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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Introduction to Chemistry

Section 1.1 A Story of Two Substances

pages 48

The use of CFCs continued to increase.

page 8

All scientific hypotheses, tests, experiments, and data must be independently confirmed to make them valid.

important to everyone.

Chemistry is the study of matter and everything and everyone is made of matter.

pages 911

A substance, which is also known as a chemical, is matter that has a definite composition. Possible examples: table salt (NaCl) and table sugar (sucrose, C12H22O11)

page 11

chemistry.

The study of chemistry is a very broad field, so chemists specialize in small areas.

it is important.

When oxygen gas (O2) is exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the upper regions of the stratosphere, the molecule breaks apart. The individual oxygen particles (O) combine with other oxygen gas molecules to form ozone (O3). Ozone is important because it forms a protective layer in the atmosphere that protects living organisms from harmful radiation.

Mass is constant regardless of location and is not affected by gravity. Weight varies with gravity.

The changes you see with your eyes begin with changes at the submicroscopic level.

Chlorofluorocarbons were developed as a safe alternative to ammonia, a common refrigerant. Chlorofluorocarbons are used as refrigerants, in foams, and as propellants in spray cans.

croscopic matter.

Models enable chemists to understand difficult concepts that they cannot normally see.

themselves after exposure to UVB, why are the increasing levels of UVB in the atmosphere concerning scientists?

Cells have some ability to repair themselves, but some scientists believe that cells have a limit in the amount of UVB exposure that can be tolerated.

Possible answers: Aircraft models allow scientists to test their designs before money is spent on the actual aircraft. Computer models of chemical processes allow chemists to test processes before actual manufacturing facilities are built. Car models allow scientists to test certain features, such as wind resistance, before a car is actually built. Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

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differ on the moon? The gravitational force of the moon is one-sixth the gravitational force on Earth.

Your mass would be the same, but your weight would be 1/6 your weight on Earth.

direct relationship between temperature and volume of all gases at constant pressure. Should this be called Charless law or Charless theory? Explain.

It is called Charless law because it describes a phenomenon that consistently takes place.

weigh yourself as you ascend and then descend, does the scale have the same reading in both instances? Explain your answer.

As the elevator moves up and down at constant velocity, the reading on the scale will be the same as it is when the elevator is stationary. However, during the time the elevator accelerates upward, the scale reading will be higher, during the time when the elevator accelerates downward, the scale reading will be lower.

and used to make predictions. What did Molina and Rowlands model of the interactions of CFCs and ozone in the atmosphere predict would happen to the amount of ozone in the stratosphere as the level of CFCs increased?

Their models predicted that as CFC concentrations increased, ozone levels would decrease.

pages 1216

pages 1722

page 16

page 22

The nature of investigations varies a great deal and the steps needed to perform a wide array of investigations must also vary.

applied research.

Pure research is done for the sake of knowledge. Applied research is done to solve a specific problem.

Possible answers: qualitative, silver-colored liquid; quantitative, 5 mL.

temperature on the volume of a balloon. The balloons size increases as it is warmed. What is the independent variable? The dependent variable? What factor is held constant? How would you construct a control?

Independent variable, the temperature; dependent variable, the size of the balloon; factor held constant, the amount of air in the balloon; control, an identical balloon kept at the original temperature

Technology can be the product of either one. It can be a product of pure research when scientists realize their discovery has a practical application. It can also be a product of applied research when scientists perform research to solve a particular problem.

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following. a. Wear goggles and an apron in the lab even if you are only an observer.

Harmful substances can get in your eyes and on your clothing if you are performing an experiment or just watching it being performed.

atmosphere?

90% in the stratosphere

chlorofluorocarbons?

carbon, fluorine, and chlorine

refrigerants, foams, propellants for spray products

bottle.

The chemicals might be contaminated and you do not want to contaminate the stock bottle.

c. Do not wear contact lenses in the laboratory.

Contact lenses can absorb gases that can damage your eyes and they are difficult to remove during an emergency situation. increased usage of CFCs

dangling jewelry.

It is easy to drag these items through chemicals and across flames, which might create a hazardous situation.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

precautions should you take when the following safety symbols are listed?

Because chemists study matter and matter is found throughout the universe. Protect your hands from hot or cold objects; protect yourself from possible hazardous fumes; protect yourself from substances that can irritate your skin, mucous membranes, or respiratory tract; Substances are flammable, do not have an open flame in the lab.

Mastering Problems 31. If three oxygen particles are needed to form ozone, how many units of ozone could be formed from 6 oxygen particles? From 9? From 27?

2 units; 3 units; 9 units

Chapter 1 Assessment

pages 2627

Section 1.1

Mastering Concepts 25. Define substance and chemistry.

substanceany sample with a definite composition; chemistrythe study of matter and the changes it undergoes

that the CFC level was measured at about 272 ppt (parts per thousand) in 1995. Since percent means parts per hundred, what percent is represented by 272 ppt?

27.2% 272 ppt 1 part per hundred __ 10 ppt 27.2%

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Section 1.2

Mastering Concepts 33. Why is chemistry called the central science?

An understanding of chemistry is central to all sciences and to our everyday lives.

Section 1.3

Mastering Concepts 39. How does qualitative data differ from quantitative data? Give an example of each.

Qualitative data, such as color or shape, are made with the five senses. Quantitative data, such as mass or length, are measurements.

Weight; weight is calculated using the acceleration due to gravity; mass is independent of gravity

experiment?

A control is a standard used for comparison.

Analytical chemistry studies the composition of substances; environmental chemistry studies the environmental impact of chemicals.

A hypothesis is a tentative explanation about what has been observed. A theory is an explanation that has been supported by many experiments. A scientific law describes a relationship in nature.

Mastering Problems 36. Predict whether your weight in the city of Denver, which has an altitude of 1.7 km above sea level, will be the same as, more than, or less than your weight in New Orleans, a city located at sea level.

Your weight would be less in Denver because the acceleration due to gravity is less in Denver than in New Orleans.

fit onto a period at the end of this sentence. Write out the number 1 trillion using the correct number of zeroes.

1,000,000,000,000

quantitative

4 cm

qualitative

qualitative 4

does not support your hypothesis, what should happen to that hypothesis?

4 cm 4.0 g x _ _; x 2 cm3 (4 cm)3 128 g The hypothesis should be rewritten based on the new information and the new hypothesis should be tested.

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study how much table sugar can be mixed or dissolved in water at different temperatures. The amount of sugar that can dissolve in water goes up as the waters temperature goes up. What is the independent variable? Dependent variable? What factor is held constant?

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Mastering Problems 45. One carbon (C) and one ozone (O3) react to form one carbon monoxide (CO) and one oxygen gas (O2) particle. How many ozone particles are needed to form 24 particles of oxygen gas (O2)?

1 particle O3 __ 1 particle O2

whether each of the diagrams shown below is displaying qualitative or quantitative data.

a. Types of Apples Grown in Bioscience Greenhouse Granny Smith 10% Other 5% Fuji 12% Macintosh 26%

x particles O3 __ 24 particles O2

Section 1.4

Mastering Concepts

46. Laboratory Safety Finish each statement

Delicious 47%

about laboratory safety so that it correctly states a safety rule. a. Study your lab assignment.

before you come to the lab

quantitative data b.

Color Crystal Form Odor white needles none

chewing gum out of the lab

qualitative

fire extinguisher, safety shower, fire blanket, and first-aid kit

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

microscopic observation

Mastering Problems 47. If your lab procedure instructs you to add two parts acid to each one part of water and you start with 25 mL of water, how much acid will you add and how will you add it?

2 25 mL 50 mL acid; Always add acid to the water very slowly.

Think Critically

48. Compare and Contrast Match each of the

today is poor. Visibility is only 1.7 km. Pollutants in the air are expected to rise above 0.085 parts per million (ppm) in the next eighthour average. Spend as little time outside today as possible if you suffer from asthma or other breathing problems. Which of these statements are qualitative and which are quantitative?

The qualitative statements are that air quality is poor and that people should spend little time outside. Quantitative statements include that visibility is only 1.7 km and that the pollutants will rise above 0.085 ppm in the next eight-hour average.

following research topics with the branch of chemistry that would study it: water pollution, the digestion of food in the human body, the composition of a new textile fiber, metals to make new coins, and a treatment for AIDS.

Possible answers: water pollution, environmental chemistry; the digestion of food, biochemistry; textile fibers, polymer chemistry; metal coins, inorganic chemistry; AIDS treatment, biochemistry.

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Additional Assessment

Writing in Chemistry

Arctic low-ozone area (million km2)

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0.2 1.9 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.0 1.4 0.0 6.1 6.4 5.8 4.3 5.8 11.8

of chemistry, describe the research into depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs in a time-line.

Answers will vary but should include increased use of CFCs and the decrease in the ozone layer, including the effects of the depletion of life on Earth.

measures taken by countries around the world to reduce CFCs in the atmosphere since the Montreal Protocol. Write a short report describing the Montreal Protocol and more recent environmental measures to reduce CFCs.

Answers will vary but should include the measures taken by the United States to limit the use and control of the disposal of CFCs. Answers should also include the measures taken by several other countries.

91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05

Year

largest, 1996; smallest, 2002 and 2004

Check student booklets for accuracy. Be sure students clearly explain how the application is related to chemistry.

(4.3 0.9 0.0 1.4 2.1 million sq. km; (5.8 11.8 6.4 4.8 million sq. km 0.5

0.0 0.2

5.8)/6 4.3)/6

Document-Based Questions

Ozone Depletion The area of low-ozone varies over the Arctic as well as over the Antarctica. NOAA collects data and monitors low-ozone area at both poles. Figure 1.23 shows the average areas of unusually low ozone concentration in the north pole region from February to March of each year from 1991 to 2005.

Data obtained from: http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/ stratosphere/winter_bulletins/nh_04-05

pages 2829

which is something you should NOT do? a. Read the label of chemical bottles before using their contents. b. Pour any unused chemicals back into their original bottles. c. Use lots of water to wash skin that has been splashed with chemicals. d. Take only as much as you need of shared chemicals.

b

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of chemistry that you use every day. Prepare a booklet about its discovery and development.

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Page From a Students Laboratory Notebook

Step Observation Notes Carbonated beverages taste fizzier when they are warm than when they are cold. (Carbonated beverages are fizzy because they contain dissolved carbon dioxide gas.) At higher temperatures, greater amounts of carbon dioxide gas will dissolve in a liquid. This is the same relationship between temperature and solubility seen with solids. Measure the mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) in different samples of the same carbonated beverage at different temperatures. See graph below.

Hypothesis

correct, what is a reasonable conclusion for this experiment? a. Greater amounts of CO2 dissolve in a liquid at lower temperatures. b. The different samples of beverage contained the same amount of CO2 at each temperature. c. The relationship between temperature and solubility seen with solids is the same as the one seen with CO2. d. CO2 dissolves better at higher temperatures.

a

Experiment

showed that a. the hypothesis is supported by the experimental data. b. the observation accurately describes what occurs in nature. c. the experiment is poorly planned. d. the hypothesis should be thrown out.

d

0.30

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d

0 5 10 15 20 25

the number of samples tested. the mass of CO2 measured. the type of beverage used. the temperature of the beverage.

Temperature (C)

properties

2. What must be a constant during the experiment? a. b. c. d.

c

temperature mass of CO2 dissolved in each sample amount of beverage in each sample independent variable

household ovens c. finding ways to slow down the rusting of iron ships d. searching for fuels other than gasoline to power cars

a

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What is the effect of drinking soda on heart rate?

Student 1 2 3 4 Cans of Soda 0 1 2 4 Heart Rate (beats per minute) 73 84 89 96

Because weight is affected by gravity, it can change depending on its location on Earth. Mass measures the amount of matter in a substance regardless of the effect of gravity on the substance, which makes it a more reliable measurement when comparing measurements made in different parts of the world.

students heart rates, which student serves as the control? a. Student 1 b. Student 2 c. Student 3 d. Student 4

a

Consider the following experiment as you answer Questions 12 and 13. A chemistry student is investigating how particle size affects the rate of dissolving. In her experiment, she adds a sugar cube, sugar crystals, or crushed sugar to each of three beakers of water, stirs the mixtures for 10 seconds, and records how long it takes the sugar to dissolve in each beaker.

12. Identify the independent and dependent

Physical Properties of Three Elements

Element Sodium Phosphorus Copper Symbol Na P Cu Melting Point (C) 897.4 44.2 1085 Color Grey White orange Density (g/cm3) 0.986 1.83 8.92

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The dependent variable is the amount of time required for dissolving, while the independent variable is how much the sugar is crushed before it is added. The independent variable can be identified because it is the factor that the researcher is changing, while the dependent variable is the outcome of the experiment that is being measured.

Sodium is grey in color; it has the symbol Na, its density is low, its melting point is between the other values.

should be kept constant. Explain why it is important to include keep this feature constant.

Answers will vary but can include temperature of water, volume of water, or mass of sugar added. It is important to keep these features constant in order for the different trials to be compared appropriately. If too many factors are changed in an experiment, the researcher cannot identify what effect each individual factor has on the outcome of the experiment.

Copper has a melting point of 1085C and a density of 8.92 g/cm3.

a theory to explain why he scored poorly on a quiz. Is this a proper use of the term theory? Explain your answer.

No; A theory is an explanation of how nature behaves and is based on many repeated experi-

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investigates a new form of packaging material that breaks down rapidly in the environment? a. biochemistry b. theoretical chemistry c. environmental chemistry d. inorganic chemistry e. physical chemistry

c

e

and burns.

d

b

Use the safety symbols below to answer Questions 1518. Some choices may be used more than once; others will not be used at all.

a. b. c. d. e.

19. Which statement is NOT true about mass? a. It has the same value everywhere on Earth. b. It is independent of gravitational forces. c. It becomes less in outer space, farther

from Earth.

d. It is a constant measure of the amount of

Select the symbol for the safety rule being described in each case.

15. Safety goggles should be worn whenever you

matter.

e. It is found in all matter.

c

c

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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Analyzing Data

Section 2.1 Units and Measurement

pages 3239

Base units are defined based on a physical object or process. Derived units are defined based on a combination of base units. The derived units for density are g/cm3 or g/mL. The derived units for volume are cm3 or m3.

Practice Problems

page 38

Density is the mass-to-volume ratio of a material.

Mass = 20 g Volume = 5 cm3 No; the density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3; the density of the cube is 20 g _ 5 cm3 4 g/cm3. Oil floats on top of water because the density of oil is less than that of water.

of 80 g, 12 g, and 33 g and volumes of 20 mL, 4 cm3, and 11 mL, respectively. Which of the samples have the same density?

density of A 80 g/20 mL 4 g/ml; density of B 12 g/4 cm3 3 g/cm3; density of C 33 g/11 mL 3.0 g/mL; B and C have the same density

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

volume

20 g mass _ _ density

4 g/mL

5 mL

density of 7.00 g/mL. A 50-mL graduated cylinder contains 20.0 mL of water. What is the final volume after the metal is added to the graduated cylinder?

volume volume 147 g mass _ _ density 20.0 mL 7.00 g/mL 21.0 mL 21.0 mL 41.0 mL

ships among the following terms: volume, derived unit, mass, base unit, time, and length.

Student concepts maps will vary, but should show the following relationships: SI units are divided into base units and derived units; volume and density are derived units; mass, time, and length are base units.

page 39

pages 4046

temperature.

length: meter; mass: kilogram; time: second; temperature: kelvin

Practice Problems

pages 4146

7 102

It makes the quantity larger by a factor of 106. Solutions Manual

11

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

b. 38,000

3.8 104

d. (4

5

10

10

12

12)

(1

10

12)

c. 4,500,000

4.5 106

1.26 104 kg 0.25 104 kg

4

d. 685,000,000,000

6.85 1011

1.51

104 kg

b. (7.06 g) e. 0.0054

5.4 10

3

(1.2

10

kg) in kg

10

3

kg

f. 0.00000687

6.87 10

6

c. (4.39

4.39

105 kg)

105 kg

(2.8

107 g) in kg

4.11 105 kg

0.28

105 kg

g. 0.000000076

7.6 10

8

d. (5.36

10

kg)

(7.40

10

kg) in g

h. 0.0000000008

8 10

10

(4 1) 102

8

108)

4 1010

360,000 s

b. (2

5

10 4)

3) 10

(3

4 2

102)

6 10

2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. 5.4

10

g/cm3

(2

0.000054 g/cm3

c. (6

(6

102)

2) 102

(2

1

101)

3 101

c. 5.060

103 km

5060 km (cannot express in regular notation with the correct number of significant figures)

d. (8

(8

104)

4) 104

(4

1

101)

2 103

d. 8.9

1010 Hz

89,000,000,000 Hz

scientific notation. a. (5 10 5) (2

7 10

5

Report the answers in correct units. a. area of a rectangle with sides measuring 3 101 cm and 3 10 2 cm

area (3 (3 3) 101 cm)(3 10 2 cm) 101 ( 2) 9 10 1 cm2

10 5)

b. (7

3

108)

108

(4

108)

1

area (1

103 cm and 5

(1 5)

10

cm

c. (9

2

102)

102

(7

102)

12

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c. Convert 5600 dm to m.

5600 dm 1m _ 10 dm 560 m

10

cm3

d. Convert 72 g to mg.

72 g 1000 mg _ 1g 72,000 mg

10

g and a volume of 2

10

cm3

e. Convert 2.45

2.45 102 ms

102 ms to s.

1s _ 1000 ms 0.245 s

f. Convert 5

5 m

m to km.

9

10 km _ 1 m

10

km

16 g salt 100 g solution __; __ 100 g solution 16 g salt

g. Convert 6.800

6800 cm

103 cm to km.

1000 m 0.068 km

1m 1 km _ _ 100 cm

1.25 g 1 mL _; _ 1 mL 1.25 g

h. Convert 2.5

2.5 101 kg

101 kg to Mg.

1 Mg _ 1000 kg 0.025 Mg

c. a speed of 25 m/s

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

25 m 1 s _; _ 1s 25 m

1 yr

nanometers to meters: 10 m _

9

365 d 1 yr 24 h 1d 60 min 1h 60 s 1 min

1 nm

in miles per hour. What is the cars speed in km/h? (1 km 0.62 mile)

g/cm3 to kg/m3: 1 kg 10 cm _ and _

6 3

1000 g

m3

Use Table 2.2 on page 33 to solve each of the following. 19. a. Convert 360 s to ms.

360 s 1000 ms _ 1s 360,000 ms

10

102 km/h

4800 g 1 kg _ 1000 g 4.8 kg

(Note: because significant figures and rounding havent been covered yet, students might generate a calculator answer of about 104.8 km/h.)

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24 h 60 min 60 s _ _ 1h 1 min 86,400 s

into meters and gets 0.068 m as the answer. Explain why this answer is incorrect and the likely source of the error.

Because meters are smaller than kilometers, there should be more meters than kilometers. The 68 km was divided by 1000, not multiplied by 1000.

mass and has a density of 1.02 g/mL. What mass of acetic acid, in grams, is present in 185 mL of vinegar?

mass (volume)(density) 189 g vinegar (189 g vinegar) (185 mL)(1.02 g/mL)

( __ )

when to use dimensional analysis and when to use scientific notation. Does the given value have trailing zeros or leading zeros? yes use scientic notation no Is the unit of the given value the desired unit? yes conversion is not required no use dimensional analysis

page 46

When numbers are expressed in scientific notation, the space-wasting placeholder zeros are eliminated, thus making it easier to perform arithmetic on the numbers.

8.7

10

4;

5.42

107

0.0003 cm; 30,000 km

104 km in regular

1 cm3/1 mL

2.5

102 km?

1000 m 1000 mm (_)(_) 1m 1 km 2.5 108 mm

250 km

solve problems.

It is a method of problem solving focusing on the units used to describe matter. A given value is multiplied by a conversion factor that relates the given unit to the desired unit.

14

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scientific notation.

Student flowchart should include the following yes/no decisions branches: 1) Does the given value have trailing zeros or leading zeros? (If yes, use scientific notation.); 2) Is the unit of the given value the desired unit? (If no, then use dimensional analysis.)

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Student Density and Error Data (Unknown was sucrose; density = 1.59 g/cm 3)

Student A Density Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 1.54 g/cm 1.60 g/cm

3 3 3

Student B

3

Student C

3

3 3 3 3

3 3 3

a. These trial values are the most precise. b. This average is the most accurate.

pages 4754

most accurate: Student B, trial 2; least accurate: Student B, trial 1

Practice Problems

page 49

Answer the following questions using data from Table 2.3. 32. Calculate the percent errors for Students Bs trials.

0.19 _ 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.19 _

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Problem-Solving Lab

page 50

Think Critically 1. Calculate the volume and density for each sample and the average density of the six samples.

Volume: Sample 1, 60.3 mL 50.1 mL 10.2 mL; Sample 2, 62.5 mL 49.8 mL 12.7 mL; Sample 3, 61.5 mL 50.2 mL 11.3 mL; Sample 4, 56.7 mL 45.6 mL 11.1 mL; Sample 5, 65.3 mL 50.3 mL 15.0 mL; Sample 6, 60.8 mL 47.5 mL 13.3 mL Density: Sample 1, 50.25 g/10.2 mL 4.93 g/mL; Sample 2, 63.56 g/12.7 mL 5.00 g/mL; Sample 3, 57.65 g/11.3 mL 5.10 g/mL; Sample 4, 55.35 g/11.1 mL 4.99 g/mL; Sample 5, 74.92 g/15.0 mL 4.99 g/mL; Sample 6, 67.78 g/13.3 mL 5.10 g/mL Average density (4.93 g/mL 5.00 g/mL 5.10 g/mL 4.99 g/mL 4.99 g/mL 5.10 g/mL)/6 5.02 g/mL

0.14 _

Note: The answers are reported in three significant figures because student error is the difference between the actual value (1.59 g/cm3) and the measured value.

trials.

0.11 _ 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.10 _ 0.12 _ 100 100 100 6.92% 6.29% 7.55%

Note: The answers are reported in three significant figures because student error is the difference between the actual value (1.59 g/cm3) and the measured value.

which has a density of 19.3 g/cm3. A local geologist suggested the samples might be pyrite, a mineral with a density of 5.01 g/cm3. What is the identity of the unknown sample?

The average density of the samples was 5.02 g/mL which is very close to the accepted value of 5.01 g/cm3 for pyrite. The samples are probably pyrite. Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

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d. 0.0084 mL

2

sample. Use the appropriate density value given in Question 2 as the accepted value.

Errors: Sample 1, 4.93 5.01 g/mL 0.08g/mL; Sample 2, 5.00 5.01 g/mL 0.01 g/mL; Sample 3, 5.10 5.01 g/mL 0.09 g/mL; Sample 4, 4.99 5.01 g/mL 0.02 g/mL; Sample 5, 4.99 5.01 g/mL 0.02 g/mL; Sample 6, 5.10 5.01 g/mL 0.09 g/mL Percent errors: Sample 1, 0.08 g/mL /5.01 g/mL 100 1.6%; Sample 2, 0.01 g/mL/5.01 g/mL 0.20%; Sample 3,0.09 g/mL/5.01 g/mL 1.8%; Sample 4, 0.02 g/mL/5.01 g/mL 0.40%; Sample 5, 0.02 g/mL/5.01 g/mL 0.40%; Sample 6, 0.09 g/mL/5.01 g/mL 1.8%

1000 in scientific notation with two, three, and four significant figures, respectively.

two significant figures: 1.0 1.0 103 three significant figures: 1.00 1.00 103 four significant figures: 1.000 1.000 103 101, 1.0 102, 102, 102,

84,790 kg

The students values ranged from 0.20% error to 1.8% error. The average error was 1.03% error. The data is accurate.

b. 38.5432 g

38.54 g

c. 256.75 cm

Practice Problems

pages 5154

256.8 cm

4.936 m

b. 820,400.0 L

7

5.482 10

4

c. 1.0200

5

105 kg

b. 136,758 kg

1.368 105 kg

d. 807,000 kg

3

c. 308,659,000 mm

3.087 108 mm

36. a. 0.049450 s

5

d. 2.0145 mL

2.014 100 mL, or 2.014 mL

b. 0.000482 mL

3

c. 3.1587

5

10

16

Solutions Manual

d. 4.9356 m

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103 g)

(2.5

102 cm3)

necessary. a. 43.2 cm

142.9 cm

51.0 cm

48.7 cm

divide coefficients: 1.32/2.5 0.528; subtract exponents: 103 2 101; combine parts and round: 0.528 101 g/cm3; 5.3 g/cm3

b. 258.3 kg

768 kg

257.11 kg

253 kg

page 54

4.32 104 mm 160 1.6 106 mm

A measured valued is reported with all of the known digits and one estimated digit.

106 mm

104 mm

b. 2.12

107 mm

1.8

103 cm

Accuracy is defined as how close a value is to the accepted value. Precision is defined as how close a series of measurements are to one another.

Perform the following calculations and round the answers. 42. a. 24 m 3.26 m

78 m2

in each of these measurements of an objects length: 76.48 cm, 76.47 cm, and 76.59 cm.

They each have four significant figures.

b. 120 m

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.10 m

length of 76.49 cm. Are the measurements in Question 47 accurate? Are they precise?

Answers may vary but might include the following. They are not precise for values recorded to four significant figures. The first and second values are close enough to the accepted value to be called accurate.

12 m2

c. 1.23 m

2.5 m2

2.0 m

d. 53.0 m

81.1 m2

1.53 m

43. a. 4.84 m/2.4 s

2.0 m/s 76.48 76.47 76.59 76.49 76.49 76.49 20.01 cm 20.02 cm 0.10 cm 100 100 100 0.01307% 0.02615% 0.1307%

b. 60.2 m/20.1 s

3.00 m/s

|76.48 cm 76.49 cm| 76.49 cm |76.47 cm 76.49 cm| 76.49 cm |76.59 cm 76.49 cm| 76.49 cm

__ __ __

c. 102.4 m/51.2 s

2.00 m/s

d. 168 m/58 s

2.9 m/s

5.06000 Solutions Manual 105 cm

17

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

for a group of coins. The mass of a single coin is 5.00 g. Determine the accuracy and precision of the measurements.

Number of coins Mass (g) 5 23.2 10 54.5 20 105.9 30 154.5 50 246.2

of air: 78.08% N, 20.95% O2, 0.93% Ar, and 0.04% CO2 and other gases.

Student graphs should have four wedge-shaped areas that are sized proportionately with the composition percentages given. Elements in Earths Atmosphere

The mass of an individual coin calculated for each trial are as follows: 5 coins, 23.2 g/5 4.6 g; 10 coins, 54.5 g/10 5.45 g; 20 coins, 105.9 g/20 5.295 g; 30 coins, 154.5 g/30 5.150 g; and 50 coins, 246.2g/50 4.924 g. Knowing that the accepted value for the mass of the coin is 5.00 g, the data in the table is too varied to be considered precise and differs too greatly from the accepted value to be considered accurate.

Argon 0.93%

gases 0.93%

Oxygen 20.95%

Nitrogen 78.08%

pages 5558

page 58

hole lasts.

from September to November, approximately three months

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Often, trends in data are not easily seen when the data is presented in a table. Graphing the data allows patterns and trends to be more easily spotted and interpreted. Graphing provides visual information about relationships between variables, relative amounts, or parts of a whole.

Volume (cm3) Mass (g) 7.5 24.1 12 38.5 15 48.0 22 70.1

Mass and volume data must be plotted; the y value must be mass and the x value must be volume.

Student graphs should show mass on the y-axis and volume on the x-axis. Slope (y y ) (70.1 g 38.5 g) _ __ (x x ) (22 cm 12 cm ) 31.6 g _ 3.16 g/cm 3.2 g/cm

2 1 2 1 3 3 3

10 cm3

Volume (cm3) It decreases in value as the independent variable increases.

25 20 15 10 5 0 20 30

Mass v. Volume

circle graph: parts of a whole; bar graph: how a quantity varies with a factor such as location

40

50

60

70

80

Mass (g)

18

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page 59

Post-1982 Penny

Total mass of pennies (g) 12.50 25.03 37.55 50.04 62.55 Total Volume of water displaced (mL) 1.8 3.5 5.2 7.0 8.7 Density Mass Volume (g/mL) 6.9 7.2 7.2 7.1 7.2

Writing in Chemistry Research Access the MSDS for several chemicals used at home. Compare the possible adverse health effects of exposure to the chemicals and list the first aid requirements.

Answers will vary based on the students product selection. Sample answer: The MSDS of an automatic dishwashing detergent indicates that it is an irritation to eyes and skin. If swallowed, it will irritate the mouth, throat, and stomach. First aid is as follows: for the eyes, flush with water for 15 min; for the skin, wash with soap and water; and if ingested give large amounts of milk or water. Do not induce vomiting. Call a doctor if ingested or the eye and skin irritation continues.

versus total volume for the pre-1982 and post1982 pennies. Plot and label two lines on the graph, one for pre-1982 pennies and one for post-1982 pennies.

See graph below.

ChemLab

page 60

1. Calculate Complete the Data Table for the

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

through each set of points. Use two points on each line to calculate the slope. The slopes of the lines give you the density of the pre-1982 and post-1982 pennies.

See graph below. The slope for pre-1982 penny is 7.1 g/mL. The slope for post-1982 penny is 9.0 g/mL.

Density of a Penny by calculating the total mass and the total volume of water displaced for each trial.

Pre-1982 Penny

Total mass of pennies (g) 15.50 31.02 46.53 62.12 77.54 Total Volume of water displaced (mL) 1.7 3.5 5.2 6.9 8.7 Density Mass Volume (g/mL) 9.1 8.9 8.9 9.0 8.9

Pennies

100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 Pre 1982 Post 1982 10

Mass (g)

Volume (mL)

before or after 1982 if you only know its mass? Explain how volume, mass, and density support using a mass-only identification technique.

Both pennies have similar volume but the mass is different, therefore the density is different. Mass can be used to identify both pre and post 1982 pennies.

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Pre 1982 pennies (9.0 Post 1982 pennies (7.1 8.8)/8.8 7.2)/7.2 100 100 2.3% error 1.4% error

The SI unit for volume is the cubic meter, m3, which is equal to three SI measurements of length multiplied together.

(Note: accepted values for density were determined by calculating a weighted average of the accepted values of the densities of copper and zinc. Densities of these metals are listed in the appendix.) Error could be reduced by using a more accurate graduated cylinder so measurements could be made with more significance.

The sizes of the units are equal; C 273 K.

Inquiry Extension Compare your results with those from the rest of the class. Are they consistent? If not, explain how you could refine your investigation to ensure more accurate results.

The results should be consistent. More accurate results could be achieved with a graduated cylinder that read a more accurate volume. Make sure the pennies are dry before they are massed.

liquids and solids given in Table 2.5. Sketch the results of an experiment that layered each of the liquids and solids into a 1000-mL graduated cylinder.

Density Values

Liquids (g/mL) Ethyl alcohol Glycerin Isopropyl alcohol Corn syrup Motor oil Vegetable oil Water at 4C 0.789 1.26 0.870 1.37 0.860 0.910

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Solids (g/cm3) Bone Cork Plastic Oak (wood) 1.85 0.24 0.91 0.84

Chapter 2 Assessment

pages 6265

1.000

Section 2.1

Mastering Concepts 59. Why must a measurement include both a number and a unit?

The number gives you the quantitative value, and the unit indicates what was measured.

Student drawings should show the layers in the following order from top to bottom: cork, ethyl alcohol, wood (oak), motor oil, isopropyl alcohol, vegetable oil and plastic (at the same level), water, glycerin, corn syrup, and bone.

Mastering Problems 66. A 5-mL sample of water has a mass of 5 g. What is the density of water?

density 5g mass _ _ volume 5 mL 1 g/mL

Scientists from different countries have different languages and cultures but must be able to share and compare data.

volume 8.1 g mass _ _ density 2.7 g/mL 3.0 mL

Prefixes give the magnitude of the measurement.

In one decimeter?

1 km 1000 m; 1 dm 0.1 m

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of water in a graduated cylinder from 25.1 mL to 30.1 mL. What is the density of the object?

volume density 30.1 mL volume 25.1 mL 5.0 mL 5.0 mL 1.5 g/mL 7.5 g mass _ _

Subtract them.

It decreases.

recipe for pralines instruct the cook to remove the pot containing the candy mixture from the heat when the candy mixture reaches the softball stage. The soft-ball stage corresponds to a temperature of 236F. After the soft-ball stage is reached, the pecans and vanilla are added. Can a Celsius thermometer with a range of 10C to 110C be used to determine when the soft-ball stage is reached in the candy mixture?

C (F 32) 5 _ 9 (236 32) 5 _ 9 113C

how do you decide which values to place in the numerator and denominator of the conversion factor?

Meters will be in the denominator so that the units will cancel when the starting value is multiplied by the conversion factor.

No, the Celsius thermometer could not be used to make this candy because the temperature is out of the thermometers range.

Mastering Problems 76. Write the following numbers in scientific notation. a. 0.0045834 mm

4.5834 10

3

mm

b. 0.03054 g

Section 2.2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.054

10

Mastering Concepts 70. How does scientific notation differ from ordinary notation?

Scientific notation uses a number between 1 and 10 times a power of ten to indicate the size of very large or small numbers.

c. 438,904 s

4.38904 105 s

d. 7,004,300,000 g

7.0043 109 g

convert a number into scientific notation, will the power of ten be positive or negative?

positive

notation. a. 8.348

106 km 103 g

8,348,000 km

b. 3.402

3402 g

notation are shown below along with the number of places the decimal must move to express each in scientific notation. If each X represents a significant figure, write each number in scientific notation.

a. X.XXXX b. X.XX

10 102

7

c. 7.6352

10

5

kg

0.0076352 kg

d. 3.02

10

0.0000302 s

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

d. (8.42

(8.42

108 kL)

4.21) 108

(4.21

3

103 kL)

105

3

(6.23 5.34) 106 kL 1.157 107 kL 11.57 106 kL

2.00

e. (8.4

(8.4

106 L)

2.4)

(2.4

10

3.5

L)

106 ( 3)

4

109

b. 3.1

(0.31

104 mm

4.87)

4.87

105 mm

105 mm

5.18 105 mm

f. (3.3

(3.3

10

1.1)

mL)

10

(1.1

3.0

10

mL)

4 ( 6)

102

c. 7.21

103 mg

43.8

102 mg

11.59 103 mg

5.70 g 1000 mg _ 1g 5.70 103 mg

d. 9.15

10

cm

3

3.48

4

10

12.63

cm

10

4

10 cm

cm

cm

b. 4.37 cm to meters

4.37 cm 1m _ 100 cm 4.37 10

2

e. 4.68

(4.68

10

cg

10

3.5

5

10

5.03

cg

10

5

0.35)

cg

cg

c. 783 kg to grams

783 kg 1000 g _ 1 kg 7.83 105 g

f. 3.57

(3.57

102 mL

1.43)

1.43

102 mL

2.14 102 mL

102 mL

d. 45.3 mm to meters

45.3 mm 1m _ 1000 mm 4.53 10

2

g. 9.87

(9.87

104

6.2

104 g

103

9.25

g

104 g

m

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.62)

h. 7.52

(7.52

105 kg

5.43)

5.43

105 kg

105 kg

2.09 105 kg

e. 10 m to centimeters

10 m 100 cm _ 1m 1000 cm

i. 6.48

(6.48

10

mm

10

3

2.81

mm

10

3.67

mm

10

3

mm 37.5 g 1 kg 1000 mL _ _ _ 1 mL 1000 g 1L 37.5 kg/L

2.81)

j. 5.72

(5.72

10

dg

10

2.3

4

10

5.49

dg

10

4

0.23)

dg

dg

division problems in scientific notation. a. (4.8 105 km) (2.0 103 km)

(4.8 2.0) 105 3

4

1 grain is equal to 64.8 milligrams. If the price of gold is $560 per troy ounce, what is the cost of 1 g of gold?

1 troy ounce 1 grain $560 __ __ _ 1 troy ounce 64.8 mg 480 grains 1000 mg _ $18/g 0.125 g

9

km2

9.6

108

km2

b. (3.33

(3.33

10

3.00)

m)

10

(3.00

4 ( 5)

10

m)

10 m2

m2

9.99

7

c. (1.2

(1.2

106 m)

1.5) 106

(1.5

( 7)

10

m)

10

1

m2

1.8

m2

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corn is 0.125 g. If 1 pound 16 ounces, and 1 ounce 28.3 g, then how many kernels of popcorn are there in 0.500 pound of popcorn?

0.500 lb. popcorn 1 kernel _ 0.125 g 28.3 g 16 ounces _ _ 1 pound 1 ounce

3.450 and 3.448

100 mL of your blood. 10.0 mL of your blood can carry 2.01 mL of oxygen. How many milliliters of oxygen does each gram of hemoglobin carry?

2.01 mL oxygen 100 mL blood __ __ 10 mL blood 15 g hemoglobin 1.34 mL oxygen/g hemoglobin 5.85 cm

5

INCHES

CENTIMETERS

90. When subtracting 61.45 g from 242.6 g, which 84. Nutrition The recommended calcium intake

for teenagers is 1300 mg per day. A glass of milk contains 305 mg of calcium. One glass contains a volume of 8 fluid ounces. How many

liters of milk should a teenager drink per day to get the recommended amount of calcium? One fluid ounce equals 29.6 mL.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

242.6 g; the number that has the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point; it is less precise.

1 glass 1300 mgCa 8 fluid ounces __ _ __ 305 mgCa 1 day 1 glass 29.6 mL 0.001 L 1 L milk __ _ _ 1 fluid ounce 1 mL 1 day

Mastering Problems 91. Round each number to four significant figures. a. 431,801 kg

431,800 kg

b. 10,235.0 mg

Section 2.3

Mastering Concepts 85. Which zero is significant in the number 50,540? What is the other zero called?

the first one; placeholder

10,240 m

c. 1.0348 m

1.035 m

d. 0.004384010 cm

0.004384 cm

Because the percent error equation uses the absolute value of the error.

e. 0.00078100 mL

0.0007810 mL

f. 0.0098641 cg

0.009864 cg

and 7.56 g, are the measurements accurate? Are they precise? Explain your answers.

You must know the accepted value to know if the measurements are accurate. They are fairly precise because there is only 0.14 g difference between the two measurements. Solutions Manual

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

problems to the correct number of significant figures. a. 7.31 104 3.23 103

(7.31 0.323) 7.63 104 104 7.633 104

Calculate the percent error for each of these measurements. a. 8.86 g/mL

error 8.86 g/mL 8.96 g/mL 0.10 g/mL 100 1.12% | 0.10 g/mL | 8.96 g/mL

b. 8.54

10

3.41

10

3

10

percent error 10

3

__

8.96 g/mL

8.199

b. 8.92 g/mL

error 8.92 g/mL 0.04 g/mL 100 0.446%

c. 4.35 dm

(4.35 2.34 74.8 dm3

2.34 dm

7.35)

7.35 dm

74.81565 dm3 percent error

dm3

__

8.96 g/mL

c. 9.00 g/mL

d. 4.78 cm

4.78 3.218

3.218 cm

5.82 cm

5.82 cm

13.818 cm 13.82 cm

error

9.00 g/mL

percent error

e. 45 m

(45 72

72 m

132 m

427,680 m3 430,000 m3

__

8.96 g/mL

132) m3

d. 8.98 g/mL

error 8.98 g/mL 0.02 g/mL 100 0.223%

f. 38,736 km/4784 km

38,736 km 4784 km 8.0969899 8.097

percent error

__

Section 2.4

Mastering Concepts 95. Heating Fuels Which type of graph would you use to depict how many households heat with gas, oil, or electricity? Explain.

A bar graph could be used with the method of heating on the x-axis and the number of households on the y-axis. If the data include all the households for a region, relative numbers could be converted to a percentage and expressed as a circle graph.

error

5.2 m

percent error

b. 5.5 m

error 5.5 m 5.5 m |0 m _| 5.5 m 0m 100 0

percent error

c. 5.7 m

error 5.7 m 5.5 m | 0.2 m _| 5.5 m 0.2 m 100 3.6%

would you choose to depict gasoline consumption over a period of a 10-year period? Explain.

line or bar graph because they can show how consumption varies with time

percent error

d. 5.1 m

error 5.1 m 5.5 m | 0.4 m _| 5.5 m 0.4 m 100 7.3%

Choose two points on the line. Divide the difference in the y values by the difference in the x values.

percent error

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Mastering Problems 98. Use Figure 2.19 to answer the following questions.

Density Comparison

12.0

e. (4.42

(4.42 2.2

10

kg)

3 2

(2.0

2.21

102 kg)

10

5

2.0) 10 10 5

f. (6.42

(6.42

10

3.21)

g)

10

(3.21

2 ( 3)

10

2.00

g)

101

Density (cm3)

10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0 Wood Water Sugar Glass Iron Lead Mercury

3.01 g

(_)

1 cg 0.01 g 1 km (_) 1000 m

7g

7

301 cg

b. 6200 m 0 km

6200 m 6.2 km

Materials

mercury

c. 6.24

6.24

10

10

0 g

1 g

6

wood

(_ )

10 g 0.2 dm3

6.24

10

d. 0.2 L 0 dm3

iron

g/cm3?

0.2 L

1 dm (_) 1L

3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.13 cal/g 1 kcal (_) 1000 cal 0.00013 kcal/g

11.4

Lead

g/cm3?

f. 3.21 mL 0 L

Mixed Review 99. Complete these problems in scientific notation. Round to the correct number of significant figures. a. (5.31 10 2 cm) (2.46 105 cm)

(5.31 2.46) 10 2 5 cm2 103 cm2 1.31 104 cm2 13.0626

3.21 mL

1L (_) 1000 mL

0.00321 L

a graduated cylinder to collect the data shown in Table 2.6. Calculate the density of the sample. If the accepted value of this sample is 6.95 g/mL, calculate the percent error.

Volume and Mass Data

b. (3.78

103 m)

(7.21 102 m)

2

m2

27.2538

105 m2

Mass of sample Volume of water Volume of water + sample volume of sample 43.0 mL

c. (8.12

10

m)

(1.14

3 ( 5)

10

8

m)

m2 9.26 10

m2

d. (9.33

(9.33

104 mm)

3.0) 104

2

(3.0

3.11

102 mm)

102 3.1 102

density mass/volume 20.46 g/3.0 mL 6.82 g/mL |___ 6.82 g/mL 6.95 g/mL | % error (100) 1.87% 6.95 g/mL Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

Solutions Manual

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No, the conversion is not correct because the units of rate should be m/min. This expression yields the units m h/min2. The last conversion 60 min factor should be . 1h

M82 has a mass about 500 times the mass of the Sun. It has about the same volume as the Moon. What is the density of this black hole? mass of the Sun 1.9891 1030 kg volume of the Moon 2.1968 1010 km3

massblack hole 500 masssun 500 (1.9891 1030 kg) 9.9455 1032 kg volumeblack hole 2.1968 1010 volumemoon km3 mass __

black hole

volume 23 g mass _ __ density 0.7893 g/mL 29 mL

densityblack hole

32

volume

on a laboratory balance. The first zinc sample had a mass of 210.10 g, and the second zinc sample had a mass 235.10 g. The two samples were combined. The volume of the combined sample was found to be 62.3 mL. Express the mass and density of the zinc sample in the correct number of significant figures.

mass density 210.10 g 235.10 g 62.3 mL 445.20 g 7.15 g/mL 445.10 g mass _ _ volume

black hole

4.5273

1022 kg/km3

( 4.5273

1022 kg/km3 )

(_)(_) (_)

1010 g/cm3

answer from Question 107 to compare the densities of water and a black hole.

The density of the black hole is 4.5273 1010 g/cm3 (almost fifty billion) times greater than that of water.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

volume of mercury mass of mersury __ density of mercury 1.10 cm3 mercury

3.72 m determines the number of significant figures in the answer because it is the original value having the fewest number of significant figures.

__

15.0 g mercury g/cm3 13.6 mercury

mass of lead (volume of lead) (density of lead) ( 1.10 cm3 ) ( 11.4 g/cm3 ) 12.5 g lead

0.00321 g

meter markings to measure a length of wire. Their measurements are 3 cm, 3.3 cm, and 2.87 cm, respectively. Explain which answer was recorded correctly.

The third student (2.87 cm) is correct. A meterstick has markings to the millimeter, so a third digit should be estimated.

b. 3.8754 kg

3.88 kg

c. 219,034 m

219,000 m

26

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d. 25.38 L

25.4

e. 0.08763 cm

0.0876 cm

f. 0.003109 mg

0.00311 mg

syrup comes in a 4-fluid ounce bottle. The active ingredient in the cough syrup is dextromethorphan. For an adult, the standard dose is 2 teaspoons, and a single dose contains 20.0 mg of dextromethorphan. Using the relationship, 1 fluid ounce 29.6 mL and 1 teaspoon 5.0 mL, determine how many grams of dextromethorphan are contained in the bottle.

1 teaspoon 4 fluid ounces 29.6 mL ( __ ) ( __ ) ( __ ) 5.0 mL 1 bottle fluid ounce 20 mg 0.001 g __ _

on the x-axis and the mass on the y-axis. Then calculate the slope of the line.

Density Data

Volume (mL) 2.0 mL 4.0 mL 6.0 mL 8.0 mL 10.0 mL Mass (g) 5.4 10.8 16.2 21.6 27.0

)(

Thinking Critically 113. Interpret Why does it make sense for the line in Figure 2.16a on page 57 to extend to (0, 0) even though this point was not measured?

Chlorine in the Stratosphere

The graph shows a direct relationship between mass and volume. slope

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4.0 mL

2.7 g/mL

CFC113 6% HCFC22 3% Methyl chloroform 10% CFC12 28%

Density Data

30 25

Mass (g)

Hydrogen chloride 3%

Volume (mL)

Extrapolation of measured data extends the line to this point. The graph shows that an object with no mass will have no volume.

made with the most precise measuring device: 8.1956 m, 8.20 m, or 8.196 m? Explain your answer.

8.1956 m because it has the greatest number of significant figures

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two numbers in scientific notation, why do the exponents need to be the same?

Equal place values should be added to each other.

Nutrition Facts

Serving Size cup (29 g) Servings Per Container about 17

Amount Per Serving

Calories 120

do SI units have over the units commonly used in the United States? Are there any disadvantage to using SI units?

Answers will vary but might include that units based on powers of ten are easy to convert from one to another. Most disadvantages involve the initial changing from another system to SI.

% Daily Value * Total Fat 1g 2% Saturated Fat 1 g 5% Cholesterol 0 mg 0% Sodium 160 mg 7% Potassium 25 mg 1% Total Carbohydrate 25 g 9% Dietary Fiber less than 1 g 2% Sugars 13 g Protein 1 g Vitamin A 4%

dard for time was based on the distance light travels through a vacuum?

There is no chance for matter to interfere with the speed measurement in a vacuum.

( __ ) ( __ ) ( __ ) ( ) (_)

2.0 cups cereal 160 mg salt 1 serving 430 mg 7 percent 160 mg 19%

object not help you identify what material the object is made from?

Mass itself has no meaning without a measurement of its volume. If the object is a pure substance and its mass and volume are known, its density can help identify it.

contain a different liquid: A, B, C, and D. Liquid A: mass Liquid B: mass Liquid C: mass Liquid D: mass 18.5 g; volume 12.8 g; volume 20.5 g; volume 16.5 g; volume 15.0 mL 10.0 mL 12.0 mL 8.0 mL

a surveyor to determine property boundaries rather than measure the boundaries themselves?

Surveyors use equipment that is not affected by terrain or obstacles.

Examine the information given for each liquid and predict the layering of the liquids if they were carefully poured into a larger graduated cylinder.

Liquid A density Liquid B density 18.5 g /15.0 mL 12.8 g /10.0 mL 20.5 g /12.0 mL 16.5 g /8.0 mL 1.23 g/ml 1.28 g/ml 1.71 g/mL 2.1 g/mL

the breakfast cereal nutritional label shown in Figure 2.20. This product contains 160 mg of salt in each serving. If you eat 2.0 cups of cereal a day, how many grams of salt are you ingesting? What percent of your daily recommended salt intake does this represent?

From top to bottom the liquids would be liquid A, liquid B, liquid C and liquid D on the bottom.

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Challenge Problem 122. Carboplatin (C6H12N2O4Pt) is a platinumcontaining compound that is used to treat certain forms of cancer. This compound contains 52.5% platinum. If the price for platinum is $1047/troy ounce, what is the cost of the platinum in 2.00 g of this compound? A troy ounce is equal to 480 grains, and one grain is equal to 64.8 mg.

Student answers will vary. For example, a firkin (a small wooden tub used for butter and lard) is a unit of volume equal to barrel.

( __ ) ( _ ) ( _ ) ( __ ) ( ___ )

( 2.00 g carboplatin )

1 mg 1 grain 0.001 g 64.8 mg $1047.00 1 troy ounce platinum 52.2 g platinum 100 g carboplatin 1 troy ounce 480 grains $35.3

Student answers will likely include fluid ounces, quarts, half-gallons, gallons, liters, and milliliters.

given by dose. Find out what amount of error in the administered dose is acceptable for various medicines.

Student answers will vary. For definitive information on the subject, encourage students to contact the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), manufacturers, pharmacists, or hospital pharmacies.

Cumulative Review 123. You record the following in your lab book: a liquid is thick and has a density of 4.58 g/mL. Which data is qualitative? Which is quantitative? (Chapter 1)

Thick is qualitative; a density of 4.58 g/mL is quantitative.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Document-Based Questions

Ocean Water The density of pure water is 1.00 g/cm3 at 4C. Ocean water is denser because it contains salt and other dissolved substances.The graph in Figure 2.21 shows the relationships among temperature, density, and salinity versus depth for ocean water.

1.023 1.024 1.025 1.026 1.027 1.028 1.029 34.0 0 500 0 34.5 4 35.0 8 12 35.5 18 36.0 20 36.5

Additional Assessment

Writing in Chemistry

124. Kilogram Standard Although the standard

kilogram is stored at constant temperature and humidity, unwanted matter can build up on its surface. Scientists have been looking for a more reliable standard for mass. Research and describe alternative standards that have been proposed. Find out why no alternative standard has been chosen.

Two alternative methods of defining the standard kilogram would base the unit on the Avogadro constant, which is the number of atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon-12. One method would depend in part on X-ray measurements in silicon crystals. Another method would depend on electrical measurements that determine the ratio of the mechanical watt to the electrical watt. At this time, scientists have not gained universal acceptance for either alternative method.

Density (g/cm3)

Salinity ()

24 Temperature (C)

Temperature Density

Salinity

2500 3000

Data obtained from Windows to the Universe, at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR).

Solutions Manual

29

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Measured Values for a Stamps Length

Student 1 Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average 2.60 cm 2.72 cm 2.65 cm 2.66 cm Student 2 2.70 cm 2.69 cm 2.71 cm 2.70 cm Student 3 2.75 cm 2.74 cm 2.64 cm 2.71 cm

The temperature is fairly stable through the first 200 meters then decreased rapidly to a depth of 1000m. As the temperature decreases the density of the ocean increases. Below 1000 m the density of the ocean remains constant with a slight decrease in temperature.

The salinity rapidly decreases through the first 500 m, then increases with an increase in depth.

water cools.

As the ocean water cools below 1000 m the salinity increases.

whose accepted length is 2.71 cm. Based on the table, which statement is true? a. Student 2 is both precise and accurate. b. Student 1 is more accurate than Student 3. c. Student 2 is less precise than Student 1. d. Student 3 is both precise and accurate.

a

pages 6667

b error Percent Error accept value 0.05 cm 100 1.85% 2.71 cm

__

100

c

d

7.932

scientific notation? a. 7.02 103 g b. 70.20 101 g c. 7.020 102 g d. 70.20 102 g

c

30

Solutions Manual

Multiple Choice 1. Which is NOT an SI base unit? a. second b. kilogram c. degrees Celsius d. meter

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

occurred in three steps. The first step takes 2.5731 102 s to complete, the second step takes 3.60 101 s, and the third step takes 7.482 101 s. What is the total amount of time elapsed during the reaction? a. 3.68 101 s b. 7.78 101 s c. 1.37 101 s d. 3.3249 102 s

d

b

d 257.31 s 0.36 s 74.12 s 332.49 s The answer should have two digits to the right of the decimal for the correct number of significant digits.

c

Short Answer Use the diagram below to answer Questions 12 and 13.

0 mm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

0 cm

10

11

12

13

14

15

12. Explain which ruler you would use to make the

Volume v. Temperature for Three Gases

100

The top ruler allows more precise measurements because it has more divisions.

Volume (L)

80 60 40 20 0 0

Gas A

digits?

9.50 mm (accept from 9.48 mm through 9.52 mm due to estimation)

Temperature (K)

d

23 L 31 L 38 L 80 L

Solutions Manual

31

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Temperature of a Solution While Heating

Time (s) 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 Temperature (C) 22 35 48 61 74 87 100

Acceptable answers include wearing safety goggles, tying hair back, using hand protection, keeping flammable chemicals away, knowing the location of fire safety equipment.

Use the graph below to answer questions 1721.

Age of Ice Layers in an Ice Sheet

650

600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

every 30 s for 3 min while the solution was heating on a Bunsen burner. Graph the data.

The graph should show a constant linear positive slope.

120

Temperature (C)

Time (s)

graph.

Slope equals the change in temperature over the change in time. Divide the difference in two temperature readings by the difference in the corresponding time readings. slope change in temp 87 74 __ _ 150 120 change in time 13 _ .43 C/s 30

70 m as 425 years. The accepted value is 427 years. What is the percent error of the students value? a. 0.4683% b. 0.471% c. 1.00% d. 49.9% e. 99.5%

a percent error | error | __ accepted value 425 years 427 years ___ 100 427 years 100 0.468%

32

Solutions Manual

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

e Solution: slope (500 350 y) y _ __ x

( 80

0.00 m/y 0.13 m/y 0.13 y/m 7.5 m/y 7.5 y/m

age? a. Linear, positive slope b. Linear, negative slope c. linear, slope 0 d. Non-linear, positive slope e. Non-linear, negative slope

60 ) m 7.5 y/m a

a

Solutions Manual

33

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