CONTENTS

Page

How To Write FIRST PART (Alphabet and Pronunciation)

vii

Alphabet Read the following words Short Vowels Long Vowels Dipthongs & Nunations Doubled Consonant & Absence The Method of Writing Arabic The Different Forms of Letters SECOND PART (words)

1
5

of Vowel

7 10 12 14 17 19 27 28 30 32

Months: of the Cflristian Qualities Virtues The Ordinal Numbers Education Journal Professtcns Diseases Commernla] Government Interrogative Prepositions THIRD PART (Sentences)

Year

55 56 60 62 63 65 66 71

52 53

68 70

Pronoun Verb Family The Parts of the Body Building Clothes Domestic Food Vegetables Fruits DomeStiC Animals Wild Animals Birds Nature Places Directions Time Week Days Months of the Hijri

Articles

34 36 37 38 40 41 42
43 44 45

Sentences of Sentences of Sentences of Interrogative Greetings The Clock For Reading FOURTH

One Word Two Words Three Words Sentences

80
81 Practice

73 74 76 J8

82
85

PART (Grammar)

Year Iv

47 48 50 51

46

Definite Article Adjective The Nominal Sentences The Demonstrative Pronouns Gender Number Independent Pronoun Past Tense - The Verbal Sentences Parrt Tenee - The Nominal Sentences Attached Pronouns Conjugation of the Past-Tense v

97 99 100 101

94

87 89 91 92

103

The Objective Case The Object The Possessive Case The Prepositions C'lnjugation of the Present &. f.'ast Tenses Near Future &. Distan Futute Have The Imperative Voice Joining of the Article 'AI' The Colloqulat Arabic Conjugation of 'To Be' in Past Tense 'To Be' in Present &. Future Tenses for Reading Differences of Tenses The Noun of Agency Perfect Participle Irregular Verbs - Past Tense Irregular Verbs - Present Tense Some Irregular Verbs fiFTH PART (Conversations)

104 106 107 109 ·111 . 114 115 "6 118 120
121 122

HOW TO WRITE'

Arabic

characters from
+-Right to left~

~~.'-J
.~.,.

AUF
.
.'.

SAA

TAA

~BAA

123 124 125 127
128

129 130 131

Useful Sentences With The Friend In Tne Market In The Hotel With The Doctor In The Book-Stall I Want a Room I n the Textile Shop In the Post-Office On Journey Allah

135 137 141 145 149 '51 153 155 159
163 vi

AA

".:S..
~A
VII

..

KHAA

HA

ZAAL

.)

EEM

DAAL

168

FIRST PART ALPH.ABET
..

~

ARABIC
LETTERS

NAME OF LETTERS PRONUNCIATION EXAMPLE

5AAD

t

AUF

a

as in at, far.


L

J

BAA

b

as in big.

TAA

t

:.

as 't' in three(a soft dental) like the 'th' in thin, sometimes 's~

j

SAA
JEEM

th:

QAAF

as in jar.

HA
MEEM
,>

'h

a strong aspirate, somethIng like 'h' in hand. guttural, 'lock'. like 'ch' in

KHAA
DAAL
Note:-

kh

~WAAwtSHAA
Viii

d

as 'th' in 'the',

These letters are all consonants.

,

ZAAL

z;,th

like 'th' in thy in Egypt and India
like 'z·

;~I

..J

.J
~ ~

..
t.

RAA

r

as in risk

<,

L

t:,
...
III

..

GHAIN

gh

a guttural '8t,

FAA

f

as in fit.

ZAA

z
s

as in zone

SEEN

as in sit

d
(,.Jo

U

QAAF

q

pronounced very gutturally. as in kill.

KAAF

It

SHEEN

sh

as in shop

'-.)"
.~

'SAAD

'5

stronger than the English '5' a hard palatal d. something like 'dz' with soft 'd' sound a hard palatal 'f

DAAD

'd

b
_!;

'-!J
~. "J

J i

LAAM

as in long.

MEEM

m•

as in man.

NOON
HAA

•n

as in not.

TAA

't

h

as in hand,

ZAA

'z

th in this, sometimes a hard palatal 'z' a guttural vowel

t:

AIN

'a 2

<';'

lS

J

WAAW YAA

w&:v

as in war and valley. as in yard,

Y 3

.» • t: t: 1. 5 .• baa ... '.. ba wa alif . Jd -> READ THE FOLLOWING --+ WORDS -+-rlltht to left_ LORD rab y baa J raa ba MOTHER ra am • lJ4:) 4. j. a J NO lam THE al Jt laam alif ':.. a W8aw all( J .. ."J"'''' '-•J • :. ~r. .». 4 BROTHER akh c. a '-' . • khBa ~ ma alif kha aUf . ~J OR aw .).».c.)_) . o-.r.m ma la J Iaam a la FATHER ab '.TAKE CARE ON PRONUNCIATIONS Read Carefully e· • JJ l.. a Note I Arabic is wrltteD ·aDd read from rl~ht to left..

Alif at the commencement letter bamzaah after a consonant f' of a word is a mere prop or soft breathin~." fa L .g- zaaw ja wa ja 4-:J TO LEAVE taraka ~J kaat raa taa . .. . J nu ju fu qa LITERATURE adab ra y baa ba daal . .)· 'daad • ra ta ...· "" ti L bi • j "..:> ?' ... P ni J' • r: U t fl. dars seen 1'00 daal HOUSE daar ..-'. a small stroke above the letter. raa Cda n. aUf t DAMMAH~....1 .COUNTRY wa'tan noon taa waaw FATHAH &" ~ SHORT VOWELS na LESSON 'ta wa e.. small stroke under the letter. and has no sound of Itself. The short Cu'is expressed by using a Dammah' e. t a wa tu bu • u for the Note . 6 7 . tab. a aUf ra HUSBAND a da f(ASRAH zawj ~-' jeem _) waa • The short 'if is expressed b)' using Kasrah' .:. da 4.~".. • _'" na daal ~ I ". 4 . a qaaf raa waaw . ka EARTH ~~ PAPER waraq .g. ta e. g• a smaU'waaw' above the letter... cia it serves merely to proionll the vowel Filthah._.J aUf » 4.tL "'''. The short 'at is expressed by using a Fathah .. U.J raa sa ra .

tt J~'J 'u .II . mu mi ma t." TO SIT jalasa .J. " ." qum not indicated in Arabic books.tt. t t .... . Note .. a ~'-t~ su TO BE NOBLE kar-uma .. 'tu bu ." ". . ".I U '-''-' .. MAN rajul lu Ii la BOY walad _.These sians areusually gha ki [ournets etc. Read the following words. . si ri sa .... "'" a .." 1.J1 ...!)(.. _.J wu z.. ghu ghi I! _.STAND shariba . '-....... hi ... ..1. _." ~ ha .P di .. ka ja ra TO DRINK .DAMMAH taking care on Short . 'hu 'hi ".!) . J da .C khu khi kha . l TO WEAR ru labisa 'ha L.I u ~~~ tu ../ ." ~~~ ju ji ....... ~~~ ku .. ti ta - '--' U.. t .. . ....FATHAH· KASRAH .. _.:)(. wi " -' If hu ~ wa .!. 'I _....1......L...... 'bi ba ....I . -.... . 'ti Ita du . qu qi qa . taking care on Short Vowel-signs TO WRITE kataba Read the following letters Vowelasigns. J .. 9 . . TO EXPLAIN nu ni na 'su "si 'sa yu t. ~L....

. t~ I inee Waaw with Dammah gives the sound LOVEABLE rnahboob 4. ~ ~ • claa naa 'haa iaa baa L • THAT FATHER· z:aalika ~ J li ka· • 100 fu u. z:aa waalid d '--:! u 1...-J .II ja noo dall n()()r INSIDE daakhil II to • J c.~ e. so 3. of '00' e.. • J • Waaw gives the sound of '0' e. g.s: Yaa with Kasrah gives the sound of tee' ~ noo "f t ba fi._.. g. saa fuloos Alif is lengthening the 'a' sound. e..boo SOUTH LIGHT janoob b . g..LONG VOWELS Take care on Long Vowel-signs it · Alif three I. Lw \( '. j8 MARKET sooq ko ro no <ho jo bo BEAUTIFUL .g. kbi" r . if' .t~ '" b .s' yaa are the only MONEY long vowels used in Arabic.J\') kaa raa l:.... soo koo roo noo 'hoo joo boo 4.. .' waaw and '.. t .. I:. t waa I:...J:.:.

'Waaw '-' DIPTHONGS& NUNATIONS STAR Take care on Dopthongs and Nunations -----+ kaukab kaw ka ba~ with Fathah gives the sound of 'au'· taw' e.? c.. 'in' and 'an' at the end of a doubled: other is reversed. g.r. are called !JI. i' khauf khaw fa GROUND maidaan . ' ••• Yaa with Fathahgives e.. proDounced 13 ......-J ~ • -=" fin .. Dative ( 9 ~iD Accusative"?" an. '--' ~ • • bunbu f. bi Note: There is no indefinite article in Arabie..::..~ fp. . t.aasin ra aa san ra aa sin J ~ " Kasrah doubled: It is put below the letter. which is Itot.... Dammah The sounds 'I.. Fathahdoubled! It is put above the letter it his always an additional alif····(not pronounced) and HEADraasan (Accusative) HEAD (Genitive) .. (Nunation) Nunation..J.f~ sau fau kau jau sai fai kai jai • bau SLEEP FEAR naum naw ma... :...j. " mai daa na ~...Ii [2 -. It is follOWed by allf. bai· The Dammahabove the the sound of . J:fie. g.. fu . ". fun ....In'. ~ HEAD raasun ra aa sun ~.~ bai ta TANWEEN word.p. Indeflnlreneaa In Jitentry Ara blc f8 irldlcated by tbe eDdlne of the DO liD as follows· Nominative' {p ~ UD GeDltlve... • 4.. HOUSE bait ... bin '--J ~ .. ~~.

.J JJ wai - ... ~ bbi .. f'$f". foo .. w ~ or ~ . wau J~ • Ita -&.. ffu ~ ~..... BUT bal fee ~ . bee .J .... \. a mark ' .. tJ~~ . "-J "'-' '-J bin ban bun .-' • bba • ~.P .J~ run rai ..J roo ro J tS raa ~ ~jn _) ....... fp .. . bau BEAR dubbun .. ..U ~ ...) rti ~ .... l* .DOUBLED CONSONANT Be ABSENCE OF VOWEL W SHADDA The conSOnant on which "(... ba] . ..... . ree ~ ~ . ..J 9 " "" " ".J_) . The vowel-sign is placed OVer this Shadda-sign in case of 'Fathah' or 'Damma' but below.g.. fa "... -." ....J ." Jl " woo r. wa waa wu WI .. boo ~ >-:' l!.JI .... bbun fp "J J... . .". .. s s -' '..U faa win J ~ ~ wan wun . (J. ~ a -. ... if the vowel is 'Kasrah' ... ~.J..I ru .... ~ bbu • ~ 1M .. '--' a b ~ .J ..t It.J' m qu ffi ffa 4.-!' ? fin . .....J "--J l.J w "'" ji . • bo baa {. _..TO STRETCH ~ ~ Read' carefully taking care on Vowel-signs ..m IJ BRIDGE jisrun 14 5 o: [_ run s . e. rru tra 15 ran 15 ' ..J .... r " . (J""" fan fun fai fau fi f 4J .J J...-J '-' .. r rau .... e.-. fu" ... w • 4.. j wwi ..J • • ba bi bu ~ . fu ~ STAND qU... '-' " ...:.J wwa ~ When a consonant has no vowel of its own following it. wo wee du VERY 0/1) SUKUN jiddan t1 ddsn J wwu ~ . rna . ........ "' madda ddll . g.) fJJ .) ra _... r... called Sukun is placed over that consonant.d 'Shadda is placed to be pronounced twice.

.. +-PRONUNCfATION -+W"RD- +. . y .) dee ._.... three or more letters...II III.". di .. nu 16 masaa'un -un saa ma a sa ma atif t~r seen maem ...J ta ba na raa baa nil .. 'ai '00 'u .. .... nee .....J • no nai .I '-=J 4.P ~ ".b :....:. dai doo dau do . 'ta THE METHOD OF WRITING ARABIC An Arabic word consists of two......."'" .':.b _.'tee 'ti Lb 'taa 1.. -aa 'a ~ CLIMATE 'taqsun PLANTS nabtun EVENING ta sa .. ".. ba J-:J J Ia ba Iaam -aa '--J baa • ~J dun da -aa da da daal daal 'ain t: ~haa ~J Ia sun q rna 'ha la .f _.y du .J' J~ IJ..1..w . noon '-'" I .. .. jJjJ naU ...:1 ~ ~ 'tou 'to 'tai'too 'tu . '-......) .SPELLING- PEN galamun BUT bal NUMBER 'adadun TO CARRY 'hamala I!~l~C~~ f.. all these are written together.'" '0 . ... taA...... . • ........~~m~ ~ I !p ....J' . daa ~ naa da L"W tun Ii +> ... JJ noo ...:) na • h .... Ji ~ ~ rna ha Iaam meem qa 'ta seen qaaf 'taa 'au . .

. J _...J noon r alif Daad~·. . ~ ~ .A- 1 i" : RIVER nahrun THEY hum Kaaf ~ na ·ra ha 0000 laam J....?.:....1.'.. YOU anta TEA shaayun ~t ta . :\? ~J{ .. J I I ..5 .J~J na ba)" c> '-:" J ooon baa The Arabic "etters have three forms Iaam II! Name! iii MEAT la'hll'lun c: .. t anaa naa a a ·na a alif <.~ i I..E c: til :.o-'-' i II .r 1<. I..a ba Ia run h \-JJ~ ...-a.9... L . I! . i r.~!..' iJ loaal Zaal Raa : I ! J .r (.: ~':'!.J .. I·· ~!.) ....> ""-vL. I I.4.:.- ..a. i :. v-~1. 1 Kh"" *'..e...i 1> I b I $. -' Sheenj.1· Qo.THE DIFFERENT FORMS OF LETTERS r41LK labanun ~ nun ba la \:.::. 1....li.i •• ~l~ ~ .. ta na a t aa 0000 Noon .." 0 ~jt ~. rs Saad 19 .o. ~ ~ ya a sba yaa allf sheen 18 .A. -4IJ I .:J 1S' r Zao Seen J-I .k.o Saa ~ I.Q I Alif I LL ~ 1i -1 Ia:-' oJ -f- I !.b ! Baa !\ Zo. ~: 1-.' u::tl: \ !~ ... MAN rajulun DOG' katbun IUD ju ra ~ ja ra Ain I ~ .. : t.~.] GI . Jeem Ha ~I~. 5'. ka baa laam na raa baa Ghain: F1 aa kaaf ...A..A! . Meem"_ I ..1 T· aa I. .I:)" Haa cL alif a ~:al>- +-.)'1""':..i ':"1 ~ ~ ~.. bun l). I '-' t: ! J I T.. i.•• '-" II A.'tw .. ~ 1..4..s.. I\"""'-! 1 .) . s: . ~' .:.

.

.~ . " 0""- ... .P ~)j • . f.J - o . '-' t>:~ ..."... TIGER MOTHER !).. U j.1. 3 .. - i •. ..0 ~ . ........->-' .'" i~j .afee'un lateefun 24 qalamun yaaqautun waraqun kaneesatun miknisatun samakun layanun. . RUBY PAPER CHURCH BROOM ~ ~.r» (I. t.. »..... l'" ~ FISH ~o Pt .. ~ ·~ . ..'.PEN NICE CLEAN TO KEEP POPULOUS PRAYER ROAD DUST W ASHiNGBASIN GOLD-SMITH BRANCH HIGH GENTLE· 'zareefun na'zeefun 'hafiza 'aamirun laa'ibun shaari'un ghubaarun mighsalatun saayi.. ..... ~l . .....tt~ ~ .. 'salbun naheelun muhaamiun namirun amun 25 "". t~ ~ f.) !I 9 .~ " " t: .. Co .-:..o ... . .9 .' t4 ..- .. J. c. /ia Jij .J ... t~a... t~'·-.... ~ fp ~ ".....~ --: ~r..~ .. . is ...........~ . t.....11 . - p' SOFT ~ .. 9.....At ""u. 1. ~>' .." fJ.ghun far' un ..l.. - J HARD THIN lAWER... _ r1 r.... .. .i ~• ~ ~. r... .. 9..... ...

..) W .....:: ~. anaa WE YOU (masculine) YOU (m.. ..1 ~ tL. On Y- €I" .. ..... ~l '.. . ..J-' .. al!J'.. THEY (dual m...I. & f.. . l_S' .J fj " r.. .) na'hnu anta antum anti antunna antumaa huwa hum - V ~~:... • :" ".._.. nahrun wajhun waqtun qaumun huwa yadun ·tabaasheerun kursee'un ·26 • r...1· "': ...... . plural) YOU (dual m.... ~......III'" l~... " . ~r . plural) YOU (feminine) YOU (f.j"I. fp~ (. . IT HAND CHALK CHAIR· nashaa·tun.~ _.. & f.. fJ t C) SECOND PART PRONOUN 'dameerun ...C-.. ust ~ ... ....b ~. .. ....J .. . r-:'.JIi ~ fi'.. tanakun tamreenun hilaalun . ... "~"""... .:)'*_. ~f .. hiya hunna humaa 27 9i_S ~ .....CJ4t Ct .. ' rW -:...) He THEY SHE tHEY ('....I""'" ~ .. f . ~J 9 ... ...1 " ...ACTIVITY TIN EXERCISE CRESCENT RIVER FACE TIME PEOPLE HE. . fi" :..

. " ..... '" ~..... t. .o_~ 4lk • . "'"I t' ~. ....TO LECTURE ~ ~ "... FG iI .. iI L ~f ....liJ ~ ~ ~:t~ _.. .. tt->t ~ W~ .. JJ .~ 28 .. e:/J ....a sala'ha 'darra na'sara shamma sharrafa khataba 29 ~ TOGO TO EAT TO WRITE TO SIT TO SEE TO DO "rOHEAR TO OPEN TO RAISE TO KNOW .._ :. TO CORRECT TO HARM TO HELP TO SMELL TO HONOUR ........ -s ~ ~ .. ~ ~ . ~ .. _ . ....." ....-... r.TOSEEK TO GATHER z:ahaba akala kataba jalasa na'zara 'amila sami'a fataha rafa'a 'arafa 'talaba ijtama'a ~" '" • ..-"..... .. • - ...... .. ..."....' h ......J--W I." :. TO DRINK TO PLAY TO SLEEP' TO LAUGH TO SMILE TO PLUCK TO FORGET ~r ".........VERB TO WEAR fa'halu~ J ' ' labisa shariba la'iba naama 'dahika basarna qa'tafa nasi).. ..g .... . w .. . . . @ .

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"- al1aa'HatuU '" .l aanisat.... .. ab(un) umm ibn bint zauj zaujah akh ukht '-'f . ~~ .. - i~J . ".:~ .....t. 1 BACHELOR 8RIDE GROOM ~J') .......g ""31 . ~! ". ... " .l ' Is 30 31 .l..".. 'aanis 'arees 'aroos arma(a~ sihar kinna~ hafeed in1raa~ jawaaree assayyad assayyadal..3f _. 2. BRIDE WIDOW SON-IN-LAW DAUGHTER-IN-LAW GRANDSON WOMAN GIRL t.....J t ....ra'dee'a shaabba ..t&·'·... WI ~ ......THE FAMILY ... In colloquial indefiniteness is rendered by the simple noun without the article. wi. It*" BABY YOUNG LADY ... . ·tift ·'jadda khaal 'khaalah iJ. .....•• not pronounl·.. " ~. MISTER MISSUSt MISTRESS MISS Nunat·ion is not observed in otdinary conversatton...j~ . tJ . Withoilt nunarlon Dr vowel the feminine 8uffi" •.lt. FATHER MOTHER SON DAUGHTER HUSBAND WIFE BROTHER SISTER CHILD GRAND-FATHER UNCLE AUNT Note: 1.. . '..u• ~ " . ·1"'V..)*'.. Jl1.J~ . ...1/1- il::. ...' . '*...d... .Jj&- ". ~...t II1II ·~··~jf .. ~_. ill .. ~ r w1 _..

.. " _.J~ ~ 11/ "...1 jiSmin~J 4- :.... MOUTH TONGUE CHIN ARM CHEST HEART STOMACH LEG ~ .::.~ "..-> .. "". ~ r"?J • :..J~ L EYE ~OSf EAR TEETH NECK.1 . .J.U r-' C)L:J .ss ~. III ".~ t ... ajna'u .. ".. BODY HEAD FACE HAIR jism raas wajh sha'ar cain ant uz:n sin 'unug katlf khaddood yad 32 H ~..THE PARTS OF THE BODY PALM 11- kaf ~'sba'a (am lisaan z:aqn z:iraa'a 'sadar qalb ma'ida~ rijuJ .. FOOT SKIN " kadam jild dam rukbah 33 ~ -- t·o-:} .. ~ '-!) _.. ~ ~ &. . II " " ~r... /I " ~.-:..1 .J .... BLOOD KNEE .. .. ~.. uJ "" ... .. 'SHOULDER CHEEK HAND ~ ~. ." -~ . IJ " .. ~U • - "".....~ . f-~I FINGER .

'" a "... FOUNDATION GARDEN FLAT STAIR-CASE BALCONY BATHING~TUB TAP asaas bustun shaqqat. • ~ .b)6_ ...5 ... e .....J ~L • • ....... '".. ·1 ..~ " ...BUILDING binaayat"""_' HOUSE ROOM DOOR WALL RESIDENCE STOREY KITCHEN BATH·ROOM DINING-ROOM Sn7ING.. '" 1 '" . .. ma'tlaa'u ad-dara] balkoon jarn hammaam hanaliyyah jawaareer kursee farshah qindeel ath:aath: 35 . '-='" l:....... u-tu...J .'b. DRAWERS CHAIR ..." _..."..(. ....... -t'~~ 4........ _. ..P 4....fo ".J.~ .-:... ..:: s r»> J~ ..S . ~~ :..l. ~ COURTmYARO PILLAR finaa·ad..ROOM WINDOW .. ~ fS~ _....J .. k .. !"'4..1 ghurfat hammaam ghurfat'ta 'aam ghurfat juloos ghurfat naum nailfiz:al) 34 (~D_. ~...cl_ a-a. BED LAMP FURNITURE rjJ~~ ... bait 'hujra~ bub 'haa'j't Manzi 'taabiq ma'tbakh ... c>l: :kJ • 4... .. .JJI~ C. _) lJ .. "'S<....I .J ~ .. jl.: .daar Gimaad . lW~~ ~~~.. .ROOM BED..:t.". . . . • .1 '" ~ . .. A t. .. u.1 ...... .... ....9'1...f t ~ .· ~L.V-. . ...

..)~ ~1dt :..~ JL1 "oil .:.. '-r-:.. "" .:. .~ 01 ... ~ J~ ..) . ~ 'GSiLo ...-'Y '" " 4k~ ~ ~ "Z: ~ naar 'ha'tab furn mauqid miqlaa~ qidri 'sahn jaait II ...... FIREWOOD OVEN STOVE PAN POT PLATE DISH ·SAUCER BASIN KNIFE SPOON Lt~~ • CJ--"" ~y .ma·tbakhi FIRE ... DRESS OVER COAT SHIRT TROUSERS HAT.~ !.~ .. 1 ~.. ~ adwaatual.•-'ji G:JJ t~ ... CAP COAT SHAwL SKIRT FROCK BODICE KERCHIEF SHOE th:aub mi'h'taf qamee's izaar burnai'tah sutra~ shaal tannauraJ:1 f... .. JLJ! .-~....... . • II " .. . "... ".." .. malaabis . . ".. ~~ ....~ .. ... I!J... .. '" ~....bL.. II . II-f J-b'z° ....1 .... 01 ~ . .'.J~ 'sahan sagheer ~~ 'tusht sikkeen mUiaq!lh 37 ... ...- )L:o . ........ ~_.o~ .. ...THE DOMESTIC ARTICLES CLOTHES 1 .. " " .. II ...... """~" ..... ~~. ... 01 .cL..)L.ok 'sadra~ mindeel jazmaJ:1 " ...... ".

.... . ... ... ~-..... 0 . .. ... ' ~ _ .:J _4IiI 4>fi WATER MILK EGG MEAT BREAD TEA FISH HONEY WHEAT COFFEE SUGAR OIL rnaa laban bai'clata ra'hn khubz shuy samak 'asal qam'h qahwal..7"" ~. :p.:J t~.saufiyaa bee'Ci maqlee bee'd maslooq shlurabah shaurabat dajaaj il -.. . . ~ "........... ~ .. _..~_. ."'" samak maqlee baaz:injaan 39 J. t.. ...... . ......" oS j:II ...J-: ... "..e JL . C\~4t . ~ .... -ICE CREAM OMLET l"'ij. It ... d.J+' - .t. ~.A :..... "':' -- VEGETABLESsnaurabat.'q '-'~ 1 .""'U" .3 Jt SPINECH SENCE STEW BEANS-STEW FRIED-EGGS BOILED9EGGS SOUP eH'KENS-SOUP ..1 _ ....1~-~ i~ .. D ..c.t'uuu'ta'aam y.".... J -6.~j.G ..u: " ..a -..Ai t::' ~........ . 9~ ·ct:_....f ..w ." ~~ U . It .J? . ...=-:t..: .' ~. ~ .:....~AjI .. .. .... n Deera~ bau'utl 'ijji~ sabaanikh 'saf'sa~ yakhnitl yakhnitfa... khu'dra~ SOUP FRIED9FISH EGG-PLANT ..l slukkar nit 38 ..

J~ ~" .. 'inab teen ·mishmish lauz khaukh 41 ~ zahrab FIG malfoof APRICOT l.... DATE BANANA DRIED DATE ~ tamr burtuqaal rummaan lalmoen .Q·.L..L: ........ t •• " . lIial tUffaa'hah bahlh mauz . r·.:" t ." ORANGE POMEGRANATE LEMON J\::A....ADISH BEETROOT BEET TOMATO· CARROT CUCUM8ER ONION GRAPES CAULifLOWER CABBAGE SPINACH GARLIC .. ... shamandar silq banadaurah ianr khi'yaar .. ) ~ .JA- ..... :.. ~ sabaanikh ALMOND th:oom PLUMS jjJ 40 ... ~ . ba-taa'taa APPLE"':...r'! :..... ·~·:···W I ~ ····U _) ....... ......VEGETABLES ·FRUITS· . " .p·.. ath:maar _) POTATO R.. -: .

CAT HAYENA DOG ~ kalb JIRAFFE ~!...!:J G~ ... . II .4.-it '-......... ~1 " ~~ " . r ~ . - ...... ... ... ... ... baarriyaat HORSE CAMEL SHEEP LAMB (.. .... hayawunaat WILD ANIMALS I " cl. ... rt4 ..... t ... ..... I.... ..)~ jamal ghanam hamal anza~ jaamoos baqarat'himaar th:aur ~ FOX PEER BEAR TIGER LION WOLF MONKEY ELEPHANT SNAKE th:a'ala~ t. ~ .~ ...:. .r'. (' • Q-" .. ....oL..msaa'h dubb namir asad z:i'ib sa'adun reel 'ha)'Ya~ fahd 'dabU'h zaraafat...J) .... J •I" ~~ ~ '" ~..~. ~ PIG khinzeeri LEOPARD J--.~ ..~ C)~ l. ..... .. ~ 43 . til • e GOAT BAFFALO COW DONKEY BULL ..t~w" ~t:.~.. ....JL~. ...... hayawaanaat aleefah J i:!tt ....P ..1"... "... .....DOMESTIC ANIMALS ". e-...........

.. AIR FOREST LIGHT d.. "'" d... ...NATURE BIRDS 'tair~ . ~.. ...1 ~".._. ti~ ..11 . ~p 4S 44 .. ~ "" .L:.1 · .. U' ... ~.-oy..) WORLD SEA SKY SUN MOON CLOUD STAR- 'aa'am r-3~ .... ... nJ VULTURE ~ PARROT . . ""L. J.-.. ..» -....:.. RIVER RAIN ~. ... ".. // HEN COCK DUCK DOVE PEACOCK TURKEY SPARROW SWAN OWL EAGLE dajaajal...... "" . .. ~.I .. .. .-.... ..t deek bu't'tat. .... . ..t:.... ~ .a ·t. ...~ lSJoJ" ...... ~ . ..babbaghaiil'a ~~.. . .• ~.~~ .. ~-'JLb ~ .. 'hamaamal.. neer . . .. ~ ..l i:' ...a bauflla~ nasr 'uqaab .... ...... ..... ..a~oos 'habash dooree baj'al. ...r.. .. ~ ba'hr samaa'a shams qamar sa'haab hukab nahr ma'tar hawaa ghaabae. 0 0' :..? . It " It .

a-4 ""--'" OUTSIDE ~ _.......---". .J? • INSIDE e3-... BACK SIDE BELOW ISLAND DESERT TEMPLE GRAVE MOUNTAIN kaneesa~ qabr jabal 4.- FIELD MOSQUE maidaan masjid sooq mahactotah ma'taar masna"a balad ineerah EAST WEST NORTH SOUTH sharq -4 .·'-r_-_ PLACES amaakin~U DIRECTIONS jihaat~~ ..< .1('-it AROUND RIGHT HAND LEFT HAND DOWNWARD 46 47 .- gharb shimal janoob jawwaa barraa ·zahr ta'hta haul yameen yasaar litahti MARKET STATION AIR· PORT FACTORY COUNTRY Jl~_ ~ I....-.

" .s. w:::lJ . '...J? '4.' DAWN SUNRISE MORNING NOON MID-DAY AFTER-NOON SUNSET EVENING DAY NIGHT TODAY YESTERDAY TOMORROW weEK MONTH YEAR HOUR MINUTe SECOND MOMENT yaum lail alyaum ams ghadan Usb()o'a shahr sanalJ J-...: ...TIME waqtl.. l. "'·.. t •• FORTNIGHT CENTURY saa'ah SOMETIMES daqeeqa~ th:aahiyai) lah6za~ EVERY DAY DAILY 48 ... ni'sf. ....hyaanan kullu yaum yaumee 49 . : tr" r. . . J......A...... al-Iaili fajir shurooq 'sabaa'h 'zuhur nisfu at-naheeri ba'adaa'z-'zuhurl~ ghuroobu ~.. masaa'a usboo'aani qarn i'.......t (R ~" ':'1 ""..~ Y.it _) I ~ .J r....J . - MIDNIGHT .. ~.. ..P. ash-shainsi. irci '" . .'...{ . ...."...ft " ....

. .l.0 .f mu'harramun 'safarun SUNDAY yaumu. "'..1 !J ~ 4··..#11' I J:! TUESDAY }l!:J t rabee'u-I aakiru jumaadiu-I loolaa WEDNESDAY yaumu"..'....jum'ati rama'daanu SATURDAY yaumuos-sabti shawwaalun z:oo-I qa'adati z:oo-I hijiati 50 51 ..ti t"~ .ulaath:a. "'~ .. j':l ..I ".aihadi (I" I~ .I..l-iarba'aa'i junraadiu-Iokhraa THURSDAY yaumu-I-khameesi rajabun shaiabaanun FRIDAY yaumu.ith:naini rabee'u-I awwalu yaumu-th~th:.WEEKDAYS MONTHS OF THE HURl YEAR ayyamu al~asbaufa~JJ ". MONDAY yauli'lu-I.'.J ".

.- J" ~ "..".Ji.) BLUE GREEN azraq ukh'dar 53 ".. It Is used in E~ypt OF ."...:"1 .... .MONTHS ash-shhoral _7: . ~J • ".a 1 .. ~ " . . t_t:." u_. ". .. .'i. ~_... .• . Q4. JANUARY FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER )..J IJ milaadi)'yah~_..!:.'.'" •.anaa'ir SWEET flbraa'ir CLEAN maaris SMALL ibreel STRONG maa)'oo BEAUTIFUL )'ooniyoo GOOD yooli)'oo DIRTY aghas'tus BITTER sibtimbir BLACK uktoobir WHITE naufimbir deesimbir 52 ~~ hulw na'zeef 'sagheer qawi jameel 'saali'h wasikh murr aswad abya'd 4 " ~ 0-" .. ....t .. "... QUALITIES 'sifaat :-tt I..J t .. ~1 ~.1.THE CHRISTIAN YEAR 1... .. ". ~ lSJ-' ...J~~A . •-.." ".:.·__ _".. .)Wr. .. . io'/<.... .->-0 " .jr. 1 "S.....

I.e? ~ . .. . ... " . .. ~ - ........ ..... . ... ........ ~WJ .. .. ..1~ I.."..AJ ~.." .."'. .... mataanah mukhli's saadiq ~~ II_' &.h" " WV-A. LOVING HAPPY CLEVER WISE CHEERFUL GENEROUS MERCIFUL FIRMNESS FAITHFUL TRUTHFUL POLITE . ~............ :. . ~ ... . ~ c •• ".haalia~ kath:eer naafi'a· kabeer 'ateeq Ida'eef ba$hita '~areef ~1 ~t ~ w VIRTUES -"':$. ·S .. fatdaa'il. . "..-~ NICE muhaz:z:ab 55 J~~ -:: ... AG ~~ "".S ~.... ...E COSTLY MANY USEFUL ." "" . " BIG OLD WEAK UGLY . RED YELLOW BROWN COLD NEW a'hmar a'sfar bunnee barw jadeed qalee' ..I KINO " J..... . .. ..... ....--.. lITTl.J " ........ ~ ~Jli...... " ~ ...teef muhib $ataid maahir 'aaqif rnubtahij kareem ratheem ~ ab)~ . ~~ 54 ... 4.

.. "~.. \.. ~.. --:'t...... FOURTY FIFTY ?~t "_"'.. .....l:Z .. TWENTY TWO ith:naani ......:...JI • _.I .... .... . ' .... _ ....P " ...JIII'" ~ ~ J ....: THIRTY th:alaath:oona arba'oona khamsoona sittoona 57 <.. " (.araath.. .J·~I- ..... " 0. . -:"... ..~ .."'. . ....... .... -: ... -:' !~ ~~ .'" Ii "... ..-:...... t ...J~ ~L:.J' ~ . " .... .......~"'~jr~ ".1 ....J__.c:.HTEEN NINTEEN r n... .. ... ~:"\" khamsatu 'ashara sirtaru sab'atu 'ashara "ashar a ..:.~ .. . FIVE SIX SEVEN EIGHT NINE TEN ELEVEN tls'atu 'ashara 'ishroona wa 'ishroona d. c>~C)l:!t ........ .. /lJI" ...i _.::..atu 'ashara ..~)ft ...·~..... . .... al-'adaadu al'saleetu.'. ~~ THIRTEEN FOURTEEN FIFTEEN SIXTEEN SEVENTEEN PI(.. . TwELVE 56 SIXTY r.~_ arba-atu "ash ar a ~·~I ~~ ":-' .. ~f"'. l ~'...:\- " ". • ONE TWO THREE FOUR waahid ith:na'ni th:alaath:ah arba'ah khamsah sittah ~t..)-:.... TWENTY TWE"4TY ONE waa'hdun ~J..........~ ..... . wa 'Ishroona . ~ ..~:....I .o:. /I .THE CARO"INAL NUMBERS ~.." ....!).>Y-':! 5 .::..I ~..... ... ~ " th:amaaniyah tiss'ah 'ashrah a'hda 'ashara .... . ~c. ..!..-"..

khaamis saadis THREE HUNDRED th:alaath:u mi'ah -v~-..~ #"!'..# ""... .. TENTH ELEVENTH TWELFTH $9 haadee 'ashar ~'... . . "'"_:.... I .•:"\ . "j '... ". FOUR HUNDREDarba'au FIVE HUNDRED ONETHpUSAND mi'ah ~L._......a... .. ~. th:aamin ~t TEN THOUSAND TWENT)" THOU ishroom alf .. .. .... ~"" " .. ."it . ~... ott '.. " I THE ORDINA~ HYMBERS .:~ ~> ......... SI"'-TH SEYE~TH EIGHTH NINET'" khamsu mi'ah alf ashratu alaaf " AJ~· » 0:):.....••. I. 4!~ c. th:aanee th:aalith: THIRD FOURTH FIFTH '. .'.. / / al 'adudu '..-' ~~!tn '. .'- ..•........J H.. . . . .~ ... ··········"1 '. .. '.. .' ~ ".......'''''"t .. . .ED AND mi'ah wa TEN 'ashrah TWO HUNDRED mi'ltaani ~:. ~. '..' FIRST SECQND awwal ~.! ' ·~L .•.•..i)'~~u . .~~ t II .ILUON miliyoona 58 ujfCJ-'~ .P... .' " M..Z:' . ...~ .. ". " It! .... \ ? Jjr ~lb A HUNDRED AND mi'ah wa waa'hid~J... ~'ir ir:". . " at-tarit i.. WI Jt ""It~..~~. i.l' ~ r ~.. SAND ONEM......~ 1 "_~. .-=. ~ ". ONE A HUNDR... ~~ ~ ...... ··'~~+W /I.....SEVENTY EIGHTY NINETY HUNPRED ~"'aoona th:amaanoona tislaoona mi'ah 0p~.

. .... 0+ .. LEARN dars kitaab ka... . ~...):J LANGUAGE HOME WORK SENTENCE WORD EXAMINATION E z.. ...I "'~J .huj.. .. . CHAIR 'tabaaseer kursee min'dadah qalam qalam ra'saa's sawaal jawwaab 'alaamaat . TABLE PEN PENCIL QUESTION ANSWER MARKS madrasa~ kull. .. ' .. .J " ... ~_.t:r~t.atu addiraasati 60 II . "...... ~ ·leo.J..(. ... ~... ....... l( A . eel a A .EDUCATION CHALK ) ..... -'J "....~....:.. U'*'... ....ya~ taalib mu'alii m uslaaz: 'ameed .... ..ata'allam lughah far'd jumlah kalimah ~...~L...... '6 ""P ~l:o~~ 12 p:.. .CIPAl LESSON BOOK NOTEBOOK PAPER BLACK-BOARD.. •..JV-o ..:)~t ..raasa'1 waraqa~ sabboorah . A ... J~ y~ QG5~ . ~ .j ~LES . H II' ~L1 ......J ...ROFESSOR PR.< .. ....v 4.t ~ ~ ta'aleem SCHOOL COLLEGE STUDENT TEACHER ... •.. wJ r ~ .. CLASSROOM. .""P ... 1S'_J>! ~ ...... ~ imti'haan 61 (..

.' ". .. . mutarjim 63 ...... _.'" ~~U .. . AGENt mu'sannif u)l.' BUTCHER DRIVER if...) . PROFESSIONS ..JOURNAL .. ~ t!.....t muhandis . > ... POEM qa'seedah qaamoos i~ .fee 'hadeeth: jundee JOURNALIst NEWS WORKER CLERK. / i NEWSPAPER SOLDiER 'siha.. EDiTOR DRAMA ra'ees tahreer tamth:eeleeh 62 --?:~~....[ rntihaimee poet shi'ar LAWYER . ii . . J. . ". WRITER SARBER kaatib hallaaq ~\( ~ . 'si'haafU~ .. DOCTOR SURGEON ENGINEER AUTHOR tRANsLATOR PROSE natti:!" \........ . ......

." _" tjII ~ amraa'd ~ PAIN ACHE WEAK SICK PATIENT HEADACHE COUGH SWELLING WOUND COLD FEVER VOMITING _L. ..P._........."l~ "". "')J -L d.._ 'i! _. . .A ... "" • ~ ~ ~I . .- ~J)cij J~ .POSTMAN NURSE ACTRESS SINGER LIBRARIAN DENTIST AUDITOR DROUGHTSMAN SAILOR PORTER TAILOR POLICEMAN saa'ee al-bareed mumarri'daf:\ mumath:th:ila~ mughannee kutubee ~ W ~I J. ~ - ". ~ DISEASES -IJ ..... _.hlsaabaat rassaam rnallaa'h hammaal khiyaaft shura'ti jaasoos ftabbaakh 64 ..)G.~ ......... .- . ~~4<J!~ . ~ .. ."" • L:.." J.... 111".-. ~ c..-.. .... :'... .... r ..b c.....:J l... 'tabeeb asnaan muda~qiq . " C:-J . ... .......... . til .P Spy COOK ~~L.. " . Ir . ~~ V_v...~ • ' 4 alam waja'a 'da'eef maree'd 'ateel waja'a raas su'aal tawarrum iurfh zukaam humma taqai'u 65 ' ~t . (.. l' -~ " ..._.. ..... t ..b~ ~~ J~ r. .._':' .... .. .L:: ..... lit t~ ic:_.. c.~ .. r . ..

/I . ~ raas maal faayda.". PARTNIR PARTNERSHIP barqi>. musaahim tiiaaifl:i~.._ ' ..... MAIL TELEGRAM ACCOUNT ~--t.J. W~ .. l .¥t) ~...J MoNEY 'itrila~ ... . TAX BANK POST.COMMERCIAL SHARE HOLDER CAPITAL PROFIT LOSS DISCOUNT .. -e >» " "C --: .. .a~ 'hisaab 67 .. ... khasaara~ 'hasm dakhl rib'h ta'sdeer taurC!!ed 'dareebah ma'sreef bareed naqdal1 AMoUNt mabfagh cost ..J \. . ~ r' " ~...jJ .. VALUE th:aman ..- 'at" INCOME INtEREST EXPORT .....~ :0-:"". sALE PURCHASE COMPANY $harika~ shareeka~ ishtrraak sahtri 66 IMPORt ~.. # . ...- . .

I~ £ • ...J. d .. ... -.. ...........' raasmaaliya~ qaba'da taameem dimuqraa'tiya isti'amaar "'-'_l"" It?.." It j~~t.." t...a~£ .. '*' ~ ~ .-"....) ~ "" ......J ...... . jamhooriya~ ishtiraa kiya~ J..... CONFERENCE INTERNATIONAL LAW VISA PASSPORT REPUBLIC y.. ff' ~ .lfJ.. ~ U~" . ... . r . ......- .~ .P "" ·"''':'b ~ .'" " . II ... . SOCIALISM CAPITALISM ARREST NATIONALIZATION DEMOCRACY COLONIALISM ->:_)..J ~... ~ ra'ees ra'ees wazaran_ ....# ~. M~~ ~j... ~ ... majlees wazaranUJ. _ ..11 . ~ " .:)jJ 1£ .:lo ~ PLANNING 'aamm malik 'alam majlees nawaab'-J!... . 4S£~l "" . ~.. .......J . BUDGET meezaaniya~ takh'tee't muwtamar duwalee qaanoon taasheera~ jawaazu as+safar ~ PUBLIC KING FLAG PARLIAMENT CABINET PRESIDENT PRIME MINISTER MINISTRY MINISTER NATION COUNTRY MUNICIPALITY wt. .). '" 69 ... j:!njG. . ....... ". II wizaara~ wazeer qaum balad baladiya~ 68 ~~ . II ..:: ......." ..'" ... 'l5 .J I . /1...... _p ".. r"" U:i ....GOVERNMENT hukooma~...1 . .1 ".. ...

"a mll'~I...Jt ~.'.. Nf. . ()N~ABOVE ABOVE ~ fauqa WHY limaaz:aa O1ataa WITH ~Y. 0:t . W:HI~(f) ARE? .... .....kill!.WITH rnin bi ladai wa .~ " . .......I""" ...(.. '-/t~''''''''f . " . -'.....~~ \. NO .~ " . "''''''........\.INTERROGATIVE ·l ~~waatuna""istifaamu WHP man maa r'61._ AT .... ..' HQWMANY .qan 71 70 . p ~ J . ~:s . 1"" WHATTHfNc::.. "".VER laa.....") " ."..

. bata'd ...:'-. • .P jumlaatun kalirnati fa'alat .. .NOW HERE THERE UNLESS VERY SOMETIMES SOME NEAR <LATE OUT SINCE BEFORE AfTER BETWEEN .... . . qurb mutaakhir khaariian munzzu amaam ba'ada SHE DOES.. 1""" .. YOU HEARD...(f) WE WERE.. HE WROTE.allaan hunaa hunaaka rnaalam 6~1 .-~~~-o~ if OF ONE WORD . ~ I LOVE YOU.. OUR BOYS....::.. THIRD PART SENTENCES t:t~ ~La SHE DID.....J.. .. kunnaa aulaadunaa 73 .. .. HE DRINKS.w ~ baina 72 6 .. ahabbaka kataba taf'alu yashrabu ~t1!Oo .. if ..P "L . . "" jiddan YOU ARE WRITING taktubu ihyaanan ..t9' .

. al-ghurfatu kabeeratun THE BREAD IS MINE..SENTENCES OF TWO WORDS .'". roshanaaraa baasimatun is A BOOK.! .. anna araaka ANEW BOOK.. al-khubzu lee I HAVE MONEY. z:aalika qirdun 74 al-'ajalatu jadeedatun 75 . an'taqu bi a's-'sidqi THE SUN IS RISING. anaa wafadun YOU ARE SMALL.. z:aalika kalbun I SEE YOU.. .. haa z:aa ustaaz:un I AM A BOY. taali'atun THE ROOM IS BIG... "aindee fuloosun... I WRITE WITH MY PEN. r·· ~ aktubu bi qalamee I HE DID NOT GO. .j I! I I GO IN THE MORNING . :'! IT IS A CAMEL. maa z:ahab SPEAK THE TRUTH. ash-shamsu antaa sagheerun THAT IS A DOG. . THE BICYCLE IS NEW. kitaabun jadeedun THAT IS A MONKEY.. haaz:aa kitaabun HE IS.i I : az:habu sabaahan ROSHANARA haaz:aa jamalun IT IS SMILING. -~~-. t .~. A TEACHER.. .

L.._ YOUSMOKEDACIGARETTE~t.. ~......!j.....SENTENC&S OF THREE WORDS ~ .....D WITH HER.. ~.. . .. ~. huwa ja'afa yamshee . h~1 ~ .. ...... ...A fp~'" fp._t-&AJr y_"!'l ...I -tP [umlaatu kalimaatin~~" I AM DRINKING COFFEE.. ~jJ.....>" . " l:: . hun "a katabna ilainaa THE STAR IS SHINING.. anaa kuntu fee al-mahattati SHELISTENEDTOMYTALK~)o anaa aatin ilaika SHE WAStN THE HOUSE. :.. .~ :S_j.....~"" ~t huwa yashtaree kitaaban I AGREf. ..." ...I@' WHERE DOESTHEBOYLlVE1~)r ~ alna yaskunu al-waladu I WASIN THE STATION -~ 1\ ~J (.1 ..~ I(' ! t J :: _u hiya sami'at kalaami WE DRINK TEA - L..J' . r~ I ATE A SWEET 'ORANGE....... L!. ..... huwa z:ahaba amsi HE IS BUYING A BOOK... " _ ... !~ ' -? .... J . .~ ' .....I " .....-~ -:.....' na'hnu nashribu shaa'yan HE WENT YESTERDAY. I~r... akaltu burtuqaalatnan HE BEGAN TO WALK. u--:-~ .:.....' ~-.... .. .. -l... .-~li. ~_:!j :.t r af-kaukabu laami'un 76 anaa rajulun khaaiifun 71 . !!.....~ _ ~IJJ J.. anta sharibta seejaaratan THEY WROTE TO US.... .A.... huwa saa'I af-bareedu I WilL COME TO YOU... t. - al-qalamu alaa al-maktabi HE IS A POST-MAN...t (V" ....\-.~~"''''' -........_i~ aJlZ~ ~t :....../.i. ~ '. ...J ".. '" \-... " .. . --~~ .... hulwatan _ ~ ashrabu al-qahwatu THE PENIS ON THE TA~lE. anaa wafaqtu ma'ahaa I AM A FRIGHTENED MAN.....J l:. hiya kaanat fee ad-daari SHE WRITES A LETTER...f ..:s . -~.. .. hiya taktubu maktooban '9._. .

.."_"' t..~ ~ ARE YOU THIRSTY? a anta 'a'tshaanun HOW IS YOUR HEALTH? kaifa si'h' hataka HERE IS YOUR BOOK 1 ~ CJlt be ~f j 9 . .. ...... . _ f-:"' .. ~ -...'-=" . man yu'allimuka WHEN DO YOU PLAY 1 mataa taloabu ayyu shayan fee yadihaa 79 WHAT IS IN HER HAND? q \A(. -... man huwa hunaaka HOW IS HE? kaifa huwa WHAT IS YOUR NAME? 'aina kitaabuka ARE YOU A TEACHER? a anta ustaaz:un WHO TEACHES YOU? maa iasmuka WHAT IS YOUR AGE? kam 'umruka WHERE DO YOU LIVE? aina taskunu WHA T DO YOU LEARN? 1~~rs i~~T ..... ".... t maaz~a tata'alJamu 78 ..)............:~1 ..... WHAT DID HE DRINK? maaz:aa shariba DO YOU HAVE A PEN? hal 'indaka qalamun WHAT DO YOUREAD? WHO IS HE? man huwa WHAT IS THAT? maa z:aalika WHO ARE YOU? man anta WHO IS·THERE? maaz:aa taqra'u Ii ....1_ r .. Jum'aatu istifhaameeti"...... ~. . II ? .~i ~ ... / • ... 61~:...H"_P'\o"i?_ I~ ~/... p:..INTERROGATIVE • SENTENCES .

widaa'an 80 as-saa'atu wa khal1'lsunwa qaa'iqun 81 ~L:. kami saa'atuka IT IS ONE O·CLOCK." i~b ~L:Jt "" "" ""...)~J a.. t~ I .. ~ II 'II~'Sl i~l-.. as.. .yati ~ GOOD MORNING.."..J....I .. ".' :::'\ :.I""!P IT IS QUARTER PASTONE. kami as-saa 'atu al-Iaana WHAT TIME IS IT? masaa'a al-khairi GOOD AFTERNOON.GREETINGS .saa'atu wa~hidatun IT IS TWO O'CLOCK.. ..'. 1M ·THE CLOCK fee at tahi..rt r>..it ... ~ as-saa'atuL. i~l" ~L:.J t ::...." . . l IT IS HALF PAST ONE.(' ""'Woio" ~ .~. ..n .. 'sabaa'h af-khairi GOOD EVENING.~ as-saa'atu wa a'hidatun aUaa rab'un.J ba k haaet iri ka GOOD LUCK. WHAT IS THE TIME NOW? L.. IT IS QUARTER TOONE. 'taaba yaumukum GOOD NIGHT.. ha'z'zan sa'eedan LET US MEET AGAIN.. "' .._.:.J.. ITIS 5 MTS PAST NINE....... ""...i'...~ .P. as-saa'atu ith:nataani ~JI..... ila al-liqaa CHEER YOU... ~.....I. '" ..... as-~aa'atu waa'hidatun wa ni'sfun ~!i ""....."_... as-ua'atu waahitun wa rub'un fill . ~L:Jt ~\.....n 9 . 'taaba lailatukum GOOD BYE. kaml ai-waqtu WHAT IS YOUR TIME! ass'ad allah auqaatakum GOOD DAY... .

...:. haaz:ihi faakihatuka The sbort vowels are normally not written in the Arabic script except in the Ouran. ..)~ .!)WI ~~ "" """ . ..I ... ~~ 9" .. aHiflu naamin LAlLA IS BEAUTlfU L.>:! . ~~..". ~t kataba surendar THE CROW IS ON A TREE.J . jI . al-baitu kabeerun.. .~!~. .. 9""" ....P .... /I J ..1 . _ iz:hab khaarijan t. ~ . kaana 'indahaa kitaabun......IS IS 14.......shariba .......L.... /1 ..l( .... hum ikhwatun YOU HAVE HANDKERCHIEf~~ 'indaka mindeelun SHE HAD -. al-waladu kaatibun ~yWJ' . ....\i~if ~~ . ~ . ".. "-" •... NEW TABLE......FOR READING PRACTICE 9 THE CARPENTER IS WORKING. A BOOK... .. minfa'dlika Note..e~'" . al... haaz:aa tifluka 83 should try to read Arabic without the help of vow~l signs 82 . . ". ~..:......WI (. .. _ \.. H..""" THE CHILD IS SLEEPING. 9 :'l""1--: .~.. al 'hi'saanu al-maa'a """ WHAT DOES HE WANT? maaz:aa yureedu PLEASE GO· OUT..'ilmu noorun SHE IS MISS ROSHAN...... ~4A.... 1f~L... _~..." an -najjaar"U 'aamUun SURENDAR _ WROTE... l THE HOUSE IS BIG.....So the learner short THIS FRUIT IS YOURS. T...'" ... t \. -~ al-ghuraabu 'alaa lhajratin ~ THE BOY IS WRITING.. IT IS YOUR CHILD. b'~ "" ..~ haaz:ihi maacidatun jadeedatun THEY ARE BROTHERS.. lailaa jameelatun KNOWLEDGE IS LIGHT.. !lira aanisah roshan THE HORSE DRANK THE WATER.. 10 "" " .

... J1 ""'It ....A...1 ...... "I " .-...# The ground al. . LET US.:Jt A sky samaa-un . The pen al-qalamu pi A pen qalamun ~!.. .I ...'_ • . ... ~ wR ...:J~ ~\ .. A man rajuiun ..I'" "'" FOURTH PART DEFINITE ~ ~ t:J(~1 P'." "• tl I.. " .~ ..r:.I .. "'" ...I"".... . . " ..HIl.L.!:..sJ1 c. .... ~t • . '" ~... ARTltlE Indefinite WHERE HAVE YOU .. fI MAHMOOD IS SPEAKING. yatakallamu mahmoodun ~_......... " ........ GO· hayaa binaa WHERE SHALL WE GO? aina sanaz:habu WHAT IS TODAY? ~ 8: 1 A ~ Definite The house al baitu 14wJ~f .maidaanu C"~r ..M 1. COME ON.... A ground maidaanun (............ A book kltaabua ..l:! . .!c\JJj t 84 "" ... " .....~ maa al youmu I AM NOT HUNGRY... " . _.J Z. .. qui lahu fi al-'anbiyri jidda" ... I· .! t .. 85 ..~~~<... haazsaa kath:eerUD TELL HIM IN ARABIC.....~...eEN? . . .. " The man ar.I " . .I " . .. . . " .... .. " .. ....~ +... II .....L... ...« The book al-kltaabu ~~r ... ~ The child a't·'tlftu ~H . ..'ff- .. A child The girl al-bintu . anaa lastu jaa'i 'un THIS IS TOO MUCH.. • ~ ~ 8l'~ :..... II. ".rajulu ~T .X-w C>. The sky as-samaa'u .... 'Ufton A girl bintun ~ !P . ...... ...JGt e~""1 I~. " ·~I·W .. ahlan wa sahlan WHY SO LATE? Hmaaz:aa mutaa 'akhkhir.. A house baltun ~ ff c... aina kunta YOU ARE WELCOME.....

. It e. and isassimUated the 'I' with the The beautiful girl. e.. beginning with Sun Letter.aree tun al-klraabu 86 87 .\o:' I A new table.I ADJECTIVE 4..z ~~t at . . 3.."..). ·Thebig '" al-kabeeru The Indefinite ~t I •. Note . J. maa'idatun jadeedatun (b) Others are MOODletters.baitu a's .. The boy al-waladu £.. g..&el!:ve ~ MoOD Letter'!' is pronounced as it is. ' is placed The small house..wasikhu The book ~ _.. Is no sign for Indeti nite article in Arabic. baJadun kabeerun 1. 1..maa·u al. ). town baladun ~ • A good boy .. v"~.IJ. al.. al-waladu a't.~sagheeru over the Sun Letter. The good boy. e.u. al.j. The Arabic letters are divided inw Sun.~ i tct:. A noun or an a4jectlve Sun Letter. . The dirty water... (a) The Dentals are Sun LeUers. imraatun 'l. g. The man ar-rajulu (not al.bintu al~jameelatu of thfo!'aI' is changed in pronunciation Is proDoQnced twice and a 'saddab' . .It . Letters and Moon Letters. A beautiful girl." waladun c..rajulu) 4. waladun tayyabun """/1' A boy .The town al-batadu J:Qf vJ_.~-:. g.. al. A nice woman. The definite article '''II' is prefixed to a Doun or adjective end with a single vowelmark-enly.tayyabt: (:. bintun jameelatun There nouns and adjectives end with 'un'. is andthey JJ r ~ Uu t t The book : al-kttaabu A big city.

lalla jameelatun A thirsty dog... 'It. ba-eedun The small boy.. g: !P.. ·z:akiyyatu THE NOM I NAL SENTENCES The cord milk.. e.ii' .. The adjective agrees in gender.... al-Iabanu al-baaridu The boy is good.JvJ_. . !I . al-bintu azr.. Subject adjective + noun + u definite + un ~ Nominal Sentence 88 -.. In Arabic the adjective comes after the noun..... !- ."'~ "" .. masculine or feminine. al-waJadoona ~ as 'E'agheel't7. -e al-waladu as-sagheeru The small boys. ash-ahaayu alhaurr u lailais beautiful. indefinite 89 . The ·servant is sincere.joo'aanatu.. kalbun 'a'tshaanun GodJs merciful.J. The market is far. i~lc. ar~rajuloonu at.The intelligent girl. . singular... al -bintu aa-sagheeratu . al-khaadimu mukhllsun The student is present..~.1. waJadun sagheerun as-sooqu a't -·taalibu haazdrun The house·is big. al-Iaahu raheemun The hungry men. al-baqratn qareebatun Predicate Its al adJective sh()uld be feininine • "".hen the noun qualified Is plural..I" A" The small girl . A good boy ~~ e~ ~ waladun tayyabun 2. 1..4n ~. al-waladu tayyabun The hot tea..It 1.. al-baltu kabeerun and definiteness of the noun.l'''''''' The cow is near..case A smal! boy.

al·kbaadimu 'aamllun This cow. haaz:aa al-kUaabu The bicycle .. ....6" Tbat·' J.tbi baqratun Theknowledl~ is light. al ~waJadutayy i'bun That table.6...1.. its subject e.\. tJlb _~~G~ . This. 9' . ·. 1M 't THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS This book..u.... al-blntutayy i batun 3.. . :the.\ .s a book. .8entencewhlcb begfnswith 2. This This Masculine:.. Q't-'tulaabu kaatiboona.g.·~·IoJ· l' ". 90 (a) Peenoun al+noun (b) Pronoan +u Adjectival Pronominal nOun+un = Demonstrative Sentence.).::.. haaz.i~W'~Jl!. arewr. .." .ls called Nominal Sentence.5 big. z:aaUka 'hlsaanun .. The students.I". .. tilka al-mea'Idatu .. . ul. kabeerun This isa cow. pond·. . 1c.. Thepredicatechanlles according That is a horse. ... z:aalika al-'hlsaanu noun.barkat . rheboyisg4J... Feminine: I.The child is s'e~ping~ a't··tifJu naa-Imun .. haaz:lbl aI-baqratu The... .5 new" al·'ajlliatu jadeedatun .)d.. al-waladoona tayyiboona Tbllgirlis good.ting. .. al-'Urnu nool"un That horse..g.. to the number and gender of .r-. __ ..ir·"~" The boys are goud...". The servant is Ylorking.. "" .... haaz.aa baa:r. I.:lhl = Demonstrative • f maa'jdatuD. ".' •"...'I • _ '-'."" • " .6 .... haaz:aa kltaabun _'-I UL:5'. Generally the subject would be definUe and the pred'icate Indefinite e..". ~~' '.A. 9 f't:'~ .. That is a table. tilka SentenCe. VWII.

J .. e. haazeaa qalamun t. Teacher mU.... .. rooh-seul et~·' "92· 93 ...~ Male.. (4' Some DOUDS are f~mi~'lne althoullh there is no justification. S~e~rot~'·'···· Katabat .1 I Brother akhun tr··· !I ... baal". He wrote • ... sinllular AU broken adj~cUves. haaz:lhl baqratun mU'alllmatun 1.: ' . . snoq..house. .generally ends wlth'~' are feminine SioQuIar.. 'aYDun .l1.. "1~"". III Girl blntun waladun (She) This is a woman..child T~is is a pen. katabat seetaa . . take feminine The wish man..'T.. shams. ~I ukhtun Ii 11.l. haazdh] irnra-atun That is a male child z:aalikasabiyyun F~m~lechild ..GENDER FEMININE MASCULINE (He) This is a man.. kataba ..sun.allimtin This 'is a cow.ll. market. 'sablyyat"n Male. ar·raJulu al~'luiqilu e. haazsaa rajntun -~.. 1I~ ~ . JI d. ...eye .'I' .he femi~in~.".. trian rljai!lunkabeeratun.) f ~t aketat '..qadamun . so they..servant khaadimatun khalldlmun That is a SChool..' . ~ H .. The parts of the body which occur in pairs are feminine... plurals "".<" Jb..noitn 2.\~~? • z:aalika maktabun Ram wrote . kataba raam Heate akala Sita wrote.foot " ~ Il' Big 3. 0 U4 .

..NUMBER -SINGULAR The girl is. az.' The teacher is advising. ~~ not written in the Arabic script except books.n +aIif+ noun +~ + +~ above the letter.Two beaqtiful women...tat I j:f beautiful fJower.:Jt..Jj "'.._) ~ J~ .. The boy is writing.int is working..See~a is sitting.. "This woman. al-ustaazsu naa'sibun The two ·t...cil. ThesurtiXo~ dual Is 'uni' gentler (alif+~o6n+ka~ra.J naa-Lmun .¥1 .. The vowels are normally In the Qurao and cblldren's 'fatbah'.-zbru jameeJatun •. baaz. .khaadimaani are working 'aamilaani ... ..)t.. khaadimun 'aamUun ·:r"'etwoservants a) . and predicate (verb) of the sllDject shOUld 94 agree with subject: in l'espkt of number .The two gir. . al ·ustaaz:aanl naaslhaanl '" . .:.plural .aa rajulun -tL?-J -~t-.·\. the stroke 2. al waladaanl 'kaaUbBani The baby ~\<~\e .. " ..~)l.g Twogirb Two doys 3. se¢ma)aalislltun.t ....smiJif'll· aJ¥~.__ i~sleeping. _.. Tne adjective i.es are sleeping.al·blntBanibaasimataani -CJ·~'L c.q~ti. ~1v... ha. 95 . Theyaresin~ular.in d ualand . ...ntubaasjmatun DUAL .and . 'kasrah . .... al-waladu kaatlbun The two boys are writing.. +no:o. ..eachersare advisingq~t. .. imra'ataanl jameelataanl '. ..:. \-:...it:t.."j . -':''"'--11'" ~. so hereafter we shall be omitlng These two men.:-. haliz:aanl rajulaaui I. '.lbfimra'atun Arable. !-r j. a't¥'tafJaanlnaa'inlaani a't"'tiflu .h) in b6tb -E-- e.sare smiling.:.gender. There are three numbers. A'serv..J . The ctwobab. '" + CJ + + OJ.

r (JI~ antunna niswatun He is Mr Hameed. al-binaatu baaslmaatu INDEPENDENT PRONOUN I am a man.. kutubun· men ~ajaalun e. haawulaa'Lrtjaalun We are women. baqraatun '2.li ". plurill are those. anti imra'aitun (h) 10 feminine 'aar' (alif + taj Is to beaddedas suffix. alif +noon + wasw . . which do not take 'ouoa' as suffix.. aotum djaaluo W. + ooou+alif) You are men. nohnu rijsslun These men. .. anta rajnInn They are brothers. .g.0: fj You are a woman.'. hum ikhwatuo 1 (a) The suffix of regular ill the mascullnegeiJder. Beautiful flowers."'. ajhaarun jameelaatun We are men.rlter8 kaatiboona . Irregular ~+ + You are women.antumaa plural Is '00011' raj ulaani (waa".t\ The boys are writing.PLURAL The girls are smiling.. ·P:.. You two are women. anaa rajulun ~ .. book kitaabun man.) l:..•. aetumaatmraataent + alif I cows.I"l? t \:)~ I + ~ + ~+ c. rajulun ~t=. books.96 I.' j". nahnu iJ!swatun These women • haawalaa-I nlsaa-un You are a man. ta e. You two are men . al-waladoona ka:at~boona am a woman. . huwa as-sayyadhaatnid ~_) ~ 97 .:.g.k· j ~'t.~.! U _'.

. ~.~A ' _~~ V· . hlya mulllarrJ'datuD The girl·wrOte .):. Jluwa rajulun . kataba TheT two . blya aanlsab i'OSUO 'Thel'ellder8.b~iW . 4.ar·e. The past negative.a man. The verb cil. In the Verbal Sentence person singular.'. humaa Imra'ataanl '. . 3...s J.TENse THE V~~aAL SENTENCES He .1. 2.~ ".uwa kblyaa~tull tbe verb always be in the tbird She is Miss Roshan.men..wrote.Bnta mU'sawwlrun She did not go. . maakataba You are a photographer • . maa z:ababat 1. A sentence._(' She is a nurse. They two are women. Is caUedthe Verbal Heisa tailor.. ' huno iswatun 'She wrote. is formed by adding 'maa' tense. .. 7fte)' are men.The boys wrote. . katabat al-bintu J ama merch~nt.. to the past 99 . .anges according EO tbe gender of the subject.advisednt)lIob~therabout ~be duals It is l!lough to use tbe plural where the dual .hUm njaalun A boy wrote.. which begins with a verb Sentence.should be used.* " .A kataba al. kataba waladun Shelsa.i'I"'.waladu ~. :humaa.>-oi .PA$T. . kataba al~wildaani They are women. anllataBjirun He did not write. · . woman. b. katabat ~ xr: .rajulaanj _'~ ..Cl.Heis.

~ r Attached Pronouns (suffix) Possessive & Objective SINGULAR ... it she.. you 'your. it you . al-blnaatu katabna . The boy wrote ...I . He did 2.!J you (f) ..1 your. 2.. them their. they a ~ humaa 1.. 3.Nominative with verb Pronouns The boys wrote. you (f)~1 . The rst and the third letters have Fathah ( . The . he. 't'" ~ ya yl -' l!.. .. . her.you (f) my. )0J" SUkun(. Jj. al-waladaanl kataboo _.. him. abun dakhala ..". ~ --. . The servant drank.. it ~ bu he... tu ! ~I - . . me (m&f) in nee .s~ a :!l you ka ti Ci... . hiya at The two teachers went.. its.P)...~ I anaa anti number. with the vreb acC()l"dIng to Its person.1.. . e-' ~ fahala saml'a kabura ~ humaa they (f) 101 \j taa they{f) . it she. The Arabic verbs are In tbree letters... e. it . ) while the second letter may have fathah(" 11 DUAL (two) their.sufflx Is to be added number andgender. He grew :t... it ~ haa 0' . its.J 100 .al-waladu kataba . anta '.··rAST TENSE THE NO~nNALSENTENCES ATTACHED PRONOUNS A boy wrote.... them (f) ~ humaa or Kasrah ( . _~.._. waladun kataba -~ClJ_" .. ~ buwa The girls wrote. . ·at·khaadlmu sharfba .. He heard 3...~U. his.1' hurnaa . .. ki ~ .ahabaa ta Father entered.g. al-musalltmaanl z. In Nominal gender:alld Sentence the verb must agree with his· subject . her..~t:!.

· them their. TENS Possessive &Object.. They' wrote (f) You wrote You wrote (f) ". ~.they hum· ""I I~. you katabtn ~ . There Is no neuter gender in ArabIc. katabtl antumaa She wrote. Duals are some in masculine and feminine.CONJUGATION: OF THE PAST. e· _" your. you (f) kunoa tuooa autunna .I _ .-:'1" • . Vou wrote.. ·z.. kataba katabat katabta . ~. We wrote 3.. we naa " . ~. your. ". nllllnu katahtunna kataboaa 1.t~"t"" ~ ..they (f)~ tWo wrote (f) katabataa katahtuma'\ You two wrote( m&f) PLURAL ~:::r . They Wrote.. them (f) your. You wrote(f) i wrote..J . you kumaa . you (f) CJ yOU(f) kumall PLURAL their. they (f) 1. ". the first person there is no diffef'ance of gender. us (m & f) G we naa t.ye your..! DUAL They two wrote They katabaa ~ hllna . kataboo katabna katabtum our.they 00 " ..1.:). Ill. 102 .J1 tumaa Nominatiye with yer~ Pronouns SINGULAR He wrote..

nasarathunna We struck them 'darabnaahum I know her.THE OBJECTIVE CASE I saw her..:r- ~ ~ They two struck them. -kataba wrote.:: ta you + "". katabtumaa You struck them. + of' .~.s't~'taa'i'ri past "" l. katabahu ansa raytubaa She loved him.. ~ I married her.~:£ iJa 'durabti nile She strucK me.... struck them . nile n'!e + 104 ti she + -daraba str-uch 105 8 .J1-''' -.:S .. ~? - haa her -+- . 'araftubum Wesi:rllck her -darabnaahaa . She helped you.. -darabtuhu _~ ..under ..j' He heard the sound of the bfrd~ sami's 'SlWta\. hlya habbatba Hf! 'Vitate to you.objective case. bum az: anuwaahnmaa • .. _~~~t ~ 'darabtuhum She wrote to her.' """r'.A ~"J~ They wrote to us.. anaa tazawwa'btuhaa They Permitted them . 'sarabaahumaa + + ~! 'oj b Dative case comes. huuna katabna llaynaa She struck me 'darabtanee suffix of oliljective+suffi'L of Nominative+~ert-in katabtahaa You wrote her ..~... . -darabtahum _\~!.. He wrote to him.. katabolka I struck him.bjl ~~:. 4..

kltaabuhu -i::.w . {. nahou eaml'anaa kalaamahu ~ My father·sbicycle.~'" ~b '..···~LA -r~~U. book • kitaabuhum You smoked at cigarete. al-watadu' qah'i'aa quraaoan . haaz:aa kltaabu waladiu .P ~.P .! # He closed the windows aghlaqa an-Dawaaflda ~ This is a bqokof a tao)'. 1.010. kutubuhu . abka .her. The object ends iD objective case that is in . -iii The boy red the Quran.taabuhumaa Did you drink tea? bal sharlbtum sbaayan ~ • Th~ir. but when I t is Narayan's letter rasaalatu Daaraayaoln 1'06 101 .-- I wrote a letter...4._" -+Af'.THE OBJECT THE POSSESSIVE CASE The man wrote a book.6 'ajalah' abln The servant of our house.--.. .. baltunas'u al-khaadlml -lH'·. . 'tabakhat samakan 4'1 -. ) a. She cooked fish.". It bellins with '1II'It chaogeinto ( . anta shari"ta seejaaratan· Her. akalat I'll blotu as ·safaa' hata Your fat.- His books.~t~~. ki.. • . qalamuhaa The girl ate the apple. anaa katabtu maktuban Of thoset'#lQ men's book.+.... . ar-raJulu ka!abu kitaaban His book.. pen.. We listened to his talk.'" .: '.\--.

fee nllbrln . blntu ~bobaalin THE PREPOSITIONS The house. ~ Possessive al-waladl Sentence.. ~ L " Thenan'le of the boy. hi'saanu ar-rajuli from a pond.. ismu al-waladl _yJ)t ~! On the camel. kitaabu al-waladi 0JJ~~bS '" t.. 108 109 . al-baltu A bookef a boy. i!f1B as -sooql Theteac:her of the school. ka al-ghuraab! Abd"dlah's shop: dukkaanu 'abduUahin In a river .1n+u ~1+ri~~n{POSsestive) kltaab-l-u al+walad+l~kit.Gopal's daughter. sentence. t.Lt.mbu or noun+u kitaab+u noun+in walad-l-In (Possessive)=possesive e kttaabu waladln * . "'" fee al-balti . uslaaz:u al-madra~ahi for the house.~\ .=. waladu naatlmt As the cro_w. '/ case.. . Ii al.. will also be omitted...". kitaabu waladln The book of the boy. ma'a al-waladt son. Itions is the noun ends In lor in are In ttoe possessive .t . ha Ina" l...hi'saanl Ttlehorse of the man.!I'" • In the house.jamali To the market... saahibu al. no1..'Uml Hatim's With n the boy. min blrkatin therrian of learning. Nouns followed by prepo .hat t Hereafter the Kasrllh' " 'aadDam rna h .

~."" i ~~ He writes/Will write. You (will) write.. noun+in .nouo+ ve +1 in+ noun. DUAL aktubu fI~Cisin ~~e-new house.J . They two (will) write.waladi. "...: . ."" j . . You two (will) write. You (will) write (f) I (shall) write. flf-!r~ T'h~boat :'. .P_'Y. (f) . haaz:aa Ii-ra] ulin kabeerin.(f) write.t.. -- •• lit ~.. . • "" bt She wrote about the boy.( f) yaktubaani taktubaant taktubaanl al._: :. kataba bi al." IiZ:l'autaqu :' fee an-nahrtn . is in the river. faisal fee at-balt! . : .. . katabat 'an They two (will) write.~ .) .::' ~:~ I came with Salaami.11.. She writes/Will write.. You yaktubna iti+adjective < taktuboona 'aluJama)+in ka"beer+ln . _M.t. yaktubu tak~ubu taktubu Ht! ¥frot~ with It'is a pen.w. PLURAL They (wilt) write....prepoattton They (will) write. al'aJama~io kabeerio -ataa al-jamali al_kabeeri (wiU)wl"ite. ~t . .. .+ • ..:!. it .. You (will) write.(. FaiSir is in the house. .qalamin fo"ibig man. adjective-l-In i al-adjecti "<:J~ .4 _\ '. "'.~ . z:(lhabat ilaa al fasli CONJUGATION SINGULAR OF THE PRESENT & PAST TENSES 4.~.She went to thedass.preposition+ preposition +al. ataltu pi -salaami :.....c .. '~".: . III taktubna We (shan) naktubu 110 • ." .. anaa fee al-baiti al-jadeedi w~1 ...

.:}i +"\1"+ . . The prefh:: denotes the number-and gender... Where do you live? aina taskunu i(shall) go." ... I wrife my lesson aktabu darsea _.. They two ~o 0 +V+ +v+ - ~~+V+ ":! '-:! oJ ':'!. He writs 2.. I (shall) eat. J Verb + Preflx Plural.p" .. You (wiil)eat.+V+ 1:1. He knowsjwill know. . I (shall) know .... ~1+Verb+. / 9. I 0" + + ~ / ~ /' /1.tiVerb+ ....fwill know. .. tllz:iulbu ~LA. We (shall) drink. .. I drink coffee. 3rd Dual The vowel sillgs in the present and future tenses are as ~Iven below.r&.. I know a'arilu ~._. 1 I fearn Arabic.::. .::* 1'# ~ +V+ ~ c1I+V+ ..J -'+Verb+. rasrahabaan! . az:babu -~31 (.. -W~ ..." ~. What do you learn'r maazeaa tat'allamu . .U.~. • . . They (will) do. Suffix denotes the peI'1l0. ~ ":! masculine . ....+V+ ._jt~ . You (will) go._. .~_} Oklo! *' .:. .P. She knows. femiqme o=J maSCUline . ··Gender The suffixes and prefixes PIilr8on..:! 6... .. Suffix + .. ~. nashrabu ~y~ ~ 'I - What do you do now? maaz:aa ta-amatu al-aana taa'akulu _~~\5 akufu -~... askunu fee madraasin ya'arilu ta'arilu ~. ashrabu al-qahwatu are as given below. ar-attamu al-'arablyyota ? .) 2n_ yaktubu.p .t.D...:t feminhie . 3. 1.Aead the following..9 +v+ i t. ... ~.1 e.9 .m&f 112 113 . a'arilu ya'amaloona 1'" . ..:" ...

ka . . "indllhu qameesun i shall go in the morning...." (5\J:~ ..11 (--:at ~~ ~.. ) sayaktubu al-waladu _ CU.. .. . lUll satata'allamu tL..~ t.. sauta yaktubu al-waladu HAVE _OJ.for Distant 'sa' is used for 'Near future' and' . ~ . 'indllnaa . ).). _.. kaana 'indaee fuloOSLlI1 They have a lantern. - 'inda 114 ItS .... J.f. !lUI you read.n theevenjng?~ .. saufs taqra'u kitaaban 'indakum 1 have. You have (s) You You 'indabu The boy will write (n. 'J We have. ... They have. .f.. ... He has.b masaa'an He has a shirt..l1 ~..NEAR FUTURE &:DISTANTFUTUilE The boy will write ( d.) have. blyllsaufa taktubu maktoobsn is' used . " ..I will write with the pencil... ..... a means'wast n ... kaana 'indahu Idtaabun She will write a letter.. 'indabum 'indaka .oJ • . L. ~ 'Indahurn qindeelun Distant futlu-e= Verb in present tense+saufa ~'J.ks. 'iodee What will you learn? maazsaa satata'allamu " . had =kaana .'saufa' future. have='lnda Kaana is to .J. 'indaki d' ~ . ~ 'Ph -: .ft . ss'aktubu hi aJ-ntirsami have (s.s. f. Near future ~ Verb in present tense-l-aa I hadtnoney. You will read books (d. sa'azibabu sabaaban He had a book. ~ .....y W. '}.. WI Y.. She has. 'indahaa \b' " ~ ~~bS ~"1 tsv •".... ~#' '~ ~ ..be used to make 'past tense. ..f.

:-iJ I a'atinl qalaman Go to the schoor. Don't drink coffee.' .. ~.r!~ ifalu . You do (m. i' Walna . You do (f. Sit down (m.·darab 4:>!..if tbe second radical is'a' 01"'1' e g. ~. p. if'alee ~I You do (dual).) Listen (f). if'alaa ~1 --" .kurslyf present. if'al. The negative imperative for first.. laa laz:bab 00 116 117 .. s.::/'~ I''''''"'~ . ijlls alaa sl.· is formed from the second m"8cuJine singular ijla800 isma·aee.. ijJis(u) radical is 'u' if the second udkhiH.w..g (ta) dkhuICD)" udkbul(u) its. The third redlcalloses Do not drink.not strike. Sit down. Do.. taf'alu. prillx aUf With Kasrah. e.bab • Do not do (f).hltb Ilaa al-madrasati (r. laa tashrab al-qahwata if'aloo f~.. ..go. the first CODliOllIUl:t left unmoved. ' ) t..g. Ijlls Donet sit on the bench. second and third persons are formed by dropping tbe vowel of the last radical of the present sndby pulllng laa (not) before the present. f'alli . 4. Wal(u) Priflx aUf witb Dammah (ta) jlisu . The imperative e. " J. laa sbarabna· Iaa . Write with the pencil .). p."'l >.~ 3. ~l'" ~~~ ''J . Til form the imperatln1. Iaa tai. You do IMPERATIVE if'al Give me a pen..g...). _.s.)l . uktub bi al-mlrsaml. laa tajlis alaa al. p. udkhulu » udkbuJ 5..maq'adi Drink (f). e. laa taf'al.."~ .).s.)... ~I .. laa fa'alee . vowel.THE You do (nt. iz.g.. is . remove the ·ta' e. Do not isbrabee Lt~! _..} . taf'alll=f'alu 2.p' . '" . Enter. .. Sit on the chair.

Past tense He wrote klltaba L:.~ .. ".~'OAf •• "'\1 . .... He hears .tten...liC' From hereafter the vowel-sings and nueatten . yu'anahu al-kul'sl u'srebu Pasldve Active {~ '" " " " .. The glass has been broken. 119 . ~ . .".J .~ .. will be omitted...P . saml'a aJ-qa'seedata -~. . III P~sent Tense )I y~t ..>A:! He grows. ..'" I .J . yuktubU The do. .akee ~ He was heard the poem...." .J ..esent tense lie is written yuldabu It is written in pen.. Past Tense kutlbtum ~" . yusma'u ~. '. . 'duriba al-kalbu He is heard.. kusirati az-zajaatu He was heard sumE'a He heard "lIml'a The tree is being planted..J _ Z.J Zaki is helped.... yaama'.'" " .v.p.~ _.yaghrlau aa 'aajaru He was grown quribll qaruba The book was stolen.. ansa nimtu muddatanqoleelatan He was wr. kutiba C:·:t .z. The chair is made.... !fIo .. ~ . yaktabu ree ai-qalaml "':.. ..). ".• ~ .:'S ..u The dictionary has been written...VOICE PASSIVE ACTIVE 1 slept for a short time.~ . auriqa al-kltaabu P.lil\ gad kuUba al-qaamocsu ~ u. I am beaten.. was beaten. He writes . . yaqribu You were written... '-:-'.i He is grown.. yuo'sru z.

'J. al. anaa rajul(un) khaa'if{un) It is a ~ig city.. . the boy.g..:. If the previous word ends in long vowel. iraa al-waladi > ila-I waladi In the sky. baitu-' kabeeru 1. kitaabu-I waladi > (C. who finds the grammar very difficult.::. .. may take absolute liberty in reading and speaking . "an ar-rajuli 9 ends in consonant. About the man. THE COLLOQUIAL ARABIC The colloquial Arabic is formed by dropping vowel-endings and not joining the words . v.. kitaabu al-waladi >kitaabu-I waladi The big house. A . He can read and sn~~k as it is written in Arabic.. e...g. e.g The book of the boy. e. The book of the boy.) kataab al-walad I wrote a letter. I am a frightened man. dropped. then the long v6wel become short..b ~t. fee as-samaa'] > fl-s sama'ai then 3. Arabic in the matter of ·vowel-endings and joining of worc.ls..'~ ~l:.baitu al-kabeeru > al. ~. -~ huwa balad(un} kabeer tun) You are eating .S" _l.JOINING Of THE ARTICLE'AL' I..1 The reader. will be given in brackets. To. In reading tlte definite article 'al'is to be along with the previous word. deliCious food.ranaa katabt maktub the read 'ai' _~.:~ lA 6.Uy\:.4 ..g. so the 'a' of the is to be dropped. A. If the previous word there win be no joining. So hereafter the nunations which can b_e. -. anaakatabtu maktuban > C. J anta ta'akul'u '~alaam(~n) 'Iaz:eez:(an) ..

naiinl Kumllmaa lConoaa You two are/wiU~ We two are /shatl. .Qana 'TO BE' IN 'PRESENT SINGULAR If FUTURE YakoDnu TENSES He was. They twoara/will (f). nakoO. nakooiJU. Youare/wiU(J. You are/win. She was Yauwe . lam/shall.nu 123 . You were (f) Kaa. ~ .~ . yakoonoona yakunna You are/wUI. They are will ( f).oo Kunna Kutltuma They are/will.o. takoonu Kuota takOG'\l Kuntl You are( f )/will.CONJUGATION S[NGULAR OF 'TO BE' IN PAST TENSE J(i. PLURAL takooDaaai. akooun Kllotu They two were. yakoooaani £3Koo. Kaanat She is/will..They were ( f) You were. They two were ( f) You two were (m&f) We two were (m&f) PLURAL Kaanaa Kaaoataa l:3. They were. ) takoo'noDD8 Kuntunna Kunnaa' takunna We were (m&f) 122 We are shaU ( m & f)..e You were I was (m&f) He is/will. Gtb DUAL They twoare/will.

na filktubu ~ \. t::i\ 124 ii Nel1.g." Negative Form He did not write..G He wrote."~ .He had been writing. It denies the present.'-I~. kaana+present e.. ·Yakoonu ustasz. 1... D~FFERENCES()f .ahaba !la4a~bi)'yabl _~vJrJI~.is my daughte:r~ ).. He~ad gone to Arab.:. verb=Past Pedect Gontlnuou s Tense =Hehad been wdtinl1.~ The boy was writing.It is used before the past or the present form ol the verb and it denies the past.. 115 ..g...the future.. <kBlIoaa·z. laa= non.ative J 1.tEN TENSES Positive Form kataba sh.J ~('!. 2. the.~ bL< _. 3. ~ L.~ J.b)\".F()R READING He is a teacher. • They t.~y.. ? \:1 . kaana kataba We were at Madras.WO' were playing yaUs'aOOanl . ..~ C) ~ He had not written. He vias writing.' 1l::-.. rakoonoona las fee dehlOn) qa4 ~aa. kaanayaktubu verb= Past imperfect Tense.. .t. kaanat 'tabeebat(un) maa kats ba takoenu laa shsa'ir(un) He did not write He was not writing lam yaktub . .. . It always comes before the present form of the verb. V' . kaana-l-pastverb e.". "kaana alwiliadu yaktubu kaans 10 yaktsbu. He had written.:) Ct v. He hall written." THEPAST.ksnnaa fee madraas(tn} kaana yaktubu They are not at Delhi. .skooO:u blntee _ C:5 • . "nat 'Uaa a't -:tabeeb.. kaana katabu e Past Perfect Tense.. .. 2.o~~~ "-:.i~~ e. maa~not: It is used before the past and so denies only the past.. 3. present and .show their similarity.. He did not write laa kataba Shl! was a doctor. qad-Lkaana+p~esen.. ..(un) ..He was wr~tin~. The following is only an attempt ·to..J e>..t qad kaaDa yaktubu kaanaa She came to the:doctor. ". maa kasna katabe (i) The Arabic theory of tenses Is completely different from the English theory of tenses. ]an-not... ..uj .

:. future) Negati.~" .g.· cantata any idea of time. He is not writing.'metlmes) 2.". aqaa kuntu jaaUs(an) . I'" .NOUN OF AGENCY Yllktubu -'-'if't L .~::!~ ~ J.kaatib{un) huwa kaatlb(un) _~o ~ .. hum sbaarlbllona H..=..'if 4. tte is writing. saufa future..aahlb(sn) maa huwa bi kaatib(un) (J . qad+present e.~:~--.P_y 'He will write. qadsaktllj)u In Arabic tbe present participle writes.." ...J-..J(!.(near future) ... . Iaa yaktllbu ~~ $auf~ yaktubu '-~ • .(un) kaa tl bunL kaatibun ~ .ed... writer/derk.. (In ne'ar future). ~ ~ . " Name of Atencyall. so it is also called tbe Noun of Agency.r- They are drinking/drinker.J . huwa . dassed is caUed active participles and is' wltb nOlln. =HIi (sl. kaatlbun & He is writing. :anta saami'a'u .. . I~ I~ I..\!:t •• (" .ot I was sitting.. -rb=Presentlmperfect.j He willnotwriting(certainly) I. huwa kuna z.g. He is writing/is'. 3.~ J'" I.# J.P1f~ 4" Ian yaktllba_L. He (sometimes) writes.p 'She is writing/is a writer/derk.. nahnu shaaslboona qahwat(an) i~<. sa+jJreseiltverb=N~r e... Positive Form He writes/will write.e was going.. verb= Dl8tllotfuture.. .g.J'\!)"" imperfect In nominnlsentellce. THE .1'..talu mture).i. = He will come.Sayaktubu_y He will write..l. =Hti wUlcoine +present aaa kala kataba .. We are drinki~g coffee/ drinker of coffee. The difference of the reaular It does not: verb and the....!.~ ba .DIFFERENCES OF TENSES FUTURE PRESENT.~·b·"'· . hiya kaatibat(un) qad yaktubu -~\~~-. verb +un= Present ... . ..JJ"~~ ~ If'" You are listening / a listener.1 ~ 126 . . ~ e.e. Noun of A~ency is as follow" Rel!ular verb .s8I1fal+yaktubli' (in dili. U.ve form .g sa yaktubu 4. . 117 . He does/will not write..

l-!!~ 'bakayta .. " .az:aa ms. " ~ ~ .PERFECT PARTICIPLE \~ ....y~ at-maktoobu maktoob(un) y..- " You(f) wasa.~ 'hakaytum ." Ie ~_. Verbs .:~ N shaltuona ." bs. wasaltu l~lb sbaafoo I~':. .J~ a letter.:. .. written.. ~ .. ~ U:" ~ The tea is (has been) drunk. partlcple . Is also catted the paaaive participle.... 'bakaynaR wBsalnaa We The verbs wbich i:o~tainany weak hitters among waaw..a it a u verb apil perfect participle mit+~+too+.... " .... W shafnaa wasaltunna '":"'" ~ i .. The}'(f) You shafna The perfect participle • It is classed witbnoun.p " • . " .shaayu mashroobtun) ~ . I ••• like the noun of a~enCYiactive l:bidtum ~... spoke Singular ~ 'hakay& . _ al-jamalu maqtooI(un) J~4 ~ ~t ~ 'hakayoa ~ J• . al-kltaabu fftalrtnnb(un) J"~ u:.::._ ..~ 'bakaytu The boy is (has been) beate n...9... -y_'~~.a' i verb.~ ___. shaafa ~j wasalat He wasata The letter is (has been) written.p.~.. \If... I..ktoob(un) . maktoob(uo) mashroob(uo) fJ .lti .~ 'hakaytuooa PerfeCt Participle ~ .__. aUf In the root...shafti • . \.r.PAST TENSE alif . asb."J.. You(f} . ......~ ... 128 129 .s. 0" yaa..This is (has been) written/This is _f".. ~'"' wasalea 'wasaltum The difference of t~e regular as foHuwltegular katuba sharlb.. ~'" . sbuftu The book has been written. qI·waIadu ma<droob(un) Plural t. IRREGULAR VERBS.. . " ..1 " . at-maktoobu kaana _y~ "'~ y~. yaa" saw reache~ . ~_.. . wasaloo They The camel is (ha. waaw -' ... sbaafr.l!.'" .. are calJed Irreliula . ". fhakoo .sbeen) killed. .oJ -J:...haft" maktoob(an) ~ " 'hakayti.~ . ·4 .oJ1 'hakat The letter is (had been)." wasalta You \..

. 31 wept agreed rs'diya ~. nli.u~ 130 _.. .·S·t na'allu We naslyl' roasted shllwsll ..":. G./I.. lJ~ ~ .*)1... '... " guided "adaa \J..hoofu J...bkee U_.".. ~.Iet wads'a ~-' .... become Jeaana ...! yashoofoona . bumt Waqada .... ~J il..) . .. ·ya'siloona CJA .sold baa's tLt _....he ta'sllu ~ . .' a'silu died maata stood qaama rt& ...t ashoofll ~ ». . ~ ~ .Pr.. tahkee ~ tahkeena .TENSE see(!) reach(es) ~ _.$:i tabkeens tahkooDIl 0~="" ta'81:00na ta'snna You Verbs which contain 'yaa' f \5 t . ~J ~ .. You(1) Verbs which contain aUf • f (He) went raaba was. SOMEIRftEGULAft Verbs WWchcontain ~aaw -~ .. .~ . ...'t\.~..:." yahkoona C)"a'tw. . • ~ You ... u.. - W_...RaISGUt... '-'~ tasboofu ~ tashoo'eena tashoo'u weilhe<l waaana c. t" C'" (He) ~l.)j. lasboofeens . taabufna . ta'silu ~ .. 0 yasboofu .....AItVetlas.~ !fa'silu diftned wa'sah ~.I.. .! yasbufna ~ .. (He)found He waj~ VEllas Singular 6"r...J1 slept ~TheY(f) ya'silna naama trayelled saara 4:J~ .~..... .. (He) fell waqa'a· .. ......J.o." .L.~J... (He) went (He) walked ~ masMa ta'daa ~ ~ ma'daa baka"a ..t put wa'da'a . The" feared khllafll ~l> ~~ ... ta'sUl-ena ...:.P •.. . <»J e:'" 4.~ ~ ~... ·"RESENT .aj'" . ..IJ.......• ~i You(f) fulfilled forgot ~ '" ·tfo D8hkee .... 1- ~) ·CJ~ Plural CJ I~ ...~ ..{ stood waqafa ~ # tahkee U~ JJ• S. . .

.. . l.jaa'at ummu1t~ailaibaa . liuin kaanDO fl.1 . ..aa tajIlseena hunaaka I did hot see her. ~. .. . .eautiful. maa habbatba . .. - She will kn.. .- .. giving attention on verbs' tense.Read carefully...ow.·l. : . laa ashrabu seejaarat(an) She did not.lJ. kaana katabaka He was not in the shop... .abu-1 'Blllla _\:)~\ w~\ ~. an~a jau'aait(un) jiddan 'He did not fear..& sD~qi He had written to you.Where do you go now? aina naz. biyaa tasbrabu abaay(an) The students are writing.c'kaana fi~d dukkaani She did not love him.. 4.. anta t8z:h~btl fi·1 lain 133. cook fish Iaa labakhat samaktan) ~. huwa ma. .n the house. lam yara'aituhaa l.Jf ~t~f.. B't 'lalablltu kaat::lbooni He did not close th_ windows. . lam not smoking cigarette.. lallaa jameelat(un) She is drinking tea.. anaa kuntu \fi~l baitl -~. .-. ~" .. I was not playin2... You go by' night.bu La:ila isb.~ ~\:. ~ kuntu Iaa lial·~. come to her . They were in the market.. Jam yakboof Her mothe .> I am ve~y hlJngry.n nawaafida I was i. al a~hlaqa.' -: •.o Why do you sit there..JLrnaaz. • ."J .

... The girl ate the fish.~_.. na'am min fa'dUk Please shc. lil1al'ja'b Give me a pencil. ~ ..U"'···Y'~ as-aalaamu 'alekum t Yes.HL. inta'zirnl I want a dictionary.·Where do you like to sit? aln tareed_a ·an tajli800 -~\:Jld.\:):'.. nahnu nUreedu saUat(an) jldd(an) Excuse me. . _a~~. aua ureedu qaamaus(an) I think so a·'zuna z:aJika Is the tea ready ? hal as .~ ·J~..~': c ~-.•. saamihni Thank you. ljUli mio fa'dlik _ ~th. CSt. snukran Jao.abaayll jaablz ..• -..w me that. please. /- ... Please. \ 'A. linaz:bab f1a-l maba'ttat) ·Ib·· ·• . Let us go..\ fiFTH PART USEFUL SENTENCES.. a's'tinee qalam(an) Nlsaas(a~) I am sorry anaa mutaassif We want basket aiso. 'arln! z:aaUka min fa'dlik Wait fot me. 135 . arnee tioka ghurfata Peace be on you! let us go to the station. take your' seat.:J······~ "-:_ .. -8 akllhlt at biotu Good God! !iub'baana-l IIIImaka laabu Show me that room. ..

• u J~ q M'- l.t>-C~ (~. na'am. •• ~~lt) & ~~I Very well. I have been to India. anaa kuntu ii-I hindi How is it? kaifa huwa 1~ ~_.aF .s -. Nadin. subaah(un) al-khalru faa nadeeni Good morning Ahmed.. shukr(an) Where have you been since a long time? alna kunta min zamaan(in) . • Very beautiful. c~ I J ! I I ! Good morning. he came with me.a\ ..~ ·~~l:~'c~ . ~~~ He is my friend.·oA ' J-t-o.10 137 . bakhair (un). jameel{un) jidd(an) Who is he? man huwa ..>. huwa [aa'a biee 136 ..~... huwa 'sadeeqee Is he an Indian? hal huwa hindee Yes.:. ~~J q • .. 1 I I CONVERSA TlONS mu'haada'thiaatfun) WITH THE FRIEND ma'a-I sadeequ I ~~r:'. ~ . thank you.. subaah(un} al-khalru yaa ahmadi How are you? kaifa haaluka .I ~~.

to' .._.):~ oA ~i"'1 ~..)£ll {~.. What is your name? maa isruuka anta ahlan wa sahlan.)a. ra'hktbu-I '"rahin'" • I like you.). ~.o tt I am twenty urnruee one years old. ismee sunael How old are you? kurn 'urnruka t...t~ r. • No. . .M JIl:. 1~.. hassanan hayyaa hili. • i~~'r-S' \S~ My name is StmH. . J G. bl .. '1 ~.L...hub Well.1J iJ . shukran Jaka.. Do you speak Arabic ? 11111· tu'frkl-I 'urublyyu ~. I learnt it from my friend. go.. . let us go. na'arn..-1 llIa't'aml iz rhub ma'nnuu Thank you.!" 139 . fi-] kallt-ct.I (~ I!"""" . ~.. ~I. ~1(~Lb a_*IWtS:j.a_. iI.aA~'..eri -(. sana ratalhulltu mln ·SJlrec-ql·~ .. laa.. r am a student. .:. Please come ruin fa'tltik WIt .. Gl . ~.U.. . \I ~ • . lef us. ~~(~ • 138 J). J. l' speak Arabic.ut..'2( Did you learn Arabic in the college? hal anra ta'ullurnat al"ar"hi~'ya ..>....'-!:..l ~Q'~u Yes.... anaa ahubbuka .Ina 'laaJih(un). h us t0 the restaurant.-=.83 hldran ) W'I 'ishroon'l I.tak. ~. studying at'ullnmu in the college fi -I kal". \\ .You are welcome..b \. u n:n... 01.._ sanwaattun] What are you? In uaz :aa an ta • ~t to -.~-.

laklhaata awwalan ~\ :_. wa tarnar(lIn) wabad(an) kllo 141 . '-!!J •• Here is the fruit-stall. haaJ::u. Jaa salyadibl!>lI'Z.H \oS I ~ rt1> fi-s sooqi .do you want? wamaft7.j \ 'J~ •• What .:) ·~ ~.i~ ~tli ~.. anaa IIreeau mauz(an) nl. .b.~ V-I)' \.aa rakhees(un) 0..IN THE MARKET .:'y til4 I shall pay you three. ~>Lw ~. pounds.) ~ Which is the road to the market? ayyu huwa-'t 'tareequ na-s soeql _ ~_.1 dllzdnt(an) And one kilo dates.~a tureedu ai'd{an) . anaa ureer.~ ~I~~~ __~:+o!. kilo araba'at( an) leeraat{lln} _\~ JU. jhaal(Jn) jidd(lIn) .~I ~ .\ ~~LA.4 <Wi '-. j ansa llaadf'a laka athnllllD{nn) Jeerat(an) \.0 w:a ·1 j..". ~ I~ It is too much..aa L:-\ ~ _). .. This is very dear .. haaz.J Gf What is the price of this? li:am 'thamanu· baaz. . 1i nastar ba'Q'd al-f. ~ _l~~I~ I want grapes .Ju'll1ab{anl Four pounds per kilo. hunaa dukkaanu-l faakihati Let us buy some fruits first. . it is cheap . No sir.~~ 140 I want half adazen bananas .aa kath:eenr(an) jldd(an) -~ .ib ~ • .J~I (jl ~~I.else .H. ~~\..

s sooql Shall we purchase potatoes in this shop? .lioP-' ~ We reach .~~_..s ..Ijiban adta'h liee Put the vegetables i"the.'t~pay for it ? -~.O~iIA J~' She is purc~asingthat.~!~ _U-.khu'dara n. anta taakulu-I mauza . al banadau~atulaa tayyabat(un) '.\r~~ How much is this cauliflow..also..~ He weighed the wheat for u anfa.. . wazana lana cl him 143 .~{~I ~.. hiyaa yashtaci haai. 142 r. h~:V:1i! .4i '.rr.er? k"ltlbaaz:ihi-z zahrata ..~in·al...th~tcabbag~ -. arnee rnalfoofa -J.nureedusukkar( an) ai'd an ~4.. basket. .sallati We want suga:.JC)jJ ~. 1U·e!~'o'~. hal sanashtareebataataaf an) fee haaziau Llukkan(in} 1...c:alJli!'0Y(er.a-l tilka-z sahrata Show me .. ..b.~_.~~ ~ HoW much.cs..4tj. O~\(j~·l:. ~ .r:.You are eating banana.~IJla ~lk~ . WeighthfL~bb~ge.a:lt .' ~ i_... the vegetable .$~ r ~ J..J1 nahnu wasalnaa Ila. The potatoes are big and good. '.lk.\. 'da'a'..> .l .. ~ kam' Y-.'C" U.r.market.::.Jll:.11 ~JJ.bataataa'u kabeeraf(un) wa tayyabat(un) What is its price? -4-t:~ "i_'~~' ~ maa thema nahu The tomatoes are not good. al .:.:j'J. d ~··~..malfoofa . na'hnu. .

there.Jb~ You are welcome.:H J... haatl-I maa'u-I baaradu awwa)(an) 145 .. jidd(a&l) . ls the di...u-..Wl ~Le 144 J I prefer cold water first. n.' kalla.:. IN TJ-IE HOTEL li-I rna't'aml ~ J. c4 k =..e L'~ Did you take lour lunch to day? '5 the hotel faraway from hal al-.~~ 4... . ~ j.otelu ba'eed hal tanaawaita-I ya'uma here ? min hunaa .. ~ I....l~ ~.aa'u jaablz Do you drink anything? hal tashrab !ilbaf .sir.First bring cold water.u.I ~J L:JI ~t." t. til . sir? ayyat khldmat(so) rail sayyadJ ~I~~ ~ ~... not 50 far.)~.4. Let us go to the restaurant.:c> . _~_'I ~. .)..J. afa'dal al-maa'u-I baaradu swwal(an) .. a:h~n wa sablan yaa sayylldl Any service. fee tlska Ilburfati '.r.9 . al ma't'amu 'ala yasaari-I maha'Uatl Where do you like to sit? aln tareedoona -an tajlillOo.\)I _I~ Il..'-E~ 4!'~ ~ L. ~ ~~ ..o ~ V-::T·'! ~. huneak.:.. laisa ba'aid{an) b~' .:... ~ J y c>=!' I~b-o 'tl. Not here. t·Le ut No." ~ .af .. in that room.~ ~.\:i_...J . l.nner ready 1 ba1 al-Ilbaz.. las hUBas. linaz:hab Jla-I mll't'ami The restaurant is on the left side of the station.. l:J t ~-' .r1Z·~'~ 'I~'~J~ i b...' ).il b"_)l t ..

~ .y' <"" ...O>. ~~~_). _l~JJ~bJ:=.M~1 Yes..~ .146 C)rQ~~ ~ 1 Do you allow a taazranu me tosrrtokehere lIya an ashrabu 1 seejaarat(an) 147 . ii-I qahwat] . Bring some bread and fried-fish.:cream anaa ureedubau'zah(a!l) 1 iJ~& Y~' . J.~··.viu you • take thi5'~Upof teir shaai(an) hal rureedu nn taakhaz: finjaan(an) ~~··..1 . haBU qaleel(an) ".P~~ .·~ .~tj.e. hUWB yu_ree(ia Jabm(an) 'tayyib(atr) . laz.. ahib ad~dajaa1a wa-I bai'da-l maslooga hal laa tureedu -1 khtibja y..:. .Ina..lt J. anaa jau'aan(un} lidd(an} What do you .I am very hungry..j~are ea1:ihg-··clelid~uS·foOd. -t. ":.b(~ Is fish available here 1 hal yojadu samak(I.~~.ez.~L~~.boileClegg. want:'ic:~.··.. Put som~'~uga~hi-he i da~a sukkarfan) (<-ftee . 1. wJ~~' ~ -~~'~~~~w\. do you want fried-fish? na'am. A.m) hunaa ~~ji~I ..11 .ike to eat 1 maaztaa tahibu an taakul He wants good meat. al rureedu qahwat{an} \.~ ~~t~.~ Of ~ ~ta .l kh\lbzi wa-t as-samoka-I rnaghlia I likechkkenilnd.•an) ( nahnu Daku1u t#'aam(an) ~i~·~~~ ~~ L. hal anta tureedu samak(an) ma~ltli(an} ~~\ ~···5iJi Ott. ~~ J>-G. Don~tyou want: bread ? .

.(.l~e-' <'s~'\. how do you feel today? 'sabaah(un) al_kaire(u).J'~"bC ~~.l yaumi And give this medicine to your father.b L:~l C~ Good morni ng doctor.. • . Good bye ~ ashukraka..'{ 'tabeebi -i~4 -~~~ J c.Wrth " .. uUb..I ~ I had vomiting too.cl~~ .a. 't.. ar lqtu hlil(an) -"'l.w ? kaita abuka-I aan My father is still in the hospital.....:.".d~'.."". wa a'atln baaz:aa adwaiyaa1t{lIo) bi-I abuka -~~~·(·.9~~ j~~1 L"._j} 'l.. ( .rf../l. anaa kalina 'inde~ taqayoc-a (un) ai'dan Do you have constipation tOO? hili anta 'in'd"kll lmsaak(un) al'dan How is your father no..:.. If ~~.J? L. I (""".~.. .0.~:? 1'.:t l' . ~....>~ ~ .. V' ~ ~ \.j. . r.d~l 148 Thank you. bakhaatraka 149 ..iAS (.\sl wa bl-l ma'idati . •• 1 ~...:.~lttA_r.d~~' ~ ~ ci''it .. . huwa shakaamara'do.. u.S" . maazaala abea fi_1 mustashttl _ ic J:tU.h(u}li...... kaifa haafuka-I ~'aUfnu ·l~\ ~IG\ + I am better today... anaa ahsan at-yaumu -~ ~.i J~"'. He complained his illness to the doctor. .WITH THE DOCTOR 'tabeebi ma'a-'r .J~ ~1S'b \ J 'i l."l ~ ~ '1" .A ... I have headache and stomach pain.. : .~~y .. 'slIbaah(un) al~kak(u) yaa 'rabeebi Good morning. anaa saa'Ituka-l burshaamatllbi.". b\ J I shall give you capsules for today. anaa 'Indee waj'a hi-f.:5' ~ '... was sleepless at night....

~JbJ\ .UW_jA \i ~I:i I want an Arabic-Grammar.ti r mimhaat(llll) ~ l ~.. haa~..t ..' .ou want for all of these ? kam ture~~. ..._:.At o'~'. lUl'am. ~.:N".U~... ~~\~ . tafa'd'dul al-fnhl'uss!OI . .' . . 'arabi qaamaus(un) Yes.English dictionary also available? hal yoojtldu qaamuusrun] arabi Ii inknleezi ar'dan -tr'. . 'arin. rwjve me a letter-pad tI!a'Unee auruaq(.IN THE BOOK-STALL fi-l m Oiktabati I want to buy some books...S~~~~~~t...a. ~~~ Is an Arabic..7)_)~\ ~\_.. ~ 150 ~_... I?_~ \ ~-. . a pencil and a rubber .jalJall. .. wa anaa urcedu tlafrer(anl W...aa kath:~r(an) jidd(an) . ~.\ . t·~a* .Aj\ ~_)\bl .('" ~ How much do you sell it ? bi karn tabee'ahaa This is too much ..:aalika min fa'dlik .ice of the magaZine ~ kam th.i~ ~ ~~ ~ .~ ~_)\~\. anna ureedu.:.nJ makallteeo(un) And I want a not book.)\ (~ Is that a dictionary ? hal z:aallka ...~~! Yes please show me that .arnanu-I: ma. ~ < How much do )..~~\~ ' 'i .1 qawwaa'jda J.~~ G .. Here is the books-catalogue.l qala1l1('ln) ru sans] an) ".' r-li ..m>lnlan) Ii hllZ:ihi jameeatraa. 7. ~ '-!!riaI-M~ ~~'\J ~ zurtQ 0..rnaa u reedu an ashraraa kutub(an) ba'a:d(anj " ..I What is the p.. th.. t hal unta tureedu an ufi7"urhu .~I \.. !5i .. do you want to look it ? na'arn.. ~\JAt (~ -~ ~U~ ~.

.~ The room is very narrow . ~~ l::.. G~.WANT A ROOM .:.~~~ ~ ~l4 q -~~. sir! uasuaiun) til khuiru..H ~L Is there a telephone ? hal yonjadu h<larif( lin) ~b i~1 Where is the latrine? aina bailu r-aahutr in') • ~~I 152 UJSSr':.'-$.~.)I .. maSlla(un) nl-khairu. Please.-1 fuut.~ . 153 11 . go to that hotel... sir.. "yat(lInj khidmllt{un) YIlU sayyadi ! .4-~' ~ ".u~ ~\ (. yau sayyadL Good evening. Is it not furnished? na 1 lalsa • maftoos.lat(all) .'aIiY'. any service. ~19~1L:.'·.. .J_. al ghurfatu 'daiqat(un) jidd{an) ~jl I want a room with two beds.~ ~ J~ 1- 'OJ\ clIl.. iz:h. The rooms are not vacant here..I .-1\ .1 ur'eedu fi -'[ ·taabiqi-I nwwali Let me see it . "-II ..S • How much do you charge a day? kam taklafu .)-A u~ .»:~ ~ ~ Good evening.'il ~L6J1 J iJ_.nIHk4..hll.~~L. ~l U~I The big room is comfortable.l v-: .b.. huna-I ghurr"ftlU laisa kh....uirat(ant al-youmu.~I ~G 1t..h at( un) 1. ~~ I want in the first-floor .lL ~nin Cad:n\ ql~~U e>k.~ \ L:.1".>---: . Jr ~.'I-llhurfMn-1 kaheer"IU murN!'h(unJ . ..lll iht.

. 4 J.h( un)khidmat(un).lu.a sayyadi.iJ\ l~ ~''-. wa sahlan yaa sayyadl Peace be on you.~ ('"! ~-' . ~IJ.c>__.U~'~lJI. sir _ wa 'alekum as-salaam« .A~ .~~I ~15.~ t ~~W ~. Any serVfce.S~ Peace be on you..>"J ul This colour wouldn't stand...tb '" It IS very nice. -." "" IN THE TEXTtlESHOP fee dukkaunl-I qimaashi .~ ~~ 4 \.aalika qrmaasnu -t_... What is that cloths? ·maa z. ariD! zraaUka_l badlat(an) What is its price.~ ~ ~p aJ. ahlan cl ~ A . ~4.. arinl i!az:a-I qmllasha =t_g.~t~_. Ya.uJ~ I~ .:~ _J~.~__)l ···~~u 154 Show me that suiting.\.t. . ~I u~.:. t GI .A· '~I'..a-I launu laay~doorn What colour do you want ? ayl Iaun(uo) anta tureedu . rnaa th:amanah ISS . -~0w. iVW -~~u_.b ~ a's.:Ct 1 u-'. anaa ureedu qimaash(an) badI:H(an) 00 you want woollen haf-antu tureedu r . You are welcome... haaz.'-!.) I want suiting clothes. . sir as-sa I· amu alekurn ...soof. buwa jameeJ(ao) jidd(an) '1.. •I That is tery-cot z:aaHka 'teree kaat Show me that clothes. ~I.) J -' ~ (~~~I JL:J.

··1 ..1 qaahlrah Have you been to the post-efflce I 1>..z~l. Olin yuruktnunl au ur-st la -I" . maktoobt an) ita.1 Ir r lsaata hLl bureedi.~ '" .<1\ ~--. Jl~~j ···158 Stamps are n~tayailable Please go to that counter.J. m in fa"dliki here.U 6. D...d \\.. an akt uba makroobran} She wrote a letter IllYd karabtt to Cairo. U~.~~~(j IN THE POST-OFFICE ti-l bareedl -~) <Jl4~ ~\:)I~fi ._. No..-4). U~\fJL...lb ilaa z..... .. lL.l\ ~_)I ~ d_:.:_. rtsaalara is it a registered letter? \':"'1 hal huwa risaa! ".·~ Q.)~JA IfW..t¥ ~A c>' ~.r.(un} ma'clmausunattun ) _.. not so far. .A..:y. . .>11zahabta Ha·1 bar-eed! Werf! is the post-office? arna-t bareedu Which is the shortest an'u rareeqtun) way to thepost~offi(e Ua·1 bareedl ? hty at-ausaru Is...w_)I··J.. laisa ba'uid(anl jidd(anf Where can I post the letter ? -..4$ .mua ur~ed" irs". vulzarnune . ~/~ want to send' it by air-mail. ~I Ila. hun au luisa \"oiadu.. ..:hl. :r..ldl~~~". llaa a bee ......r.············l&L>"·~ ~~ . l ~t awaahatfun) " . ..J ja wi Give me stamps" 'iti·'t ~[aWauhHhH ~~~r~~~ -y. ...~ul1ika kaunturt 159 .~ U:-UI.. . the telegram-office farawayfr~m hal rnakrabu-er 'talighraai there? bu'ait! mm hunaaku l U~_.J~ Ii I must wrjt~a letter to my father .

-u..a..'-'

Wi ~\~'~I

~;,;

if
~

Please give me the stamps for one pound and half.
min fa'dUk a'a'tini-'t 'tawaabaha Ii·llrat! wa nisf!

~ ~~ __,J:; ~ _,.:i .~

Do you want envelops?
hal tureedu 'zarfoon(an)

_ ~_;j:) .t'd"'>' ~I
-J.)2JI~ 4.:J1~l
~~ ~

Yes, give me five envelops.
na'am, YOli a'a'tini khamsaru zarfoon{an)

W

~I

have not yet written the address on the envelop.
aeta Iammaa yaktubu-I'tmw:tana 'ala.'z 'zarfi

.~1;r.!l:.i :u~
- ~I

~)l

\:)\ ~..>I L:..\

t want to send a telegram-money order.
aaas ureedu an arstla huwaalat(an) telh\hrafeet(an)

~ \\ • "'"tf""' ~.".

V J' ~J..:.J •
~JI ~

Let us go to the telephone office.
Ii naz:hab

ilaa maktabi-I

haatiU

.. c.>__,;';l;.J1 ~

The girl is speaking on the phone.
tukalltmu-l blntu fi -t tileefuO"ni

~ \.:J.!;' ~.i··JI ~ ~ .1vJI ~ . .._d ,
_ ~.~
.... ~t_I~ ..

Where is the.telephone directory.
alna-d daleelu-t tileefoonu

~I

,,_;

~_,

..

I. \..A

What is the telephone number of Miss Fatima?
maa raqamu aanlsah
faat! rna It

- r''' q 'r'1
_ .... LI:"

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cl

_)J.)

Dial the numbers 389121.
d Ilwwlri -I q or'sa 3t1912 I

~'"

"h~1

",;

J.Jl.e

Hallo, Miss Fatima.
haalo. aanl!lah faatlmah

-~

\)..4..~

Muhamad is speaking.
mehammad yatkallam

. ~ -,0.... L .t.,::.._.j,\.>. l.:J I .l::J .

I rang him upon the telephone.
,a1I'BBkhaatBbtlJbu bi.1 .tlleefooni

You have a telegram.
'indaka teJa~hraaf(un)

160

161

,,~, s

w' ~\,JaJ'

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cl\_,;,;

&

Please give me the stamps for one pound and half.
min fa'dlik a'a'tini-'t 'tawaabaha Ii .lirat! wa nisfi

~ 4.:J"!_;-l; ~ ~ J.A -C)_;_;; 4....... > ~I~ - _,All ~ 4.!)1~1 '-::; 5"t W ~ t J
.~lJ.)~ :u~
- ~I
~ ,. \\

Do you want envelops?
hal tureedu 'zal'foon(an)

Yes, give me five envelops.
na'am, a'a'tinl khamsatu zal'foon(an)

You have not yet written the address on the envelop.
anta Iammaa yaktubu-I 'unw3ana 'ala·'z 'zarfi

~)I
,--.t" (,.

\.:)\~~I ~l

I want to send a telegram-money order.
anaa ureedu an ar-srla huwaalat(an) teJh~h['afeet(an)

.

J' ~~ .
~jl ~
~

Let us go to the telephone office.
11 Ilaz:hab ilaa maktabi-I haatifi

• C)__,o;l;.ll ~
Ii
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The girl is speaking on the phone.
tukaJlimu.1 blntu fi·l tileefoo'ni

~~o .i··J' . I .1~1
-~"ql)oll

,• ..J. i
~.

Where is the.telephone directory.
aina-d daleelu-t tileefoonu

-~~ WI ct-'-'
~~\_)J')

LA

What is the telephone number of Miss fatima?
maa raqamu aanisah faathn'l h

Dial the numb~rs 389121.
dllwwiri-lqur'sll. 3t1'Hll

.Uti 4.
-~

",.« JJLA

Hallo, Miss Fatima.
haaJo. aanisah faatimah

... ~<' ~ ~:>t.4 ...

Muhamad is speaking.
muhammad yatkallBm

I rang him upon the telephone,
,a1fB'B
khaatabtuhn bi.1 tileefooni

You have a telegram.
'Indaka telll~hraaf( un)

I~O

161

·4....::a. L......... .
•• _yQ~1 ~

ON JOURNEY
fee sayaahati

~.>fJ'OJ..bi.tJ·~··
....>.1;. ••/ ... ,

Did you visit the Pyramid
hal shaahadta-I baram(an)

in Egypt?
H-I misrf

- t..v~

I.:t~ ~
'\3"

We were waiting for her return.
nahnu 'sirnaa tanta'zira 'audahaa

~iya:J'
-

(jl ~~.~J-:'
t;,"

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-

..

Which bus goes to &asrah?
ayya bus'tat(un) tazihab Ila-I ba'sreti

"'p-

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,

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At what time does' it leave?
fi ayyu waqt(un) taseeru

It leaves at IOo'ciock.
raseeru fi-s saa'atl-I "ashararl

Iwant tobeok.fourseats.
anaa ureeda an ahljiz al-maq'adoona-I arba'atu

Are the seats comfortable?
hal al-rnaq'adoenu mareeh(un)

-a~~'
~~~I

.. ··~ .. ,~·
H~
.,

When are

you iOlllingbackfrom
min kalkattaa

Calcutta?

mataa taji'ine

~,1\U,~_A..j1

'-'

..

W,~ereis Go straight Where

the raHway;;station?
sfkkatu-l hadeedu

alna-I mahatraru,s

- ~~
,

~r"\G.J(jr,

C-'
~

ahead; about an hour.
nahwa saa'aalj un)

ruh Ilaa quddami

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.. J\ 'f~'~~fb\ ~ . ...~ JI J-,~ ~__.)~ .. ifJ.:l~l
''';2

~ g~J.:WL~i'Ur ...

.

is the' bookin g-office?

" aina baltu-t taz:kirati

fwant a tic'ket for Aleppo.
auaa ureedu taz!kirat(an) Ilaa halabi

GivelTle aflrst
a'atiuee

class ticket fo .. Baghdad.
daraj(an} awwal(an) Ilaa baghduad

taz:kirat{an)

163

..~I~

J'-,u..;Jr~~~~~
~.J!,

:Jtlj\ ~

ow>'~t .~WI J ~~
l;,t. as! ,,~~,

Do you know when does the train leave t«Baghdad
hal ra'atam mataa yaqumu-I qitaaru -ilaa baghdaadt

It leaves at 1.30p. m.
yaqumu fl-s 80.a'atl_1 waahldarl wa-l nisfi ba'adi_'7. "zuh ,

Call a porter ifor our luggage,
ud'u 'hammal(an) Ii 'ofshinaa

, J~i~~~
~.)~'i' a..s.Lt ~\
.; -~J .
_, f

How much is the porter-charge 1
kam ujratu hammaal(in)

Where is the waiting room?
aina qaa'atu-I inta'zaarl

U:a:iJ'

The train is coming.
at- q ttaaru yajlu

I'

Ji~l~l

d' t~, .. _,U:wJ\ ~ ,

-h1.::,.! ~
- \J.:.' 0 11 \J'

CJ~' ~.tA:t ~
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Is the air-port far from the station?

('i
t

hal al_ma'taaru ba'aid(an)

min ul-mebattatl

No, the air-port is not far.
I... , at-ma'taaru Ialsa ba'aid(an) a

When is the flight for India?
m:'taa yaqoomu -'t 'tairaanu ila·l hind i

.. ~(~ ~w..... -JUaJI u' ~.;, C)I ut
!~?~
"'~-.PA
164

i~·~.~tJA

Shall I call a taxi for yOU?
hal a'tlaba taksee(aQ) Iaka

Yes, please,
na'arn min fa'dlik

I want to go to the alr-pert,
anaa ureedu' an az-haba ·Ua.l rna'taari

Jt

~.i'

How much do you want?
kam tureedu

l:,t

Tomorrow I shall go to Egypt.
anaa az,baba Uaa misrighad(an)

165

..I... By air..ahabru tlaa qalarnu-I jawaazaati is my pass-port hunaa jawaa.--' A.J" ... _~ " ··1 ~.Ju.... . .Jf J.naani 1U'i1 ~.... shukrrae)...a c l~' We carne just to enquire.. there is a trav~lIing agency.J\:.. ~(1~ 1··.) \JJtJl I have paid my custome duties...JPL:Jt -' ~. G O~t'. anaa qad dafa'atu rasoomee jumrakiyyat(an) bayyaa binaa 167 .w Iii".···~··~···~······LA .t :.$.~~I U\ ~91~ ~ 166 .~~~ aJ1(. --p_ .~-.. ist!'alaain Please.i~ \:Jt C.~. W!-~ cs. t u.... two are children .i ~:>:-. . nazoor as-sweera ~ \.)'~Y·~ Do you want to travel by air or by sea? hal tureedoona au tusaanroona jaw(an).ja."J ~t ~ ~y-Jt ~ ... jidd(an) .u-s safaree . come on..A ':foll:e -'. o look.. I have my visas ready.l=:·C....\$~I j~ la (~~I~I~Jl ~\·t. v ' . nahnu atayaa !i-I. take your seat. 4i. . aws bahr(an) .~-...-A'u'~... yoojadu wakaalat(un) safiryaar{un) yaa un'zur. i'~~"". (...:)... let us go.. now how is the weather there? man fa'dlik qul II kaifa haal(Linj at taqsu-I Iaan . nahnu arb'ahat{ao)... Please teU me. .s... ijlls min fa'dlik Thank you._. 'Indl-t taashlraat jaahizaatu(unJ e h~ ~)4.. we wish to visit Switzerland.. ~)lU.).0 r-_" G~.....~a...!f'-l ~..jp ·. ~ ~t ~y~q:. ~It .". ~ 4..)" M~. al yaumu baarid(an} jidd(an) Ii naz-hab al Iaan Ila-I jU:mraKi ~L.. how much does it cost us? jaw(ao..• ~ f have been to the pass~portoffjce.(~\ It is too cold. nahnu nureedu an. now let us go to the customehouse. v-. l~)' ~f~ ~ We are four. karn sayukafifunnas How many are you in all maa huwa 'adadtikum r 'Uflaani ~b=:.Here z.. Now the weather of Switzerland al-Iaan sweearaau 't "taqsl jameel(an) is very fine.ith:. .

J#·.. He is the manifest. . . " and He is tneknower of all things y~t...t '..I awwala ~l:J'J _.-oe-lGt-·o-. He is the first..~_.' 'I' Wherever you turn~you will find the countenance of God. 'wa lillah'U·mahriqu wa-I maghri~.A ~~ Y" wa-I akhiru wa-'..uJaayl"khalooI8Wa _~'iI... '..'.' ansa 'lod8-1 munksl'ratu 4U~OObahumu. J_..'v1_.-.~. Allah is the fight of heavens and earth.U. He is the last.i> .z 'zaahil'u. He is the hidden -~~~~-'btJc:ulUshayio'IiJeem wa huwa . ..""" U.l ~.lt~L. . allah Doorllo as-samawati wa-l ara'du huwa. .JJ. . God ~'Allah laa iIlaha iIlaa hu There is only one God.J'~ LJ' ajiU 1 am found in the hearts of those which art! broken for my sake.u.wa-l baa-tlnu.. 168 .

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