CHAPTER

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Introduction to Chemistry
Section 1.1 A Story of Two Substances
pages 4–8

6. Explain why the concentration of CFCs

increased in the atmosphere.
The use of CFCs continued to increase.

Section 1.1 Assessment
page 8

7. Evaluate why it was important for Dobson’s

data to be confirmed by satellite photos.
All scientific hypotheses, tests, experiments, and data must be independently confirmed to make them valid.

1. Explain why the study of chemistry should be

important to everyone.
Chemistry is the study of matter and everything and everyone is made of matter.

2. Define substance and give two examples of

Section 1.2 Chemistry and Matter
pages 9–11

things that are substances.
A substance, which is also known as a chemical, is matter that has a definite composition. Possible examples: table salt (NaCl) and table sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11)

Section 1.2 Assessment
page 11

8. Explain why there are different branches of

chemistry.
The study of chemistry is a very broad field, so chemists specialize in small areas.

3. Describe how the ozone layer forms and why

it is important.
When oxygen gas (O2) is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the upper regions of the stratosphere, the molecule breaks apart. The individual oxygen particles (O) combine with other oxygen gas molecules to form ozone (O3). Ozone is important because it forms a protective layer in the atmosphere that protects living organisms from harmful radiation.

9. Explain why scientists use mass instead of

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

weight for their measurements.
Mass is constant regardless of location and is not affected by gravity. Weight varies with gravity.

10. Summarize why it is important for chemists to

4. Explain why chlorofluorocarbons were devel-

study changes in the world at a submicroscopic level.
The changes you see with your eyes begin with changes at the submicroscopic level.

oped and how they are used.
Chlorofluorocarbons were developed as a safe alternative to ammonia, a common refrigerant. Chlorofluorocarbons are used as refrigerants, in foams, and as propellants in spray cans.

11. Infer why chemists use models to study submi-

croscopic matter.
Models enable chemists to understand difficult concepts that they cannot normally see.

5. Explain If cells have the ability to repair

themselves after exposure to UVB, why are the increasing levels of UVB in the atmosphere concerning scientists?
Cells have some ability to repair themselves, but some scientists believe that cells have a limit in the amount of UVB exposure that can be tolerated.

12. Identify three different models that scientists

use and explain why each model is useful.
Possible answers: Aircraft models allow scientists to test their designs before money is spent on the actual aircraft. Computer models of chemical processes allow chemists to test processes before actual manufacturing facilities are built. Car models allow scientists to test certain features, such as wind resistance, before a car is actually built. Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1

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13. Evaluate How would your mass and weight

18. Distinguish Jacques Charles described the

differ on the moon? The gravitational force of the moon is one-sixth the gravitational force on Earth.
Your mass would be the same, but your weight would be 1/6 your weight on Earth.

direct relationship between temperature and volume of all gases at constant pressure. Should this be called Charles’s law or Charles’s theory? Explain.
It is called Charles’s law because it describes a phenomenon that consistently takes place.

14. Evaluate If you put a scale in an elevator and

weigh yourself as you ascend and then descend, does the scale have the same reading in both instances? Explain your answer.
As the elevator moves up and down at constant velocity, the reading on the scale will be the same as it is when the elevator is stationary. However, during the time the elevator accelerates upward, the scale reading will be higher, during the time when the elevator accelerates downward, the scale reading will be lower.

19. Explain Good scientific models can be tested

and used to make predictions. What did Molina and Rowland’s model of the interactions of CFCs and ozone in the atmosphere predict would happen to the amount of ozone in the stratosphere as the level of CFCs increased?
Their models predicted that as CFC concentrations increased, ozone levels would decrease.

Section 1.3 Scientific Methods
pages 12–16

Section 1.4 Scientific Research
pages 17–22

Section 1.3 Assessment
page 16

Section 1.4 Assessment
page 22

15. Explain why scientists do not use a standard

20. Name three technological products that have

The nature of investigations varies a great deal and the steps needed to perform a wide array of investigations must also vary.

Possible answers: computer, internal combustion engine, and vaccinations.

21. Compare and contrast pure research and

16. Differentiate Give an example of quantitative

applied research.
Pure research is done for the sake of knowledge. Applied research is done to solve a specific problem.

and qualitative data.
Possible answers: qualitative, silver-colored liquid; quantitative, 5 mL.

17. Evaluate You are asked to study the effect of

22. Classify Is technology a product of pure

temperature on the volume of a balloon. The balloon’s size increases as it is warmed. What is the independent variable? The dependent variable? What factor is held constant? How would you construct a control?
Independent variable, the temperature; dependent variable, the size of the balloon; factor held constant, the amount of air in the balloon; control, an identical balloon kept at the original temperature

research or applied research? Explain.
Technology can be the product of either one. It can be a product of pure research when scientists realize their discovery has a practical application. It can also be a product of applied research when scientists perform research to solve a particular problem.

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Solutions Manual

Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

set of steps for every investigation they conduct.

improved our lives or the world around us.

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

23. Summarize the reason behind each of the

26. Ozone Where is ozone located in Earth’s

following. a. Wear goggles and an apron in the lab even if you are only an observer.
Harmful substances can get in your eyes and on your clothing if you are performing an experiment or just watching it being performed.

atmosphere?
90% in the stratosphere

27. What three elements are found in

chlorofluorocarbons?
carbon, fluorine, and chlorine

b. Do not return unused chemicals to the stock

28. CFCs What were common uses of CFCs?
refrigerants, foams, propellants for spray products

bottle.
The chemicals might be contaminated and you do not want to contaminate the stock bottle.

29. Scientists noticed that the ozone layer was thin-

ning. What was occurring at the same time?
c. Do not wear contact lenses in the laboratory.
Contact lenses can absorb gases that can damage your eyes and they are difficult to remove during an emergency situation. increased usage of CFCs

30. Why do chemists study regions of the universe,

such as the one shown in Figure 1.20?

d. Avoid wearing loose, draping clothing and

dangling jewelry.
It is easy to drag these items through chemicals and across flames, which might create a hazardous situation.

24. Interpret Scientific Diagrams What safety
Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

precautions should you take when the following safety symbols are listed?
Because chemists study matter and matter is found throughout the universe. Protect your hands from hot or cold objects; protect yourself from possible hazardous fumes; protect yourself from substances that can irritate your skin, mucous membranes, or respiratory tract; Substances are flammable, do not have an open flame in the lab.

Mastering Problems 31. If three oxygen particles are needed to form ozone, how many units of ozone could be formed from 6 oxygen particles? From 9? From 27?
2 units; 3 units; 9 units

Chapter 1 Assessment
pages 26–27

32. Measuring Concentration Figure 1.6 shows

Section 1.1
Mastering Concepts 25. Define substance and chemistry.
substance—any sample with a definite composition; chemistry—the study of matter and the changes it undergoes

that the CFC level was measured at about 272 ppt (parts per thousand) in 1995. Since percent means parts per hundred, what percent is represented by 272 ppt?
27.2% 272 ppt 1 part per hundred __ 10 ppt 27.2%

Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1

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0 g x _ _. and a law? A hypothesis is a tentative explanation about what has been observed. 35. weight is calculated using the acceleration due to gravity. Inc. a theory. study how much table sugar can be mixed or dissolved in water at different temperatures. will be the same as. How much mass will the cube in Figure 1.000 43. A scientific law describes a relationship in nature. Your weight would be less in Denver because the acceleration due to gravity is less in Denver than in New Orleans. a beaker weighs 6. Section 1. What is the function of a control in an experiment? A control is a standard used for comparison. are made with the five senses. environmental chemistry studies the environmental impact of chemicals. Which measurement depends on gravitational force—mass or weight? Explain. 42. mass is independent of gravity 40. 34. Weight. Qualitative data. such as color or shape. What is the independent variable? Dependent variable? What factor is held constant? .0 g? 4 cm b. sugar crystals are white and shiny qualitative c. fireworks are colorful qualitative 4 44. are measurements. 4 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. a city located at sea level.” Write out the number 1 trillion using the correct number of zeroes. amount of sugar dissolved. A theory is an explanation that has been supported by many experiments. x 2 cm3 (4 cm)3 128 g The hypothesis should be rewritten based on the new information and the new hypothesis should be tested.000. Predict whether your weight in the city of Denver. more than. such as mass or length. What is the difference between a hypothesis. Label each of the following pieces of data as qualitative or quantitative. Laboratory Experiments You are asked to 37. which has an altitude of 1. The amount of sugar that can dissolve in water goes up as the water’s temperature goes up. The text tells you that “1 trillion atoms could Temperature. Which branch of chemistry studies the composi- tion of substances? The environmental impact of chemicals? Analytical chemistry studies the composition of substances. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.21 have if a 2-cm3 cube of matter has a mass of 4. a. How does qualitative data differ from quantitative data? Give an example of each.7 km above sea level. what should happen to that hypothesis? 4 cm 4. Quantitative data. If evidence you collect during an experiment does not support your hypothesis. 41. Mastering Problems 36.000.2 Mastering Concepts 33. or less than your weight in New Orleans.6 g quantitative 38. amount of water fit onto a period at the end of this sentence.CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Section 1.000. Why is chemistry called the central science? An understanding of chemistry is central to all sciences and to our everyday lives.3 Mastering Concepts 39. 1.

7 km and that the pollutants will rise above 0. Possible answers: water pollution. biochemistry.CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Mastering Problems 45. Pollutants in the air are expected to rise above 0.085 ppm in the next eight-hour average. and chewing gum out of the lab qualitative c. Laboratory Safety Finish each statement Delicious 47% about laboratory safety so that it correctly states a safety rule. fire blanket. How many ozone particles are needed to form 24 particles of oxygen gas (O2)? 1 particle O3 __ 1 particle O2 49. Keep food. AIDS treatment. metals to make new coins. Data: Characteristics of Product Formed Color Crystal Form Odor white needles none b. polymer chemistry. Inc. Always add acid to the water very slowly. a. If your lab procedure instructs you to add two parts acid to each one part of water and you start with 25 mL of water. environmental chemistry. Is this a macroscopic or a microscopic observation? microscopic observation Mastering Problems 47. beverages. safety shower. the digestion of food. One carbon (C) and one ozone (O3) react to form one carbon monoxide (CO) and one oxygen gas (O2) particle. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. textile fibers. Classify CFCs break down to form chemicals that react with ozone. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 5 . following research topics with the branch of chemistry that would study it: water pollution. “The air quality Think Critically 48. and first-aid kit Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. inorganic chemistry. how much acid will you add and how will you add it? 2 25 mL 50 mL acid.085 parts per million (ppm) in the next eighthour average.7 km. biochemistry. Study your lab assignment.4 Mastering Concepts 46.” Which of these statements are qualitative and which are quantitative? The qualitative statements are that air quality is poor and that people should spend little time outside. Spend as little time outside today as possible if you suffer from asthma or other breathing problems. Quantitative statements include that visibility is only 1. Know where to find and how to use the fire extinguisher. the composition of a new textile fiber. 50. Interpret Scientific Diagrams Decide whether each of the diagrams shown below is displaying qualitative or quantitative data. Visibility is only 1. metal coins. Infer A newscaster reports. 51. Compare and Contrast Match each of the today is poor. and a treatment for AIDS. the digestion of food in the human body. Types of Apples Grown in Bioscience Greenhouse Granny Smith 10% Other 5% Fuji 12% Macintosh 26% x particles O3 __ 24 particles O2 Section 1. before you come to the lab quantitative data b. a.

Read the label of chemical bottles before using their contents. which is something you should NOT do? a.9 0. 1996. b.8 6. NOAA collects data and monitors low-ozone area at both poles. Answers will vary but should include increased use of CFCs and the decrease in the ozone layer. (4. Write a short report describing the Montreal Protocol and more recent environmental measures to reduce CFCs.4 4.8 11.gov/products/ stratosphere/winter_bulletins/nh_04-05 Standardized Test Practice pages 28–29 1.9 1.4 0.CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Additional Assessment Writing in Chemistry Arctic low-ozone area (million km2) Annual Average Arctic Low-Ozone Area for February and March 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0. Inc.3 0. describe the research into depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs in a time-line. of chemistry that you use every day.0 6.9 0.3)/6 Document-Based Questions Ozone Depletion The area of low-ozone varies over the Arctic as well as over the Antarctica. including the effects of the depletion of life on Earth.2 5.8 52.4 2. ’91 ’92 ’93 ’94 ’95 ’96 ’97 ’98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ’02 ’03 ’04 ’05 Year 55. Take only as much as you need of shared chemicals. does that compare to the average area from 1995–2000? . Use lots of water to wash skin that has been splashed with chemicals. In what year or years was the low-ozone area the largest? The smallest? largest.3 0. km.0 1.1 million sq. Answers should also include the measures taken by several other countries. Data obtained from: http://www.ncep. km 0. Pour any unused chemicals back into their original bottles.8)/6 4. d. Ozone Depletion Based on your knowledge of chemistry. CFC Reduction Research the most recent measures taken by countries around the world to reduce CFCs in the atmosphere since the Montreal Protocol. Prepare a booklet about its discovery and development. b 6 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.23 shows the average areas of unusually low ozone concentration in the north pole region from February to March of each year from 1991 to 2005. smallest. 2002 and 2004 54.4 5. Figure 1.3 5. When working with chemicals in the laboratory. Be sure students clearly explain how the application is related to chemistry. (5.8 4.cpc. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 1.8 million sq.1 6. What is the average area from 2000–2005? How Check student booklets for accuracy.5 0.2 0. 53.5 0.0 0.2 1. c.8 11.noaa. Answers will vary but should include the measures taken by the United States to limit the use and control of the disposal of CFCs. Technology Name a technological application 56.

(Carbonated beverages are fizzy because they contain dissolved carbon dioxide gas. a Experiment 4. 3. b. d. c. Which is an example of pure research? a. Assuming that all of the experimental data are Hypothesis correct.25 0. d. 6. What must be a constant during the experiment? a. The independent variable in this experiment is a. d. the type of beverage used. See graph below. creating synthetic elements to study their Temperature (°C) properties 2. CO2 dissolves better at higher temperatures. b. d. d Mass of CO2 Dissolved in a Carbonated Beverage 0. greater amounts of carbon dioxide gas will dissolve in a liquid. The different samples of beverage contained the same amount of CO2 at each temperature.20 0. b. Inc. This is the same relationship between temperature and solubility seen with solids.CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Use the table and graph below to answer Questions 2–5. The scientific method used by this student Data Analysis Conclusion showed that a. what is a reasonable conclusion for this experiment? a. b.30 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. d 0 5 10 15 20 25 Mass of CO2 (g) 0. the mass of CO2 measured. Page From a Student’s Laboratory Notebook Step Observation Notes Carbonated beverages taste fizzier when they are warm than when they are cold.10 the number of samples tested. producing heat-resistant plastics for use in temperature mass of CO2 dissolved in each sample amount of beverage in each sample independent variable household ovens c. Measure the mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) in different samples of the same carbonated beverage at different temperatures. searching for fuels other than gasoline to power cars a Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 7 . c b. the hypothesis is supported by the experimental data. the experiment is poorly planned.) At higher temperatures. the hypothesis should be thrown out.15 0. c. the observation accurately describes what occurs in nature. finding ways to slow down the rusting of iron ships d. Greater amounts of CO2 dissolve in a liquid at lower temperatures. c. the temperature of the beverage. 5. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. The relationship between temperature and solubility seen with solids is the same as the one seen with CO2. c.

its density is low. it can change depending on its location on Earth. 8. A theory is an explanation of how nature behaves and is based on many repeated experi- 8 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 Solutions Manual . the researcher cannot identify what effect each individual factor has on the outcome of the experiment. or mass of sugar added. Identify a feature of this experiment that should be kept constant. It is important to keep these features constant in order for the different trials to be compared appropriately. Explain why it is important to include keep this feature constant.986 1. What is the effect of drinking soda on heart rate? Student 1 2 3 4 Cans of Soda 0 1 2 4 Heart Rate (beats per minute) 73 84 89 96 ments. How can they be distinguished? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Give examples of qualitative data that are true The dependent variable is the amount of time required for dissolving. Mass measures the amount of matter in a substance regardless of the effect of gravity on the substance. she adds a sugar cube. Student 2 c. In this experiment testing the effects of soda on students’ heart rates. A chemistry student is investigating how particle size affects the rate of dissolving. volume of water. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Sodium is grey in color.4 44. The independent variable can be identified because it is the factor that the researcher is changing. 7.92 g/cm3. No. Answers will vary but can include temperature of water. 12. This student might be proposing a hypothesis. sugar crystals. Explain why scientists use mass for measuring the amount of a substance instead of using weight. stirs the mixtures for 10 seconds. while the dependent variable is the outcome of the experiment that is being measured. 9. 13. 11.CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Use the table below to answer Question 7. In her experiment. 10. for the element sodium. or crushed sugar to each of three beakers of water. its melting point is between the other values. while the independent variable is how much the sugar is crushed before it is added. Is this a proper use of the term theory? Explain your answer.83 8. Identify the independent and dependent Use the table below to answer Questions 8 and 9. which student serves as the control? a.92 variables in this experiment. Student 4 a Consider the following experiment as you answer Questions 12 and 13. Student 3 d. If too many factors are changed in an experiment. Student 1 b.2 1085 Color Grey White orange Density (g/cm3) 0. and records how long it takes the sugar to dissolve in each beaker. it has the symbol Na. Copper has a melting point of 1085°C and a density of 8. Inc. which makes it a more reliable measurement when comparing measurements made in different parts of the world. Physical Properties of Three Elements Element Sodium Phosphorus Copper Symbol Na P Cu Melting Point (°C) 897. A student in your class announces that he has a theory to explain why he scored poorly on a quiz. Give examples of quantitative data that are true for the element copper. Because weight is affected by gravity.

It becomes less in outer space. Some choices may be used more than once. Inc. c are working in the lab. It is independent of gravitational forces. e 17. Wear proper protective clothing to prevent stains and burns. inorganic chemistry e.CHAPTER 1 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 14. b Use the safety symbols below to answer Questions 15–18. c Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 1 9 . A scientist from which field of chemistry 16. 19. 15. theoretical chemistry c. c. c. b. It is a constant measure of the amount of Select the symbol for the safety rule being described in each case. physical chemistry c in case of strong fumes. farther from Earth. b. use hand protection. d 18. a. e. Use chemicals in rooms with proper ventilation investigates a new form of packaging material that breaks down rapidly in the environment? a. e. Safety goggles should be worn whenever you matter. d. It has the same value everywhere on Earth. It is found in all matter. Which statement is NOT true about mass? a. others will not be used at all. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. d. biochemistry b. Objects may be extremely hot or extremely cold. environmental chemistry d.

.

Density is the mass-to-volume ratio of a material. Which of the samples have the same density? density of A 80 g/20 mL 4 g/ml. the density of aluminum is 2. but should show the following relationships: SI units are divided into base units and derived units. length: meter. What is the final volume after the metal is added to the graduated cylinder? volume volume 147 g mass _ _ density 20. Inc. time. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 mL 7. and 33 g and volumes of 20 mL. and 11 mL.0 mL 21. 700 7 102 5. 9. Calculate Samples A. 4 cm3. the density of the cube is 20 g _ 5 cm3 4 g/cm3. 12 g.0 mL 41. respectively.1 Assessment page 39 Section 2. Apply Why does oil float on water? Mass = 20 g Volume = 5 cm3 No. and list the derived units used for density and volume. B and C have the same density 2.to a unit affects the quantity being described. It makes the quantity larger by a factor of 106.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Analyzing Data Section 2. time: second. density of C 33 g/11 mL 3. base unit. and length are base units. density of B 12 g/4 cm3 3 g/cm3.0 mL of water.2 Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis pages 40–46 4. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 11 . Practice Problems page 38 1. mass: kilogram. What is the volume of a sample that has a mass of 20 g and a density of 4 g/mL? Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.7 g/cm3. volume.00 g/mL 21. mass. volume and density are derived units. Define the SI units for length. Challenge A 147-g piece of metal has a 10. and density of a material. B.1 Units and Measurement pages 32–39 6.0 mL ships among the following terms: volume.0 g/mL. The derived units for density are g/cm3 or g/mL. Derived units are defined based on a combination of base units. time. Is the cube pictured at right made of pure aluminum? Explain your answer. volume 20 g mass _ _ density 4 g/mL 5 mL 3. derived unit. Compare a base unit and a derived unit. Define the relationships among the mass. Design a concept map that shows the relation- density of 7. 8. and C have masses of 80 g. a. Express each number in scientific notation. temperature: kelvin Practice Problems pages 41–46 11. Oil floats on top of water because the density of oil is less than that of water. The derived units for volume are cm3 or m3. and temperature. A 50-mL graduated cylinder contains 20. Section 2. 7. time. Base units are defined based on a physical object or process. Student concepts maps will vary. Describe how adding the prefix mega.00 g/mL. and length. mass. mass.

(2 5 10 4) 3) 10 (3 4 2 102) 6 10 2 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.000.25 104 kg 4 d.36 10 1 kg) (7. 89.60 105 s 360.39 4. b.5 106 g) in kg 1. area of a rectangle with sides measuring 3 101 cm and 3 10 2 cm area (3 (3 3) 101 cm)(3 10 2 cm) 101 ( 2) 9 10 1 cm2 10 5) b.2 10 kg) in kg 10 3 7.060 103 km 5060 km (cannot express in regular notation with the correct number of significant figures) d. area of a rectangle with sides measuring b.5 106 14. a.87 10 6 c.500.000. and express the answer in 12.26 104 kg 0.4 10 g/cm3 (2 0. (4 102) (1 (4 1) 102 8 108) 4 1010 notation along with its appropriate unit.62 10 1 kg 4.9 1010 Hz 16.36 10 1 kg 0.18 10 3 kg kg f.11 105 kg 0. Solve each problem. a. (9 2 102) 102 (7 102) 103 cm)(5 10 1 cm) 103 ( 1) 5 102 cm2 12 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual . (1.28 105 kg g. Inc. Solve each problem and express the answer in scientific notation. 4. 3. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. 0.000 s b.8 107 g) in kg 4. 38. (5.000.62 102 g 15.4 10 3 (1. a.26 104 kg) (2. a. 8. (6 (6 102) 2) 102 (2 1 101) 3 101 c. Challenge Express each answer in scientific notation in the units indicated. a.06 g) e.6 10 8 d.000054 g/cm3 c.000 3.12 7.000. (7 3 108) 108 (4 108) 1 area (1 103 cm and 5 (1 5) 10 1 cm c. 685.740 10 1 kg 4. Challenge Calculate the areas and densities.00000687 6.000 6.85 1011 1.0000000008 8 10 10 5.51 104 kg b. Challenge Express each quantity in regular scientific notation.000 Hz 13. 0.40 10 2 kg) in g h. (4 5 10 10 12 12) (1 10 12) c. 0.000 4.8 104 d.06 10 3 kg 0. 0.0054 5.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL b. 5. (4. (8 (8 104) 4) 104 (4 1 101) 2 103 d.39 105 kg) 105 kg (2. (7.000000076 7. 5. (5 10 5) (2 7 10 5 Report the answers in correct units.

) Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 13 . Convert 4800 g to kg.000 ms 65 mi 1 km (_) (_) 0. 4800 g 1 kg _ 1000 g 4.25 g 1 mL _. Convert 5600 dm to m. nanometers to meters? nanometers to meters: 10 m _ 9 (_) (_) (_) (_) 365 d 1 yr 24 h 1d 60 min 1h 60 s 1 min 21. Write two conversion factors for each of the 10 km _ 1 m 5 10 9 km following. The speedometer below displays a car’s speed 1 nm in miles per hour. a. __ 100 g solution 16 g salt g. Convert 72 g to mg. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. density of a substance having a mass of c. Convert 2. a speed of 25 m/s Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. students might generate a calculator answer of about 104. 72 g 1000 mg _ 1g 72. _ 1 mL 1.5 2. _ 1s 25 m needed to determine the number of seconds in one year.068 km 1m 1 km _ _ 100 cm b.8 kg (Note: because significant figures and rounding haven’t been covered yet.8 km/h. 1000 m 0. Convert 360 s to ms.62 mile) b. Challenge Write the conversion factors 25 m 1 s _. a density of 1. Inc. 9 17.245 s density mass/volume (4 10 3 g)/(2 10 2 cm3) (4 2) 10 3 ( 2) 2 10 1 g/cm3 f. a 16% (by mass) salt solution 16 g salt 100 g solution __. density of a substance having a mass of 4 10 3 g and a volume of 2 10 2 cm3 e.025 Mg c. Convert 2. 1 Mg _ 1000 kg 0. a.45 2. Challenge What conversion factors are needed to convert: a. Convert 5 5 m m to km. density given in g/cm3 to a value in kg/m3? g/cm3 to kg/m3: 1 kg 10 cm _ and _ 6 3 1000 g 1 m3 Use Table 2.000 mg d. What is the car’s speed in km/h? (1 km 0. 5600 dm 1m _ 10 dm 560 m 9 105 g and a volume of 3 10 1 cm3 density mass/volume (9 105 g)/(3 10 1 cm3) (9 3) 105 ( 1) 3 106 g/cm3 d.25 g h.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL c. 1 yr 18. 360 s 1000 ms _ 1s 360. 1s _ 1000 ms 0.62 mi 1h 10 102 km/h b. Convert 6. 19.25 g/mL 1.45 102 ms 102 ms to s.800 6800 cm 103 cm to km.2 on page 33 to solve each of the following.5 101 kg 101 kg to Mg. 20.

thus making it easier to perform arithmetic on the numbers. Write the measured distance quantities 3 1024 cm and 3 notation.200. 2) Is the unit of the given value the desired unit? (If no. Explain how dimensional analysis is used to solve problems. 30. 1 cm3/1 mL 28. Student flowchart should include the following yes/no decisions branches: 1) Does the given value have trailing zeros or leading zeros? (If yes.00% acetic acid by mass and has a density of 1. Organize Create a flow chart that outlines 5. Inc.2 Assessment page 46 24. use scientific notation. Express the numbers 0.).0003 cm.068 m as the answer.02 g/mL) 31. in grams. Challenge Vinegar is 5. Solve How many millimeters are there in 2. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. 5. scientific notation. the space-wasting placeholder zeros are eliminated.000 in 8.45 g acetic acid ( __ ) when to use dimensional analysis and when to use scientific notation.7 10 4. Apply Concepts A classmate converts 68 km into meters and gets 0. Does the given value have trailing zeros or leading zeros? yes use scientific notation no Is the unit of the given value the desired unit? yes conversion is not required no use dimensional analysis Section 2. How many seconds are in 24 h? 24 h 60 min 60 s _ _ 1h 1 min 86. not multiplied by 1000.02 g/mL. 23. Explain why this answer is incorrect and the likely source of the error. When numbers are expressed in scientific notation. What mass of acetic acid.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 22.42 107 26. Write a conversion factor relating cubic centi- meters and milliliters.5 102 km? 1000 m 1000 mm (_)(_) 1m 1 km 2.400 s 30.000 km 104 km in regular 27. Because meters are smaller than kilometers. 25. 14 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Describe how scientific notation makes it easier to work with very large or very small numbers. 0. A given value is multiplied by a conversion factor that relates the given unit to the desired unit.5 108 mm 250 km 29. is present in 185 mL of vinegar? mass (volume)(density) 189 g vinegar (189 g vinegar) (185 mL)(1. The 68 km was divided by 1000. then use dimensional analysis. It is a method of problem solving focusing on the units used to describe matter.) . there should be more meters than kilometers.00 g acetic acid 100 g vinegar 9.00087 and 54.

35 g/11.7 mL 45.0 mL 4. Sample 3.8 mL 47.01 g/cm3 for pyrite. 60.3 mL 15. which has a density of 19. Inc.11 _ 1.3 mL 50.3 mL.1 mL 4.68 g/cm 1.59 1.93 g/mL. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.59 g/cm3) and the measured value.55% 2.78 g/13. which student’s trial was the most accurate? The least accurate? most accurate: Student B.1 mL.93 g/mL 5.10 g/mL Average density (4.7 mL 5. The samples are probably pyrite.01 0.7 mL.10 g/mL)/6 5.10 g/mL 4.12 1.92 g/15.19 0. 67.5 mL 50.65 g/11.70 g/cm 3 3 3 Error (g/cm 3) 0.14 _ Note: The answers are reported in three significant figures because student error is the difference between the actual value (1. Calculate the percent errors for Students B’s trials.80% Think Critically 1.02 g/mL which is very close to the accepted value of 5.71 g/cm 1. 0.5 mL 49.2 mL 11.14 Density a. 65. 74. Sample 4.59 1.10 _ 0.59 1. Sample 5.8 mL 12.12 _ 100 100 100 6. Volume: Sample 1. This average is the most accurate.3 Uncertainty in Data pages 47–54 34. Sample 2. least accurate: Student B.60 g/cm 3 3 3 Student B 3 Student C 3 Error (g/cm ) 0. density = 1. A local geologist suggested the samples might be pyrite. Sample 6.2 mL. trial 2.00 g/mL 5. 57.19 _ 1. a mineral with a density of 5.5 mL 13. Problem-Solving Lab page 50 100 100 100 11.0 mL. 63. 61. 55. trial 1 Practice Problems page 49 Answer the following questions using data from Table 2. 56.19 _ Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Sample 2.57 g/cm b.09 0. Sample 3.59 g/cm 3) Student A Density Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 1.10 g/mL.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Student Density and Error Data (Unknown was sucrose.9% 5. 50. Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual 15 . Note: The answers are reported in three significant figures because student error is the difference between the actual value (1. Challenge Based on percent error.92% 6. 32.05 0.29% 7.3.51 g/cm 3 3 3 3 Error (g/cm ) 0.59 0. Apply The student hopes the samples are gold.70 g/cm 3 1.99 g/mL 4. Sample 6. 1.02 g/mL 0.10 0.3 mL 5.66% 8. 1. These trial values are the most precise.11 0. What is the identity of the unknown sample? The average density of the samples was 5. Calculate the percent errors for Student C’s trials.2 mL 4. Calculate the volume and density for each sample and the average density of the six samples.59 1.69 g/cm 1. Sample 5.00 g/mL. 33.3 mL 50.59 g/cm3) and the measured value. b.56 g/12.3 g/cm3.99 g/mL 5. Sample 4.3 mL Density: Sample 1.40 g/cm 1.3 mL 5.99 g/mL. 60.01 g/cm3.59 0. 62.54 g/cm 1.99 g/mL.45 g/cm 1.57 g/cm 3 a.1 mL 10.6 mL 11. Section 2.02 Density 1. 0.25 g/10.

0. 308. 0. 2. Use the appropriate density value given in Question 2 as the accepted value. 38.014 100 mL. The data is accurate.20%. 1. and 1000 in scientific notation with two. 0.790 kg 4.20% error to 1.01 g/mL 0. Calculate the error and percent error of each d. Challenge Write the numbers 10. Challenge Round each number to four signifi- 4 b.00 101. Sample 2. Sample 6.02 g/mL. 0.93 5.09 g/mL/5. Sample 4.01 g/mL.09 g/mL Percent errors: Sample 1.000 38. Sample 5.10 5.40%. and write the answer in scientific notation.5432 g 38.99 5.000482 mL 3 c.000 103 101. 102. 508. 5. 0.000 1.08 g/mL /5. 84.0084 mL 2 sample. a.02 g/mL.0 L d.54 g c.8%. 136. Errors: Sample 1.01 g/mL 0.01 g/mL 100 1.01 g/mL 0. 5.01 g/mL 0.01 g/mL 1.659. Sample 3.087 108 mm 36. Sample 3.0 1. 1.09 g/mL. Sample 2. a. three.01 g/mL 0.368 105 kg d. b.03% error.758 kg 1. 4.01 g/mL 0. Determine the number of significant figures in each measurement.09 g/mL/5. 3.0 103 three significant figures: 1.02 g/mL/5. 4.000 mm 3. two significant figures: 1.8 cm 4.00 1. 4.791 kg 84. 0. or 2. 4.6%. Sample 4. 1. 820.08g/mL. and four significant figures. Sample 6. 102.936 m 39.482 10 4 g c. Round each number to four significant figures.00 103 four significant figures: 1. Sample 5. 807. 35. 0. respectively. The student’s values ranged from 0.00 5. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. 256.1587 5 10 4 g 16 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.01 g/mL/5.8% 37.000 kg 3 c. a.0 102.01 g/mL 0.9356 m . 101.8% error.01 g/mL 0.014 mL b.01 g/mL 1.02 g/mL/5. Conclude Was the data collected by the student accurate? Explain your answer. 0. 5.01 g/mL 0. 0.00054818 g 5. The average error was 1. Inc.99 5.75 cm Practice Problems pages 51–54 256.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 3.10 5.0 L 7 cant figures.049450 s 5 d.0200 5 105 kg b. 1.0145 mL 2. 0. 100.400. a.40%.

They each have four significant figures.8 103 cm 2. Apply Write an expression for the quantity 506. 4. 76.4 s 2. 106 mm 104 mm 46.2 m/20.49 76. 43. 1.000 cm in which it is clear that all the zeros are significant.01 cm 20. 120 m Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.5 102 cm3) necessary. and round when 44.49 cm |76.6 106 mm terms of known and estimated digits. 4.32 104 mm 160 1.02615% 0. b.49 cm| 76.47 cm 76. 12 m2 c.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 40.7 cm divide coefficients: 1. 42.1307% b. 0.49 cm |76.47 cm.0018 107 mm 2. Challenge (1. a. 5.0 m 81. Add and subtract as indicated. State how a measured value is reported in round when necessary.26 m 78 m2 in each of these measurements of an object’s length: 76.49 76.0 cm 48.9 cm 51.02 cm 0.47 76.9 m/s 50.32 103 g) (2. Identify the number of significant figures Perform the following calculations and round the answers.23 m 2. Are the measurements in Question 47 accurate? Are they precise? Answers may vary but might include the following. 60.1218 107 cm 2.2 cm 142.0 m/s 76. 43.48 cm 76.32/2.06000 Solutions Manual 105 cm Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 17 . 2.5 0.49 cm __ __ __ c.10 m length of 76.528. a.1 m2 1.528 101 g/cm3.49 cm| 76.00 m/s d.12 107 mm 1.11 kg 253 kg Section 2.53 m 49.6 4.48 cm.84 m/2.49 cm| 76. and 45.01307% 0. Calculate the error and percent error for each measurement in Question 47.12 107 cm Accuracy is defined as how close a value is to the accepted value. subtract exponents: 103 2 101. 168 m/58 s 2. and 76.59 cm. The first and second values are close enough to the accepted value to be called accurate.49 20.32 103 cm 1.59 76.00 m/s |76. 258. 47. a. 48. a.3 Assessment page 54 41. Inc. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.59 cm 76. Precision is defined as how close a series of measurements are to one another.4 m/51. A measured valued is reported with all of the known digits and one estimated digit.0 m d. They are not precise for values recorded to four significant figures. Apply The object in Question 47 has an actual b.1 s 3. 5.49 cm.5 m2 2. Challenge Add and subtract as indicated.10 cm 100 100 100 0.2 s 2.12 107 mm 0. 53. 24 m 3. 102. combine parts and round: 0.3 g/cm3 b. Define accuracy and precision.48 76.3 kg 768 kg 257.

52.0 22 70.04% CO2 and other gases.5 g/10 5. 20 coins.2g/50 4.95% Nitrogen 78. 25 20 15 10 5 0 20 30 Mass v. Slope (y y ) (70. Relate If a linear graph has a negative slope. Analyze Data Students collected mass data 56.5 15 48. Student graphs should have four wedge-shaped areas that are sized proportionately with the composition percentages given. Number of coins Mass (g) 5 23.4 Representing Data pages 55–58 Section 2. 10 coins. Volume 55. 105.1 53.93% Oxygen 20. 0. Determine the accuracy and precision of the measurements. or parts of a whole. relative amounts.6 g _ 3. Inc.1 g 38. Often.9 g/20 5. Infer from Figure 2.6 g.2 g/cm3. Infer What type of data must be plotted on a graph for the slope of the line to represent density? Mass and volume data must be plotted. Student graphs should show mass on the y-axis and volume on the x-axis. Elements in Earth’s Atmosphere The mass of an individual coin calculated for each trial are as follows: 5 coins. and 50 coins.2 10 54. Apply Graph mass versus volume for the given data. Summarize What data are best displayed on a circle graph? On a bar graph? circle graph: parts of a whole.5 g/30 5. Construct a circle graph for the composition for a group of coins. The mass of a single coin is 5.295 g. Graphing the data allows patterns and trends to be more easily spotted and interpreted.5 24.00 g. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. what can you say about the dependent variable? Volume (cm3) It decreases in value as the independent variable increases. 246. bar graph: how a quantity varies with a factor such as location 40 50 60 70 80 Mass (g) 18 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual . 23. 30 coins. 54. Explain why graphing can be an important tool for analyzing data.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 51.150 g.08% Section 2.45 g.2 g/5 4. What is the slope of the line? Volume (cm3) Mass (g) 7.17 how long the ozone hole lasts.5 g) _ __ (x x ) (22 cm 12 cm ) 31.5 20 105.1 12 38. Knowing that the accepted value for the mass of the coin is 5. approximately three months Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.924 g. 58. trends in data are not easily seen when the data is presented in a table.2 of air: 78.16 g/cm 3. 20.2 g/cm 2 1 2 1 3 3 3 3 10 cm3 54. Argon 0. The slope of the line is 3.5 50 246. Graphing provides visual information about relationships between variables. the data in the table is too varied to be considered precise and differs too greatly from the accepted value to be considered accurate.00 g.08% N.4 Assessment page 58 57. and 0.93% CO2 and other gases 0. the y value must be mass and the x value must be volume.95% O2.93% Ar. from September to November. 154.9 30 154.

Compare the possible adverse health effects of exposure to the chemicals and list the first aid requirements.55 50. Plot and label two lines on the graph. If swallowed.5 5. First aid is as follows: for the eyes. wash with soap and water. Make and Use Graphs Graph total mass versus total volume for the pre-1982 and post1982 pennies. Make and Use Graphs Draw a best-fit line Analyze and Conclude 1.55 Total Volume of water displaced (mL) 1. and if ingested give large amounts of milk or water.2 7.53 62. flush with water for 15 min.1 7. Mass can be used to identify both pre and post 1982 pennies.5 5.0 8. Pre-1982 Penny Total mass of pennies (g) 15.8 3.7 Density Mass Volume (g/mL) 9. and stomach.2 7. and density support using a mass-only identification technique. Density of a Penny by calculating the total mass and the total volume of water displaced for each trial.02 46. Call a doctor if ingested or the eye and skin irritation continues.2 6.0 8.9 9.7 3. mass. See graph below.7 Density Mass Volume (g/mL) 6. Use two points on each line to calculate the slope. Sample answer: The MSDS of an automatic dishwashing detergent indicates that it is an irritation to eyes and skin. The slope for post-1982 penny is 9. for the skin. 2.2 Writing in Chemistry Research Access the MSDS for several chemicals used at home.0 g/mL.50 25. Calculate Complete the Data Table for the Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.54 Total Volume of water displaced (mL) 1.9 8. Both pennies have similar volume but the mass is different. ChemLab page 60 3. one for pre-1982 pennies and one for post-1982 pennies. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 19 .03 37. therefore the density is different.04 62.9 7.1 8. The slopes of the lines give you the density of the pre-1982 and post-1982 pennies.9 8. Answers will vary based on the student’s product selection. through each set of points. Apply Can you determine if a penny was minted before or after 1982 if you only know its mass? Explain how volume.2 7. See graph below.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Chemistry and Health page 59 Post-1982 Penny Total mass of pennies (g) 12. it will irritate the mouth. The slope for pre-1982 penny is 7. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.50 31. Inc.12 77. Do not induce vomiting. throat.1 g/mL.9 Pennies 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 Pre 1982 Post 1982 10 Mass (g) Volume (mL) 4.

860 0.1 m 20 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual . motor oil.7 g/mL. The density of aluminum is 2. The sizes of the units are equal.85 0.5. What role do prefixes play in the metric system? Prefixes give the magnitude of the measurement. Densities of these metals are listed in the appendix. Explain why standard units of measurement are Mastering Problems 66.8 7. Student drawings should show the layers in the following order from top to bottom: cork. 65. isopropyl alcohol. 67. Scientists from different countries have different languages and cultures but must be able to share and compare data. corn syrup. and bone.84 Chapter 2 Assessment pages 62–65 1.8)/8. wood (oak).789 1.91 0.000 Section 2.37 0. Are they consistent? If not. Why must a measurement include both a number and a unit? The number gives you the quantitative value.0 mL 61. The results should be consistent.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 5. 60.0 Post 1982 pennies (7. Sketch the results of an experiment that layered each of the liquids and solids into a 1000-mL graduated cylinder. Pre 1982 pennies (9. What is the relationship between the SI unit for the density of each coin.1 g mass _ _ density 2. and the unit indicates what was measured. Solids (g/cm3) Bone Cork Plastic Oak (wood) 1.26 0. Examine the density values for several common Inquiry Extension Compare your results with those from the rest of the class. which is equal to three SI measurements of length multiplied together. 1 dm 0.2 100 100 2.) Error could be reduced by using a more accurate graduated cylinder so measurements could be made with more significance. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. More accurate results could be achieved with a graduated cylinder that read a more accurate volume. 64. Explain how temperatures on the Celsius and Kelvin scales are related. Make sure the pennies are dry before they are massed. What is the density of water? density 5g mass _ _ volume 5 mL 1 g/mL particularly important to scientists. water.1 8. (Note: accepted values for density were determined by calculating a weighted average of the accepted values of the densities of copper and zinc. Error Analysis Determine the percent error in 63. How many meters are there in one kilometer? In one decimeter? 1 km 1000 m. vegetable oil and plastic (at the same level). explain how you could refine your investigation to ensure more accurate results.870 1. A 5-mL sample of water has a mass of 5 g. Density Values Liquids (g/mL) Ethyl alcohol Glycerin Isopropyl alcohol Corn syrup Motor oil Vegetable oil Water at 4ºC 0.910 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. liquids and solids given in Table 2.24 0. Inc.7 g/mL 3.1 g? volume 8. m3. glycerin. 62. ethyl alcohol.2)/7.1 Mastering Concepts 59. What is the volume of 8.3% error 1.4% error volume and the SI unit for length? The SI unit for volume is the cubic meter. °C 273 K.

the Celsius thermometer could not be used to make this candy because the temperature is out of the thermometer’s range.0076352 kg d.XX 10 102 7 c.1 mL to 30. 0. When you convert from a small unit to a large unit. 438. of water in a graduated cylinder from 25. write each number in scientific notation.348.300. 3. 3.0045834 mm 4.38904 105 s d. When dividing numbers in scientific notation. The soft-ball stage corresponds to a temperature of 236°F. No.5 g/mL 7.348 106 km 103 g 8.0000302 s Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 21 .904 s 4. what happens to the number of units? It decreases.0 mL 1.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 68. 0.054 10 2 g Mastering Concepts 70.000 km b. 3. c. Write the following numbers in ordinary 71. Mastering Problems 76. Candy Making The directions in the candy recipe for pralines instruct the cook to remove the pot containing the candy mixture from the heat when the candy mixture reaches the softball stage. 8.XXXX b.0043 109 g 77. X. How does scientific notation differ from ordinary notation? Scientific notation uses a number between 1 and 10 times a power of ten to indicate the size of very large or small numbers. will the power of ten be positive or negative? positive notation.6352 10 5 3 kg 0.004. 74.5834 10 3 mm b. If you move the decimal place to the left to convert a number into scientific notation. What is the density of the object? volume density 30. Write the following numbers in scientific notation.402 3402 g 72. 7.02 10 s 0. 69.1 mL. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. the pecans and vanilla are added.5 g mass _ _ what must you do with the exponents? Subtract them. When converting from meters to centimeters. how do you decide which values to place in the numerator and denominator of the conversion factor? Meters will be in the denominator so that the units will cancel when the starting value is multiplied by the conversion factor. Inc. a.0 mL 5.000 g 7.03054 g Section 2. An object with a mass of 7. After the soft-ball stage is reached. a.2 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Two undefined numbers expressed in regular notation are shown below along with the number of places the decimal must move to express each in scientific notation. Can a Celsius thermometer with a range of 10°C to 110°C be used to determine when the soft-ball stage is reached in the candy mixture? °C (°F 32) 5 _ 9 (236° 32) 5 _ 9 113°C 75.5 g raises the level 73.1 mL 5. a. X.1 mL volume 25. 7. If each X represents a significant figure.

0 103 km) (4.6 108 km2 b. what is the cost of 1 g of gold? 1 troy ounce 1 grain $560 __ __ _ 1 troy ounce 64.263 10 10 cm cm cm b. 3.34 106 kL (6.34) 106 kL 1. 3. 7. 783 kg to grams 783 kg 1000 g _ 1 kg 7.87 104 g 6.0) 105 3 4 1 grain is equal to 64. (3.42 108 kL) 4.8 milligrams.81 mm 10 3.14 102 mL 102 mL d. 7. 9.2 (1.52 (7.1 (0.8 2.15 10 4 cm 3 3.125 g 9 km2 9.70 103 mg (7.4 (8.18 105 mm f.3 4 10 5.87 (9.52 105 kg 5. If the price of gold is $560 per troy ounce. 6.53 10 2 g. (8.57 106 kL 2.83 105 g f.72 (5.3 (3.68 10 5 cg 10 3. Inc.87 105 mm 105 mm 5.99 7 c.2 104 g 103 9.09 105 kg e.48 4 10 12.8 102 mg 11.00) m) 10 (3.00 e.15 3. a.57 (3. 4.43) 1.23) dg dg 81.37 cm to meters 4. a. (8.1 3. 45. 0.21 103 mg 43.8 105 km) (2.21 3 103 kL) 105 3 subtraction problems in scientific notation.03 6 cg 10 5 0.33 10 3. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.87) 4.35) cg cg c.5 L) 106 ( 3) 4 109 b.2 106 m) 1.59 103 mg 80. 6. Gold A troy ounce is equal to 480 grains.157 107 kL 11. 5.48 10 3 mm 10 3 2.48) 1. 4.48 (6.5 g 1 kg 1000 mL _ _ _ 1 mL 1000 g 1L 37. 37.23 106 kL 5. 5.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 78.57 102 mL 1.67 3 mm 10 3 f.81) j. (3.159 104 mg d.43 102 mL 2. Convert the following measurements.23 5.5 ( 7) 10 m) 10 1 m2 1.1) mL) 10 (1.21 4.62) h.8 mg 480 grains 1000 mg _ $18/g 0.4 106 L) 2.21) 108 (4. Complete the following multiplication and division problems in scientific notation. and 79.3 mm 1m _ 1000 mm 4. a.5 g/mL to kg/L mm 37.37 cm 1m _ 100 cm 4.42 (8. 10 m to centimeters 10 m 100 cm _ 1m 1000 cm i. Complete the following addition and d. (1.43 105 kg 105 kg 2.5 kg/L 2.37 10 2 m e.70 g to milligrams 5.43) 5.63 4 cm 10 4 (9.31 104 mm 4. 9.70 g 1000 mg _ 1g 5.49 5 dg 10 4 0.00 4 ( 5) 10 5 m) 10 m2 m2 9.4 10 3.5 5 10 5.3 mm to meters 45.72 10 4 dg 10 2.38) 103 mg 1. (4.5) 106 (1.4) (2.0 10 6 mL) 4 ( 6) 102 c.3 10 1.8 m2 22 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual .68 (4.33 (3.25 g 104 g m Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.

CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 82. 10.34 mL oxygen/g hemoglobin 5. When subtracting 61.45 g from 242.235.18 1810 kernels popcorn to the correct number of significant figures. They are fairly precise because there is only 0.6 g. Why are percent error values never negative? Because the percent error equation uses the absolute value of the error.001 L 1 L milk __ _ _ 1 fluid ounce 1 mL 1 day Mastering Problems 91. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 23 . it is less precise.6 g. the number that has the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point. a.42 g f. If you report two measurements of mass.0 mg Section 2. 83.801 kg 431. A glass of milk contains 305 mg of calcium. Which zero is significant in the number 50. are the measurements accurate? Are they precise? Explain your answers.540? What is the other zero called? the first one. which 84. then how many kernels of popcorn are there in 0. Inc.3 g.01 mL of oxygen. value determines the number of significant figures in the answer? Explain. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 7.448? 3. or 3.240 m c. e.6 mL 0. 3. 0.448 89.125 g. popcorn 1 kernel _ 0.500 lb.56 g. 0.035 m d.004384 cm 86. placeholder 10.14 g difference between the two measurements. You must know the accepted value to know if the measurements are accurate.004384010 cm 0.500 pound of popcorn? 0. and 1 ounce 28. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0007810 mL 87.125 g 28.6 mL. 242. Round each number to four significant figures. 1. 10. How many milliliters of oxygen does each gram of hemoglobin carry? 2. 0.450 and 3.3 Mastering Concepts 85. Nutrition The recommended calcium intake for teenagers is 1300 mg per day.0348 m 1. Blood You have 15 g of hemoglobin in every 100 mL of your blood.85 cm 5 INCHES 6 CENTIMETERS 2 90. Which number will produce the same number corn is 0.800 kg b. If 1 pound 16 ounces.00078100 mL 0.456.3 g 16 ounces _ _ 1 pound 1 ounce when rounded to three significant figures: 3. 431. One glass contains a volume of 8 fluid ounces. 1 glass 1300 mgCa 8 fluid ounces __ _ __ 305 mgCa 1 day 1 glass 29.450.0 mL of your blood can carry 2. How many liters of milk should a teenager drink per day to get the recommended amount of calcium? One fluid ounce equals 29. Popcorn The average mass of a kernel of pop- 88. Record the measurement shown in Figure 2.009864 cg and 7.0098641 cg 0.01 mL oxygen 100 mL blood __ __ 10 mL blood 15 g hemoglobin 1.

81565 dm3 percent error dm3 | 0. 7.5 m 5.199 b.04 g/mL | 8.35 2. line or bar graph because they can show how consumption varies with time percent error d.446% percent error e.10 g/mL 100 1.223% f.446% c. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.5 m 0. 45 m (45 72 72 m 132 m 427.86 g/mL error 8.02 g/mL 100 0.7 m error 5.78 cm 4.0969899 8.31 0.736 km/4784 km 38.82 cm 13.96 g/mL c.31 104 3.34 74.98 g/mL error 8. Divide the difference in the y values by the difference in the x values.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 92. error 5.3% 97.4 m 100 7. 8. 9. 38.04 g/mL | 8.5 m error 5. Inc.00 g/mL 0. or electricity? Explain.96 g/mL b. 8.5% percent error b. a.20 10 3 8.5 m 0.818 cm 13. The accepted density for copper is 8.12% | 0. A bar graph could be used with the method of heating on the x-axis and the number of households on the y-axis. percent error 24 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.323) 7.5 m 0m 100 0 percent error c. How can you find the slope of a line graph? Choose two points on the line. 8.35 dm (4.000 m3 | 0.96 g/mL (8.96 g/mL __ 8.35 dm 74.218 3.4 m _| 5.341) 8.96 g/mL.35) 7.1 m error 5.8 dm3 2.3 100 5.34 dm 7.04 g/mL 100 0. 5.3 m _| 5.96 g/mL 132) m3 d.5 m.92 g/mL 0.86 g/mL 8.5 m | 0. 5. oil.63 104 104 7.23 103 (7.78 3.4 Mastering Concepts 95.04 g/mL 100 0.2 m _| 5. Section 2. 4.00 g/mL d.1 m 5. If the data include all the households for a region.10 g/mL | 8.7 m 5.5 m 0.54 10 3 3. Gasoline Consumption Which type of graph would you choose to depict gasoline consumption over a period of a 10-year period? Explain.736 km 4784 km 8.5 m | 0.54 0.98 g/mL 0.96 g/mL 0. 4.41 10 3 10 4 percent error 10 3 __ 8.097 percent error | 0.218 cm 5. Calculate the percent error for each of these measurements.96 g/mL __ 93.680 m3 430. problems to the correct number of significant figures.02 g/mL | 8.633 104 Calculate the percent error for each of these measurements.96 g/mL __ 8. 5.82 cm 5. The accepted length of a steel pipe is 5.82 cm error 9.2 m .5 m |0 m _| 5.2 m 5.2 m 100 3. a.5 m | 0.92 g/mL error 8. relative numbers could be converted to a percentage and expressed as a circle graph.6% 96. a. 5. Round the answer for each of the following 94. 8. Heating Fuels Which type of graph would you use to depict how many households heat with gas.

2 dm3 6.46 105 cm) (5.19 to answer the following questions. Convert each quantity to the indicated units.00321 L 101.0 4.01 g 1 km (_) 1000 m 7g 7 301 cg b. Which substance has a density of 7.2 L 1 dm (_) 1L 3 d.0 2.26 10 m2 d. (4.21 mL 1L (_) 1000 mL 0. Complete these problems in scientific notation. e. a. 3.21) 103 2.21 mL 0 L Mixed Review 99.21 × 102 m) 2 (3.00 3 g) 101 Density (cm3) 10.13 cal/g 0 kcal/g 0. 0. 6.0 3.12 10 3 m) (1.31 104 cm2 13.73 106 m2 m2 27.95 g/mL Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual 25 . Inc. Which substance has the least density? wood g (_ ) 10 g 0.13 cal/g 1 kcal (_) 1000 cal 0.82 g/mL |___ 6.33 104 mm) 3. calculate the percent error.46 g 40. Calculate the density of the sample.01 g (_) 1 cg 0.2 10 3 kg) 3 2 (2.6. 3.82 g/mL 6. Which substance has a density of Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 8.24 10 1 g d. Which substance has the greatest density? mercury c.0 mL 40.31 2.46 g/3.00013 kcal/g 11.0 2. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0) 10 10 5 f.2538 105 m2 Mass of sample Volume of water Volume of water + sample volume of sample 43.0 mL c.31 10 2 cm) (2.42 (4.87 iron g/cm3? 0. If the accepted value of this sample is 6.0 6.01 g 0 cg 3.2 L 0 dm3 c.14 3 ( 5) 10 8 5 m) (8. Round to the correct number of significant figures.0 mL 43.42 2.78 7.12 1. (3. (8.1 102 density mass/volume 20.0) 104 2 (3.95 g/mL.0 mL 3.42 10 3.24 10 10 0 g 1 g 6 b. Use Figure 2. In the laboratory.11 102 mm) 102 3.33 (9.21 2 ( 3) 10 2.0 mL 6.2 km Materials a. 0.21) 2 g) 10 (3. 6200 m 0 km 6200 m 6. students used a balance and a graduated cylinder to collect the data shown in Table 2.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Mastering Problems 98.4 Lead g/cm3? f. (5.14) 10 9.21 102 kg) 10 5 2.0 mL 20. Density Comparison 12. (9.0 0 Wood Water Sugar Glass Iron Lead Mercury 100. Volume and Mass Data b.95 g/mL | % error (100) 1.0626 3.87% 6.42 (6.0 e.46) 10 2 5 cm2 103 cm2 1. a. (6.24 6.78 103 m) (7.2568 10 8 m2 m2 9.

10 g 62.1968 1010 volumemoon km3 mass __ black hole _ 103. It has about the same volume as the Moon.10 cm3 ) ( 11.6 g/cm3)? volume of mercury mass of mersury __ density of mercury 1.8754 kg 3. What volume of ethanol do you have? volume 23 g mass _ __ density 0. What mass of lead (density 11.87 cm) is correct. b.034 m 219. respectively.15 g/mL 445.20 g 7. Astronomy The black hole in the galaxy answer be correct? Explain.1968 1010 km3 densityblack hole black hole 4. Two separate masses of zinc were measured on a laboratory balance.5273 1022 kg/km3 ( 4.9455 1032 kg volumeblack hole 2. so a third digit should be estimated. Their measurements are 3 cm.00321 g meter markings to measure a length of wire.3 cm. The first zinc sample had a mass of 210.9891 1030 kg) 9. and the second zinc sample had a mass 235. 219.5273 1010 g/cm3 108. which value determines the number of significant figures in the answer? Explain. mass density 210. a. The third student (2.4 g/cm3 ) 12. Evaluate the following conversion. and 2.3 mL. 0.1968 1010 km3 massblack hole 500 masssun 500 (1. You have a 23-g sample of ethanol with a density of 0. 3. The density of the black hole is 4. The density of water is 1 g/cm3.10 cm3 mercury 109. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.4 m by 3.5 g lead 106. Express the mass and density of the zinc sample in the correct number of significant figures.0 g of mercury (density 13.5273 1010 g/cm3 (almost fifty billion) times greater than that of water.003210 g 0. When multiplying 602. Use your answer from Question 107 to compare the densities of water and a black hole.6 mercury mass of lead (volume of lead) (density of lead) ( 1. Inc.10 g. Round each figure to three significant figures.0 g mercury g/cm3 13. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.7893 g/mL 29 mL densityblack hole 32 volume 104.9891 1030 kg volume of the Moon 2.72 m.5273 1022 3 9 6 4. Will the 107. 75 m 60 s 1h rate _ _ _ 1s 1 min 60 min No.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 102.88 kg c. the conversion is not correct because the units of rate should be m/min. Explain which answer was recorded correctly.10 g mass _ _ volume 9. The volume of the combined sample was found to be 62.10 g 235.7893 g/mL. 1h M82 has a mass about 500 times the mass of the Sun.000 m 26 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual .72 m determines the number of significant figures in the answer because it is the original value having the fewest number of significant figures.10 g. What is the density of this black hole? mass of the Sun 1. The two samples were combined. 105.4 g/cm3) would have a volume identical to 15. A meterstick has markings to the millimeter. Three students use a meterstick with milli- 110. 3. The last conversion 60 min factor should be . This expression yields the units m h/min2.9455 10 kg __ 2.3 mL 445. 3. __ 15.87 cm.5273 1022 kg/km3 ) (_)(_) (_) 1000 g 1 km 3 1 m 3 1000 m 100 cm 1 kg 4.

and a single dose contains 20. Using the relationship. The active ingredient in the cough syrup is dextromethorphan. the standard dose is 2 teaspoons.1956 m because it has the greatest number of significant figures Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 27 .6 g 10.6 27. 8.196 m? Explain your answer. The graph shows that an object with no mass will have no volume.1956 m. 0) even though this point was not measured? Chlorine in the Stratosphere The graph shows a direct relationship between mass and volume.16a on page 57 to extend to (0.24 g dextromethorphan/bottle )( ) Thinking Critically 113. 21.38 L 25. 1 teaspoon 4 fluid ounces 29. 25.0 mL. or 8.6 mL and 1 teaspoon 5. 8.7. 0.0 mL 6. For an adult.2 21.4 112.20 m.4 10.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL d. slope Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.0 mL 10. determine how many grams of dextromethorphan are contained in the bottle.8 g __ 8. Inc. 114.8 16. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.0 mL 1 bottle fluid ounce 20 mg 0.0 mg of dextromethorphan. with the volume syrup comes in a 4-fluid ounce bottle. 0.0 10.0 mL 4.0876 cm f.08763 cm 0.0 mL 4. Graph the data in Table 2.0 Hydrogen chloride 3% Volume (mL) Manufactured compounds Natural sources Extrapolation of measured data extends the line to this point.0 4. Cough Syrup A common brand of cough e.003109 mg 0.0 ( 1 mg 2 teaspoons 0. Then calculate the slope of the line.001 g __ _ on the x-axis and the mass on the y-axis.0 6.00311 mg 111. Interpret Why does it make sense for the line in Figure 2.0 8.0 mL 2.6 mL ( __ ) ( __ ) ( __ ) 5. 1 fluid ounce 29.7 g/mL CFC–113 6% HCFC–22 3% Methyl chloroform 10% CFC–12 28% Density Data 30 25 CFC–11 23% Methyl chloride 15% Carbon tetrachloride 12% Mass (g) 20 15 10 5 0 2. Infer Which of these measurements was made with the most precise measuring device: 8.0 mL Mass (g) 5.0 mL 8. Density Data Volume (mL) 2.

5 g /15.0 mL 8. liquid B. Liquid A: mass Liquid B: mass Liquid C: mass Liquid D: mass 18.43 g salt 1 mg 118. Examine the information given for each liquid and predict the layering of the liquids if they were carefully poured into a larger graduated cylinder.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 115. % Daily Value * Total Fat 1g 2% Saturated Fat 1 g 5% Cholesterol 0 mg 0% Sodium 160 mg 7% Potassium 25 mg 1% Total Carbohydrate 25 g 9% Dietary Fiber less than 1 g 2% Sugars 13 g Protein 1 g Vitamin A 4% 117. volume 20. Most disadvantages involve the initial changing from another system to SI.1 g/mL 120. Inc.0 mL 16. If you eat 2. Predict Four graduated cylinders each contain a different liquid: A.20.5 g.8 g /10. Hypothesize Why do you think the SI stan- dard for time was based on the distance light travels through a vacuum? There is no chance for matter to interfere with the speed measurement in a vacuum.5 g. If the object is a pure substance and its mass and volume are known. Conclude Why might property owners hire a surveyor to determine property boundaries rather than measure the boundaries themselves? Surveyors use equipment that is not affected by terrain or obstacles. .28 g/ml 1.0 cups cereal 160 mg salt 1 serving 430 mg 7 percent 160 mg 19% 1 serving 0.0 mL 20. 28 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill.71 g/mL 2. Apply Concepts When subtracting or adding two numbers in scientific notation. Compare and Contrast What advantages do SI units have over the units commonly used in the United States? Are there any disadvantage to using SI units? Answers will vary but might include that units based on powers of ten are easy to convert from one to another.0 mL 119.5 g. 121. B. why do the exponents need to be the same? Equal place values should be added to each other.8 g. how many grams of salt are you ingesting? What percent of your daily recommended salt intake does this represent? Liquid C density Liquid D density From top to bottom the liquids would be liquid A.5 g /8. liquid C and liquid D on the bottom.001 g salt 0. Infer Why does knowing the mass of an object not help you identify what material the object is made from? Mass itself has no meaning without a measurement of its volume. and D.0 mL 10. Apply Dimensional Analysis Evaluate the breakfast cereal nutritional label shown in Figure 2. Nutrition Facts Serving Size ¾ cup (29 g) Servings Per Container about 17 Amount Per Serving Calories 120 Calories from Fat 10 116.0 cups of cereal a day. This product contains 160 mg of salt in each serving.5 g /12.0 mL 12.0 mL 12. C.23 g/ml 1. ( __ ) ( __ ) ( __ ) ( ) (_) 2. Liquid A density Liquid B density 18. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. volume 12.0 mL 1. volume 16. its density can help identify it. volume 15.75 cups cereal 0.

00 g of this compound? A troy ounce is equal to 480 grains.025 1. manufacturers. or hospital pharmacies.028 1. Kilogram Standard Although the standard Ocean depth (m) kilogram is stored at constant temperature and humidity. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 29 . what is the cost of the platinum in 2. 126.21 shows the relationships among temperature. This compound contains 52.5 Additional Assessment Writing in Chemistry 124. a density of 4. Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. gallons.00 1 troy ounce platinum 52. at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). Dosing Error In hospitals. Research and describe alternative standards that have been proposed.The graph in Figure 2. Document-Based Questions Ocean Water The density of pure water is 1. unwanted matter can build up on its surface. scientists have not gained universal acceptance for either alternative method. liters. and frails.S. and one grain is equal to 64. Units Research and report on unusual units of measurement such as bushels. Ocean water is denser because it contains salt and other dissolved substances.58 g/mL is quantitative. density. a firkin (a small wooden tub used for butter and lard) is a unit of volume equal to ¼ barrel.026 1. Carboplatin (C6H12N2O4Pt) is a platinumcontaining compound that is used to treat certain forms of cancer. You record the following in your lab book: a liquid is thick and has a density of 4.8 mg $1047. half-gallons. Student answers will likely include fluid ounces. encourage students to contact the U. medicines are given by dose. Cumulative Review 123. Density (g/cm3) Salinity (‰) 24º Temperature (ºC) 1000 1500 2000 Temperature Density Salinity 2500 3000 Data obtained from Windows to the Universe. Scientists have been looking for a more reliable standard for mass.027 1.5 18º 36.029 34. For example. pecks. which is the number of atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon-12.001 g 64. Two alternative methods of defining the standard kilogram would base the unit on the Avogadro constant.00 g/cm3 at 4°C.2 g platinum 100 g carboplatin 1 troy ounce 480 grains $35. and salinity versus depth for ocean water. Find out why no alternative standard has been chosen. and milliliters. Student answers will vary. Find out what amount of error in the administered dose is acceptable for various medicines. Student answers will vary.8 mg. Another method would depend on electrical measurements that determine the ratio of the mechanical watt to the electrical watt. For definitive information on the subject. quarts.023 1. firkins. One method would depend in part on X-ray measurements in silicon crystals. Product Volume Research the range of ( __ ) ( _ ) ( _ ) ( __ ) ( ___ ) ( 2.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Challenge Problem 122. 1.58 g/mL. 127.0 0 500 0º 34. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.024 1. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).3 volumes used for packaging liquids sold in supermarkets. 125. At this time. Inc. If the price for platinum is $1047/troy ounce.0 20º 36.5 4º 35.00 g carboplatin ) 1 mg 1 grain 0.5% platinum. Which data is qualitative? Which is quantitative? (Chapter 1) Thick is qualitative. pharmacists.0 8º 12º 35.

What is Student 1’s percent error? a. b.71 cm ocean water at depths less than 1000 m? The temperature is fairly stable through the first 200 meters then decreased rapidly to a depth of 1000m.51% . 7. then increases with an increase in depth. What is the correct representation of 702. Inc.74 cm 2. c.0 g in scientific notation? a. meter 1. Below 1000 m the density of the ocean remains constant with a slight decrease in temperature. Student 1 is more accurate than Student 3. kilogram c.64 c. a Standardized Test Practice pages 66–67 5.71 cm.5 km 5000 cm 5 1011 nm significant figures.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 128. b.4 a. 21.71 cm 2.70% 4.66 cm Student 2 2. As the temperature decreases the density of the ocean increases.932 3.6 d 7.31 8.70 cm 2. Multiple Choice 1. The salinity rapidly decreases through the first 500 m.85% 3. 129.20 101 g c. As the ocean water cools below 1000 m the salinity increases. c.85% 2. Describe the effect depth has on salinity. 70. degrees Celsius d. Which value is NOT equivalent to the others? a.65 cm 2. c. b error Percent Error accept value 0.60 cm 2.70 cm Student 3 2. Which is NOT an SI base unit? a. d.642 d. Student 2 is both precise and accurate. 22 b.20 102 g c 30 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Student 2 is less precise than Student 1. whose accepted length is 2. 4. d. d. second b. b. c 6. Solve the problem with the correct number of 500 m 0. Based on the table.75 cm 2.48% 1. Measured Values for a Stamp’s Length Student 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 2. 21.69 cm 2. which statement is true? a.020 102 g d.05 cm 100 1. Describe how salinity changes as the ocean water cools. Three students measured the length of a stamp 130. How is temperature related to the density of Use the table below to answer questions 4 and 5. 5.71 cm __ _ 100 c 2. 7.02 103 g b. 21.72 cm 2. Student 3 is both precise and accurate. 70.64 cm 2. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies.

d. 4 d. What is the total amount of time elapsed during the reaction? a. and the third step takes 7.12 s 332. length b. mass c.68 101 s b. How many significant figures are there in a distance measurement of 20.60 10−1 s. 7.37 101 s d. 0 mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. the second step takes 3. 3 c. 12. 623 K b 11.3249 102 s d of 30L? a. What is the length of the rod using significant digits? 9. 443 K d. 2 b. What volume will Gas A have at 450 K? a. Volume (L) 80 60 40 20 0 0 Gas A Gas B Gas C 100 200 300 400 500 13. color d. 170 K b. Chemists found that a complex reaction 10.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 7. Use the graph below to answer questions 9 and 10. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Explain which ruler you would use to make the Volume v.50 mm (accept from 9. 1.31 s 0.482 101 s. b.5731 102 s to complete.78 101 s c.48 mm through 9. 5 d 257.36 s 74. pencil? a. At what temperature will Gas B have a volume occurred in three steps. c.52 mm due to estimation) Temperature (K) 9. Temperature for Three Gases 100 more precise measurement. Explain which is more accurate. 3. d 23 L 31 L 38 L 80 L Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 31 . diameter c Short Answer Use the diagram below to answer Questions 12 and 13. 3. 350 K c.49 s The answer should have two digits to the right of the decimal for the correct number of significant digits. Inc.070 km? a. Which is NOT a quantitative measurement of a 8. The top ruler allows more precise measurements because it has more divisions. The first step takes 2.

0. Temperature of a Solution While Heating Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Temperature (°C) 22 35 48 61 74 87 100 16. What is the percent error of the student’s value? a.4683% b.43º C/s 30 70 m as 425 years. Inc. keeping flammable chemicals away. Show the setup to calculate the slope of the graph. slope change in temp 87 74 __ _ 150 120 change in time 13 _ . Temperature of Solution While Heating 120 Temperature (°C) 100 80 60 40 20 0 100 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 Depth of ice layer below surface (m) 17. Slope equals the change in temperature over the change in time. 49. using hand protection. Choose and explain two safety precautions the student should use with this experiment. A student recorded the temperature of a solution 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. 1. every 30 s for 3 min while the solution was heating on a Bunsen burner. Age of Ice Layers in an Ice Sheet 650 Age of ice layer (years) 14. 0. SAT Subject Test: Chemistry Use the graph below to answer questions 17–21. Acceptable answers include wearing safety goggles. knowing the location of fire safety equipment.5% a percent error | error | __ accepted value 425 years 427 years ___ 100 427 years 100 0. Graph the data.00% d.468% 32 Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 Solutions Manual .CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL Extended Response Use the table below to answer Questions 14–16. 99.471% c. The accepted value is 427 years. Divide the difference in two temperature readings by the difference in the corresponding time readings. tying hair back. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. A student reported the age of an ice layer at Time (s) 15. The graph should show a constant linear positive slope.9% e.

d. e. c. b. e Solution: slope (500 350 y) y _ __ x ( 80 20. negative slope c. c. What is the approximate slope of the line? a.13 y/m 7. Linear. Non-linear. linear. Inc. a 74 years 75 years 76 years 77 years 78 m Copyright © Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. What is the depth of an ice layer 450 years old? a.5 m/y 7.CHAPTER 2 SOLUTIONS MANUAL 18.5 y/m age? a. d. e.5 y/m a 19. Linear.13 m/y 0. b. Non-linear. What is the relationship between ice depth and 0.00 m/y 0. negative slope 60 ) m 7. positive slope b. a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change • Chapter 2 33 . slope 0 d. positive slope e.

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