NAMA :RIKO SAMUEL MANULLANG N.P.M :080520586 JURUSAN :BAHASA INGGRIS JUDUL PROPOSAL:Teaching writing by using Direct Method to increase the Effectivity of student undestanding on Procedure Text

Menyetujui Dosen Pembimbing Pembimbing I Pembimbing II



Mengetahui K.a prodi Bahasa Inggris


First of all,the writer would like to say thank to Jesus Christ for his grace,his blessing and his guidance so that he can finish and complete his study and his thesis in order to fulfill the requirement for Sarjana Degree of English Department FKIP University of Asahan, The writer would like to express his graduated and sincerest appreciation is extended to Mr.Ir.Ramlan Tambunan M.Si as P.l.t of The Dean of the faculty of teacher training and education and all of the staff.Thank to M.Yani S.Pd,M.M the head of English Department and as his first consultant who always guide him in writing this thesis that started from the beginning until this thesis is enough complete.The writer also say thanks to mom Lely Lestary,S.Pd,M.Pd as his the second consultant who gives her time to correct and suggest till this thesis finish. The writer also would like to thanks to Mr M.Reza,S.Pd,M.Hum as his scientific writing lectures and hanks to all lectures of EnglishDepartement,Drs.A.Kusnin,M.Hum,DatulinaGinting S.Pd,Masdelina Hutasuhut S.Pd,Drs.Azhari Tambusai,M.A and other lectures.Thanks to the librarians of University of Asahan who provided some usefull books and great amount of informationt that the writer need in completing this thesis. The writer best grateful tahnk is expressed to his beloved father E.S Manullang and his mother H.R Panggabean and for his young brother Agus Kristiadi Manullang and Ijan Fernando Manullang.And deep thank to his beloved sister in law Winda Eva Rezana Panggabean and Ragil Tiurma Panggabean. Finally,the writer say thanks to his best friend; Roulina Gultom,Eslina Nababan,Berlina Uli Purba,Bernadey Yuliana Tampubolon,Beny Nadeak,Beny Sianipar,Devi Hidayani,odiee,miftha and to all of his friends who can not be said one by one.


November 2011 The Writer Riko Samuel Manullang N.M 080520586 i .The writer need suggestion.But the writer hopes ir will be beneficial for those who are to be a goog teacher.The writer realize that this thesis is still far from being perfect.P. Kisaran.critics and ideas from the reader to make this thesis become available and usefull in future.

.3..1.4The objective of study………………4 1.3 1.1The back ground of study……….1Teaching writing process.3.TABLE OF CONTENT ANKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………i TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………….2.6-8 2.2 GENRE (kinds of text) …………11-12 2.3 Introduction of Direct method…….15 2.2Writng purpose…………9-11 2.3The problem of study……………….1-2 1.1.1 The Characteristic ……….5 2..1 Procedure Text………….2 The Principles…………..2The scope of study…………………..13 2.5The significant of study…………….1 Teaching writing……………………. 1 1.14 2.ii CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION………………….15-17 ii .4 CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF LITERATURE………..5 2.3 1.

1 Research Design………………………….25 ii ...2 Test of procedure text………….19 2.1 Questionnare of writing ability.3.4 Validity and Reliability of the test………23 3.18 2.2.4 The Relationship between Teaching writing and Use of Direct Method in teaching Writing….5 Conceptual Framework…………………..20 3.21 3.5 The Organization of Data Analysis…….24 REFERENCES……………………………………………………….22 3.20 3.21 3...3 Instrument for Collecting Data………….2 Population and Sample………………….3.6 Hypothesis…………………………………19 CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHOD……………………20 3.

Dealing with the definition of language. In learning is certainly important for us (Wilkin.Sapir ascited by Alwasilah (1993) says that language is a purely human and non instinctive method of communication ideas.and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols.It learned started from primary school up to university.method and American anthropological linguist E.Almost all countries have adapted English used as a compulsory subject at schools.and the last Writing ability     1 . 1974 : 1 ).They are: Listening ability Speaking ability Reading ability.As an English teacher . As we know English is an international language.Although it is not only coming from communication among human being.the student have to mastrer the four basic language skill in English.we demands to explore more effective techniques.1The back ground of study Language is a means of communication.People realize that teaching English at this level becomes very important and need much concern.emotion.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.Meanwhile language is a system for the expression of meaning reflected in the structure of the language as an instrument to express meaning.The nation education has decided that English as a foreign language taught in Indonesian schools.

The ability to write for a particular audience using the most appropriate kind of language is essential. and reading ). Writing is one of of the four language skill in English have to mastery. 2 .With limited writing ability will also has limited ability to mastery foreign language specially English.It present some information that will be unformatted to readers.speaking.argumentative.In order to attain the objective ot teaching writing.many experty assume that is very important for teachers to motivate the student to increase their ability with an correct and good method.The student should practice and do a lot of drill of exercises.knowledge.The ideas and thought can be formed into many kinds of paragraph or text pattern.such as desciiptive.expositor.writing is a complex skill and most difficult to learn.Many student are not interesting in learning writing.Writing is also a key to increase imagination.However. In teaching writing.In learning English.lexical items and conventional representation in ordinary matter if fact or writing according what have been explained in the previous pages about the ability is the ability or skill to combine or arrange the graphic symbol into good and correct written is expected as a communicative activity between the teachers and has student.One if the chief difficulties young people feel uneasy in writing is lack of matters.Because writing is one important aspect in learning a foreign language.continually and seriously. Writing as one of the four language skill.Writing is a deliberate act.Lado(1964 : 23) defines writing ability as the ability use the structure.This is natural.writing is the same as learning other skill ( listening.Studying language for the students means that they learn how to communicate to another by using the language.the purpose of teaching writng is to enable the students to wrtite a good and correct written form.which one has to make up one’s mind or to do it.because their experience ang general reading are limited.they does not easily find anything to say about a subject.procedure and etc.

in this case the writer to discuss about the techniques the teacher use in teaching writing in using Direct Method to increase the student’s understanding specially on procedure text.The goal of this language is to build the student ability in using and understanding Engliss communication. Based on the explanation above.Generally the Indonesia student start learning English for about four hours a week to realize how important English language in our country.Ministry of Education put this language as a compulsory subject that must learned at the school. Our government has determined the curriculum as guide lines.Unfortunely.That is why .the teacher has a really important role in teaching student to master English especially in writing.however this language is a compulsory subject in our educational system.The scope of this study is limited about teaching writing in using Direct Method to increase the student’s understanding specially on procedure text.3 The problem of the study The problem of the study formulated in the form of question as started below.In this case.And how the teacher motivates the students in learning English especially learning writing. 1.the student till think that English a second language in Indonesia made them become uninterested to study English.Because writing is the most difficult better than the other language skill.they merely teaching writing without giving clear explanations about the techniques or method on how to make a good text or paragraph in writing.many teacher tend to stress teaching writing.Englishis a foreign language in Indonesia.this is means that all the teaching learning process should refer to the curriculum. 1.2 The scope of the study This study is on teaching English writing.Beside it. “is there any increase the student’s understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in lteaching writing?” 3 .

1. (2) Motivate the student to learning English writing.the writer hopes that it would: (1) Give the English teacher some in put in improving the teaching writing in the future.1.4 The objective of the study The objective of this study is to answer the research question.and attempting to be success in teaching writing. the objective of the study is to know any increase the student’s understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in teaching writing.5 The significant of study ” is there any increase the student’s understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in teaching writing?” Having completed this study.To be more specific.especially concerning with the method applied by an English teacher and the problems encountered bystudent and English teacher in teaching learning process on writing. 4 .

1Teaching Writing Oxford ( 2008) teach : activity to give lessons to students in a school.Studying writing for the student means that they learn how to write by using correct grammatical and words.continually and seriously. Oxford ( 2008 ) writing : the activity of writing in contrast to it’s mean your style or manner of expression. 5 .In learning English.In addition.writing is the same as learning other skills ( listening.Knowing your audience will help you to communicate clearly and should also consider the the tone of your writing.etc.It is revealed by your choice of words ang grammatical structure and even the lengt of your setences.which depends on your subject matter and your using a effective method and strategy to get the goal of is expected as a communicative activity between the teachers and has student.that is the people who will read what you have is a planning activity to give or to send lesson or information from the teacher to the student.speaking and reading ). to help sb learn sth by giving information about it. In teaching writing.speaking etc. Writing is one of of the four language skill in English have to mastery.CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.The student should practice and do a lot of drills of exercise.whenever you write.consider your specific audience.

choosing and narrowing a is take study and practice to develop this skill. To write.when we are given a free choice of topics and can write about something are interested in.There are four main stages in teaching writing process: 1. 6 . Writing is not easy.Athough these brainstorming activities may seem unnecessary at first.The diagram under of this text illustrates the process of narrowing a general topic to a specific.of course what we can write is limited.1.2. E N V I R O ↓ M E N T P O L L U T I O N ↓ OCEAN POLLUTION ↓ OILSPILLS ↓ EFFECT ON SEA LIVE b.the next prewriting steps is to generate ideas.after doing them a few times.Brainstorming for ideas make started writing more quickly and save the time in the later stages of the writing process.This is done by a process called brainstorming.then you must narrow the topic to a particular aspect of that general subject.1Teaching Writing Process.On thre other hand.brainstorming After chosen a topic and narrowed it to a specific focus.prewriting a.and then will realize their usefulness.

Three usefull brainstorming techniques are:  Listing : a brainstorming techniques in which think about the topic and quickly make a list of whatever words or phrases come into the mind.While writing.the purpose of freewriting is to generate as many ideas as possible and to write them down without worrying about appropriatness.It’s important to remember.making sublist In this step toward making outlining is to divide the ideas in the list further into sublists and to cross out any items that don’t belong or that aren’t useable. a.and it express the central focus of the paragraph. 3.or core.In this stage.that will refine and improping writing skill.Now for planning stage in the process of writing.write the topic and draw a “ballon” around it.organize the ideas that generated by brainstorming into an outlining.Each time write a new idea will spark another ideas.and then generate ideas by brainstorming.the more ideas will have.planning In prewriting stage.logic or organization.spelling.Here’s how to use this techniques: In the center of the paper .outlining An outline is a formal plan for a paragraph.The porpuse is to produce as many ideas as possible in a short time.after chose topics and narrowed them.As with listing.In an outline. .Think about each of these ideas and make more ballons around them 2.and the goal is to find a specific focus for the topic.writing the topic setences The topic setences is the most general sentence in a paragraph.  Clustering : another brainstorming activity that you can use to generate ideas.grammer.This is the center.It’s important to remember that no piece of writing is ever perpect the first time.Then write whatever ideas come to in the ballons around the core.writing and revising drafts In this stage is writing and revising several drafts until you have produced a final copy to hand in.ballon.  Freewriting : a brainstorming activity in which write freely about topic because looking for specific focus.the more do freewriting.write down the maint points and subpoints in the order in which plan to write about them. c. b.

7 a. .and a more interesting way.  Check for general logic coherence. b.It’s check over for content and organization.or punctuation which will do later.  Check to make sure that the paragraph has a topic sentence and that the topic sentence has a central ( main ) focus.Focus on the general aspect of the paper and make notes in the margins so that can rewrite parts that need to be improved. written in order to improve it.etc.and be concerned mainly with content and organization.We can change.effectively.the next step is to revise it.sentence structure.examples.all for the goal of communicating that thought During the first revision.Try writing steadly.  Check to see that you have achieved your stated purpose.coherence.information.or delete.  Skip one or two lnis per line or writing and leave margins of one inch on both sides of the paper.writing the first rough draft.following the points in your outline.  Write the paragraph following the outline as closely as possible.When revise it’s change what more clearly.Doing this will remind of the focus of the not try to correct grammar.revising content and organization After write the rough draft.and logic. in fact it won’t be because the main goal is to write down as much information as we can.the audience should be able to follow the ideas easily and understand what it has written.add.punctuation or spelling.spelling.including unity.These blank spaces will allow to add more details.rearrange.  Don’t worry about grammar. This is how to proceed:  Read over the paragraph carefully for a general overview. The first stage is how to write a rough draft from your outline.This is how to prooced:  Write down the topic setences and underline it.This first rough draft does not have to be “ perpect “.don’t hesitate that aren’t in outline if are certain they relevant to the topic.

what might amuse classmates the teacher could find unacceptable. Required writing happens on the job and in school. In general. a student writing an essay for a class may wish to please the teacher and to amuse his or her classmates.Remember that the writing is a continous process of writing and rewriting until satisfied with the final product. Both required and self-chosen writing can be of many kinds.For instance. Self-chosen writing happens in many circumstances. Jakobson's model has these parts: . 2. The writer may have motivations of which he or she is unaware.After rereading the final copy hand. Roman Jakobson's model of the communication situation provides a good framework for classifying the varied purposes of writing.does the paragraph have or need a concluding sentence?if wrote a final comment.8  Check for unity. Unfortunately. and even contradictory.  Finally. people write either because they are required to or because they choose to write for their own reasons.Adapted to written communication. The writer may also have mixed.Be sure that writer make all the correction that you noted on the second draft. reflection on different purposes for writing can help one produce the most effective piece of writing.1.  Check to make sure thet the topic sentence is developed with sufficient supporting detail..cross out any sentence that does not support the topis sentence.  Check use transition signal.writing the final copy to hand in To write the final copy hand in. In either case.the instructor will except it to be written neatly and legibly in ink or it on the topic? 4.2 Writing purpose When a person writes something.don’t be surprised if you decide to make a few minor or even major changes. motivations for writing. he or she has purposes for writing.

Writing intended to arouse the reader's feelings is conative. informative writing is usually prose. journals. as are the other components of this Map. on the way the elements of language are used. so long as its intention to persuade the reader or affect the reader emotionally. This type of writing doesn't take the reader into consideration. one has a poetic purpose. free writing. it focuses on the writer's feelings. Fiction has poetic purposes. ideas. especially. Writer Reader Context Message Contact Code Writing can be seen as having six general types of purpose. 2. One may write simply to express one's feelings.9 1. . this page is informative. Informative writing refers to something external to the writing itself. letters. Persuasive writing is conative. Context: Informative purposes. although in earlier periods poetry was used for informative purposes. and. Conative writing seeks to affect the reader. Conative writing may take about any form. on structure and pattern both on the level of phrase and of the overall composition. Anytime one writes with an emphasis on the way the language is used. so is writing intended to entertain the reader. and needs. Message: Poetic purposes. Poetic (or literary or stylistic) purposes focus on the message itself—on its language. 5. 3. Reader: Conative purposes. 6. 1. In our times. 2. 4. Often. 3. with the purpose of informing the reader. Poetic writing can be in prose as well as in verse. Writer: Expressive purposes. and so on. each type of purpose focusing on one of the parts of the communication model. 4. attitudes. Expressive writing may take the form of poetry. instead. a person will do expressive writing and then be disappointed when readers don't respond to it. For instance. experience.

report. . define the purposes of your writing. Contact: Phatic purposes. When you write. Exposition. Explanation. you will realize that many pieces of writing have more than one purpose. we may greet someone by saying. Comments on a piece of writing are metalinguistic. and try to resolve the conflict or exploit it to make the writing more intense. A reader may read the poem seeking biographical information on the poet. and use the language imaginatively and forcefully (poetic). the writer's purposes. They are intended to establish and maintain friendly contact. An author's preface to a book is another example of metalinguistic purpose in writing. If a student attaches a note to an essay to explain why the essay is late. In speaking. 2. be aware of that. discussion. A poem may be intended to arouse the feeling of sadness in the reader (conative). 6. procedure. not the reader's. and may conflict with. The use of greetings and closings in letters is one example of phatic purpose in writing. Phatic purposes are not significant in most writing. If you have conflicting purposes. the note is metalinguistic in relation to the essay. consider that the reader's purposes may be quite different from. for instance. "Howya doin?" or Hozit goin?" These questions are not requests for information.10 5.2 GENRE (kinds of text) There are many kinds of english text. Those are recount. I have discussed the purposes of writing from the writer's point of view. If you think about it. new item anecdote. Phatic language (and nonverbal communication) establishes and maintains contacts between speakers or between writer and reader. Such conflicts and tensions produce much of the energy and excitement of literature. But for now. express the poet's feelings (expressive). narrative. Decide what your primary purpose is and subordinate the other purposes to it. The reader's purposes are discussed with interpretation. Code: Metalinguistic purposes. A poet may have written a poem to experiment with the language.

Events : tell what happened. Report Text Social Function : to describe the way things are with reference to a range of natural. c. use simple present tense 3. Generic Stucture: a.description. report. qualities. Recount Text Social Function : to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. in what sequences c.lets learn on recount. 11 1. narrative. Complication: a crisis arises d. use past tense. habits or behaviour. Narrative Text Social Function :to amuse. Goal b. Reorientation: optional closure of events Significant lexiogrammatical features: Focus on specific participants. and social phenomenoa in our environment Generic Stucture: a. Resolution : the crisis is resolved e. entertainn Generic Stucture: a. Material . behavioral processes. manmade. USe temporal conjuctions. use past tense 4. General classification: tells what phenomena under the discussion b. use material processes. Orientation: sets the scene and intruuduces the participants b. use material processes. Significant Lexiogrammatical Features: focus on generic participants. Evaluations: a stepping back to evaluate the plight. reorientation: optional Significant lexiogrammatical features: focus n specific participants. Procedure Text Social Function : to describe how something is accomplished through a sequences of actions or steps. and review. use relational processes to state what is and that which it is. Description: tells what the phenomenon under the discussion is like in terms of parts. focus on temporal sequence 2. circumstances on time and place. Orientation: provides the setting and introduces the participants b. and verbal processes. Today . procedure and description. and temporal circumstances. Generic Stucture: a.

Description: describes parts. qualities. places. Goal : Title of the text (especially for a recipe) 2. use simple present tense 2. That is why. The use of Simple Present Tense.g.1 Procedure Text Procedure is the set of steps which should be completed in the right sequence to get the goal. Identification: identifies the phenomenon to be described b.2. Steps 1-n 12 Significant lexicogrammatical features: Use simple present tense. how to make and use it. A. we often have to perform some steps to make or get something done. (2) materials and (3) steps. Generic Structure of procedure 1.. use mainly material processes 5.c. Materials : Optional. The use mainly of temporal conjunction (or numbering to indicate sequence especially in written text) . often imperative. For example. or things Generic Stucture: a. characteristics Significant lexicogrammatical features: Focus on specific participants. The generic structure of procedure has three principal components namely (1) the goal. early in the morning. Steps : a series steps oriented to achieving the Goal B. not for all procedural texts 3. Generic Features 1. Descriptive Text Social Function : to describe a particular person. Add some sugar. you help your mother prepare cups of tea for all members of your family. Most of our daily activities are related with procedures. 2. often in an imperative form e. you should understand what a procedure text is. you have to follow certain procedure in order to get a nice drink. prepare it. In our daily life. In making cups of tea.

While you are boiling the water.It’s principles have been applied by language teachers for many years.As with grammar translation method. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries.g.Most was revived as a method when the goal og instruction became learning how to use a foreign language to communicate. It was established in Germany and France around 1900.a. The direct method was an answer to the dissatisfaction with the older grammar translation method.3 Introduction of Direct method The direct method of teaching foreign languages. especially in written text … before … After … When … While … … until … During … e. which is why the beginnings of these attempts were called the natural method. sometimes called the natural method. grind the chilies. Firstly.Since grammar translation method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively. There was an attempt to set up conditions that imitate mother tongue acquisition. prepare some water! b. As the sentence introducers (sequencers) especially in spoken text: First … Firstly … Second … Secondly … 13 Then … Thirdly … After that … Afterwards … Finally … Lastly … e. Sauveur and Franke . which teaches students grammar and vocabulary through direct translations and thus focuses on the written language. refrains from using the learners' native language and uses only the target language. onions and salt 2. As time introducers.the direct method became popular.the direct method is not new.

2. 14 The direct method has one basic rule: No translation is allowed. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language) centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation) focus on question-answer patterns teacher-centering 2.1 The Characteristic: • • • • • teaching vocabulary through pantomiming.e. 1.3. real-life objects and other visual materials teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i. which was the first stimulus for the rise of the direct method. intensive classes. 2. 4. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small. 3.the direct method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be connected diretly with the target language.2 The Principles Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language. reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase. . The audio-lingual method was developed in an attempt to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the direct method.3.In fact.without going trough the process of translating into the student’s native language. Grammar is taught inductively.proposed that language teaching should be undertaken within the targetlanguage system. New teaching points are introduced orally. grammar.

Teacher states a phrase or sentence to student. Syntax. (i. Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them. 6..Teacher verbally introduces Element. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration. alphabet character. • ASK & REPLY IN NEGATIVE.. with care and enunciation.. and pictures. • TRY. • MOLD. Teach key verbs such as "To Go" and "To Be" before unusual verbs like "To Trim" or "To Sail". tongue and relationship to teeth. Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.Point to Visual Aid or Gestures (for verbs)... to ensure student clearly understands what is being taught. "Are you the President of the United States?" or "Are .. • REPEAT.e. The key Aspects of Direct Method method are: 1 introduction of new word.5.Teacher uses Element in negative situations (e..Teacher corrects student if necessary.. Student should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson.) II. teach Apple and Orange before Prune and Cranberry. objects. pointing to mouth to show proper shaping of lips.. number.g.. 8. Student repeats such 5-20 times..Student repeats each Element 5-20 times. 15 7. NOTE: Teacher should be aware of "high frequency words and verbs" and prioritize teaching for this.. 9. the correct location of new Element in sentence: • SAY & REPEAT..Student makes various attempts to pronounce new Element. sentence or concept (referred to as an Element) : • SHOW. • SAY.. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized. abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas. likewise.

• USE AND QUESTIONS. At this point. Y-Y. and simply do Review as follows: C. After new Element (X) is taught and learned. Y-Y-Z. • INTERROGATIVES Teacher provides intuitive examples using 5 "w"s (Who. If more advanced. so proper testing may be done. etc. Observation and Notation: Teacher should maintain a student list of words/phrases that are most difficult for that student. Go back to 1 and 2. Keep a list of everything taught. Review: Keep random. Where. from new Element to new Element (within same lesson): A. pointing quickly to each.) and continue building up to appropriate number of Elements (may be as many as 20 per lesson. Students says "No". indicating student should not be taught more Elements until another time. changing country/city names. After these two are alternated ( the teacher?"). go to next Element (Y). Y-X. List is called "Special Attention List" IV. When) or How". 2. Teacher covers all pronouns. 4. 2. Progress.. 16 • PRONOUNS WITH VERBS Using visuals (such as photos or illustrations) or gestures. Use random variations to practice. 3. Employ different examples of Element that are easy to understand. Use many random variations such as "Is Ana a woman?" or "Are they from France?" to practice. see B. D. B. arbitrary sequencing. return to practice with Element (X). depending on student. to know when mental "saturation" point is reached.Student must choose and utilize the correct Element. Random Sequencing: 1. use visuals. etc). Observe student carefully. from Lesson to Lesson: . After next Element (Y) is taught and learned. Progress.1). as well as posing appropriate questions as Teacher did. mix in 3.. go to 3rd Element (Z). practice (X-Y-Z. Z-Y-X. and words student already knows. may use the negative with "Not". people names. practicing all possible combinations and repeating 5-20 times each combination. What. Student-Led Limits: 1. If appropriate. III. Why. stop imparting new information.

This makes the lessons more "real world.4The Relationship between Teaching writing and Use of Direct Method in teaching Writing Every body know that there are some factors influencing to teaching writing.• LESSON REVIEW The first few minutes of each lesson are to review prior lesson(s). • Non-Standard Alphabets: Teaching Student to recognize letters/characters and reading words should employ same steps as in above Aspect I. move to next Element. become aware of student's language abilities. Advanced Concepts: • Intermediate and Advanced Students may skip some Element introduction as appropriate." as it will bring some confusing distractions to the student and employ organic variables common in the culture and locale of language use. so they are not frustrated by too much review. 2.and perceiving one self as a writer…. It should be noted that an integral aspect of the Direct Method is varying the setting of teaching.none of this can be taught and what teacher require is…. which should always include items from the Special Attention List. And understanding of task a . try different scenarios using the same Element. which depend on geography within a country or from country to country. • Country Accents: Any student at intermediate stages or higher should be made aware of subtle variations in pronunciation. V. Writing characters and words should initially be done manually.This idea support by Smith in Jane B Hugey et al ( 1983 : 41 ) say th”at writing is learned by writing. If Student immediately shows recognition and knowledge. and alphabet variations may be taught using Aspect III. 17 • GLOBAL REVIEW Transition from Lesson Review to a comprehensive review. either on paper or whiteboard.

there are some method can be use.the teacher must provide an enviroment in which a child will want to write and in which a child can learn about writing “ In teaching language special in teaching writing.many expert assume that is important for teacher to choose and applied the effective method. very important for teacher to choose effective method to teaching writing and make the student became more understand.The purpose of teaching writing is to enable the student to write a good and correct written form.which refers to description about an object in of the method is Direct Method.This is assumed because there is a relationship between teaching writing and use of direct method in teaching writing.Because direct method is not difficult to understand for the student like the other method in learning English. In order to attain the objective of teaching writing.5Conceptual Framework Direct Method can be choose as a effective method to teaching writing. . 18 the teacher applied the method in teaching writing with interesting way so make the student became interest to study writing. Writing is one of the four language skill.(child ) faces up learning to write….As it was started earlier.6 Hypotesis The research hypotesis is formulated as follow: There is any increase the student’s understanding on procedure text by using Direct Method in teaching writing. 2.when using this method to teaching writing.

which was conducted by giving test to the sample. the writer only took 40 students as the sample.the sample can be taken between 10%-15% or 20%-25% .2 Population and Sample The population of this research was the first year of SMP Negeri 1 Air Joman. 120) that says if the subject or population consisting of a large number.The design was applied in order to investigate teaching writing by using direct method to increase student’s understanding on procedure text.There are 5 (five) classes and each class consist of 40 students Because the population consist of a large number.So.19 CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD 3.This based on Arikunto (2002 .this study design as : X →Y In which : X = the writing ability Y= the direct method 3.1 Reseach Design This research was a teaching study.

17.18. d .In this study . the form of the items is a multiple choice the cumulative scores range from o to 100 .13.10. the instrument used for collecting the data was quetionnaire for writing ability and essay for procedure text.the writer took 12.1 Questionnare of Writing The indicator of student writing ability NO INDICATORS 1 Time 2 Student attitude in writing 3 Expoiting Facilitator 4 Family support 5 Teacher support ITEM 1.4 In this study .The eght clasess of the population were not classified on the basis of their grade of intelligence.Definitely yes .They will be scored as a = 5 . of the population as the sample to represent the whole population.closed questionare format was applied consisting of questions and list of altenatives that includes all possible responses.Based on the quotation above.8 6.12. c .Alwys/usually a. In scoring the questionnare .Strongly a.14 2 3. d = 2 .the total number of the sanple in this study is 40 students 20 3. 3.There are an numbers of possible sets of Likert resposes.15.The linker scale was used.11. c = 3 .All of them would be considered to have same opportunities to be sample.20 8.The qoestionnare consisit of 20 items of 20 items and each gradiation consist of 5 option : a . e respectively.3.So.9.Following are some sample of likert responses: a.The important characteristic of a set is that the responses be appropriate for the items. b .3 Instrument for collecting data The tecnique for collecting data plays an important role in confucting any kind of reseacrh in order that thr result of the study will be valid. e = 1 . b = 4 .

The criteria of scoring the test are : 30 – 27 EXCELLENT TTO VERY GOOD : knowledge – substantive – etc 26 – 22 GOOD TO EVARAGE : some knowledge of subject – little substance 21 – 16 FAIR TO POOR : limited knowledge of subject – substantive 16 – 13 VERY POOR : does not show knowledge of subject – non – substantive 2.Organization .strongly disagree d.disagree e.uncertain 21 d.never d.probably no e.There were five indicator suggested by Heaton ( 1988 ) were used in scoring this test.definitely no 3.Agre c.sometimes b.the student were asked to write essay.b.seldom e.Content It depend on the ability to write the ideas or the information of procdure text in the form of logical setences.The cumulative scores range 0 to 100.often c.probably yes c.Neutral b. 1.2 Test of student understanding on procedure text To collect the data of student understanding on procedure text.3.

stability.The topic and supporting sentences are clearly stated.7 VERY POOR:essential translation – little knowledge of English vocabulary 3.The formula of Split Halves is the following.therefore. Reliability means if the test were done in many times. somewhat rough – loosely organized but ideas stand out – etc.It refers to ability to write ideas and information in good logical order.4 Validity and Reliability of the test There are some requirement of a good test such as .The criteria are: 22 20-18 EXCELLENT TO VERY GOOD .The validity that used in this study is content validity.a test must first a reliable measuring instrument. The reliability is a necessary characteristic of any good test.the result is same.Reliability can be defined in terms of accuracy.the test is considered reliablle.the test is unreliable.however. 17-14 GOOD TO AVERAGE .consistency. a test must be capable of measuring what is intended to measures. 13-10 FAIR TO POOR:non – fluent – ideas confused of disconnected – etc 9 .the writer used Split Halves formula to find out the reliability of the test.To be valid at all. If the score of the student are stable.validity and reliability. In other word. fluent expression – ideas clearly stated – and so on. If the score tend to fluctuate too much. . In this case.The validity of a test is the extent to which it measures whwt it suppose to measures Arikunto ( 2002 : 90 ) .

X variable is the student scores in questionnare of writing ability andb Y variable as the student understanding on procedure text. The significance of increasing student understanding on procedure text in learning writing by using Direct Method is compared with the critical r product moment level of significance is 5% .the writer will analyze the result as the research aimed at exploring the correlation. In this case there are two variable. the writer employed the quantitative easement of correlation. The writer uses the coefficient correlation of Pearson Product Moment formula to check the coefficient correlation between to variable.r 11 = 2 r ½ ½ 1+r ½ ½ 23 In which : r 11 R½½ = Coefficient of reliability = Coefficient correlation between the two test 3. X and Y . N ∑ xy – ( ∑x ) ( ∑y ) The formula is : rxy = √{ N∑x2 – ( ∑x)2 } { N ∑ y2 – ( ∑ y2 .( ∑y)2 } Where rxy = increasing student understanding on procedure text in learning writing N = The number of sample ∑ x=Sum of writing ability scores ∑y=Sum of undertanding on procedure text scores ∑xy= Total Sum of x and y.5 The Organization of Data Analysis Having administrated the two types of the test.If r observation is the same or .therefore.

S.M. Model pembelajaran Inovatif- .Jakarta :Kencana. Statistik I. 2008.Diane .B . 1988.Medan.2002. AS. 1986 : 302 ).1988.Grow – Hall Setiawan.We will reject Ho (Hadi .Pd . London : Longman. J. Heaton .M.Teaching Writing Skill.2011.more than r-table. 1964.Otong Djuharie.2006.Yayasan Penerbitan Fakultas Psikologi UGM Yogyakarta. Byrne. 24 REFERENCES Arikunto. 1986. Hadi. Writing English Language Testing.Oxford : Oxford University Hasruddin.DR. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta. Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.Oxford : Oxford University.1987. New York : Mc.Jakarta: Yrama Widya Trianto. Tecniques and Principles In Language Teaching. Hornby . Language Teaching A Sientific Approach.pd . Prosedur Penelitian.Metodologi Penelitian.London : Longman. Larsen. Lado. Robert. 1986.Sutrisno . Mendesain Progresif. Essay Writing .Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English Revised and updated.So the r observation is significance.

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