Taqwlyat-ul-lman

(Strengthening of the Faith)

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Shah Ismail Shahced

Dar-us-Salam Publications
Saudi Arabia. UK- USA- Pakistan

1.

2. 3.

Publisher's Note, Preface
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CONTENTS
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12

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Prelude

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Chapter One

Descriptlon of Tuuhid
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. People's unawareness The acts leading to pol yth eisrn .. Those who profess to have Faith in Allah while their acti on s reeking of polytheism The verdict of Qur'an ,_ , None but A IJah i2) the Capable -.. N one is the supporter other than A HRh Non e 1s the sustainer other than Alhih .. The reality of Shirk _-.- _ .
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CI1aplcr Two

C atego ties and aspects of Shirk 12. Shirk in knowledge __ _., J ]_ Shirk in disposing .._ 14. Shirk in worship __ __
15. Shirk in one's daily routine chores , , -_.. 50 _ 51 ._ 52 53

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C hap ter Three The Vices of Polytheism
The Virtues of Monotheism

16. 17. HL
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The polytheism cannot be forgiven --.... Explaining Shirk __ . __ _-............. Shirk, the greatest of all vices. __ Ttf.uhid is the only way out -........ A! liih is disgusted with Shirk - __ __ -

56
57

5R 59
.59

2l. 22.
2]. 24,

Affirming the Oneness of Allah prior to the dawn
of lime itself '" ...... "·-h' .--..~ ..•..•. -•." •..•..•..•.. ,••••••••• _.". Shirk cannot be presented 8,1) an authority v... The eX(!U 8C of forget! illness sha 1] not be accepted ". _.. The basic teachings of the Prophets and the Scriptures Tauhid and fnrgi v~ness .,' .._ , -." .. -.u ,, ,. The negation of Shirk in knowledge 60 62 63 63 66

25.

Chapter Four

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Only AJW.h possess the knowledge of Ghaib , __ _ 69 " The one who claims to have the knowledge of Ghaib,
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The 111aUerS of (;h{Jib , ,.._-.", " Do not call upon anyone but Alhih
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inflicting harm , _ ,, 3 I. The original assignment of the Prophets , 32. The Prophets do not have the knowledge of unseen
13. 34. The saying of the Prophet rl-;
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regarding the

knowledge of the unseen '.~ Th.e saying of Aisha lp 'aU
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Chapter five The Negation of Shirk in Authority 35. 36. 17. 38. AlJah is the One %0 causes benefit and inflicts harm 80 None is the sustainer except AlJ8h ~n Invoke none but Allah, 81 No intercession without His Permission .... 83 Types of intercession h............. g4 An j ntercession due to one s high-ranking status IS nut possible ~ ,.._ ,.._.~ ~ ,. ~4 Acceptance of one's intercession out of love is not possible ~, ~ ~ " + ~ " +........... 86
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Interceding with permission The Straight Path. Allah is the Nearest to nil __ Tnlsf in Al1iih Alone ..... Relationship does not benefit
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Chapter Six Prohibition of Shirk in \\locship 47.
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The definition of worship
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Worship is meant for A Biih Alone _ Prostration is for AJlflh only LL_."... It is an act of Shirk to call upon other than Allah ... Th~ ho 1 sane tuaries mu 81 be respected y Anything dedicated to an entity other than AHah is forbidden 53. A uthori ty and cornm and is only for Allah 54. Giving someone Ialse nalncs is an act or Shirk 55_ So-caHed customs are acts of Shirk ..... 56_ Keeping people stand up in one's honour is prohibited 57. Worshipping idols and the so-called "sanctums of saints" is an act of Shirk ... 5R_ Slaughtering an animal in a name other than that of A I!ah is a curse _ 59. Indications heralding the advent uf Doomsday ..... L...... 60L Worshipping the places of saints is an act of the wurst
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61. Chapter Seven

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Performing Tawa.f of the idols ..

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Prohibition of Shirk in Social Customs 62,
63. The whispering of Satan .~ Polytheistic rituals in regard
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64_ Polytheistic rituals in agriculture
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65~ Polytheistic rituals in regard to the cattle +>..... 66. Slandering Allah in the matters of lawful and forbidden things 67. Giv ing credit to the infl uence of planets is an act of Shirk 6S. The astrologers are magicians and the magicians are disbelievers ~ ~... 69. The s in of be lieving in a.-.;.tro lo gy ~..... .. 70_ Deducing an omen is an act of disbelief ro..u...... 71. Do not make AildJ} an Intercessor 72~ The dearest names to Allah +>.... 73. Kunya with the Name of AllAh must be avoided 74_ Only say M 'asha A Ihih _ -__ . . . . . 75. Taking an oath in the name of anyone other than Allah •s an act oj· Shirk --....-_ ----76. The verdict of the Prophet r!-~..p..)11 J- about observing vows 77. Prostration to AJ lJih and paying due respect to a Mes Siien ger _... .. . . 7(j. It is not permissible to call someone one 's slave __ .. 79 _ An excellent example to pay respect 10 th e Prophet
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gO. The word Saiyid carries two meanings
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Sayings of the Prophet J..,....~ ~ Y.oI,_,..!.-t in regard to the P ictnrcs -__ -.... 146 Th e five Inaj or sins _ " 147 The statem ent of the Prophet ,.L-J ~ ..01 ..;..:. about him se1f 148

8

PREFACE
Shah Muhammad Jsmai 1 .uJ1 ~ ~ the author 0f Taqwiyat ~UI-1m W3!) the solitary son of Shah Abdul-Ghani lo1Il ~~,. the grandson of Sha h Wali 11llah M uhaddith Dehlawi ..JJ I _ ~ ~ and th e n ephew of Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith .wJ1 ~J • Shah Rafiuddin Muhaddith ..JJI _.) and Shah Abdul-Qadir Muhaddith 4.U1 ~J • In the vas t Indian subcon tinent, no one e lse other than Shah Ismail perhaps enj OYS S uch a high and respectable pedigree in term s of knowledge and grace teaching and instructing, wri ting and compiling, lecturing and prompting gu idancc, rein vigora ling and renewing the teachings of rel igion, revi vi ng rs Iam and rcfonning the Ummah. V cry few people rna y have had a pri vi 1ege of getting sue h a ri ch and spcctacu lar heri tage. Shah Ismai 1 Shaheed YJI""_') not only lived up to the great reputation and enormi ty 01· his legacy, but he practicall y furthered its sp Iendour mani fa 1d times and added lustre to it
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According to on authentic source, Shah Ismail -1.l:"1 ~> was born on 12th Rabi 'ul ~ Awwal I 193 H (corresponding to 26 til April 1779 G ). It means that he was almost seven years old er than his religious preceptor and mentor, the Amir-ul-Muminin (the head of the believers) Saiyid Ahmad Barailawi .uJ1 "-J. The name of his mother was Bibi Fatimah "Ln ~.). [1]
[I)

Mir Shahamat Ali, in the preface of hi:.;English translation of rTa'Jwiya~u/-Imdn ~ has mentioned his dalE:: of birth as 2~1h of Shawwal 1 19S H , And

has stated his moLh'L."T\; name as Fadeelat-un-Nisa (daught.c1" of Moulvi Alauddln Phulti). His maternal ancestory undoubted] y belonged to Phulat and his sister Bibi Ruqaiya's firSl marriage to his maternal cousin Moulvi Kamaluddin did take place in Phular itselt~ but the -tlulht,:ntic statement regarding his dale nf birth and the name of bi!Jmother ; s the one which is reconlc .. in the text. We 'do not know about the source of his reference. He d has mentioned. several other things in his biography which woeincorrcc L

1:2

Education & training:
Shah Sahib attained his pre] imiuary education from his esteemed father. At t he tend er age 0 f ei ght, he had mernori zed the Noble Qur'an, On 16th of Rajab 1203 H (12th April 1789 G)~ Shah A bdu l Ghani .4.JJ I U:A.,.: passed a way w hile Sh eh Shaheed was only lO years old, Each of his three paternal uncles (Shah Abdul-Aziz ,JJ c..,....=-, Shah Rafi uddin 1.!J~.w..o. J and S bah Abdul-Qadir "lU LLirJ were cq ual ly keen tn affec tiona tely take charge of upbringing t h ei r bereaved nephew ~ but thi s responsibi Ilty was Iermally shoul dered by Shal L Abdul-Qadi r LUI ~ J who himself had only one daughter. He is the one who taught the text books to Shah 1 sinai! He attained a degree of proficiency in a11the presc ribed subjects which were then in vogue and w hich w ere considered to be the h. ghest standard of education one could possibly secure those days. He secured a degree of completion in the studies of A had it h from Shah Abdu l-Aziz -l.U1 -.. ~ and thus he completed his education while he was abou t 15 or 16 years old. According to Sir Sai y id Ahmad Kh an, he was so much overconfident in the very beginning stage of hi s studies that he WOll ld never remember as to where the lesson would real Jy start. Sometimes he would start reading the text which immediately followed his present lesson. Whenever Shah Abdul-Qadir interru ptcd hi m such as to remind binI 0 f his actual Ies SOil he would answer that he avoided its inee it was too easy for hi m and whenever Shah Abdul-Qadir would ask him any question concerning the porti on which he had ski pped, he wou ld start delivering such an eloquent lecture about it that the people around h im wou ld be taken aback by surprise. Sometimes he would start his lesson precceding the one w hi ch he is supposed to read and when Shah Abdul-Qadir brought his attention to it, he woul d express such doubts th at even an accomplished instructor like him would have to pay a special attention in
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respon ding to his querri es. Ilis extraordinary became renowned far and wide. After he had completed his formal studies) people would put direct querries to him even while he was walking on the road intelligence

to examine him, keeping in mind the fact that so long as he did not have a book in his hand, he would not be able to give
satis fae tory answers to their querri es _ Rut Shah Ismail would uuhcs it" ling Iy start Iectu ring them and provi des. uch a de lai led answer to their querries that they would be ultimately put to shame on their boldness,

simply

Maulana authority

Khan Alam Madras, has written on the of Maulana Saiyid Muhammad AJ i Rarnpuri's statement that Shah Shaheed "vas a scholar of a very deep, profound, and authentic knowledge and had memorized the Noble Our'an hy heart, He had thirty thousand Ahaditb on the
Muhammad Bai'a (pledge):

tip of his tongue. Salyid Sahib's (~.urI~J) Eventhough Shah Shaheed's fame in terms or his learning and wisdom had travelled tar and wide, but he was n man of a rather carefree disposition, which means that he had not adopted an

oc ell pa t ion on a penn anen t ba sis, the [(.';;1 son 0 f wh ic h Coul ti possibly be that the activities which were practised by his family members, might have been inadequately suited for the reforming purpose according to his viewpoint) while lit: had no other new activity in his frame of mind. Or it could be that he would have had set his heart on a certain course of action and was only waiting in search of companions and fellows,
Tn 1234 H (1819 G) Amirul-Muminin (the head of the bel ievcrs) Saiyid Ahmad Barailawy .uJ1~) abandoned the company of Nawab A mi r Khan, the ruler of Toun k, proc cooed to Delhi from Raj pu tana an d took residence in Akbar A badi Mosqu c_Th e first
14

to take a pl edge of all egianc e on hi 8 hand was Maul ana Muhammad Yusuf Phulti, who was presumably a grandson of Shah Ahlullah, a brother of Shah Waliullah ..J1--J' The second person to take such a pledge on his blessed hand was Maulana Abdul- H ai 0(); I ....._,_,;. son-in-law of Shah A bdul-Aziz ot.i!l ...........J and (the finally it was Shah Shahccd who took a pledge on his hand. Once he did it, his life underwent a total transforrnation. He became obsessed with the task of reformation anti guidance day and night. On every Tuesday and Friday) he regularly deli vered a religious lecture in Shahi Masjid (Royal Mosque). Sir Saiyid sa ys in one of hi s writi n gs that the people earne to th e Friday prayers In such a huge number, as if they throng the mosques for the 'E id prayers in the Iorm of a rnassi ve and thuud cr ing crowd. Their number w as phenomenol and innumerabl e. The 111 eth ad of his acrmunising was so pleasing that whatever hi! said, got 1ngra ti ated in the hearts 0 f the peopl e an d they imbi bed Il to the core. Even if it involved a snag or a controversial point the same was cleared away during the course of his sermon. Revival of Sun no h and deterring Sh irk (po 1 yrhcism) and Bid 'a h (innovations) were the special subjects of his religious lectures, This was the time when the mission of the revival of religion commenced in full swing with its might. Thi s was the era abou t which Maulana A bul- K 0] am Azad (oi,..I! I .__ J) notes the fo llowi ng remarks in his book Tad hkirah:

an

"The secrets 0 f (the mission 01) Da 'wah (i. e. call to Islam) and reformation of UI111i1ah that were buried in the ruins of Old Delhi and the hovels and shanties of Kotla, were now being revived thanks to the involvement of the reigning sovereign, which caused a wave of consternation in the markets of Shah j ahanabad and an uproar on the stairs of Jami · Mas) id by this great and distingui shed person. Not only that! the news tran scend cd the boundaries of the Tndi an subcontinent but had ills repercussions far and wide. The things which the great and

15

renowned personaliti es of their time would not dare to express even inside the closed rooms, were now being said, heard and practised ill the open without reserve and the blood of martyrdom was indenting J18 indelible imprints and inscribing its redoubtable saga in the annals of the world history." The pilgri mage J ou mey: In Shawwal 1236 (July 1821 G)~ Saiyid Ahmad oJI,.-.)ntended to perform Hajj. Taking into account the possibility of death d uri ng a sea -j 0 urney , many scho 1ars had pronounced their j udgemen ts to the effect that the performance of Haff is no longer to be con si dered 0 f an obliga tory nature, Sorne people even went to the ex tent of saying that according to the commandment 0 f the Qur' anic verse:

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"And not throw yourselves into destruction"
The purpose of Ilajj is nothing but the disobedience of Allah (may Allah Iorbidl), One of the methods which could be emp loved to checkmate this evil trend was throu gh one's wri tings, ve rba 1 preachings, and therefore Sa iyi d S ah j b, Shah Isma il 411 Maulana Abdul- Hoi ,L1H ~ J Shah Abdul- Aziz ioUl....,. J and the righteous scholars did not leave any stone unturncd in re gard to this 0 b ligation 0 f theirs. Another meth od was to su bject the atm 0::;' phere of this vast country to the barrage of a posi ti ve publicity in regard to the performance of H aj} by taking a practical course uf action in order to awaken and revive the public fervour interest and enthusiasm in it. Saiyid Ahmad ~I~,.I was a man of determ in ation and courage, w hu undo ubtedly acted upon the second method also) the most surprising part it being that he dtrecied an open invitation for Hajj to all the M uslirns of th e country. He made a COmmon declaration to the effect that everybody should be prepared to perform the
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16

pilgrimage whether or not he has sufficient funds available with him for the journey. I Ie took it upon himself to shoul dcr a com prehensive responsibil ity for every body's / / aJi. He not only .preserved the 0bligatory nature 0f Hajj in its original form in the numb of people but also practically demonstrated to them that this obligation may be performed at ease, provided one should be determined to perform it as a Divine co mman dm ent wi t h the intention of a tru e and sincere Musli m. Therefore, j t followed that Saiy id Ahmad proc eedcd to perform Hajj with a caravan Ct)11 sisting of seven hundred and 1111y Muslims, He was also accompani ed by Shah Shaheed, h j S esteemed mother, and his sister. They rented ten ships, assigned an Amir to each ship to Jook after the affairs of the pilgrims tra ve 11ng aboard them and commenced their journey from i Calcutta, A fief the comp le lion of thei r Hajj and ha v ing visited all the sacred p 1aces, tb ey carne back in Sha' ban 1239 H (April I R24 G). 0 uring this j ourn ey ~Shah Ismail ...u I ~) was apro inted as an Amir over a group of people travell ing aboard one of the

ships.
Invitation

to Jihad:
Ld.,.I

rerum from the pi lgri m age, Shah Shaheed 4JJ I dedicated himself wholeheartedly for the sole purpose of inviting people to Jihad as per (he instructions of his religious preceptor. Sir Saiyid in one of his writings says:

Upon

hi s

"According to the instructions of his chief: leader of the virtuous ones and preceptor of the path of guidance, he adopted such a sty 1e or speech and sermoni S ing that it mainly elabora ted on the details and explanations concerning Jihad in Allah's course to such an extent that the burnishing effect of his speeches made the inner consci en ce of Muslims clean and immacu la to like a mi.rror. H~ became so much involved and dedicated to this cause of righteousness that everybody was involuntarily intrigued wi th 17

a longing that his. life be sacri ficcd fur this esteemed cause of virtuosity and hi So whole se If be exerted fur the upli ftnicnt of religion of Prophet Muhammad ,...L., ~ oJJ' r ".
l\.lj grn

tlon :
more
Or

H~ spent

less

one

year and nine months. in the task of

to Jihad. When different groups of IUtd~lhidin were formed at different places, it was decided after due exchange of thoughts and deliberations that Jihad should be commenced starting from the Irontier region where the Sikh government of L~H.~ Punjab had started committing aggressions, On 7th Jumada-ul-Ukhra 124] H (17th January 1 826 G), Sh~h Shahccd ....I' _"'Jcollllllcncc:u his migration en his way to Jihad, ! Th en hew 111:: accompan ied by onl y 500 or 6UU people. It was decided that once: they reached the prescribed centre, they would fi rsr run an app ra isal on the prevalent circumstance sand then the remaining groups would be called in. During this journey,
special responsibility of the admin istrati ve rna Uers in genera 1 as wt: 11as bei ng a fla g-bcarer oft lu.. targets concern ing the mi ssion of propagating Is Iam. ,,: Shah Shahccd was bearing a
'I 'his group commenced

his. invitations

its journey

from Rai Baraili and went all

the

way to Peshawar via Bundhail Khand, Gwallior, Tonk, Ajmer .. the desert of Marwar, Ulnar Kot, Hyderabad (Sind)!
Shikarpur, Quctta, Qandhar, Ghazni and Kabul. It was about three thou sand mi les j ou rncy comprising searing deserts where there was no trace of water for miles and miles) hig and mighty rivers, intractable mountains as well as frosty landscape. It took ten months to cover n lit his di S lance.

Jihad: Jihad with sword (i.e. the armed struggle) commenced on the 20th of Jumada ..al-ula 1242 H (20th December 1R26 U)_ The
following is a brief account of his most specific and salient

accomp 1ishmcnts ~
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1.

It is on! y due to hi s efforts that the people of the fron tier region gave the pledge of allegiance on the hands uf Saiyid Sahib concerning Jihad. Most of the deliberations which were conducted with the religious scholars and the elderly in the frontier region, were initiated by Shah Shaheed, He is the 'One who organi sed the matters concerning Jihad in the d j strict of Hazara, Even though he had on Iy ten or eleven Mujdhidin in the ba Hle u f Shanki yari at h i~ command, yet he convincingly vanqu ishcd OVlo'T a fair] y huge legion 01' sum army by displaying a feat of extraordi nary perseverance and steadfastness. Dun ng the course of this battle, Shah Shahccd's robe got perforated with bullets and one of his fingers got bru ised by a g un~ shot. Later he wouJd point to his finger in a good humour and j ocul arl y re mark (by playing a pun on words) "Th is is llly finger of martyrdom." (This very expression, with a twist of the linguistic pun, would also mean, "This is my finger of witnessing that there is no one worthy of being worshipped except Allah and M uhamrnad rLJ 0 • .;... .") ..th
it is cnl y due to his e[forts th at the poop le were prepared to

2.

'~

take an oath 01· allegiance in regard to th e observanc c of Sh art' ail in their day-to-de y ] ives and the people of th e frontier region enjoyed the blessings and bounties of a go v crnmen l based on the princi pies 0 f Is lamic law,
4, 1t wa s under his leadership that the prnrni nell t victoric s were

ac hieved in the battles or Amb, Ashrah, Mardan and Maya r. After the conquest of Peshawar, Saiyid Sahib nominated none other than him to conduct n egoti nti ons with Su ltan MUM mrnad Khan Barak Zai, Due to the fecal c itrance of til e opportun iso c e lemen ts in the frontier region, the circumstances therein got extremely deteriorated and threateningly ad verse and when S aiyi d Sahib took a
19

deci sion to abandon this centre and proceeded to Kashmir through the intractable and difficult route traversing and winding through the mounta incus landscape, he was also accom panied by Shah Shaheed in thi s j ourne y~ 5. During their journey to Kashmir, a battle at Balakot on 24th Dbi1-Qa'dah 1246 H {6t.h May 1831 G) took place wherein S ai yi d Sahib, Shah Shaheed and the majority of Mujlill id in attained their martyrdom.

'

A glimpse of hIs biography: As Jar as we could understand by looking at his biography) Shah Shahccd never liked forma] ilies in the m otters of his day -to-do. Y 1ivi n g, 11pon being accompanied with Saiyid A h mod ~he became su much gleeful and carefree within his lowest standard of living as if he was seated on the throne of an emperor. 'When he rene hed C ale utta whi 1e being cnroute to hi s pilgrimage, the agent of East India Company J M unshi Aminuddin Ahmad came tu visit him. During his time! he was considered to be one of the rich and famous personalities of Calcutta. After meeting Saiyid 1\ M mad ~ he enq uired of h T m concerning the whereabout s \)I' Shah Isrna i1 o...l.I' J' At that very moment, he was walking towards Saiyid Ahmad after ha ving alighted from the ship. Ilis clothes were all besmeared with dirt, When the people beaconed in his directi on ~ M U nshi Aminuddi n was under the impression that he wo uld have been some other Ismai J. In order to c1ari fy himse 1f further, he reiterated his question saying, "The person I am enquiring about is Shah Ismaii (._[JI~..) who is the nephew uf Shah A bdul-Aziz ("-.ll ._.).~~ When he was told that this very person is th e on e he w as looking for) he was. so much moved to observe his simplicity in disposition and informality in manners that he involuntarily turned emotional and burst into tears.
4..,.....:0.

Sa i d Ahmad gave a horse to Shah Ismail so that he rna y usc i1 yi a~ a means. of transport, but whenever he went out to run an
20

errand for himself

while be himscl f preferred to walk on toot on the plea

he made one

0

f his colleagues mount on it
th at

so

long as we arc out on a religious missi on, the more we bear the bards h ips, the m ore virtues we shall accrue to our cred iL

His faith fu t attachmen t to Sa iyi d 1\h mad is a renowned fact, People have spun many a yam in regard to his attachrnen t with him. Regardless w he lher these storie s are true or false, there j s no denying the fact that Shah Ismail had n very deep and extraordi nary attachment with S aiyi d Ahmad. In spite of all thi s, his faith in him never had any bearing on his truthfulness as he never hesita ted to say the right thing. On on e occasion, the Am b Fort, w hie h sheltered Saiyid A hm ad's family and the oth er ladies, was threatened with an imminent danger. Saiy ill Ahmad wrote 3 letter to Shah Ismail instructing him to convey the Indies out to a safe place so that the Mu] lih idin do not have to come
across any possible difficulty during the course of their battle. Shah Ismail had a notion that the ouster of ladies from there . wo u ld I,ave an adverse effec t on th e mora Is o f the peop 1e around them as the same shall be interpreted by them to be a prescntimcn t 0 fa lurking disaster. Therefore, it was conveyed to Saiy id Ahmad that this action at this juncture would be un tim ely and hence inad visab 1e. When Sai yid Ahmad rei tented his instructions, Shah Ismail wrote to him in no uncertain terms that the compliance with his instructions shall only harm Mus] ims and therefore he alone shall be answerable about it on the Day of Judgement. Upon hearing this Saiyid Ahmad took his orders back.

Even though he was not that old, but a study of the events
covering his last days reveals that his physique had grown,

extremely weak and emaciated as a result of his being constantly
subjected to the rigourous and labourious work which he kept rendering for the sake of religion. On one occasion, he insistently made a small cannon mounted Oll his shoulders in
21

order to awaken the spirit of determination among the people, but his feet started shaking and staggering about due to the burden. While climbing a mountain, he would start panting profuse! y just alter clam bering his way up a few steps, but despite having been in this enfeebled condition, it never happened till the last moment that he would ever lag behind anyon e 1n taking an active part ina battle or in the matter of undertaking a journey, He would never even slacken to cover up two day s journey in one day w hcnever the S8111(:: was required u f him, keeping in view the realization of the desi red 0bjecti ves of the war. On several occasions, in the frontier region, he had to come to grips with the religious, martial and pulitical problems of a crucial nature and Shah Ismail kept resolving them with an effortless ease. A famous chronicle had it that wh iIe he was once busy in cuny-combing a horse, some people enquired of him concerning some rcl igious matters. He kept cuny ..com bi ng his horse w hilt: responding to th e qu cries of hi s interlocutors to the fullest. Saiyid Jafar Ali N aqwi WIitcs that once he had an opportunity to be led by him in one of his prayers. In a prayer consisti ng oft wu Rak 'a, he recited the complete 'Surab Bani Israel" in such a mystifying and spiritually enlightening manner that he never ever derived such a blissful and heart-felt pleasure behind any Imam till the moment of writing. He writes that he will never ever forget that particular prayer in his lifetime. Is th(l!re

any who 'WiUremember (or receive admonition):

It was Shah Ismail il.I~~~ who exerted every moment of his life in upholding the word of truth and the revival of Islam, He is the one who sacrificed an his worldly pleasures in the service of religion without the Least hesitation and demonstrated the sine eri ty of Ius mission by the blood of his martyrdom. I n ca sc we 81'C courageous enough to gauge the ratings of our Faith in

22

Allah

run an unbiased appraisal on the quality of our rei igious integrity, where shall we 0.11 stand? How unfortunate it is that hundreds 0 f the so-c a lled and se 1 proc laimed ~ nts ~ f~ sai D(.; CLlpy ing their sea t sand saner urn sane lor um S in side the shrines of the erstwhile saints in the name of religion, have been heaping curses. on this great scholar and Mujahid, constantly for a peri o d (J f hundred and t W en t y - Ii vc Ycars, TIle y did not onl y eye his love of J shun with suspicion, but doubted his Islam itself We are listened to these curses and abuses with such a grea t in teres t an d enthusi asm ~as if it was a unique heroic deed and req uisi te to pre serve and safeguard one ~s re ligion and piety. Children: Shah Abd u f-Qadir conduc led Shah S hahccd' s ma trimon y with his. grand-daughter Bibi Kulthum He sired on Iy one child whose
name was Shah Muhammad Umar, who spent all his life in an absorbed state {as if lest in meditation).

and

His wor ks = Shah 1sm all S h a heed ha s several works to his credi t. Here are some of them to name a few:
I. 2. 3. A trea ti se on the pri nci pies of Fiq h (Islam ic jurisprudence) which ha s been pub] ished. A treatise on logic which has been referred tot by Sir Saiyid Ahmad Khan, A book titled "Clarifying the evident truth about the rulings cone eming the dead and the shrines. ,,.Experts observe th at no book, the like of) has ever been wri tt ell in any language which brings into limelight the reality of Bid'uh. (inventing new th in gs in rcl igion] . Regrettably, thi s work cou Jd not ha ve been completed. This has been published twice Of thrice along with its Urdu translation.

13

4.

"The Status and Dignity of an Imam. n This too is an excellent book. The Persian manuscripts are very rare now! however Urdu versions are a vai lab Ic,

5~ "Illuminating the two eyes in regard to the raising of hands." Thi s is the co] lection 0f fhose A hadith w hich prove that the raising of hands (as prescribed during a prayer) is an act of Sunnah (supererogatory} This book: has been published many times with its Urdu version. Its Arabic edition has recently been published along with the ex p lana tory notes by Jail! iat-e-A hi e-H adi th, Pakis tall (The Department for the Propagation of Sun.luJh) in an extremely elegant stylc.lIJ 6. "The Straight Path ,'" Th is book has four cha ptcrs, Only the tlrst chapter has been written by Shah Shaheed, The contents of ita ll have originally been written by Saiyid Sahi b, whereas the expressions and th e style 0 f writing belong to Shah Sahib. Its Urdu version has also been published, J ts Persian version was on] y published once and is now very rarely available. [lJ " Taq wiyut-ul-Imdn .. (th e strengthening of Faith), the detail s of which foHow further ahead. Yak-Rout (One dayer), is a short treatise in which Moulvi F ad] II aq Kha i rabadi 0bjections 0 n his book Taqwiyat -ulft,~dn have been an swercd, While Shah Sahib W~ on his way to the [nosy,ue to perform his prayer, he received the letter of MOll JVi FadI H aq. Immediately after offering his prayer. he sat down to wri te an answer to it and finis h ed it in one stroke. This 1s why it has been named Yak Rozi.
t~

7.

'3-

IIJ • Al-Mliktabah

As-Salafliih · has also published its translated version, by A (~Makiabah A s-S.alajiyah.

[~l This 113.'.0 ow A.Jhamdulillah been published n

9.

M 'akateeb (The w tit len notes), is one of his very hi g collections Some of th em became quite well-known in his name, He wrote most of them on the instigation of Saiyid Sahib.
r

1O. His veri fled works w hich are as follows
a) A Persian Qaseedah (panegyric) in praise of the Prophet ..;,_l--~ ~ •.!.H _
r

b} A Persian ~Qaseedah ..(panegyri c) prai sing Sai yid Sahib

c) A Persian Mathnawi (long narrative poem) knuwn as Silke-Noor (a thread 0 f light) on the subj eet of 1'auhid (Th e Oneness 0 f Allah). d) An Urdu Mat hnawi (long narrative poem) also un the subject of Tauhid. e) A Persi an Ma thnawi of a Hadith. (long narrati vc poem) in ex pI anati on

The history of Tuqw;yal-uJ-J man ~
Tao wiyat -lJ 1-1man was fi rst published in 1242 (1826-2 7 G) at the time when Shah Saheed, Saiyid Ahmad B arai law i .uJ I '--.J (~~'jP+,) had migrated along with a group of Mujdhidin from their beloved native land and an armed struggle (Jihad) was abou t to take p Inee for th eli beration and pun f cati on of rndi a. Within a period of last 170 years, we can not say with any de grcc of certa iuty as to how many times it has so far been pu b 11 shed, However, we presum e by emp 1oyi n g a rough gue~s that the same must have been published at least four or five million copies! Trillions of people have been enlightened by read ing it. This is such a dignity which perh aps no other hook of Urdu language other than Taqwiyat- ul-lman. has the honour of achieving so far. A blizzard of rnisgi vings and a string of diatribe which was unleashed against this book has been seldom

witnessed by any other book. If we look at the history of Taqwiyat-ul-Imdn today, A strange spectacle material i scs in our imagination, as if it is an ocean being rocked by the fury of a hurricane, it's surface being constantly lashed by the tumult: angui sh, fri c t ion and tc mpestuousn ess 0 fits broken w a yes, thereby giving it a great resemblance with the Day of Judgement. Dejection is writ large OLl the faces uf the captains of all the colossal and herculean ships and they arc all anchored firmly sticking on to the sea-shore, I Iowever, there is only one courageous navigator who, despite the fragility of his ship, is still keeping his ship continuously asail: He is a person of such

an unflinching Faith and solidity that nil the fa vag~~ and depreda ti ons fai 1 to P ro d ucc a sing Ie fa vouri n g gri 111ace of fidgeting on his eyebrow. All those atrocities and redouble

furies of the hurricane who had forced all the sea stalwarts and the old salts to dock their ships by the sea-shore the cq ually forbidding and threatening in intimidating this very daunting na vi ga tor, but he, for the sake 0f hi s sense of duty and compliance, braves and defies them. This na vigator kept advancing further ahead thwarting and frustrating nil the forces who are at work in his op posi tion and thus becomes en ti t1ed to such a position of honour which only fall to the lot or the ones ex hi biti n g forbearance and pati ence,
The 'Salt e n t fea tures

of t h i:s book:

The subject matter of Taqwiyat-ul-Imdn is Tauhid (the Oneness o f Allah), which is the found arion and the bas is o f rel igion. Innumerable books and treati ses have so far been written on th is top ic, but the style o r Shah Shah eed and his tee hn ique of the subject treatment is the most outstanding and unique one and is purely reformatory, Ile made only Qur'fin and Sunnah the orbit of his discussion just like the righteous scholars. He proffers and refers to the Qur'anic verses and Ahadith and interprets them in a very simple and comprehensible style and brings to light the

true status of of all the unlawful customs and rituals, which are common Iy practi sed in th e SOC!(:{ y and are detrimental to th e talth of Tau hid (1slamic M onoth ei sm) j n a very pi easant and

unprcssi ve style.
H e gathered

under different topics all the horrible blunders of Fa i th and practi ce which are contrary to teach ing or] slamic

Monotheism, for instance, committing an act of Shirk (associating partners to Allah) in terms of knowledge, regulating the affairs of the universe, habits and practices awl Shirk in worsh ippi., g_ Hence Taqwiyat -u i-Iman has becom e an .a uthcn tic and unique book on the subjct of Tauhid. In addition to the above, h also attempts to highlight the following: ], T his book is an ex trerll ely surprising speci rn e n, g i\I ing us an in si g ht j nto the educe tion aJ~ practi cal and cultura I patterns w h ich were in vogue: during the ti 111es 0 f Shah Shah eed, T f someone intends to have a background information as to what were the dogmatic, practiced and moral ailments which the Muslims were suffering lrum in this vast country before one hundred and thirty years) this book shall prove to be An excellent source of information for him. Shah Shaheed did not make himself contented with the task of merely elucidating the intricacies of the theoretical precepts of Tauhid but he rather assu mcd sueh a sty le of wri ting whi t;h makes reader men tally conj ure up a picture of that society and its surround ing milieu in which that book had been written. This poten ti ally enhances the effi cacy and effectiveness of Da 'wah (Call to Islam). Even though this book covers an extremal y important su hj ect, b ut Shah Sh aheed adopted such a method of reasoning and deducing facts that both a slightly educated as wen as; an ex tremely educated person, according to thei r own intellectual standards of perception, may and have been 17

2.

3.

benefiting from the said book. 4. Even though this book was WIi ttcn during a period when the Urdu prose-writing was devel oping through its prelim in ary stages, butS hah Sahi b' s prose is so simp ret breezy, fresh and pleasing that, except a few words and idioms, it is not simple even toda y to 'Write sue h a fascinating book. Th 1S j s an undemiab 1e fact that even though til e IJrdu lang uage has progressed through the additional phases of its deve Iopm ent, it w i11 always cons ider Taqwiya t-uI-1m tin to be an invaluable treasure in terms of stylistics,

The opposite attitud (:~of respect an d neg led: an ex treme 1y amazing phenomen on ilia! even though Taqwiya t-u 1-1man. is replete w ith 8 host of advan tagcs, it has been subjected to an ambivalent attitude on the part of it401 same time, People pa in such a trem-endous attention to its publicati on and distribution that no other book in Urdu language could rival it. J t has been the practi ce of many poop le and organisations that they used to pub li sh thousands of its cop ies annually and distributed it either gratis or against a very nominal
devotees, as this hook, on one hand was well taken care of, while on the other hand, it was thrown into neglect too at the

rtis

charge .. while on the other hand! it was neglected to such an exten t that no castigation or correction was ever effected in i1. No one even cared about getting 1t serialised under different chapters or produ cing it in a more poli shed and presentable shape keeping in view the ever changing tastes and proclivities of the readers. It seems as if the devo tees of thi shook h.ave merely given it a sanctified status, limiting their association and a ttachment with this book to the ex.tent of preserving it and handing it over in its ori ginal and unabridged form to the oncoming generations. According to my knowl-edge, there have been only two attempts so far in regard to the correction of the text and entering footnotes to it on two different occasions, but 28

they two were not accomplished in a full-fledged manner

Ess ential tasks:
There have been many essential tasks which may not be h iddcn fJOIn the eyes. of the people who have a refined taste in compiling and publishing. A study of Taqwiyat-ul-Imtin at once rev eals that Shah Shaheed, jus. t si mil ar to h j s orhc r works, also wrote iT at once and in a single effort. Since he had devoted h is 1ife to th e great. ca u sc of the Isl amic re v j val who le - hearted 1 to y the ex tent th at he had hardl y any tim e 1eft fo r other fie1iv i tics, he did not have an opportunity to review his manuscript of Taqw(va t-ul-Ima n ei th er . ' l'he essen t ial (ask con cerning thi s book which Shah Shaheed could not undertake TO accomplish by hirnse hi s devotee s were supposed to do the n eedfu I by t hcmsclvcs. For instanc e, they c ould have effected th e fo 11 owi n g

a:

changes:
have got the book properly synchronised and serial ised under different titles and sub- ti tles to render it eas j er fo r til e readers a 8 we lIas to make: it more fruitful and informati ve for them. 2, Shah Sahib! according to his requirement, had only mentioned the texts 0 f Ahud it h. Now it was necessary to give an ac count o f the sources of those A had ith (in t crms 0 f lh ci r rat ings) in the footnotes below, and the references to th e prj n ted books should ha vc been stated there in. 3. Whatever unlawful activities and customs Shah Sahib observed around hi m~ he briefly ment ioned about them in hi s book. Tho se customs and acti vities had gradual 1y phased out wi lh the pas sage of time. It was necessary that their characteristic features also be stated briefly 80 that a reader may get a c lear -cut idea that practi sing those things arc unlaw lu 1 indeed. This woul d help them avoi d the other ~lmilar ac ti vi ti es
29

1. They could

which assume periods.

different

forms

and shapes during different

4. During the times of Shah Shaheed, the mode of punctuation in \.... riting was d iffcrent especially the full slops and comas etc. were not at all observed, Later, the writing system gradually kept developing and advancing. It was necessary that the old style ol' writing be replaced by the new one by introducing full stops and comas etc. in the text so that the same becomes easily understandable to the readers, as this step would have enhanced the uti lily of th is book considerably. 5_ As it has earlier been mentioned, that even today Taqwiyatul-lman is a rare book in terms of it's simplicity, comprehensibility. impeccability of text and fascination, Despite .n H the above facts, some of' its. words and phrases were not very clearly comprehensible to the readers and therefore required an explanation.

It is nut very heartening to note that none of the above could
Some people did pay attention to it, but could not accomplish these tasks according to what was actual ly required of them. Therefore, a systematic and organised version of Taqwiyat-ul-Imtin is published for the realization and fulfillment of the said purposes, The present age: Today) the scope of this book's potential Iruitfullness has widened immensely. Instead of being branded as a flag-bearer of Wahabism in the common parlance, he is today recognised as a proponent 0 f the great Is larnic revi va~~who raised a banner of Ji had (an armed struggle for holy purpose) on the vast land 0 f the Indian subcontinent to lay the foundation of a just and rightful Islam ic government it was a time when all the traces of So thousand years of Muslim domination of the subcontinent
have been accomplished,

JO

were on the wane. He took up th e cudge Is for pur ificat ion and independence in an atmosphere which was charged with deso lation and dcj eel ion. He demon strated to the M uslims the path of determi nati on , courage and perseverance while the glory of lh ~ir conquest and dom in ance was a lmost breathing its. last.
Today ~ a d cscri p ti on of the saga, high li gh ti ng hi s ga lant and

heroic deeds in his capacity as a Mujahid (the one who struggles in the path of Allah) is C onsid ercd to be as an extrern ely
cflccti ve means of imparting a correct religious education, and t h erefore, ,tis a trcrncndo us service to render Taqw~va.t-ul-l ,nii n more attractive and worth reading for a joe-public. This is also an undeniable reality that whatever pronouncements Shah

S h a heed had made a hundred an d thirty years ago ~co uld not be thorough Iy n nd erstood and apprecia ted in terms of its i mportance and qual itail ve superiori ty in a] 1 the previous age s as m uc I, as it could be real ised and appreci nted during the prcscn l
time of
ours,

The orderly arrangement

of Tuqwiyat-ul-Imam

Prior to arranging Taqwiyat-ul-lmdn in an orderly shape, Shah Shahecd had compi led A hadi tIJ. in the confirmati on 0 f Tau hid (On en ess of Allah) and the rej ecti on 0 f Sh irk (associating partners to A llah) and Bid 4iit (inventing new things in religion), a collection which he named Radd-ul-Ashrtik' (in rejection of po lythei SIU)_ The late N awab S iddi que Hasan Kha n then wor ked on the references and sources of these Ahadith and got this collection published under the title Al-Idrdk li-takhreej A had il h Radd-u I-As Izrdk (Perce ption to in fer Ahadi th in the negation of polytheism). Shah Shaheed only rendered the first porti on of th 1s co 11ection in to U nlu and th is very portion j s known as Taqwiyat-ul-Imdn. The remainder 'Of the portion was published by the Late Moulvi Sultan Muhammad in Urdu under the title of Tadhkir-ul-lkhwan (Reminding to the brothers).

or

J.

31

\VC can not say with any degree of certitude as to in which period Taqwiyat-ul-lman has actually been written. Alone' place, this book comprises a description of the sanctified

Ka ~bah's C ourty ard in sue h a[] effec ti vc manner that it gives an impression that Shah Shaheed was himself an eye-witness to this spectacle and hence \VC can deduce that this book must have been written after his return from Hajj. Spurred on by the
instigation of some of his friends, Mulla Sahib Baghdadi voiced some 01' his objections on Taqwiyat-ul-Iman. Shah Shaheed wrote a letter from Kanpur in response to his objections and the year which is inscribed 011 this letter is 1240H, which further subscribes to the notion that the said book must have been written in the beginning of 1240H after his return from [lajj. DUring that period, Shah Shaheed had dedicated himself to the task or propagating Islam and organising lor Jihad with all his heart and sou] and he departed for the cause of Jihad on {he 7th or Jumada-al-Ukhra 1241H. Upon having read th~ letter of Shah Shaheed, Ml~J1a Sahib Baghdadi confessed his mistake. Among the scholars of Delhi, the one who was. renowned to be the most prominently active in his opposition, was Maulana Fadl Haq Khairabadi, about whom it has been generally acknowledged now that despite having been a dignified scholar and possessing an immense amount o f know ledge, his dogma tic precepts and beliefs were no different than that of a joe-public, He triggered the controversy of the possibility of existence and non-existence of the Prophet's (f-j ~ "-'31~) counterpart and did not take into account the difference between Allah's Will and His Capability to bring something Into existence. Shah Shaheed, through his treatise known as Yak-R ozi (Onc-da yer), had pro ved the basclessness of all these objections. We cannot elaborate on these dimensions here due to the lack of space.

32

Differen t versions of Tuqwiyat ..ul-lmun: The first and foremost task in regard to gettin g the book rearranged and making it more polished was to collect such versions which are more authentic and have more room for dependability. The versions which were readily available for reference are as H;11ows ~

1.

version dated 7th of Dhil-Qa~dah 1252H (l3th February j 837G) comprising a total of 114 pages, ca ch pag~ co nsistin g of '4 lines, a nd each line contain ing 16 words. This is the oldest manuscript available in the humble view of the writer. Some of its pages are rather moth -caten - The first eight pages are not a vail ab le, hand-written version comprising 2J7 pages, each page consisting of 8 lines, each line comprising 14 words, excellent handwriting and a fine paper. Date of writing has not been men tioned on it.
+~

A hand-written

2.

3.

A printed version of Taqwiyat-ul-lmdn published by DarulUloom Printing press, Delhi in the year 1847 G, containing altogether 92 pages. It has not been confirmed as to what edition it exactly was, as no other copy of its former printed version is avai lable to us. copy of its type-written version (cursive style). This version was corrected by Moulana Muhammad Hasan under the auspices of Moulvi Abdul-Latif and Moulvi Kamii under the supervision of Munshi Ghulam Maula and Munshi Wajid Sahib and was printed in Muhsini Printing Press Calcutta. The printing. was completed in 1854 G. A special attention was paid to the correction of the text in the said version. A comparison of the texts reveals that the rev isor has effcc ted a few changes in it. III addition to this one, we also had an opportunity to refer to several other editions as well. .An edition which was published by
A
j

4,

.33

Jam iyat- ud-Da 'wath Wat-1 au' igh (Associa tion tor the propagati on of Islam) and campi 1ed by Maulana M uh iud din
Ahmad Qusuri is specially worth-mentioning.

The principles of getrtne it organised: W c ha v e had some detai Ied discussions with some dignified and accomplished scholars in regard to determining the regulations
and limi ts of getting this book re-organ ised and render it more refined and polished, All those scholars were bona fide ones and were really worth giving their views about it. Some observed that aU th e archa ic words and obso1 ete idiomatic phrases shoul d be changed accordingly and some complexities ill the syntax should be altered necessarily at least to such an extent that it should be easily comprehensible to the ones who are only accustomed to studying the books written in the present -dayprose style. These kinds of partial changes had been effected earl ier also, but pursuant to giving this matter a profound though tt it seemed S uitable that no part of it be mudified and the text should be printed in its original form as it was, after purging it from imperfections through a laborious research. However, the style of punctuation which was prevalent during the times of Shah Shaheed was avoided and the present style ol'punctuation was adopted. For instance:

1.

Dun ng Shah Shaheed ~ ti mes, some of the word s were s writ ten in a spli ced form. But in the recent version, these words have been printed scparatel y according to the present day practice.
Some verbal forms denoting lenses! which hac! different grammati en 1 shapes during the ti m es of Shah Shaheed, have been changed accordi ng to the present day usage in the new

2.

version.
3.
The whole book has been covered with the punctuation marks so that tJ1C sentences and ph rases become clearl y

distinguishable. The words like ~ and' etc, which were then being used as a comma or a dash, have also been deleted in the new edition. According to our view, none of the above may be considered a change in the main text as thi s is on ly a di ffereucc in the mode of pun ctua lion.
4, The words and phrases that required an interpretation, have

been explained either in the footnotes below, or a word or two have been added in the main tex t with in parenthes is (brackets).
S.

Those Ahadith which were partially referred to in the main tex.t, have been completed in the footnotes. Shah Shaheed, while referring to the translation of some of the Qur'anic verses, only focussed on its implied meanings and the message he intended to convey through it. In regard to the literal translation of such verses, the translation of Shah Abdul-Qadir Muhaddith <l.JJ1 "---~ has been presented in the book,

6.

T be last word:
Within the limits of one resources: and capabilities, we have tried our utmost to make the reading of this book more and more easy, attractive and enjoyable. What ever amount of success we have achieved in rhis regard so far, we only think of it as a miracle of the ever present mercy and blessing of Allah the Exalted. In case th is meagre endeavour of ours does happen to contain some flaws, we consider it to be a shortcoming of our mind and perception and hence, owe our apologi es to our dear readers.

We. however, should hasten to add that the only purpose we had
in our minds was to important religious accomplishment

broaden the scope of the profitability of this
of Shah Shaheed to its

maximum

the

length so that the Muslims may become Muslims in true sense of the word.

And last but not least, ow ultimate supp li cation IS that the prais e j s to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustain er of the worlds, and our salutions and greet jogs to the Lord of all the Messengers. Ghulam Rasonl Mcbr

PRELUDE
Eulogies and Glnrffieatinns: Oh our Lord! It is: incumbent upon us 00 express our thanks and grati hld c l Q Yo II that You have best owed on us Your end less boun ti es and fa vours and blessed us W lthY 0 LII gui dance to the only true rel ig j on (u n tainted and authen ti c fa ith en] oy lug the privilege of Your concurrence). You have led us to the fight path of Islamic Monotheism. made us one of the: followers of the Prophet of Islam rL-, .ylJ: .!.H j.P ., bles sed us with an ardent favour to learn re ligi on and have kindled a feeling of affection wi thin 0 ur hearts for the poop 1e who observe rel igious norms in th ell dayto-day 1ivcs, Oh our Lordl We beseech Y ou to shower Your blessings and mercy On Your beloved Messenger rLJ J..#.illl ~ his family and progeny) hi s Companions and his succes SOTS. We entrea t yo u to include us too among them and gi ve us strength to I ead an Is IA rnic way of li fe. Pl ease m ake our ending on Islam and j nc lude emr names wi thin the 1ist of You r obedient slaves. Ami n, (0 Allah accept 1t)

!

Servan t and servitu de:
All the human beings are the slaves uf Allah. The duty of a sla vc j s to carry out instructions given to him and the one who sh1 rks his responsibility is not a slave. The slavery or servitude is based on the correctness of Faith. The one whose Faith has deficiency, his service is regard cd as unacceptab 1e an d whosoever is blessed with the correctness of Faith! even a small fraction of h j S serv icc thus rendered is deemed c redita ble, Hence, it is an obl igati on on every Mus lim to strive to mal ntain hi s F aith (according to the ex act ing standards of r slarni c M onoth ei Sill). Furthermore, one sh au Id accord the foremost preference to matters concerning the rectification of his Faith over the rest of the matters in his day -to-day life, 37

Th e prevalent

condition s:

The present day si tuation is that the people have adopted different ways. Some of them pursue the traditions chen shed by their forefathers, som e swear by the methode logies devised by the saints, some proffer the self-proc laimed observations of the

scholars as an cv idcnce whereas some merely run their own conjectures and poke their nose into the matters of religion on the pretext of using their inte Ilect,
The best c h 01ce:

The best po ssibl e ~1?ti n is that we sh Qui d regard Qur ~ and o an Sunnah as a yardstick of excellence, refrain from interfering into the rnauers concerning the Islamic law by applying our intellect in to ~ and must s lake the th irst of our sou l by resorting to these t two affluents (i. e. Q ur' an and Sunnah). We must recognise the sayings of the saints, observ ations 0 f the seho Jars and the ell stems 0 b served wi thin one" S community in case the said th ings con finn to the stan dards set forth by Qur' an and Sunnah and likewise we sho uld rej ectfull y shun them in case they do
nOL I t is not a n up hill ta sk to uudersta nd reli~ion:

A In'y th which has gained much currency anlollg the masses is that to have an understanding 0 f Qur' an and IIadith is a di fficul t task for it requires a lot of know ledge and as long as we are ignorants, we can nc i ther understand lt nor we could act u 1Xl1l it. Onl y the sa iuts and pious people possess the capabil ity to net accord ing Iy. Thi s notion whi ch 1s nursed by them is absolutely base] ess because Allah the Exalted has stated that the verses of
Qur' an arc explicit mentioned in the following verse: the Noble and conspicuously clear as

38

HAnd indeed We have sent down to you manifest AYlIl (verses) and none disbelieve in then} but the Fdsiqun
(those who rebel against Allah's Command)," (V_2:99) The above statement meal':'; that it is not difficult to understand them at all but it is difficult to act upon. them as their compliance seems to be fairly hard on one's self and therefore the

disohedicut one s do not recognise them,

Why were th e Messen geTS sen t·!
It does not rcq uire a lot of knowledge to have an understanding of Qur'an and Sunnuh as the Messengers were sent to provide guidance and directions to the ignorants and the· illiterates and to impart know ledge to the unlearned people as stated in one of the verses of the Noble Qur'an:
.!I- Jo J.

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"He it is Who sent among tile unlettered ones a Messenger from among themscl ves, rec iring to them His verses, p urifyi n g them and teaching them the Book and A I~ Hikmab (legal ways). And verily, they had been before in mainfest error. (V. 62:2) This is one ufthe great bounties of Allah that He deputed such a Prophet who taught the unlearned, purified the impure, imparted knowledge to the ignorants, wisdom to the unwise and guidance to th e delinquent. Even after grasping th e import of this verse, if some one still insists that it is the job of the learned to comprehend Qur'an, and the great saints to act upon it's teachings, it only tantamounrs to rejecting the above noted Qur'finic verse and depreciating this grand bounty of Allah. The fact is that by acquiring an understanding of the above, the ignorant persons become the learned ones an d the delinquent

onus tum into scholars by acting upon the teachings transcribed

therein.
An instance of a physician and a sick person: To elaborate it hypothetically, let us assume that on one hand we have an expert and wise physician, while 011 another hand" we have another person who is suffering from some kind of a horrendous ailment. By way of sympathy, a third person advises him to consult such and such physician for his treatment, but this sick person observe ~ that to a pproa eh th j 8 physician, and get trca ted by him is the ta sk 0 r tho se w ho are hal c and hearty and as 10 n g as 1 am mortal 1y 51 Ck, how could I possibly go to hj III for treatmen t? Won ~l yo u th ink of thi s person to be m enta 11 y decrepit as he does not recognise the efficacy of a doctor's treatment, A physician is meant to provide treatment to the invalids. Docs it person deserve to be called a doctor who claims to provide treatment only to the hale and hearty? Thus we may reasonab 1y cone lud c tha t an ignorant a nd del inq uent person cq uall y needs to understand Qur' and H,aduh and act upon it ' fervently as does a saint anti a scholarly person. 11 is an obligation on all and sundry to continue their pursuit of the know ledge con cern ing the teachings of Qur > an and Sunnah, put their heart and soul in to u udcrs tanding it, act upo nit accordingl y and mould the ir Fai th ,"vith in if s frame work. .

an

Monotheism

and prophethoed: A 1]ah as the onl y One, worthy of bei ng

We must remember that Imdn (Faith) has two constituents:

a) To

consider worship pcd.

b) To recognise the prophethood of Messengers of Allah. To consider AJlab as the unl y One ~worthy of being worshipped, means that we should not associ ate partners wi th 1lim and to .recognise the prophethood of the Messenger implies that we

must 1u110\\' him and act according to his instructions. The first constituent of Faith is t.o conform to the Islamic Monotheism and the second one is to comply with Sunnah (teachings of the Prophet ..J-~ ...... .u.J r ). he opposite of Monotheism is polytheism T and the antonym of Sunnah is Bid 'ah (innovation). It is obligatory on every Muslim to strictly adhere to the concept of Islamic M onorhcism and to comply with the teachings of the Prophet ,J...J ~ illI ~~ One must abide by them and avoid slipping into the acts 0 f Sh irk (pu lythei sm; l, c. as soci atin g partners w j th Allah) or Bid 'ah (innovating new things in religion), Shirk and Hid 'ah may be considered as a termite that eats into the sinews of Faith and destroys it. As far as other vices are concerned, their commission only impedes the process of pursuing pious deeds, There fore! a person who is character ised by the qu ali tics of being a monotheist! follower of Sunnah, averse to Shirk and Bid'a and whose accompaniment inspires WI inclination towards compliance of Sunnah, is indeed a person who should he taken
1
r

as a religious instructor and mentor,

On this treatl se Taqwiyat-ul-I man.: In this book entitled Tuqwiyat-ul lmdn, we have compiled a few Qur'dnic verses and Ah(idith which elaborate the Oneness of Allah, compliance with Sunnah, and the vices of Shirk and Bid'ah. This has been translated into simple English along with
short footnotes for the purpose of giving explanations 8() that everybody can benefit from it and whomsoever All ah wi lis, ma y be led to the Right Path, May Allah accept it as a means of our del iverancc in the I Ierea fter. A min. It has been named Taqwiyatu l~ 1m wh ich comprises two chapters. The first chapter consists of description concerning the concept of Islamic Monotheism and the wickedness of polytheism and the second chapter consists of compliance with Sunnah. and the vices of

an

Bid'ah,

41

Ch apter One

Description of Tauhid
People's unawareness and ignorance:
Polythei sm is general! y widespread am ong the people and the concept of M onoth e ism is in sacrcity, Many people who claim to be the bearers of Faith do not understand the meanings of Tauh id nil d Sh irk (Mono the ism and pol yth e ism), Apparently they are Muslims, hut they arc unconsciously involved in the nets of Shirk. Therefore, first we should try to understand the meanings of Tauhid (Monotheism) and Shirk (polytheism) so tha t we may kn ow abo u l the ir advantages an d di sadvanta gcs as d irected by Qur ~ and Sunnah.

an

The acts lending to poly the ism:
In di ffi cul t ti mes and situations people cal J upon sa ints, Prophets, Im am, martyrs, angels and fairies for assistance; make their vows to them, invoke them for the fulfillment uf their wishes and even make so-called offerings to them so that their wishes rna y come true-To avoid a ilrnents, they have no scrup J es abou t attributing th eir sons to those false dei lies by giving them sue h names as Abdun- N a bi, Ali B ak h sh, Hussain Bakhsh, Peer Bakhsh, Madar Bakhsh, Salar Bakhsh, Ghu1am Muhiuddin and G h ulam Moinuddin etc. Someone raises a plai t of hair in the name of a deity, someone slaughters an animal in their names, someone invokes them in a distressed situation and someone swears an oath in their names, This means that the way n011Mus iims treat their gods and goddesses> these so-called Muslims also give exactly a similar treatment to the Prophets, saints, Imam, martyrs, angels and fairies. Despite comm itti ng a] 1 the above sinful acts, they still claim to be Muslims. As Allah has righ tfu 11 said: Y
42

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~And most of them believe not inA llah except tha t they ~ at tri bu te partners unto Him.' (V. 12: 106)

Those who profess to have Faith in Allah while their aenons

fee kin~ of polytheis m:
It means that the majority of people who outwardly profess. to have faith in A llah arc in fact entangled in the quagmire or polytheism, If someone questions them as to wby are they invo lved in Sh irk while cvinci ng faith i Allah, they answer by n saying that we ore not committing an act of polytheism, neigh we cherish a tremendous amount oflove for the prophets and saints and we are none but their true devotees, Had we considered them on an equal status with Allah, it would have been ~ act of Shirk'; but we merely consider them the slaves an and creatures of Allah, Whu had vested in them an authority and given thorn the capabi Iity to the: effect that they manipulate the matters concerning this world by the Wi11 of Allah. Therefore calling upon them for help is calling upon Allah for His Help. Thes c peopl e are dear ones to A 11ah and th ere fore are free to do whatever they like. These are our advocates who will intercede with A] 1ah Oil ou r he half. Meetin g them makes on e meet his Chcrisher and calling upon them makes us ncar to Allah. The more we recognise their greatness and pay our respect to them, the more we sha 11 be drawn towards Allah. J n add ition to a11 this, they make a lot 0 f 0 ther absurd and ba sc less statem ents, 'rIle v erdict of Qur~in: The sole reason for all the above- incongruities is that people h ave forsaken Qur' 5.n and Hadith and ex ere isc th eir O\VJl judgements in the matters concerning Shari 'ah by app Iying their own inte 11 ect, pursu c myths and superstitions and try to justify their erroneous custom 8 and tradi tions by presenting
j

43

evidence. If they had the know ledge of Qur dn and H alii Ii?, they would have known th at even the pagans among the Arabs u sed to cmp loy similar kind of argu men ts before the Prophet rJ ~ ~I ~ • Allah's wrath befell th em as He dec lared them liars in on e of th e Qur anic verses:
t

insubstantial

t

" A nd they wor shj p besides Allah things that hurt them not, nor pro fit them, and they say: ~ These are ou r interc essors with 1\.11 ah.' Say: Do yo u inform Allah of that which He knows not in the heavens and on the earth? Glorified and Exal ted is He abo Vel all that which they associate as partners wi th H 1m!,.,(V.1 0: I ti) None but AUd is the Capable: The objects which the polytheists offer their worshjp to! are abso 1utely power Jess. They possess no capabi 1ity of either

benefiti ng any body or inflicting any harm on someone. As to their notion that they wil 1 illtercede with AJlab un their behalf, is
nothing but a mere fallacy for the s inlpl e reason that Allah did not inform them about any such thing. Do they profess to be more knowledgeable than All ah in regard to the mailers 0 f this world and the hea v ens in what they beli eve to be their med iators with Allah on their behalf? ·Thus, it becomes known to us that there is no such mediator in this universe who, on the basis of pco plc s 00]ief or disbelief in them, can eith er benefit or harm someone. Even the intercession of the Prophets and saints itsel f is governed by A]lah, Nothing happens if someone calls upon them in distress. Furthermore, we are warned. that whoever .worships someone as his intercessor, is also a 'Mushrik as
t
I'

stated by Allah in th j s verse:

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tho S~ w hu take Aul iya (protectors and helpers) bes ides Hun (say): ~We worship them only that they may bring us n ear to A 11 V eri 1y ~Allah wiJl judge between ah.' them concerning that wherein they differ, Truly, Allah guides nut him who is a liar, and a disbeliever." (V.39:3) None is the supporter other than Allah: The fact is that Allah is v cry close 10 a human being bu t the human beings th emse lves got distracted from thi s basi c truth and coined a fallacious concept believing that an ida] sh all draw us ncar Allah and th us look such j doIs to be their media tors. Th e:;e are the peop Ie who shamelessly turned down the bon nty of Allah that it is I-Ie who listens to everyone directly and fulfills everyone" 8 des ires. Instead or luming to Allah, they started directing their prayers and invocations towards the so-called

deiti es other th an All ah for the fuJ fi] lment of their wishes, To

make Allah the se Path?

the matters worse, these people also wished to be near to by employing erroneous and wrong methods. How couLd ingrates and un truthful people he guided on the R 1ght The more they tread on this crooked path, the more shill]

they be dri v ell awa 'j Hum the Right Path. Non e Is tb e su stainer other than Allab:
This c 1arifies that whosoever worships the so ca llcd deities in th e h ope that worshi pp ing them shall make him nearer to Allah, is none but a po 1ytheist, an accomplished 1iar .and the one who
rej ects the bounty

verses:

of Allah. Allah states in one of the Qur' anic

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~~~cit~~0jA':: O$~
"Say; In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e. treasures uf each and everything)? And He protects (all)'! while against Whom there is no protector, (i.c. if Allah saves an yon e n one can punish or harm hi m ~an d if Allah punishes or harms anyone none can save him)! if you know. They wil1 say: ~ (All that belongs) to A Hah. ' Say: 'I low then are you dccci vcd and turn away from the truth? '! ,~(V.2 3:88-~ 9) Even if the: polytheists are asked about an entity who exercises an abso lu te control over the who Ie universe and again st whom no one can stand, they wi 11definitely say it is Allah. When A}lah J s All- Powerful, is not It an act of lunacy to a S80C iatc partners with A Ilah'! Thus it becomes known to us that Allah has not gi yen an yon~ a uthority to dis POSU 0If universal matters and no one is cither ca pable of SUPPQrti ng someone else. Furthermore even the polytheists of the prophetic era did nol consider the idols to be on a par with Allah in terms of status) but considered them as slaves and creatures. of Allah. They also knew that these idols did not possess any of the Di vine powers, but their Shirk was represented by cal1ing upon them ~making vOW!S to them, presenti ng offerings 10 them and con si den ng th em as their intercessors with AJlab, This means that whosoever accords someone a similar treatment, even though by reckoning him to be a slave and a crea ture, such a person 1s houn d to be regard cd as a counterpart of A bu J ahl in terms of polytheism,

t

The reality of Shirk (polytheism): Shirk does not on ly tha t an enti ly be equated with Allah or be reckoned as H1S counterpart, but it goes mu en further to
include the things and manners which Allah has pecu 1~ari sed to
j mp ly

His Qualities and th at reprcscn l the signs of wors hi pping and obeisance which lIe has specified for his slaves to observe for IIim Alone. In case, someone observes those signs and exhibits them in front of any other entity whatsoever oth er than Allah, sue h a practi ce also 1ies wi th in the definition of Shirk: th is practice includes making prostrations, sacrificing an animal in the Name of Allah! making vows, calling upon Him in distress, considering All ah to be Himself present everyw here, and main raining that the others do have a role to play in the matters of one ~s fate and de Sl iny, All the above are different shapes and varieties of Shirk. Prostration is particularised to be performed for the sake of A1lah only, an i 1 sacrifice is done for Him Ina Alone, VO\V8 arc made to Him Alone, He is the One! Who. in limes of di stress (s itu ations), is cal] ed upon. He is the Omnipotent and All-Powerful and He is the Supreme Authority over everything, If any of these qualities arc ascribed to any other en t1ty other than Allah, it is known as Shirk even if such all en ti ty is re ga rded as iufcri or to Allah or is rec koued to be a creature ur slave of Allah.
All such beings

and entities like a Prophet, saint, jinn, Satan, ghost, appari tion and fairy shan all he treated cq ually in this rna tter and whoever considers them as having Divi ne powers C om rnits an act of Shirk an d the doer 0 f such a thing wi Il become a Mushrik (the one who associates partners with Allah), Hence Allah has brough t down His wrath on the Jews and Chri stians too c vontho ugh they di d not practise idolatory ~but treated their Prophets and saints in a similar manner (i.e. they at tri b uted to them thequalities w hieh are purely TJivine in nature) as Allah has stated in the fo 1]owing Q ur' arne verse: / .-r"l f ~. L.s: .......... 1i ~ ~ ... __" • ..J. Jo .... ,./ i ~~ ..... _........:;:' J.. ~ .~,;Jll ~J,i ~ ~~_:'l r c· -:._)j r-),::::"~llj~1 "
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47

"They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah, (by obeying them in thin gs w hich they made law Iul or unla wful according to their OVJ1l desires without being ordered by AU.ah) and (t hey al so took as their lord) Messiah, son 0 f Mary, wh ilc they (J cws and Christian s) were commanded (in the Torah and the Gospel) to worship none but One (God -Allah) LiE ildha lila Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and glory is to Him, (far above is He) from ha vi ng the partn ers they associa te (with Him)." (V-9: 3 1) It means that eventhough they considered Allah as the Most Supreme Lord, but besides that, they also gave their recognition to other mini-lords, which are their priests and monks, These people wen; never instructed to commit such acts of Shirk_ Allah j s al i A]on e worthy 0 f being worshipped. He has no partners, Ilveryone, whether big or small, are none but His helpless slaves. Allah states in one of the verses of the Noble Qur'an:

~,.~;j 2 0 Lj~ ~\

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ul ~

~\:_;j~lr~~\~r4¥J OIL-~:t.~
"There is non e in the h eavcn s and the earth but comes unto the Most Ben etlc lent (AJlab) as a s 18VC. Veri ly ~He knows each one 0 f them, and has co unted them a fu 11 counting. An d every on e of them wi ll come: to H~ alone 01 on the Day of Resurrection (without any helper, or protector or defender.), (V.19:93-95)
tt

It means that regardless w hether a creature happens to be an angel or a human being! it carries a status of no more than being a slave before Allah. A slave lies under au absolute hegemony of Allah and therefore, is completely helpless and powerless, Everything lies under Allah' 5 control. He gives nobody under
48'

anyone' s control. Everyone shall have to appear in Ilis Presence to account for his deeds. Noone wi II ad vocate for any one there nor one cou 1d 1end h 1s sup POrt t.o anyone else. ·I'here arc

hundreds of verse s mentioned in thi s regard in the No b1e Qur' an whereas only we, a s a spee imcu, have mad c a mention 0 fa lew of them, Whosoever understands them clearly, shall have a clear understanding of the concept of Shirk and Tauhid. In .~hd Allah.
t

Chapter Two

Categories and aspects of Shirk (Polytheism)
is necessary to gain know ledge about the charactc rj sfi cs wh j c h A llah ha s pceuliariscd for Himself so that none of them be attri bu ted to any other elsc, Su ch things are countless. Wei on our part, shall be mention in g some of those things and prov C them in the background of Qur'un and Haditl: so that the people may understa nd th e other pertinent things also wi th their he 1 p. It 1. Shirk in knowledge; present everywhere by His Know ledge wh ich m ean s that H. s Know ledge encom passes everything. This is why Ile has a complete cognizance of everything ~everyt ime, whether a thing happens to be far or near, hidden or appnren t, up in the heavens or inside the earth, on the ' tops of the mounta ins or at the bottom of an ocean. This Ina gni fiecncc be;longs to none but Allah. If a person call s upon someone (hy invo ki ng h is name} other than A1 lah, w hill; dUI ng his everyda y routine chores, so that the on e called upon may help him ob v iate his distres s, or attacks an enemy by invo kin g his name, or keeps pronouncing his name on the beads of a rosary, or makes .a vow in his name or conjures up his picture in hi s imagination by nursing a faith th at whenever he i nvokes his name, or think 0 r him vi vidly in his mind or contemplate on his grave, he gains cognizance of him; none 0 r his affairs is hidden from him, and whatever circum stances he goes throu gh, name Iy , sickness and good health, abundance and distress, life and death, sadn es s and happiness ctc., arc a 11 known to him; any word wh i ch hi s mouth utters ish eard by him and he knows abou t his though ts and imaginations. A 11the above thi ngs an d acts prove the presence 0 f the elements of Sh irk. This is called a Shirk in

The

first

t hi n g

1s that Allah

js

know ledge which mean s one is trying to prove that someone other than Allah possesses a si m j Iar kind of know ledge which is only the prerogative of Allah.
Dy n ursi ng this kind of faith, 3 man undoubted 1)' turns into a Mushri k (polytheist) whether he nurses such a faith in regard to an hono urable human bein g or any of me exalted angels) or

whet her

such a know ledge w hie his attri btl ted to him, happens to be a personal one or granted by A1lab. Whatever the si tuation rna y bet this is an absolutely polythci stic Iai th,

2. Shirk in disp osing:

the matters of the uni verse with intention) exercising a uthori t y, killing at wi 11an d resuscita ting, awarding abundance and gi vi ng distress) giving healthiness an d s icknc ss, gi v ing victory and defeat, succeeding and preceding, fu 1fi llrnent 0 f one's desires, obviating calamities! providing help in distress situations and whenever one stands in need of jt~ are all attributed to Allah and none but Him Alone, None but Allah can have this. magnificence. A human being or an angel, despite acqu iring grea t ranks, may never ha V~ these characteris tJ cs. A person who seeks to prove that an entity other than Allah may have an authority of thi s nature, makes vows to this enti ty or makes. an ani rna I sacrifice for the purpose 0 f fulfillrncn l of his wi shes and invokes it's name in distress so that it can ohv i kl to his troubles, such a person is called 'Mushrik and this kind of act is caned ~Shfrk in authority' or disposing, It means that cherishing a bel ief that any cnt it y other than All ab may have thi s authority, whether as. the one granted by Allah or as one of if's persona I traits, is a polytheistic faith anyway.
Disposing
j
J

3. S hi,.k in worship:

Allah has parti culari sed all acts of worship for IJim A Ion e whi ch are defined as Ibadat like prostrating, bowing, standing with folded hands, giving charity in the Name of A llah, fasting in His
Sl

Name and undertaking long journeys to visit His Sacred House by putting on such a clothing that the people may distinguish them as the vis itors of I Ii s Sanctified I louse, invoking A1lah ' s N arne on the way avoiding indecen t talk and hun ling .. c ircu mmnbu lati ng H j s H ou se with an u tin ost cauti on, m akin g prostrations in its direction, carrying the animals of sacrifice towards it, making vows there, putting a covering on Ka' bah, making supplications while standing on the threshold of Ka'bah, asking for the virtuosities in the religious as well as: worldly matters, kissing of the Black-Stone, touching the walls of Ka" bah by one" S TOOU 111 and ches r, making s upp licat ions by getting hold 0f th ~ fringes of its covering, illu rn j uating its surround in gs, ta ki ng up res 1dence t here as on e of i servants, ts sweeping and cleaning it, offer drinking water to the pilgrims, providing water for Wud» (ablution) and bathing, partaking of Zamzam water by consi dering it as a sancti f ed act, getting one sel f drenched with it, drinking it to on e" s heart con tent, di stri buting it among themselves, carrying it to be presented to one's rc lati vcs, venera ting the forest su rrou nd in g it, to refra in from hunting there, not to cut trees there, not to pull out grass from there, nu t tu graze animals there: these arc act s w hich Allah has prescribed for Muslims to be 0 bserved as His wors hi p.
t

Now, if a person In akes a bow or prostrati on before the grave 0 f a Prophet, saint, ghost, appari ti~ j inn, fairy or any of the real or fake graves or a spccifrcd place inside a tomb, Of a certain sign or house, or a En charist and coffin; observes fast. ]n thei r names; stands in front of them with fo lded hands; makes offerings to them or hoisting a flag in their name or walking back wards (w ith a rc verse mot ion of feet); kisses a grave or undertakes a long journey to visit graves and other places; lights earthen lamps there or makes arrangements for il1urninating them; or puts coverings on their walls or 0 tiers a sheet as a covering on the gra v e, manually fanning the air by hand (by

52

usi n g a Morchha 1, a fanning C ontri vance); erects a tent there; kisses it's threshol d; o Ifers supp 1icati on s there wi lh folded hands; asks for the fulfillment of wishes there; serves tJ1C shrine by becoming its servant and venerates the forest around it: anyone doing any the above acts commits a clear and manifest Shirk.

or

In brief, all the above acts and the alike, are called Shirk in worship." It implies paying one's respect to an entity other than A] 1ah ina manner w hich is prescribed for Allah A lone either by believing that this particular entity is personally entitled to such a veneration or by believing that Allah becomes pleased If any of these entities are held in high esteem or with the blessing of their veneration .. troubles are warded off and done away with. Whatever may be the case ..such fai th is purely po lythcis tic in its nature. ~ Shirk in onets dally routine- chores: 4. . A ilah the Exalted has taug ht HIS Sla v cs the norms 0 f respect to the effect that they should remember Allah while performing thei r everyday worl d1y chores and pn y Him their tributes for the . enhancement. of their Faith and to secure Allah's blessing in day-to-day assignments. These norms include: (J) making vows to Allah and calling upon Him Alone whenever a catastrophe befalls his slave; (2) invoking His Name for His blessing whenever commencing an assignment; (3) slaughtering animals to express one's gratitude to Allah in the case of having been bles sed with a child; (4) gi vi ng 0 ne' s children such names as Abdullah, A bdur -R aim1311) llabi B akhsh, A 1lah Di ya, AmatuHah, Allah Di etc.: (5) takin g out a sma 11portion of the crop produce and gi ving it away in th e Name of Allah: (6) apporti on in g some of the fruits to His name out of the total produce; (7) specifying some of the animals and allocating them for the purpose of sacrifice in the Name of Allah: (8) treating the animals which
53

are carried to the House 0 f ABah VIt' ith due respect by ne ither riding them nor mounting any load on them: (9) observing D ivi n e Ins true ti ons 1n the mann ers con cern j n g food an d dress: ( 10) restricting oneself to the use of perrnissi ble things only and avoiding the ones that are not allowed; (11) considering that all the different c on d\ ti on ~ and siniati on s w hi chon e comes across in this world ~ like cxpcnsi vc and inex pensi v e rates and pri ces, hen lth and sic knes s~ victory and defeat, succ ecd ing and precedin g, sadness and happiness, are all c om man ded by All ah ~ ( 12) prone unc ing a standard formula o J In Shd Allah w hi le making an intention tu put fonn an assignment; (13) pronouncing the N arne 0 f Allah the Exalted One in sue h a manner that His Greatness is conspicuously high lighted and nne's slavery is clearly exhibited, by using such words like, our Rubb, our Moster! our Creator or Ma 'biid (the object of our worship) etc.; (14) In case a need arises. on a certain occasion to administer an oath at all, undertaki ng an oath only in the N arne 0 f Allah.
r

These and the other similar things have been singled out by A llah as. H is own and personal prerogative for the S~ke of His venera ti Oll and magn ificen ce. Anybody showl n g su ch ki nd of respect t.o a.11 entity other than A llah, commits Shirk; as for examp le: making a VO\V to it with the intention 0 f faci 1ital ing ~ dil Tic: ult assignmcn t, gi \0' ing one's. children names 1ikc A bdunNabi, Imam Bakhsh, Peer Bakhsh etc.; apportioning part of the produce of one 's farm or orchard to it's name; separating part of the frui ts and keeping them aside (in the name of a deity] j rnrncdiatel y a1tcr they arc p ickcd up from trees and then on 1 y pu tti ng the rest to on e' s use; dedicating some animals Irom am on g the who le herd to a deity and then trea ling those animals wi th respect by not rerno ving them from the fodder and water and not to strike them with slick or stone; 0 bscrving ell stoln s and uadit ions in terms of dress. an d food to the effect that a specified group of people shculd not eat such and such i"uoo and

should nut wear such and such dress; attributing the virtues and evils of the world to them by m aki n g su ch statcmen ts that as long as th at pu111 cular person has been cursed hy that particular dci lY he has gon e mad 0 r that certain person has turned into a handi capped person due to the fact th at he wa 5: driven a way by that deity or hy saying that as long as that per~on was blessed by a certain saint, he is now on 3 flood. tide of success; or that fa mine w as wrough t by th at star or by 0bserv ing that thi s assignment was not accomplished as long as the same was commenced at a certain time and on a certain date or hy obscrv ing tha t if A llah and H is Prophet wilJ it, one would be coming; or by saying that it will happen if one's religious men tor wishes it to take plac C Of l1 sing such adj ecti ves 11 the ke, S II sta incr, Independent! Lord 0 f 1ords ~the Ma stcr 01' the universe or the King of kings etc.; the: undertaking of an oath In the name
t

of the Prophet or th e Qu r~an or AJ i ~-1.1;:1 ~) or an !J1'2 am, or a religious mentor or their graves or one's own self etc.
AU the above practices generate Shirk which is called a 'Shirk in day -to-day chores', w hieh implies paying one' 8 respect to an

entity other than Allah exactly prescribed for Allah.

in the same manner as the one

These four kinds of Shirk hav-e been clearly stated in the Qur'an and Had ith and therefore we :9 h a I r be men t ioning about them in
the next chapters.

C ha pter Three

The Vices of Polytheism --The Virtues of Monotheism
The polytheism
CD nn

ot be forgi ven ~

"Verily' Allah forgives not (the sin of) setting up pa rtncrs in worsh ip wi th 1Iim, hut He forg ives whom He pleas es, sins other than that, and wh oever sets up partners in worsh ip with A 1~ ah, has indeed strayed far away." (V_4:116) Th e one who does not di scriminate between the perm j ssiblc and the forbidden, commits theft, idles away his time doing nothing, shuns his prayers and fasting, does not give his wile and children their due rights and becomes incumbent on disobeying his parents -has indeed strayed from the path of Allah, but the one who gets strangled In the quagmire of Shirk has strayed very . much far away by getting involved in such a sinful act as shall never be forgiven by Allah except by showing repentance, As fa r as other sins are concerned, Allah may perhaps forgive them even without repentance (on the part of the alave). It becomes thus known that Shirk is an unpardonable crime and the person who commits it is hound to be punished, If an act of Shirk, thus cornm itted, is 0 r such an ex trcmc kind whi ch turns a person into a polytheist, then the penalty thus incurred by the person is an eternal Hell-fire, tor he will neither be ever released from it, nor shall gel any rest and peace whatsoever therein. As to the acts of
5fi

minor degree of Shirk l1 J, their doers are bound to be penalised according to the penalties which are apportioned for them by A llah the Exalted. As far as the penalties which have been specified by Allah in regard to other sinful acts are concerned, they mainly depend on the Will of Allah. {Depending on His Will, He 111ay forgive them or ..He 111 a.y pu ni sh the doer).

Exp 1.1 intn g Shirk:
\Ve thus understand that Shirk is the biggest of all sins (i.c. and no sin surpasses it in terms of gra vity, severity and enormity): It

can be explained by the- following example:
Let us suppose that a king hAS a specific penal code for his subj ec rs COIn pr i sing all kinds 0 f P ena Iti es for different kinds of offences like .. theft, robbery, sleeping while being on duty as a guard, a del a yed arrival at the king' s court, fleeing from th e battlefield and delaying the payment of government revenues etc. are all crimes deserving specific punishments, TIl~ king, depend 1n g ()11 his \v 1II, can either duly pun ish the o ffcnd crs or Iorgi ve them, but there are a few cri mes whose cornm i C n clear 1 indicates a rebell ion, 1ike a n act of coronating and y enthroning a nob leman, a minister, a fief, a chieftain, a sweeper or a shoe- maker and declaring anyone of the ahove as a king in the: presence of the king himself. Such an act shall be considered as a In13tiny. Or 8 imilarl y, if a throne or a crown is made for any of the above categories 01" people or anyone of them 1S called wi th such ti t le as ~Your Exec 11 ency ~ ur 'I lis High nes s~or 'His Majesty ~ or is treated with the observance of a royal protocol or a certain day is specified for him as a gala festival or a certain vow is made to him alter a royal fashion, is what constitutes the:

S~.

III

Whether a 'Shirk' is of a monstrous nature Or uf a minor degree ...is forbidden any w ay and is contrary to the conccp L n r Islamic Monotheism.

57

a IJeri m es which must never go unpu nishcd. A monarch who overlooks giving out punishments on such crimes, is bound to have a weak and staggering em pire and the wi se people shall libel such a monarch as incapable and unworthy of ruling an empire, Dear friends! Let us fear from the Mastel' of the universe, the Sovereign w ho has a great sense 0 f h onou r an d an unl irni ted pOWCT" How can such a Lord let the po lythei sts go uupuni shed 1 May Allah bless all the Musl irns w j th His m ercy and save them frnrn such dangerous calamities as Shirk. Amin!
greatest of

S hirk, the greatest of all vices!
A llah

the Ex alted One says in one 0 f His verses:
"

.1W _!~t~f.::01 ;tt. j_.2"i ~ ~ ~;
.~

+~~

~~AL1d(remember) when Luqrndn said to his son when he was advising him: ~Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily! Joining others in worsh ip with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed, ~~ .31 : 13) (V It m eans th at A 11ab had awarded clairvoyance to L uq man r::W ~ I 8 y utilising hi s mental facu Ities, he understood that giving away someone' 8 right to someone el se is an act of great inj IIst icc. The one who gives away Allah's Right to someone else among Hj5 crea tures is sim itar to a per:;:;on '-N ho gives away something to the mcanes l one, w hat in fact is due to be given to the grea test one. A S long as A llah is the G rcatcst 0 r a 11anti all I lis creature s rank no more than a slave before Him ~ what inju sficc she u ld be greater than putting a royal crown on the head of a shoe-maker! We OlU st unders tand that anyone w hether one of the most eminen t hu man beings or any 0 f the angel s deare stand nearest to All ah does not carry the status of even a shoe-maker in terms of fri vo 1 ty and disgrace, wh i1e fae ing the magnificence of i Divinity. Thus it becomes clear that as Shari 'ah has regarded

:;~it ~ j~ -t~

~

Shirk to be an extremely enormous sinful act, one's wisdom and common intellect also recognises Shirk to be as such. 11is the greatest of all vices which is a fact, because the greatest of all inequ iti es lo be fou nd in a man is that he should disrespect his

elders. Who else is bigger than Allah in greatness! Committing an act 'Of Sh irk verily amounts to being disres pee tful towards Him. Tauh id (Monothefsm)

is th e only way out:

Allah has said in one of the verses of the Noble Qur'fin:

~~J4~~ J~.q~, l~;'~ly~~ ti ~l ~ ~_6.~
"And

~ l~i:)_;, t

we did not send any Messenger before you (0 Muhammad ..l.J ~ oJJi';-) but We inspired him (saying): Lei ildha ilia Al1a [none has the right to be worshipped but 1 (Allah)], 8U worship Me (Alone and none else)." (V.21 :25) It means that all the Messengers were sent by Allah with exactly the same commandment that none but Allah should be worshipped and only Allah is worthy of being worshipped. Wt: th U~ understand that the commandment in regard to the recognition of Oneness of Allah and the prohibition concerning the joining of others in worship with Him is a matter which is a common constituent of all the previous revealed doctrines, and hence this is the only way out for one's salvation. The rest of all the other creeds are in error, Alla b Is disgusted with Shirk:
It is reported by Abu Hurai rah ~ ..1J! ~} tha t Allah' 5 M esscnger r-- , tpI.o;. I.lJj')- said: Allah has made the following statement;

W !)~: ~~~ .~ .. .-~~ i~ ~.;~ H tJ ~ ;r
or"

.!J>~

~tS:r~,J, i.;
~ ~

~,»

~~ am most dispensed with the action of joining others in 1

worsh lp wi th Me. Whos oever does an act in wh ich he j oin s others in worship wi th Me, I shun him and his partners and becom e disgusted wi th hi m -"
1t lnCcU1S that un 1ike oth en; wh 0 di V1 de th elf shared goods run ong themsel ves, 1 do not do so because I stand in need of no one. Whoever performs a virtuous deed for Me by giving Me a partner in it, 1 do not even take My share and Jeave th e wh 0 Ie of

it for others and become disgu sted with hi m. Tt thus becomes known to l1 s that wh oever does an act for Allah, and does the same act for an enti tv other than Allah, he has indeed commi trcd .. Sh irk and it further elabora tes that any act of worshi p w h1 1s ch
dedicated to Allah by the po iythei sts j s unacc eptab 1e. Allah is di sgustcd with sue h acts nnd such people. Affirming

the Onen ess of Allah prior to the dawn

of time itself: Allah the Exalted ~ay~:
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,~ d (remem ber) wh en your Lo rd brou ght forth from the An children of Adam, from th eir loins, their seed (or from Adam ~ loin his oIlspring) and made them testify as to s themse 1yes (saying): ~ Am 1 not you r Lord? They said: 'Yes! We testify,' lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: 'V eril Y~ we have been unaware of this. Or lest you should say: 'It was only our fathers aforetirne who took others as partners in worship along with Alla h, and
t

60

we were (merely th eir) descendan ts nfter them; wi ll You then des troy us be ea lISC:: of the deeds 0 f men who practi sed

Al-Biuil

(i.c, polytheism and committing crimes and sins, invo ki 11g and wors hippin g others besides Allah)?"

(V.7: 172,173) It has been reported by Ahmad on the authority of Ubai bin
in regard to the in lerpreta tion of the verse (rega rd in g the time when Allah ma de the oilspring Adam testi fy) saying that Allah gathered all the progeny of Adam, formed them in pairs, then made their facia] features and shapes, til ell gave them the power 0 f speech. When they be gan to speak, He took a covenant fn)ln them by asking them, ...... Nul not your Rabb?' ~ They answered, "Veri 1V, You are our R abb t n[ I] All ah then sta ted! ~ hereby make all the seven strata of hea yens and 11 earth as. well as your father Adam a witness unto you lest you should employ an exc use 0 f being unaware of it on the Day 0 f Resurrection. Be certain that none is worthy of being worshipped except Me and none but Me is your Rabb. DQ not associate partners with Me in worshipping. J shall keep send; ng Ka' b
c:» Ll: 1 ~
~

or

Books un to you." An of them answered, "'We hereby testi fy that Y ou arc our Rabb and You are the 0 bject of our worship. None hut You iSo our Lord and non e bot You is wo rthy 0 r our wors hiIp7 ~~[11
Rr:bb rneaus among other thlng!-:~the CTE:!l~tnr, the Sustainer .. the Provider and IIIt: One in \V1H.~~ nand is the disposal of all affairs.
[I)

In y Me8SCHg~rs unto yo u who w il1 in lurn continue to remind you of thi J, C ovenan t of you rs w ith Me and 1 shall reveal (11y

V]

Thus they confirmed to it. Then Allah clcv alcd Allam (to a certa ill height) who could H.ol."-L.: all nf tlu.. he saw that there rich among them as well as poor, "IT), beautiful as well as ugly. Upon sighting this! Adam enq uired l) r Allah, "() our Rabh! Why didn't You create all nf them ~ equals?" He answered, "'I like tu be nffercd thanks, ~~ Then jI. dam r".'..-J''''';'' sighted among them the

61

Shirk cannot he presented Ubai bin Ka'b

as an auth.ority~

interpreting the above verse said that i\ llah gathered a11 the offspring of .. Adam at one place, formed thern into groups, for instance, He separated the Prophct:s, saints, martyrs, pious people, obedient ones, disobedient ones info different groups. Similarly, He segregated the Jews, the Christians! the polytheists and the followers of every religion. Then whatever facial features and shapes une had to be given in this world, Allah made them appear exactly in the same manner there accordingly. Someone was made to appear as good-looking, someone as bad-looking, someone as conversant, someone as dumb, and someone as a lame person. Then all of them were given the faculty of speech and then asked, HAIn I not your Ra.hb't' All of them acknowledged the lordship of .. Allah and then Allah took a pledge from all of them to the effect that they shal! not take anyone as their ruler and master except Him Alone and shall not consider anyone worthy of being worshipped except H im Alone. Then Allah made the seven strata of heavens and earth as witnesses and said that the Prophets ~haH be: sent untn you to remind you of this pledge of yours and they shall bring with them the heavenly scriptures Everyone has individually affirmed the Oneness of Allah and rejected associating partners with Him in an era prior to tile da wn or time j tse lf and therefore, no on e rna y be presen ted as an evidence in the matter of Shirk (i.e. a preceptor ..a mendicant, a sheikh, a father, a grandfather, a king, a religious scholar nr a saint).
w. ~1..r7~ ~ while

an

faces were glowing like lamps and who bad ltD Etura uf illumination surrounding their faces. Then A nab the Exalted took also an acknow lodgement frum all the Po ~rhets in regard to their Prophethood, Tt alludes to that pledge which is mentioned in the Qur"~n with the following statement: (And there was also a time) when We took a pledge from the Prophets, These Prophets include you (Prophet Muhammad ...,.J.oo ..1,11 ~ rkJ • Noeh, Abraham, Moses and Jesus the sun of Mary).
t~1

Prophets

r~

roo whnse

61

The excuse of forgetfulness
1f someone

shaU not be accepted:

thinks th at a fter be ing in thi s worl d) we no 1onger remember the said pledge and In case we commit an act of Shirk. now, we shall not be punished as there is. no questioning in lorg'i;l L~~ lness. The an s.wer to this no lion o f theirs is th at there are many things a H18fl does not remember but once reminded by a cred i tab 1e and au then tic pers on, it all co rnes back 10 hi s memory, For instance, no one remembers his date of birth, but once he hears about it from peo plc, he ha s r:-0 qua lms about sayi ng it with certain t y that I was b om on such and Such da te, in such and such year and at such and such hour, He only reco gni ses his parents 1..1 pon hearing from people. He does not consider anyone else as his mother. In cas e one doe s not perfor ill his ob ligations towards his mother and proc lairn s someone else as his mother, the people are b-ound to ridicule and censure him. In response to their chidings, if he postulates that 3 s long as I do not remem bel illy birth, why should I consi der this woman as fIly mother? People have no reason to castigate me about it ~ One e th i8 person blurts out such a sta tement, peop Ic shall defini tely regard him to be a pcrfcc t moron and a rude person. it thus becomes known to us that since a {nan belie ve sin m any n thing to the exten t of certitude on th e basi s of hearing them merely from people, how is it that he should disbelieve the teachings of the Prophets who arc the pc()ple of a great statu." and magnificcn t eali bre r Th c b a sic teachings of th e Prop h ets
and the (Divine) Scriptures:

Thus

we understand tha t every one has been ind ividuall y inculcated and stressed upon in the realms of the spirits to adopt and adhere to the concept of TauhiJIl (Monotheism) and shun
It means declaring Allah to be the only God Who deserves to be

[1 J

63

Sh irk (pol ytheism), i.e. aSSOClatmg partners wi th Allah in the acts belonging to Him. An the Prophets have been sent to this world for the sole purpose of reminding people of this covenant and its renewal. The instructions of more than one hundred and twenty-four thousand Messengers of Allah and the central knowledge contained in all the Divine Scriptures concentrate on ju at one puin t, ~~D re 1 the COHeept 0 f Tau hid (M onoth e iSIn) ewa should not be tampered with and do not even think of associating partn ers with Allah t Do not cons ider anyouc as an a b so 1ute sovereign an d a disposer (of the affairs) exc ept A 1~a h l Do not resort to anyone for the fulfillment of yuur wishes and making vows except Allah!"
Once we are informed about the following Hadith, there is JIll rOOIIl left whatsoever for an excuse to commit an act of Shirk hy anybody. This is how the lladith goes:

rtis narrated by Ml1~ adh bi n Jabal .La.;. .J!I ~) that he was instructed by the Prophet :-L-J ..,..r.. ~I ~ to the effect tha I:

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"You must not join others as partners with Allah even if you are 111urdercd or burnt to death." (M u snad Ahmad)
This means that we must not consider anyone else other than Allah as worthy 0 f bei n g wo rs hi ppcd and do not care for be in g rna 1ested by a j inn or devi 1. i\ s the Muslims mus l patiently bear the brunt of the external calamities, without jeopardising their Faith, they must a Iso bear the in ternal in fl icti ons (i. C'I' mo 1 estations on the part of j inn 5;, ghosts and other such bel ngs) with pa t!encc wi tho III perverting th el r Faith ou t 0 f their fright. They should hold the belief that everything whether an affliction or comfort is d irectl Y governed by Allah. A1lab som eti lues puts
worshipped in truth and confirming all attributes with which lie has gratified Himself Or that are attrjbuted to Him by His Messenger rL)..,.u....uI.# .

h is fatthful bel levers on trial. A believer is tested according to the strength of his Faith. Sometime pious people arc su bjected to chast isemcnt on the part 0f the wi eked persons so that n disti ncti on tnay be established between the sincere and the hypocrite. As the pious arc apparently molested hy th e disobedient one s and the Musl ims by the dis bel ievers (through the Will of Allah) and they continue to bear with it with perseverance and patience without perverting their Faith due to being disgruntled wi til the trials, sirn i Ia r] y the pi ous are sometimes su bj ected to troub1e on the part of j inns and Satans through the Will of Allah. So one should bear with it steadfastly an d pati ent1y without yielding to their hegemony 0 ut of the fear of their oppression. Thus it becomes known to U 5 that if a person denies 8 deity (false deity other than Allah) out of being averse to Sh irk, repudiates and condemns making vows and 0 fferings to it, remove s the erroneous and unj us tified customs associated with it; anti in the process 0 f do lug ir, if such 8 person i n curs either a loss of life or a loss, in terms of finances, or should Satan happen to chastise him in the name of a preceptor or a martyr (by rna king 8 uch fake appearances), he m ust un derstand th at Allah is testing his Fai th wh ich he must hurn b1Y hear with an d shou ld hold on to h1s Faith stead fastl y. We must remember that 1\ llah Ii ghtens Iris grip on the oppressors after giving them plenty of rope and liberates the oppressed from their talons. sim iIor ~y He shall grab on to the oppressors among the j inn in due course of time and shall release the adhcrcn \8 to rhc concept of Oneness of Allah (the monotheists upholding the cause of ·Tau-hid) from their tyranny.
It has been narrated by Ibn Mas ~ w ad
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'·A person enquired of the Prophet rLJ ~

llJ1 ~

as to which

is the biggest of all sins. He said that it is to call upon someone else other than Allah, thinking of him as. similar to Allah, eventhough Allah bas created you." (Al- B ukhari- Mu sl im)

1t means
Capability),

th at as All ah (on account of H is Know ledge and
is believed
to

be the Omnipresent and the Conductor of the: w ho le uni verse, and is called l1pou in t imes of distress ~ similarly calling IIpon som e other en ti ty other than Allah believing in it to be characterised by the same: qualities is th e greatest of all sinful ac Is. Beca use none has the capa b ility to solve the problems o r creatures except Allah. Furthermore, as lung as u ur Rabb is Allah, we must en11upon H im i\ lone in distress situations as we have no link with any other entity. For example! if someone becomes a slave to a king) he i:9 bound to approach hi s king for tbe ful fillment of all h is needs. Not to speak of ash oe- maker or a sweeper ..he will not even a pproach other kings (for his personal needs). Since there is no enti ty at all, whatsoever, who could be considered a counterpart of Allah, is it [lot a folly to approach any other entity for the fulfillment of one's needs 1

TauhiJ (Monotheism)

and furgiveness.
oW

Tt has been narrated by Anas said:
__. __. ~....-

.JJ I

.r) that

the Prophet

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"Allah the Exalted states to the posterity of Ad81n that if you happen to meet Me with the sinful acts of the entire world, I shal 1 meet you wi th an equal amount of mercy provided you have not joined partners wi th M~.·1
T means that there had been many de] inq uent and sinful people t

in the world including Pharaoh and Haman etc. as we 11as Satan, who aIso is t Q be found in thi s world. A l! these sinners have been comm itti ng s i118 and shall continue commi tting them ti i 1
Doomsda y. Now! if a person supposed ly comrni ts all these sins co 11 ve 1y to hi s so lc acco un t indi vidually, ~han ces are that ecti Allah shall bestow on him an equal amount of mercy and forgi veness, provided he has not committed Shirk - Thus it becom es known to us t hat with the bJ essing of Tau hid, nil the sins are forgiven' 11 exactly in the same manner as the virtuous dccds are destroyed by the evi 1 of Sh irk. Th isis also 8 fact tha l w hell a man is com p~ etely c Ieansed off the impurities 0 f Sh irk and shall uph 0 ld a faith that none but Allah is his Master, and there: is no place to flee H is Rule, none offers shelter to the ones wh 0 d iso bey Him, all are he Ipress before Him, none c an deter I lis Com In and mcnt, none can in tercede with Him on behalf 0 f someone el se and no one can make a recommend ation before Him fur someone without "His Permission, - on nursing this set of beliefs ~ the possibility of .~in~which might be committed by him cou ld be on] y ei ther due to his inhcrcnt human weaknesses or hi s forgetful ness. And then such a person shall havc been groaning under the burden or these sins. shall be utterly disgusted and shall not be able to mise his head (out of a sense 0 f shame and remorse). This type of person is un dou bted 1y b1essed with th e mercy of Allah. As the amount 0 f sins increases, so increases the intensity of his remorse and the more his remorse becomes intense, so does the mercy of Allah.

TIn; pmpme of mentioning this Haailh here is. to clarity that committing all act of Sh~'rkis an extreme] y obnoxious and abominable thing. One !":hould not however, deduce that as long as one is free from Shirk, the commisslon of other sin ru' acts are ill any WElY j ustiflable. In regard to the forgiveness of ~ins, one should take into conxideratinn the general rule of Shuri fah (i .e., seeking AUah' s forgi vencss and becoming repentant).
[I]

We must remember the point that the sin of n devout monotheist can do what a virtuous deed u f a polytheist cannot. A del inq uent monoth ei st is a thousand times better than an observ ant and pious polytheist exactly in a simi tar manner .3.01\ a crimi nal su bjcct is a thousand times pre ferable to a toady mutineer) bee ause the fonner is remorseful on his sin, and the latter proud and callous.

Chapter

FOUT

The negation of Shirk in knowledge
Allah ~~1Y~ one of the Qur'anic verses as follows: in
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"And with Him are the keys of the Ghuib (all that is hidden) none kn ows them but He. And He mows whatever there is ln (or on) the earth and in the sea; not a 1eaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darknc ss 0 f th e earth nor anything fresh or d ry~ but is. WI i tten in a Clear Record." (V. 6: 59)
I

rt. mean s that

1\ 11 has ah

bestowed on the humans some facul tics

so that they rna y have an access to the know ledge concerning the apparent on the physical plauc; for instance eyes to sight, cars to Iisrcn, nose to sme 11~ tongue to taste. hands to grope about, and in te1lect to unders tand. Then, the abo,",c fa cui ties have been put at the 01sposal 01· a human being so that he may . uti li se them on his own ace ord; for instanc e, whenever he .intend s to see an 0hj ect, he may open his eyes and w henever he does not intend to see it, he may close them. Other limbs may also be uti lised in a similar manner. Human beings h ave h een given the keys to have an access to the know ledge of the evident things. As the matter of do j 11g and undoing a lock mainly depends on the wi 11 of its owner similarly the act of gaining know ledge about the apparent things depends upon th e will of a h uman being. Only Allah possesses tbe knowledge of Ghalb (unseen and hjdden) ~ Contrary to the above, it is beyond the authority of a human being to gain the knowledge of the unknown, as Allah Himself
I

preserves the keys to it. No entity whatsoever (whether one of the most prominent humans or one of the most eminent angels) has been given a n authority to know about the unseen in a manner that they may ex erci se their own will to ga. n knowledge about the hidden matters. However, whenever Allah so wishes, Ile reveals a certain amount of information concerning the unknown to someone. Giving iuformation about the unknown solely depends on the Will of Allah and nut on the desire of snrncone, On many occasions AIIa.h'8 Prophet ..J.....J ~ ..Jl1 ~ had a desire to gain knowledge about a certain thing or occurrence, which he could not know, but the same was revealed to him whenever Allah intended to do so. During the era of Prophethood, the hypocrites slandered 'Aisha ~..JI,rJ which shocked the Prophet rLJ ~.url ~ tremendously. He tried to probe into the matter for many days, but failed to ferret out the truth. And when A Bah intended, the Prophet was informed through the

process

uf revela tion that the h ypocr i tes are n one but 11 and ars
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the chastity of ~Aisha Siddiqah ~ UJr was verily beyond reproach. A Muslim monotheist must have a conviction that Allah preserves the keys to the treasures of the unknown with none btl! Himself and has appointed none as their treasurer, No one can s top Him if He H imsel f aw ards something to whomsoever He so wishes (by Himself unlocking one of Ilis

treasures ).
The one wbo claims to ha V~ the knowledge

of Ghaib (unseen), is a liar:
We thu s understand that anyone who claims to posses sac ertain art or knowledge enabling him to have a peep into the Ghaib, to reveal the past incidents and to adumbrate about the futuristic

events, is an outright liar claiming godship. In case someone recognises a Prophet, a saint, a jinn, an angel, an Imam, a man of piety, a religious preceptor, a martyr, an astrologer, a seer, a clairvoyant. a prestidigitator, a pundit, a ghost, or a fairy to be as such [having the knowledge of the unknown) such a person
I

70

becomes a Mus hrik, an d he (rc]ccts and negates) denies the contents of the above verses. Even if a certain prediction of an astronomer, by a sheer chance, happens to come tru C ~ it does not prove his know Iedge 0 f the un known bccau se most of their statements tum out to be incorrect. Hence we unders land tha t it is beyond their capacity to have a knowledge of the Ghaib. A cunj ectural utterance may at times prove to be correct and at times incorrect. The: same is also true in regard to making Prophecies, getting the things known through a Divine Inspiration, ur resorting the Qur'anic verses to gain an insight into the fut Ul'C events, A revelation, however ~1s never incorrect and is nut under their contro 1. Allah reveal s whatever He intends to, out of His Own Free Will. A revelation does not depend on the desire of anyone. Allah the Exalted says:
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"Say: 'None in the heavens and the earth knows the Ghaib (un seen) except 1\llah, nor can they perc eive when they shall be resurrected," (V.27:6S) It means that no one has the capability to have an access to the knowledge of Ute Ghaib whether he is one of the must presti gious human beings or one of the most high -ranking angels. This fact may be corroborated by the evidence that the whole world knows about the advent of the Doomsday, hut none or thorn know s as to when 80M 11 1t occur' Had they been possessing the capability to gain knowledge of everything, they would have known the date of its advent also! The matters of Gh Rib (the un known and unseen). Allah the Almighty says:
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"Verily, Allah! With Him (alone) is the knowledge of the Hour ~ He sends down the rain, and knows that w hie h is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in w ha t land he w ill die. Veril y ~ Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware (of things." (\'.31 :34)
It means that AJlah Alone knows the matters oft he Ghaib,

While no one other than Ilim has the knowledge of the unseen. Nobody knows as to when shall the Doomsday occur, a news so muc h wi de-spread and we U~ known among the people that they are almost certain about its occurrence, what about the matters like victory and defeat, health and sickness and (others like it) similar to it. No one .knows about them either. These matters are nei ther we 11-known 1ike the Doomsday nor are abso lute ly de finite. Simi larl y, TIQbQd'y knows when shall it start raining eventhou gil it has a d efin j te season and ito ften ra ins during that season. Most 0 f people do wi sh to know about it and had it been possible tu kno w il beforehand, they would indeed have known about it. .J 'hen how could the people possi b 1y know about the things \oy hich nei ther belong to a particular season nor are they of any pub I ic interest like someone s death and his life-span, being h lessed wit.h a child or not, being we a] thy ur .impoverished, emerging victori OlL, or facin g an i gnom iny of d efcat etc . No one knows as to whether a womb carrie s one or more than one child[l] ~ whether a foetus is a male one Or a female one, comp lete or defective ~ beautifu 1 or ugly even though the physicians do narrate the reasons causi ng d1 ren t ffe formations and configurations", but they do not know about someone ~ particul ar case, In such a case, how cou ld one s possibly read the internal matters of a person like thoughts, intentions and the condition of .one ~ Fa! th and hypocrisy. As s
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Even the contemporary medical science can determine the sex of the foetus oaly ill case it happens to be in the Laststeges of its birth,

72

long as one does not know as to what he himself shall be doing tonlOITOW how cool d he know about the circum stances of oth en an d since a man does not even have an inkling about the place of his death, how could he have a fore-know ledge about the day and time or his passing away. Be it as it may, no person or entity has the capabiHty to learn about the future by exercising his own free will and cho ice except Allah. Hence it becomes known to us that the people who claim to hav e the knowledge of the unseen arc none but liars. The so-called concepts an d methods of learning about what is unseen like a Divine inspiration, sooth saying, foretelling by figures, astronomy , divination and casting lots are none but falsehood and arc only Satanic tricks
t

and i11 Ions. Muslims shou ld not be entangled wi th them an d us gi ve them no credit at all. And if someone neither claims to possess the know ledge of the unseen nur claims to have the
capabili ty of knowing it by exercising his own free will but he

on! y c laim s that a ccrta in matter which AJ lah has inform ed hi m about, was beyon d h j s control and capacity; and hi S own choice and will, had nothing to .00 with it; in this case there arc bo th the pos sib ilitics) the man makin g such a statemen t, cou ld ei ther he truthful or a liar.
Do not cal]
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anyon e but Allah:
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A11ah says:
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~~ nd who is more stray than one who calls (in vokes) A besides Allah, such as win not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who arc (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them?" 01~46:5)
Jt

means that the po Iythe; sts are an ex treme ly idi otic bunc h of

peop 1e, who, by a voiding Allah (who possesses a11 authority and
73

invoke the other so-called deities who neither hear their ~nvoc a tions nor are capable l~ IIoing anything, Eve n if th ey f keep ca 11 ing them til 1 the 1lOOt n sday ~t hose (so-called) deities woo ld not re spend to their calls. Thus we rna y dcd ucc that the people who call upon the mco of piety from a certain distance by only req uesting them to pray to Allah for them so that /\ llah may Iul n n their wishes, al so com 1111t an act of Sh irk eventhough they may 110t think it to be as such, since the: prayer of fulfillment is eventually directed to Allah. Hut in fact} this act has become tain ted wi tb Sh irk as a third person has been call ed upon with the bel ieft h at 1h is person posseses the capabi 1i1Y 0 t· hearing from far and near (if invoked), whereas it is a quality which is attrib IIted to Allah A Ion e. Allah H ims e]f says that they (deities etc.) are unaware of their calls (invocations) to them. They do not hear the invoca lions of a caller even if he keeps shouting (hi s in vocations) un til the Doomsday. knowledge)

AUa h Alone, possesses the power of ben efit and inflt cti n g harm:

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"Say (O M 11 h amm ad. r1-J ~ ~I ..;- ): ~I possess no pow er of ben efit or hurt to mysel f except as Allah wills. 1f 1 ha d the know] edge of the G hu ib (unseen), 1 shou ld have secured lor tn ysol f an abundanc e of weal th, and no evil shu uld have touched me. r am but a warner, and a bringer e r glad tid in gs unto people who believe." {V.7: I ~~) is the leader o r all the Prophets. Many miracles are ascribed to him and people learned the subtleties . and nuance S of religion from h im, People acquired piet y and .virtuosi ty by following his prescri bed path. Allah H imse 1f I instructed him to gi vt:. poop lc an account of h is help 1essness Th e Prophet
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74

making it clearly known to the people that he is neither capable of exerci sing any auihori ty nor posses scs any know ledge of th e unseen. One can eas ily run a conj ecture frOITI the fact that as long a s he: does not even possess an authority to gain u certain advantage for himself" or to ward off an evil from inflicting him, how caul d he benefit or harm sorneon eel se. Had Itt'! been having the knowledge of the unseen, he would have known about the resu lts of a certain acti on beforehand cv en prior to undertaki ng itt and if he h ad a fai nres l premoni tion that the resu 1t of a certain act ion is going to he unfa voura b le, he waul d not have undertaken that action at a11. The knowledge 'Of the unseen is one of the Attri butcs of Allah and he is merely a Messenger. The mission of a Messenger is only confined to warning people about the dire consequences of bad actions and to give people glad ti dings abo ut virtuous deed s. This too benefi ts the ones who nurse such a Belief [Tauhid} in their hearts and the nurturing 0 f sue h a H clic f is also one of the Qual itics of Allah.
The original assignment of the Prophets:

It bCCOHlC:i known to us. that the greatness of the Prophets and saints epitomises in the fact that they direct people to the path or Allah and give people information about whatever good and had deeds they are th emsel vcs informed 0 f. All ah h as endow cd their propagation with a quality of a convincing effectiveness. Many people are directed to the Right Path through their efforts. No such authority has been conferred on them that they should persona IIy conduct an d d ispo sc 0 if the world1 y matters like c ausi n g dca th to someone, hies s someone with a son 0 r daugh ter ~ ward ing 0ff an evi 1, fulfill rnent of one! swishes,
crowning someone with S:UCCI:!SS or destine someone to defeat, granting someone riches or making someone indigent and impoverishcd ~ turning sam eon e into either a king or a mendicant, transforming SOmeone into a nobleman and minister or turning someone into a poor and dejected person, kindling the,
7.5

spark of Faith in someone's heart or having the same snatched awa y from him, or ttlmin g a healthy person into a S ic k person and sick person in to a hea 1thy one, 'rhese a ttrihu te s belong to Allah only and everybody, regardless of his status, is unable to do such things exec pt Allah. F. veryone is treated on an cq u al footing in terms of thi s in eb i1ity, The Prophets do not have the know ledge of the unsee n : The Prophets do not enjoy the distinction of having been awarded the keys to the unseen to the effect that they may have a cognizance of someone? 8 j llne rmost feelings. or cou 1cJ make predicti ons a bou t w h eth er or not someone is go ing to be hiessed with a child, whether one! s business is going to yield profit or incur a loss, or whether someone \s going to emerge victorious in a battlefield or face a defeat As far as the above things are concerned, everybody is equall Y una ware abo u t the m regardless of his status. However, certain remarks which are made in reference to a certain context out of one's wisdom do sometimes come true. Similarly, th ese eminen t people (i. e., til e Prophets) make certain remarks in relation to a certain context using their own wisdom which sometimes prove to be C;()ITCet and sometimes incorrect. But whatever information a. Prophet is given through Divine Revelation is never incorrect, but the Reve 1ati on does not depend on a Prop h et' S 0\VIl wi 11.

The sayings of the Prop het

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is the name of the mother of 'Aut: Muawwidh and M U adh ~ 4111 ~A ira 4>01' 4.JI1 r had SlX sons, all of w hom penlclpated ill the battle of Badr, Two of them were killed as martyrs in the battle of Badr, Mu' adh and Muo:wwidh L..fi." ~ ,rJ. jointl y killed Abu Jabl.
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"The Prophet fwJ..,..u. UI~ r came to me while T was about to depart to my husband's house (alter the completion of marriage ceremony) and sat next to me on my bed. Some of our young girls, to the accompaniment of the sound of n drumbeat, started narrating the saga of our martyrs during the battle of Had r, One of them even went to the extent of saying that our Prophet (who is amongst us) knows what 1s go ing to ha PPCH tomorrow. I Ie (the Prophet r:~ ...r I .;..:. ) sa id, Stop wha t you are saying now and sa y what you ha ve been sayin g h efore, (AJ -Btl khari),
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J t means that on the occ us ion of Ru ba y i~ Ansari ya •s marri age ceremony, Pro phc ( .~, t..b ......iI1_,J- sat by her side. While singing frolickingly, the young girls made a remark saying that our Prophet knows what is gn ing to happen tomorrow, Th c Prophet .J...... ~ ~ .._jJ I ~ prohibited them from maki ng such an uttcranc c and asked them 10 rcl fa in from it thenceforth. Tt thus becomes c 1earl y known that n person no lila t tcr how pious and virtuo us he is, we must not believe that he has the knowledge of the unseen. The poets, w ho keep eulogis ing the Prophet rL- J ~ UJI ~ by wri ting pane gyric and 1audatory poems exto 11 ing him to the skies and thereby justifying their uncalled for eloquence under lhe pretext of a mere exaggeration, is absolutely incorrect, So long as the Prophe t f-'t ~ .uJ! ~ did not even a 110w the ynung gir 1s to rec ite verses in his pea isc how could it be j usti fia ble for an inte 11 ectual poet to verbal ise or J istcn to such v erses
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"Who soever ascribes. the know ledge of five thi ngs to Allah's Prophet Muhammad ,..L.l".jJir ~I";" which Allah has referred to in the verse say ing: Allah has the kno w ledge of the Hour, !, (V.3 1:34), has 0. ttributed to him a monstrou s

cal umny, ~~ (Al-Bukhari). It means. that all the m a tters related to the un seen ate covered under these five things that are stated at the end 0 f Surah Luqman and m ent ioned earli er, Therefore, whoever says that the Prop h et rL--: ~ 1,,111 ~ knew al 1 the things belonging to the rca lms of the unknown, has indeed commi tted an immen sel y ~Ianderous act. None has the know ledge CJ f the Gha ib except Allah
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T am a Messenger 0 f A llah, 1 can say swcaringly by Him in the earnest, that I do not have a faintest idea as to what is going to happen to me or to "Eventh ough
you." (A l-Bukhari).

T imp 1ie So that the kind of trca trncn l Allah i~go j ng to mete out to t his sl ~tv es in this world, in thei r 8rave~, or in the Herea fter is n ei ther known by a Prophet, nor a sage. They nci thcr kne w about thClUS.C L vcs nor about the others If someone happens to know about a certain pers-on through Revelation that he is going to have a happy ending, SLICh a piece ,,1" information thus acquired (through Revelation) is regarded to be no more than a bri ef and su perficia 1 know ledge, A cqu if iug any further know ledge is beyond their capaci ty .

78

Cha p ter Five

The Negation of Shirk in Authoriiy
Allah says:
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.... Say: In Whose Hand is the sovereignty of everything (i.e.

treasures of each and everything)? And He protects (all}, while against Whom there is no protector, (i.e, if Allah sa ves an yon e none can pun i511 or harm h 1m~and if A llah pu nishes or harm s any one none can save him), j f you know. They will say: ·(AU that belongs) to Allah.' Say: I low then arc yo u decei ved and turn away from the truth r" (V.23 :8R~Rq) that even if a Mus hrik (po 1),1he ist) is q uestioncd as to who iSo the one who has an absolute authority and command lu conduct and dispose off the worldly affairs in whatever way he pleases and there is none who could deter or circumvent Him, tl, ey wi 1J say that ~ verily Allah th e Almighty. As long as this tis is the ultimate truth, isn't it ~ lunacy to entreat other entities (other than Allah) and request them for the fulfillment of ones desires! We must also bear in mind that even during the era of
It In cans

.jhere were people who believed that there is nu counterpart of Allah and there is none who could equal Him but they stil l worshipped idols considering them 8S their in terc cssors and asked them for th e fu If llmen t of their wishes, and hence became Mushrik (polytheists), Even today, if someone be 1ieves til at an y oth er en ti t y (other t ba n Allah) exercises irs authority In disposing off the worldly affairs and worsh ips it as his intercessor, he wi 11 become a MUL~hrit:
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the Prophet

79

he doe s not regard it to be as All ah s eq ual in the matter of withstanding His Might.

eventhough

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AUah i" the One Wbo cau ses benefit aod inDicts harm:

Allah the Almighty says:

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"S ay: (I t is not my power to cause you harm, or bring you
to the Right Path, Say (0 Muhammad f-j ~ oklJl ~): 'None can protect me from Allah's pu nishment (if I were to disobey II im), nor shou ld r find refuge except in Him. ,..
t

(V. 72 :21,22)
I t means tha t th e matters which are either benefi ci al to you or are dctr imen tal to your interests are beyond my (the Prophet's) controJ . Yon must not exceed the 1imits and become proud by harbouring a fallacy that as you are my followers, you have a strong base and you enjoy the privilege of having a strong advocate and a beloved intercessor, you are free to do according to the dictates 0 f your whims and 1 w il l eventually save you
from the perdition of AHnl1, But the case is that 1 myself happen to be at His mercy and see no refuge except wi III Him Alone, how C ou ld I sa ve others Irom puuishmen t. T t thus becomes clear that the ones who forget Allah by banking on the religious preceptors and thereby defying His Instructions, ha ve indeed strayed from the R 1ght Path, b-ecause the Prophet rLJ V.a ~ I ~ used to fear Allah day and night and. could see his refuge with none but Allah. Since the P [0phet r--j ~ ...JJ I ~ was himself meticulously observant about these matters, how co uld any soand-so may even think of the possibility of being exonerated from punishment despi te committing sinful acts.

80

None Js the sustaiaer except AUa h! Al1ah the Exalted says:

"And they worship others besides Allah, - such as do not and cannot own any provision for them from the hea vens or the earth." (V.16:73)

It means that the peop le accord them such a respect and hono ur
as

deserved by Allah only, cvcnthough they have nothing to do

wi th provi di ng them any 1ive 1ihood, N either can th ey induce rain nor can they grow anything from the earth, They are devoid of any capability whatsoever. It is amazing to notice a popular fa Hacy among the Ina sses that the sa gcs, eventhou gh possessing a capability of exerci sing authority in the day -to-day worldly matters, they do not interfere in these matters out of a sense of rcspec l t ulncss, and arc con tented w ith the Di v inc destiny _ Orhcrw isc, they can make the who lc universe l1ps ide down if th ey so wis h, but thi nking of the enormi ty of evi 1 an d a havoc which could be wrought by such an action, they keep mum and maintain their composure, This idea is absolutely incorrect, Th ey are not capah le of doing that ei th er in term s of acti on or power. In other words, they do not possess any capability and PQW er t-o exercise such kind 0 r au thori ly _
In vo ke none but Alia h ~ Allah the Almigh ty says:
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"And invoke not besides Allah, any that will neither profit you, nor hurt you, but j f (in case) you did so, you shall certainly be one of the Zalimun (po Iyt hei sts and wrong81

doers)" (V.: 0: 106)
It
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s t ha t in the presence of Allah ~who is the Lord of all th e

majesty, honour and magnificence, calling upon such incapacitated entities who can neither profit nor hurt anyone is
tru ly a wrongful

act for the simp le reason th at a po sition honour, w hich is the preroga ti ve of the greatest only, is being gi ven to the riffraff among the people who are not worth their

or

salt:
Allah says:

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.•Say: (0 Muhammad ~t ~ .._[JI ~ to those polytheists, pagans, etc.) 'Cal] u pon those whom you assert (to be associate gods) besides All ah, they possess not even the weight of an arum (or n small ant), - either in the heavens or on the earth, nor have they any share in either, nor there is for Him any supporter from among them.' Intercession with I lim pro fi ts not, except for him w hum He penni ts.l J J U ntil w hen fear is bani shed from their (angels t) hearts, they (angels) say: 'What is that your Lord has said?' They say: 'The truth.' And He is the Most High, the Most
imp 1ies thai the Intercessor ~5- well the intercesscd had been frantically waiting fur the approva I, Once the approval was granted ~ they had been a:o;king. cad.. other US to what their Txml 11~u.lsaid, This is a psycho logica 1 situation wh ich wi II n verwhelm everybody when: they wi II be asking each other in an amazed stupcfae lion .liS to whether or not the permi xsion of their Lord has been granted'!
lt

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82

Great." (V.34:22,23)

No lnterees ston withuut His Permission:
There are several forms invo Ived in asking someone for the fu 1fillment 0 f one ~s desires in distress 81tuations an d getting the same fulfilled by hi m, It co uld be that the person so requested is himself the master, or a. partner of the master, Or has influence upon the master himself, as a ki ng may concede to the opinions of his deputies (1n their capacity of being the pi 1] ars 0 f the empi re) as making them displ eased jeopardi ses the administration of the government, or a situation wherein a

person happens to intercede with hi s master for someone w hich the master dares not refuse and willy-nilly becomes obliged to accord his approval, like the princesses or the queens whose love is cherished by a king and as sLICh can not reject an intercession made hy them out of their love.

Now, J ct us think about the po l ythei sts who despite A 11 cal 1 ah,
upon the saints and ask them to fulfill their wishes. These saints do not even own a pittance in the universe nor they have a wee bit of sham in it. They are neither the pillars of the Divine em pire no r arc they as sistants and helpers to A IJ ah the Almighty so tha l Allah succumbs to their pressurisation and con cede S to wh atevcr they say. They can not even utter a word in regard to

snrncone's intercession without the permission of Allah Himself and may acquire noth ~ for anyone. Once they happen TO be in ng the presenc e of AlJah and h ear His Comm and rncnt, they become so much awe-i nspircd and lnstillcd with fear tha t they alrn ost lose their senses. They do not even dare speak to Allah to
reconfinn His Statement out of respect and being overpowered by fright, but they ask each other as to what their Lord has said, and once they confirm it, they will have to believe it and testify to jt and hence the question of daring to make an intercession or playing an advocate on someone else's behalf docs not arise.

8J

Types of intercession; The most important thing w hich we m list bear in mind is th at the masses take pride in the intercession (which th ey believe shall) to be made by the Prophets and saints for them on the Day of J udgcment. They have forgotten Allah by having misunderstood the meaning of Shafa 'ah. In fact Shafa 'uh means I.interceding

with someone on someone else's behalf". Tn this world, there are many forms of making an intercession. For example ...a felony of theft. committed by a thief becomes proven in the sight of a king and a dep u t y or a minis tel' med iates with th e king and saves him from punishment which he has incurred due to crime. In this ~tuati on, the king did intend to punish the m iscrean tin i accordance with the la w of the country, but as 1on g as the king honours the minister" s word, he acqui ts the thief and lets him go unpunished. The king does S{} because the minister is one of the pillars on which his whole kingdom is based upon and he does not want make the minister displeased lest his displeasure shou ld j co pardise the organise tional machinery 0 f the
govcrnmen t. T aking all these matters into his cons iderati on, the king thus suppresses his anger and forgives the thief. This type of interces sion is known as Shafa a t- e- Waja ha t which means that the request of the minister has been granted due to hi S honour an d high-ranking status,
r

Ant ntercessien due to

one's high-ran ki n g status

is not pesslble:
An intercession by someone, enjoying a high-ranking status and the one who is dear and near tu Allah, is utterly impossible. A person who recognises an entity (other than Allah) to be sue h kind mediator, is definitely a polytheist and undoubtedly an ignorant person. He has nut understood the meaning or /luh (God) and has nul appreciated the status of the King of kings at all. Allah' 8 STarns is so Great and Exalted ihat if He so wishes ..

or

He may bring 1nto ex 1stenc e mil I ions 0f Prophets, sam ts, j inns! ange Is. and entitle ~ 1:4ual to Ga Dric l and Pro phet M u ha Inmad J-> r-i--J '-joI.;..JJ' in terms of status, merely by uttering a word "Be." He can decima te all the uni verse inc] uding hea vens and earth wi lh in a blinking of an GYC and create a different world. Everything comes j IIto ex:isten ce mere 1y by Hi So Will and He does not requ ire matter and sub stance to create things. If all the human beings and j inns righ l Irorn the era 0 r Adam r~ I ~ and un till the Doomsda y) altogether become like Ga bri eJ and Prop h.ets (in terms of piety and virtuosity), it will not add up an iota in the gran deur 0 fAIl ah _s empire and if all of them tum into devi Is and antichrists (in terms ul' eli sobedi encc and v ices) ~there sha It S ti 11 be no reduction in the ina gnifi cence of His em p ire _ In any case, He will still continue to he the Greatest of all and the King of all kings. Noone can either harm Him or bene fi t lIim. There is also a 1I 'adith to thi send which say s~ l
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slaves! In case all among you (the jinns and hum an s) who have passed a wa y and the ones who shall he born in future in unison become like the one who is the most pious among you all, you must remember that it win add up nothing in my empi re. Similarly! if you 1;0llecti vel y (inc 1ud ing the ones who have passed a way as weJ I as the oncoming generations) become vice- ri dden and ~inners like the one worst amon g YOll a] 1, it shall effect no reduction at all in my kingdom.
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Acceptance

of one's intercession

out of love is not possible:

Another type of interceding is that a prince, a queen or a be 10 v cd of the king comes forward an d does not Jet the king punish a thief. The king, out of his love tor the person in question, dues not wish to make him displeased and therefore, grants a pardon to the thief. This kind of intercession is known as an acceptance of intercession granted out of love for the person concerned. The king, being driven by the love of the concerned person, takes 1 nto account the fact that invoking a beloved's displeasure shall in tum inflict pain on himself and hence 11e concedes to the request of his beloved- This kind of occurrence in the court of Allah the Almighty is impossible. If someone reckons a prophet or a saint to be this kind of intercessor, he also is a pure polytheist and an utterly ignorant person. Allah, the King of kings, may reward his slave!'. by honouring them in whatever manner I-Ic pleases! may confer grand titles on them like Habib (the beloved), Khalil (the friend), Kalim (conversant), Ruhul1ah (Allah's spirit) and Wajth (the good-looking), Likewise He may bestow on His slaves such titles of honour as Rasul Karim (a kind messenger), Makin (the high rank). R-uhu.l-Qud":; (the holy spirit) and Ruhul-Amin (the honest spirit). But it should be in mind that. a master is after all, a master and a slave is alter a11a slave, (They are poles apart). Each one has a specified limit, As a slave becomes enraptured in pondering over the bliss of His mercy, he also becomes overwhelmed with a feeling offrighl when he happens to think about His overpowering greatness. Interceding with permission!

The third kind of intercession implies the situation wherein a thief indeed is found guilty of theft. hut he has not committed it by way of profession but he has unfortunately slipped into it (being a victim of circumstances). Out of a feeling of guilt, this

86

person now feels extremely remorseful, his head lowered downward, constantly being gnawed by the fear of punishment, Paying due respect to the law of the land, he considers himself to be vice-ridden, a perpetrator of sin and thus eligible for punishment. He does not flee the king and does not request a courtier or a m ini stcr lu in terc ede wi t h the king for his amn esty, He seeks no ones support other than the king himself Ile only pins his hopes to His Majesty day in and day out and is awaiting the pronouncement of d. judgement in regard to the delinquency. Th e king, taking pity on his dcp lorab Ie condi ti on, in tends to connive at his delinquency hut also wants to uphold the law of the country lest it should be looked down upon by the people. Now, a governor 01' a minister, after getting a wink from the kin g, comes forward to intercede on hi s be hal f. So the king grants a pardon to the thief apparently on the plea that so long as the governor has h imsclf interceded for 11irn, he has to honour The governor did not intercede for the thief because he was ei t her his rela ti ve, fri en d or one his acquai ntanccs or he look the responsi bilit y 0 f defendi n g hirn, but i l was simp Iy due to the fact that the king willingly instructed him to do so, Obviously, he is a governor appointed by the king and not a supporter of the th 1ef (and hence he wi II not undertake an action 0 f this kind wi thout a nod of approval from the king), as the one who favours a thief is himself a thief. This type of intercession is known as "an intercession with permission" (mediation with the permission anti willingness of the master himself). This kind of interc essi on only sha 11 prevail in the court 0 f Allah the Alruigh ly, An In tercession by a Prophet or a saint whi chis menti 0 ned in the Noble Qur' an is none oth er than this type of intercess ion.

.t.

or

Tbe Straight Pa th ~
It is obligato ry on every human being to ca II upon none but Allah Alone, must tear Him all the time and keep seeking His forgiveness from sins regularly. One must confess to having committed sins before Him Alone and con sider Him Alone to be one's master and supporter. One should seek refuge in none but Allah and must not depend on anyone's 811 pport, as our Lurd is A 11- orgiver and Most Compass iona te. Out of Hi s sheer F b less ing and mercy ~He will obviate all our miseries and forgive all our sins. Whomsoever He wishes, shall appoint as your intercessor on His own instruction. As you entrust Him with the fulfillment of all your needs, so should you entrust Him with the responsib ility of assigning anyone as your in terces sur whosoever He wishes. Never depend on anyone's support, Call upon Him Alone to lend you support. Never forget the real Master. Apprec iate and pay due d eferen ce to the ru! in gs of Shari'ah (lslanilc law) and disregard the established social customs and traditions (in case they happen to be in a direct confrontation with the rulings of Shari'ahs. Abiding by the social mores by disregarding the injunctions of Shari 'ah is an extremely severe crime. All the Prophets and saints are averse to it. They never intercede on be hal f of someone who adhere to the soc in1 customs and defy the inj un ctions of Shari ~ On the contrary, they become ah, opposed to such people and. become displeased with them., because their piety only rested on the factor that they accorded every preference to the willingness of Allah. They used to abandon their wives, children" followers, disciples, servants and friends for the sake of Allah and whenever those people used to do anything contrary to the Will of Allah, th-ey turned into their enemies. W1'Latgoodness of po lytheists cou Id attract the people of em 1nence to be their intercessors with Allah and engage themselves in a heated discussion with Him fur their sake? Such
88

a thing is never bound to happen as they (i.e. Prophets and saints) nrc their enemies. Loving and contradicting people for the sake 0 fA] 1ah on Iy, is the q uali ty they are c haracterised with.

In ca sc Allah does inten d to make someone taste th e Hell- fire, they shall be only prepared to fell hun into the Hell-fire by dealing him a few blows and pushes. They nrc merely dependent on the Will of Allah and shall irresistibly tilt towards it.
Ttis reponed by Ibn Abbas ~

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"One day 1 was behind the Prophet rL-j ~ ....!I ..r-'- . He addressed me and said, '0 boy! Remember i\ 11ah and Allah shall remember you. Remember Allah and you shall sec Him right before you. Whenever you ask for anything, ask it from A1Iah and whenever you look for assistance, do it by requesting Allah Alon e. Be certain that if all the poop le collecti vely agree to do you a benefit, they shall not be able to do more than what A1lah has preordained

for you and in case they all agree to inflict a harm on you,
they would not do it more than what Allah has in store for you. The pens have been lifted and the books have gone dry. n [Tirmidhi).

89

It means that Allah the Almighty is truly and justifiably the King of all kings. He 1~nut proud (and haughty) like the kings of the world as they do not pay any heed to the pleadings of any of their subjects due \0 a11 empty sense of conceit. Jt is only due to this reason that if the general people were to ask for anything from the king: they do it through his deputies instead of having a direct audience with the king himself so that their request be granted for their sake, at Ieast.

is far above this type of categorization, On the contrary, He is Extremely Benelicient and Most Merciful. In
nul Allah

order to attract His attention, no one's mediation is required. He takes care of everyone individually and remembers everyone regardless whether or not someone intercedes for him. He is Pure, Supreme and Far Exalted from the rest. His Court is unlike the courts of tile worldly kings wherein the people in general are unable to have an access to the royal court; only the kmg's deputies themselves exercise their authority on the public and the subjects having no option but to obey their orders. On the contrary, it is the Divine court and Allah is far nearer to His slaves, An ordinary man. who turns to Him and foc-usses his at tcntion onto Hun by the depths of his heart, wou ld find Him near himself. There is no veil between a slave and Allah except (the curtain of) his own negligcnce.f11 Allah is the Nearest to all: If someone happens to be away from Allah! it is only due to his own negligence. Otherwise the Rabb is very nearer to a11.
r 11 <AIwQ«dar (Destiny) is another name for the Di ville knowledge, No- human bemg cat} know a~ [0 what is written in hi:.> own or someones else's destiny. Therefore, il rs the first and last obligation on every human being ttl ~trictly observe the Divine Injunctions and interdictions (fOJ1tlWillg Allah's Instructions and avoiding things which He forbade), and should look torwanl to all goodness out n f H is mercy,

90

Anyone calling upon a Prophet or a saint with the no lion that th ey shall draw him near Allah, do not understand the tact that a distance however, it) wedged between him and n saint or a Prophet, whereas Allah is in fact very very close to him. We can understand it through this example:
Let us suppose th at 3. slave stands alone in the presence of the king who 1s all ears to }istcu to hi m, but he instead, calls one u f the deputies loudly and request him to convey his request to the attention ol' His Majesty. What do you think of this slave now? Obviously he is either blind Of crazy! nv~ryonc must ask Allah Alone and must seek J i is Help Alone in distress. One must be abso lutel y certain that whatever ha s already been written down in one's destiny may not be erased. In case the world to its entiret y becomes incumbent on benefiting or harm ing someone, they can do it no more than what has already been written in his d esti ny. Thus il becomes abundantly c Iear that no one h as the capability of effecting a change in one's fate. A person who has no children in his destiny, who can bless him with children and the one w he has al ready completed h j s 11 span, who can grant fehim a lease of life? Therefore, whoever maintains that Allah has empowered His saints to effect a change in someone' s des liny is quite j ncorrect, The fact is that Allah grants His appro v als to th e invoca tions of everyone among H j s slaves sometimes only, whereas He certain ly accords His appro val to m ost of the supplications made by the Prophets and saints. He is the One who guides someone to effer supplications. to Trim and He Himself approves of them. Making a supplication and getting the same approved arc both preordained and i~ .scribed in one's .. fate- Nothing in the world happens outside the sphere and realms of fate and no one, regardless of his big and small status, or whether he is a P roph et or a saint, is capable of doing anything. All one can do is praying to Allah, Now He has the option of either according His approval to it or denying it as a 91

ma tter

0

r wisdom

and precaution.

Trust in Allah Alone: It ha 5 been reported by Ibn M.aj ah on the authori ty of Amr bin Al-A as w. .t.l! I ~ ~ th at the Prophet rl-J ~ ..,Il1 ._J..> said:

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"Every human heart has a way (i.e. an option) in every field, The one who lets his heart pursue all the avenues, Allah shall not pay any heed to such a person as to in which avenue he has been destroyed. The one who has a complete trust in Allah, He will suffice him in all the avenues." (Ibn Miljah).

It means that whenever a person is en tangled in a di stress, or stand sin need 0 f something, his tho ugh ts wander around in all directions, His mind entertain different ideas, like invoking a certain Prophet, an Imdm, a preceptor, a martyr Of a fairy. He thinks about consulting an astronomer, a seer, a soothsayer or asking a priest to su ggest a way of success for him by casting
lots etc. Then the one who runs after every thought) Allah becomes impervious to his supplications and does not include him in the 1ist of his sincere and fai thful slaves and thus he 10ses any ch ance of being directed anti led to th e Right Path by A 1Jab. Eventually such a perso ..l gets destroyed as a result of running " after these thoughts. Someone turns into an atheist, someone becomes an apostate whereas someone else negates and rejects everything believing in nothing at all. However, the one who trusts in Allah and does not run after any fancy is truly a be loved slave of Allah. The avenues of His directions arc open
92

to h; In and his heart becomes blessed with such a quiet,
calmness and bliss as can never be achieved by the ones running after their (fleeting) fancies. Whatever is written in one's destiny is bound to happen but the ones who run after thoughts are constantly plagued with trouble whereas. the ones having trust in Allah rest in peace, [1] Do not consider Allah on an equal footing with the worldly kings who do all the major functions. by themselves and let their servants perform the menial jobs and hence the people are bound to entreat these serva nts for the Inere trifles. Rut the management of Allah j~ a far cry from it. Allah is Omnipotent and within a twinkling olan eye, can ameliorate, treat and rectify innumerable matters. None is a partner in His dominion and sovereignty ~ none shares His authority; and therefore, no matter how minute and negligible a thing could be, one should demand it directly from I lim. N 0 one other than .H im can give anything to anyone either big or small.

Relationship does not benefit:
It is reported by Abu Hurairah ~~'.._,-pJ that when the verse "And warn your tribe -of near kindred" (V.26:214) was revealed, the Prophet rt-, "--jl.I;. Ll:1 ~ called his relatives and addressed them in the foliowing manner:

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"Every Muslim mu~t ask for the fulfillment of his entire needs from his Rabb, to the extent that even If he is in need of salt, he should ask hj!o1 Rabb for it and if one of h ~~shoe-laces breaks off. he must sril ~ ask his N.abb for it. [Tirmidhi)
It

93

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..0 lhc progen y of K a~ bin Lu wa i1 Save you r se lves from b
(the torment of) the Hell-fire, for I will not help you in rescuing you from the tormen tor Allah ~ 0 the progeny of Murrah bin Ka'b 1 Save your selves from (the torment of) the Hell-lire, for r wi 11 not avail you in (the matter ot) rcscu ing you from the torment of All8h! 0 the progeny of ~ Abd Shams! Save your selves from (the torment of) the He 11- ire, for I will not avail you in (the matter of) f rescuing you from the torment of Allah! 0 the progeny of .:Abd Manafl Save your selves from (the torment of) the Hell- fire, for I will not a v ail you in (the matter 0 f) rescuing you from the torment of A l1lih 10 the progeny of Hashim! Save your selves from (the torment 00 the He11~ fire, for Iwi 11not avail you in (the matter of) rescuing you from the torment uf Allah' 0 the progeny of Abdul M uttal ibl Save your selves from (the torment ot) the Hell94

fire, for 1 will not avail you in (the matter of) rescuing you
from the torment Allah! 0 Fatirnah 1 S1.iVC your self from the (the torment 01) Hell-fire! Take whatever you like to take of my property, because I shall not be able to rescue you from the torment 01" Allah at all!" (Al-Bukhari - Muslim) It means that tj1e ones who happen to' be the relatives or a saint, they oeCOIIlC confident of their support and therefore become prondy and fearless. Therefore, A llah has. enjoined upon His beloved Prophet r-}..,J..a...:.11 ~ to warn his relatives regarding this matter accordingly: He (the Prophet tL·.......... :.... LUI~) made it conspicuously clear to ~J.:.~ even to his beloved daughter that a relation only may help in matters which he under one 's control and possession- ~~ regards my belongings, those are at roy disposal, I can dispense with them without being miserly but a~ regards the matters concerning Allah. they are far beyond my power and authority, 1 can neither vouch for anyone nor could! mediate for him, Everyone must gird up his loins to face the Day of Judgement and must think of rescuing himself from the Hen-fire. It thus becomes known to us that being a relative of a pious man and a saint, docs not exonerate anyone from the accountability of his deeds towards Allah. As long as a man does not take it upon himself to pcrfonn good deeds, it is difficult for him to pull through.

or

9S

Chapter Six

Prohibition of Shirk in Worship
The definition ofwor~bip: 'Ibudah (worship) implies those activities which Allah the Almighty has specified awl taught to His slaves for His honour
anti graufication. Here, we arc going to explain as to what those activities arc, which Allah has ordained us to perform in His honour 50 that we should not perform them fur any entity other than A llah and thus avoid committing the Shirk. Worship is meant for Allah Alone:

ci; :tlyt~J~~~}~0\O~~~~~lc~jJ~~;~j-::j'~_;t j
~~ y.... -:_,;.

~_._J' ~~ I% r--=~ .t"A~-Ja

~*'\l1d indeed

painful nay.'~' (V.11 :25,26)

We sent Noah to his people (and he said): 'I have come to you as a plain warner. That you worship none but Allah, surely 1 fear tor you the torment of ~1

and the non-believers cversincc the Prophet Noah w) was ~enl to this earth. The beloved slaves of Allah have always maintained and spread the word that we should never express our reverence to any entity, whatsoever, in a manner which is strictly proscribed for Allah, and tile acts which have been outlined and deli nca ted to show our respect to A 1I~h onl y, must not be performed to propitiate any other entity.

It means that there has always been a strife between believers ..

<r~1

Prostration Allah says:
.. ~.:.~ I

Is for Allah unly:
~ ~ ,......... ~ ... ":i

~l~t.S»~JJ1!.t~h~

t ~ _)......... "-:'~'h..; "'1 r >. ~.,....- ...... " ~_;o~·dJl~~~~T

"Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate to Allah who created them, if you (really) worship Him." (V.41:37) This verse explains that in Islam, the prostration is the right of the Creator only and therefore, we should not prostrate to any creature, be it th e moon, the sun, a Prophet, a saint, a j inn or any angel. If someone maintains that making a. prostration to a creature was permissible in the earlier religions, for instance, the angels prostrated to Adam r~f ~ and Prophet Jacob r~l.t# prostrated to Prophet Joseph r:Wl ~ and hence there is no harm if we: make a prostration to a saint as a token of showing our respect to him. We must remember that such a thing proves and confirms one's Shirk and thoroughly deprives him of Faith, According to the laws which were prevalent during the period of Adam (L .•JI~ . , it was permissible to marry one's sisters, Presenting this fact as an evidence, what is the harm if these people marry their sisters. But a harm does certainly He there, because the incestuous relationship with one's sisters is a matter which is forbidden forever and is not permissible under any circumstances, The crux of the matter is that a human being must comply with the instructions of Allah. Any Divine injunction should be acknowledged and acted upon without reluctance and without engaging oneself in a controversial argumentation by employing phony excuses like saying: "It was not ordai ned to the earlier people, why the same has been lore ed down our necks?" Thi s type or argumentation leads one into being a disbeliever. To elaborate it further, let us presume that a certain statute wag put into effect by a king which was being observed for a long lime. Now the legislators replaced it with another law by abrogating the former one, and therefore, i1 is now necessary to enact this new law and to abide by it. If someone insists that he will only recognise the old law and not
97

'the new one,

such a person shall be deemed a rebel and a rebel is punishab le with imprisonment. Similarly ~ Hell-fire is the puni shmcnt for the ones wh 0 re be1 agninst 1\l1ah~s a uthori ty , 1t is a n act of Shirk to call upon Bnyo n e oth er than Allah: Allah the A lrn j ghty ~ay~:

G~f:;~~~\ Z 'r~ ~ta r~] ~l i;~&t :7·~::J1 1;t ti ~ ~f
.f{(~J~~)~~:<~~T:i~.j O\:Q~$0;~

e

~And the m05;quc~ are for ~ ah (A lone), so invoke not anyone along wi th Allah! (I t has been revealed to file tha t) When the slav C 0 f Allah (Muhanunod rJmJ ~ .,;ll .;.., ) stood up invoking (h is r .ord- All ah) in prayer to Him they (the jinns) ju .. made round him a dense crown as if sticking st one over the other (in order to lis ten (0 Prophet's

An

recitation. Say (0 Muhammad ~J ~.I..lI1 ..;..): ~ 1 invoke only my Lard (A J 1nh A Ion e) an d T associ ate none as partners along with Him.' " (V. 72: 1R-20)
j

a slave invokes Allah with a clean and pure heart, these ignoran ts think that thi s person is one of the
It means that whenever

most eminent saints who h as been ra ised to sue h an exalted status (of being a Ghauth or Qutub) that he is empowered to grant alma st anything to anyone and simi lar ly may d epri ve anyone of anything whatever he likes, Hence these people form dense crowds aroun d him with the hope that this man wo uld so 1 their prob terns and make them overcome their d j stress. ve Now, it is an obligation on this man to inform the people about the right thing that one sh Qui d i ke only A] lah during diffi cult nvo times. This right (the right of being called upon) only belongs to Allah. Any anticipa tion regarding a profit or loss must be aS80C iatcd wi th the Will of All ah because attri buting s uch a t hi n g to an yone other than Allah is an act of Sh irk. 1 am

with the Shirk and its cornmincrs. And if someone wants lo give me Uris kin d of trea tm ent, 1 becom e displeased with him. The acts of granting and taking away, belong to Allah the Almighty. This pious person should make it clear 10 the people that he has no power and authority lu do anything. Allah indeed is my Rabb and yours, and therefore, we must renounce the false objects of worship and invoke the Lord Who is the Solitary and Unique One having no associates with Him. He is alone in His Oneness, His right of being worshipped, His Lordship and absolute ruling. Thus it becomes known to us that standing with respect (with bands knotted to each other), making an invoc a lion and rec i ting a certain formula (wi th repetitions) are the activities which A llah has exclusively specified to be performed in His honour only. According such a treatment to anyone other than Allah is an act of Shirk
disgusted Allah the AI mighty says:

y: 0!6~~l~~~;,j\~J~~t;;JJ,~l_jrJ~Si_;,"....!.:-,. :;..'
~ ~ /_.J'

~.

~~1ti ~f ;_:'\ i/J~;
......... 1~

-

~:'f12~-:: ~j h~
_J' -...

_J'

~

0 (~ "'ff~_"

Q._

;;J

"And proclaim to mankind the Hajj (pilgrimage). They will come to you un foot and on every lean camel, they wi II come from every deep and distant (wide) mountain highways (10 perform Hajj). That they may witness th j ngs that are of bcnefi t to them (L e. reward of Hail in the Hereafter, and moo some worldly gain from trade, etc.), and mention the Name of Allah on appointed days (i.c,

10th, II th, 12th~ and 13th day of Dhul-Hijjah) , over the

cattle that He has provided for them (for sacri flee) at the time uf their slaughtering by saying: (Bismillah. Wallahu-A khar, Allahumma "Afinka wa Ilaik.) Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor who have it very hard time, Then, let th.cm complete the prescribed duties (Manasik of Hajj) for them, and perform their vows, and circumambulate th e ancient House (the K a 'bah at

beast

0f

Makkah), ~~ (V.22;27~29) T be holy sanetu Aries must

be respected:
l

Allah has specified some places symbolising His honour and dignity like.," Ka'beh, ArnIat Muzdalifah, Mina, As-Safa, Al-Marwah, Station of Abraham, the Sanctified Mosque, the whole of Mnkkah and the entire Hararn, People have" been inspired and blessed with an ardent desire to visit these places so that they may flock here from ali the nooks and comers of the world, 'whether mounted on the backs of animals, or travelling on foot, they all come from afar to witness the House of Allah) bearing the "hardships of journey, 'we~itlg specified unscwn clothes, reaching there in a peculiar gu ise and assumin g a typi ell f physiognomy, offering sacritlc-es in the Name of Allah, completing their vows, circumambulating the House of Allah and fulfilling their innermost aspirations towards expressing their gratitudes to their Lord upon reaching there, kissing its doorsteps and making supplications to Allah by holding on to the fringes of the KaoCbahcovering and thereby bursting into tears, sitting there in I 'tiled! observing the remembrance of A1Jah day and night. and someone being blessed with a perfect happiness out of merely standing there with respectJl1 However,
[I]

The statement of Shah Shaheed lends a credence 10 the view th~l the book Taqwiyat-ul-Iman was written after his return frurn flajj because this kind of detailed descripuon is only possible after one's return from H-'tij. This is merely 0 ur opinion and Allah knows the best.

tOO

all the above things nrc observed to pay one's homage and tributes to A llah and to express on e) s honour and gra titudes towards Him. Allah the Almighty becomes pleased with these acti vi ti es and rewards His slaves in both this world and the Hereafter - Therefore, carrying out these' activities to propi ti ate any other entity other than Allah is forbidden and regarded as an act of Shirk. Travelling to distant places and bearing the rigours uf tra vc 1 merely to visit a grave or a san ctum of a saint in tattered and dirty clothes, offering animal sacrifices upon reaching there, completing one's vows there, circumambulating somcone's house or a grave, respecting the forest around it, abstaining from hunting there, not cutting trees there, not pu lling out the grass an d straws from there, carrying OUl the other similar acti vities and looking forward to the goodness in this world and the Hereafter (out of'performing these activities) are all acts of Shirk .which one must avoid. This is because, we should only hold those places. in high esteem, whichShari~ah itself has commanded us to honour as dignified ones, And
shu wing a similar respect in relation to the p laces other than the spec ified ones according to one's own whims and j nducting such novelties into religion by applying one's own domineering assumptions, are all acts of Bid'ah (innovation), Compliance and obedience should be observed 1n regard to A llah only and not the things created by Him. Anything dedicated to an en tlty other th an AUak
. .

t:" forbidden:
Allah the Almighty says:

l:.,;;~~J-;.jlyi!~~1l~C~61d;,1t~~-q j~ , -:« .r. J.f ~-:"..:- li.:. -~ J.. • .'·~·r ~_,.._....t:~_,i "" -;; ~.. ~..__.>-~ ~J..! ~ _...j ~";~~f.~ J
,t. (~~

.1".1 ..

10t

"Say (0 M uhamrnad rL, ~

..tJ1 ._;..):

'I find not in that which

has been inspired to me anything forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be Muytatah (a dead animal) or h 1ood pou red forth (by slaughtering or the like), Or the flesh of swine (pork, ctc.) for that surely is impure, or impious (unlawful) meat (of an animal) which is slaughtered as a sacri fice for other than Allah (or has been slaughtered for ido Is etc or CJnwhich A Ilah' s Name has not been mentioned wh 11 S laughrcring), Bu t whosoever is e forced by necessity without willful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits, (for him) certainly ~your Lord 1s Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. n (V.6: 145)
I~

It means that just as the flesh of swine, blood and the dead animals h.ave been declared as forhi dden ones, asia ughtered an imal which has been dedicated to an entity other than Allah is also forbidden. Thus it becomes clear 10 us that an anima] devoted and dedicated to anything created (i.e, by Allah) is forbidden and impure. F or instance, an an imal becomes forbidden if the same is declared as belonging to a certain· person by saying "This cow belongs to Saiyid Ahmad Kabeer Or this goat belongs to Sheikh Saddoo etc. etc.[lj This verse does not specify that the an imal shall become forbidden only if the name of an cnti l yother than A llah is invoked while it 1s be ing slaughtered, but tile verse states that the same turns forbidden merely by the act of dedication. Any animal, whether a hen or a goat, a camel or a cow'! in case dedicated to any of the creatures, be it n saint or a Prophet, a father or a grandfather, a preceptor or a fairy, is abso lutely forbidden and impure, and the one who does this act is a Mu.~hrlk( polytheist).

[~)An imaginary preceptor of women in whose name

H. gOHt

is sacrificed,

102

All th ority a nd command

is only for

Ana h:

A 11 h th e Almighty has stated th e story 0 I the Prophet Yu 5U f a (Joseph) ;'"~I o,pI.; as to what he conveyed to his. companion s in the
prison in the following words:

G O~l·'j~r ~~)j\ ~\~, ~ .:::~;::.; ~~jf;~I
I..... J'" :.:~\ 'i.'~ L.;!T ·.. ....... .'-:""1 T "1: ~ ~ Id I,' -~ \...!' iIoJ ~
=-... ,...

~
,J..

~
"; ."...... :; -

~_.7

~~"~rJ:JC.!Us ~Cl~1 i;~ YI -'j ~ ~~i
T

---t"t T -:
..

'1..6_,....

»!

.~,-r
_1.0' II-

'F: :..i '~I oW .) -L..'r'! .:..U.l..:-w I:
.l"
:;!

JoI

"

..

...r

__-'

~I ~~~
.t.~

~f~I ~Iil~~ ...
5
.r"

~~;j-:!";~6f.:fbi
1·0 two C0111 panions uf the prison! Are many di ffercnt 1ords (gods) better or Allah, the On e., the Irresistible? you
do not worship besides Him but only names which you have named (forged), you and your fathers, for which Allah has sen t down no auth ority. The command (or the ju d gcment) is for none but Allah. He has commanded that you worship none but Him (i.c. His Monotheism), that is the (true) straight religion) but most men know not. (V .12~39,40)
tt

It is painful and disgusting for n slave lo have several masters. How great it is to have a single and solitary Lord who is the strongest of all! II ence, there is only on e Lord who fulfills al i the needs o f a human being an d helps him in overcoming his difficulties. The false and fictitious lords stand nowhere he fore Him. Nay, these are absolutely baseless fallacies to suppose that a celia in dei ty induces rain) growing grains belongs to some other deity, blessing with children falls under someone else's _j uri sdiction whereas gi ving heal th is someon e else s respousibili ty. People thcmsel yes have assigned names to them by supposing that such and such deity is responsible about such and sue h actions and they themselves ci.111upon them whenever they need them and thus this practice gradually grow!': into an
I'

103

established custom in the society in due course of time. Giving someone false and fabrIcated names is an act of Shirk: All best and good names belong to A llah only. Who else may be called by these names other than Allah Himself? None but He Alone has these names. In case someone has this kind of'names, it has nothing to do with Allah's Will. The one who is responsible about all the actions is kno wn as Allah and the one who is known as Muhammad or Ali has no power or authority to do anything at all. Allah has not commanded us to nurse these kind of thoughts and what the creatures (i.e, people) command to do is not lawful and creditable. Allah Himself has forbidden us to maintain these kind of views. Therefore, who else other than Allah is more creditable in these matters? The pure and true religion is that one should comply with the instructions of Allah and renunciate all the other commands contradicting them. But unfortunately, the majority of people have strayed from the Right Path and have accorded priority to the ways of their preceptors, Imam and saints rather than Icilowing the path prescribed by Allah.

So-called customs are acts of Shirk:
clear to us th at denying all the so-ca Iled customs and forged concepts and a strict adherence to the raws of Allah is a thing which Allah has determined and specified for His honour and dignity.ll] If someone treats a creature in a similar manner .. he will be deemed as an absolute Mushrik
It means that anyone all thenticating a command, custom nr way of life devised hy the mortals (creatures brought into exi stencc by Allah), and thereby considering: them as authoritati vc commits a proven act 0 f Shirk. If such a person does not seck Allah's forgiveness if! earnest prior to his death, he 'Will be doom.-ed to bum in the Hell-fire till eternity.
[] J
I

I t thus becomes

104

(polytheist). The conveyance of Divine decrees and commandments to the human beings is only possible through the Messengers. lf sorncone gives precedence to the saying of an imam, Muitahtd, a Ghauth, a Qutub, a religious scholar, a preceptor, a saint, one 's father or grandfather. a king, a minister, a priest or a pundit over the commandments of Islamic law ur happens to prefer the ideas and methodologies devised by the preceptors and saints in an open defiance of Qur' and Hadith,

or nu rsin gap ersuas ion 111 rega rd to the Prophets. th at Sha ri '(1h merely cons) So ts of their ow-n commands to the effect th at they said whatever they wished to say and it became an obligation on their Ummah to abide by their dictates. At] the above things and utterances confirm one ~~ Shirk. One must firmly believe that A llah is the real ruler and has everything at His disposal and a Prophet is merely assigned to convey the Divine Commands to the people, Anything which lies within the framework of Qur'an and Hadith must be recognised and verified and the one which 3s contrary to il rnu st be a voided. Keepin II pco ple sta nd up in on e s ho n on r is prohibi ted:
t

an

I t is reported 011 the all thori ly of M u' .a wiy ah Me~ senger r-L-j ~ .UJ I .;...:. said:

w .;y

;.r'"j

that Allah ~s

.~ ~~~ ~J;.i~ t>:~1 _) ~y
I

J ~~1

~

,J'

J~'~_'-!r ~r":; ~

D

"Whosoc ver becom es pleased wi th the rca lisation 0 f fact that the people stand up (as a token of respect) before him like pictures (i.c. silent and immovable), let him have an abode in Hell-fire." ('Tinnidhi). It men n 5 that whoever so desires that th e peo p Ic shou ld stan d up before him as a token of respect with folded hands, becoming as immobile as statues, not budging an inch, observing a pin-drop si lencc and not even fl uttering an eyelid, such a pen~on j s bound to taste HeU- fire, for he is laying a c lairn at Di Yin ity and is
IO!

forward to t he kind of honour and dignity w hleb Allah has spec ined for n one but Himself During a prayer, a person stands upright silently with folded hands without moving one's .eye s in cithcr direction. The posture 0 r Slanding up is ex c 1usive 1y prescribed for the so Ie purpose of paying one's tri bu tes to A llah the A lmi ghty. 111us it becom es kn own to us that ubserv ing such (1 posture (standing up) before a person wi th an intention of giving him a respectful treatment is unfair and an act 0 f Shirk.
J ooking

Wo rs hipping id-ols and the so-called "S anctums of sain ts ~t is an act of Shirk: It is reported on the authority of Thauban ~ Mcs senger ,..LJ I..j.Lo J..UI .jwt said:
~I~)

that Allah 's

~ ~&!

~I~

c?1 ~ )~ J;.t c?- iJ;L:J1 f;Z "1»
• 41

I..J": u-:. · . "The Doomsd ay sha 11 not be heralded until the tribes 0 f my Ummah join the polytheists and practice idolatry."
J
e-

~U ~~H ..:< t
~

D.

·~I~tj i.;.i

(Tirmidhi) .

Ido Is are u f t wu kind s. Erecting someone' s sta tue 0 r 11s pi cture i and worshi pping it, is cat led Sanam inA ra b; c. Dedicating a th 1ng, a. p 1 ace, a tree, a stone, a wooden obj ect or a paper etc. to
a certain deity and then W orshi pping it, is known as Wathan, A grave, a seat of a saint, a coffin, a stick, a Ta 'zia, a flag, a Shaddah~ll] the Hinna of Imiim Qa.~im and Sheikh Abdul-Qadir, a ra~sed p1atfonn of an Imdm, the places where the teachers and preceptors are seated, are all included in Wathan. rt also includes a she If in the w all ~ a sign or a cannon dedicated to a
-----_._--- - ...
111 It 18

a fla g

-~---W hi1Cb '.or accompames.I.

a

I

• llYU

oomml."muralmg:

L tile

martyrs of

Karbala,

106

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