafts. In its basic

shape, it has two U –shaped yokes ‘a’ and ‘b’ and a center block or cross-shaped piece, C.

(fig.1.47(a))

The universal joint can transmit power between two shafts intersecting at around 30

0

angles (α). However, the angular velocity ratio is not uniform during the cycle of

operation. The amount of fluctuation depends on the angle (α) between the two shafts.

For uniform transmission of motion, a pair of universal joints should be used

(fig.1.47(b)). Intermediate shaft 3 connects input shaft 1 and output shaft 2 with two

universal joints. The angle α between 1 and 2 is equal to angle α between 2 and 3. When

shaft 1 has uniform rotation, shaft 3 varies in speed; however, this variation is

compensated by the universal joint between shafts 2 and 3. One of the important

applications of universal joint is in automobiles, where it is used to transmit power from

engine to the wheel axle.

Fig.1.47(a)

Fig.1.47(b)

Steering gear mechanism

The steering mechanism is used in automobiles for changing the directions of the wheel

axles with reference to the chassis, so as to move the automobile in the desired path.

25

Usually, the two back wheels will have a common axis, which is fixed in direction with

reference to the chassis and the steering is done by means of front wheels.

In automobiles, the front wheels are placed over the front axles (stub axles), which are

pivoted at the points A & B as shown in the fig.1.48. When the vehicle takes a turn, the

front wheels, along with the stub axles turn about the pivoted points. The back axle and

the back wheels remain straight.

Always there should be absolute rolling contact between the wheels and the road surface.

Any sliding motion will cause wear of tyres. When a vehicle is taking turn, absolute

rolling motion of the wheels on the road surface is possible, only if all the wheels

describe concentric circles. Therefore, the two front wheels must turn about the same

instantaneous centre I which lies on the axis of the back wheel.

Condition for perfect steering

The condition for perfect steering is that all the four wheels must turn about the same

instantaneous centre. While negotiating a curve, the inner wheel makes a larger turning

angle θ than the angle φ subtended by the axis of the outer wheel.

In the fig.1.48, a = wheel track, L = wheel base, w = distance between the pivots of front

axles.

Fig.1.48

From

, IAE ∆

cotθ =

L

AE

EI

AE

· and

from

, BEI ∆

cotφ =

( ) ( )

L

w

L

w

L

EA

L

w EA

EI

AB EA

EI

EB

+ · + ·

+

·

+

· θ cot

26

L

w

· − ∴ θ φ cot cot . This is the fundamental equation for correct steering. If this

condition is satisfied, there will be no skidding of the wheels when the vehicle takes a

turn.

Ackermann steering gear mechanism

Fig.1.49

R

S

A B

A'

B'

d

x

x

d

c

P

Q

fig.1.50

Ackerman steering mechanism, RSAB is a four bar chain as shown in fig.1.50. Links RA

and SB which are equal in length are integral with the stub axles. These links are

connected with each other through track rod AB. When the vehicle is in straight ahead

position, links RA and SB make equal angles α with the center line of the vehicle. The

dotted lines in fig.1.50 indicate the position of the mechanism when the vehicle is turning

left.

27

Let AB=l, RA=SB=r; α · · B S Q A R P

ˆ ˆ

and in the turned position, φ θ · ·

1 1

ˆ

&

ˆ

B S B A R A .

IE, the stub axles of inner and outer wheels turn by θ and φ angles respectively.

Neglecting the obliquity of the track rod in the turned position, the movements of A and

B in the horizontal direction may be taken to be same (x).

Then, ( )

r

x d +

· +θ α sin and ( )

r

x d −

· −φ α sin

Adding, ( ) ( ) α φ α θ α sin 2

2

sin sin · · − + +

r

d

[1]

Angle α can be determined using the above equation. The values of θ and φ to be taken in

this equation are those found for correct steering using the equation

L

w

· − θ φ cot cot . [2]

This mechanism gives correct steering in only three positions. One, when θ = 0 and other

two each corresponding to the turn to right or left (at a fixed turning angle, as determined

by equation [1]).

The correct values of φ, [φ

c

] corresponding to different values of θ, for correct steering

can be determined using equation [2]. For the given dimensions of the mechanism, actual

values of φ, [φ

a

] can be obtained for different values of θ. T he difference between φ

c

and

φ

a

will be very small for small angles of θ, but the difference will be substantial, for

larger values of θ. Such a difference will reduce the life of tyres because of greater wear

on account of slipping.

But for larger values of θ, the automobile must take a sharp turn; hence is will be moving

at a slow speed. At low speeds, wear of the tyres is less. Therefore, the greater difference

between φ

c

and φ

a

larger values of θ ill not matter.

As this mechanism employs only turning pairs, friction and wear in the mechanism will

be less. Hence its maintenance will be easier and is commonly employed in automobiles.

References:

7. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph

Uicker,Jr. McGraw-Hill International Editions.

8. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Martin. McGraw-Hill

Publications.

9. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Mabie and Fred W.

Ocvirk. John Wiley and Sons.

10. Theory of Machines by V.P.Singh. Dhanpat Rai and Co.

11. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J.S.Rao. New age

international publishers.

6. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr.R.K.Bansal. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

Chapter VI

28

CAMS

INTRODUCTION

A cam is a mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact. The

driver is called the cam and the driven member is called the follower. In a cam follower

pair, the cam normally rotates while the follower may translate or oscillate. A familiar

example is the camshaft of an automobile engine, where the cams drive the push rods

(the followers) to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the

pistons.

Types of cams

Cams can be classified based on their physical shape.

a) Disk or plate cam (Fig. 6.1a and b): The disk (or plate) cam has an irregular contour

to impart a specific motion to the follower. The follower moves in a plane perpendicular

to the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is held in contact with the cam by springs or

gravity.

Fig. 6.1 Plate or disk cam.

b) Cylindrical cam (Fig. 6.2): The cylindrical cam has a groove cut along its cylindrical

surface. The roller follows the groove, and the follower moves in a plane parallel to the

axis of rotation of the cylinder.

Fig. 6.2 Cylindrical cam.

c) Translating cam (Fig. 6.3a and b). The translating cam is a contoured or grooved

plate sliding on a guiding surface(s). The follower may oscillate (Fig. 6.3a) or reciprocate

29

(Fig. 6.3b). The contour or the shape of the groove is determined by the specified motion

of the follower.

Fig. 6.3 Translating cam

Types of followers:

(i) Based on surface in contact. (Fig.6.4)

(a) Knife edge follower

(b) Roller follower

(c) Flat faced follower

(d) Spherical follower

Fig. 6.4 Types of followers

(ii) Based on type of motion: (Fig.6.5)

(a) Oscillating follower

(b) Translating follower

30

Fig.6.5

(iii) Based on line of motion:

(a) Radial follower: The lines of movement of in-line cam followers pass through the

centers of the camshafts (Fig. 6.4a, b, c, and d).

(b) Off-set follower: For this type, the lines of movement are offset from the centers

of the camshafts (Fig. 6.6a, b, c, and d).

Fig.6.6 Off set followers

Cam nomenclature (Fig. 6.7):

31

Fig.6.7

Cam Profile The contour of the working surface of the cam.

Tracer Point The point at the knife edge of a follower, or the center of a roller, or the

center of a spherical face.

Pitch Curve The path of the tracer point.

Base Circle The smallest circle drawn, tangential to the cam profile, with its center on

the axis of the camshaft. The size of the base circle determines the size of

the cam.

Prime Circle The smallest circle drawn, tangential to the pitch curve, with its center on

the axis of the camshaft.

Pressure Angle The angle between the normal to the pitch curve and the direction of

motion of the follower at the point of contact.

Types of follower motion:

Cam follower systems are designed to achieve a desired oscillatory motion. Appropriate

displacement patterns are to be selected for this purpose, before designing the cam

surface. The cam is assumed to rotate at a constant speed and the follower raises, dwells,

returns to its original position and dwells again through specified angles of rotation of the

cam, during each revolution of the cam.

Some of the standard follower motions are as follows:

They are, follower motion with,

32

(a) Uniform velocity

(b) Modified uniform velocity

(c) Uniform acceleration and deceleration

(d) Simple harmonic motion

(e) Cycloidal motion

Displacement diagrams: In a cam follower system, the motion of the follower is very

important. Its displacement can be plotted against the angular displacement θ of the cam

and it is called as the displacement diagram. The displacement of the follower is plotted

along the y-axis and angular displacement θ of the cam is plotted along x-axis. From the

displacement diagram, velocity and acceleration of the follower can also be plotted for

different angular displacements θ of the cam. The displacement, velocity and acceleration

diagrams are plotted for one cycle of operation i.e., one rotation of the cam. Displacement

diagrams are basic requirements for the construction of cam profiles. Construction of

displacement diagrams and calculation of velocities and accelerations of followers with

different types of motions are discussed in the following sections.

(a) Follower motion with Uniform velocity:

Fig.6.8 shows the displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns of a follower having

uniform velocity type of motion. Since the follower moves with constant velocity, during

rise and fall, the displacement varies linearly with θ. Also, since the velocity changes

from zero to a finite value, within no time, theoretically, the acceleration becomes infinite

at the beginning and end of rise and fall.

33

Fig.6.8

(b) Follower motion with modified uniform velocity:

It is observed in the displacement diagrams of the follower with uniform velocity that the

acceleration of the follower becomes infinite at the beginning and ending of rise and

return strokes. In order to prevent this, the displacement diagrams are slightly modified.

In the modified form, the velocity of the follower changes uniformly during the

beginning and end of each stroke. Accordingly, the displacement of the follower varies

parabolically during these periods. With this modification, the acceleration becomes

34

constant during these periods, instead of being infinite as in the uniform velocity type of

motion. The displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig.6.9.

fig.6.9

(c) Follower motion with uniform acceleration and retardation (UARM):

Here, the displacement of the follower varies parabolically with respect to angular

displacement of cam. Accordingly, the velocity of the follower varies uniformly with

respect to angular displacement of cam. The acceleration/retardation of the follower

becomes constant accordingly. The displacement, velocity and acceleration patterns are

shown in fig. 6.10.

35

Fig.6.10

s = Stroke of the follower

θ

o

and θ

r

= Angular displacement of the cam during outstroke and return stroke.

ω = Angular velocity of cam.

Time required for follower outstroke = t

o

=

ω

θ

o

Time required for follower return stroke = t

r

=

ω

θ

r

36

Average velocity of follower =

t

s

Average velocity of follower during outstroke =

2

2

2 max min

vo vo

t

s

t

s

o

o

+

· ·

vo

min

= 0

o o

s

t

s

vo

θ

ω 2 2

max

· · ∴

= Max. velocity during outstroke.

Average velocity of follower during return stroke =

2

2

2 max min

vr vr

t

s

t

s

r

r

+

· ·

vr

min

= 0

r r

s

t

s

vr

θ

ω 2 2

max

· · ∴

= Max. velocity during return stroke.

Acceleration of the follower during outstroke =

2

2

max

4

2

o

o

o

s

t

vo

a

θ

ω

· ·

Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke =

2

2

4

r

r

s

a

θ

ω

·

(d) Simple Harmonic Motion: In fig.6.11, the motion executed by point P

l

, which is the

projection of point P on the vertical diameter is called simple harmonic motion. Here, P

moves with uniform angular velocity ω

p

, along a circle of radius r (r = s/2).

a

x

y

y

p

p'

r

37

Fig.6.11

Displacement =

t r r y

p

ω α sin sin · ·

;

r y ·

max

[d1]

Velocity =

t r y

p p

ω ω cos ·

;

p

r y ω ·

max

[d2]

Acceleration = y t r y

p p p

2 2

sin ω ω ω − · − ·

;

2

max p

r y ω − ·

[d3]

Fig.6.11

s= Stroke or displacement of the follower.

θ

o

= Angular displacement during outstroke.

θ

r

= Angular displacement during return stroke

ω = Angular velocity of cam.

t

o

= Time taken for outstroke =

ω

θ

o

t

r

= Time taken for return stroke =

ω

θ

r

Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vo

max

= rω

p

(from d2)

38

vo

max

=

o o

s

t

s

θ

πω π

2 2

·

Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = , vr

max

=

r r

s

t

s

θ

πω π

2 2

·

Max. acceleration during outstroke = ao

max

= rω

2

p

(from d3) =

2

2 2

2

2

2

o

o

s

t

s

θ

ω π π

·

,

_

¸

¸

Similarly, Max. acceleration during return stroke = ar

max

=

r

r

s

t

s

2

2 2

2

2 2 θ

ω π π

·

,

_

¸

¸

39

(e) Cycloidal motion:

Cycloid is the path generated by a point on the circumference of a circle, as the circle

rolls without slipping, on a straight/flat surface. The motion executed by the follower

here, is similar to that of the projection of a point moving along a cyloidal curve on a

vertical line as shown in figure 6.12.

21

a

a1

a2

a3

a4

a5

a6

a7

CYCLOIDAL

MOTION

F

O

L

L

O

W

E

R

M

O

T

I

O

N

66

Fig.6.12

The construction of displacement diagram and the standard patterns of velocity and

acceleration diagrams are shown in fig.6.13. Compared to all other follower motions,

cycloidal motion results in smooth operation of the follower.

The expressions for maximum values of velocity and acceleration of the follower are

shown below.

s = Stroke or displacement of the follower.

d = dia. of cycloid generating circle =

π

s

θ

o

= Angular displacement during outstroke.

θ

r

= Angular displacement during return stroke

ω = Angular velocity of cam.

t

o

= Time taken for outstroke =

ω

θ

o

t

r

= Time taken for return stroke =

ω

θ

r

vo

max

= Max. velocity of follower during outstroke =

o

s

θ

ω 2

40

vr

max

= Max. velocity of follower during return stroke =

r

s

θ

ω 2

ao

max

= Max. acceleration during outstroke =

2

2

2

o

s

θ

πω

ar

max

= Max. acceleration during return stroke =

r

s

2

2

2

θ

πω

Fig. 6.13

41

42

Solved problems

(1) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = Knife edged, in-line; lift = 50mm; base circle radius = 50mm; out stroke

with SHM, for 60

0

cam rotation; dwell for 45

0

cam rotation; return stroke with SHM, for

90

0

cam rotation; dwell for the remaining period. Determine max. velocity and

acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1000 rpm in

clockwise direction.

Displacement diagram:

OUTSTROKE

DWELL

RETURNSTROKE DWELL

LIFT=50mm

0 1

2

3

4

5 6 7 8 9

10 11 12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

1

2

3

4

5

6

l

Cam profile: Construct base circle. Mark points 1,2,3…..in direction opposite to the

direction of cam rotation. Transfer points a,b,c…..l from displacement diagram to the

cam profile and join them by a smooth free hand curve. This forms the required cam

profile.

43

1

2

3

4

5

6

a

b

c

d

e

f

7

g

6

0

°

4

5

°

8

9

10

11

12

h

i

j

k

l

9

0

°

50

Calculations:

Angular velocity of cam =

60

1000 2

60

2 × ×

· ·

π π

ω

N

=104.76 rad/sec

Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vo

max

=

o

s

θ

πω

2

=

=

3

2

50 76 . 104

π

π

×

× ×

=7857mm/sec =7.857m/sec

Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = , vr

max

=

r

s

θ

πω

2

=

=

2

2

50 76 . 104

π

π

×

× ×

= 5238mm/sec = 5.238m/sec

Max. acceleration during outstroke = ao

max

= rω

2

p

(from d3) =

2

2 2

2

o

s

θ

ω π

=

44

=

( )

( )

·

×

× ×

2

2 2

3

2

50 76 . 104

π

π

2469297.96mm/sec

2

= 2469.3m/sec

2

Similarly, Max. acceleration during return stroke = ar

max

=

r

s

2

2 2

2θ

ω π

=

=

( )

( )

·

×

× ×

2

2 2

2

2

50 76 . 104

π

π

1097465.76mm/sec

2

= 1097.5m/sec

2

45

(2) Draw the cam profile for the same operating conditions of problem (1), with the

follower off set by 10 mm to the left of cam center.

Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.

Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case, except that the lines drawn from

1,2,3…. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. as shown in the fig.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

a

b

c d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

6

0

°

4

5

°

9

0

°

50mm

10

46

(3) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = roller follower, in-line; lift = 25mm; base circle radius = 20mm; roller

radius = 5mm; out stroke with UARM, for 120

0

cam rotation; dwell for 60

0

cam rotation;

return stroke with UARM, for 90

0

cam rotation; dwell for the remaining period.

Determine max. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam

rotates at 1200 rpm in clockwise direction.

Displacement diagram:

2

5

0

1 2 3

4

5

6 7 8

9

10 11

12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

OUTSTROKE DWELL RETURNSTROKE DWELL

LIFT

Cam profile: Construct base circle and prime circle (25mm radius). Mark points

1,2,3…..in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation, on prime circle. Transfer

points a,b,c…..l from displacement diagram. At each of these points a,b,c… draw circles

of 5mm radius, representing rollers. Starting from the first point of contact between roller

and base circle, draw a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all successive roller

positions. This forms the required cam profile.

47

1

2

0

°

6

0

°

9

0

°

0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7 8

9

10

11

12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

20mm

Calculations:

Angular velocity of the cam = ·

× ×

· ·

60

1200 2

60

2 π π

ω

N

125.71rad/sec

Max. velocity during outstroke =

o o

s

t

s

vo

θ

ω 2 2

max

· ·

=

=

·

×

× ×

3

2

25 71 . 125 2

π

2999.9mm/sec =2.999m/sec

Max. velocity during return stroke =

·

× ×

· · ·

2

25 71 . 125 2 2 2

max

π

θ

ω

r r

s

t

s

vr

= 3999.86mm/sec = 3.999m/sec

Acceleration of the follower during outstroke =

2

2

max

4

2

o

o

o

s

t

vo

a

θ

ω

· ·

=

=

( )

( )

·

×

× ×

2

2

3

2

25 71 . 125 4

π

359975mm/sec

2

= 359.975m/sec

2

Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke =

2

2

4

r

r

s

a

θ

ω

·

=

48

=

( )

( )

·

× ×

2

2

2

25 71 . 125 4

π

639956mm/sec

2

= 639.956m/sec

2

49

(4) Draw the cam profile for conditions same as in (3), with follower off set to right

of cam center by 5mm and cam rotating counter clockwise.

Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.

Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case, except that the lines drawn from

1,2,3…. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. as shown in the fig.

6

0

°

1

2

0

°

9

0

°

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

20mm

5

50

(5) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = roller follower, off set to the right of cam axis by 18mm; lift = 35mm;

base circle radius = 50mm; roller radius = 14mm; out stroke with SHM in 0.05sec; dwell

for 0.0125sec; return stroke with UARM, during 0.125sec; dwell for the remaining

period. During return stroke, acceleration is 3/5 times retardation. Determine max.

velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 240

rpm.

Calculations:

Cam speed = 240rpm. Therefore, time for one rotation = sec 25 . 0

240

60

·

Angle of out stroke =

0

72 360

25 . 0

05 . 0

· × ·

o

θ

Angle of first dwell =

0

1

18 360

25 . 0

0125 . 0

· × ·

w

θ

Angle of return stroke =

0

180 360

25 . 0

125 . 0

· × ·

r

θ

Angle of second dwell =

0

2

90 ·

w

θ

Since acceleration is 3/5 times retardation during return stroke,

r a

5

3

· (from acceleration diagram)

5

3

· ∴

r

a

But

5

3

;

max max

· · ∴ · ·

a

r

r a

t

t

r

a

t

v

r

t

v

a

Displacement diagram is constructed by selecting t

a

and t

r

accordingly.

51

OUTSTROKE

DWELL

RETURNSTROKE DWELL

LIFT=35mm

0 1

2

3

4

5 6 7

a

b

c

d

e

f

1

2

3

4

5

6

8 9 10 11 12 13 14

g

h i

j

k

l

m

n

v

a

vr-max

a

r

ta

tr

Angular velocity of cam =

60

240 2

60

2 × ×

· ·

π π

ω

N

=25.14 rad/sec

Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vo

max

=

o

s

θ

πω

2

=

=

( )

5

2 2

35 14 . 25

π

π

× ×

× ×

= 1099.87mm/sec =1.1m/sec

Similarly Max. velocity during return stroke =

·

× ×

· ·

π θ

ω 35 14 . 25 2 2

max

r

s

vr

= 559.9 mm/sec = 0.56m/sec

Max. acceleration during outstroke = ao

max

= rω

2

p

(from d3) =

2

2 2

2

o

s

θ

ω π

=

=

( )

( )

·

×

×

× ×

2

2 2

5

2

2

35 14 . 25

π

π

69127.14mm/sec

2

= 69.13m/sec

2

52

acceleration of the follower during return stroke =

( )

π π θ π

ω

ω

π

θ

ω

× ×

× ×

·

× ×

× ×

·

×

×

· ·

5

35 14 . 25 16

5

16

8

5

2

2 2

max

r

r

a

r

s

s

t

vr

a = 7166.37 mm/sec

2

=

7.17m/sec

2

similarly retardation of the follower during return stroke =

( )

π π θ π

ω

ω

π

θ

ω

× ×

× ×

·

× ×

× ×

·

×

×

· ·

3

35 14 . 25 16

3

16

8

3

2

2 2

max

r

r

r

r

s

s

t

vr

r = 11943.9 mm/sec

2

=

11.94m/sec

2

72°

18°

180°

18

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

a b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

53

(6) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = knife edged follower, in line; lift = 30mm; base circle radius = 20mm;

out stroke with uniform velocity in 120

0

of cam rotation; dwell for 60

0

; return stroke with

uniform velocity, during 90

0

of cam rotation; dwell for the remaining period.

Displacement diagram:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

30mm

OUT STROKE RETURNSTROKE DWELL DWELL

Cam profile:

1

2

0

°

6

0

°

9

0

°

9

0

°

1

3

2

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

54

55

(7) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = oscillating follower with roller as shown in fig.; base circle radius =

20mm; roller radius = 7mm; follower to rise through 40

0

during 90

0

of cam rotation with

cycloidal motion; dwell for 30

0

; return stroke with cycloidal motion during 120

0

of cam

rotation; dwell for the remaining period. Also determine the max. velocity and

acceleration during outstroke and return stroke, if the cam rotates at 600 rpm.

76

36

4

0

°

76

A

B

O

Lift of the follower = S = length AB

≈

arc AB =

180

40 76

π

θ × × · × OA = 53 mm.

Radius of cycloid generating circle =

π × 2

53

= 8.4 mm

Displacement diagram;

56

1 2

3

4 5

6

1 2 3 4 5 6

7

8

9

10

11

12

7 8 9 10 11 12

53

16.8

OUT STROKE

RETURNSTROKE

DWELL

DWELL

a

b

c

d

e

f g

h

i

j

k

l

57

Angular velocity of cam =

60

600 2

60

2 × ×

· ·

π π

ω

N

= 62.86 rad/sec

vo

max

= Max. velocity of follower during outstroke =

2

53 86 . 62 2 2

π

θ

ω × ×

·

o

s

= 4240.2

mm/sec

vr

max

= Max. velocity of follower during return stroke =

3

2

53 86 . 62 2 2

π

θ

ω

×

× ×

·

r

s

= 3180

mm/sec

ao

max

= Max. acceleration during outstroke =

( )

( )

2

2

2

2

2

53 86 . 62 2 2

π

π

θ

πω × × ×

·

o

s

= 533077

mm/sec

2

= 533.1 m/sec

2

.

ar

max

= Max. acceleration during return stroke =

( )

( )

2

2

2

2

3

2

53 86 . 62 2 2

π

π

θ

πω

×

× × ×

·

r

s

=

= 299855.8mm/sec

2

= 299.8

m/sec

2

.

Cam profile: Draw base circle and prime circle. Draw another circle of radius equal to

the distance between cam center and follower pivot point. Take the line joining cam

center and pivot point as reference and draw lines indicating successive angular

displacements of cam. Divide these into same number of divisions as in the displacement

diagram. Show points 1’, 2’, 3’… on the outer circle. With these points as centers and

radius equal to length of follower arm, draw arcs, cutting the prime circle at 1,2,3….

Transfer points a,b,c.. on to these arcs from displacement diagram. At each of these points

a,b,c… draw circles of 7mm radius, representing rollers. Starting from the first point of

contact between roller and base circle, draw a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all

successive roller positions. This forms the required cam profile.

58

9

0

°

30°

1

2

0

°

120°

1

2

3

4

5

6

a

b

c

d

e

f

7

8

9 10 11

12

g

h

i

k

l

m

36

76

1'

2'

3'

4'

5'

6'

7'

8'

9'

10'

11'

12'

59

(8) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = knife edged follower, in line; follower rises by 24mm with SHM in 1/4

rotation, dwells for 1/8 rotation and then raises again by 24mm with UARM in 1/4

rotation and dwells for 1/16 rotation before returning with SHM. Base circle radius =

30mm.

Angle of out stroke (1) = θ

01

=

0 0

90 360

4

1

· ×

Angle of dwell (1) =

0 0

45 360

8

1

· ×

Angle of out stroke (2) = θ

02

=

0 0

90 360

4

1

· ×

Angle of dwell (2) =

0 0

5 . 22 360

16

1

· ×

Angle of return stroke = θ

r

=

0 0

5 . 112 360

16

5

360

16

1

4

1

8

1

4

1

1 · × · ×

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + + −

Displacement diagram:

1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13

14 15 16 17 18 19

a

b

c

d

e

f g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

OUTSTROKE1

DWELL1 OUTSTROKE2

DWELL2

RETURNSTROKE

24mm

24

Cam profile:

60

90°

45°

90°

22.5°

112.5°

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12 13

14

15

16

17

18

19

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

s

60

61

(9) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = flat faced follower, in line; follower rises by 20mm with SHM in 120

0

of

cam rotation, dwells for 30

0

of cam rotation; returns with SHM in 120

0

of cam rotation

and dwells during the remaining period. Base circle radius = 25mm.

Displacement diagram:

1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

a

b

c

d

e

f g

h

i

j

k

l

2

0

OUT STROKE RETURNSTROKE

DWELL

DWELL

Cam profile: Construct base circle. Mark points 1,2,3…..in direction opposite to the

direction of cam rotation, on prime circle. Transfer points a,b,c…..l from displacement

diagram. At each of these points a,b,c… draw perpendicular lines to the radials,

representing flat faced followers. Starting from the first point of contact between follower

and base circle, draw a smooth free hand curve, tangential to all successive follower

positions. This forms the required cam profile.

62

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

25

1

2

0

°

3

0

°

1

2

0

°

9

0

°

63

(10) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = roller follower, in line; roller dia. = 5mm; follower rises by 25mm with

SHM in 180

0

of cam rotation, falls by half the distance instantaneously; returns with

Uniform velocity in 180

0

of cam rotation. Base circle radius = 20m.

Displacement diagram:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

a

b

c

d e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

25

12.5

OUT STROKE RETURNSTROKE

Cam profile:

45

20 R

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

64

(11) Draw the cam profile for following conditions:

Follower type = roller follower, off-set to the right by 5mm; lift = 30mm; base circle

radius = 25mm; roller radius = 5mm; out stroke with SHM, for 120

0

cam rotation; dwell

for 60

0

cam rotation; return stroke during 120

0

cam rotation; first half of return stroke

with Uniform velocity and second half with UARM; dwell for the remaining period.

Displacement diagram:

1 2 3 4 5

6

7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14

15 1617 18

a

b

c

d e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

30

Cam profile:

65

120°

60°

120°

60°

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

p

q

r

5

(12) A push rod of valve of an IC engine ascends with UARM, along a path inclined to

the vertical at 60

0

. The same descends with SHM. The base circle diameter of the cam is

50mm and the push rod has a roller of 60mm diameter, fitted to its end. The axis of the

roller and the cam fall on the same vertical line. The stroke of the follower is 20mm. The

angle of action for the outstroke and the return stroke is 60

0

each, interposed by a dwell

period of 60

0

. Draw the profile of the cam.

Displacement diagram:

66

20

OUT STROKE

DWELL RETURNSTROKE DWELL

1

2

3 4 5 6

7 8 9 10 11 12

a

b

c

d

e

f g

h

i

j

k

l

Cam profile:

60°

1

2

3

4

5

6

a

b

c

d e

f

7

8

9

10

11

12

g

h

i

j

k

l

50 66

16

60°

60°

60°

67

4.0 Gears:

Introduction: The slip and creep in the belt or rope drives is a common phenomenon, in the

transmission of motion or power between two shafts. The effect of slip is to reduce the

velocity ratio of the drive. In precision machine, in which a definite velocity ratio is

importance (as in watch mechanism, special purpose machines..etc), the only positive drive

is by means of gears or toothed wheels.

Friction Wheels: Kinematiclly, the motion and

power transmitted by gears is equivalent to that

transmitted by friction wheels or discs in contact

with sufficient friction between them. In order to

understand motion transmitted by two toothed

wheels, let us consider the two discs placed

together as shown in the figure 4.1.

When one of the discs is rotated, the other disc will be rotate as long as the tangential force

exerted by the driving disc does not exceed the maximum frictional resistance between the

two discs. But when the tangential force exceeds the frictional resistance, slipping will take

place between the two discs. Thus the friction drive is not positive a drive, beyond certain

limit.

Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth.

The gear teeth act like small levers. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily

rolling contact between the teeth, thus the motion transmitted is considered as positive.

Gears essentially allow positive engagement between teeth so high forces can be transmitted

while still undergoing essentially rolling contact. Gears do not depend on friction and do best

when friction is minimized.

Some common places that gears can normally be found are:

Printing machinery parts Newspaper Industry Book binding machines

Rotary die cutting

machines

Plastics machinery builders Injection molding machinery

Blow molding machinery Motorcycle Transmissions (street

and race applications)

Heavy earth moving to

personal vehicles

Agricultural equipment Polymer pumps High volume water pumps for

municipalities

High volume vacuum

pumps

Turbo boosters for automotive

applications

Marine applications

Boat out drives Special offshore racing drive

systems

Canning and bottling

machinery builders

Hoists and Cranes Commercial and Military Military offroad vehicles

68

Figure 4.1

operations

Automotive prototype and

reproduction

Low volume automotive

production

Stamping presses

Diesel engine builders Special gear box builders Many different special

machine tool builders

4.1 Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the

axes of revolution. The axes may be

1. Gears for connecting parallel shafts,

2. Gears for connecting intersecting shafts,

3. Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts.

Gears for connecting parallel shafts

1. Spur gears: Spur gears are the most common type of gears. They have straight teeth,

and are mounted on parallel shafts. Sometimes, many spur gears are used at once to

create very large gear reductions. Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other

gear, the teeth collide, and this impact makes a noise. It also increases the stress on the

gear teeth. To reduce the noise and stress in the gears, most of the gears in your car are

helical.

Spur gears are the most commonly used gear type. They are characterized by teeth, which

are perpendicular to the face of the gear. Spur gears are most commonly available, and are

generally the least expensive.

• Limitations: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the

two shafts is required.

• Advantages: Spur gears are easy to find, inexpensive, and efficient.

2. Parallel helical gears: The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the

gear. When two teeth on a helical gear system engage, the contact starts at one end of

the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate, until the two teeth are in full

engagement.

69

External contact

Iinternal contact

Spur gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp)

Helical gears

(EmersonPower Transmission Corp) Herringbone gears

(or double-helical gears)

This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than

spur gears. For this reason, helical gears are used in almost all car transmission.

Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears, they create a thrust load on the gear when

they mesh. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load.

One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct,

they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts, adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees.

Helical gears to have the following differences from spur gears of the same size:

o Tooth strength is greater because the teeth are longer,

o Greater surface contact on the teeth allows a helical gear to carry more load than a

spur gear

o The longer surface of contact reduces the efficiency of a helical gear relative to a spur

gear

Rack and pinion (The rack is like a gear whose axis is at

infinity.): Racks are straight gears that are used to convert

rotational motion to translational motion by means of a

gear mesh. (They are in theory a gear with an infinite pitch

diameter). In theory, the torque and angular velocity of the

pinion gear are related to the Force and the velocity of the

rack by the radius of the pinion gear, as is shown.

Perhaps the most well-known application of a rack is the rack and pinion steering system

used on many cars in the past

Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of

a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90

degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well.

The teeth on bevel gears can be straight, spiral or hypoid. Straight bevel gear teeth actually

have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth, as each tooth engages; it impacts the

corresponding tooth all at once.

70

Just like with spur gears, the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. These spiral

teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively

spreads across the whole tooth.

Straight bevel gears Spiral bevel

gears

On straight and spiral bevel gears, the shafts must

be perpendicular to each other, but they must also

be in the same plane. The hypoid gear, can engage

with the axes in different planes.

This feature is used in many car differentials. The

ring gear of the differential and the input pinion

gear are both hypoid. This allows the input pinion

to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear.

Figure shows the input pinion engaging the ring

gear of the differential. Since the driveshaft of the

car is connected to the input pinion, this also

lowers the driveshaft. This means that the

driveshaft doesn't pass into the passenger compartment of the car as much, making more

room for people and cargo.

Neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Helical gears may be used to mesh two shafts

that are not parallel, although they are still primarily use in parallel shaft applications. A

special application in which helical gears are used is a crossed gear mesh, in which the

two shafts are perpendicular to each other.

Crossed-helical gears

Worm and worm gear: Worm gears are used when

large gear reductions are needed. It is common for

worm gears to have reductions of 20:1, and even up

to 300:1 or greater.

71

Hypoid gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp)

Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can

easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is because the angle on the

worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between the gear and

the worm holds the worm in place.

This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems,

in which the locking feature can act as a brake for the

conveyor when the motor is not turning. One other very

interesting usage of worm gears is in the Torsen differential,

which is used on some high-performance cars and trucks.

4.3 Terminology for Spur Gears

72

Figure 4-4 Spur Gear

73

Terminology:

Addendum: The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth.

Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the

engagement of a given pair of teeth.

Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear

teeth and the Pitch Point.

Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of

contact of the gear teeth.

Backlash: Play between mating teeth.

Base Circle: The circle from which is generated the involute curve upon which the tooth

profile is based.

Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears.

Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord, passing through the points where the

Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile, and the tooth top.

Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the

points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile.

Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth.

Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch

Circle

Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it

fits on the meshing gear.

74

Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.

Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle.

Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter.

Face: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the top of

the tooth.

Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis.

Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth, located between the pitch diameter and the

bottom of the teeth

Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. If both gears are the same size, they are both called

"gears".

Land: The top surface of the tooth.

Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels,

between the first point of contact and the last.

Module: Millimeter of Pitch Diameter to Teeth.

Pinion: The smaller of two meshed gears.

Pitch Circle: The circle, the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the

gear to the pitch point.

Diametral pitch: Teeth per millimeter of pitch diameter.

Pitch Point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears, where the Line

of Centers crosses the pitch circles.

Pressure Angle: Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of

Centers.

Profile Shift: An increase in the Outer Diameter and Root Diameter of a gear, introduced to

lower the practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance.

Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears.

Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces.

Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle.

75

Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the

mating gear.

4.2 Gear-Tooth Action

4.2.1 Fundamental Law of Gear-Tooth

Action

Figure 5.2 shows two mating gear teeth, in

which

• Tooth profile 1 drives tooth profile 2 by

acting at the instantaneous contact point K.

• N

1

N

2

is the common normal of the two

profiles.

• N

1

is the foot of the perpendicular from O

1

to N

1

N

2

• N

2

is the foot of the perpendicular from O

2

to N

1

N

2

.

Although the two profiles have different

velocities V

1

and V

2

at point K, their velocities

along N

1

N

2

are equal in both magnitude and

direction. Otherwise the two tooth profiles

would separate from each other. Therefore, we

have

( ) 1 . 4

2 2 2 1 1 1

ω ω N O N O ·

or

( ) 2 . 4

1 1

2 2

2

1

N O

N O

·

ω

ω

We notice that the intersection of the tangency N

1

N

2

and the line of center O

1

O

2

is point

P, and from the similar triangles,

( ) 3 . 4

2 2 1 1

P N O P N O ∆ · ∆

Thus, the relationship between the angular velocities of the driving gear to the driven gear, or

velocity ratio, of a pair of mating teeth is

76

Figure 5-2 Two gearing tooth profiles

φ

( ) 4 . 4

1

2

2

1

P O

P O

·

ω

ω

Point P is very important to the velocity ratio, and it is called the pitch point. Pitch point

divides the line between the line of centers and its position decides the velocity ratio of the

two teeth. The above expression is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action.

From the equations 4.2 and 4.4, we can write,

( ) 5 . 4

1 1

2 2

1

2

2

1

N O

N O

P O

P O

· ·

ω

ω

which determines the ratio of the radii of the two base circles. The radii of the base circles is

given by:

( ) 6 . 4 cos cos

2 2 2 1 1 1

φ φ P O N O and P O N O · ·

Also the centre distance between the base circles:

( ) 7 . 4

cos cos cos

2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

2 1 2 1

φ φ φ

N O N O N O N O

P O P O O O

+

· + · + ·

where φ is the pressure angle or the angle of obliquity. It is the angle which the common

normal to the base circles make with the common tangent to the pitch circles.

4.2.2 Constant Velocity Ratio

For a constant velocity ratio, the position of P should remain unchanged. In this case, the

motion transmission between two gears is equivalent to the motion transmission between

two imagined slip-less cylinders with radius R

1

and R

2

or diameter D

1

and D

2

. We can get two

circles whose centers are at O

1

and O

2

, and through pitch point P. These two circles are

termed pitch circles. The velocity ratio is equal to the inverse ratio of the diameters of pitch

circles. This is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action.

The fundamental law of gear-tooth action may now also be stated as follow (for gears with

fixed center distance)

A common normal (the line of action) to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must, in

all positions of the contacting teeth, pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called

the pitch point

Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are

conjugate curves, and the relative rotation speed of the gears will be constant(constant

velocity ratio).

77

4.2.3 Conjugate Profiles

To obtain the expected velocity ratio of two tooth profiles, the normal line of their profiles

must pass through the corresponding pitch point, which is decided by the velocity ratio. The

two profiles which satisfy this requirement are called conjugate profiles. Sometimes, we

simply termed the tooth profiles which satisfy the fundamental law of gear-tooth action the

conjugate profiles.

Although many tooth shapes are possible for which a mating tooth could be designed to

satisfy the fundamental law, only two are in general use: the cycloidal and involute profiles.

The involute has important advantages; it is easy to manufacture and the center distance

between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. Thus

close tolerances between shaft locations are not required when using the involute profile. The

most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve. (Erdman & Sandor).

conjugate action : It is essential for correctly meshing gears, the size of the teeth ( the

module ) must be the same for both the gears.

Another requirement - the shape of teeth necessary for the speed ratio to remain constant

during an increment of rotation; this behavior of the contacting surfaces (ie. the teeth flanks)

is known as conjugate action.

4.3 Involute Curve

The following examples are involute spur gears. We use the word involute because the

contour of gear teeth curves inward. Gears have many terminologies, parameters and

principles. One of the important concepts is the velocity ratio, which is the ratio of the rotary

velocity of the driver gear to that of the driven gears.

4.1 Generation of the Involute Curve

The curve most commonly used for gear-tooth

profiles is the involute of a circle. This involute

curve is the path traced by a point on a line as

the line rolls without slipping on the

circumference of a circle. It may also be defined

78

Figure 4.3 Involute curve

as a path traced by the end of a string, which is originally wrapped on a circle when the

string is unwrapped from the circle. The circle from which the involute is derived is called

the base circle.

4.2 Properties of Involute Curves

1. The line rolls without slipping on the circle.

2. For any instant, the instantaneous center of the motion of the line is its point of tangent

with the circle.

Note: We have not defined the term instantaneous center previously. The instantaneous

center or instant center is defined in two ways.

1. When two bodies have planar relative motion, the instant center is a point on one body

about which the other rotates at the instant considered.

2. When two bodies have planar relative motion, the instant center is the point at which the

bodies are relatively at rest at the instant considered.

3. The normal at any point of an involute is tangent to the base circle. Because of the

property (2) of the involute curve, the motion of the point that is tracing the involute is

perpendicular to the line at any instant, and hence the curve traced will also be

perpendicular to the line at any instant.

There is no involute curve within the base circle.

Cycloidal profile:

Epicycliodal Profile:

79

Hypocycliodal Profile:

The involute profile of gears has important advantages;

• It is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can

be varied without changing the velocity ratio. Thus close tolerances between shaft

locations are not required. The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the

involute curve. (Erdman & Sandor).

2. In involute gears, the pressure angle, remains constant between the point of tooth

engagement and disengagement. It is necessary for smooth running and less wear of gears.

But in cycloidal gears, the pressure angle is maximum at the beginning of engagement,

reduces to zero at pitch point, starts increasing and again becomes maximum at the end of

engagement. This results in less smooth running of gears.

3. The face and flank of involute teeth are generated by a single curve where as in cycloidal

gears, double curves (i.e. epi-cycloid and hypo-cycloid) are required for the face and flank

respectively. Thus the involute teeth are easy to manufacture than cycloidal teeth.

In involute system, the basic rack has straight teeth and the same can be cut with simple

tools.

Advantages of Cycloidal gear teeth:

1. Since the cycloidal teeth have wider flanks, therefore the cycloidal gears are stronger than

the involute gears, for the same pitch. Due to this reason, the cycloidal teeth are preferred

specially for cast teeth.

2. In cycloidal gears, the contact takes place between a convex flank and a concave surface,

where as in involute gears the convex surfaces are in contact. This condition results in less

wear in cycloidal gears as compared to involute gears. However the difference in wear is

negligible

80

3. In cycloidal gears, the interference does not occur at all. Though there are advantages of

cycloidal gears but they are outweighed by the greater simplicity and flexibility of the

involute gears.

Properties of involute teeth:

1. A normal drawn to an involute at pitch point is a tangent to the base circle.

2. Pressure angle remains constant during the mesh of an involute gears.

3. The involute tooth form of gears is insensitive to the centre distance and depends only on

the dimensions of the base circle.

4. The radius of curvature of an involute is equal to the length of tangent to the base circle.

5. Basic rack for involute tooth profile has straight line form.

6. The common tangent drawn from the pitch point to the base circle of the two involutes is

the line of action and also the path of contact of the involutes.

7. When two involutes gears are in mesh and rotating, they exhibit constant angular velocity

ratio and is inversely proportional to the size of base circles. (Law of Gearing or conjugate

action)

8. Manufacturing of gears is easy due to single curvature of profile.

The 14½

O

composite system is used for general purpose gears.

It is stronger but has no interchangeability. The tooth profile of this system has cycloidal

curves at the top and bottom and involute curve at the middle portion.

The teeth are produced by formed milling cutters or hobs.

System of Gear Teeth

The following four systems of gear teeth are commonly used in practice:

1. 14 ½

O

Composite system

2. 14 ½

O

Full depth involute system

3. 20

O

Full depth involute system

4. 20

O

Stub involute system

81

The tooth profile of the 14½

O

full depth involute system was developed using gear hobs for

spur and helical gears.

The tooth profile of the 20

o

full depth involute system may be cut by hobs.

The increase of the pressure angle from 14½

o

to 20

o

results in a stronger tooth, because the

tooth acting as a beam is wider at the base.

The 20

o

stub involute system has a strong tooth to take heavy loads.

Involutometry

The study of the geometry of the involute profile for gear teeth is called involumetry.

Consider an involute of base circle radius ra and two points B and C on the involute as

shown in figure. Draw normal to the involute from the points B and C. The normal BE and

CF are tangents to the Base circle.

Let

r

a

= base circle radius of gear

r

b

= radius of point B on the involute

r

c

= radius of point C on the involute

and

Φ

b

= pressure angle for the point B

Φ

c

= pressure angle for the point C

82

ra

Pitch Circle

Addendum Circle

Base Circle

E

F

B

C

Gear

O

A

r

t

b

= tooth thickness along the arc at B

t

c

= tooth thickness along the arc at C

From the properties of the Involute:

Arc AE = Length BE and

Arc AF = Length CF

Similarly:

83

( ) 2 cos

) 1 ( cos

c c a

b b a

r r

r r

OCF

and OBE From

φ

φ

× ·

× ·

∆

∆

c c b b

r r

Therefore

φ φ cos cos × · ×

( )

1

]

1

¸

−

− · ∴

− · − ∠ · ∠

· · · ∠

function involute called

is Expression

Inv

AOE AOB

OE

BE

OE

ArcAE

AOE

b b

b b b

b b b

b

φ φ

φ φ φ

φ φ φ

φ

tan

tan .

tan

tan

c c c

C C c

c

Inv

AOF AOC

OF

BE

OF

ArcAF

AOF

φ φ φ

φ φ φ

φ

− · ∴

− · − ∠ · ∠

· · · ∠

tan .

tan

tan

b

b

b b

b

b

r

t

r

t

AOB AOD

B po the At

2

tan

2

int

+ − ·

+ ∠ · ∠

φ φ

c

c

c c

b

c

r

t

r

t

AOC AOD

C po the At

2

tan

2

int

+ − ·

+ ∠ · ∠

φ φ

Using this equation and knowing tooth thickness at any point on the tooth, it is possible to

calculate the thickness of the tooth at any point

Path of contact:

Consider a pinion driving wheel as shown in figure. When the pinion rotates in clockwise,

the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K (on the near the base circle of pinion

or the outer end of the tooth face on the wheel) and ends at L (outer end of the tooth face on

the pinion or on the flank near the base circle of wheel).

MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base

circles. The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common

tangent. The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common

tangent.

The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the addendum

circles of the wheel and the pinion. Thus the length of part of contact is KL which is the sum

84

Pitch

Circle

Pinion

Wheel

O2

O1

P

Base Circle

Base Circle

Pitch

Circle

Addendum

Circles

φ

φ

φ

r

ra

RA

R

N

K

L

M

C at thickness tooth

r

r

t

inv inv t

r

t

inv

r

t

inv

r

t

r

t

equations above the Equating

c

b

b

c b c

c

c

c

b

b

b

c

c

c c

b

b

b b

·

,

_

¸

¸

+ − ·

+ · +

+ − · + −

2

2

. .

2

.

2

.

2

tan

2

tan

:

φ φ

φ φ

φ φ φ φ

of the parts of path of contacts KP and PL. Contact length KP is called as path of approach

and contact length PL is called as path of recess.

r

a

= O

1

L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion,

and

R

A

= O

2

K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel

r = O

1

P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion,

and

R = O

2

P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel.

Radius of the base circle of pinion = O

1

M = O

1

P cosφ = r cosφ

and

radius of the base circle of wheel = O2N = O2P cos φ = R cosφ

From right angle triangle O

2

KN

Path of approach: KP

Similarly from right angle triangle O

1

ML

Path of recess: PL

Length of path of contact = KL

85

( ) ( )

( ) φ

2 2 2

2

2

2

2

cos R R

N O K O KN

A

− ·

− ·

φ φ sin sin

2

R P O PN · ·

( ) φ φ sin cos

2 2 2

R R R

PN KN KP

A

− − ·

− ·

( ) ( )

( ) φ

2 2 2

2

1

2

1

cos r r

M O L O ML

a

− ·

− ·

φ φ sin sin

1

r P O MP · ·

( ) φ φ sin cos

2 2 2

r r r

MP ML PL

a

− − ·

− ·

( ) ( ) ( ) φ φ φ sin cos cos

2 2 2 2 2 2

r R r r R R

PL KP KL

a A

+ − − + − ·

+ ·

Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the

beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. In Figure, the arc of contact is

EPF or GPH.

Considering the arc of contact GPH.

The arc GP is known as arc of approach and the arc PH is called arc of recess. The angles

subtended by these arcs at O

1

are called angle of approach and angle of recess respectively.

Length of arc of approach = arc GP

Length of arc of recess = arc PH

Length of arc contact = arc GPH = arc GP + arc PH

Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact)

The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the

length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch.

Mathematically,

86

M

L

K

N

R

RA

ra

r

φ

φ

φ

Addendum

Circles

Pitch

Circle

Base Circle

P

O1

O2

Pinion

Pitch

Circle

H

F

E

G

Gear

Profile

Wheel

φ φ cos cos

KP approach of path of Lenght

· ·

φ φ cos cos

PL recess of path of Lenght

· ·

φ φ φ φ cos cos cos cos

contact of path of Length KL PL KP

· · + ·

C

P

contact of arc the of Length

ratio Contat ·

Where: and m = Module.

87

m pitch Circular P

C

× · · π

Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact

Continuous motion transfer requires two pairs of teeth in contact at the ends of the path

of contact, though there is only one pair in contact in the middle of the path, as in Figure.

The average number of teeth in contact is an important parameter - if it is too low due to the

use of inappropriate profile shifts or to an excessive centre distance.The manufacturing

inaccuracies may lead to loss of kinematic continuity - that is to impact, vibration and noise.

The average number of teeth in contact is also a guide to load sharing between teeth; it is

termed the contact ratio

Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion:

88

R

r

RACK

c

T

a

b

h

Pc

PITCH LINE

Base Circle

φ°

c

φ

φ

RACK

PINION

PITCH LINE

Let

r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = O

1

P

Φ = Pressure angle

r

a

. = Addendu m radius of the pinion

a = Addendum of rack

EF = Length of path of contact

EF = Path of approach EP + Path of recess PF

From triangle O

1

NF:

Exercise problems refer presentation slides

Interference in Involute Gears

89

φ φ

φ φ

φ

φ

cos cos

sin sin

:

) 3 (

) 2 (

sin

) 1 ( sin

1 1

1

1

r P O N O

r P O NP

NP O triangle From

NP NF PF recess of Path

a

EP approach of Path

EP

a

EP

AP

· ·

· ·

− · ·

· ·

· ·

( ) ( )

( )

( ) φ φ

φ

φ φ

φ

sin cos

sin

sin cos

) 3 (

cos

2

1

2 2 2

2

1

2 2 2

2

1

2 2 2

2

1

2

1

2

1

r r r

a

PF EP EF contact of length of Path

r r r PF racess of Path

equation the in values NF and NP ng Substituti

r r N O F O NF

a

a

a

− − + ·

+ · · ∴

− − · ·

− · − ·

Pitch

Circle

Pinion

Wheel

O2

O1

P

Base Circle

Base Circle

Pitch

Circle

Addendum

Circles

φ

φ

φ

r

ra

RA

R

N

K

L

M

Figure shows a pinion and a gear in mesh with their center as O

1

andO

2

respectively. MN is

the common tangent to the basic circles and KL is the path of contact between the two

mating teeth.

Consider, the radius of the addendum circle of pinion is increased to O

1

N, the point of

contact L will moves from L to N. If this radius is further increased, the point of contact L

will be inside of base circle of wheel and not on the involute profile of the pinion.

The tooth tip of the pinion will then

undercut the tooth on the wheel at the

root and damages part of the involute

profile. This effect is known as

interference, and occurs when the teeth

are being cut and weakens the tooth at its

root.

In general, the phenomenon, when the tip

of tooth undercuts the root on its mating

gear is known as interference.

Similarly, if the radius of the addendum circles of the wheel increases beyond O

2

M, then the

tip of tooth on wheel will cause interference with the tooth on pinion. The points M and N

are called interference points.

Interference may be avoided if the path of the contact does not extend beyond interference

points. The limiting value of the radius of the addendum circle of the pinion is O

1

N and of

the wheel is O

2

M.

The interference may only be prevented, if the point of contact between the two teeth is

always on the involute profiles and if the addendum circles of the two mating gears cut the

common tangent to the base circles at the points of tangency.

When interference is just prevented, the maximum length of path of contact is MN.

90

Wheel

Undercut Pinion

φ sin r MP approach of path Maximum · ·

φ sin R PN recess of path Maximum · ·

( ) φ sin R r PN MP MN

MN contact of path of length Maximum

+ · + ·

·

( )

( ) φ

φ

φ

tan

cos

sin

R r

R r

contact of arc of length Maximum + ·

+

·

Methods to avoid Interference

1. Height of the teeth may be reduced.

2. Under cut of the radial flank of the pinion.

3. Centre distance may be increased. It leads to increase in pressure angle.

4. By tooth correction, the pressure angle, centre distance and base circles remain unchanged,

but tooth thickness of gear will be greater than the pinion tooth thickness.

Minimum number of teeth on the pinion avoid Interference

The pinion turns clockwise and drives the gear as shown in Figure.

Points M and N are called interference points. i.e., if the contact takes place beyond M and

N, interference will occur.

The limiting value of addendum circle radius of pinion is O

1

N and the limiting value of

addendum circle radius of gear is O

2

M. Considering the critical addendum circle radius of

gear, the limiting number of teeth on gear can be calculated.

Let

Ф = pressure angle

R = pitch circle radius of gear = ½mT

r = pitch circle radius of pinion = ½mt

T & t = number of teeth on gear & pinion

m = module

91

Pitch

Circle

Pinion

Wheel

O2

O1

P

Base Circle

Base Circle

Pitch

Circle

Max.

Addendum

Circles

φ

φ

φ

r

ra

RA

R

N

K

L

M

a

w

= Addendum constant of gear (or) wheel

a

p

= Addendum constant of pinion

a

w

. m = Addendum of gear a

p

. m = Addendum of pinion

G = Gear ratio = T/t

From triangle O

1

NP, Applying cosine rule

Limiting radius of the pinion addendum circle:

Addendum of the pinion = O

1

N - O

1

P

Addendum of the pinion = O

1

N - O

1

P

92

( )

( ) φ φ

φ

φ φ

φ φ

φ φ φ

sin sin

sin 2 1

sin 2 sin

1

sin 2 sin

90 cos sin 2 sin

cos 2

2

2 2

2

2

2 2

2

2 2 2 2

2 2 2

1 1

2 2

1

2

1

R P O PN

r

R

r

R

r

r

R

r

R

r

R r R r

R r R r

PN O PN P O NP P O N O

· ·

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

1

]

1

¸

+ + ·

+ + ·

+ − + ·

× × − + ·

2

1

2

2

1

2

1

sin 2 1

2

sin 2 1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + · φ φ

t

T

t

T mt

r

R

r

R

r N O

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

−

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

1 sin 2 1

2

2

sin 2 1

2

2

1

2

2

1

2

φ

φ

t

T

t

T mt

mt

t

T

t

T mt

m a

p

( ) ( )

1

]

1

¸

− + +

·

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

1 sin 2 1

2

1 sin 2 1

2

2

1

2

2

1

2

φ

φ

G G

a

t

t

T

t

T t

a

p

p

The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the pinion to avoid interference.

If the number of teeth on pinion and gear is same: G=1

1. 14 ½

O

Composite system = 12

2. 14 ½

O

Full depth involute system = 32

3. 20

O

Full depth involute system = 18

4. 20

O

Stub involute system = 14

Minimum number of teeth on the wheel avoid Interference

From triangle O2MP, applying cosine rule and simplifying, The limiting radius of wheel addendum

circle:

Addendum of the pinion = O

2

M- O

2

P

93

( )

1

]

1

¸

− +

·

1 sin 3 1

2

2

1

2

φ

p

a

t

Pitch

Circle

Pinion

Wheel

O2

O1

P

Base Circle

Base Circle

Pitch

Circle

Max.

Addendum

Circles

φ

φ

φ

r

ra

RA

R

N

K

L

M

2

1

2

2

1

2

2

sin 2 1

2

sin 2 1

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

1

]

1

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + ·

φ

φ

T

t

T

t mT

R

r

R

r

R M O

The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the wheel to avoid interference.

Minimum number of teeth on the pinion for involute rack to avoid Interference

The rack is part of toothed wheel of

infinite diameter. The base circle

diameter and profile of the involute

teeth are straight lines.

94

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + · 1 sin 2 1

2

2

1

2

φ

T

t

T

t mT

m a

w

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ + · 1 sin 2 1

2

2

1

2

φ

T

t

T

t T

a

w

1

1

1

]

1

¸

−

,

_

¸

¸

,

_

¸

¸

+ +

·

1 sin 2

1 1

1

2

2

1

2

φ

G G

a

T

W

φ°

φ

PITCH LINE

φ

Pc

T

h

a

b RACK

c

PITCH LINE

PINION

RACK

φ

c

φ°

M

L

H

P

K

Let

t = Minimum number of teeth on the pinion

r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = ½ mt

Φ = Pressure angle

A

R

.m = Addendum of rack

The straight profiles of the rack are tangential to the pinion profiles at the point of contact

and perpendicular to the tangent PM. Point L is the limit of interference.

Addendum of the rack:

Backlash:

The gap between the non-drive face of the pinion tooth and the adjacent wheel tooth is

known as backlash.

If the rotational sense of the pinion were to reverse, then a period of unrestrained pinion

motion would take place until the backlash gap closed and contact with the wheel tooth re-

established impulsively.

Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. The term "backlash"

can also be used to refer to the size of the gap, not just the phenomenon it causes; thus, one

could speak of a pair of gears as having, for example, "0.1 mm of backlash."

A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash, but this would presuppose

perfection in manufacturing, uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the

system, and no lubricant.

Therefore, gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. It is usually provided by reducing

the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance.

95

( )

φ

φ

φ

φ

φ φ

φ

2

2

2

2

sin

2

: ce interferen

sin

2

sin

sin

sin sin

sin

R

R

A

t avoid To

mt

r

OP

OP

PL LH m A

· ∴

·

·

·

·

· · ×

In the case of a large gear and a small pinion, however, the backlash is usually taken entirely

off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth.

Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. For situations, such as

instrumentation and control, where precision is important, backlash can be minimised

through one of several techniques.

Let

r = standard pitch circle radius of pinion

R = standard pitch circle radius of wheel

c = standard centre distance = r +R

r’ = operating pitch circle radius of pinion

R’ = operating pitch circle radius of wheel

c’ = operating centre distance = r’ + R’

Ф = Standard pressure angle

Ф’ = operating pressure angle

h = tooth thickness of pinion on standard pitch circle= p/2

96

M'

N'

R

R'

r'

r

Base Circle

Base Circle

P

O1

O2

M

N

R

RA

ra

r

φ

φ

φ

P

O1

O2

Wheel

Pinion

Standard

(cutting)

Pitch Circle

Standard

(cutting)

Pitch Circle

c

Standard

(cutting)

Pitch Circle

Standard

(cutting)

Pitch Circle

∆c

c'

Operating

Pitch Circle

φ'

φ'

Figure a

Pinion

Figure b

Wheel

h’ = tooth thickness of pinion on operating pitch circle

Let

H = tooth thickness of gear on standard pitch circle

H1 = tooth thickness of gear on operating pitch circle

p = standard circular pitch = 2п r/ t = 2пR/T

p’ = operating circular pitch = 2п r1/t = 2пR1/T

∆C = change in centre distance

B = Backlash

t = number of teeth on pinion

T = number of teeth on gear.

Involute gears have the invaluable ability of providing conjugate action when the gears'

centre distance is varied either deliberately or involuntarily due to manufacturing and/or

mounting errors.

On the operating pitch circle:

97

1

]

1

¸

− · − · − · ∆

· ∴

× · ×

· ·

1

' cos

cos

' cos

cos

'

' cos

cos

'

cos ' cos '

' ' '

φ

φ

φ

φ

φ

φ

φ φ

c c c c c c Now

c c

c c

c

c

R

R

r

r

) 1 ( ' ' ' B H h p

Backlash thickness tooth of sum pitch Operating

+ + ·

+ ·

1

]

1

¸

+ − ·

1

]

1

¸

+ − ·

R

h

inv inv R H

r

h

inv inv r h

try involutome By

2

' . . ' 2 '

2

' . . ' 2 '

:

φ φ

φ φ

Substituting h’ and H’ in the equation (1):

There is an infinite number of possible centre distances for a given pair of profile shifted

gears, however we consider only the particular case known as the extended centre distance.

Non Standard Gears:

The important reason for using non standard gears are to eliminate undercutting, to prevent

interference and to maintain a reasonable contact ratio.

The two main non- standard gear systems:

(1) Long and short Addendum system and

(2) Extended centre distance system.

Long and Short Addendum System:

The addendum of the wheel and the addendum of the pinion are generally made of equal

lengths.

Here the profile/rack cutter is advanced to a certain increment towards the gear blank and

the same quantity of increment will be withdrawn from the pinion blank.

98

( ) ( )

B inv c inv c

c

c

c

c

h p

B R r inv R r inv

R

R

r

r

h p

B

R

h

inv inv R

r

h

inv inv r p

+ − +

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

+ + − + +

,

_

¸

¸

+ ·

+

1

]

1

¸

+ − +

1

]

1

¸

+ − ·

' . ' 2 . ' 2

' '

'

' ' ' . 2 ' ' . 2

' '

'

2

' . . ' 2

2

' . . ' 2 '

φ φ

φ φ

φ φ φ φ

[ ]

[ ]

[ ] φ φ

π

φ φ

π π

φ φ

. ' . ' 2

'

'

2

. ' . ' 2

'

2

2

2

' 2

. ' . ' 2

'

2

inv inv c

c

c

r r

t

B

inv inv c

c

c

t

r

t

r

B

inv inv c

c

c

h p B

− +

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

− + − ·

− + − · ∴

[ ]

[ ] φ φ

φ φ

π

. ' . ' 2

. ' . ' 2

'

'

2

inv inv c B Backlash

inv inv c

r

r

r r

t

B

− · ·

− +

,

_

¸

¸

− ·

Therefore an increased addendum for the pinion and a decreased addendum for the gear is

obtained. The amount of increase in the addendum of the pinion should be exactly equal to

the addendum of the wheel is reduced.

The effect is to move the contact region from the pinion centre towards the gear centre, thus

reducing approach length and increasing the recess length. In this method there is no change

in pressure angle and the centre distance remains standard.

Extended centre distance system:

Reduction in interference with constant contact ratio can be obtained by increasing the centre

distance. The effect of changing the centre distance is simply in increasing the pressure

angle.

In this method when the pinion is being cut, the profile cutter is withdrawn a certain amount

from the centre of the pinion so the addendum line of the cutter passes through the

interference point of pinion. The result is increase in tooth thickness and decrease in tooth

space.

Now If the pinion is meshed with the gear, it will be found that the centre distance has been

increased because of the decreased tooth space. Increased centre distance will have two

undesirable effects.

NOTE: Please refer presentation slides also for more figure, photos and exercise

problems

References:

12. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph

Uicker,Jr. McGraw-Hill International Editions.

13. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Martin. McGraw-Hill

Publications.

14. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Mabie and Fred W.

Ocvirk. John Wiley and Sons.

15. Theory of Machines by V.P.Singh. Dhanpat Rai and Co.

16. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J.S.Rao. New age

international publishers.

17. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr.R.K.Bansal. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.

18. Internet: Many Web based e notes

99

Chapter 5: Gears Trains

A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a

system to generate power and speed. It reduces speed and increases torque. To create large gear ratio,

gears are connected together to form gear trains. They often consist of multiple gears in the train.

The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type

can be spur, helical or herringbone. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio.

Any combination of gear wheels employed to transmit motion from one

shaft to the other is called a gear train. The meshing of two gears may be

idealized as two smooth discs with their edges touching and no slip

between them. This ideal diameter is called the Pitch Circle Diameter

(PCD) of the gear.

Simple Gear Trains

The typical spur gears as shown in diagram. The direction of rotation is reversed from one gear to

another. It has no affect on the gear ratio. The teeth on the gears must all be the same size so if gear A

advances one tooth, so does B and C.

The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears, otherwise they would be

slipping.

100

(Idler gear)

GEAR 'C' GEAR 'B'

GEAR 'A'

v

v

C

ω B

ω

A

ω

.

module

module

mesh would not rwise they gears othe

all e same for must be th

and

t

D

= m =

in rpm N = speed meter, circle dia D = Pitch

r, on the gea of teeth t = number

r =

D

cle. v = on the cir velocity v = linear

. r velocity = angula

= m t D and = m t D ; = m t D

t

D

=

t

D

=

t

D

m =

C C B B A A

C

C

B

B

A

A

ω ω

ω

2

C C B B A A

C C B B A A

C C B B A A

C C B B A A

C

C

B

B

A

A

t N t N t N

rev of terms in or

t t t

t m t m t m

D D D

D D D

v

· ·

· ·

· ·

· ·

· · ·

min /

2 2 2

ω ω ω

ω ω ω

ω ω ω

ω ω ω

Application:

a) to connect gears where a large center distance is required

b) to obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear ( CW or CCW)

c) to obtain high speed ratio

Torque & Efficiency

The power transmitted by a torque T N-m applied to a shaft rotating at N rev/min is given by:

In an ideal gear box, the input and output powers are the same so;

It follows that if the speed is reduced, the torque is increased and vice versa. In a real gear box, power

is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. The efficiency is defined

as:

Because the torque in and out is different, a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case or

body rotating. A holding torque T

3

must be applied to the body through the clamps.

The total torque must add up to zero.

T1 + T2 + T3 = 0

If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine the

holding torque. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the gear box.

Compound Gear train

101

60

2 T N

P

π

·

GR

N

N

T

T

T N T N

T N T N

P

· · ⇒ ·

· ·

2

1

1

2

2 2 1 1

2 2 1 1

60

2

60

2 π π

1 1

2 2

1 1

2 2

60 2

60 2

T N

T N

T N

T N

In Power

out Power

·

× ×

× ×

· ·

π

π

η

GEAR 'A'

GEAR 'B'

GEAR 'C'

GEAR 'D'

Compound Gears

A

C

B

D

Output

Input

Compound gears are simply a chain of simple gear

trains with the input of the second being the output of the

first. A chain of two pairs is shown below. Gear B is

the output of the first pair and gear C is the input of the

second pair. Gears B and C are locked to the same shaft

and revolve at the same speed.

For large velocities ratios, compound gear train

arrangement is preferred.

The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so:

ω

A

t

A

= ω

B

t

B

-as they are simple gears.

Likewise for C and D, ω

C

t

C

= ω

D

t

D

.

Reverted Gear train

The driver and driven axes lies on the same line. These are used in speed reducers, clocks and

machine tools.

If R and T=Pitch circle radius & number of teeth of the gear

R

A

+ R

B

= R

C

+ R

D

and t

A

+ t

B

= t

C

+ t

D

102

C

D

A

B

D B

C A

C

D D

A

B B

C A

C

D D

C

A

B B

A

C

D

D

C

A

B

B

A

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

t

T

t

and

t

t

t t

and

t t

× ·

×

×

×

×

×

· ×

×

·

×

·

· ·

ω ω

ω ω

ω ω

ω ω

ω

ω

ω

ω

ω ω ω ω

( )

( )

GR

t

t

t

t

Out N

In N

as written

be may ratio gear The

N Since

GR

t

t

t

t

shaft same the on are C and B gear Since

C

D

A

B

C

D

A

B

D

A

C B

· × ·

× × ·

· × ·

·

:

2 π ω

ω

ω

ω ω

C A

D B

D

A

t t

t t

N

N

GR

×

×

· ·

Epicyclic gear train:

Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and

around another. The design involves planet and

sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet

around the sun. Here is a picture of a typical gear

box.

This design can produce large gear ratios in a

small space and are used on a wide range of

applications from marine gearboxes to electric

screwdrivers.

Basic Theory

103

Arm 'A'

B

C

Planet wheel

Sun wheel

Arm

B

C

The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear

B meshes with gear C and revolves around it when the

arm is rotated. B is called the planet gear and C the sun.

First consider what happens when the planet gear orbits

the sun gear.

Observe point p and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. Any object orbiting

around a center must rotate once. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and meshes with C.

Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. B spins about its own center and the

number of revolutions it makes is the ratio

B

C

t

t

. B will rotate by this number for every complete

revolution of C.

Now consider that C is unable to rotate and the arm A is revolved once. Gear B will revolve

B

C

t

t

+ 1

because of the orbit. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion. One way to get round this is to

imagine that the whole system is revolved once. Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it

back one revolution. Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up. The following

tabular method makes it easy.

Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Determine how many revolutions the

planet gear B makes.

Step 1 is to revolve everything once about the center.

Step 2 identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm fixed as

it should only do one revolution in total. Work out the revolutions of B.

Step 3 is simply add them up and we find the total revs of C is zero and for the arm is 1.

Step Action A B C

1 Revolve all once 1 1 1

2

Revolve C by –1 revolution,

keeping the arm fixed

0

B

C

t

t

+

-1

3 Add 1

B

C

t

t

+ 1

0

The number of revolutions made by B is

,

_

¸

¸

+

B

C

t

t

1

Note that if C revolves -1, then the direction of B

is opposite so

B

C

t

t

+

.

Example: A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50

teeth. If the arm is revolved once, how many times does the planet gear revolve?

Solution:

Step Action A B C

1 Revolve all once 1 1 1

2

Revolve C by –1 revolution,

keeping the arm fixed

0

50

100

+ -1

3 Add 1 3 0

104

Gear B makes 3 revolutions for every one of the arm.

The design so far considered has no identifiable input and output. We need a design that puts an input

and output shaft on the same axis. This can be done several ways.

Problem 1: In an ecicyclic gear train shown in figure, the arm A is fixed to the shaft S. The wheel B

having 100 teeth rotates freely on the shaft S. The wheel F having 150 teeth driven separately. If the

arm rotates at 200 rpm and wheel F at 100 rpm in the same direction; find (a) number of teeth on the

gear C and (b) speed of wheel B.

Solution:

T

B

=100; T

F

=150; N

A

=200rpm; N

F

=100rpm:

C gears on teeth of Number T

T

T T T

r r r

gears all for same is ule the Since

C

C

C B F

C B F

→ ·

× + ·

+ · ⇒

+ · ∴

25

2 100 150

2

2

: cirlce pitch the to al proportion is gears on the teeth of number the

: mod

The gear B and gear F rotates in the opposite directions:

105

Arm A

C

S

B100 B

F150

C

200 rpm

100 rpm

350

200

200 100

150

100

) exp (

· ⇒

−

−

· −

−

−

· − ∴

−

−

·

−

−

·

− · ∴

E

B

A B

A F

F

B

A B

A F

Arm F

Arm L

F

B

N

N

N N

N N

T

T

train gear epicyclic for ression general

N N

N N

N N

N N

TV also

T

T

value Train

The Gear B rotates at 350 rpm in the same direction of gears F and Arm A.

Problem 2: In a compound epicyclic gear train as shown in the figure, has gears A and an annular

gears D & E free to rotate on the axis P. B and C is a compound gear rotate about axis Q. Gear A

rotates at 90 rpm CCW and gear D rotates at 450 rpm CW. Find the speed and direction of rotation of

arm F and gear E. Gears A,B and C are having 18, 45 and 21 teeth respectively. All gears having

same module and pitch.

Solution:

T

A

=18 ; T

B

=45; T

C

=21;N

A

= -90rpm; N

D

=450rpm:

D gear on teeth T

T T T T

r r r r

and

D

C B A D

C B A D

84 21 45 18

: cirlce pitch the to al proportion is gears on the teeth of number the

: gears all for same are pitch module the Since

· + + ·

+ + · ⇒

+ + · ∴

106

Q

P

C

Arm F

D

A

E

B

Annular 'A'

Spider 'L'

Sun Wheel 'S'

Planet Wheel 'P'

Gears A and D rotates in the opposite directions:

CW rpm Arm of Speed N

N

N

N N

N N

T

T

T

T

N N

N N

N N

N N

TV also

T

T

T

T

value Train

F

F

F

F A

F D

D

C

B

A

F A

F D

Arm F

Arm L

D

C

B

A

− · · ⇒

− −

−

·

×

×

−

−

−

· × − ∴

−

−

·

−

−

·

× − · ∴

9 . 400

90

450

84 45

21 18

Now consider gears A, B and E:

E gear on teeth of Number T

T

T T T

r r r

E

E

B A E

B A E

→ ·

× + ·

+ · ⇒

+ ·

108

45 2 18

2

2

Gears A and E rotates in the opposite directions:

CW rpm E gear of Speed N

N

N N

N N

T

T

N N

N N

TV also

T

T

value Train

E

E

F A

F E

E

A

F A

F E

E

A

− · · ⇒

− −

−

· −

−

−

· − ∴

−

−

·

− · ∴

72 . 482

9 . 400 90

9 . 400

108

18

Problem 3: In an epicyclic gear of sun and planet type shown in figure 3, the pitch circle diameter of

the annular wheel A is to be nearly 216mm and module 4mm. When the annular ring is stationary, the

spider that carries three planet wheels P of equal size to make one revolution for every five revolution

of the driving spindle carrying the sun wheel.

Determine the number of teeth for all the wheels and the exact pitch circle diameter of the annular

wheel. If an input torque of 20 N-m is applied to the spindle carrying the sun wheel, determine the

fixed torque on the annular wheel.

107

Solution: Module being the same for all the meshing gears:

T

A

= T

S

+ 2T

P

teeth

m

A of PCD

T

A

54

4

216

· · ·

Operation

Spider

arm L

Sun Wheel S

T

S

Planet wheel P

T

P

Annular wheel A

T

A

= 54

Arm L is fixed &

Sun wheel S is

given +1 revolution

0 +1

P

S

T

T

−

A

S

A

P

P

S

T

T

T

T

T

T

− · × −

Multiply by m

(S rotates through

m revolution)

0 m

m

T

T

P

S

−

m

T

T

A

S

−

Add n revolutions

to all elements

n m+n

m

T

T

n

P

S

− m

T

T

n

A

S

−

If L rotates +1 revolution: ∴ n = 1 (1)

The sun wheel S to rotate +5 revolutions correspondingly:

∴ n + m = 5 (2)

From (1) and (2) m = 4

When A is fixed:

teeth T

T T m

T

T

n

S

S A

A

S

5 . 13

4

54

4 0

· · ∴

· ⇒ · −

But fractional teeth are not possible; therefore T

S

should be either 13 or 14 and T

A

correspondingly 52 and 56.

Trial 1: Let T

A

= 52 and T

S

= 13

108

Figure 4

C

Arm

B

D

A

H

G

E

F

teeth

T T

T

S A

P

5 . 19

4

13 52

2

·

−

·

−

· ∴ - This is impracticable

Trial 2: Let T

A

= 56 and T

S

= 14

teeth

T T

T

S A

P

21

4

14 56

2

·

−

·

−

· ∴ - This is practicable

∴ T

A

= 56, T

S

= 14 and T

P

= 21

⇒ PCD of A = 56 × 4 = 224 mm

Also

Torque on L × ω

L

= Torque on S × ω

S

Torque on L × ω

L

= m N − · × 100

1

5

20

∴ Fixing torque on A = (T

L

– T

S

) = 100 – 20 = 80 N-m

]

Problem 4: The gear train shown in figure 4

is used in an indexing mechanism of a milling

machine. The drive is from gear wheels A and

B to the bevel gear wheel D through the gear

train. The following table gives the number of

teeth on each gear.

How many revolutions does D makes for one

revolution of A under the following

situations:

a. If A and B are having the same speed and same direction

b. If A and B are having the same speed and opposite direction

c. If A is making 72 rpm and B is at rest

d. If A is making 72 rpm and B 36 rpm in the same direction

Solution:

Gear D is external to the epicyclic train and thus C and D constitute an ordinary train.

Operation

Arm

C (60)

E (28) F (24) A (72) B (72) G (28) H (24)

Gear A B C D E F

Number of

teeth

72 72 60 30 28 24

Diametral

pitch in mm

08 08 12 12 08 08

109

P2

A2

A1

P1

P

S1

S2

Q

Figure 5

Arm or C is fixed

& wheel A is given

+1 revolution

0 -1

6

7

24

28

− · − +1 -1 +1

6

7

24

28

·

Multiply by m

(A rotates through

m revolution)

0 -m m

6

7

− +m -m +m m

6

7

Add n revolutions

to all elements

n n - m m n

6

7

− n + m n - m n + m m n

6

7

+

(i) For one revolution of A: n + m = 1 (1)

For A and B for same speed and direction: n + m = n – m (2)

From (1) and (2): n = 1 and m = 0

∴ If C or arm makes one revolution, then revolution made by D is given by:

C D

D

C

C

D

N N

T

T

N

N

2

2

30

60

· ∴

· · ·

(ii) A and B same speed, opposite direction: (n + m) = - (n – m) (3)

n = 0; m = 1

∴ When C is fixed and A makes one revolution, D does not make any revolution.

(iii) A is making 72 rpm: (n + m) = 72

B at rest (n – m) = 0 ⇒ n = m = 36 rpm

∴ C makes 36 rpm and D makes rpm 72

30

60

36 · ×

(iv) A is making 72 rpm and B making 36 rpm

(n + m) = 72 rpm and (n – m) = 36 rpm

(n + (n – m)) = 72; ⇒ n = 54

∴ D makes rpm 108

30

60

54 · ×

Problem 5: Figure 5 shows a compound

epicyclic gear train, gears S

1

and S

2

being

rigidly attached to the shaft Q. If the shaft

P rotates at 1000 rpm clockwise, while

the annular A

2

is driven in counter

clockwise direction at 500 rpm,

determine the speed and direction of

rotation of shaft Q. The number of teeth

in the wheels are S

1

= 24; S

2

= 40; A

1

=

100; A

2

= 120.

Solution: Consider the gear train P A

1

S

1

:

110

Operation

Arm

P

A

1

(100)

S

1

(24) Operation

Arm

P

A

1

(100

)

S

1

(24)

Arm P is fixed &

wheel A

1

is given

+1 revolution

0 +1

6

25

24

100

1

1

− ·

− × +

P

P

OR

Arm P is fixed

& wheel A

1

is

given -1

revolution

0 -1

1

1

1

1

1

1

S

A

S

P

P

A

+ ·

− × −

Multiply by m

(A

1

rotates through

m revolution)

0 +m m

6

25

− 0 -1

6

25

24

100

·

Add n revolutions

to all elements

n n+ m m n

6

25

−

Add +1

revolutions to

all elements

+1 0

6

31

1

6

25

· +

If A

1

is fixed: n+ m; gives n = - m

1

6

31

6

25

1

31

6

31

6 1

S P

S

P

N N

n n

n

N

N

· ∴

· ·

+

·

Now consider whole gear train:

Operation

A

1

(100)

A

2

(120)

S

1

(24), S

2

(40)

and Q

Arm P

A

1

is fixed &

wheel A

2

is given

+1 revolution

0 +1

3

40

120

2

2

− ·

− × +

P

P

31

18

31

6

3

− ·

× −

Multiply by m

(A

1

rotates through

m revolution)

0 +m m 3 −

m

31

18

−

Add n revolutions

to all elements

n n+ m m n 3 − m n

31

18

−

When P makes 1000 rpm: m n

31

18

− = 1000 (1)

and A

2

makes – 500 rpm: n+ m = -500 (2)

111

from (1) and (2): 1000

31

18

500 · − − − m m

( ) ( )

rpm n and

rpm m

m

449 500 949

949

49 31 500 1000 31

· − ·

− · ∴

− · × + ×

∴ N

Q

= n – 3 m = 449 – (3 × -949) = 3296 rpm

Problem 6. An internal

wheel B with 80 teeth is

keyed to a shaft F. A fixed

internal wheel C with 82

teeth is concentric with B. A

Compound gears D-E

meshed with the two

internal wheels. D has 28

teeth and meshes with

internal gear C while E

meshes with B. The

compound wheels revolve

freely on pin which projects

from a arm keyed to a shaft

A co-axial with F. if the

wheels have the same pitch

and the shaft A makes 800

rpm, what is the speed of the

shaft F? Sketch the

arrangement.

Data: t

B

= 80; t

C

= 82; D = 28; N

A

= 800 rpm

Solution: The pitch circle radius is proportional to the number of teeth:

112

F

D

E

C

A

B

Arm

C

B

E

D

A

B80

C82

D28

NA=800rpm

E gear on teeth of number

t

t

t t t t

r r r r

E

E

E B D C

E B D C

−

·

− · −

− · −

− · −

26

80 28 82

m+n n

Add n

revolutions to all

elements

+m 0

Multiply by m

(B rotates

through m

revolution)

+1 0

Arm is fixed & B

is given ONE

revolution (CW)

D (28) E(26)

C (82)

Compound Gear wheel

B (80) Arm Operation

m+n n

Add n

revolutions to all

elements

+m 0

Multiply by m

(B rotates

through m

revolution)

+1 0

Arm is fixed & B

is given ONE

revolution (CW)

D (28) E(26)

C (82)

Compound Gear wheel

B (80) Arm Operation

26

80

+

26

80

+

82

28

26

80

× +

m

13

40

+

m

13

40

+

m

41

14

13

40

× +

n m+

13

40

n m+

13

40

n m+ ×

41

14

13

40

Since the wheel C is fixed and the arm (shaft) A makes 800 rpm,

Problem 7: The fig shows an Epicyclic gear train. Wheel E is fixed and wheels C and D are

integrally cast and mounted on the same pin. If arm A makes one revolution per sec (Counter

clockwise) determine the speed and direction of rotation of the wheels B and F.

113

rpm m

m

n m

rpm n

42 . 761

0 800

41

14

13

40

0

41

14

13

40

800

− ·

· + ×

· + ×

· ⇒

rpm F shaft of Speed B gear of Speed

rpm n m B gear of Speed

58 . 38

58 . 38 800 42 . 761

· ·

· + − · + ·

Arm

B20

C35

D15

E20

F30

Solution:

Data: tB = 20; tC = 35; tD = 15; tE = 20; tF = 30 NA = 1rps-(CCW)

Since the wheel E is fixed and the arm A makes 1 rps-CCW

Problem 7: In the gear train shown, the wheel C is fixed, the gear B, is keyed to the input shaft and

the gear F is keyed to the output shaft.

114

m+n n

Add n

revolutions to

all elements

+m 0

Multiply by m

(B rotates

through m

revolution)

+1 0

Arm is fixed &

B is given

ONE

revolution

(CW)

C (35) D (15)

F (30) E (20)

Compound Gear

wheel

B (20) Arm Operation

m+n n

Add n

revolutions to

all elements

+m 0

Multiply by m

(B rotates

through m

revolution)

+1 0

Arm is fixed &

B is given

ONE

revolution

(CW)

C (35) D (15)

F (30) E (20)

Compound Gear

wheel

B (20) Arm Operation

15

20

−

3

7

20

35

3

4

+ ·

− × −

30

20

3

7

− ×

15

20

−

m

3

4

−

m

3

4

− m

3

7

m

9

14

−

m n

3

4

−

n m+

3

7

m n

9

14

− m n

3

4

−

429 . 0

7

3

0 1

3

7

0

3

7

1

· · ⇒ · −

· + − · ⇒

m m

n m and rps n

) ( 667 . 1 429 . 0

9

14

1

9

14

) ( 571 . 0 1 429 . 0

CCW m n F gear of Speed

CCW rps n m B gear of Speed

− · − − · − ·

− · − · + ·

D

6

0

C80

B20

F32

E30

Input

Shaft

Output

Shaft

A

The arm A, carrying the compound wheels D and E turns freely on the out put shaft. If the input

speed is 1000 rpm (ccw) when seen from the right, determine the speed of the output shaft. The

number of teeth on each gear is indicated in the figures. Find the output torque to keep the wheel C

fixed if the input power is 7.5 kW.

Solution:

Data :

t

B

= 20; t

C

= 80; t

D

= 60; t

E

= 30; t

F

= 32; N

B

= 1000 rpm (ccw) (input speed); P = 7.5 kW

Input shaft speed = 1000 rpm (ccw)

i.e., gear B rotates – 1000 rpm

115

m+n n

Add n

revolutions to

all elements

m 0

Multiply by m

(B rotates

through m

revolution)

+1 0

Arm is fixed &

B is given +1

revolution

E (30) D (60)

F (32) C (80)

Compound Gear

wheel

B (20)

Input

Arm Operation

m+n n

Add n

revolutions to

all elements

m 0

Multiply by m

(B rotates

through m

revolution)

+1 0

Arm is fixed &

B is given +1

revolution

E (30) D (60)

F (32) C (80)

Compound Gear

wheel

B (20)

Input

Arm Operation

3

1

60

20

·

4

1

80

60

3

1

− ·

− ×

16

5

32

30

3

1

−

− ×

3

1

m

3

1

m

3

1

m

4

1

−

m

16

5

−

m n

4

1

−

m n

16

5

− n m+

3

1

n m+

3

1

200 800 1000

800

25 . 1

1000

0 25 . 0 1000

0

4

1

;

1000

− · + − ·

− · − ·

· − − −

· −

− · +

n

m

m m

m n fixed is C Gear

n m

Figure 6

A2

A1

S2

P2

P1

S1

The Torque required to hold the wheel C = 1360.21 Nm in the same direction of wheel

Problem 8: Find the velocity ratio of two co-

axial shafts of the epicyclic gear train as shown

in figure 6. S

1

is the driver. The number of teeth

on the gears are S

1

= 40, A

1

= 120, S

2

= 30, A

2

=

100 and the sun wheel S

2

is fixed. Determine also

the magnitude and direction of the torque

required to fix S

2

, if a torque of 300 N-m is

applied in a clockwise direction to S

1

116

) ( 50

50

16

5

800 200

16

5

CW rpm F shaft output the of Speed

m n F of Speed

+ ·

· + − ·

− ·

Nm T

T

T N

P power Input

B

B B

59 . 71

1000 2

60 7500

60

1000 2

1000 5 . 7

60

2

− ·

× ×

×

− ·

× − × ×

· ×

× ×

· ·

π

π

π

B

Nm T

T

N T N T

N fixed is C Since

N T N T N T

equation energy the From

F

F

F F B

C

C C F F B

8 . 1431

0 50 1000 59 . 71

0

0 :

0

;

+ ·

· × + × −

· +

·

· + +

B

B

Nm T

T

T T T

equation torque the From

C

C

C F

21 . 1360

0 8 . 1431 59 . 71

0

:

− · ∴

· + + −

· + +

B

2 A

T

2 S

T

2 A

ω

1 S

ω

1 S

T

Solution: Consider first the gear train S

1,

A

1

and

A

2

for which A

2

is the arm, in order to find the

speed ratio of S

1

to A

2,

when A

1

is fixed.

(a) Consider gear train S

1,

A

1

and A

2

:

Operation

A

2

(100)

A

1

(120)

S

1

(40)

A

2

is fixed &

wheel A

1

is given

+1 revolution

0 +1 3

40

120

− · −

Multiply by m

(A

1

rotates through

m revolution)

0 +m

m 3 −

Add n revolutions

to all elements

n n+ m

m n 3 −

A

1

is fixed:

n m − ·

2 1

2

1

4

4

3

A S

A

S

N N

n

n n

N

N

· ∴

·

+

·

(b) Consider complete gear train:

Operation A

1

(120) A

2

(100) S

1

(40) S

2

(30)

A

1

is fixed & wheel S

2

is given

+1 revolution

0

10

3

100

30

− · −

5

6

4

10

3

− · × − +1

Multiply by m

(A

1

rotates through m revolution)

0 m

10

3

− · m

5

6

−

+m

Add n revolutions to all elements n m n

10

3

− m n

5

6

−

n+ m

S

2

is fixed ⇒ m = - n

13

22

13

10

5

11

10

3

5

6

2

1

· × ·

+

+

·

n n

n n

N

N

A

S

Input torque on S

1

= T

S1

= 300 N-m, in the direction of rotation.

∴ Resisting torque on A

2

;

117

rotation of directiojn to opposite

m N T

A

→

− · × · 7 . 507

13

22

300

2

∴ Referring to the figure:

) ( 7 . 207 300 7 . 507

2

CW m N T

S

− · − ·

118

Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES

Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

Session – I

• Introduction

Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines.

Kinematics does not involve study of forces. Thus motion leads study of displacement,

velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine.

Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their

velocities and accelerations at different moments.

As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of

velocities, study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of

a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as

configuration diagram. The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well

as analytical method.

• Some important Definitions

Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance

is known, linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’.

A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in

circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’.

Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity

of angular velocity.

Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V =

dt

dx

Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω =

dt

dθ

Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.

x = rθ

dt

dx

= r

dt

dθ

119

V = rω

ω =

dt

dθ

Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity

f =

2

2

dt

x d

dt

dv

· Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity)

Thirdly α =

2

2

dt

d

dt

d θ ω

· Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity)

We also have,

Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point).

V

a

= ω

2

x r

V

a

= ω

2

x O

2

A

Ex: Vao

2

is absolute velocity.

Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’

Ex: V

ba

Velocity of point B with respect to A

Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are used for

velocity vector diagram.

O

2

ω

2

A

O

2

O

4

2

A

3

B

4

120

This is absolute velocity

Velocity of point A with respect to O

2

fixed point, zero velocity point.

V

ba

= or V

ab

V

ba

= or V

ab

Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

V

b

Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O

4

(fixed point, zero velocity

point)

Velocity vector diagram

Vector a O

2

= V

a

= Absolute velocity

Vector

ab

= V

ab

ba

= V

a

V

ab

is equal magnitude with V

ba

but is apposite in direction.

A

3

B

O

4

B

b

V

ba

V

ab

V

b

O

2

, O

4

a

121

Relative velocity

Vector b O

4

= V

b

absolute velocity.

To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Let, us

consider a simple situation.

A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30

o

to the

horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically

upwards. Find velocity of B.

V

a

= 4 m/s

ab

Absolute velocity Horizontal direction

(known in magnitude and directors)

V

b

= ?

ab

Absolute velocity Vertical direction

(known in directors only)

Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect

to B but opposite in direction.

• Relative Velocity Equation

C

O

V

b

V

ba

a

V

a

V

ab

30

o

B

4 m/s

A

O

4

y

a

y

R

A

θ

x

A

x

Rigid body

O

122

Fig. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body.

Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre.

Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O, as shown in figure. The

distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link

x

A

= R cos θ, y

A

= R sin θ.

Differentiating x

A

with respect to time gives velocity.

( )

dt

d

sin R

dt

d

xA

θ

θ − ·

= - Rω sin θ

Similarly, ( )

dt

θ d

θ cos R

dt

dy

A

− ·

= - Rω cos θ

Let,

x

A

xA

V

dt

d

·

y

A

yA

V

dt

d

·

ω =

dt

θ d

= angular velocity of OA

x

A

V ∴ = - Rω sin θ

y

A

V = - Rω cos θ

∴ Total velocity of point A is given by

V

A

=

( ) ( )

2 2

θ cos sin ω θ ω R R − + −

V

A

= Rω

• Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link

123

Fig. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body

From Fig. 2

x

B

= x

A

+ R cos θ y

B

= y

A

+ R sin θ

Differentiating x

B

and y

B

with respect to time

we get,

( )

dt

d

sin R

dt

d

V

dt

d

xA x

B

xB

θ

θ − + · ·

θ ω ω sin V θ sin R R

dt

d

x

A

xA

− · + ·

Similarly, ( )

dt

θ d

θ os c R

dt

d

V

dt

d

yA y

B

yB

+ · ·

θ cos V θ cos ω ω R R

dt

d

y

A

yA

− · + ·

V

A

=

x

A

V

y

A

V

= Total velocity of point A

Similarly, V

B

=

x

B

V

y

B

V

= Total velocity of point B

=

x

A

V

(Rω sin θ)

y

A

V

Rω cos θ

x

A

R sin θ

A

y

B

x

Rigid body

y

A

B

R cos θ

x

B

124

= (

x

A

V

y

A

V

) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ)

= (

x

A

V

y

A

V

) V

A

Similarly, ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω

∴V

B

= V

A

Rω = V

A

V

B

A

∴V

BA

= V

B

–

V

A

Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods.

1. By graphical method

2. By relative velocity method

3. By instantaneous method

• By Graphical Method

The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method.

1. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale.

2. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram.

3. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity.

4. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥

r

to the link.

5. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. Start from a

point whose magnitude and direction is known.

6. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters.

To explain the method let us take a few specific examples.

1. Four – Bar Mechanism : In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm

long. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpmω (cw) while link CD rotates

about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and

BAD |

= 60

o

. Find angular velocity of link CD.

60

o

w

BA

A D

B

C

15 cm

15 cm

8 cm

125

Configuration Diagram

Velocity vector diagram

V

b

= ωr = ω

ba

x AB = 4 x

60

120 x 2π

= 50.24 cm/sec

Choose a suitable scale

1 cm = 20 m/s =

ab

V

cb

=

bc

V

c

=

dc

= 38 cm/s = V

cd

We know that V =ω R

V

cd

= ω

CD

x CD

W

cD

= 75 . 4

8

38 V

cd

· ·

CD

rad/s (cw)

2. Slider Crank Mechanism:

In a crank and slotted lover mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter

clockwise direction. Find

(i) Angular velocity of connecting rod and

(ii) Velocity of slider.

⊥

r

to CD

⊥

r

to BC

⊥

r

to AB

a, d

b

c

Vcb

126

Configuration diagram

Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0,

V

A

= ω

O1A

x O

2

A = 60 x

60

300 x 2π

= 600 π mm/sec

Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.

Velocity vector diagram

V

ab

=

ab

=1300mm/sec

ω

ba

= 66 . 8

150

1300

· ·

BA

V

ba

rad/sec

V

b

=

ob

velocity of slider

Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding.

3. Shaper Mechanism:

In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O

2

A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW

direction. Determine the velocity of slider.

60 mm

45

o

A

B

150 mm

O

V

a

a

b

⊥

r

to AB ⊥

r

to OA

Along sides B

127

Configuration diagram

Velocity vector diagram

V

a

= ω

2

x O

2

A

C O

c O

B O

b O

1

1

1

1

·

To locate point C

,

_

¸

¸

· ∴

B O

C O

b O c O

1

1

1 1

To Determine Velocity of Rubbing

4

O

1

O

2

C

B

3

2

ω

5

6

D

Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m

Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m/s

d O

1

O

2

V

DC

c

a

b

V

BA

V

AO2

= V

A

V

BO1

128

Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. When

the links are motion they rub against pin surface. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends

on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction.

For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A, B, C and D.

∴ V

ra

= ω

ab

x ratios of pin A (r

pa

)

+ sign is used ω

ab

is CW and W

bc is

CCW i.e. when angular velocities are in

opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use -

ve

sign.

V

rC

= (ω

bc

+ ω

cd

) radius r

V

rD

= ω

cd

r

pd

Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions)

Problem 1:

In a four bar mechanism, the dimensions of the links are as given below:

AB = 50 mm, BC = 66 mm

CD = 56 mm and AD = 100 mm

At a given instant when

o

60 DAB | ·

the angular velocity of link AB is 10.5

rad/sec in CCW direction.

Determine,

i) Velocity of point C

ii) Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm

iii) The angular velocity of link BC and CD

iv) The velocity of an offset point F on link BC, if BF = 45 mm, CF = 30

mm and BCF is read clockwise.

v) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD, if CG = 24 mm, DG = 44

mm and DCG is read clockwise.

vi) The velocity of rubbing of pins A, B, C and D. The ratio of the pins

are 30 mm, 40 mm, 25 mm and 35 mm respectively.

129

Solution:

Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale.

Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm

Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine

velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence, it is zero velocity point).

V

ba

= ω

BA

x BA

= 10.5 x 0.05 = 0.525 m/s

Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale, say 1 cm = 0.2 m/s.

• First locate zero velocity points.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to

0.525 m/s.

• From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BC and from d. Draw d line ⊥

r

to CD to interest at C.

• V

cb

is given vector bc V

bc

= 0.44 m/s

• V

cd

is given vector dc V

cd

= 0.39 m/s

Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC, first locate the

position of point E on velocity vector diagram. This can be done by taking corresponding

ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.e.

60

o

A

D

B

C

F

G

C

f

V

ed

a, d

e, g

V

ba

= 0.525 m/s

b

130

BC

BE

bc

be

·

∴ be =

BC

BE

x V

cb

=

066 . 0

04 . 0

x 0.44 = 0.24 m/s

Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a, d / vector

de

= V

e

=

0.415 m/s.

Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD, we know V

bc

and V

cd

.

∴ V

bc

=ω

BC

x BC

∴ W

BC

= ) ( . / 6 . 6

066 . 0

44 . 0

cw s r

BC

V

bc

· ·

Similarly, V

cd

= W

CD

x CD

∴ W

CD

= s / r 96 . 6

056 . 0

39 . 0

CD

V

cd

· · (CCW)

Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to CF from C on velocity vector diagram.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously

drawn line at ‘f’.

• From the point f to zero velocity point a, d and measure vector fa/fd to get V

f

=

0.495 m/s.

Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously

drawn line at g.

• Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G.

V

g

= s / m 305 . 0 dg ·

Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins

• Rubbing velocity at pin A will be

131

V

pa

= ω

ab

x r of pin A

V

pa

= 10.5 x 0.03 = 0.315 m/s

• Rubbing velocity at pin B will be

V

pb

= (ω

ab

+ ω

cb

) x r

ad

of point at B.

[ω

ab

CCW and ω

cb

CW]

V

pb

= (10.5 + 6.6) x 0.04 = 0.684 m/s.

• Rubbing velocity at point C will be

= 6.96 x 0.035 = 0.244 m/s

Problem 2:

In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in

a CCW direction. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm. When the crank turns

through 60

o

from Inner-dead centre.

Determine,

i) The velocity of the slider

ii) Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod

extended.

iii) The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least

absolute velocity.

iv) The angular velocity of connecting rod.

v) The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft, crank and cross head having

pins diameters 80,60 and 100 mm respectively.

Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale.

V

a

= W

oa

x OA

45

o

B

F

E

A

O G

132

V

a

= 40 x 0.2

V

a

= 8 m/s

Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector

diagram.

• Mark zero velocity point o, g.

• Draw

oa

⊥

r

to link OA equal to 8 m/s

• From a draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and from o, g draw a horizontal line (representing the

line of motion of slider B) to X

seet

the previously drawn line at b.

•

ab

give V

ba

=4.8 m/sec

Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn

be

= ab x

AB

BE

mark the point e on extension of vector ba. Join e to o, g. ge will give velocity of point

E.

V

e

= ge =8.4 m/sec

Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).

Draw a line ⊥

r

to

ab

passing through o, g to cut the vector ab at f. From f to o, g.

gf will have the least absolute velocity.

• To mark the position of F on link AB.

Find BF by using the relation.

AB

ab

BF

fb

·

e

a

f

b o, g

Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s

133

AB x

ab

fb

BF·

=200mm

Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.

We know that V

ab

= ω

ab

x AB

∴ ω

ab

=

AB

V

ab

= 6 rad/sec

Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins.

• V

pcrankshaft

= ω

ao

x radius of crankshaft pin

= 8 x 0.08

= 0.64 m/s

• V

Pcrank pin

= (ω

ab

+ ω

oa

) r

crank pin

= (6 +8)0.06 =0.84 m/sec

• V

P cross head

= ω

ab

x r

cross head

= 6 x 0.1 = 0.6 m/sec

• Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping

machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows.

O

1

O

2

= 800 mm, O

1

B = 300 mm, O

2

D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm

The crank O

1

B makes an angle of 45

o

with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the

CCW direction. Find:

i) Velocity of the Ram R, velocity of cutting tool, and

ii) Angular velocity of link O

2

D.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

134

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.

V

b

= ω

O1B

x O

1

B

ω

O1B

= sec / rad 18 . 4

60

40 x 2

60

N 2

B 1 O

·

π

·

π

V

b

= 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec

Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.

Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec

o Draw O

1

b ⊥

r

to link O

1

B equal to 1.254 m/s.

O

2

O

1

D

C

B

2

45

o

R

O

2

O

1

D

C on O

2

D

B on orank, O, B

R

Tool

200

r

O

1

O

2

d

b

c

135

o From b draw a line along the line of O

2

B and from O

1

O

2

draw a line ⊥

r

to O

2

B.

This intersects at c

bc

will measure velocity of sliding of slider and C O

2

will

measure the velocity of C on link O

2

C.

o Since point D is on the extension of link O

2

C measure

d O

2

such that

d O

2

=

C O

D O

C O

2

2

2 . d O

2

will give velocity of point D.

o From d draw a line ⊥

r

to link DR and from O

1

O

2

. Draw a line along the line

of stroke of Ram R (horizontal), These two lines will intersect at point r r O

2

will give the velocity of Ram R.

o To determine the angular velocity of link O

2

D determine V

d

=

d O

2

.

We know that V

d

= ω

O2D

x O

2

D.

∴

D O

d O

2

2

d O

2

· ω r/s

• Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates

at 120 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.

• Solution:

136

Configuration Diagram

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal.

Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.

V

ao

= ω

OA

x OA

V

ao

= s / m 024 . 5 4 . 0

60

120 x 2

· ·

π

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.

o Choose a suitable scale

o Mark zero velocity points O,q

o Draw vector

oa

⊥

r

to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 m/s.

Velocity vector diagram

o From a draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and from q draw a line ⊥

r

to QB to intersect at b.

100

190

135 120

120

D

B

A

45

o

40

All the dimensions in mm

a b

D

O,q

137

bq ba

V qb and V ab · · .

o Draw a line ⊥

r

to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at

d.

) velocity slider ( V dq

d

·

• Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following

dimensions of the links.

The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2.5 r/s at the moment when crank

makes an angle of 45

o

with vertical. Calculate

a) the velocity of the Ram S

b) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level

c) the angular velocity of the link RS.

• Solution:

Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

Configuration Diagram

Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P.

V

P

= ω

OP

x OP

S

R

A

O

B

P on slider Q on

BA

45

o

138

OP (crank) = 240 mm

OA = 150 mm

AR = 165 mm

RS = 430 mm

V

ao

= s / m 6 . 0 24 . 0 x

60

240 x 2

·

π

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

Velocity vector diagram

o Draw

op

⊥

r

link OP = 0.6 m.

o From O, a, g draw a line ⊥

r

to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to

intersect previously draw, line at q. Pq = Velocity of sliding.

aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A.

V

qa

= aq =

o Angular velocity of link RS =

SR

sr

RS

· ω

rad/sec

• Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the

links in mm. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of

links AB, BQ and BC. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction.

q

r

P

S

O, a, g

0.6 m

139

• Solution

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA

V

a

=

s / m 1507 . 0 s / m 05 . 0 03 . 0 x

60

50 x 2

· π ·

,

_

¸

¸ π

Vector velocity diagram

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

o Draw

Oa

⊥

r

to link OA = 0.15 m/s

o From a draw a link ⊥

r

to AB and from O, q draw a link ⊥

r

to BQ to intersect at b.

B

A

100

Q

C

140

O

50 rpm

All dimensions are in mm

OA = 30

AB = 80

BQ = 100

BC = 100

b

a

O, q c

140

· ·

ba

V ab and s / m 13 . 0 V qb

b

· ·

ω

ab

=

) ccw ( s / r 74 . 0

AB

ab

·

ω

bq

) ccw ( s / r 3 . 1

aB

qb

·

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to Be and from O, q these two lines intersect at C.

s / m 106 . 0 V OC

C

· ·

· ·

Cb

V bC

) ccw ( s / r 33 . 1

BC

bc

BC

· · ω

• Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure

in mm. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA

is inclined at 30

o

to the horizontal. What will be the torque required at the crank to

overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.

Configuration diagram

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA =

s / m 26 . 1 1 . 0 x

60

120 x 2

·

,

_

¸

¸ π

200

360

400

200

600

320

500

100

100

60

o

600

M

A

B C

D

K

hz

h

2

141

Velocity vector diagram

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.

o Draw

Oa

⊥

r

to link OA = 1.26 m/s

o From a draw a link ⊥

r

to AB and from q draw a link ⊥

r

to BQ to intersect at b.

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BC and from a, draw a line ⊥

r

to AC to intersect at c.

o From c draw a line ⊥

r

to CD and from m draw a line ⊥

r

to MD to intersect at d.

o From d draw a line ⊥

r

to KD and from m draw a line ⊥

r

to KM to x intersect the

previously drawn line at k.

o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal

force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o, q, m and c line ⊥

r

to this

line from k.

( ) ( )

P

O

P

I

T T ω · ω ∴

V = ω

R

T = F x P F =

r

T

∴ ω

OA

T

OA

= F

k

V

k

horizontal

∴ T

OA

=

( )

OA

hz k k

V F

ω

T

OA

=

6 . 12

45 . 0 X 40000

= N-m

c a

d

b

k

V

k

(hz)

o, q, m

142

• Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm, AC = 680 mm and

OQ = 650 mm.

Determine,

i) The angular velocity of the cylinder

ii) The sliding velocity of the plunger

iii) The absolute velocity of the plunger

When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram

o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA = 20 x 0.32 = 6.4 m/s

o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram.

o Mark the zero velocity point. Draw vector

oa

⊥

r

to link OA equal to 6.4 m/s.

o From a draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and from o, q, draw a line perpendicular to AB.

A

O R

B on AR (point on AR

below Q)

60

o C

O, q

b

c

a

143

o To mark point c on

ab

We know that

AC

AB

ac

ab

·

∴

AB

AC x ab

ac · =

o Mark point c on

ab

and joint this to zero velocity point.

o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.

ω

ab

=

AB

V

ab

= 5.61 rad/sec (cω)

o Studying velocity of player will be

qb = 4.1 m/s

o Absolute velocity of plunger =

qc

OC

= 4.22 m/s

• Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving

crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. The length of the various links are:

Determine,

i) The velocity of slider block S

ii) The angular velocity of link EF

iii) The velocity of link EF in the swivel block.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

144

AB = 650 mm

AB = 100 mm

BC = 800 mm

DC = 250 mm

BE = CF

EF = 400 mm

OF = 240 mm

FS = 400 mm

Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A.

V

b

= ω

BA

x BA

V

b

=

60

300 x 2π

x 0.1 = 3.14 m/s

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale.

o Mark zero velocity point a, d, o, g.

Velocity vector diagram

o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and equal to 3.14 m/s.

o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥

r

to DC to intersect at C.

45

o

300

400

400

B

E

O

A D

P

S

G

F

a, d, o, g

c

b

P

f

S

145

o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that

BC

BE

x bc be ·

o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥

r

to PE and from ‘a,d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P.

o Extend the vector ep to ef such that

EF x

EP

ef

ef ·

o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥

r

to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the

slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S.

o Velocity of slider s / m 6 . 2 gS · . Angular Velocity of link EF.

o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = s / m 85 . 1 OP · .

• Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1. The

angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec. Determine the angular velocity

of links 3 and 4, and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Given ω

2

= 10 rad/sec. Calculate velocity of B with respect to G.

V

b

= ω

2

x BG

V

b

= 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec.

φ 50 mm

φ 40 mm

30

o

60 mm

3

ω

2

G

2

B

C

D

F

4

A

146

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

Redrawn configuration diagram

• Velocity vector diagram

o Draw gb = 0.43 m/s ⊥

r

to BG.

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥

r

to CF to intersect at C.

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BE and from g, f draw a line ⊥

r

to GE to intersect at e.

o From c draw a line ⊥

r

to CD and from f draw a line ⊥

r

to FD to intersect at d.

• Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular

velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

i) Velocity of point D.

ii) Angular velocity of link BD.

30

o

G

E

B

F

D

C

50 mm

e g, f

d

b

c

147

iii) Velocity of slider C.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.

Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O

2

.

V

b

= ω

2

x O

2

A

V

b

= 1 x 50.8 = 50.8 mm/sec.

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram, locate zero velocity points O

2

O

6

.

o From O

2

, O

6

draw a line ⊥

r

to O

2

A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.8

mm/sec.

4

C

O

2

= 50.8 mm

AB = 102 mm

BD = 102 mm

DO

6

= 102 mm

AC = 203 mm

102 mm

A

O

6

D

5

6

B

3

O

2

45

o

O

2

O

6

C

b

V

d

a

d

U

db

148

o From a draw a line ⊥

r

to Ac and from O

2

, O

6

draw a line along the line of stocks

of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c.

o Mark point b on vector ac such that

AB x

AC

ab

ab ·

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BD and from O

2

, O

6

draw a line ⊥

r

to O

6

D to intersect at

d.

Step 4: V

d

= d O

6

= 32 mm/sec

ω

bd

=

BD

bd

=

V

c

= C O

2

=

ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

• Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance

of 50 mm from the centre C. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively

crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. Draw the velocity vector

diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB.

• Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C,

E and F and the angular velocities of links, BC, CDE and EF.

A

C

50 mm

B

149

• The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100

rpm in the CCW direction. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm, OA = 300

mm, AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular

to ⊥

r

AO and in 120 mm from O. Determine the velocity of the slider when

AOP |

is

135

o

and also mention the maximum velocity of slider.

• Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure.

The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW, link O

2

P = 40 mm.

F

E

C

B

A

120

D

150

100

50

100

rpm

60

120

o

120

All dimensions are in mm

D

B

O

45

o

A

C

45

o

3

P

4

2

Q on link 4

150

• Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω

direction at 240 rpm. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF.

F

B

A

E C

45

o

AB = 160 mm

BC = 160 mm

CD = 100 mm

AD = 200 mm

EF = 200 mm

CE = 40 mm

100 mm

151

II Method

• Instantaneous Method

To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear

motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having

velocities as V

a

and V

b

respectively in the direction shown.

Fig. 1

If a line is drawn ⊥

r

to V

a

, at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some

point on the line. Thirdly, centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥

r

to the

direction of V

b

at B. If the intersection of the two lines is at I, the body P will be rotating

about I at that instant. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the

body P. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body.

Fig. 2

In case of the ⊥

r

lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2.

Fig. 3

If the direction of V

a

and V

b

are parallel to the ⊥

r

at A and B met at ∞. This is the case

when the body has linear motion.

A

V

a

V

b

B

I

P

q

A

V

a

V

b

B

I

P

q

A

V

a

I at ∞

B

V

b

152

153

Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES

Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION

Session – I

• Introduction

Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines.

Kinematics does not involve study of forces. Thus motion leads study of displacement,

velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine.

Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their

velocities and accelerations at different moments.

As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of

velocities, study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of

a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as

configuration diagram. The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well

as analytical method.

• Some important Definitions

Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance

is known, linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’.

A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in

circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’.

Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity

of angular velocity.

Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V =

dt

dx

Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω =

dt

dθ

Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.

x = rθ

dt

dx

= r

dt

dθ

V = rω

154

ω =

dt

dθ

Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity

f =

2

2

dt

x d

dt

dv

· Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity)

Thirdly α =

2

2

dt

d

dt

d θ ω

· Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity)

We also have,

Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point).

V

a

= ω

2

x r

V

a

= ω

2

x O

2

A

Ex: Vao

2

is absolute velocity.

Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’

Ex: V

ba

Velocity of point B with respect to A

Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are used for

velocity vector diagram.

This is absolute velocity

O

2

ω

2

A

O

2

O

4

2

A

3

B

4

155

Velocity of point A with respect to O

2

fixed point, zero velocity point.

V

ba

= or V

ab

V

ba

= or V

ab

Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

V

b

Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O

4

(fixed point, zero velocity

point)

Velocity vector diagram

Vector a O

2

= V

a

= Absolute velocity

Vector

ab

= V

ab

ba

= V

a

V

ab

is equal magnitude with V

ba

but is apposite in direction.

Vector b O

4

= V

b

absolute velocity.

A

3

B

O

4

B

b

V

ba

V

ab

V

b

O

2

, O

4

a

156

Relative velocity

To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Let, us

consider a simple situation.

A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30

o

to the

horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically

upwards. Find velocity of B.

157

V

a

= 4 m/s

ab

Absolute velocity Horizontal direction

(known in magnitude and directors)

V

b

= ?

ab

Absolute velocity Vertical direction

(known in directors only)

Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect

to B but opposite in direction.

• Relative Velocity Equation

Fig. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body.

Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre.

Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O, as shown in figure. The

distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link

x

A

= R cos θ, y

A

= R sin θ.

C

O

V

b

V

ba

a

V

a

V

ab

30

o

B

4 m/s

A

O

4

y

a

y

R

A

θ

x

A

x

Rigid body

O

158

Differentiating x

A

with respect to time gives velocity.

( )

dt

d

sin R

dt

d

xA

θ

θ − ·

= - Rω sin θ

Similarly, ( )

dt

θ d

θ cos R

dt

dy

A

− ·

= - Rω cos θ

Let,

x

A

xA

V

dt

d

·

y

A

yA

V

dt

d

·

ω =

dt

θ d

= angular velocity of OA

x

A

V ∴ = - Rω sin θ

y

A

V = - Rω cos θ

∴ Total velocity of point A is given by

V

A

=

( ) ( )

2 2

θ cos sin ω θ ω R R − + −

V

A

= Rω

• Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link

159

Fig. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body

From Fig. 2

x

B

= x

A

+ R cos θ y

B

= y

A

+ R sin θ

Differentiating x

B

and y

B

with respect to time

we get,

( )

dt

d

sin R

dt

d

V

dt

d

xA x

B

xB

θ

θ − + · ·

θ ω ω sin V θ sin R R

dt

d

x

A

xA

− · + ·

Similarly, ( )

dt

θ d

θ os c R

dt

d

V

dt

d

yA y

B

yB

+ · ·

θ cos V θ cos ω ω R R

dt

d

y

A

yA

− · + ·

V

A

=

x

A

V

y

A

V

= Total velocity of point A

Similarly, V

B

=

x

B

V

y

B

V

= Total velocity of point B

=

x

A

V

(Rω sin θ)

y

A

V

Rω cos θ

x

A

R sin θ

A

y

B

x

Rigid body

y

A

B

R cos θ

x

B

160

= (

x

A

V

y

A

V

) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ)

= (

x

A

V

y

A

V

) V

A

Similarly, ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω

∴V

B

= V

A

Rω = V

A

V

B

A

∴V

BA

= V

B

–

V

A

Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods.

4. By graphical method

5. By relative velocity method

6. By instantaneous method

• By Graphical Method

The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method.

7. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale.

8. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram.

9. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity.

10. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥

r

to the link.

11. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. Start from a

point whose magnitude and direction is known.

12. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters.

To explain the method let us take a few specific examples.

4. Four – Bar Mechanism : In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm

long. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpm (cw) while link CD rotates about

D is 8 cm long BC = AD and

BAD |

= 60

o

. Find angular velocity of link CD.

161

Configuration Diagram

Velocity vector diagram

V

b

= ωr = ω

ba

x AB = 4 x

60

120 x 2π

= 50.24 cm/sec

Choose a suitable scale

1 cm = 20 m/s =

ab

V

cb

=

bc

V

c

=

dc

= 38 cm/sec = V

cd

We know that V =ω R

V

cd

= ω

CD

x CD

ω

cD

= 75 . 4

8

38 V

cd

· ·

CD

rad/sec (cw)

5. Slider Crank Mechanism:

60

o

ω

BA

A D

B

C

15 cm

15 cm

8 cm

⊥

r

to CD

⊥

r

to BC

⊥

r

to AB

a, d

b

c

Vcb

162

In a crank and slotted lever mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter

clockwise direction. Find

(iii) Angular velocity of connecting rod and

(iv) Velocity of slider.

Configuration diagram

Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0,

V

A

= ω

O1A

x O

2

A = 60 x

60

300 x 2π

= 600 π mm/sec

Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.

Velocity vector diagram

V

ab

=

ab

=1300mm/sec

ω

ba

= 66 . 8

150

1300

· ·

BA

V

ba

rad/sec

V

b

=

ob

velocity of slider

Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding.

60 mm

45

o

A

B

150 mm

O

V

a

a

b

⊥

r

to AB ⊥

r

to OA

Along sides B

163

6. Shaper Mechanism:

In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O

2

A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW

direction. Determine the velocity of slider.

Configuration diagram

Velocity vector diagram

V

a

= ω

2

x O

2

A

C O

c O

B O

b O

1

1

1

1

·

To locate point C

,

_

¸

¸

· ∴

B O

C O

b O c O

1

1

1 1

4

O

1

O

2

C

B

3

2

ω

5

6

D

Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m

Scale 1 cm = ……x…. m/s

d O

1

O

2

V

DC

c

a

b

V

BA

V

AO2

= V

A

V

BO1

164

To Determine Velocity of Rubbing

Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. When

the links are motion they rub against pin surface. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends

on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction.

For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A, B, C and D.

∴ V

ra

= ω

ab

x ratios of pin A (r

pa

)

+ sign is used ω

ab

is CW and W

bc is

CCW i.e. when angular velocities are in

opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use -

ve

sign.

V

rb

= (ω

ab

+ ω

bc

) radius r

pb

V

rC

= (ω

bc

+ ω

cd

) radius r

pc

V

rD

= ω

cd

r

pd

Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions)

Problem 1:

In a four bar mechanism, the dimensions of the links are as given below:

AB = 50 mm, BC = 66 mm

CD = 56 mm and AD = 100 mm

At a given instant when

o

60 DAB | ·

the angular velocity of link AB is 10.5

rad/sec in CCW direction.

Determine,

i) Velocity of point C

ii) Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm

iii) The angular velocity of link BC and CD

iv) The velocity of an offset point F on link BC, if BF = 45 mm, CF = 30

mm and BCF is read clockwise.

165

v) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD, if CG = 24 mm, DG = 44

mm and DCG is read clockwise.

vi) The velocity of rubbing of pins A, B, C and D. The ratio of the pins

are 30 mm, 40 mm, 25 mm and 35 mm respectively.

Solution:

Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale.

Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm

Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine

velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence, it is zero velocity point).

V

ba

= ω

BA

x BA

= 10.5 x 0.05 = 0.525 m/s

Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale, say 1 cm = 0.2 m/s.

• First locate zero velocity points.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to

0.525 m/s.

• From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BC and from d. Draw d line ⊥

r

to CD to interest at C.

• V

cb

is given vector bc V

bc

= 0.44 m/s

60

o

A

D

B

C

F

G

C

f

V

ed

a, d

e, g

V

ba

= 0.525 m/s

b

166

• V

cd

is given vector dc V

cd

= 0.39 m/s

Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC, first locate the

position of point E on velocity vector diagram. This can be done by taking corresponding

ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.e.

BC

BE

bc

be

·

∴ be =

BC

BE

x V

cb

=

066 . 0

04 . 0

x 0.44 = 0.24 m/s

Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a, d / vector

de

= V

e

=

0.415 m/s.

Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD, we know V

bc

and V

cd

.

∴ V

bc

=ω

BC

x BC

∴ ω

BC

= ) ( . / 6 . 6

066 . 0

44 . 0

cw s r

BC

V

bc

· ·

Similarly, V

cd

= ω

CD

x CD

∴ ω

CD

= s / r 96 . 6

056 . 0

39 . 0

CD

V

cd

· · (CCW)

Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to CF from C on velocity vector diagram.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously

drawn line at ‘f’.

• From the point f to zero velocity point a, d and measure vector fa to get

V

f

= 0.495 m/s.

Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.

• Draw a line ⊥

r

to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously

drawn line at g.

• Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G.

167

V

g

= s / m 305 . 0 dg ·

Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins

• Rubbing velocity at pin A will be

V

pa

= ω

ab

x r of pin A

V

pa

= 10.5 x 0.03 = 0.315 m/s

• Rubbing velocity at pin B will be

V

pb

= (ω

ab

+ ω

cb

) x r

pb

of point at B.

[ω

ab

CCW and ω

cb

CW]

V

pb

= (10.5 + 6.6) x 0.04 = 0.684 m/s.

• Rubbing velocity at point C will be

= 6.96 x 0.035 = 0.244 m/s

Problem 2:

In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in

a CCW direction. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm. When the crank turns

through 60

o

from Inner-dead centre.

Determine,

vi) The velocity of the slider

vii) Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod

extended.

viii) The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least

absolute velocity.

ix) The angular velocity of connecting rod.

x) The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft, crank and cross head having

pins diameters 80,60 and 100 mm respectively.

Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale.

168

V

a

= W

oa

x OA

V

a

= 40 x 0.2

V

a

= 8 m/s

Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector

diagram.

• Mark zero velocity point o, g.

• Draw

oa

⊥

r

to link OA equal to 8 m/s

• From a draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and from o, g draw a horizontal line (representing the

line of motion of slider B) to intersect the previously drawn line at b.

•

ab

give V

ba

=4.8 m/sec

Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn

be

= ab x

AB

BE

mark the point e on extension of vector ba. Join e to o, g. ge will give velocity of point

E.

V

e

= ge =8.4 m/sec

Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).

45

o

B

F

E

A

O G

e

a

f

b o, g

Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s

169

Draw a line ⊥

r

to

ab

passing through o, g to cut the vector ab at f. From f to o, g.

gf will have the least absolute velocity.

• To mark the position of F on link AB.

Find BF by using the relation.

AB

ab

BF

fb

·

AB x

ab

fb

BF·

=200mm

Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.

We know that V

ab

= ω

ab

x AB

∴ ω

ab

=

AB

V

ab

= 6 rad/sec

Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins.

• V

pcrankshaft

= ω

ao

x radius of crankshaft pin

= 8 x 0.08

= 0.64 m/s

• V

Pcrank pin

= (ω

ab

+ ω

oa

) r

crank pin

= (6 +8)0.06 =0.84 m/sec

• V

P cross head

= ω

ab

x r

cross head

= 6 x 0.1 = 0.6 m/sec

170

• Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping

machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows.

O

1

O

2

= 800 mm, O

1

B = 300 mm, O

2

D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm

The crank O

1

B makes an angle of 45

o

with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the

CCW direction. Find:

iii) Velocity of the Ram R, velocity of cutting tool, and

iv) Angular velocity of link O

2

D.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.

V

b

= ω

O1B

x O

1

B

ω

O1B

= sec / rad 18 . 4

60

40 x 2

60

N 2

B 1 O

·

π

·

π

V

b

= 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec

O

2

O

1

D

C

B

2

45

o

R

O

2

O

1

D

C on O

2

D

B on orank, O, B

R

Tool

200

171

172

Step 3 : Draw velocity vector diagram.

Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec

o Draw O

1

b ⊥

r

to link O

1

B equal to 1.254 m/s.

o From b draw a line along the line of O

2

B and from O

1

O

2

draw a line ⊥

r

to O

2

B.

This intersects at c

bc

will measure velocity of sliding of slider and C O

2

will

measure the velocity of C on link O

2

C.

o Since point D is on the extension of link O

2

C measure

d O

2

such that

d O

2

=

C O

D O

C O

2

2

2 . d O

2

will give velocity of point D.

o From d draw a line ⊥

r

to link DR and from O

1

O

2

. Draw a line along the line

of stroke of Ram R (horizontal), These two lines will intersect at point r r O

2

will give the velocity of Ram R.

o To determine the angular velocity of link O

2

D determine V

d

=

d O

2

.

We know that V

d

= ω

O2D

x O

2

D.

∴

D O

d O

2

2

d O

2

· ω r/s

r

O

1

O

2

d

b

c

173

• Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates

at 120 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.

• Solution:

Configuration Diagram

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal.

Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.

V

ao

= ω

OA

x OA

V

ao

= s / m 024 . 5 4 . 0

60

120 x 2

· ·

π

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.

o Choose a suitable scale

o Mark zero velocity points O,q

o Draw vector

oa

⊥

r

to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 m/s.

100

190

135 120

120

D

B

A

45

o

40

All the dimensions in mm

174

Velocity vector diagram

o From a draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and from q draw a line ⊥

r

to QB to intersect at b.

bq ba

V qb and V ab · · .

o Draw a line ⊥

r

to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at

d.

) velocity slider ( V dq

d

·

• Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following

dimensions of the links.

The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2.5 r/s at the moment when crank

makes an angle of 45

o

with vertical. Calculate

d) the velocity of the Ram S

e) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level

f) the angular velocity of the link RS.

• Solution:

Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

a b

D

O,q

175

OP (crank) = 240 mm

OA = 150 mm

AR = 165 mm

RS = 430 mm

Configuration Diagram

S

R

A

O

B

P on slider Q on

BA

45

o

176

Step 2 : To determine the absolute velocity of point P.

V

P

= ω

OP

x OP

V

ao

= s / m 6 . 0 24 . 0 x

60

240 x 2

·

π

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

Velocity vector diagram

o Draw

op

⊥

r

link OP = 0.6 m.

o From O, a, g draw a line ⊥

r

to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to

intersect previously draw, line at q. Pq = Velocity of sliding.

aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A.

V

qa

= aq =

o Angular velocity of link RS =

SR

sr

RS

· ω

rad/sec

q

r

P

S

O, a, g

0.6 m

177

• Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the

links in mm. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of

links AB, BQ and BC. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction.

• Solution

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA

V

a

=

s / m 1507 . 0 s / m 05 . 0 03 . 0 x

60

50 x 2

· π ·

,

_

¸

¸ π

B

A

100

Q

C

140

O

50 rpm

All dimensions are in mm

OA = 30

AB = 80

BQ = 100

BC = 100

178

Vector velocity diagram

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

o Draw

Oa

⊥

r

to link OA = 0.15 m/s

o From a draw a link ⊥

r

to AB and from O, q draw a link ⊥

r

to BQ to intersect at b.

· ·

ba

V ab and s / m 13 . 0 V qb

b

· ·

ω

ab

=

) ccw ( s / r 74 . 0

AB

ab

·

ω

bq

) ccw ( s / r 3 . 1

aB

qb

·

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to Be and from O, q these two lines intersect at C.

s / m 106 . 0 V OC

C

· ·

· ·

Cb

V bC

) ccw ( s / r 33 . 1

BC

bc

BC

· · ω

• Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure

in mm. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA

is inclined at 30

o

to the horizontal. What will be the torque required at the crank to

overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.

b

a

O, q c

179

Configuration diagram

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

200

360

400

200

600

320

500

100

100

60

o

600

M

A

B C

D

K

hz

h

2

180

Step 2 : Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA =

s / m 26 . 1 1 . 0 x

60

120 x 2

·

,

_

¸

¸ π

Velocity vector diagram

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.

o Draw

Oa

⊥

r

to link OA = 1.26 m/s

o From a draw a link ⊥

r

to AB and from q draw a link ⊥

r

to BQ to intersect at b.

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BC and from a, draw a line ⊥

r

to AC to intersect at c.

o From c draw a line ⊥

r

to CD and from m draw a line ⊥

r

to MD to intersect at d.

o From d draw a line ⊥

r

to KD and from m draw a line ⊥

r

to KM to x intersect the

previously drawn line at k.

o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal

force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o, q, m and c line ⊥

r

to this

line from k.

( ) ( )

P

O

P

I

T T ω · ω ∴

V = ω

R

T = F x P F =

r

T

∴ ω

OA

T

OA

= F

k

V

k

horizontal

c a

d

b

k

V

k

(hz)

o, q, m

181

∴ T

OA

=

( )

OA

hz k k

V F

ω

T

OA

=

6 . 12

45 . 0 X 40000

= N-m

• Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm, AC = 680 mm and

OQ = 650 mm.

Determine,

iv) The angular velocity of the cylinder

v) The sliding velocity of the plunger

vi) The absolute velocity of the plunger

When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram

o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA = 20 x 0.32 = 6.4 m/s

o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram.

o Mark the zero velocity point. Draw vector

oa

⊥

r

to link OA equal to 6.4 m/s.

A

O R

B on AR (point on AR

below Q)

60

o C

182

o From a draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and from o, q, draw a line perpendicular to AB.

o To mark point c on

ab

We know that

AC

AB

ac

ab

·

∴

AB

AC x ab

ac · =

o Mark point c on

ab

and joint this to zero velocity point.

o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.

ω

ab

=

AB

V

ab

= 5.61 rad/sec (cω)

o Studying velocity of player will be

qb = 4.1 m/s

o Absolute velocity of plunger =

qc

OC

= 4.22 m/s

• Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving

crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. The length of the various links are:

Determine,

iv) The velocity of slider block S

v) The angular velocity of link EF

vi) The velocity of link EF in the swivel block.

O, q

b

c

a

183

AB = 650 mm

AB = 100 mm

BC = 800 mm

DC = 250 mm

BE = CF

EF = 400 mm

OF = 240 mm

FS = 400 mm

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A.

V

b

= ω

BA

x BA

V

b

=

60

300 x 2π

x 0.1 = 3.14 m/s

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale.

o Mark zero velocity point a, d, o, g.

45

o

300

400

400

B

E

O

A D

P

S

G

F

a, d, o, g

c

b

P

f

S

184

Velocity vector diagram

o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥

r

to AB and equal to 3.14 m/s.

o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥

r

to DC to intersect at C.

o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that

BC

BE

x bc be ·

o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥

r

to PE and from ‘a,d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P.

o Extend the vector ep to ef such that

EF x

EP

ef

ef ·

o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥

r

to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the

slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S.

o Velocity of slider s / m 6 . 2 gS · . Angular Velocity of link EF.

o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = s / m 85 . 1 OP · .

• Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1. The

angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec. Determine the angular velocity

of links 3 and 4, and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

φ 50 mm

φ 40 mm

30

o

60 mm

3

ω

2

G

2

B

C

D

F

4

A

185

Step 2: Given ω

2

= 10 rad/sec. Calculate velocity of B with respect to G.

V

b

= ω

2

x BG

V

b

= 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec.

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

Redrawn configuration diagram

30

o

G

E

B

F

D

C

50 mm

186

• Velocity vector diagram

o Draw gb = 0.43 m/s ⊥

r

to BG.

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥

r

to CF to intersect at C.

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BE and from g, f draw a line ⊥

r

to GE to intersect at e.

o From c draw a line ⊥

r

to CD and from f draw a line ⊥

r

to FD to intersect at d.

• Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular

velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

iv) Velocity of point D.

v) Angular velocity of link BD.

vi) Velocity of slider C.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.

e g, f

d

b

c

187

Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O

2

.

V

b

= ω

2

x O

2

A

V

b

= 1 x 50.8 = 50.8 mm/sec.

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram, locate zero velocity points O

2

O

6

.

o From O

2

, O

6

draw a line ⊥

r

to O

2

A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.8

mm/sec.

o From a draw a line ⊥

r

to Ac and from O

2

, O

6

draw a line along the line of stocks

of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c.

o Mark point b on vector ac such that

AB x

AC

ab

ab ·

o From b draw a line ⊥

r

to BD and from O

2

, O

6

draw a line ⊥

r

to O

6

D to intersect at

d.

4

C

O

2

= 50.8 mm

AB = 102 mm

BD = 102 mm

DO

6

= 102 mm

AC = 203 mm

102 mm

A

O

6

D

5

6

B

3

O

2

45

o

O

2

O

6

C

b

V

d

a

d

U

db

188

Step 4: V

d

= d O

6

= 32 mm/sec

ω

bd

=

BD

bd

=

V

c

= C O

2

=

ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE

• Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance

of 50 mm from the centre C. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively

crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. Draw the velocity vector

diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB.

• Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C,

E and F and the angular velocities of links, BC, CDE and EF.

• The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100

rpm in the CCW direction. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm, OA = 300

mm, AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular

A

C

50 mm

B

F

E

C

B

A

120

D

150

100

50

100

rpm

60

120

o

120

All dimensions are in mm

189

to ⊥

r

AO and in 120 mm from O. Determine the velocity of the slider when

AOP |

is

135

o

and also mention the maximum velocity of slider.

D

B

O

45

o

A

C

190

• Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure.

The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW, link O

2

P = 40 mm.

• Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω

direction at 240 rpm. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF.

45

o

3

P

4

2

Q on link 4

F

B

A

E C

45

o

AB = 160 mm

BC = 160 mm

CD = 100 mm

AD = 200 mm

EF = 200 mm

CE = 40 mm

100 mm

191

II Method

• Instantaneous Method

To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear

motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having

velocities as V

a

and V

b

respectively in the direction shown.

Fig. 1

If a line is drawn ⊥

r

to V

a

, at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some

point on the line. Thirdly, centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥

r

to the

direction of V

b

at B. If the intersection of the two lines is at I, the body P will be rotating

about I at that instant. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the

body P. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body.

Fig. 2

In case of the ⊥

r

lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2.

Fig. 3

If the direction of V

a

and V

b

are parallel to the ⊥

r

at A and B met at ∞. This is the case

when the body has linear motion.

A

V

a

V

b

B

I

P

q

A

V

a

V

b

B

I

P

q

A

V

a

I at ∞

B

V

b

192

• Number of Instantaneous Centers

The number of instantaneous centers in a mechanism depends upon number of

links. If N is the number of instantaneous centers and n is the number of links.

N =

( )

2

1 n n −

• Types of Instantaneous Centers

There are three types of instantaneous centers namely fixed, permanent and

neither fixed nor permanent.

Example: Four bar mechanism. n = 4.

N =

( )

2

1 n n −

=

( )

6

2

1 4 4

·

−

Fixed instantaneous center I

12

, I

14

Permanent instantaneous center I

23

, I

34

Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I

13

, I

24

• Arnold Kennedy theorem of three centers:

I

24

I

23

I

13

I

12

I

14

I

34

2

1

3

4

193

Statement: If three bodies have motion relative to each other, their instantaneous centers

should lie in a straight line.

194

Proof:

Consider a three link mechanism with link 1 being fixed link 2 rotating about I

12

and link 3 rotating about I

13

. Hence, I

12

and I

13

are the instantaneous centers for link 2 and

link 3. Let us assume that instantaneous center of link 2 and 3 be at point A i.e. I

23

. Point

A is a coincident point on link 2 and link 3.

Considering A on link 2, velocity of A with respect to I

12

will be a vector V

A2

⊥

r

to

link A I

12

. Similarly for point A on link 3, velocity of A with respect to I

13

will be ⊥

r

to A

I

13

. It is seen that velocity vector of V

A2

and V

A3

are in different directions which is

impossible. Hence, the instantaneous center of the two links cannot be at the assumed

position.

It can be seen that when I

23

lies on the line joining I

12

and I

13

the V

A2

and V

A3

will

be same in magnitude and direction. Hence, for the three links to be in relative motion all

the three centers should lie in a same straight line. Hence, the proof.

Steps to locate instantaneous centers:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

Step 2: Identify the number of instantaneous centers by using the relation N

=

( )

2

n 1 n −

.

Step 3: Identify the instantaneous centers by circle diagram.

Step 4: Locate all the instantaneous centers by making use of Kennedy’s theorem.

To illustrate the procedure let us consider an example.

I

12

V

A32

2

V

A22

I

13

I

23

A

3

1

195

196

A slider crank mechanism has lengths of crank and connecting rod equal to 200

mm and 200 mm respectively locate all the instantaneous centers of the mechanism for

the position of the crank when it has turned through 30

o

from IOC. Also find velocity of

slider and angular velocity of connecting rod if crank rotates at 40 rad/sec.

Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

Step 2: Determine the number of links in the mechanism and find number of

instantaneous centers.

N =

( )

2

n 1 n −

n = 4 links N =

( )

2

1 4 4 −

= 6

Step 3: Identify instantaneous centers.

o Suit it is a 4-bar link the resulting figure will be a square.

30

o

I

12

I

12

4

B

I

13

A

3

800

I

23

200

2

I

24

O 1

1

I

14

to ∞ I

14

to ∞

197

o Locate fixed and permanent instantaneous centers. To locate neither fixed nor

permanent instantaneous centers use Kennedy’s three centers theorem.

Step 4: Velocity of different points.

V

a

= ω

2

AI

12

= 40 x 0.2 = 8 m/s

also V

a

= ω

2

x A

13

∴ ω

3

=

13

a

AI

V

V

b

= ω

3

x BI

13

= Velocity of slider.

• Problem 2:

A four bar mechanisms has links AB = 300 mm, BC = CD = 360 mm and AD =

600 mm. Angle

o

60 BAD | ·

. Crank AB rotates in Cω direction at a speed of 100 rpm.

Locate all the instantaneous centers and determine the angular velocity of link BC.

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.

Step 2: Find the number of Instantaneous centers

N =

( )

2

n 1 n −

=

( )

2

1 4 4 −

= 6

Step 3: Identify the IC’s by circular method or book keeping method.

1

I

12

2

4

I

34

3

I

41

I

23

I

24

I

13

I

12

I

23

I

34

1 2 3 4

I

13

I

24

I

14

OR

198

Step 4: Locate all the visible IC’s and locate other IC’s by Kennedy’s theorem.

V

b

= ω

2

x BI

12

= sec / m 3 . 0 x

60

100 x 2

·

π

Also V

b

= ω

3

x BI

13

ω

3

=

sec / rad

BI

V

13

b

·

• For a mechanism in figure crank OA rotates at 100 rpm clockwise using I.C. method

determine the linear velocities of points B, C, D and angular velocities of links AB,

BC and CD.

OA = 20 cm AB = 150 cm BC = 60 cm

1

I

12

2

4

I

34

3

I

14

I

23

I

12

I

13

I

12

I

23

I

34

1 2 3 4

I

13

I

24

I

14

OR

I

24

I

23

I

13

I

12

I

14

I

34

2

1

3

4

B

A

D

C

199

CD = 50 cm BE = 40 cm OE = 135 cm

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA

V

a

= s / m 1 . 2 2 . 0 x

60

100 x 2

·

π

n = 6 links

N =

( )

15

2

1 n n

·

−

3

5

2

30

o

A

6

10 mm

D

1

O 4

B

C

E

1 2 3 4 5 6

12 23 34 45 56

13 24 35 46

14 25 36

15 26

16

5

4

3

2

1

---

15

---

2

1

I

12

I

23

I

13

I

16

@ ∞

I

14

I

45

I

16

@ ∞ I

16

@ ∞

I

56

I

34

I

15

3

5

6

200

V

a

= ω

3

AI

13

ω

3

=

sec / rad 5 . 2

AI

V

13

a

·

V

b

= ω

3

x BI

13

= 2.675 m/s

Also V

b

= ω

4

x BI

14

ω

4

=

sec / rad 37 . 6

BI

V

14

b

·

V

C

= ω

4

x CI

14

= 1.273 m/s

A

I

13

B

3

Link 3

4

C

I

14

B

Link 4

C

I

15

5

D Link 5

201

V

C

= ω

5

x CI

15

ω

5

=

sec / rad 72 . 1

AI

V

15

C

·

V

d

= ω

5

x DI

15

= 0.826 m/s

• In the toggle mechanism shown in figure the slider D is constrained to move in a

horizontal path the crank OA is rotating in CCW direction at a speed of 180 rpm the

dimensions of various links are as follows:

OA = 180 mm CB = 240 mm

AB = 360 mm BD = 540 mm

Find,

i) Velocity of slider

ii) Angular velocity of links AB, CB and BD.

n = 6 links

N =

( )

15

2

1 n n

·

−

D

C

B

45

o

A

O

360

105

202

Answers

V

b

= 2.675 m/s

V

C

= 1.273 m/s

V

d

= 0.826 m/s

ω

ab

= 2.5 rad/sec

ω

bc

= 6.37 rad/sec

ω

cd

= 1.72 rad/sec

V

a

= ω

2

x AI

12

= 3.4 m/s

V

a

= ω

3

x AI

13

ω

3

=

sec / rad 44 . 2

AI

V

13

a

·

V

b

= ω

3

x BI

13

1 2 3 4 5 6

12 23 34 45 56

13 24 35 46

14 25 36

15 26

16

5

4

3

2

1

---

15

---

4

B

6

C

I

24

I

56

O

I

46

I

12

I

23

I

15

I

34

I

35

2

3

5

A

I

45

I

13

I

16

@ ∞ I

16

@ ∞

I

16

@ ∞

A

I

13

B

ω

3

Link 3

203

V

b

= ω

4

x BI

14

ω

4

=

sec / rad 875 . 11

AI

V

14

b

·

V

b

= ω

5

x BI

15

ω

5

=

sec / rad 37 . 4

AI

V

15

b

·

V

d

= ω

5

x DI

15

= 2 m/s

• Figure shows a six link mechanism. What will be the velocity of cutting tool D and

the angular velocities of links BC and CD if crank rotates at 10 rad/sec.

B

I

14

C

ω

4

Link 4

B

D

5

I

15

Link 5

204

Answers

V

d

= 2 m/s

ω

ab

= 2.44 rad/sec

ω

bc

= 11.875 rad/sec

ω

cd

= 4.37 rad/sec

D

Q

45

B

30

o

15

O

45

15

C

60

All dimensions

are in mm

15

25

A

90

o

205

V

a

= ω

2

x AI

12

= 10 x 0.015

V

a

= ω

2

x AI

12

= 0.15 m/s

V

a

= ω

3

x AI

13

ω

3

=

13

a

AI

V

V

b

= ω

3

x BI

13

6

O

I

56

I

16

@ ∞

I

16

@ ∞

I

16

@ ∞

I

12

I

23

I

24

I

45

I

46

I

34

I

14

3

2

5

4

I

26

I

13

I

15

A

I

13

B

ω

3

Link 3

206

V

b

= ω

4

x BI

14

ω

4

=

sec / rad 25 . 4

BI

V

14

b

·

V

C

= ω

4

x CI

14

V

C

= ω

5

x CI

15

ω

5

=

sec / rad 98 . 1

AI

V

15

C

·

V

d

= ω

5

x DI

15

= 1.66 m/s

• A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has a fixed link OA and crank

OP having length 200 mm and 350 mm respectively. Other lengths are AR = 200 mm

and RS = 40 mm. Find the velocity of the rotation using IC method when crank

makes an angle of 120

o

with fixed link and rotates at 10 rad/sec.

C

I

14

Q

ω

4

B

Link 4

D

I

15

C

5

Link 5

207

Answers

V

d

= 1.66 m/s

ω

bc

= 4.25 rad/sec

ω

cd

= 1.98 rad/sec

Locate the IC’s

n = 6 links

N =

( )

15

2

1 n n

·

−

6

S

3

A

R

5

4

P

B

1

O 2

1 2 3 4 5 6

12 23 34 45 56

13 24 35 46

14 25 36

15 26

16

5

4

3

2

1

---

15

---

208

V

P

= ω

2

x OP

= ……… m/s

• Acceleration Analysis

Rate of change of velocity is acceleration. A change in velocity requires any one

of the following conditions to be fulfilled:

o Change in magnitude only

o Change in direction only

o Change in both magnitude and direction

When the velocity of a particle changes in magnitude and direction it has two

component of acceleration.

1. Radial or centripetal acceleration

f

c

= ω

2

r

Acceleration is parallel to the link and acting towards centre.

I

15

5

1

6

I

46

I

45

I

56

I

14

I

23

I

34

3

I

24

I

12

4

2

I

16

@ ∞

209

Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r

Velocity of A parallel to OA = 0

Velocity of A’ parallel to OA = Va’ sin δ θ

Therefore change in velocity = Va’ sin δ θ – 0

Centripetal acceleration = f

c

=

( )

t

r t

δ

δθ αδ ω sin +

as δt tends to Zero sin δ θ tends to δ θ

( )

t

t r r

δ

δθδ α δθ ω +

∴

f

c

= ωr (dθ/ dt) =ω

2

r

But V = ωr or ω = V/r

Hence, f

c

=ω

2

r = V

2

/r

2. Tnagential Acceleration:

Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r

Velocity of A perpendicular to OA = Va

Velocity of A’ perpendicular to OA = Va’ cos δ θ

Therefore change in velocity = Va’ cos δ θ – Va

Tnagnetial acceleration = f

t

=

( )

t

r r t

δ

ω δθ αδ ω − + cos

V

a

A

O

r

A’

δθ

δθ

Va’ cosδθ

Va’ sinδθ

Va’

O

1

o

a

a

1

f

t

oa

f

c

oa

f

oa

210

as δt tends to Zero cos δ θ tends to 1

( )

t

r t r r

δ

ω δ α ω − +

∴

f

t

= αr

Example:

f

C

ab

= ω

2

AB

Acts parallel to BA and acts from B to A.

f

t

= αBA acts ⊥

r

to link.

f

BA

= f

r

BA

+ f

t

BA

• Problem 1: Four bar mechanism. For a 4-bar mechanism shown in figure draw

velocity and acceleration diagram.

B

A

f

r

ab

f

ab

f

t

ab

211

60

o

A D

B

C

66

56

ω = 10.5 rad/sec

50

100

All dimensions

are in mm

212

• Solution:

Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a scale.

Step 2: Draw velocity vector diagram to a scale.

V

b

= ω

2

x AB

V

b

= 10.5 x 0.05

V

b

= 0.525 m/s

Step 3: Prepare a table as shown below:

Sl.

No.

Link Magnitude Direction Sense

1. AB f

c

= ω

2

AB

r

f

c

= (10.5)

2

/0.525

f

c

= 5.51 m/s

2

Parallel to AB

A

2. BC f

c

= ω

2

BC

r

f

c

= 1.75

f

t

= αr

Parallel

to BC

⊥

r

to BC

B

–

3. CD f

c

= ω

2

CD

r

f

c

= 2.75

f

t

= ?

Parallel to DC

⊥

r

to DC

D

–

Step 4: Draw the acceleration diagram.

a

1

d

V

c

C

b

V

bc

213

o Choose a suitable scale to draw acceleration diagram.

o Mark the zero acceleration point a

1

d

1

.

o Link AB has only centripetal acceleration. Therefore, draw a line parallel to AB

and toward A from a

1

d

1

equal to 5.51 m/s

2

i.e. point b

1

.

o From b

1

draw a vector parallel to BC points towards B equal to 1.75 m/s

2

(b

1

1

).

o From b

1

1

draw a line ⊥

r

to BC. The magnitude is not known.

o From a

1

d

1

draw a vector parallel to AD and pointing towards D equal to 2.72 m/s

2

i.e. point c

1

.

o From c

1

1

draw a line ⊥

r

to CD to intersect the line drawn ⊥

r

to BC at c

1

,

1 1

c d = f

CD

and

1 1

c b = f

bc

.

To determine angular acceleration.

α

BC

=

sec / rad 09 . 34

BC

b c

BC

f

1

1 1

t

bc

· ·

) CCW (

α

CD

=

) CCW ( sec / rad 11 . 79

CD

c c

CD

f

1

1 1

t

cd

· ·

• Problem 2: For the configuration of slider crank mechanism shown in figure below.

Calculate

i) Acceleration of slider B.

ii) Acceleration of point E.

iii) Angular acceleration of link AB.

If crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec CCW.

• Solution:

c

1

a

1

d

1

c

1′

11

el

to CD

11

el

to CD

⊥

γ

to BC

b

1

11

el

to AB

11

el

to BC

f

bc

b

1

214

Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.

Step 2: Find velocity of A with respect to O.

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA

V

a

= 20 x 0.48

V

a

= 9.6 m/s

Step 4: Draw velocity vector diagram.

Step 4:

Sl.

No.

Link Magnitude Direction Sense

1. OA f

c

aO

= ω

2

OA

r = 192 Parallel to OA

O

2. AB f

c

ab

= ω

2

ab

r = 17.2

f

t

ab

–

Parallel

to AB

⊥

r

to AB

A

–

3. Slider B – Parallel

to Slider –

All dimensions

are mm

480

60

o

A

B

1600

G

E

450

O

1

g

a

9.7

e

b

5.25

215

Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale.

f

b

o

1

g

1

f

ab

f

t

ab

192

172

a

1

e

1

f

c

ab

e

e1

b

1

1

216

o Mark o

1

g

1

(zero acceleration point)

o Draw

1 1

g o

= C acceleration of OA towards ‘O’.

o From a

1

draw a

1

b

1

1

= 17.2 m/s

2

towards ‘A’ from b

1

1

draw a line ⊥

r

to AB.

o From o

1

g

1

draw a line along the slider B to intersect previously drawn line at b

1

,

ab 1 1

f b a ·

1 1

b g = f

b

= 72 m/s

2

.

o Extend

1 1

b a

=

1 1

e a

such that

AE

R A

AB

b a

1 1 1 1

·

.

o Join e

1

to δ

1

g

1

,

1 1

e g = f

e

= 236 m/s

2

.

o α

ab

=

6 . 1

167

AB

b b

AB

f

1 1

t

ab

· ·

= 104 rad/sec

2

(CCW).

Answers:

f

b

= 72 m/sec

2

f

e

= 236 m/sec

2

α

ab

= 104 rad/sec

2

• Problem 3: In a toggle mechanism shown in figure the crank OA rotates at 210 rpm

CCW increasing at the rate of 60 rad/s

2

.

• Velocity of slider D and angular velocity of link BD.

• Acceleration of slider D and angular acceleration of link BD.

217

Step 1 Draw the configuration diagram to a scale.

Step 2 Find

V

a

= ω

OA

x OA

V

a

=

( )

2 . 0 x

60

210 2π

= 4.4 m/s

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.

Step 4:

Sl.

No.

Link Magnitude m/s

2

Direction Sense

1.

AO

f

c

aO

= ω

2

r = 96.8

f

t

aO

= αr = 12

Parallel to OA

⊥

r

to OA

O

–

400

300 500

D

B

A

200

45

o

Q

D

G

150

d

b a

o

1

,q,g

218

2.

AB

f

c

ab

= ω

2

r = 5.93

f

t

ab

= αr =

Parallel

to AB

⊥

r

to AB

A

–

3.

BQ

f

c

bq

= ω

2

r = 38.3

f

t

bq

= αr =

Parallel to BQ

⊥

r

to BQ

Q

–

4. BD f

c

bd

= ω

2

r = 20 ⊥

r

to BD B

5.

Slider D

f

t

bd

= αr =

–

⊥

r

to BD

Parallel to slider motion

–

–

Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale.

o Mark zero acceleration point.

o Draw o

1

a

1

1

= f

c

OA

and a

1

1

a = f

t

OA

⊥

r

to OA from

o

1 1

a o

= f

a

o From a

1

draw

ab

c

1 1

f b a · , from b

1

1

draw a line ⊥

r

to AB.

o From o

1

q

1

g

1

draw

1

1

1

q o

= f

c

bq

and from q

1

1

draw a line a line ⊥

r

to BQ to intersect

the previously drawn line at b

1

bq 1 1

f b q ·

1 1

b a = f

ab

o From b

1

draw a line parallel to BD = f

c

bd

such that

1

1

1

d b

= f

c

bd

.

o From d

1

1

draw a line ⊥

r

to BD, from o

1

q

1

g

1

draw a line along slider D to meet the

previously drawn line at .

q

1

1

b

1

1

a

1

f

t

OA

d

1

1

f

c

OA

O

1

q

1

g

1

b

1

d

1

f

d

f

bd

a

1

1

fab

219

o

d 1 1

f d g ·

= 16.4 m/sec

2

.

o

bd 1 1

f d b ·

= 5.46 m/sec

2

.

o α

BD

=

2 bd

sec / rad 2 . 109

5 . 0

46 . 5

BD

f

·

Answers:

V

d

= 2.54 m/s

ω

bd

= 6.32 rad/s

F

d

= 16.4 m/s

2

α

bd

= 109.2 rad/s

2

220

• Coriolis Acceleration: It has been seen that the acceleration of a body may have two

components.

• Centripetal acceleration and

• Tangential acceleration.

However, in same cases there will be a third component called as corilis

acceleration to illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever

mechanisms.

Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity ω

2

, in its motions from OP to OP

1

in a small interval of time δ

t

. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B

to B

2

. Assume this motion also to have constant velocity V

B/A

. Consider the motion of

slider from B to B

2

in 3 stages.

1. B to A

1

due to rotation of link 2.

2. A

1

to B

1

due to outward velocity of slider V

B/A

.

3. B

1

to B

2

due to acceleration ⊥

r

to link 2 this component in the coriolis component

of acceleration.

We have Arc B

1

B

2

= Arc QB

2

– Arc QB

1

= Arc QB

2

– Arc AA

1

∴ Arc B

1

B

2

= OQ dθ - AO dθ

A on link 2

B on link 3

O

d

θ

ω

2

A

1

B

2

P

1

B

1

2

P

3

d

θ

Q

221

= A

1

B

1

dθ

= V

B/A

ω

2

dt

2

The tangential component of velocity is ⊥

r

to the link and is given by V

t

= ωr. In

this case ω has been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant

velocity. Therefore, tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in

uniform increase in tangential velocity. The equation V

t

= ωr remain same but r increases

uniformly i.e. there is a constant acceleration ⊥

r

to rod.

∴ Displacement B

1

B

2

= ½ at

2

= ½ f (dt)

2

∴ ½ f (dt)

2

= V

B/A

ω

2

dt

2

f

cr

B/A

= 2ω

2

V

B/A

coriolis acceleration

The direction of coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector for

the two coincident points rotated at 90

o

in the direction of angular velocity of rotation of

the link.

Figure below shows the direction of coriolis acceleration in different situation.

(a) Rotation CW slider

moving up

(b) Rotation CW slider

moving down

ω

2

ω

2

f

cr

ω

2

f

cr

222

A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping

machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows.

O

1

O

2

= 800 mm, O

1

B = 300 mm, O

2

D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm

The crank O

1

B makes an angle of 45

o

with the vertical and rotates at 40

rpm in the CCW direction. Find:

v) Acceleration of the Ram R, velocity of cutting tool, and

vi) Angular Acceleration of link AD.

Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.

(c) Rotation CCW slider

moving up

(d) Rotation CCW slider

moving down

ω

2

ω

2

f

cr

f

cr

223

A

O

D

C

B

2

45

o

R

A

O

D

C on AD

B on orank, A B

R

Tool

200

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.

V

b

= ω

OB

x OB

ω

OB

= sec / rad 18 . 4

60

40 x 2

60

N 2

B 1 O

·

π

·

π

V

b

= 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec

224

Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.

Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec

r

o.a

d

b

c

Step 4: prepare table showing the acceleration components

Sl.

No.

Link Magnitude m/s

2

Direction Sense

1. OB

f

c

ob

= ω

2

r =5.24

Parallel to OB

O

–

2. AC

f

c

ac

= ω

2

r

f

t

ac

= αr

Parallel

to AB

⊥

r

to AB

A

–

3. BC

f

s

bc

=αr

f

cc

bc

= 2vω =

Parallel to AB

⊥

r

to AC

_

–

4. DR

f

c

bd

= ω

2

r = 20

f

t

bd

=α r

Parallel to DR

⊥

r

to BD

D

_

5. Slider R

f

t

bd

= αr

Parallel to slider motion

–

Acceleration of Ram = fr = o

1

r

Angular Acceleration of link AD

α

bd

=

KLENIN’S Construction

This method helps us to draw the velocity and acceleration diagrams on the

construction diagram itself. The crank of the configuration diagram

represents the velocity and acceleration line of the moving end (crank).

o

1

a

1

b

1

b

1

’’

b

1

’

b

1

’’’

d

1

r

1

’

r

1

f

c

ob

f

t

ab

f

s

ab

f

cc

bc

f

ob

f

ad

f

r

f

t

dr

f

c

dr

225

BD

f

bd

The procedure is given below for a slider crank mechanism.

To draw the velocity vector diagram:

Link OA represents the velocity vector of A with respect to O.

V

oa

= oa = ω r = ω OA.

Draw a line perpendicular at O, extend the line BA to meet this

perpendicular line at b. oab is the velocity vector diagram rotated through

90º opposite to the rotation of the crank.

Acceleration diagram:

The line representing Crank OA represents the acceleration of A with respect

to O. To draw the acceleration diagram follow the steps given below.

• Draw a circle with OA as radius and A as centre.

• Draw another circle with AB as diameter.

• The two circles intersect each other at two points C and D.

O

A

B

200

800

45º

ω

o

a

b

200

800

45º

ω

a

o

b

226

• Join C and D to meet OB at b

1

and AB at E.

O

1,

a

1,

b

a1

and b

1

is the required acceleration diagram rotated through 180º.

O

1

a

1

b

1

200

800

45º

ω

ba1

B

O1

a

f

a

b

a1

f

c

ab

b

1

f

t

ab

f

ab

f

b

227

Fig.1.2 Rotation: In rotation, all points in a body remain at fixed distances from a line which is perpendicular to the plane of rotation. This line is the axis of rotation and points in the body describe circular paths about it. (Eg. link 2 in Fig.1.1 and links 2 & 4 in Fig.1.2) Translation and rotation: It is the combination of both translation and rotation which is exhibited by many machine parts. (Eg. link 3 in Fig.1.1) Link or element: It is the name given to any body which has motion relative to another. All materials have some elasticity. A rigid link is one, whose deformations are so small that they can be neglected in determining the motion parameters of the link.

Fig.1.3 Binary link: Link which is connected to other links at two points. (Fig.1.3 a) Ternary link: Link which is connected to other links at three points. (Fig.1.3 b) Quaternary link: Link which is connected to other links at four points. (Fig1.3 c) Pairing elements: the geometrical forms by which two members of a mechanism are joined together, so that the relative motion between these two is consistent are known as pairing elements and the pair so formed is called kinematic pair. Each individual link of a mechanism forms a pairing element.

Fig.1.4 Kinematic pair

Fig.1.5

2

Degrees of freedom (DOF): It is the number of independent coordinates required to describe the position of a body in space. A free body in space (fig 1.5) can have six degrees of freedom. I.e., linear positions along x, y and z axes and rotational/angular positions with respect to x, y and z axes. In a kinematic pair, depending on the constraints imposed on the motion, the links may loose some of the six degrees of freedom. Types of kinematic pairs: (i) Based on nature of contact between elements: (a) Lower pair. If the joint by which two members are connected has surface contact, the pair is known as lower pair. Eg. pin joints, shaft rotating in bush, slider in slider crank mechanism.

Fig.1.6 Lower pairs (b) Higher pair. If the contact between the pairing elements takes place at a point or along a line, such as in a ball bearing or between two gear teeth in contact, it is known as a higher pair.

Fig.1.7 Higher pairs (ii) Based on relative motion between pairing elements: (a) Siding pair. Sliding pair is constituted by two elements so connected that one is constrained to have a sliding motion relative to the other. DOF = 1

3

(b) Turning pair (revolute pair). When connections of the two elements are such that only a constrained motion of rotation of one element with respect to the other is possible, the pair constitutes a turning pair. DOF = 1 (c) Cylindrical pair. If the relative motion between the pairing elements is the combination of turning and sliding, then it is called as cylindrical pair. DOF = 2

Fig.1.8 Sliding pair

Fig.1.9 Turning pair

Fig.1.10 Cylindrical pair

(d) Rolling pair. When the pairing elements have rolling contact, the pair formed is called rolling pair. Eg. Bearings, Belt and pulley. DOF = 1

Fig.1.11 (a) Ball bearing

Fig.1.11(b) Belt and pulley

(e) Spherical pair. A spherical pair will have surface contact and three degrees of freedom. Eg. Ball and socket joint. DOF = 3 (f) Helical pair or screw pair. When the nature of contact between the elements of a pair is such that one element can turn about the other by screw threads, it is known as screw pair. Eg. Nut and bolt. DOF = 1

4

Elements of pairs held together mechanically due to their geometry constitute a closed pair. Cam and follower.15 Force closed pair (cam & follower) Constrained motion: In a kinematic pair. If the constrained motion is achieved by the pairing elements themselves. 5 . Fig.1.13 Screw pair (a) Closed pair. (b) Unclosed or force closed pair.1. if one element has got only one definite motion relative to the other.Eg. Fig.1.12 Ball and socket joint (iii) Based on the nature of mechanical constraint.Fig. They are also called form-closed or self-closed pair. then the motion is called constrained motion. then it is called completely constrained motion. (a) Completely constrained motion.14 Closed pair Fig. Elements of pairs held together by the action of external forces constitute unclosed or force closed pair . 1.

it is called successfully constrained motion. Eg.Fig. it is called incompletely constrained motion. by its self weight.1.1.16 completely constrained motion (b) Successfully constrained motion. (c) Incompletely constrained motion.18 Incompletely constrained motion Kinematic chain: A kinematic chain is a group of links either joined together or arranged in a manner that permits them to move relative to one another.19 Locked chain or structure 6 . Fig. it results in a locked chain or structure. then. where shaft is constrained from moving upwards. If the links are connected in such a way that no motion is possible. If constrained motion is not achieved by the pairing elements themselves.1. Foot step bearing. Shaft in a circular hole. but by some other means.1. Eg.17 Foot strep bearing Fig. Fig. When relative motion between pairing elements takes place in more than one direction.

all mechanisms are not machines. Fig. then it is called as unconstrained kinematic chain and it is not mechanism. for a particular position of a link of the chain.1.20 Slider crank and four bar mechanisms.1. the positions of each of the other links of the chain can not be predicted.21 Drafter Planar mechanisms: When all the links of a mechanism have plane motion. All the links in a planar mechanism move in planes parallel to the reference plane. This means that the motion of any one link in the kinematic chain will give a definite and predictable motion relative to each of the others. Usually one of the links of the kinematic chain is fixed in a mechanism. it is called as a planar mechanism. 7 . because they do no useful work nor do they transform energy.1. Eg. drafter. Though all machines are mechanisms. If. Mechanical clock.21 Unconstrained kinematic chain Machine: A machine is a mechanism or collection of mechanisms. Fig. Fig.Mechanism: A mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. which transmit force from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. Many instruments are mechanisms but are not machines.

n2 = number of binary links. If more than two links are joined together at any point. with respect to the fixed link at any given instant.e. two inputs to any two links are required to yield definite motions in all the links. one input to any one link will result in definite motion of all the links. l = 5 and h = 0. l = 7 and h = 0.. h = Number of higher pairs Examples of determination of degrees of freedom of planar mechanisms: (i) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. where. F = 3(5-1)-2(5) = 2 I. n = 5. n3 = number of ternary links…etc. n = 4. one additional lower pair is to be considered for every additional link.. (ii) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. which is obtained by counting the number of joints.e. n2 = 5.. n = 6. l = Number of lower pairs. Grubler’s equation: Number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is given by F = 3(n-1)-2l-h. F = Degrees of freedom n = Number of links = n2 + n3 +……+nj. 8 .Degrees of freedom/mobility of a mechanism: It is the number of inputs (number of independent coordinates) required to describe the configuration or position of all the links of the mechanism. l = 4 and h = 0. F = 3(4-1)-2(4) = 1 I. (iii) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1 I.e. n2 = 4. Where. n3 =2. n2 = 4. one input to any one link will result in definite motion of all the links. then.

F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1 9 .. F = 3(4-1)-2(5) = -1 I. (a) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here.(iv) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. 4. l = 15 (two lower pairs at the intersection of 3.e. F = 3(3-1)-2(2)-1 = 1 (c) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. 3 and 4. 2. n3 =1. n = 3. l = 7 (at the intersection of 2. 5. 5. n = 4. F = 3(11-1)-2(15) = 0 (vi) Determine the mobility of the following mechanisms. l = 2 and h = 1. n = 11. n = 3. 10. two lower pairs are to be considered) and h = 0. l = 2 and h = 1. F = 3(6-1)-2(7) = 1 (v) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. 4. n = 6. 6. it is a structure (b) F = 3(n-1)-2l-h Here. n2 = 5. l = 5 and h = 0. 8. 11) and h = 0. 7. 8.

Different mechanisms can be obtained by fixing different links of the same kinematic chain.23 Inversions of four bar chain. The inversion of a mechanism does not change the motion of its links relative to each other. all other mechanisms will be known as inversions of original mechanism. Four bar chain: Fig 1. Inversions of four bar chain: Fig. the number of mechanisms which can be obtained is equal to the number of links. Excepting the original mechanism. the link which can make complete rotation is known as crank (link 2). The link which oscillates is known as rocker or lever (link 4). By changing the fixed link. In this mechanism. Link 1 is the frame.22 Four bar chain One of the most useful and most common mechanisms is the four-bar linkage.1. And the link connecting these two is known as coupler (link 3). 10 .Inversions of mechanism: A mechanism is one in which one of the links of a kinematic chain is fixed. These are called as inversions of the mechanism.

This is one type of drag link mechanism.25 Double crank mechanism.1. Link 2 (crank) rotates completely and link 4 (rocker) oscillates.1. Fig. links 1& 3 are equal and parallel and links 2 & 4 are equal and parallel.Crank-rocker mechanism: In this mechanism.23. This is similar to 1. either link 1 or link 3 is fixed.1.26 11 .24 Drag link mechanism.1.23(c). It is similar to (a) or (b) of fig. Here link 2 is fixed and both links 1 and 4 make complete rotation but with different velocities. Fig. where. Fig.

1. It has one sliding pair and three turning pairs.1.28 (c) slider fixed Rotary engine – I inversion of slider crank mechanism. Link 1 is frame (fixed). In this mechanism. Fig1. (a) crank fixed (b) connecting rod fixed Fig. whereas links 3 & 4 oscillate (Fig. (crank fixed) Fig. 3 and 4.29 12 .1. This mechanism is used to convert rotary motion to reciprocating and vice versa.27 Inversions of slider crank chain: Inversions of slider crank mechanism is obtained by fixing links 2. Link 4 has reciprocating motion and is called slider. Link 2 makes complete rotation.Double rocker mechanism.23d) Slider crank chain: This is a kinematic chain having four links. Link 3 has got combined rotary and reciprocating motion and is called connecting rod. Link 2 has rotary motion and is called crank. link 4 is fixed.

30 Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism – II inversion of slider crank mechanism (connecting rod fixed). Fig.31 13 .1. Fig.Whitworth quick return motion mechanism–I inversion of slider crank mechanism.1.

33 14 . Fig.1.Oscillating cylinder engine–II inversion of slider crank mechanism (connecting rod fixed). Fig.1.32 Pendulum pump or bull engine–III inversion of slider crank mechanism (slider fixed).

2&3. then. Turning pairs – 1&2.1. Fig. Fig. Sliding pairs – 3&4. 2 2 15 . 1.sinθ. This is a device which is used for generating an elliptical profile.cosθ and y = p.1. with major axis and minor axis equal to 2p and 2q respectively. x y Rearranging.34 Inversions of double slider crank mechanism: Elliptical trammel. Scotch –Yoke mechanism. 4&1. The q p path traced by point C is an ellipse.35. + = cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ = 1 . This is the equation of an ellipse. x = q. if AC = p and BC = q.35 In fig.Double slider crank chain: It is a kinematic chain consisting of two turning pairs and two sliding pairs.

New age international publishers.Bansal. 16 . 5.Martin.P. 2.R. whose axes are offset by a small amount. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr. This is an inversion of double slider crank mechanism. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.Singh. McGraw-Hill International Editions. John Wiley and Sons. Dhanpat Rai and Co.S. Fig.36 References: 1. 6. Ocvirk. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker. which is used to connect two parallel shafts.K.Oldham coupling.Rao. 4.1. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. McGraw-Hill Publications. Theory of Machines by V. 3. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H.Jr. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J. Mabie and Fred W.

Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post 17 . IE. where. Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post E of the machine. cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B1AB2 in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B2AB1 in anti-clockwise direction. link 2 is the input link. Here. During cutting stroke. Input is given to link 2. Some of the common types of quick return motion mechanisms are discussed below. Quick return mechanisms are used in machine tools such as shapers and power driven saws for the purpose of giving the reciprocating cutting tool a slow cutting stroke and a quick return stroke with a constant angular velocity of the driving crank. tool post moves from E1 to E2. ˆ Timeforforwardstroke B1 AB2 ( anti − clockwise ) = ˆ Timeforreturnstroke B2 AB1 ( anti − clockwise ) Whitworth quick return motion mechanism: This is first inversion of slider mechanism. The corresponding positions of C are C1 and C2 as shown in the fig. which moves at constant speed.1.) Quick return motion mechanisms. in anti-clockwise direction. Drag link mechanism This is one of the inversions of four bar mechanism. The ratio of time required for the cutting stroke to the time required for the return stroke is called the time ratio and is greater than unity.37 The time ratio is given by the following equation. For the point C to move from C1 to C2.37. point B moves from B1 to B2. Fig. with four turning pairs. 1. crank 1 is fixed.Kinematics of Machines {ME44} CHAPTER – I (contd. moving with constant angular velocity in anti-clockwise direction.

. which moves at constant speed. tool post moves from D1 to D11. in anti-clockwise direction. The corresponding positions of C are C1 and C11 as shown in the fig. tool post moves from D1 to D11.E. cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B1O2B11 in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B 11O2B1 in anti-clockwise direction. Fig.1. point B moves from B1 to B11. 1. During cutting stroke.39.E. For the point C to move from C1 to C11. Input is given to link 2. During cutting stroke. connecting rod is fixed.. 1. point B moves from B1 to B11. ˆ Timeforforwardstroke B′o2 B′′ θ1 = = ˆ Timeforreturnstroke B′′o2 B′ θ 2 Crank and slotted lever quick return motion mechanism This is second inversion of slider mechanism. cutting stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B1O2B11 in anti-clockwise direction and return stroke takes place when input link moves through angle B 11O2B1 in anti-clockwise direction. in anti-clockwise direction. For the point C to move from C1 to C11. I. Point C of the mechanism is connected to the tool post D of the machine.D of the machine.38.38 The time ratio is given by the following equation. 18 . The corresponding positions of C are C1 and C11 as shown in the fig. where. I.

Condition for exact straight line motion: If point B (fig. point C. 19 . having a point that moves along a straight line. provided product of AB and AC is constant.Fig. without being guided by a plane surface.1. ˆ Timeforforwardstroke B′o2 B′′ θ1 = = ˆ Timeforreturnstroke B′′o2 B′ θ 2 Straight line motion mechanisms Straight line motion mechanisms are mechanisms.39 The time ratio is given by the following equation. then. which is an extension of AB traces a straight line perpendicular to AO.40) moves on the circumference of a circle with center O and radius OA.1. or nearly along a straight line.

41 Here. ifAB × AC = const. AE is the input link and point E moves along a circular path of radius AE = AB. Peaucellier exact straight line motion mechanism: Fig. perpendicular to BA extended.1. EC = ED = PC = PD and BC = BD. ∴ AE = const.40 Locus of pt. ┴ to AE if.C will be a straight line. 20 . AB × AC is constant Proof: ∆AEC ≡ ∆ABD AD AB ∴ = AC AE AB × AC ∴ AE = AD butAD = const. Point P of the mechanism moves along exact straight line.. Also.Fig.1.

E and P. product of BP and BE is constant. BD. Also. Hence these three points always lie on the same straight line. E and P lie on same straight line: Triangles BCD.42 This is a four bar mechanism. To prove product of BE and BP is constant. ECD and PCD are all isosceles triangles having common base CD and apex points being B.To prove B. CP and PD are all equal. E and P always lie on the perpendicular bisector of CD. dimensions AC. Point P of the mechanism moves very nearly along line AB. 21 . PCD is a single integral link.1.41. Approximate straight line motion mechanism: A few four bar mechanisms with certain modifications provide approximate straight line motions. In triangles BFC and PFC. Thus point P always moves along a straight line perpendicular to BA as shown in the fig. BC 2 = FB 2 + FC 2 and PC 2 = PF 2 + FC 2 ∴ BC 2 − PC 2 = FB 2 − PF 2 = ( FB + PF )( FB − PF ) = BP × BE But since BC and PC are constants. Therefore points B.1. where. Robert’s mechanism Fig. which is the condition for exact straight line motion.

In the mechanism shown.44 Ratchets are used to transform motion of rotation or translation into intermittent rotation or translation. that the pin enters and leaves them tangentially avoiding impact loading during transmission of motion. link A is driver and it contains a pin which engages with the slots in the driven link B.1. Ratchet and pawl mechanism Fig. which is mounted on the driver. In the fig.Intermittent motion mechanisms An intermittent-motion mechanism is a linkage which converts continuous motion into intermittent motion.1. The slots are positioned in such a manner.43). The locking plate. the driven member makes one-fourth of a revolution for each revolution of the driver. Geneva wheel mechanism Fig. prevents the driven member from rotating except during the indexing period. These mechanisms are commonly used for indexing in machine tools.43 In the mechanism shown (Fig. As lever B is made 22 .1. A is the ratchet wheel and C is the pawl.1.44.

to which. power is supplied and 6 is the output link. where large resistances are to be overcome through short distances.to oscillate. Other mechanisms Toggle mechanism Fig. which has to overcome external resistance.1.45. the ratchet wheel will rotate anticlockwise with an intermittent motion. This mechanism is used in rock crushers.1. 2 is the input link. presses. Here. effort applied will be small but acts over large distance.45 Toggle mechanisms are used. F (effort) is much smaller than P(resistance). Links 4 and 5 are of equal length. Considering the equilibrium condition of slider 6. F 23 . A holding pawl D is provided to prevent the reverse motion of ratchet wheel. In the mechanism shown in fig. riveting machines etc. 2 P ∴ F = 2 P tan α tan α = For small angles of α.

From the fig.Pantograph Pantographs are used for reducing or enlarging drawings and maps.46 In the mechanism shown in fig. In the mechanism shown. ∴ EE ′ // AA′ And OC ∴ EE ′ = AA′ OD OC is the magnification factor. as discussed below. OC OC ′ OE OE ′ EE ′ OE OC = = AA′ OA OD But. ∆ODA ≡ ∆OCE and ∆OD ′A′ ≡ ∆OC ′E ′ .1.∴ ∆OAA′ ≡ ∆OEE ′.46. AB = CD.46 path traced by point A will be magnified by point E to scale. AD =BC and OAE lie on a straight line. When point A moves to A′ . They are also used for guiding cutting tools or torches to fabricate complicated shapes. E moves to E ′ and OA′E ′ also lies on a straight line. Where OD 24 . Fig. ∴ OD OA DA OD ′ OA′ D ′A′ = = = = and OC OE CE OC ′ OE ′ C ′E ′ OD OD ′ OA OA′ = .∴ = .1.1.

this variation is compensated by the universal joint between shafts 2 and 3. One of the important applications of universal joint is in automobiles. Fig. shaft 3 varies in speed.Hooke’s joint (Universal joints) Hooke’s joins is used to connect two nonparallel but intersecting shafts. where it is used to transmit power from engine to the wheel axle.47(b) Steering gear mechanism The steering mechanism is used in automobiles for changing the directions of the wheel axles with reference to the chassis. (fig.47(b)). 25 .1. Intermediate shaft 3 connects input shaft 1 and output shaft 2 with two universal joints. The angle α between 1 and 2 is equal to angle α between 2 and 3.1.1. When shaft 1 has uniform rotation. it has two U –shaped yokes ‘a’ and ‘b’ and a center block or cross-shaped piece. a pair of universal joints should be used (fig.1.47(a) Fig. The amount of fluctuation depends on the angle (α) between the two shafts.47(a)) The universal joint can transmit power between two shafts intersecting at around 300 angles (α). however. so as to move the automobile in the desired path. For uniform transmission of motion. C. In its basic shape. the angular velocity ratio is not uniform during the cycle of operation. However.

the two back wheels will have a common axis. w = distance between the pivots of front axles.48. When the vehicle takes a turn. L = wheel base.1. a = wheel track. Always there should be absolute rolling contact between the wheels and the road surface.1. absolute rolling motion of the wheels on the road surface is possible. The back axle and the back wheels remain straight. the front wheels are placed over the front axles (stub axles).48 From ∆IAE .48. In automobiles. Any sliding motion will cause wear of tyres.Usually. While negotiating a curve. which is fixed in direction with reference to the chassis and the steering is done by means of front wheels. In the fig. the inner wheel makes a larger turning angle θ than the angle φ subtended by the axis of the outer wheel. Therefore. along with the stub axles turn about the pivoted points. cotφ = AE AE = and EI L EB ( EA + AB ) ( EA + w) EA w w = = = + = cot θ + EI EI L L L L 26 . When a vehicle is taking turn. which are pivoted at the points A & B as shown in the fig. the two front wheels must turn about the same instantaneous centre I which lies on the axis of the back wheel. the front wheels.1. Fig. cotθ = from ∆BEI . only if all the wheels describe concentric circles. Condition for perfect steering The condition for perfect steering is that all the four wheels must turn about the same instantaneous centre.

49 c R S A ' A B d P x x B ' d Q fig. Links RA and SB which are equal in length are integral with the stub axles. RSAB is a four bar chain as shown in fig. If this L condition is satisfied. there will be no skidding of the wheels when the vehicle takes a turn.∴ cot φ − cot θ = w . This is the fundamental equation for correct steering.50 indicate the position of the mechanism when the vehicle is turning left. Ackermann steering gear mechanism Fig.1.1.50. These links are connected with each other through track rod AB.1.50 Ackerman steering mechanism. links RA and SB make equal angles α with the center line of the vehicle.1. The dotted lines in fig. When the vehicle is in straight ahead position. 27 .

McGraw-Hill International Editions. the stub axles of inner and outer wheels turn by θ and φ angles respectively. 8. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd. References: 7.Martin. T he difference between φc and φa will be very small for small angles of θ. [φa] can be obtained for different values of θ. the movements of A and B in the horizontal direction may be taken to be same (x). Hence its maintenance will be easier and is commonly employed in automobiles. The correct values of φ. As this mechanism employs only turning pairs.Bansal. John Wiley and Sons. PRA = QSB = α and in the turned position. ARA1 = θ & BSB 1 = φ . sin ( α + θ ) + sin ( α − φ ) = Angle α can be determined using the above equation. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J. the greater difference between φc and φa larger values of θ ill not matter. For the given dimensions of the mechanism. 11.Jr. Neglecting the obliquity of the track rod in the turned position. sin ( α + θ ) = d+x d−x and sin ( α − φ ) = r r 2d = 2 sin α r [1] Adding. for correct steering can be determined using equation [2].P. Theory of Machines by V. when θ = 0 and other two each corresponding to the turn to right or left (at a fixed turning angle. but the difference will be substantial. Mabie and Fred W. The values of θ and φ to be taken in w this equation are those found for correct steering using the equation cot φ − cot θ = . Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. friction and wear in the mechanism will be less.Singh.K. hence is will be moving at a slow speed. At low speeds. Therefore.S. actual values of φ. the automobile must take a sharp turn. [2] L This mechanism gives correct steering in only three positions. McGraw-Hill Publications. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H. New age international publishers. Then. 9. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker. A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr. 6. But for larger values of θ. wear of the tyres is less. Dhanpat Rai and Co. Chapter VI 28 . One.Rao. for larger values of θ. as determined by equation [1]). RA=SB=r.ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Let AB=l. [φc] corresponding to different values of θ. Such a difference will reduce the life of tyres because of greater wear on account of slipping. 10.R. IE. Ocvirk.

The roller follows the groove. 6.1a and b): The disk (or plate) cam has an irregular contour to impart a specific motion to the follower. 6. the cam normally rotates while the follower may translate or oscillate. The follower moves in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the camshaft and is held in contact with the cam by springs or gravity. where the cams drive the push rods (the followers) to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the pistons.2): The cylindrical cam has a groove cut along its cylindrical surface. The driver is called the cam and the driven member is called the follower.CAMS INTRODUCTION A cam is a mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact.1 Plate or disk cam. The follower may oscillate (Fig. and the follower moves in a plane parallel to the axis of rotation of the cylinder. 6. a) Disk or plate cam (Fig. Fig. The translating cam is a contoured or grooved plate sliding on a guiding surface(s). In a cam follower pair. Fig.3a) or reciprocate 29 . c) Translating cam (Fig. b) Cylindrical cam (Fig. A familiar example is the camshaft of an automobile engine. 6. Types of cams Cams can be classified based on their physical shape. 6.3a and b). 6.2 Cylindrical cam.

The contour or the shape of the groove is determined by the specified motion of the follower. 6. Fig. 6. 6.3b).3 Translating cam Types of followers: (i) Based on surface in contact.5) (a) Oscillating follower (b) Translating follower 30 . (Fig.(Fig.6.4) (a) Knife edge follower (b) Roller follower (c) Flat faced follower (d) Spherical follower Fig.6.4 Types of followers (ii) Based on type of motion: (Fig.

the lines of movement are offset from the centers of the camshafts (Fig.5 (iii) Based on line of motion: (a) Radial follower: The lines of movement of in-line cam followers pass through the centers of the camshafts (Fig.6. Fig. and d). b.7): 31 .4a. 6.Fig. 6. (b) Off-set follower: For this type.6. 6. c. b.6 Off set followers Cam nomenclature (Fig.6a. c. and d).

Fig. dwells. with its center on the axis of the camshaft. during each revolution of the cam. with its center on the axis of the camshaft.7 Cam Profile The contour of the working surface of the cam. Pitch Curve Base Circle The path of the tracer point. Some of the standard follower motions are as follows: They are.6. Prime Circle Pressure Angle The angle between the normal to the pitch curve and the direction of motion of the follower at the point of contact. or the center of a roller. returns to its original position and dwells again through specified angles of rotation of the cam. Types of follower motion: Cam follower systems are designed to achieve a desired oscillatory motion. The cam is assumed to rotate at a constant speed and the follower raises. Appropriate displacement patterns are to be selected for this purpose. 32 . The size of the base circle determines the size of the cam. The smallest circle drawn. Tracer Point The point at the knife edge of a follower. or the center of a spherical face. before designing the cam surface. tangential to the pitch curve. tangential to the cam profile. follower motion with. The smallest circle drawn.

one rotation of the cam.(a) Uniform velocity (b) Modified uniform velocity (c) Uniform acceleration and deceleration (d) Simple harmonic motion (e) Cycloidal motion Displacement diagrams: In a cam follower system. since the velocity changes from zero to a finite value. Since the follower moves with constant velocity. From the displacement diagram.6. during rise and fall. within no time. Displacement diagrams are basic requirements for the construction of cam profiles.8 shows the displacement. the acceleration becomes infinite at the beginning and end of rise and fall. The displacement. Its displacement can be plotted against the angular displacement θ of the cam and it is called as the displacement diagram. The displacement of the follower is plotted along the y-axis and angular displacement θ of the cam is plotted along x-axis. Construction of displacement diagrams and calculation of velocities and accelerations of followers with different types of motions are discussed in the following sections. the motion of the follower is very important. velocity and acceleration patterns of a follower having uniform velocity type of motion. theoretically. the displacement varies linearly with θ. Also.e. velocity and acceleration diagrams are plotted for one cycle of operation i. 33 . (a) Follower motion with Uniform velocity: Fig.. velocity and acceleration of the follower can also be plotted for different angular displacements θ of the cam.

8 (b) Follower motion with modified uniform velocity: It is observed in the displacement diagrams of the follower with uniform velocity that the acceleration of the follower becomes infinite at the beginning and ending of rise and return strokes. Accordingly. In the modified form.Fig. With this modification. the acceleration becomes 34 . the displacement diagrams are slightly modified. In order to prevent this.6. the velocity of the follower changes uniformly during the beginning and end of each stroke. the displacement of the follower varies parabolically during these periods.

6. The displacement. Accordingly.10.6. velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig. 35 . fig. the displacement of the follower varies parabolically with respect to angular displacement of cam. The displacement. The acceleration/retardation of the follower becomes constant accordingly. instead of being infinite as in the uniform velocity type of motion.9.6. the velocity of the follower varies uniformly with respect to angular displacement of cam. velocity and acceleration patterns are shown in fig.constant during these periods.9 (c) Follower motion with uniform acceleration and retardation (UARM): Here.

Fig. Time required for follower outstroke = to = θo ω Time required for follower return stroke = tr = θr ω 36 . ω = Angular velocity of cam.10 s = Stroke of the follower θo and θr = Angular displacement of the cam during outstroke and return stroke.6.

Average velocity of follower =

s t s 2 = s = vomin + vomax to 2 2

Average velocity of follower during outstroke = t o vomin = 0 ∴ vomax =

2s 2ωs = = Max. velocity during outstroke. to θo s 2 = s = vrmin + vrmax tr 2 2

Average velocity of follower during return stroke = t r vrmin = 0 ∴ vrmax =

2 s 2ωs = = Max. velocity during return stroke. tr θr

vo 4ω 2 s a o = max = 2 Acceleration of the follower during outstroke = to θo 2 Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke = a r = 4ω 2 s

θr

2

(d) Simple Harmonic Motion: In fig.6.11, the motion executed by point Pl, which is the projection of point P on the vertical diameter is called simple harmonic motion. Here, P moves with uniform angular velocity ωp, along a circle of radius r (r = s/2).

y

p ' y r a

p

x

37

**Fig.6.11 Displacement = y = r sin α = r sin ω p t ; y max = r Velocity = y = ω p r cos ω p t ; y max = rω p
**

2 2 2 y y Acceleration = = −ω p r sin ω p t = −ω p y ; max = − rω p

[d1] [d2] [d3]

Fig.6.11 s= Stroke or displacement of the follower. θo = Angular displacement during outstroke. θr = Angular displacement during return stroke ω = Angular velocity of cam. to = Time taken for outstroke =

θo ω

tr = Time taken for return stroke =

θr ω

Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vomax = rωp (from d2)

38

vomax =

s π πωs = 2 t o 2θ o s π πωs = 2 t r 2θ r π 2ω 2 s = 2 2θ o

2

Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = , vrmax = sπ Max. acceleration during outstroke = aomax = rω p (from d3) = 2 to

2

sπ Similarly, Max. acceleration during return stroke = armax = 2 tr

π 2ω 2 s = 2θ 2 r

2

39

(e) Cycloidal motion: Cycloid is the path generated by a point on the circumference of a circle, as the circle rolls without slipping, on a straight/flat surface. The motion executed by the follower here, is similar to that of the projection of a point moving along a cyloidal curve on a vertical line as shown in figure 6.12.

a7 a6 C L ID L YCO A MT N OIO a5 a4 a3 a2 a1

F O L L O W E R M O T I O N

66

a

21

Fig.6.12 The construction of displacement diagram and the standard patterns of velocity and acceleration diagrams are shown in fig.6.13. Compared to all other follower motions, cycloidal motion results in smooth operation of the follower. The expressions for maximum values of velocity and acceleration of the follower are shown below. s = Stroke or displacement of the follower. d = dia. of cycloid generating circle = s π

θo = Angular displacement during outstroke. θr = Angular displacement during return stroke ω = Angular velocity of cam. to = Time taken for outstroke =

θo ω

θr ω

2ωs θo

tr = Time taken for return stroke =

vomax = Max. velocity of follower during outstroke =

40

acceleration during return stroke = θ 2r Fig. acceleration during outstroke = 2πω 2 s 2ωs θr θo 2 2πω 2 s armax = Max. 6.vrmax = Max.13 41 . velocity of follower during return stroke = aomax = Max.

42 .

for 600 cam rotation. Displacement diagram: 5 4 3 2 1 0 b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 c 6 e d f g h i j k l 1 2 D EL WL L =5 m IFT 0 m OT S R K U T OE RT R S RK E U N T OE Cam profile: Construct base circle. base circle radius = 50mm. out stroke with SHM.3…. return stroke with SHM.2. for 900 cam rotation. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1000 rpm in clockwise direction.Solved problems (1) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = Knife edged.. Transfer points a. lift = 50mm. in-line. dwell for the remaining period.c….. Mark points 1.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. 43 .b. This forms the required cam profile. Determine max. dwell for 450 cam rotation.l from displacement diagram to the cam profile and join them by a smooth free hand curve.

vrmax = π × 104.857m/sec 2×π 3 πωs = 2θ r Similarly Max. velocity of follower during return stroke = .76 × 50 =7857mm/sec =7.76 rad/sec 60 60 Max. velocity of follower during outstroke = vomax = = πωs = 2θ o π × 104. acceleration during outstroke = aomax = rω p (from d3) = = 2 2θ o 2 44 .e f d c b 2 60° a 1 4 6 5 3 4° 5 5 0 7 g 8 9 1 0 h i 1 1 1 2 l j k 90° Calculations: Angular velocity of cam = ω = 2πN 2 × π × 1000 = =104.76 × 50 = = 5238mm/sec = 5.238m/sec 2×π 2 π 2ω 2 s Max.

96mm/sec2 = 2469. Max.3m/sec2 2 = 2× π 3 ( ) π 2ω 2 s Similarly.76 ) 2 × 50 = 1097465.76mm/sec2 = 1097.π 2 × (104.76 ) 2 × 50 = 2469297. acceleration during return stroke = armax = = 2θ 2 r π 2 × (104.5m/sec2 2 = 2× π 2 ( ) 45 .

e f d c b 2 a 1 1 0 3 4 5 6 ° 60 5m 0m 5 4° 7 g 8 9 1 0 9° 0 1 1 1 2 l h i k j 46 . Displacement diagram: Same as previous case.2. as shown in the fig. except that the lines drawn from 1. Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case.(2) Draw the cam profile for the same operating conditions of problem (1). are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia. with the follower off set by 10 mm to the left of cam center.3….

47 25 .. for 900 cam rotation. draw a smooth free hand curve. on prime circle.in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 1200 rpm in clockwise direction. return stroke with UARM. Displacement diagram: e d c b a 0 1 2 3 4 5 f g h i j k l L IFT 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 OT S R K U T OE D EL WL RT R SR K E U N T OE D EL WL Cam profile: Construct base circle and prime circle (25mm radius). out stroke with UARM. At each of these points a. in-line. This forms the required cam profile. tangential to all successive roller positions. Determine max. Transfer points a. representing rollers.(3) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower.2. dwell for 600 cam rotation. lift = 25mm.l from displacement diagram. roller radius = 5mm.c…. Mark points 1. Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle. for 1200 cam rotation.c… draw circles of 5mm radius. dwell for the remaining period. base circle radius = 20mm..b.b.3….

71rad/sec 60 60 2 s 2ωs = = to θo Max.9mm/sec =2.71) × 25 2 (2 × π 3 ) 2 = 359975mm/sec2 = 359.71 × 25 = 2999. velocity during outstroke = vomax = = 2 × 125.999m/sec vo 4ω 2 s a o = max = 2 Acceleration of the follower during outstroke = to θo = 2 = 4 × (125.999m/sec 2×π 3 2 s 2ωs 2 × 125. velocity during return stroke = vrmax = t = θ = π r r 2 = 3999.86mm/sec = 3.b c d 4 5 e 6 f 3 2 a 1 0 10 2° 60° 7 2m 0m 90 ° 1 1 8 9 1 0 1 l 2 k j i h g Calculations: Angular velocity of the cam = ω = 2πN 2 × π × 1200 = = 125.975m/sec2 4ω 2 s Similarly acceleration of the follower during return stroke = a r = θr 2 = 48 .71 × 25 = Max.

71) × 25 2 (π 2 ) 2 = 639956mm/sec2 = 639.956m/sec2 49 .= 4 × (125.

(4) Draw the cam profile for conditions same as in (3). a 1 b 2 3 4 c 5 20 m m 2 1 0° d 2 l 1 90° 1 1 k 1 0 j 9 60° 6 7 5 e 8 f i h g 50 . Cam profile: Construction is same as previous case. are tangential to the offset circle of 10mm dia.2.3…. Displacement diagram: Same as previous case. with follower off set to right of cam center by 5mm and cam rotating counter clockwise. as shown in the fig. except that the lines drawn from 1.

(5) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. acceleration is 3/5 times retardation. roller radius = 14mm. during 0. off set to the right of cam axis by 18mm. lift = 35mm.125 × 360 = 180 0 Angle of return stroke = θ r = 0. base circle radius = 50mm. 3 a 3 a = r (from acceleration diagram) ∴ = 5 r 5 v max v a t 3 .05 × 360 = 72 0 0.25 sec 240 0. During return stroke. return stroke with UARM. 51 .25 0 Angle of second dwell = θ w 2 = 90 Since acceleration is 3/5 times retardation during return stroke.25 0. velocity and acceleration during out stroke and return stroke if the cam rotates at 240 rpm. dwell for 0.05sec.0125 × 360 = 18 0 Angle of first dwell = θ w1 = 0.0125sec. Calculations: Cam speed = 240rpm.25 0. Therefore. Determine max. out stroke with SHM in 0. time for one rotation = Angle of out stroke = θ o = 60 = 0. dwell for the remaining period. r = max ∴ = r = But a = ta tr r ta 5 Displacement diagram is constructed by selecting ta and tr accordingly.125sec.

14mm/sec2 = 69. velocity of follower during outstroke = vomax = = 2θ o π × 25.9 mm/sec = 0. acceleration during outstroke = aomax = rω2p (from d3) = = 2 2θ o Angular velocity of cam = ω = ( ) π 2 × ( 25.14 × 35 = = 1099.14 rad/sec 60 60 πωs Max.56m/sec π 2ω 2 s Max.87mm/sec =1.14 ) 2 × 35 = 69127.13m/sec2 2 = 2×π 2× 5 ( ) 52 .1m/sec 2× 2×π 5 2ωs 2 × 25.14 × 35 = = Similarly Max. velocity during return stroke = vrmax = θr π = 559.5 4 3 2 1 0 6 e d c b a 1 2 3 4 5 f g h i j k l m n 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 D EL WL L =3 m IFT 5 m OTS R K U T OE v RT R S R K E U N T OE ta tr v ax r-m a r a 2πN 2 × π × 240 = =25.

94m/sec2 1 8 7166.acceleration of the follower during return stroke = 2ωs 2 vrmax θr 16 × ω 2 × s 16 × ( 25.37 mm/sec2 = 11943.9 mm/sec2 = a 1 2 b c d 3 4 e 72° 5 6 1 8° f n 1 4 7 1 3 m 1 2 1 1 l 9 1 0 h 1 80° g 8 k j i 53 .17m/sec2 similarly retardation of the follower during return stroke = 2ωs 2 vrmax θr 16 × ω 2 × s 16 × ( 25.14 ) × 35 = rr = = = = 3×π tr 3× π ×θr 3×π ×π 8×ω 11.14) × 35 = ar = = = = 5×π ta 5 × π ×θr 5×π ×π 8×ω 7.

lift = 30mm. return stroke with uniform velocity. in line. Displacement diagram: a 1 b 2 c d e f g h i j 3m 0m l k 3 4 5 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 1 1 0 1 2 D EL WL OT S R K U T OE Cam profile: RT R S RK E U N T OE c d e b 2 3 4 5 6 10 2° a 1 ° 90 60° ° 90 f 7 8 9 1 2 l 1 1 1 k 0 j i g h 54 . base circle radius = 20mm. out stroke with uniform velocity in 1200 of cam rotation.(6) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = knife edged follower. dwell for the remaining period. dwell for 600. during 900 of cam rotation.

55 .

follower to rise through 400 during 900 of cam rotation with cycloidal motion. Also determine the max. dwell for 300.(7) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = oscillating follower with roller as shown in fig.4 mm 2×π π = 53 mm. roller radius = 7mm.. return stroke with cycloidal motion during 1200 of cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. 76 36 76 B 4° 0 O A Lift of the follower = S = length AB ≈ arc AB = OA × θ = 76 × 40 × Radius of cycloid generating circle = Displacement diagram. base circle radius = 20mm. velocity and acceleration during outstroke and return stroke. 180 56 . 53 = 8. if the cam rotates at 600 rpm.

9 1 1 6.8 0 8 7 1 1 e d c b a 4 3 2 1 OT S R K U T OE 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 f g h i j k l 53 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 D EL WL RT R S RK E UN T OE D EL WL 57 .

3’… on the outer circle. acceleration during return stroke = θ 2 r = 2×π 3 = 299855.1 m/sec2. 2’. draw a smooth free hand curve.86 × 53 vomax = Max. acceleration during outstroke = = 533077 θo π 2 mm/sec2 = 533. Cam profile: Draw base circle and prime circle. Transfer points a. velocity of follower during return stroke = θ = = 3180 2×π r 3 mm/sec 2 2πω 2 s 2 × π × ( 62. This forms the required cam profile.86 ) × 53 = 2 2 aomax = Max.8mm/sec2 = 299.8 m/sec2. Show points 1’.2.3…. With these points as centers and radius equal to length of follower arm.2 π o 2 mm/sec 2ωs 2 × 62. representing rollers.86 rad/sec 60 60 2ωs 2 × 62.86 ) × 53 = 2 armax = Max. cutting the prime circle at 1..c… draw circles of 7mm radius. Divide these into same number of divisions as in the displacement diagram. on to these arcs from displacement diagram. Angular velocity of cam = ω = ( ) ( ) 58 .b. Draw another circle of radius equal to the distance between cam center and follower pivot point. Starting from the first point of contact between roller and base circle. At each of these points a. 2 2πω 2 s 2 × π × ( 62. tangential to all successive roller positions.2πN 2 × π × 600 = = 62.b.c. velocity of follower during outstroke = θ = = 4240. draw arcs.86 × 53 vrmax = Max. Take the line joining cam center and pivot point as reference and draw lines indicating successive angular displacements of cam.

76 c d 36 b 3 2 a 1 20 1 ° 1 ' 1 2' e 4 5 6 2' f 10 2° 0 9° 7 8 3° 0 1' 1 3 ' 9 1 0 1 1 l 1 2 m 1' 0 4 ' g h i 6' 7' 8' k 9 ' 5 ' 59 .

5 0 Angle of dwell (2) = 16 1 1 1 1 5 0 0 Angle of return stroke = θr = 1 − + + + × 360 = × 360 = 112. follower rises by 24mm with SHM in 1/4 rotation. Base circle radius = 30mm. dwells for 1/8 rotation and then raises again by 24mm with UARM in 1/4 rotation and dwells for 1/16 rotation before returning with SHM.5 4 8 4 16 16 Displacement diagram: m k l n o p q r s 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 D E L1 WL OTS R K 2 U T OE 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 5 6 7 8 9 R TU NS R K E R T OE 24 d c b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 OTS R K 1 U T OE e f g h i j 2m 4m D E L2 WL Cam profile: 60 . in line.(8) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = knife edged follower. Angle of out stroke (1) = θ01 = Angle of dwell (1) = 1 × 360 0 = 90 0 4 1 × 360 0 = 45 0 8 1 0 0 Angle of out stroke (2) = θ02 = × 360 = 90 4 1 × 360 0 = 22.

5° 90° 1 2 1 3 o 1 4 n g h i j k l m 61 .c d e 5 4 b 3 2 a 1 1 9 s 1 8 r q p 1 6 1 5 90° 1 2.5° 1 1 7 f 6 60 45° 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 22.

c….in direction opposite to the direction of cam rotation. dwells for 300 of cam rotation. Mark points 1. Transfer points a..l from displacement diagram. tangential to all successive follower positions. in line. Starting from the first point of contact between follower and base circle. 20 c d i j 62 . At each of these points a.3….2. returns with SHM in 1200 of cam rotation and dwells during the remaining period. on prime circle. representing flat faced followers.b.. follower rises by 20mm with SHM in 1200 of cam rotation.b. Displacement diagram: e f g h a 1 b 2 k l 3 4 5 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 D EL WL OTS R K U T OE RT R S R K E U N T OE Cam profile: Construct base circle.(9) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = flat faced follower.c… draw perpendicular lines to the radials. draw a smooth free hand curve. This forms the required cam profile. Base circle radius = 25mm.

25 b c d 3 4 5 e f 6 2 a 1 ° 90 10 2° 2° 10 9 1 0 1 l 2 1 1 k 7 ° 30 8 h g i j 63 .

follower rises by 25mm with SHM in 1800 of cam rotation. roller dia.(10) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower.5 OTS R K U T OE Cam profile: RT R SRK E U N T OE a b 2 c 2 R 0 d 3 4 5 e 6 1 1 1 l k 1 0 9 8 7 h g f i j 45 64 . = 5mm. falls by half the distance instantaneously. in line. Base circle radius = 20m. returns with Uniform velocity in 1800 of cam rotation. Displacement diagram: f d e g h 3 4 5 6 7 i 8 j 9 k 1 0 l 1 1 25 a 1 c b 2 1 2.

base circle radius = 25mm. lift = 30mm. Displacement diagram: f d c b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 e g h i j k l m n o 30 p q r 7 8 91 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cam profile: 65 . return stroke during 1200 cam rotation. off-set to the right by 5mm. for 1200 cam rotation. dwell for the remaining period. roller radius = 5mm.(11) Draw the cam profile for following conditions: Follower type = roller follower. out stroke with SHM. dwell for 600 cam rotation. first half of return stroke with Uniform velocity and second half with UARM.

The angle of action for the outstroke and the return stroke is 600 each. Draw the profile of the cam. along a path inclined to the vertical at 600. The stroke of the follower is 20mm. fitted to its end. interposed by a dwell period of 600. Displacement diagram: 66 . The base circle diameter of the cam is 50mm and the push rod has a roller of 60mm diameter. The same descends with SHM. The axis of the roller and the cam fall on the same vertical line.5 1 r 1 8 q p o n m l k j i h g 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 a 2 b c 3 60° 1 20° 1 20° 60° 6 9 8 4 5 d e 7 f (12) A push rod of valve of an IC engine ascends with UARM.

e d c b 2 3 4 5 f g h i 20 6 D EL WL 7 8 9 j k 1 0 1 1 l 1 2 D EL WL a 1 OT S R K U T OE RT R SR K E U N T OE Cam profile: 60° 1 6 cd e f b a 1 2 3 4 5 6 60° 60° 66 50 60° g 7 i h 8 9 1 1 1 j 2 1 0 k l 67 .

But when the tangential force exceeds the frictional resistance. Gears are machine elements that transmit motion by means of successively engaging teeth.1 When one of the discs is rotated. the only positive drive is by means of gears or toothed wheels. the other disc will be rotate as long as the tangential force exerted by the driving disc does not exceed the maximum frictional resistance between the two discs. Friction Wheels: Kinematiclly. special purpose machines. Some common places that gears can normally be found are: Printing machinery parts Rotary die cutting machines Blow molding machinery Agricultural equipment High volume vacuum pumps Boat out drives Hoists and Cranes Newspaper Industry Plastics machinery builders Book binding machines Injection molding machinery Motorcycle Transmissions (street Heavy earth moving to and race applications) personal vehicles Polymer pumps High volume water pumps for municipalities Turbo boosters for automotive Marine applications applications Special offshore racing drive Canning and bottling systems machinery builders Commercial and Military Military offroad vehicles 68 . slipping will take place between the two discs. The effect of slip is to reduce the velocity ratio of the drive. let us consider the two discs placed together as shown in the figure 4. Figure 4.1. In order to understand motion transmitted by two toothed wheels. the motion and power transmitted by gears is equivalent to that transmitted by friction wheels or discs in contact with sufficient friction between them. Gears essentially allow positive engagement between teeth so high forces can be transmitted while still undergoing essentially rolling contact. thus the motion transmitted is considered as positive. in which a definite velocity ratio is importance (as in watch mechanism. In precision machine. Gears are highly efficient (nearly 95%) due to primarily rolling contact between the teeth.etc).0 Gears: Introduction: The slip and creep in the belt or rope drives is a common phenomenon.. in the transmission of motion or power between two shafts. beyond certain limit. Thus the friction drive is not positive a drive. The gear teeth act like small levers.4. Gears do not depend on friction and do best when friction is minimized.

many spur gears are used at once to create very large gear reductions. most of the gears in your car are helical. They have straight teeth. inexpensive. Sometimes. Spur gearsgears most commonly used gear type. Gears for connecting parallel shafts 1. Parallel helical gears: The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear. Gears for connecting parallel shafts. They are characterized by teeth. It also increases the stress on the gear teeth. and efficient. The axes may be 1. the contact starts at one end of the tooth and gradually spreads as the gears rotate. 69 . Advantages: Spur gears are easy to find.1 Gear Classification: Gears may be classified according to the relative position of the axes of revolution. and are mounted on parallel shafts. Spur gears: Spur gears are the most common type of gears. When two teeth on a helical gear system engage. Gears for neither parallel nor intersecting shafts. • Iinternal contact 2. 2. the teeth collide. Spur gears are most commonly available. 3.Automotive prototype and reproduction Diesel engine builders operations Low volume automotive production Special gear box builders Stamping presses Many different special machine tool builders 4. and this impact makes a noise. Gears for connecting intersecting shafts. until the two teeth are in full engagement. To reduce the noise and stress in the gears. and are generally the least expensive. Each time a gear tooth engages a tooth on the other gear. which are the Spur External contact are perpendicular(Emerson Power Transmission Corp) to the face of the gear. • Limitations: Spur gears generally cannot be used when a direction change between the two shafts is required.

(They are in theory a gear with an infinite pitch diameter). they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts. they create a thrust load on the gear when they mesh. For this reason. Straight bevel gear teeth actually have the same problem as straight spur gear teeth. helical gears are used in almost all car transmission. it impacts the corresponding tooth all at once. as is shown. but can be designed to work at other angles as well. spiral or hypoid. The teeth on bevel gears can be straight. Because of the angle of the teeth on helical gears. Perhaps the most well-known application of a rack is the rack and pinion steering system used on many cars in the past Gears for connecting intersecting shafts: Bevel gears are useful when the direction of a shaft's rotation needs to be changed. One interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear teeth are correct. adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees. 70 . as each tooth engages. Devices that use helical gears have bearings that can support this thrust load. the torque and angular velocity of the pinion gear are related to the Force and the velocity of the rack by the radius of the pinion gear.Helical gears (EmersonPower Transmission Corp) Herringbone gears (or double-helical gears) This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more smoothly and quietly than spur gears.): Racks are straight gears that are used to convert rotational motion to translational motion by means of a gear mesh. In theory. They are usually mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart. Helical gears to have the following differences from spur gears of the same size: o o o Tooth strength is greater because the teeth are longer. Greater surface contact on the teeth allows a helical gear to carry more load than a spur gear The longer surface of contact reduces the efficiency of a helical gear relative to a spur gear Rack and pinion (The rack is like a gear whose axis is at infinity.

Since the driveshaft of the car is connected to the input pinion. Spiral bevel This feature is used in many car differentials. A special application in which helical gears are used is a crossed gear mesh. This means that the driveshaft doesn't pass into the passenger compartment of the car as much. to 71 . Crossed-helical gears Worm and worm gear: Worm gears are used when large gear reductions are needed.Just like with spur gears. in which the two shafts are perpendicular to each other. the solution to this problem is to curve the gear teeth. The hypoid gear. This allows the input pinion to be mounted lower than the axis of the ring gear. Neither parallel nor intersecting shafts: Helical gears may be used to mesh two shafts that are not parallel. and even up 300:1 or greater. the shafts must be perpendicular to each other. but they must also be in the same plane. although they are still primarily use in parallel shaft applications. this also Hypoid gears (Emerson Power Transmission Corp) lowers the driveshaft. The ring gear of the differential and the input pinion gear are both hypoid. can engage with the axes in different planes. Figure shows the input pinion engaging the ring gear of the differential. It is common for worm gears to have reductions of 20:1. Straight bevel gears gears On straight and spiral bevel gears. making more room for people and cargo. These spiral teeth engage just like helical teeth: the contact starts at one end of the gear and progressively spreads across the whole tooth.

the friction between the gear and the worm holds the worm in place. in which the locking feature can act as a brake for the conveyor when the motor is not turning. One other very interesting usage of worm gears is in the Torsen differential. 4. but the gear cannot turn the worm.3 Terminology for Spur Gears 72 . This feature is useful for machines such as conveyor systems.Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can easily turn the gear. This is because the angle on the worm is so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it. which is used on some high-performance cars and trucks.

Figure 4-4 Spur Gear 73 .

Circular Pitch: Millimeter of Pitch Circle circumference per tooth. Arc of Recession: That arc of the Pitch Circle between the Pitch Point and the last point of contact of the gear teeth. Chordal Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along a chord passing through the points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile. Arc of Action: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the beginning and the end of the engagement of a given pair of teeth. 74 . Backlash: Play between mating teeth. Chordal Addendum: The distance between a chord. passing through the points where the Pitch Circle crosses the tooth profile. Circular Thickness: The thickness of the tooth measured along an arc following the Pitch Circle Clearance: The distance between the top of a tooth and the bottom of the space into which it fits on the meshing gear. Base Circle: The circle from which is generated the involute curve upon which the tooth profile is based. Arc of Approach: Is the arc of the Pitch Circle between the first point of contact of the gear teeth and the Pitch Point. and the tooth top. Center Distance: The distance between centers of two gears.Terminology: Addendum: The radial distance between the Pitch Circle and the top of the teeth.

Pressure Angle: Angle between the Line of Action and a line perpendicular to the Line of Centers. located between the pitch diameter and the bottom of the teeth Gear: The larger of two meshed gears. where the Line of Centers crosses the pitch circles. located between the pitch diameter and the top of the tooth. Diametral Pitch: Teeth per mm of diameter. Dedendum: The radial distance between the bottom of the tooth to pitch circle. Root Diameter: The diameter of the Root Circle. Flank: The working surface of a gear tooth. 75 . Line of Action: That line along which the point of contact between gear teeth travels. If both gears are the same size. Module: Millimeter of Pitch Diameter to Teeth. Pitch Circle: The circle. Land: The top surface of the tooth. Profile Shift: An increase in the Outer Diameter and Root Diameter of a gear. the radius of which is equal to the distance from the center of the gear to the pitch point. Ratio: Ratio of the numbers of teeth on mating gears. Root Circle: The circle that passes through the bottom of the tooth spaces. Pinion: The smaller of two meshed gears. Diametral pitch: Teeth per millimeter of pitch diameter. Face: The working surface of a gear tooth. Pitch Point: The point of tangency of the pitch circles of two meshing gears. they are both called "gears". introduced to lower the practical tooth number or acheive a non-standard Center Distance. Face Width: The width of the tooth measured parallel to the gear axis. between the first point of contact and the last.Contact Ratio: The ratio of the length of the Arc of Action to the Circular Pitch.

2) Figure 5-2 Two gearing tooth profiles We notice that the intersection of the tangency N1N2 and the line of center O1O2 is point P.1) ω1 O2 N 2 = ω 2 O1 N 1 ( 4.2. Otherwise the two tooth profiles would separate from each other. N1 is the foot of the perpendicular from O1 to N1N2 N2 is the foot of the perpendicular from O2 to N1N2. 4. or velocity ratio.2 Gear-Tooth Action 4. and from the similar triangles. Therefore.Working Depth: The depth to which a tooth extends into the space between teeth on the mating gear. ∆O1 N 1 P = ∆O2 N 2 P ( 4. of a pair of mating teeth is 76 . N1N2 is the common normal of the two profiles. the relationship between the angular velocities of the driving gear to the driven gear. their velocities along N1N2 are equal in both magnitude and direction.1 Fundamental Law of Gear-Tooth Action Figure 5. we have O1 N 1 ω1 = O2 N 2 ω 2 or ( 4.3) Thus.2 shows two mating gear teeth. in which • Tooth profile 1 drives tooth profile 2 by acting at the instantaneous contact point K. φ • • • Although the two profiles have different velocities V1 and V2 at point K.

and the relative rotation speed of the gears will be constant(constant velocity ratio). we can write.2 Constant Velocity Ratio For a constant velocity ratio. and it is called the pitch point. The above expression is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action.2 and 4. We can get two circles whose centers are at O1 and O2. This is the fundamental law of gear-tooth action. ω1 O2 P O2 N 2 = = ω 2 O1 P O1 N 1 ( 4. From the equations 4. and through pitch point P. The fundamental law of gear-tooth action may now also be stated as follow (for gears with fixed center distance) A common normal (the line of action) to the tooth profiles at their point of contact must.6) Also the centre distance between the base circles: O1O2 = O1 P + O2 P = O1 N 1 O2 N 2 O1 N 1 + O2 N 2 + = cos φ cos φ cos φ ( 4. Pitch point divides the line between the line of centers and its position decides the velocity ratio of the two teeth.4) Point P is very important to the velocity ratio. The velocity ratio is equal to the inverse ratio of the diameters of pitch circles. These two circles are termed pitch circles. in all positions of the contacting teeth. The radii of the base circles is given by: O1 N 1 = O1 P cos φ and O2 N 2 = O2 P cos φ ( 4. the motion transmission between two gears is equivalent to the motion transmission between two imagined slip-less cylinders with radius R1 and R2 or diameter D1 and D2.2. In this case. 4.4. the position of P should remain unchanged.5) which determines the ratio of the radii of the two base circles. It is the angle which the common normal to the base circles make with the common tangent to the pitch circles. 77 .ω1 O2 P = ω 2 O1 P ( 4.7 ) where φ is the pressure angle or the angle of obliquity. pass through a fixed point on the line-of-centers called the pitch point Any two curves or profiles engaging each other and satisfying the law of gearing are conjugate curves.

The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve.the shape of teeth necessary for the speed ratio to remain constant during an increment of rotation. 4. Another requirement . which is the ratio of the rotary velocity of the driver gear to that of the driven gears. the size of the teeth ( the module ) must be the same for both the gears. only two are in general use: the cycloidal and involute profiles. this behavior of the contacting surfaces (ie. It may also be defined 78 Figure 4. Although many tooth shapes are possible for which a mating tooth could be designed to satisfy the fundamental law. conjugate action : It is essential for correctly meshing gears. the teeth flanks) is known as conjugate action. Thus close tolerances between shaft locations are not required when using the involute profile.2. The involute has important advantages. The two profiles which satisfy this requirement are called conjugate profiles.4. Gears have many terminologies.3 Conjugate Profiles To obtain the expected velocity ratio of two tooth profiles. We use the word involute because the contour of gear teeth curves inward. we simply termed the tooth profiles which satisfy the fundamental law of gear-tooth action the conjugate profiles. One of the important concepts is the velocity ratio. 4. This involute curve is the path traced by a point on a line as the line rolls without slipping on the circumference of a circle.3 Involute Curve The following examples are involute spur gears.1 Generation of the Involute Curve The curve most commonly used for gear-tooth profiles is the involute of a circle. (Erdman & Sandor). parameters and principles. it is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. which is decided by the velocity ratio. Sometimes. the normal line of their profiles must pass through the corresponding pitch point.3 Involute curve .

and hence the curve traced will also be perpendicular to the line at any instant. Cycloidal profile: Epicycliodal Profile: 79 . 3. For any instant. 2. the motion of the point that is tracing the involute is perpendicular to the line at any instant. the instantaneous center of the motion of the line is its point of tangent with the circle. When two bodies have planar relative motion.as a path traced by the end of a string. When two bodies have planar relative motion. Note: We have not defined the term instantaneous center previously. 1. The line rolls without slipping on the circle. 2.2 Properties of Involute Curves 1. the instant center is a point on one body about which the other rotates at the instant considered. The circle from which the involute is derived is called the base circle. The normal at any point of an involute is tangent to the base circle. The instantaneous center or instant center is defined in two ways. Because of the property (2) of the involute curve. which is originally wrapped on a circle when the string is unwrapped from the circle. 4. There is no involute curve within the base circle. the instant center is the point at which the bodies are relatively at rest at the instant considered.

In cycloidal gears. 2. the pressure angle. Thus the involute teeth are easy to manufacture than cycloidal teeth. epi-cycloid and hypo-cycloid) are required for the face and flank respectively. The face and flank of involute teeth are generated by a single curve where as in cycloidal gears. The most commonly used conjugate tooth curve is the involute curve. remains constant between the point of tooth engagement and disengagement. 2. the basic rack has straight teeth and the same can be cut with simple tools. reduces to zero at pitch point. In involute gears. But in cycloidal gears. the contact takes place between a convex flank and a concave surface. double curves (i. Since the cycloidal teeth have wider flanks. • It is easy to manufacture and the center distance between a pair of involute gears can be varied without changing the velocity ratio. starts increasing and again becomes maximum at the end of engagement. the pressure angle is maximum at the beginning of engagement. This condition results in less wear in cycloidal gears as compared to involute gears. Advantages of Cycloidal gear teeth: 1. the cycloidal teeth are preferred specially for cast teeth. However the difference in wear is negligible 80 . Due to this reason. It is necessary for smooth running and less wear of gears. (Erdman & Sandor). for the same pitch. Thus close tolerances between shaft locations are not required. This results in less smooth running of gears. In involute system. therefore the cycloidal gears are stronger than the involute gears. where as in involute gears the convex surfaces are in contact.e.Hypocycliodal Profile: The involute profile of gears has important advantages. 3.

Manufacturing of gears is easy due to single curvature of profile. The involute tooth form of gears is insensitive to the centre distance and depends only on the dimensions of the base circle. 2. they exhibit constant angular velocity ratio and is inversely proportional to the size of base circles. 4. The tooth profile of this system has cycloidal curves at the top and bottom and involute curve at the middle portion. The common tangent drawn from the pitch point to the base circle of the two involutes is the line of action and also the path of contact of the involutes. 81 . When two involutes gears are in mesh and rotating. Properties of involute teeth: 1. 7. In cycloidal gears. A normal drawn to an involute at pitch point is a tangent to the base circle. 20O Full depth involute system 4. 14 ½O Full depth involute system 3. 6. The teeth are produced by formed milling cutters or hobs.3. 5. 20O Stub involute system The 14½O composite system is used for general purpose gears. Basic rack for involute tooth profile has straight line form. Pressure angle remains constant during the mesh of an involute gears. 3. It is stronger but has no interchangeability. (Law of Gearing or conjugate action) 8. Though there are advantages of cycloidal gears but they are outweighed by the greater simplicity and flexibility of the involute gears. the interference does not occur at all. 14 ½O Composite system 2. The radius of curvature of an involute is equal to the length of tangent to the base circle. System of Gear Teeth The following four systems of gear teeth are commonly used in practice: 1.

because the tooth acting as a beam is wider at the base. The tooth profile of the 20o full depth involute system may be cut by hobs. Consider an involute of base circle radius ra and two points B and C on the involute as shown in figure. Involutometry Addendum Circle Pitch Circle C B A r ra Gear E F Base Circle O The study of the geometry of the involute profile for gear teeth is called involumetry. Let ra= base circle radius of gear rb= radius of point B on the involute rc= radius of point C on the involute and Φb= pressure angle for the point B Φc= pressure angle for the point C 82 . Draw normal to the involute from the points B and C. The normal BE and CF are tangents to the Base circle.The tooth profile of the 14½O full depth involute system was developed using gear hobs for spur and helical gears. The 20o stub involute system has a strong tooth to take heavy loads. The increase of the pressure angle from 14½o to 20o results in a stronger tooth.

φb = tan φb − φb Expression ( tan φb − φb ) is called involute function Similarly: ArcAF BE = = tan φc OF OF ∠ AOC = ∠AOF − φc = tan φC − φC ∠ AOF = ∴ Inv.tb= tooth thickness along the arc at B tc= tooth thickness along the arc at C From ∆OBE and ∆OCF ra = rb × cos φb (1) ra = rc × cos φc ( 2) Therefore rb × cos φb = rc × cos φc From the properties of the Involute: Arc AE = Length BE and Arc AF = Length CF ArcAE BE = = tan φb OE OE ∠ AOB = ∠AOE − φb = tan φb − φb ∠ AOE = ∴ Inv.φc = tan φc − φc At the po int B ∠AOD = ∠AOB + tb 2rb tb 2rb tc 2rb tc 2rc = tan φb − φb + At the po int C ∠AOD = ∠AOC + = tan φc − φc + 83 .

Thus the length of part of contact is KL which is the sum 84 . The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the wheel and the pinion. it is possible to calculate the thickness of the tooth at any point Path of contact: O2 RA R N L K M φ O1 r ra Pitch Circle Base Circle P φ Wheel Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Addendum Circles Pinion Consider a pinion driving wheel as shown in figure.Equating the above equations : t t tan φb − φb + b = tan φc − φc + c 2rb 2rc inv.φc + c 2rb 2rc t t c = inv. φc + b 2rc 2rb = tooth thickness at C Using this equation and knowing tooth thickness at any point on the tooth. φb + tb t = inv. the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K (on the near the base circle of pinion or the outer end of the tooth face on the wheel) and ends at L (outer end of the tooth face on the pinion or on the flank near the base circle of wheel). The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common tangent. When the pinion rotates in clockwise. The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common tangent.φb − inv. MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base circles.

and R A = O2K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel r = O1P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion.of the parts of path of contacts KP and PL. Radius of the base circle of pinion = O1M = O1P cosφ = r cosφ and radius of the base circle of wheel = O2N = O2P cos φ = R cosφ From right angle triangle O2KN KN = ( O2 K ) 2 − ( O2 N ) 2 2 = ( RA ) − R 2 cos 2 φ PN = O2 P sin φ = R sin φ Path of approach: KP KP = KN − PN = ( RA ) − R 2 cos 2 φ − R sin φ Similarly from right angle triangle O1ML 2 ML = = ( O1L ) 2 − ( O1M ) 2 ( ra ) 2 − r 2 cos 2 φ MP = O1 P sin φ = r sin φ Path of recess: PL PL = ML − MP = ( r ) − r 2 cos 2 φ − r sin φ Length of path of contact = KL a 2 KL = KP + PL = ( RA ) 2 − R 2 cos 2 φ + ( ra ) 2 − r 2 cos 2 φ − ( R + r ) sin φ 85 . and R = O2P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel. Contact length KP is called as path of approach and contact length PL is called as path of recess. ra = O1L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion.

The arc GP is known as arc of approach and the arc PH is called arc of recess.Arc of contact: Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. Length of arc of approach = arc GP = Lenght of path of approach KP = cos φ cos φ Length of arc of recess = arc PH = Lenght of path of recess PL = cos φ cos φ Length of arc contact = arc GPH = arc GP + arc PH = KP PL KL Length of path of contact + = = cos φ cos φ cos φ cos φ Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact) The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch. Mathematically. In Figure. Contat ratio = Length of the arc of contact PC 86 . the arc of contact is EPF or GPH. The angles subtended by these arcs at O1 are called angle of approach and angle of recess respectively. O2 RA R L Gear Profile E G M P K r ra O1 N F H φ Wheel φ Pitch Circle Addendum Circles Pitch Circle φ Pinion Base Circle Considering the arc of contact GPH.

Where: PC = Circular pitch = π × m and m = Module. 87 .

The manufacturing inaccuracies may lead to loss of kinematic continuity . The average number of teeth in contact is also a guide to load sharing between teeth. though there is only one pair in contact in the middle of the path. vibration and noise. it is termed the contact ratio Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion: PITCH LINE Pc h a b T RACK c Base Circle PINION φ φ PITCH LINE φ° c RACK 88 .that is to impact. as in Figure. R r The average number of teeth in contact is an important parameter .Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact Continuous motion transfer requires two pairs of teeth in contact at the ends of the path of contact.if it is too low due to the use of inappropriate profile shifts or to an excessive centre distance.

= Addendu m radius of the pinion a = Addendum of rack EF = Length of path of contact EF = Path of approach EP + Path of recess PF sin φ = AP a = EP EP (1) (2) (3) a sin φ Path of recess = PF = NF − NP From triangle O1 NP : Path of approach = EP = From triangle O1NF: NP = O1 P sin φ = r sin φ O1 N = O1 P cos φ = r cos φ 1 1 NF = ( O1 F 2 − O1 N 2 ) 2 = ( ra2 − r 2 cos 2 φ ) 2 Substituting NP and NF values in the equation (3) Path of racess = PF = ( ra2 − r 2 cos 2 φ ) 2 − r sin φ 1 ∴ Path of length of contact = EF = EP + PF = Exercise problems refer presentation slides Interference in Involute Gears RA R L P K M φ O1 r ra Pitch Circle Base Circle N O2 φ 1 a + ( ra2 − r 2 cos 2 φ ) 2 − r sin φ sin φ Wheel Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Addendum Circles 89 Pinion .Let r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = O1P Φ = Pressure angle ra.

then the tip of tooth on wheel will cause interference with the tooth on pinion.Figure shows a pinion and a gear in mesh with their center as O1andO2 respectively. the radius of the addendum circle of pinion is increased to O1N. The interference may only be prevented. The limiting value of the radius of the addendum circle of the pinion is O1N and of the wheel is O2M. and occurs when the teeth are being cut and weakens the tooth at its root. The points M and N are called interference points. the phenomenon. Consider. If this radius is further increased. Interference may be avoided if the path of the contact does not extend beyond interference points. When interference is just prevented. Maximum path of approach = MP = r sin φ Maximum path of recess = PN = R sin φ Maximum length of path of contact = MN MN = MP + PN = ( r + R ) sin φ ( r + R ) sin φ = ( r + R ) tan φ Maximum length of arc of contact = cos φ 90 . when the tip of tooth undercuts the root on its mating gear is known as interference. the point of contact L will moves from L to N. the point of contact L will be inside of base circle of wheel and not on the involute profile of the pinion. In general. Wheel Undercut Pinion Similarly. if the radius of the addendum circles of the wheel increases beyond O 2M. if the point of contact between the two teeth is always on the involute profiles and if the addendum circles of the two mating gears cut the common tangent to the base circles at the points of tangency. MN is the common tangent to the basic circles and KL is the path of contact between the two mating teeth. The tooth tip of the pinion will then undercut the tooth on the wheel at the root and damages part of the involute profile. the maximum length of path of contact is MN. This effect is known as interference.

. Height of the teeth may be reduced. Let Ф = pressure angle R = pitch circle radius of gear = ½mT r = pitch circle radius of pinion = ½mt T & t = number of teeth on gear & pinion m = module O2 RA R L P K M φ O1 r φ Wheel N Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Max. By tooth correction. the pressure angle. 2. interference will occur. The limiting value of addendum circle radius of pinion is O1N and the limiting value of addendum circle radius of gear is O2M. Under cut of the radial flank of the pinion. but tooth thickness of gear will be greater than the pinion tooth thickness. the limiting number of teeth on gear can be calculated. Centre distance may be increased.e. 3. It leads to increase in pressure angle. Points M and N are called interference points. Minimum number of teeth on the pinion avoid Interference The pinion turns clockwise and drives the gear as shown in Figure. centre distance and base circles remain unchanged. i.Methods to avoid Interference 1. Considering the critical addendum circle radius of gear. Addendum Circles ra Pitch Circle Base Circle Pinion 91 . if the contact takes place beyond M and N. 4.

m = Addendum of pinion O1 N 2 = O1P 2 + NP 2 − 2 × O1 P × PN cos O1 PN = r 2 + R 2 sin 2 φ + 2 r R sin 2 φ = r 2 + R 2 sin 2 φ − 2 r R sin φ cos( 90 + φ ) ( R 2 sin 2 φ 2 R sin 2 φ RR 2 2 = r 2 1 + + = r 1 + + 2 sin φ 2 r r rr PN = O2 P sin φ = R sin φ ) Limiting radius of the pinion addendum circle: RR 2 mt T T 2 O1 N = r 1 + + 2 sin 2 φ = 1 + + 2 sin 2 φ 2 t t rr 1 1 Addendum of the pinion = O1N .O1P 2 mt mt T T apm = 1 + + 2 sin 2 φ − 2 t t 2 mt T = 1 + 2 t 1 2 T 2 + 2 sin φ − 1 t 1 Addendum of the pinion = O1N .aw = Addendum constant of gear (or) wheel ap = Addendum constant of pinion aw. Applying cosine rule ap. m = Addendum of gear G = Gear ratio = T/t From triangle O1NP.O1P 1 t T T 2 2 a p = 1 + + 2 sin φ − 1 2 tt 2a p t= 1 (1 + G( G + 2) sin 2 φ ) 2 − 1 92 .

O2P O2 RA R L P K M φ O1 r φ Wheel N Base Circle φ Pitch Circle Max.The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the pinion to avoid interference. If the number of teeth on pinion and gear is same: G=1 2a p 1. 14 ½O Composite system = t= O 2. applying cosine rule and simplifying. The limiting radius of wheel addendum circle: rr 2 O2 M = R 1 + + 2 sin 2 φ RR mT = 2 tt 2 1 + + 2 sin 2 φ T T 1 1 Addendum of the pinion = O2 M. 14 ½ Full depth involute system = 2 3. 20O Full depth involute system 1 + 3 sin =φ 4. Addendum Circles ra Pitch Circle Base Circle Pinion 93 . 20O Stub involute system = ( ) 1 2 12 32 −18 1 14 Minimum number of teeth on the wheel avoid Interference From triangle O2MP.

PITCH LINE φ φ Pc h φ° a RACK T c b φ PINION PITCH LINE P K M L H φ° RACK c 94 .1 mT tt 2 2 aw m = 1 + + 2 sin φ − 1 2 T T 1 2 T t t 2 aw = 1 + + 2 sin φ − 1 2 T T 2aW T = 1 11 2 2 1 + + 2 sin φ − 1 G G The equation gives minimum number of teeth required on the wheel to avoid interference. Minimum number of teeth on the pinion for involute rack to avoid Interference The rack is part of toothed wheel of infinite diameter. The base circle diameter and profile of the involute teeth are straight lines.

m = Addendum of rack The straight profiles of the rack are tangential to the pinion profiles at the point of contact and perpendicular to the tangent PM. Backlash is the error in motion that occurs when gears change direction. Point L is the limit of interference. gear pairs are designed to have some backlash. thus. It is usually provided by reducing the tooth thickness of each gear by half the desired gap distance. but this would presuppose perfection in manufacturing. "0. and no lubricant. Addendum of the rack: AR × m = LH = PL sin φ = OP sin 2 φ = ( OP sin φ ) sin φ = r sin 2 φ mt 2 = sin φ 2 2 AR ∴To avoid interference : t = sin 2 φ Backlash: The gap between the non-drive face of the pinion tooth and the adjacent wheel tooth is known as backlash. If the rotational sense of the pinion were to reverse. for example.Let t = Minimum number of teeth on the pinion r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion = ½ mt Φ = Pressure angle AR. not just the phenomenon it causes. one could speak of a pair of gears as having." A pair of gears could be designed to have zero backlash. 95 . The term "backlash" can also be used to refer to the size of the gap. Therefore. uniform thermal expansion characteristics throughout the system. then a period of unrestrained pinion motion would take place until the backlash gap closed and contact with the wheel tooth reestablished impulsively.1 mm of backlash.

backlash can be minimised through one of several techniques. For situations. where precision is important. Backlash can also be provided by moving the gears farther apart. such as instrumentation and control. Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle RA R O2 φ O2 Wheel N R' Wheel R N' Base Circle φ c c' M' P φ ' P M φ Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle O1 r ra Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle Operating Pitch Circle Pinion φ ' O1 r r' Pinion Standard (cutting) Pitch Circle Base Circle Figure a ∆ c Figure b Let r = standard pitch circle radius of pinion R = standard pitch circle radius of wheel c = standard centre distance = r +R r’ = operating pitch circle radius of pinion R’ = operating pitch circle radius of wheel c’ = operating centre distance = r’ + R’ Ф = Standard pressure angle Ф’ = operating pressure angle h = tooth thickness of pinion on standard pitch circle= p/2 96 . the backlash is usually taken entirely off the gear and the pinion is given full sized teeth.In the case of a large gear and a small pinion. however.

Involute gears have the invaluable ability of providing conjugate action when the gears' centre distance is varied either deliberately or involuntarily due to manufacturing and/or mounting errors.φ − inv.φ '+ 2R 97 .h’ = tooth thickness of pinion on operating pitch circle Let H = tooth thickness of gear on standard pitch circle H1 = tooth thickness of gear on operating pitch circle p = standard circular pitch = 2п r/ t = 2пR/T p’ = operating circular pitch = 2п r1/t = 2пR1/T ∆C = change in centre distance B = Backlash t = number of teeth on pinion T = number of teeth on gear.φ '+ 2r h H ' = 2 R' inv.φ − inv. r R c = = r ' R ' c' c'× cos φ ' = c × cos φ ∴ c' = c Now cos φ cos φ ' ∆c = c'−c = c cos φ cos φ − c = c −1 cos φ ' cos φ ' On the operating pitch circle: Operating pitch = sum of tooth thickness + Backlash p' = h'+ H '+ B (1) By involutometry : h h' = 2r ' inv.

Here the profile/rack cutter is advanced to a certain increment towards the gear blank and the same quantity of increment will be withdrawn from the pinion blank.φ '+ + 2 R' inv.φ − inv.φ ] t c 2π r' r '− r + 2c ' [ inv.φ '−inv.Substituting h’ and H’ in the equation (1): h h p ' = 2r ' inv.φ '−inv.φ ] t 2t c 2π c' B= r '− r + 2c' [ inv. The two main non.φ '−inv.φ '−inv.φ '+ +B 2r 2R r ' R' p ' = h + + 2 inv.φ ] c 2πr ' 2πr c' B= −2 + 2c' [ inv.φ '−inv.φ − inv. to prevent interference and to maintain a reasonable contact ratio.φ ( r '+ R ') − 2 inv.φ ] B= There is an infinite number of possible centre distances for a given pair of profile shifted gears.φ ' ( r '+ R ') + B r R c' c' p ' = h + + 2 c' inv. 98 .standard gear systems: (1) Long and short Addendum system and (2) Extended centre distance system. Long and Short Addendum System: The addendum of the wheel and the addendum of the pinion are generally made of equal lengths.φ − 2 c ' inv.φ ] t r Backlash = B = 2c ' [ inv. however we consider only the particular case known as the extended centre distance.φ '+ B c c c' ∴ B = p − 2h + 2c ' [ inv. Non Standard Gears: The important reason for using non standard gears are to eliminate undercutting.

A text book of Theory of Machines by Dr. In this method there is no change in pressure angle and the centre distance remains standard. photos and exercise problems References: 12. Mechanisms and Dynamics of Machinery by Hamilton H. Theory of Machines by V. McGraw-Hill Publications.R. The result is increase in tooth thickness and decrease in tooth space.Rao. John Wiley and Sons.Jr. The amount of increase in the addendum of the pinion should be exactly equal to the addendum of the wheel is reduced.Singh. Kinematics and Dynamics of Machines by George H. Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd.K. In this method when the pinion is being cut. The effect of changing the centre distance is simply in increasing the pressure angle. thus reducing approach length and increasing the recess length. it will be found that the centre distance has been increased because of the decreased tooth space. Extended centre distance system: Reduction in interference with constant contact ratio can be obtained by increasing the centre distance.P. The effect is to move the contact region from the pinion centre towards the gear centre. The Theory of Machines through solved problems by J. Now If the pinion is meshed with the gear. Dhanpat Rai and Co. the profile cutter is withdrawn a certain amount from the centre of the pinion so the addendum line of the cutter passes through the interference point of pinion. Internet: Many Web based e notes 99 . 18.Therefore an increased addendum for the pinion and a decreased addendum for the gear is obtained.Bansal. Increased centre distance will have two undesirable effects. NOTE: Please refer presentation slides also for more figure. Mabie and Fred W. 17. 15. 14. Theory of Machines and Mechanisms by Joseph Edward Shigley and John Joseph Uicker. McGraw-Hill International Editions.Martin. New age international publishers. 16. 13. Ocvirk.S.

Any combination of gear wheels employed to transmit motion from one shaft to the other is called a gear train. They often consist of multiple gears in the train. helical or herringbone. N = speed in rpm D m = module = t and module must be the same for all gears otherwise they would not mesh. To create large gear ratio. This ideal diameter is called the Pitch Circle Diameter (PCD) of the gear. It has no affect on the gear ratio. The meshing of two gears may be idealized as two smooth discs with their edges touching and no slip between them. so does B and C. It reduces speed and increases torque. The angular velocity is simply the reverse of the tooth ratio. ω = angular velocity. v = ω = ω r 2 The velocity v of any point on the circle must be the same for all the gears. Simple Gear Trains The typical spur gears as shown in diagram. m= DA DB D = = C tA tB tC DB = m t B and DC = m tC GEAR 'A' GEAR 'B' (Idler gear) GEAR 'C' v v ωA ωB ωC D A = m t A. The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel shafts. The direction of rotation is reversed from one gear to another.Chapter 5: Gears Trains A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. D v = linear velocity on the circle. The teeth on the gears must all be the same size so if gear A advances one tooth. gears are connected together to form gear trains. otherwise they would be DC DA DB slipping. v = ωA = ωB = ωC 2 2 2 ω A DA = ω B DB = ωC DC ω A m t A = ω B m t B = ωC m t C ω A t A = ω B t B = ωC t C or in terms of rev / min N A t A = N B t B = N C tC 100 . t = number of teeth on the gear. D = Pitch circle diameter. The teeth of this type can be spur.

T1 + T2 + T3 = 0 If we use a convention that anti-clockwise is positive and clockwise is negative we can determine the holding torque. Gears B and C are locked to the same shaft and revolve at the same speed. P= P= 2π N1 T1 2π N 2 T2 = 60 60 T2 N N1 T1 = N 2 T2 ⇒ = 1 = GR T1 N2 It follows that if the speed is reduced. The efficiency is defined as: Power out 2π × N 2 T2 × 60 N T η= = = 2 2 Power In 2π × N1 T1 × 60 N1 T1 Because the torque in and out is different. In a real gear box. Compound Gear train Compound gears are simply a chain of simple gear trains with the input of the second being the output of the first. Likewise for C and D.Application: a) to connect gears where a large center distance is required b) to obtain desired direction of motion of the driven gear ( CW or CCW) c) to obtain high speed ratio Torque & Efficiency The power transmitted by a torque T N-m applied to a shaft rotating at N rev/min is given by: 2π N T 60 In an ideal gear box. The direction of rotation of the output shaft depends on the design of the gear box. Input B A C Compound Gears GEAR 'B' D Output GEAR 'A' GEAR 'D' GEAR 'C' 101 . power is lost through friction and the power output is smaller than the power input. For large velocities ratios. the input and output powers are the same so. compound gear train arrangement is preferred. Gear B is the output of the first pair and gear C is the input of the second pair. the torque is increased and vice versa. ωC tC = ωD tD. The total torque must add up to zero. A chain of two pairs is shown below. A holding torque T3 must be applied to the body through the clamps. a gear box has to be clamped in order to stop the case or body rotating. The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so: ωA tA = ωB tB -as they are simple gears.

N t ×t GR = A = B D N D t A × tC If R and T=Pitch circle radius & number of teeth of the gear RA + RB = RC + RD and tA + tB = tC + tD 102 . These are used in speed reducers. clocks and machine tools.ωC ω D ω A ωB = and = tB tA tD tC t × ωB t × ωD ωA = B and ωC = D tA TC t × ωB t D × ωD ω A × ωC = B × tA tC ω A × ωC t B t D = × ω B × ω D t A tC Since gear B and C are on the same shaft ω B = ωC ωA tB tD = × = GR ω D t A tC Since ω = 2 × π × N The gear ratio may be written as : N ( In ) t B t D = × = GR N ( Out ) t A t C Reverted Gear train The driver and driven axes lies on the same line.

Here is a picture of a typical gear box.Epicyclic gear train: Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. C C Sun wheel Planet wheel B Arm 'A' B Arm 103 . B is called the planet gear and C the sun. The design involves planet and sun gears as one orbits the other like a planet around the sun. Basic Theory The diagram shows a gear B on the end of an arm. Gear B meshes with gear C and revolves around it when the arm is rotated. First consider what happens when the planet gear orbits the sun gear. This design can produce large gear ratios in a small space and are used on a wide range of applications from marine gearboxes to electric screwdrivers.

Suppose the arm is held stationary and gear C is rotated once. Then identify the gear that is fixed and revolve it back one revolution. tB Example: A simple epicyclic gear has a fixed sun gear with 100 teeth and a planet gear with 50 teeth. tC Now consider that C is unable to rotate and the arm A is revolved once. Suppose gear C is fixed and the arm A makes one revolution. Any object orbiting around a center must rotate once. One way to get round this is to imagine that the whole system is revolved once. Gear B will revolve 1 + tB because of the orbit. then the direction of B tB tC is opposite so + . The following tabular method makes it easy. Work out the revolutions of B. Step 3 is simply add them up and we find the total revs of C is zero and for the arm is 1. Step 1 2 3 Action Revolve all once Revolve C by –1 revolution. It is this extra rotation that causes confusion. Determine how many revolutions the planet gear B makes. keeping the arm fixed Add A 1 0 1 B 1 t + C tB 1+ tC tB C 1 -1 0 tC The number of revolutions made by B is 1 + Note that if C revolves -1. Step 1 is to revolve everything once about the center. If the arm is revolved once. how many times does the planet gear revolve? Solution: Step 1 2 3 Action Revolve all once Revolve C by –1 revolution. Now consider that B is free to rotate on its shaft and meshes with C. keeping the arm fixed Add A 1 0 1 B 1 100 + 50 3 C 1 -1 0 104 . Step 2 identify that C should be fixed and rotate it backwards one revolution keeping the arm fixed as it should only do one revolution in total. B will rotate by this number for every complete tB revolution of C.Observe point p and you will see that gear B also revolves once on its own axis. B spins about its own center and the tC number of revolutions it makes is the ratio . Work out the revolutions of the other gears and add them up.

TF=150.Gear B makes 3 revolutions for every one of the arm. If the arm rotates at 200 rpm and wheel F at 100 rpm in the same direction. Problem 1: In an ecicyclic gear train shown in figure. The wheel B having 100 teeth rotates freely on the shaft S. NA=200rpm. C 100 rpm F150 S B100 B C Arm A 200 rpm Solution: TB=100. This can be done several ways. NF=100rpm: Since the mod ule is same for all gears : the number of teeth on the gears is proportional to the pitch cirlce : ∴ rF = rB + 2rC ⇒ TF = TB + 2TC 150 = 100 + 2 × TC TC = 25 → Number of teeth on gears C The gear B and gear F rotates in the opposite directions: 105 . The wheel F having 150 teeth driven separately. The design so far considered has no identifiable input and output. find (a) number of teeth on the gear C and (b) speed of wheel B. the arm A is fixed to the shaft S. We need a design that puts an input and output shaft on the same axis.

Gear A rotates at 90 rpm CCW and gear D rotates at 450 rpm CW. ND=450rpm: Since the module and pitch are same for all gears : the number of teeth on the gears is proportional to the pitch cirlce : ∴ rD = rA + rB + rC ⇒ TD = T A + TB + TC TD = 18 + 45 + 21 = 84 teeth on gear D 106 . Find the speed and direction of rotation of arm F and gear E. All gears having same module and pitch. Gears A. B and C is a compound gear rotate about axis Q. has gears A and an annular gears D & E free to rotate on the axis P.B and C are having 18. Problem 2: In a compound epicyclic gear train as shown in the figure. D P E A B Q C Arm F Solution: TA=18 .NA = -90rpm. TB=45. 45 and 21 teeth respectively. TC=21.∴ Train value = − also ∴ TV = − − TB TF ( general exp ression for epicyclic gear train) N L − N Arm N F − N A = N F − N Arm N B − N A TB N F − N A = TF N B − N A 100 100 − 200 = ⇒ N E = 350 150 N B − 200 The Gear B rotates at 350 rpm in the same direction of gears F and Arm A.

When the annular ring is stationary. If an input torque of 20 N-m is applied to the spindle carrying the sun wheel. Spider 'L' Determine the number of teeth for all the wheels and the exact pitch circle diameter of the annular Sun Wheel 'S' wheel. the the annular wheel A is to be nearly 216mm and module 4mm.Gears A and D rotates in the opposite directions: T T ∴ Train value = − A × C TB TD also ∴ TV = − − N L − N Arm N D − N F = N F − N Arm N A − N F T A TC N D − N F × = TB TD N A − N F 18 × 21 450 − N F = 45 × 84 − 90 − N F ⇒ N F = Speed of Arm = 400.9 18 = E 108 − 90 − 400. Planet Wheel 'P' 107 . the spider that carries three planet wheels P of equal size to make one revolution for every five revolution of the driving spindle carrying the sun wheel.9 rpm − CW Now consider gears A. determine the fixed torque on the annular wheel. B and E: rE = rA + 2rB ⇒ TE = T A + 2T B TE = 18 + 2 × 45 TE = 108 → Number of teeth on gear E Gears A and E rotates in the opposite directions: ∴ Train value = − also ∴ TV = − − TA TE NE − NF NA − NF TA N E − N F = TE N A − N F ⇒ N − 400.72 rpm − CW Problem 3: In an epicyclic gear of sun and planet type shown inAnnular 'A' pitch circle diameter of figure 3.9 N E = Speed of gear E = 482.

therefore TS should be either 13 or 14 and TA correspondingly 52 and 56. Trial 1: Let TA = 52 and TS = 13 108 .Solution: Module being the same for all the meshing gears: TA = TS + 2TP PCD of A 216 TA = = = 54 teeth m 4 Operation Arm L is fixed & Sun wheel S is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (S rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements Spider arm L 0 0 n Sun Wheel S Planet wheel P Annular wheel A TS +1 m m+n TP − − TS TP − TA = 54 TS TP T × =− S TP T A TA − TS m TA TS m TA TS m TP TS m TP n− n− If L rotates +1 revolution: ∴ n=1 (1) The sun wheel S to rotate +5 revolutions correspondingly: ∴ n+m=5 (2) From (1) and (2) m=4 When A is fixed: n− ∴ TS m=0 TA TS = ⇒ 54 = 13.5 teeth 4 T A = 4 TS But fractional teeth are not possible.

Trial 2:

Let

∴ ⇒ Also

T A − TS 52 − 13 = = 19.5 teeth 2 4 TA = 56 and TS = 14 T −T 56 − 14 ∴ TP = A S = = 21teeth 2 4 TA = 56, TS = 14 and TP = 21 PCD of A = 56 × 4 = 224 mm ∴ TP =

This is impracticable

This is practicable

∴

Torque on L × ωL = Torque on S × ωS 5 Torque on L × ωL = 20 × = 100 N − m 1 Fixing torque on A = (TL – TS) = 100 – 20 = 80 N-m

]

D

Problem 4: The gear train shown in figure 4 A is used in an indexing mechanism of a milling machine. The drive is from gear wheels A and B to the bevel gear wheel D through the gear train. The following table gives the number of teeth on each gear.

C

Arm B H G

Gear A B C D E F E Number of F 72 72 60 30 28 24 teeth Diametral 08 08 12 12 08 08 pitch in mm How many revolutions does D makes for one Figure 4 revolution of A under the following situations: a. If A and B are having the same speed and same direction b. If A and B are having the same speed and opposite direction c. If A is making 72 rpm and B is at rest d. If A is making 72 rpm and B 36 rpm in the same direction Solution: Gear D is external to the epicyclic train and thus C and D constitute an ordinary train. Operation Arm C (60) E (28) F (24) A (72) B (72) G (28) H (24)

109

Arm or C is fixed & wheel A is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements (i)

0 0 n

-1 -m n-m

−

28 7 =− 24 6

+1 +m n+m

-1 -m n-m

+1 +m n+m

28 7 = 24 6

−

7 m 6

7 m 6

7 m 6

n+ 7 m 6

n−

For one revolution of A: n+m=1 (1) For A and B for same speed and direction: From (1) and (2): n = 1 and m = 0 ∴

n+m = n–m

(2)

If C or arm makes one revolution, then revolution made by D is given by: N D T C 60 = = =2 NC TD 30

(ii)

∴ N D = 2 NC A and B same speed, opposite direction: (n + m) = - (n – m) (3) n = 0; m = 1 ∴ When C is fixed and A makes one revolution, D does not make any revolution. n = m = 36 rpm 60 ∴ C makes 36 rpm and D makes 36 × = 72 rpm 30 A is making 72 rpm and B making 36 rpm (n + m) = 72 rpm and (n – m) = 36 rpm (n + (n – m)) = 72; ⇒ n = 54 60 ∴ D makes 54 × =108 rpm A2 30

P2

(iii)

A is making 72 rpm: (n + m) = 72 B at rest (n – m) = 0 ⇒

(iv)

A1 P1 P

Problem 5: Figure 5 shows a compound epicyclic gear train, gears S1 and S2 being rigidly attached to the shaft Q. If the shaft P rotates at 1000 rpm clockwise, while the annular A2 is driven in counter clockwise direction at 500 rpm, determine the speed and direction of rotation of shaft Q. The number of teeth in the wheels are S1 = 24; S2 = 40; A1 = 100; A2 = 120. Solution: Consider the gear train P A1 S1:

Q S2 S1

Figure 5

110

Operation Arm P is fixed & wheel A1 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements If A1 is fixed:

Arm P

A1 (100)

+

S1 (24)

P 100 ×− 1 P1 24

Operation OR Arm P is fixed & wheel A1 is given -1 revolution

Arm P

A1 (100 )

−

S1 (24)

A1 P ×− 1 P1 S1 A1 S1

0

+1

25 =− 6

0

-1

=+

0 n

+m n+ m

−

25 m 6

25 m 6

0 Add +1 revolutions to all elements +1

-1 0

100 25 = 24 6

25 31 + 1= 6 6

n−

n+ m; gives n = - m

NP n 1 6 = = 31 = N S1 n + 25 n 31 6 6 ∴ NP = 6 N S1 31

Now consider whole gear train: Operation A1 is fixed & wheel A2 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements A1 (100) 0 A2 (120) +1 S1 (24), S2 (40) Arm P and Q

P 120 + ×− 2 P2 40 =−3 6 31 18 =− 31 − 3×

0 n

+m n+ m

− 3m n − 3m

−

18 m 31 18 m 31

n−

When P makes 1000 rpm: and A2 makes – 500 rpm:

18 m = 1000 31 n+ m = -500 n−

(1) (2)

111

from (1) and (2):

18 m = 1000 31 ( 31 × 1000) + ( 500 × 31) = − 49 m − 500 − m − ∴ m = − 949 rpm and n = 949 − 500 = 449 rpm NQ = n – 3 m = 449 – (3 × -949) = 3296 rpm

C B E F D A A B80 C82 D28 N A=800rpm Arm E D B C

∴ Problem 6. An internal wheel B with 80 teeth is keyed to a shaft F. A fixed internal wheel C with 82 teeth is concentric with B. A Compound gears D-E meshed with the two internal wheels. D has 28 teeth and meshes with internal gear C while E meshes with B. The compound wheels revolve freely on pin which projects from a arm keyed to a shaft A co-axial with F. if the wheels have the same pitch and the shaft A makes 800 rpm, what is the speed of the shaft F? Sketch the arrangement. Data: tB = 80;

tC = 82;

D = 28;

NA = 800 rpm

Solution: The pitch circle radius is proportional to the number of teeth:

rC − rD = rB − rE tC − t D = t B − t E

Operation

82 Arm B (80) − t E − 28 = 80

0 +1

Compound Gear wheel E(26) D (28)

C (82)

t Arm is fixed & BE = 26

Multiply by m (B rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements

is given ONE − number revolution (CW)

80 80 + on gear E + of teeth 26 26 + 40 m 13 + 40 m 13

+

+

80 28 × 26 82

0 n

+m

40 14 × m 13 41

112

40 40 m+n m+n m+n 13 13

40 14 × m+n 13 41

Arm B20 C35 D15 E20 F30 113 .42rpm Speed of gear B = m + n = − 761.42 + 800 = 38. Wheel E is fixed and wheels C and D are integrally cast and mounted on the same pin. ⇒ n = 800rpm 40 14 × m+n =0 13 41 40 14 × m + 800 = 0 13 41 m = −761.Since the wheel C is fixed and the arm (shaft) A makes 800 rpm.58rpm Problem 7: The fig shows an Epicyclic gear train.58rpm Speed of gear B = Speed of shaft F = 38. If arm A makes one revolution per sec (Counter clockwise) determine the speed and direction of rotation of the wheels B and F.

429 = −1. tF = 30 NA = 1rps-(CCW) Compound Gear wheel D (15) Arm is fixed & B is given ONE revolution (CW) Multiply by m (B rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements C (35) Operation Arm B (20) E (20) F (30) 0 +1 20 − 15 20 − 15 4 35 ×− 3 20 7 =+ 3 − 7 20 ×− 3 30 0 +m 4 4 − m − m 3 3 7 m 3 − 14 m 9 n m+n 7 4 4 14 n− m n− m m+n n− m 3 3 3 9 7 m+n = 0 3 3 m = = 0.667 (CCW ) 9 9 Problem 7: In the gear train shown.429 7 Since the wheel E is fixed and the arm A makes 1 rps-CCW ⇒ n = −1rps 7 m −1 = 0 3 and ⇒ Speed of gear B = m + n = 0. the gear B. tD = 15. tE = 20.429 − 1 = −0. D60 Output Shaft A E30 Input Shaft F32 B20 C80 114 .Solution: Data: tB = 20.571rps (CCW ) Speed of gear F = n − 14 14 m = −1 − 0. tC = 35. the wheel C is fixed. is keyed to the input shaft and the gear F is keyed to the output shaft.

tD = 60. NB = 1000 rpm (ccw) (input speed).The arm A. gear B rotates – 1000 rpm m + n = −1000 Gear C is fixed . Find the output torque to keep the wheel C fixed if the input power is 7..25m = 0 1000 = −800 1. determine the speed of the output shaft. tE = 30. − 1000 − m − 0.25 n = − 1000 + 800 = − 200 m=− 115 1 n− m = 0 4 . tF = 32.5 kW B (20) Input Compound Gear wheel D (60) E (30) Operation Arm C (80) F (32) Arm is fixed & B is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (B rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements 0 +1 20 1 = 60 3 1 3 1 60 ×− 3 80 1 =− 4 1 30 ×− 3 32 5 − 16 0 m 1 m 3 1 m 3 1 − m 4 − 5 m 16 n m+n 1 1 1 5 m+n m+n n− m n− m 4 3 3 16 Input shaft speed = 1000 rpm (ccw) i. P = 7.e. Solution: Data : tB = 20. carrying the compound wheels D and E turns freely on the out put shaft. If the input speed is 1000 rpm (ccw) when seen from the right.5 kW. tC = 80. The number of teeth on each gear is indicated in the figures.

Determine also the magnitude and direction of the torque required to fix S2.59 × 1000 + TF × 50 = 0 TF = +1431.P1 axial shafts of the epicyclic gear train as shown in figure 6. A1 = 120. A2 = 100 and the sun wheel S2 is fixed. TB N B + TF N F + TC N C = 0 Since C is fixed : N C = 0 TB N B + TF N F = 0 − 71.21Nm A1 The Torque required to hold the wheel C = 1360.8 + TC = 0 ∴ TC = −1360.59 Nm 2 × π ×1000 From the energy equation.21 Nm in the same direction of wheel A2 Problem 8: Find the velocity ratio of two co.59 + 1431. if a torque of 300 N-m is applied in a clockwise direction to S1 P2 S1 S2 116 Figure 6 .5 × 1000 = 60 7500 × 60 TB = − = −71.Speed of F = n − 5 m 16 5 = 50 16 Speed of the output shaft F = +50rpm (CW ) = − 200 + 800 Input power = P = 2 × π × N BTB 60 2 × π × −1000 × TB 7. The number of teeth on the gears are S1 = 40. S1 is the driver. S2 = 30.8 Nm From the torque equation : TB + TF + TC = 0 − 71.

TS 2 ωA 2 ωS 1 TS 1 117 . in order to find the speed ratio of S1 to A2. in the direction of rotation. A1 and A2: Operation A2 is fixed & wheel A1 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements A2 (100) 0 0 n A1 (120) +1 +m n+ m − S1 (40) 120 = −3 40 − 3m n − 3m m = −n A1 is fixed: N S1 n + 3n = =4 N A2 n ∴ N S1 = 4 N A2 (b) Consider complete gear train: Operation A1 is fixed & wheel S2 is given +1 revolution Multiply by m (A1 rotates through m revolution) Add n revolutions to all elements S2 is fixed ⇒ m=-n TA 2 A1 (120) 0 0 n − A2 (100) 30 3 =− 100 10 3 =− m 10 3 n− m 10 − S1 (40) 6 3 ×4=− 10 5 − n− 6 m 5 6 m 5 S2 (30) +1 +m n+ m 6 n+ n N S1 5 = 11 × 10 = 22 = 3 N A2 5 13 13 n+ n 10 Input torque on S1 = TS1 = 300 N-m.Solution: Consider first the gear train S1. ∴ Resisting torque on A2. (a) Consider gear train S1. A1 and A2 for which A2 is the arm. when A1 is fixed.

7 N − m 13 → opposite to directiojn of rotation ∴ Referring to the figure: TS 2 = 507.7 N − m (CW ) 118 .7 − 300 = 207.T A2 = 300 × 22 = 507.

Thus motion leads study of displacement. • Some important Definitions Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance is known. The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well as analytical method. Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V = dx dt dθ dt Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω = Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of a machine. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as configuration diagram. Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. Velocity can be linear velocity of angular velocity. A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’. linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’. velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine. Kinematics does not involve study of forces. x = rθ dx dθ = r dt dt 119 . Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their velocities and accelerations at different moments.Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION Session – I • Introduction Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines. As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of velocities.

120 . Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point).V = rω ω= dθ dt Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity f= Thirdly α = dv d 2 x = 2 Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity) dt dt dω d 2θ = 2 Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity) dt dt We also have. A ω2 O2 Va = ω 2 x r Va = ω2 x O2 A Ex: Vao2 is absolute velocity. Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’ B A 2 O2 O4 3 4 Ex: Vba Velocity of point B with respect to A Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram. Small letters are used for velocity vector diagram.

zero velocity point) b Vba Vb O2.This is absolute velocity Velocity of point A with respect to O2 fixed point. zero velocity point. O4 Vab a Velocity vector diagram Vector O 2 a = Va= Absolute velocity Vector ab = Vab ba = Va Relative velocity Vab is equal magnitude with Vba but is apposite in direction. B A 3 Vba = or Vab Vba = or Vab Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. B O4 Vb Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O 4 (fixed point. 121 .

Find velocity of B. • Relative Velocity Equation y Rigid body Va a Vab C A 30o 4 m/s A ya R O O4 θ xA x 122 . Let. To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30 o to the horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically upwards. us consider a simple situation.Vector O 4 b = Vb absolute velocity. Va = 4 m/s ab Absolute velocity Vb = ? Horizontal direction (known in magnitude and directors) ab Absolute velocity Vertical direction (known in directors only) O Vb B Vba Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect to B but opposite in direction.

The distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link xA = R cos θ. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body. as shown in figure.Rω sin θ dy A dθ = R ( − cos θ ) dt dt = . Differentiating xA with respect to time gives velocity. Let. y = VA dθ = angular velocity of OA dt x ∴ VA = .Rω sin θ y VA = .Rω cos θ ∴ Total velocity of point A is given by VA = ( − Rω sin θ ) 2 + ( − Rω cos θ ) 2 VA = Rω • Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link 123 .Rω cos θ d xA x = VA dt ω= d yA dt Similarly. yA = R sin θ. Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre.Fig. Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O. d xA dθ = R ( − sin θ) dt dt = .

2 xB = xA + R cos θ yB = yA + R sin θ Differentiating xB and yB with respect to time we get. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body From Fig.Rigid body yB B R sin θ yA A R cos θ xA xB x Fig. x VB = VB x = VA (Rω sin θ) y VA Rω cos θ 124 . d yB dt = y = VB = + R ( cos θ ) d yA dt y + Rω cos θ = VA − Rω cos θ x VA = VA y VA = Total velocity of point A y VB = Total velocity of point B Similarly. d xB d dθ x = VB = xA + R ( − sin θ) dt dt dt = d xA x + Rω sin θ = VA − Rω sin θ dt d yA dt dθ dt Similarly.

The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥r to the link. By graphical method 2. C 15 cm B 8 cm wBA 60o A 15 cm D 125 . By instantaneous method • By Graphical Method The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method. 1. Start from a point whose magnitude and direction is known. 4.x = ( VA x = ( VA y VA ) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ) y VA ) VA Similarly. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity. Four – Bar Mechanism: In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm long. 6. 1. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram. ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω ∴VB = VA Rω = VA VBA ∴VBA = VB – VA Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. By relative velocity method 3. 1. 5. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters. 2. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale. Find angular velocity of link CD. 3. To explain the method let us take a few specific examples. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpmω (cw) while link CD rotates about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and | BAD = 60o.

75 rad/s (cw) CD 8 2.24 cm/sec 60 Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 20 m/s = ab ⊥r to CD a. d ⊥r to AB b c Vcb ⊥r to BC Vcb = bc Vc = dc = 38 cm/s = Vcd We know that V =ω R Vcd = ωCD x CD WcD = Vcd 38 = = 4. Find (i) (ii) Angular velocity of connecting rod and Velocity of slider.Configuration Diagram Velocity vector diagram Vb = ωr = ωba x AB = 2πx 120 x 4 = 50. 126 . Slider Crank Mechanism: In a crank and slotted lover mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter clockwise direction.

127 . a ⊥r to AB Va ⊥r to OA b Along sides B O Velocity vector diagram Vab = ab =1300mm/sec ωba = Vba 1300 = = 8.66 rad/sec BA 150 Vb = ob velocity of slider Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding. VA = ωO1A x O2A = 2π x 300 x 60 60 150 mm B = 600 π mm/sec Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram. Shaper Mechanism: In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O2A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW direction.A 60 mm 45o Configuration diagram Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0. 3. Determine the velocity of slider.

m/s c VBA b VBO1 VDC d O1O2 Velocity vector diagram Va = ω2 x O2A O1 b O 1 c = O1 B O1C To locate point C O C ∴ O1 c = O 1 b 1 O B 1 To Determine Velocity of Rubbing a VAO2 = VA 128 . m C ω O2 2 3 B 4 O1 Configuration diagram Scale 1 cm = ……x….6 D 5 Scale 1 cm = ……x….

25 mm and 35 mm respectively. if BF = 45 mm. B. For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A. the dimensions of the links are as given below: AB = 50 mm. C and D.e. 40 mm. When the links are motion they rub against pin surface. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Velocity of point C Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm The angular velocity of link BC and CD The velocity of an offset point F on link BC. 129 . B. The velocity of rubbing of pins A. DG = 44 mm and DCG is read clockwise. The ratio of the pins are 30 mm. CF = 30 mm and BCF is read clockwise.Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. The velocity of an offset point G on link CD.5 rad/sec in CCW direction.ve sign. if CG = 24 mm. VrC = (ωbc + ωcd) radius r VrD = ω cd rpd Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions) Problem 1: In a four bar mechanism. when angular velocities are in opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use . C and D. Determine. ∴ Vra = ωab x ratios of pin A (rpa) + sign is used ωab is CW and Wbc is CCW i. CD = 56 mm and BC = 66 mm AD = 100 mm o At a given instant when | DAB = 60 the angular velocity of link AB is 10. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction.

525 m/s Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale. • • First locate zero velocity points. Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm C G F B 60o A D Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence. Draw d line ⊥r to CD to interest at C.Solution: Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale. Draw a line ⊥r to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to 0. Vba = ωBA x BA = 10. 130 . Vcb is given vector bc Vcd is given vector dc Vbc = 0. first locate the position of point E on velocity vector diagram.44 m/s Vcd = 0.39 m/s Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC. it is zero velocity point). This can be done by taking corresponding ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i. say 1 cm = 0. g f C • • • Ved a.525 m/s. b Vba = 0.525 m/s e.5 x 0.2 m/s. d From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from d.e.05 = 0.

056 Vcd = WCD x CD ∴ WCD = Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F • • • Draw a line ⊥r to CF from C on velocity vector diagram. Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G. we know Vbc and Vcd.305 m / s Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins • Rubbing velocity at pin A will be 131 .495 m/s.066 Vcd 0. d / vector de = Ve = 0.6 r / s .04 x Vcb = x 0. Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point. From the point f to zero velocity point a.44 = 0.066 ∴ be = Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a. Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD. Vbc 0. • • • Draw a line ⊥r to GC from C on velocity vector diagram. ∴ Vbc =ω BC x BC ∴ WBC = Similarly.39 = = 6.96 r / s (CCW) CD 0.415 m/s. Draw a line ⊥r to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously drawn line at g. Draw a line ⊥r to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously drawn line at ‘f’.44 = = 6.be BE = bc BC BE 0. (cw) BC 0.24 m/s BC 0. Vg = dg = 0. d and measure vector fa/fd to get V f = 0.

The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least absolute velocity.Vpa = ωab x r of pin A Vpa = 10. i) ii) iii) iv) v) Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale. • Rubbing velocity at point C will be = 6.5 x 0. The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft.244 m/s Problem 2: In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in a CCW direction. The angular velocity of connecting rod. [ωab CCW and ωcbCW] Vpb = (10.04 = 0.035 = 0. Va = Woa x OA 132 .315 m/s • Rubbing velocity at pin B will be Vpb = (ωab + ωcb) x rad of point at B. Determine. E A F 45o O G B The velocity of the slider Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod extended. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm.60 and 100 mm respectively. crank and cross head having pins diameters 80.96 x 0. When the crank turns through 60o from Inner-dead centre.5 + 6.6) x 0.684 m/s.03 = 0.

fb ab = BF AB 133 . ge will give velocity of point E.8 m/sec BE x ab AB mark the point e on extension of vector ba. g. Draw oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 8 m/s e a f b o. Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn be = Ve = ge =8.4 m/sec Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute). Draw a line ⊥r to ab passing through o.2 Va = 8 m/s Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector diagram. • To mark the position of F on link AB. g to cut the vector ab at f. ab give Vba=4. g Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s • • From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. gf will have the least absolute velocity. Join e to o. • • Mark zero velocity point o. Find BF by using the relation. g. g. g draw a horizontal line (representing the line of motion of slider B) to Xseet the previously drawn line at b. From f to o.Va = 40 x 0.

O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction.06 =0.BF = fb x AB =200mm ab Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod. Find: i) ii) • Velocity of the Ram R.6 m/sec Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig.08 = 0. O1O2 = 800 mm. 134 . the dimensions of various links are as follows.84 m/sec VP cross head = ωab x rcross head = 6 x 0.1 = 0. velocity of cutting tool. Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. O1B = 300 mm. and Angular velocity of link O2D.64 m/s • • • VPcrank pin = (ωab + ωoa) rcrank pin= (6 +8)0. We know that Vab = ωab x AB ∴ ω ab = Vab = 6 rad/sec AB Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins. • Vpcrankshaft = ωao x radius of crankshaft pin = 8 x 0.

R Tool R D 200 D B 2 45o O1 C

B on orank, O, B C on O2D O1

O2 O2

Step 2: Determine velocity of point B. Vb = ωO1B x O1B ωO1B = 2πN O1B 2π x 40 = = 4.18 rad / sec 60 60

Vb = 4.18 x 0.3 = 1.254 m/sec Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram. Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0.3 m/sec b d c r o Draw O1b ⊥r to link O1B equal to 1.254 m/s. O1O2

135

o From b draw a line along the line of O2B and from O1O2 draw a line ⊥r to O2B. This intersects at c bc will measure velocity of sliding of slider and O 2 C will measure the velocity of C on link O2C. o Since point D is on the extension of link O2C measure O 2 d such that O 2d = O 2C O2D . O 2 d will give velocity of point D. O 2C

o From d draw a line ⊥r to link DR and from O1O2. Draw a line along the line of stroke of Ram R (horizontal), These two lines will intersect at point r O 2 r will give the velocity of Ram R. o To determine the angular velocity of link O2D determine Vd = O 2 d . We know that Vd = ωO2D x O2D.

O 2d r/s O 2D

∴ ωO2d = •

Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates at 120 rpm. Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D. Solution:

•

136

All the dimensions in mm 45o 40 190 A

120

100 135 D B 120

Configuration Diagram Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal. Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O. Vao = ωOA x OA Vao = 2π x 120 = 0.4 = 5.024 m / s 60

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. o Choose a suitable scale o Mark zero velocity points O,q o Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA and magnitude = 5.024 m/s. a b

O,q Velocity vector diagram

D

o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from q draw a line ⊥r to QB to intersect at b.

137

ab = Vba and qb = Vbq . o Draw a line ⊥r to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at d. dq = Vd (slider velocity) • Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following dimensions of the links.

The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2.5 r/s at the moment when crank makes an angle of 45o with vertical. Calculate OP (crank) = 240 mm a) the velocity of the Ram S OA = 150 mm b) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level AR = 165 mm c) the angular velocity of the link RS. RS = 430 mm • Solution:

Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. R

S

A

O 45

o

P on slider Q on BA B

Configuration Diagram Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P. VP = ωOP x OP

138

P 0. BQ and BC.Vao = 2π x 240 x 0. a. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction. line at q. a. q 139 . g r Velocity vector diagram o Draw op ⊥r link OP = 0. aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A. Vqa = aq = o Angular velocity of link RS = ω RS = sr rad/sec SR • Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the links in mm. Pq = Velocity of sliding.24 = 0. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of links AB. g draw a line ⊥r to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to intersect previously draw.6 m S O.6 m.6 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. o From O.

o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 0. q c Vector velocity diagram Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.15 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from O. q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b.05 π m / s = 0. Va = ωOA x OA 2π x 50 x 0. Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.1507 m / s Va = 60 b a O.C Q 100 B 140 OA = 30 AB = 80 BQ = 100 BC = 100 All dimensions are in mm • Solution O A 50 rpm Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.03 = 0. 140 .

If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’.74 r / s (ccw ) ωbq =1.26 m / s Va = ωOA x OA = 60 141 . 2π x 120 x 0. What will be the torque required at the crank to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.13 m / s ab qb = 0. 500 60o 100 A hz h2 100 M 200 400 600 600 D K 360 B 200 C 320 Configuration diagram • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale.ab = Vba = ωab = and qb = Vb = 0. OC = VC = 0.1 = 1.106 m / s bC = VCb = ω BC = • bc = 1. Find the velocity of point K when crank OA is inclined at 30o to the horizontal.33 r / s (ccw ) BC Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure in mm.3 r / s (ccw ) AB aB o From b draw a line ⊥r to Be and from O. q these two lines intersect at C.

6 N-m 142 . m k b c Velocity vector diagram a Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale. o From d draw a line ⊥r to KD and from m draw a line ⊥r to KM to x intersect the previously drawn line at k.26 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b. o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from m draw a line ⊥r to MD to intersect at d. o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 1.45 = 12. draw a line ⊥r to AC to intersect at c. q. ∴ ( ωT ) I = ( ωT ) O P P V = ωR T=FxP F= T r ∴ ωOA TOA = Fk Vk horizontal ∴ TOA = TOA = Fk Vk ( hz ) ω OA 40000 X 0. m and c line ⊥r to this line from k. o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o. q. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from a.d Vk(hz) o.

AC = 680 mm and OQ = 650 mm. o Mark the zero velocity point. i) ii) iii) • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. The angular velocity of the cylinder The sliding velocity of the plunger The absolute velocity of the plunger When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise.4 m/s. a O. Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 6.32 = 6. q b c o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. Determine.4 m/s o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram. draw a line perpendicular to AB. A B on AR (point on AR below Q) C 60o O Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram R o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O. q.• Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm. Va = ωOA x OA = 20 x 0. 143 .

The length of the various links are: AB = 650 mm The velocity of slider block S The angular velocity of link EF The velocity of link EF in the swivel block. AB = 100 mm BC = 800 mm DC = 250 mm BE = CF EF = 400 mm i) ii) iii) Determine. • Solution: OF = 240 mm FS = 400 mm Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. ωab = Vab = 5.61 rad/sec (cω) AB o Studying velocity of player will be qb = 4.22 m/s • Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise.1 m/s o Absolute velocity of plunger = OC qc = 4. 144 .o To mark point c on ab We know that ∴ ac = ab ac = AB AC ab x AC = AB o Mark point c on ab and joint this to zero velocity point. o Angular velocity of cylinder will be.

d. o.14 m/s. o Mark zero velocity point a. f P b S a. Vb = ωBA x BA Vb = 2π x 300 x 0. d.1 = 3.400 F S O P G 400 B 45o A D E 300 Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A.14 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale. g c Velocity vector diagram o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥r to AB and equal to 3. o. o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥r to DC to intersect at C. 145 . g.

Step 2: Given ω2 = 10 rad/sec. o Extend the vector ep to ef such that ef = ef x EF EP o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S. φ 50 mm φ 40 mm B 30 A 2 G D 4 F o 3 60 mm C ω2 • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = OP = 1. Calculate velocity of B with respect to G. and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E.d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P. The angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec.o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that be = bc x BE BC o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥r to PE and from ‘a. o Velocity of slider gS = 2. Angular Velocity of link EF.85 m / s . Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4. Vb = ω2 x BG Vb = 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec. • Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1.6 m / s . 146 .

o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from f draw a line ⊥r to FD to intersect at d. d g. i) ii) Velocity of point D. Angular velocity of link BD. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BE and from g. f o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to CF to intersect at C.43 m/s ⊥r to BG.Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. 147 . B 30o E D C G 50 mm F Redrawn configuration diagram • Velocity vector diagram c b e o Draw gb = 0. f draw a line ⊥r to GE to intersect at e. • Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. 148 .8 = 50. Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.8 mm AB = 102 mm BD = 102 mm DO6 = 102 mm AC = 203 mm A 3 45o O2 B C 4 Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O2.iii) • Velocity of slider C. Vb = ω2 x O2A Vb = 1 x 50. 6 O6 5 102 mm D O2 = 50. d Vd a Udb b O2O6 C o From O2. O6 draw a line ⊥r to O2A in the direction of rotation equal to 50.8 mm/sec.8 mm/sec. locate zero velocity points O2O6.

O6 draw a line along the line of stocks of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c. O6 draw a line ⊥r to O6D to intersect at d. o Mark point b on vector ac such that ab = ab x AB AC o From b draw a line ⊥r to BD and from O2. B A 50 mm C • Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C. 149 . BC. Step 4: Vd = O 6 d = 32 mm/sec ωbd = bd = BD Vc = O 2 C = ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE • Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance of 50 mm from the centre C. Draw the velocity vector diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. CDE and EF.o From a draw a line ⊥r to Ac and from O2. E and F and the angular velocities of links.

AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm. P 3 2 Q on link 4 45o 4 150 . 45o O C B D A • Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure. link O2P = 40 mm. The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular to ⊥r AO and in 120 mm from O. Determine the velocity of the slider when | AOP is 135o and also mention the maximum velocity of slider. OA = 300 mm.C 120 B 100 60 rpm A 120 o All dimensions are in mm E 100 120 150 F 50 D • The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100 rpm in the CCW direction. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm.

Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF. E B A 45 o C AB = 160 mm BC = 160 mm CD = 100 mm AD = 200 mm EF = 200 mm CE = 40 mm 100 mm F 151 .• Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω direction at 240 rpm.

2 In case of the ⊥r lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2. Thirdly. This is the case when the body has linear motion. The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body. A Va B P Vb q I Fig.II Method • Instantaneous Method To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having velocities as Va and Vb respectively in the direction shown. If the intersection of the two lines is at I. 152 . A I Va B P Vb q Fig. A Va B Vb I at ∞ Fig. the body P will be rotating about I at that instant. 3 If the direction of Va and Vb are parallel to the ⊥r at A and B met at ∞. at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some point on the line. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the body P. 1 If a line is drawn ⊥r to Va. centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥r to the direction of Vb at B.

153 .

Subject: KINEMATICS OF MACHINES Topic: VELOCITY AND ACCELERATION Session – I • Introduction Kinematics deals with study of relative motion between the various parts of the machines. Thus motion leads study of displacement. x = rθ dx dθ = r dt dt V = rω 154 . The analysis can be carried out both by graphical method as well as analytical method. Linear velocity is Rate of change of linear displacement= V = dx dt dθ dt Angular velocity is Rate of change of angular displacement = ω = Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Velocity: Rate of change of displacement is velocity. • Some important Definitions Displacement: All particles of a body move in parallel planes and travel by same distance is known. linear displacement and is denoted by ‘x’. As dynamic forces are a function of acceleration and acceleration is a function of velocities. Kinematics does not involve study of forces. A body rotating about a fired point in such a way that all particular move in circular path angular displacement and is denoted by ‘θ’. study of velocity and acceleration will be useful in the design of mechanism of a machine. velocity and acceleration of a part of the machine. Study of Motions of various parts of a machine is important for determining their velocities and accelerations at different moments. Velocity can be linear velocity of angular velocity. The mechanism will be represented by a line diagram which is known as configuration diagram.

This is absolute velocity 155 . Small letters are used for velocity vector diagram. A ω2 O2 Va = ω 2 x r Va = ω2 x O2 A Ex: Vao2 is absolute velocity.ω= dθ dt Acceleration: Rate of change of velocity f= Thirdly α = dv d 2 x = 2 Linear Acceleration (Rate of change of linear velocity) dt dt dω d 2θ = 2 Angular Acceleration (Rate of change of angular velocity) dt dt We also have. Absolute velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to a fixed point (zero velocity point). Relative velocity: Velocity of a point with respect to another point ‘x’ B A 2 O2 O4 3 4 Ex: Vba Velocity of point B with respect to A Note: Capital letters are used for configuration diagram.

Vector O 4 b = Vb absolute velocity. B O4 Vb Absolute velocity is velocity of B with respect to O 4 (fixed point.Velocity of point A with respect to O2 fixed point. O4 Vab a Velocity vector diagram Vector O 2 a = Va= Absolute velocity Vector ab = Vab ba = Va Relative velocity Vab is equal magnitude with Vba but is apposite in direction. zero velocity point) b Vba Vb O2. zero velocity point. 156 . B A 3 Vba = or Vab Vba = or Vab Equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.

To illustrate the difference between absolute velocity and relative velocity. Find velocity of B. us consider a simple situation. 157 . Let. A link AB moving in a vertical plane such that the link is inclined at 30 o to the horizontal with point A is moving horizontally at 4 m/s and point B moving vertically upwards.

Consider rigid link rotating about a fixed centre O. Rotation of a rigid link about a fixed centre. • Relative Velocity Equation y Rigid body A ya R O O4 θ xA x Fig. 1 Point O is fixed and End A is a point on rigid body.Va = 4 m/s ab Absolute velocity Vb = ? Horizontal direction (known in magnitude and directors) ab Absolute velocity Vertical direction (known in directors only) O Vb Va a Vab C Vba A 30 o 4 m/s B Velocity of B with respect to A is equal in magnitude to velocity of A with respect to B but opposite in direction. The distance between O and A is R and OA makes and angle ‘θ’ with x-axis next link xA = R cos θ. 158 . yA = R sin θ. as shown in figure.

Rω sin θ y VA = . d xA dθ = R ( − sin θ) dt dt = .Rω cos θ ∴ Total velocity of point A is given by VA = ( − Rω sin θ ) 2 + ( − Rω cos θ ) 2 VA = Rω • Relative Velocity Equation of Two Points on a Rigid link 159 . y = VA dθ = angular velocity of OA dt x ∴ VA = .Differentiating xA with respect to time gives velocity.Rω cos θ d xA x = VA dt ω= d yA dt Similarly.Rω sin θ dy A dθ = R ( − cos θ ) dt dt = . Let.

Rigid body yB B R sin θ yA A R cos θ xA xB x Fig. d xB d dθ x = VB = xA + R ( − sin θ) dt dt dt = d xA x + Rω sin θ = VA − Rω sin θ dt d yA dt dθ dt Similarly. 2 xB = xA + R cos θ yB = yA + R sin θ Differentiating xB and yB with respect to time we get. 2 Points A and B are located on rigid body From Fig. d yB dt = y = VB = + R ( cos θ ) d yA dt y + Rω cos θ = VA − Rω cos θ x VA = VA y VA = Total velocity of point A y VB = Total velocity of point B Similarly. x VB = VB x = VA (Rω sin θ) y VA Rω cos θ 160 .

By graphical method 5. 12. Locate all fixed point in a mechanism as a common point in velocity diagram. 11. The crank AB is 4 cm long rotates at 180 rpm (cw) while link CD rotates about D is 8 cm long BC = AD and | BAD = 60o. 7. Velocity of each link in mechanism has both magnitude and direction. 4. By relative velocity method 6. Draw the configuration design to a suitable scale. 161 . 4. To explain the method let us take a few specific examples. By instantaneous method • By Graphical Method The following points are to be considered while solving problems by this method. ( R ωsin θ + Rω cos θ) = Rω ∴VB = VA Rω = VA VBA ∴VBA = VB – VA Velocity analysis of any mechanism can be carried out by various methods. Four – Bar Mechanism: In a four bar chain ABCD link AD is fixed and in 15 cm long. The points of the velocity diagram are indicated by small letters. Start from a point whose magnitude and direction is known. 10.x = ( VA x = ( VA y VA ) (Rω sin θ + R ωcos θ) y VA ) VA Similarly. 8. Find angular velocity of link CD. Choose a suitable scale for the vector diagram velocity. 9. The velocity vector of each rotating link is ⊥r to the link.

75 rad/sec (cw) CD 8 5.C 15 cm B 8 cm ωBA 60o A 15 cm Configuration Diagram Velocity vector diagram Vb = ωr = ωba x AB = 2πx 120 x 4 = 50.24 cm/sec 60 D Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 20 m/s = ab ⊥r to CD a. Slider Crank Mechanism: 162 . d ⊥r to AB b c Vcb ⊥r to BC Vcb = bc Vc = dc = 38 cm/sec = Vcd We know that V =ω R Vcd = ωCD x CD ωcD = Vcd 38 = = 4.

Find (iii) (iv) Angular velocity of connecting rod and Velocity of slider. 163 . A 60 mm 45o Configuration diagram Step 1: Determine the magnitude and velocity of point A with respect to 0.In a crank and slotted lever mechanism crank rotates of 300 rpm in a counter clockwise direction. VA = ωO1A x O2A = 2π x 300 x 60 60 150 mm B = 600 π mm/sec Step 2: Choose a suitable scale to draw velocity vector diagram.66 rad/sec BA 150 Vb = ob velocity of slider Note: Velocity of slider is along the line of sliding. a ⊥r to AB Va ⊥r to OA b Along sides B O Velocity vector diagram Vab = ab =1300mm/sec ωba = Vba 1300 = = 8.

6 D Scale 1 cm = ……x….6. m C ω O2 2 3 B 5 4 O1 Configuration diagram Scale 1 cm = ……x…. Shaper Mechanism: In a crank and slotted lever mechanisms crank O2A rotates at ω rad/sec in CCW direction. m/s c VBA b VBO1 VDC d O1O2 Velocity vector diagram Va = ω2 x O2A O1 b O 1 c = O1 B O1C To locate point C O C ∴ O1 c = O 1 b 1 O B 1 164 a VAO2 = VA . Determine the velocity of slider.

Vrb = (ω ab + ω bc) radius rpb VrC = (ω bc + ω cd) radius rpc VrD = ω cd rpd Problems on velocity by velocity vector method (Graphical solutions) Problem 1: In a four bar mechanism. B. if BF = 45 mm. CD = 56 mm and BC = 66 mm AD = 100 mm o At a given instant when | DAB = 60 the angular velocity of link AB is 10. ∴ Vra = ωab x ratios of pin A (rpa) + sign is used ωab is CW and Wbc is CCW i. C and D.To Determine Velocity of Rubbing Two links of a mechanism having turning point will be connected by pins. 165 . Determine. i) ii) iii) iv) Velocity of point C Velocity of point E on link BC when BE = 40 mm The angular velocity of link BC and CD The velocity of an offset point F on link BC. The velocity of rubbing of pins depends on the angular velocity of links relative to each other as well as direction. when angular velocities are in opposite directions use + sign when angular velocities are in some directions use . When the links are motion they rub against pin surface.e. For example: In a four bar mechanism we have pins at points A. the dimensions of the links are as given below: AB = 50 mm.5 rad/sec in CCW direction. CF = 30 mm and BCF is read clockwise.ve sign.

v) vi) The velocity of an offset point G on link CD. say 1 cm = 0. Vcb is given vector bc Vbc = 0. 40 mm. if CG = 24 mm.5 x 0. C and D. The ratio of the pins are 30 mm. B. Vba = ωBA x BA = 10. d From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from d. b Vba = 0.525 m/s e.525 m/s Step – 3: To draw velocity vector diagram choose a suitable scale. Scale: 1 cm = 20 mm C G F B 60o A D Step – 2: Given the angular velocity of link AB and its direction of rotation determine velocity of point with respect to A (A is fixed hence. Draw a line ⊥r to link AB in the direction of rotation of link AB (CCW) equal to 0. • • First locate zero velocity points.2 m/s. 25 mm and 35 mm respectively.44 m/s 166 . it is zero velocity point). DG = 44 mm and DCG is read clockwise. g f C • • Ved a.05 = 0. Solution: Step -1: Construct the configuration diagram selecting a suitable scale. Draw d line ⊥r to CD to interest at C. The velocity of rubbing of pins A.525 m/s.

415 m/s. This can be done by taking corresponding ratios of lengths of links to vector distance i.e. Draw a line ⊥r to BF from b on velocity vector diagram to intersect the previously drawn line at ‘f’.495 m/s.96 r / s (CCW) CD 0. Step – 7: To determine velocity of an offset point.24 m/s BC 0. d and measure vector fa to get Vf = 0. first locate the position of point E on velocity vector diagram. we know Vbc and Vcd. Vbc 0.056 Vcd = ωCD x CD ∴ ωCD = Step – 6: To determine velocity of an offset point F • • • Draw a line ⊥r to CF from C on velocity vector diagram. d / vector de = Ve = 0. be BE = bc BC BE 0.066 ∴ be = Join e on velocity vector diagram to zero velocity points a.44 = = 6. Step 5: To determine angular velocity of links BC and CD. Measure vector dg to get velocity of point G. From the point f to zero velocity point a.39 = = 6. (cw) BC 0. Draw a line ⊥r to DG from d on velocity vector diagram to intersect previously drawn line at g.04 x Vcb = x 0.• Vcd is given vector dc Vcd = 0.6 r / s .39 m/s Step – 4: To determine velocity of point E (Absolute velocity) on link BC.066 Vcd 0.44 = 0. ∴ Vbc =ω BC x BC ∴ ωBC = Similarly. 167 . • • • Draw a line ⊥r to GC from C on velocity vector diagram.

crank and cross head having pins diameters 80. The position and velocity of point F on the connecting rod having the least absolute velocity.5 x 0.5 + 6. 168 . [ωab CCW and ωcbCW] Vpb = (10.035 = 0. • Rubbing velocity at point C will be = 6.60 and 100 mm respectively.96 x 0. When the crank turns through 60o from Inner-dead centre. The length of the connecting rod is 800 mm.315 m/s • Rubbing velocity at pin B will be Vpb = (ωab + ωcb) x rpb of point at B. vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram by selecting a suitable scale.305 m / s Step – 8: To determine rubbing velocity at pins • Rubbing velocity at pin A will be Vpa = ωab x r of pin A Vpa = 10.Vg = dg = 0.6) x 0. The velocity of the slider Velocity of point E located at a distance of 200 mm on the connecting rod extended.244 m/s Problem 2: In a slider crank mechanism the crank is 200 mm long and rotates at 40 rad/sec in a CCW direction. The angular velocity of connecting rod. The velocity of rubbing of pins of crank shaft.04 = 0.03 = 0. Determine.684 m/s.

ab give Vba=4. • • Mark zero velocity point o. g. ge will give velocity of point E.4 m/sec Step 4: To mark point F on link AB such that this has least velocity (absolute).8 m/sec BE x ab AB mark the point e on extension of vector ba. g draw a horizontal line (representing the line of motion of slider B) to intersect the previously drawn line at b.2 Va = 8 m/s Step 2: Choose a suitable scale for velocity vector diagram and draw the velocity vector diagram. g Scale: 1 cm = 2 m/s • • From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. g. Join e to o.E A F 45o O G B Va = Woa x OA Va = 40 x 0. 169 . Draw oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 8 m/s e a f b o. Step – 3: To mark point ‘e’ since ‘E’ is on the extension of link AB drawn be = Ve = ge =8.

gf will have the least absolute velocity. We know that Vab = ωab x AB ∴ ω ab = Vab = 6 rad/sec AB Step – 6: To determine velocity of rubbing of pins. Find BF by using the relation.6 m/sec 170 .06 =0.Draw a line ⊥r to ab passing through o.84 m/sec VP cross head = ωab x rcross head = 6 x 0. • To mark the position of F on link AB. From f to o. fb ab = BF AB BF = fb x AB =200mm ab Step – 5: To determine the angular velocity of connecting rod.64 m/s • • VPcrank pin = (ωab + ωoa) rcrank pin= (6 +8)0.1 = 0. g to cut the vector ab at f. g. • Vpcrankshaft = ωao x radius of crankshaft pin = 8 x 0.08 = 0.

254 m/sec 171 .18 x 0. and Angular velocity of link O2D. velocity of cutting tool.18 rad / sec 60 60 Vb = 4. Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.• Problem 3: A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig. the dimensions of various links are as follows. O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and relates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction. O1B = 300 mm. Find: iii) iv) • Velocity of the Ram R. O. O1O2 = 800 mm. R Tool R D 200 D B 2 45o O1 C B on orank. B C on O2D O1 O2 O2 Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.3 = 1. Vb = ωO1B x O1B ωO1B = 2πN O1B 2π x 40 = = 4.

172 .

Draw a line along the line of stroke of Ram R (horizontal). o To determine the angular velocity of link O2D determine Vd = O 2 d . o Since point D is on the extension of link O2C measure O 2 d such that O 2d = O 2C O2D . o From b draw a line along the line of O2B and from O1O2 draw a line ⊥r to O2B. This intersects at c bc will measure velocity of sliding of slider and O 2 C will measure the velocity of C on link O2C.Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram.3 m/sec b d c r o Draw O1b ⊥r to link O1B equal to 1. O 2d r/s O 2D ∴ ωO2d = 173 . O 2C O1O2 o From d draw a line ⊥r to link DR and from O1O2.254 m/s. O 2 d will give velocity of point D. Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0. We know that Vd = ωO2D x O2D. These two lines will intersect at point r O 2 r will give the velocity of Ram R.

Find the velocity and acceleration of the slider D.024 m/s. Solution: All the dimensions in mm 45o 40 190 A 120 • 100 135 D B 120 Configuration Diagram Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram choosing a suitable scal. o Choose a suitable scale o Mark zero velocity points O.024 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.4 = 5. 174 . Step 2: Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.q o Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA and magnitude = 5.• Problem 4: Figure below shows a toggle mechanisms in which the crank OA rotates at 120 rpm. Vao = ωOA x OA Vao = 2π x 120 = 0.

RS = 430 mm • Solution: Step 1: To draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. The crank rotates at an angular velocity of 2. dq = Vd (slider velocity) • Problem 5: A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has the following dimensions of the links.q Velocity vector diagram D o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from q draw a line ⊥r to QB to intersect at b.5 r/s at the moment when crank makes an angle of 45o with vertical. o Draw a line ⊥r to BD from b from q draw a line along the slide to intersect at d. 175 . ab = Vba and qb = Vbq .a b O. Calculate OP (crank) = 240 mm d) the velocity of the Ram S OA = 150 mm e) the velocity of slider P on the slotted level AR = 165 mm f) the angular velocity of the link RS.

R S A O 45 o P on slider Q on BA B Configuration Diagram 176 .

g draw a line ⊥r to AP/AQ and from P draw a line along AP to intersect previously draw.6 m S O.24 = 0. o From O. Pq = Velocity of sliding. line at q.6 m / s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. a. g r Velocity vector diagram o Draw op ⊥r link OP = 0. P 0. a. Vqa = aq = o Angular velocity of link RS = ω RS = sr rad/sec SR q 177 . aq = Velocity of Q with respect to A.Step 2: To determine the absolute velocity of point P. VP = ωOP x OP Vao = 2π x 240 x 0.6 m.

1507 m / s Va = 60 178 . C Q 100 B 140 OA = 30 AB = 80 BQ = 100 BC = 100 All dimensions are in mm O A 50 rpm • Solution Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. The crank rotates at 50 rpm in the clockwise direction.• Problem 6: A toggle mechanism is shown in figure along with the diagrams of the links in mm. find the velocities of the points B and C and the angular velocities of links AB. BQ and BC. Step 2: Calculate the magnitude of velocity of A with respect to O.03 = 0. Va = ωOA x OA 2π x 50 x 0.05 π m / s = 0.

Find the velocity of point K when crank OA is inclined at 30o to the horizontal.3 r / s (ccw ) AB aB o From b draw a line ⊥r to Be and from O. o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 0. q these two lines intersect at C.13 m / s ab qb = 0.74 r / s (ccw ) ωbq =1. q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b.b a O. OC = VC = 0. q c Vector velocity diagram Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale. If crank rotates at 120 rpm CW. ab = Vba = ωab = and qb = Vb = 0. What will be the torque required at the crank to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K.15 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from O. 179 .33 r / s (ccw ) BC Problem 7: The mechanism of a stone crusher has the dimensions as shown in figure in mm.106 m / s bC = VCb = ω BC = • bc = 1.

500 60o 100 A hz h2 100 M 200 400 600 600 D K 360 B 200 C 320 Configuration diagram • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. 180 .

o Since we have to determine the torque required at OA to overcome a horizontal force of 40 kN at K. Draw a the horizontal line from o.Step 2: Given speed of crank OA determine velocity of A with respect to ‘o’. draw a line ⊥r to AC to intersect at c. o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from m draw a line ⊥r to MD to intersect at d. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from a. ∴ ( ωT ) I = ( ωT ) O P P V = ωR T=FxP F= T r ∴ ωOA TOA = Fk Vk horizontal 181 .1 = 1. m and c line ⊥r to this line from k. 2π x 120 x 0. m k b c Velocity vector diagram a Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by selecting a suitable scale.26 m/s o From a draw a link ⊥r to AB and from q draw a link ⊥r to BQ to intersect at b.26 m / s Va = ωOA x OA = 60 d Vk(hz) o. q. o From d draw a line ⊥r to KD and from m draw a line ⊥r to KM to x intersect the previously drawn line at k. q. o Draw Oa ⊥r to link OA = 1.

The angular velocity of the cylinder The sliding velocity of the plunger The absolute velocity of the plunger When the crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec clockwise. Va = ωOA x OA = 20 x 0.45 = 12. iv) v) vi) • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram.4 m/s. o Mark the zero velocity point. AC = 680 mm and OQ = 650 mm.∴ TOA = TOA = • Fk Vk ( hz ) ω OA 40000 X 0. 182 . Draw vector oa ⊥r to link OA equal to 6.4 m/s o Select a suitable scale to draw the velocity vector diagram.6 N-m Problem 8: In the mechanism shown in figure link OA = 320 mm. Determine.32 = 6. A B on AR (point on AR below Q) C 60o O Step 2: Draw the velocity vector diagram R o Determine velocity of point A with respect to O.

a O. q.61 rad/sec (cω) AB o Studying velocity of player will be qb = 4. o Angular velocity of cylinder will be. AB = 100 mm BC = 800 mm DC = 250 mm BE = CF EF = 400 mm OF = 240 mm FS = 400 mm 183 iv) v) vi) Determine. .22 m/s • Problem 9: In a swiveling joint mechanism shown in figure link AB is the driving crank which rotates at 300 rpm clockwise. The length of the various links are: AB = 650 mm The velocity of slider block S The angular velocity of link EF The velocity of link EF in the swivel block. q b c o From a draw a line ⊥r to AB and from o. o To mark point c on ab We know that ∴ ac = ab ac = AB AC ab x AC = AB o Mark point c on ab and joint this to zero velocity point. ωab = Vab = 5. draw a line perpendicular to AB.1 m/s o Absolute velocity of plunger = OC qc = 4.

o. Vb = ωBA x BA Vb = 2π x 300 x 0. f P b S a.• Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. g. o. 400 F S O P G 400 B 45o A D E 300 Step 2: Determine the velocity of point B with respect to A. o Mark zero velocity point a. d. g c 184 .1 = 3. d.14 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram choosing a suitable scale.

and also the relative velocity of point D with respect to point E. o From ‘b’ draw a line ⊥r to DC to intersect at C. The angular uniform velocity of wheel is 2 is 10 rod/sec.14 m/s. • Problem 10: Figure shows two wheels 2 and 4 which rolls on a fixed link 1. o Mark a point ‘e’ on vector bc such that be = bc x BE BC o From ‘e’ draw a line ⊥r to PE and from ‘a.85 m / s . o Velocity of link F in the swivel block = OP = 1.Velocity vector diagram o From ‘a’ draw a line ⊥r to AB and equal to 3. o Velocity of slider gS = 2.6 m / s .d’ draw a line along PE to intersect at P. 185 . φ 50 mm φ 40 mm B 30 A 2 G D 4 F o 3 60 mm C ω2 • Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. o Extend the vector ep to ef such that ef = ef x EF EP o From ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to Sf and from zero velocity point draw a line along the slider ‘S’ to intersect the previously drawn line at S. Determine the angular velocity of links 3 and 4. Angular Velocity of link EF.

Calculate velocity of B with respect to G. B 30o E D C G 50 mm F Redrawn configuration diagram 186 .Step 2: Given ω2 = 10 rad/sec. Vb = ω2 x BG Vb = 10 x 43 = 430 mm/sec. Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram by choosing a suitable scale.

f o From b draw a line ⊥r to BC and from ‘f’ draw a line ⊥r to CF to intersect at C. d g. o From c draw a line ⊥r to CD and from f draw a line ⊥r to FD to intersect at d. iv) v) vi) • Velocity of point D. f draw a line ⊥r to GE to intersect at e. o From b draw a line ⊥r to BE and from g.43 m/s ⊥r to BG.• Velocity vector diagram c b e o Draw gb = 0. 187 . Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram. Angular velocity of link BD. Velocity of slider C. • Problem 11: For the mechanism shown in figure link 2 rotates at constant angular velocity of 1 rad/sec construct the velocity polygon and determine.

O6 draw a line ⊥r to O2A in the direction of rotation equal to 50. O6 draw a line along the line of stocks of c to intersect the previously drawn line at c.8 mm AB = 102 mm BD = 102 mm DO6 = 102 mm AC = 203 mm A 3 45o O2 B C 4 Step 2: Determine velocity of A with respect to O2.6 O6 5 102 mm D O2 = 50. O6 draw a line ⊥r to O6D to intersect at d. Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram. 188 . o From a draw a line ⊥r to Ac and from O2.8 = 50. d Vd a Udb b O2O6 C o From O2. Vb = ω2 x O2A Vb = 1 x 50. o Mark point b on vector ac such that ab = ab x AB AC o From b draw a line ⊥r to BD and from O2.8 mm/sec.8 mm/sec. locate zero velocity points O2O6.

B A 50 mm C • Problem 2: For the mechanism shown in figure determine the velocities at points C. AB and BC are 750 mm and 200 mm long respectively crank BC is rotating eω at a uniform speed of 200 rpm. E and F and the angular velocities of links. The slider moves along an axis perpendicular 189 . Draw the velocity vector diagram and determine velocity of slider A and angular velocity of link AB. OA = 300 mm. BC.Step 4: Vd = O 6 d = 32 mm/sec ωbd = bd = BD Vc = O 2 C = ADDITIONAL PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE • Problem 1: In a slider crank mechanism shown in offset by a perpendicular distance of 50 mm from the centre C. Various lengths of the links are OP = 90 mm. CDE and EF. C 120 B 100 60 rpm A 120 o All dimensions are in mm E 100 120 150 F 50 D • The crank op of a crank and slotted lever mechanism shown in figure rotates at 100 rpm in the CCW direction. AR = 480 mm and RS = 330 mm.

Determine the velocity of the slider when | AOP is 135o and also mention the maximum velocity of slider. 45o O C B D A 190 .to ⊥r AO and in 120 mm from O.

• Problem 4: Find the velocity of link 4 of the scotch yoke mechanism shown in figure. Determine the linear velocity of B and angular velocity of EF. link O2P = 40 mm. E B A 45o 100 mm C AB = 160 mm BC = 160 mm CD = 100 mm AD = 200 mm EF = 200 mm F CE = 40 mm 191 . P 3 2 Q on link 4 45o 4 • Problem 5: In the mechanism shown in figure link AB rotates uniformly in Cω direction at 240 rpm. The angular speed of link 2 is 200 rad/sec CCW.

The position of instantaneous centre changes with the motion of the body. 1 If a line is drawn ⊥r to Va. A Va B P Vb q I Fig.II Method • Instantaneous Method To explain instantaneous centre let us consider a plane body P having a non-linear motion relative to another body q consider two points A and B on body P having velocities as Va and Vb respectively in the direction shown. 192 . the body P will be rotating about I at that instant. 3 If the direction of Va and Vb are parallel to the ⊥r at A and B met at ∞. If the intersection of the two lines is at I. 2 In case of the ⊥r lines drawn from A and B meet outside the body P as shown in Fig 2. centre of rotation of the body also lies on a line ⊥r to the direction of Vb at B. This is the case when the body has linear motion. A I Va B P Vb q Fig. Thirdly. The point I is known as the instantaneous centre of rotation for the body P. A Va B Vb I at ∞ Fig. at A the body can be imagined to rotate about some point on the line.

N= n = 4. If N is the number of instantaneous centers and n is the number of links. permanent and neither fixed nor permanent. I14 Permanent instantaneous center I23. I24 • Arnold Kennedy theorem of three centers: 193 . N= n ( n − 1) 2 • Types of Instantaneous Centers There are three types of instantaneous centers namely fixed. Example: Four bar mechanism.• Number of Instantaneous Centers The number of instantaneous centers in a mechanism depends upon number of links. I34 Neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous center I13. n ( n − 1) 4( 4 − 1) =6 = 2 2 I13 I34 3 I23 4 2 I24 I12 1 I14 Fixed instantaneous center I12.

their instantaneous centers should lie in a straight line.Statement: If three bodies have motion relative to each other. 194 .

Step 4: Locate all the instantaneous centers by making use of Kennedy’s theorem. the instantaneous center of the two links cannot be at the assumed position. I12 and I13 are the instantaneous centers for link 2 and link 3. I 23. 2 Step 3: Identify the instantaneous centers by circle diagram. To illustrate the procedure let us consider an example. Let us assume that instantaneous center of link 2 and 3 be at point A i. the proof. It is seen that velocity vector of VA2 and VA3 are in different directions which is impossible. Similarly for point A on link 3. for the three links to be in relative motion all the three centers should lie in a same straight line. 195 N . Hence. velocity of A with respect to I12 will be a vector VA2 ⊥r to link A I12. Steps to locate instantaneous centers: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. Hence.e. Point A is a coincident point on link 2 and link 3. Step 2: Identify the number of instantaneous centers by using the relation ( n − 1) n = . Hence. velocity of A with respect to I13 will be ⊥r to A I13.Proof: 1 I12 VA32 VA22 I13 2 I23 3 A Consider a three link mechanism with link 1 being fixed link 2 rotating about I12 and link 3 rotating about I13. Hence. Considering A on link 2. It can be seen that when I23 lies on the line joining I12 and I13 the VA2 and VA3 will be same in magnitude and direction.

196

A slider crank mechanism has lengths of crank and connecting rod equal to 200 mm and 200 mm respectively locate all the instantaneous centers of the mechanism for the position of the crank when it has turned through 30 o from IOC. Also find velocity of slider and angular velocity of connecting rod if crank rotates at 40 rad/sec. Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a suitable scale. Step 2: Determine the number of links in the mechanism and find number of instantaneous centers. N=

( n − 1) n

2 N= 4( 4 − 1) =6 2 I13

n = 4 links

I24 A 200 I12 O 1 I14 to ∞ Step 3: Identify instantaneous centers. o Suit it is a 4-bar link the resulting figure will be a square. 30o 1 2 I23 3 800 B 4 I12

I14 to ∞

197

1

I12 I24

2 1 I12 I23 I13 2 I23 I13 I14 3 3 I34 I24 4

I41

OR

4

I34

o Locate fixed and permanent instantaneous centers. To locate neither fixed nor permanent instantaneous centers use Kennedy’s three centers theorem. Step 4: Velocity of different points. Va = ω2 AI12 = 40 x 0.2 = 8 m/s also Va = ω2 x A13 ∴ ω3 = Va AI13

Vb = ω3 x BI13 = Velocity of slider. • Problem 2:

A four bar mechanisms has links AB = 300 mm, BC = CD = 360 mm and AD = o 600 mm. Angle | BAD = 60 . Crank AB rotates in Cω direction at a speed of 100 rpm. Locate all the instantaneous centers and determine the angular velocity of link BC. • Solution:

Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram to a suitable scale. Step 2: Find the number of Instantaneous centers N=

( n − 1) n

2

=

4( 4 − 1) =6 2

Step 3: Identify the IC’s by circular method or book keeping method.

198

1

I12 I12

2 1 I23 I13 OR I12 I13 I14 3 2 I23 I24 3 I34 4

I14

4

I34

Step 4: Locate all the visible IC’s and locate other IC’s by Kennedy’s theorem. I13

3 B I23 2 I24 A I12 1

C I34 4

I14

D

Vb = ω2 x BI12 = Also Vb = ω3 x BI13 ω3 = •

2π x 100 x 0.3 = m / sec 60

Vb = rad / sec BI13

For a mechanism in figure crank OA rotates at 100 rpm clockwise using I.C. method determine the linear velocities of points B, C, D and angular velocities of links AB, BC and CD. OA = 20 cm AB = 150 cm BC = 60 cm 199

2 = 2.CD = 50 cm A 2 1 O 30o BE = 40 cm C 3 OE = 135 cm 5 E 4 B D 6 10 mm Va = ωOA x OA Va = 2π x 100 x 0.1 m / s 60 n ( n − 1) = 15 2 2 12 13 14 15 16 I16 @ ∞ I13 I45 I23 2 1 I12 I34 I15 5 3 I14 6 I56 I16 @ ∞ I16 @ ∞ 23 24 25 26 3 34 35 36 4 45 46 5 56 6 5 4 3 2 1 --15 --- n = 6 links N= 1 200 .

273 m/s Link 5 C D 5 I15 201 .5 rad / sec AI13 Vb = ω3 x BI13 = 2.675 m/s C I14 4 B Also Vb = ω4 x BI14 ω4 = Vb = 6.37 rad / sec BI14 Link 4 VC = ω4 x CI14 = 1.Link 3 I13 A 3 B Va = ω3AI13 ω3 = Va = 2.

5 rad/sec ωbc = 6.273 m/s Vd = 0.675 m/s VC = 1.826 m/s Answers Vb = 2. i) ii) Velocity of slider Angular velocity of links AB.826 m/s ωab = 2.37 rad/sec ωcd = 1. CB and BD.72 rad/sec • In the toggle mechanism shown in figure the slider D is constrained to move in a horizontal path the crank OA is rotating in CCW direction at a speed of 180 rpm the dimensions of various links are as follows: OA = 180 mm AB = 360 mm CB = 240 mm BD = 540 mm Find. A 45o O 360 105 B D C n = 6 links N= n ( n − 1) = 15 2 202 .VC = ω5 x CI15 VC =1.72 rad / sec ω5 = AI15 Vd = ω5 x DI15 = 0.

1 12 2 23 13 14 3 34 24 25 15 16 4 45 35 36 26 5 56 46 6 5 4 3 2 1 --15 --- I16 @ ∞ I16 @ ∞ A 2 I15 I23 I16 @ ∞ I46 I12 I13 4 O I45 I34 3 B I35 5 C 6 I24 Va = ω2 x AI12 = 3.4 m/s A I56 Link 3 ω3 I13 B Va = ω3 x AI13 ω3 = Va = 2.44 rad / sec AI13 Vb = ω3 x BI13 203 .

875 rad / sec AI14 I15 B 5 D Vb = ω5 x BI15 Answers Vd = 2 m/s ωab = 2.875 rad/sec Vd = ω5 x DI15 = 2 m/s ωcd = 4. Vb = 4.Link 4 ω4 C Vb = ω4 x BI14 ω4 = Link 5 I14 B Vb =11.37 rad / sec ω5 = AI15 • 204 .44 rad/sec ωbc = 11. What will be the velocity of cutting tool D and the angular velocities of links BC and CD if crank rotates at 10 rad/sec.37 rad/sec Figure shows a six link mechanism.

Q 25 90o 15 B 15 C All dimensions are in mm 45 45 60 A 15 30 o O D 205 .

I13 I16 @ ∞ I14 4 3 I24 I23 I16 @ ∞ I26 2 I12 I34 I46 I45 5 O I56 Va = ω2 x AI12 = 10 x 0.015 Va = ω2 x AI12 = 0.15 m/s Link 3 I13 ω3 6 I16 @ ∞ I15 B A Va = ω3 x AI13 ω3 = Va AI13 Vb = ω3 x BI13 206 .

98 rad/sec A whitworth quick return mechanism shown in figure has a fixed link OA and crank OP having length 200 mm and 350 mm respectively. Find the velocity of the rotation using IC method when crank makes an angle of 120o with fixed link and rotates at 10 rad/sec.98 rad / sec ω5 = AI15 Vd = ω5 x DI15 = 1.25 rad / sec BI14 VC = ω4 x CI14 Link 5 C 5 D VC = ω5 x CI15 VC = 1.66 m/s • I15 Answers Vd = 1.25 rad/sec ωcd = 1. Other lengths are AR = 200 mm and RS = 40 mm. 207 .66 m/s ωbc = 4.Link 4 Q I14 B ω4 C Vb = ω4 x BI14 ω4 = Vb = 4.

R 5 S 6 A 4 1 O 2 P 3 B Locate the IC’s n = 6 links N= n ( n − 1) = 15 2 2 12 13 14 15 16 23 24 25 26 3 34 35 36 4 45 46 5 56 6 5 4 3 2 1 --15 --- 1 208 .

1. A change in velocity requires any one of the following conditions to be fulfilled: o Change in magnitude only o Change in direction only o Change in both magnitude and direction When the velocity of a particle changes in magnitude and direction it has two component of acceleration. Radial or centripetal acceleration fc = ω2r Acceleration is parallel to the link and acting towards centre.I15 I16 @ ∞ I45 6 5 I14 I56 1 I12 2 4 I23 3 I34 I46 I24 VP = ω2 x OP = ……… m/s • Acceleration Analysis Rate of change of velocity is acceleration. 209 .

fc =ω2r = V2/r 2. Tnagential Acceleration: Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r Velocity of A perpendicular to OA = Va Velocity of A’ perpendicular to OA = Va’ cos δ θ Therefore change in velocity = Va’ cos δ θ – Va Tnagnetial acceleration = ft = ( ω + αδt ) r cos δθ − ωr δt 210 .A A’ δθ Va Va’ cosδθ δθ fcoa Va’ Va’ sinδθ f oa a1 O1 ft oa oa r O Va’ = (ω + α δ t) r Velocity of A parallel to OA = 0 Velocity of A’ parallel to OA = Va’ sin δ θ Therefore change in velocity = Va’ sin δ θ – 0 Centripetal acceleration = fc = ( ω + αδt ) r sin δθ δt as δt tends to Zero sin δ θ tends to δ θ ∴ ( ωrδθ + αrδθδt ) δt fc = ωr (dθ/ dt) =ω2r But V = ωr or ω = V/r Hence.

fBA = frBA + ftBA • Problem 1: Four bar mechanism. For a 4-bar mechanism shown in figure draw velocity and acceleration diagram.as δt tends to Zero cos δ θ tends to 1 ∴ ( ωr + αrδt ) − ωr δt ft = αr Example: B A fCab = ω2AB Acts parallel to BA and acts from B to A. frab fab ftab ft = αBA acts ⊥r to link. 211 .

All dimensions are in mm B 50 60o A C 66 56 ω = 10.5 rad/sec D 100 212 .

⊥r to DC – ⊥r to BC Parallel to DC – D Parallel to BC B Direction Parallel to AB Sense A C 213 .5 x 0.525 fc = 5.51 m/s2 2.• Solution: Step 1: Draw configuration diagram to a scale.75 ft = αr 3. 1. Step 2: Draw velocity vector diagram to a scale. BC fc = ω2BCr fc = 1.75 ft = ? Step 4: Draw the acceleration diagram.05 Vb = 0. AB Link Magnitude fc = ω2ABr fc = (10. CD fc = ω2CDr fc = 2. Vb = ω2 x AB Vb = 10.5)2/0. No.525 m/s Vc a1d Vbc b Step 3: Prepare a table as shown below: Sl.

Angular acceleration of link AB. draw a line parallel to AB and toward A from a1d1 equal to 5. o From b11 draw a line ⊥r to BC. point c1.e. i) ii) iii) Acceleration of slider B. Therefore.51 m/s2 i. o From a1d1 draw a vector parallel to AD and pointing towards D equal to 2. point b1.09 rad / sec (CCW ) BC BC t 1 αCD = f cd = c1c1 = 79.11el to CD a1d1 11el to CD ⊥γ to BC c1 fbc b1 11el to BC b1 c1′ 11el to AB o Choose a suitable scale to draw acceleration diagram.72 m/s 2 i. If crank OA rotates at 20 rad/sec CCW. d1c1 = fCD and b1c1 = fbc. Calculate • Solution: 214 . Acceleration of point E.e. o Mark the zero acceleration point a1d1. o From b1 draw a vector parallel to BC points towards B equal to 1. o From c11 draw a line ⊥r to CD to intersect the line drawn ⊥r to BC at c1.75 m/s2 (b11). t 1 αBC = f bc = c1b1 = 34.11 rad / sec (CCW ) CD CD • Problem 2: For the configuration of slider crank mechanism shown in figure below. o Link AB has only centripetal acceleration. The magnitude is not known. To determine angular acceleration.

2 ftab – – Direction Parallel to OA Parallel to AB ⊥r to AB Parallel to Slider Sense O A – – O1g 9. 3.48 Va = 9. OA AB Slider B Link Magnitude fcaO = ω2OAr = 192 fcab = ω2abr = 17. Va = ωOA x OA Va = 20 x 0. 1.E 450 A 1600 60o All dimensions are mm 480 B G Step 1: Draw configuration diagram.25 b Step 4: Sl. e a 5.6 m/s Step 4: Draw velocity vector diagram. No. Step 2: Find velocity of A with respect to O.7 215 . 2.

fb fab f ab t o1g1 b11 fcab 192 172 e1 a1 ee1 216 .Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale.

o αab = Answers: fb = 72 m/sec2 fe = 236 m/sec2 αab = 104 rad/sec2 • Problem 3: In a toggle mechanism shown in figure the crank OA rotates at 210 rpm CCW increasing at the rate of 60 rad/s2. a 1 b1 = f ab g 1 b1 = fb = 72 m/s2. Acceleration of slider D and angular acceleration of link BD. = AB AE o Join e1 to δ1g1. = 1 1 = AB AB 1.2 m/s2 towards ‘A’ from b11 draw a line ⊥r to AB. t f ab bb 167 = 104 rad/sec2 (CCW). o From a1 draw a1b11 = 17. • • Velocity of slider D and angular velocity of link BD. o Extend a 1 b1 = a 1e1 such that a 1 b1 A1 R 1 .6 217 .o Mark o1g1 (zero acceleration point) o Draw o1g1 = C acceleration of OA towards ‘O’. g 1e1 = fe = 236 m/s2. o From o1g1 draw a line along the slider B to intersect previously drawn line at b1.

a b d Step 4: Sl.150 A 200 45o 400 300 D Q B 500 D G Step 1 Draw the configuration diagram to a scale. Step 2 Find Va = ωOA x OA Va = 2π ( 210 ) x 0.4 m/s 60 Step 3: Draw the velocity vector diagram.8 ftaO = αr = 12 o1. 1. AO Link Magnitude m/s2 fcaO = ω2r = 96. No.g Direction Parallel to OA ⊥ to OA r Sense O – 218 .q.2 = 4.

fbd d1 q11 fab b11 a1 ftOA fcOA d11 b1 fd O1q1g1 a11 o Draw o1a11 = fcOA and a11a = ftOA ⊥r to OA from o o1a1 = fa o From a1 draw a 1 b1 = f c ab . 219 . 5. Step 5: Draw the acceleration diagram choosing a suitable scale. from o1q1g1 draw a line along slider D to meet the previously drawn line at . BQ BD Slider D fcbq = ω2r = 38.3 ftbq = αr = fcbd = ω2r = 20 ftbd = αr = – Parallel to BQ ⊥r to BQ ⊥r to BD ⊥r to BD Parallel to slider motion 4. from b11 draw a line ⊥r to AB. o Mark zero acceleration point. AB fcab = ω2r = 5. o From d11 draw a line ⊥r to BD.93 f = αr = t ab Parallel to AB ⊥ to AB r A – Q – B – – 3. o From o1q1g1 draw o1q11 = fcbq and from q11 draw a line a line ⊥r to BQ to intersect the previously drawn line at b1 q 1 b1 = f bq a 1 b1 = fab o From b1 draw a line parallel to BD = fcbd such that b1d 11 = fcbd.2.

32 rad/s Fd = 16.4 m/s2 αbd = 109.5 o αBD = Answers: Vd = 2.2 rad/s2 220 .46 m/sec2.46 = 109.4 m/sec2. b1d 1 = f bd = 5. f bd 5.o o g 1d 1 = f d = 16.2 rad / sec 2 BD 0.54 m/s ωbd = 6.

• • Centripetal acceleration and Tangential acceleration. 1. B to A1 due to rotation of link 2.AO dθ 221 .• Coriolis Acceleration: It has been seen that the acceleration of a body may have two components. 2. Assume this motion also to have constant velocity VB/A. P 2 Q B1 dθ A1 ω2 P1 B2 B on link 3 3 A on link 2 dθ O Assume link 2 having constant angular velocity ω2. B1 to B2 due to acceleration ⊥r to link 2 this component in the coriolis component of acceleration. However. Consider the motion of slider from B to B2 in 3 stages. During this time slider 3 moves outwards from position B to B2. 3. in same cases there will be a third component called as corilis acceleration to illustrate this let us take an example of crank and slotted lever mechanisms. in its motions from OP to OP1 in a small interval of time δt. A1 to B1 due to outward velocity of slider VB/A. We have Arc B1B2 = Arc QB2 – Arc QB1 = Arc QB2 – Arc AA1 ∴ Arc B1B2 = OQ dθ .

= A1B1 dθ = VB/A ω 2dt2 The tangential component of velocity is ⊥r to the link and is given by Vt = ωr. The equation Vt = ωr remain same but r increases uniformly i. tangential velocity of any point B on the slider 3 will result in uniform increase in tangential velocity. Therefore. there is a constant acceleration ⊥r to rod.e. fcr ω2 ω2 fcr ω2 (a) Rotation CW slider moving up (b) Rotation CW slider moving down 222 . ∴ Displacement B1B2 = ½ at2 = ½ f (dt)2 ∴ ½ f (dt)2 = VB/A ω2 dt2 fcrB/A = 2ω 2 VB/A coriolis acceleration The direction of coriolis component is the direction of relative velocity vector for the two coincident points rotated at 90o in the direction of angular velocity of rotation of the link. Figure below shows the direction of coriolis acceleration in different situation. In this case ω has been assumed constant and the slider is moving on the link with constant velocity.

B on orank. Find: v) vi) Acceleration of the Ram R. A B O C C on AD O A A 223 . Tool R D R 200 D B 2 45 o Solution: Step 1: Draw the configuration diagram. velocity of cutting tool. O2D = 1300 mm and DR = 400 mm The crank O1B makes an angle of 45o with the vertical and rotates at 40 rpm in the CCW direction. and Angular Acceleration of link AD. O1O2 = 800 mm. the dimensions of various links are as follows.fcr ω2 ω2 fcr (c) Rotation CCW slider moving up (d) Rotation CCW slider moving down A quick return mechanism of crank and slotted lever type shaping machine is shown in Fig. O1B = 300 mm.

Slider R ftbd = αr Parallel to slider motion – 224 .Step 2: Determine velocity of point B.a r s Parallel to AB f bc =αr _ 3. Step 4: prepare table showing the acceleration components Choose a suitable scale 1 cm = 0. OB – c c 2 Parallel to AB f ac = ω r A 2. BC r cc – ⊥ to AC f bc = 2vω = c 2 f bd = ω r = 20 Parallel to DR D 4.18 rad / sec 60 60 Vb = 4.24 1.254 m/sec Step 3: Draw velocity vector diagram. Vb = ω OB x OB ω OB = 2πNO1B 2π x 40 = = 4.3 = 1. AC r t – ⊥ to AB f ac = αr o.3 m/sec Sl. DR ftbd =α r r _ ⊥ to BD 5. b d Parallel to OB O fcob = ω2r =5.18 x 0. Link Magnitude m/s2 Direction Sense No.

r1 f t dr fr o 1a 1 b1’’ fad d1 f dr c fcob ftab b 1’ r1 ’ fob b1 fccbc fsab b1’’’ Acceleration of Ram = fr = o1 r Angular Acceleration of link AD α bd = f bd BD KLENIN’S Construction This method helps us to draw the velocity and acceleration diagrams on the construction diagram itself. 225 . The crank of the configuration diagram represents the velocity and acceleration line of the moving end (crank).

• Draw another circle with AB as diameter.The procedure is given below for a slider crank mechanism. 226 . Acceleration diagram: The line representing Crank OA represents the acceleration of A with respect to O. ω 200 45º O A 800 B To draw the velocity vector diagram: Link OA represents the velocity vector of A with respect to O. • Draw a circle with OA as radius and A as centre. oab is the velocity vector diagram rotated through 90º opposite to the rotation of the crank. b b a 200 45º o ω 800 a o Draw a line perpendicular at O. Voa = oa = ω r = ω OA. extend the line BA to meet this perpendicular line at b. To draw the acceleration diagram follow the steps given below. • The two circles intersect each other at two points C and D.

• Join C and D to meet OB at b1 and AB at E. b1 ftab ba1 a1 ba1 45º O1 b1 800 fcab fab fb O1 fa a ω 200 B 227 . O1.ba1and b1 is the required acceleration diagram rotated through 180º.a1.

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