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1.1 Solid Modeling 1.2 Importance Of Solid Modeling 1.3 Applications 1.4 Layout, Design And Drafting 1.5 Industrial design 1.6 Analysis 1.7 Manufacturing Engineering
2 Sketcher workbench
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Entering Sketcher Workbench Creating a Positioned Sketch Using Tools For Sketching Using Colors Using Smart Pick Creating Constraints Sketching Simple Profiles Performing Operations on Profile Cutting the Part by the Sketch Plane Customizing for Sketcher.
3. Part Design
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Opening a New CATPart Document. Reference Elements Sketch-Based Features. Dressing Up Of Solids Transformation Features Measuring 1
3.7 3.8 3.9
Surface-Based Features Advanced Tasks Customizing a Part Design Work Bench
4. Wireframe and Surface workbench
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 Creating Multiple Points Creating Planes Between Other Planes Creating Polylines Creating Circles Creating Splines Creating a Helix Creating Corners Creating Connect Curves Creating Spirals Creating Projections Creating Conic Curves Creating Intersections Creating Surfaces Performing Operations on Shape Geometry Updating Your Design Defining an Axis System Managing Open Bodies in the Specification Tree Hiding/Showing Open Bodies and Their Contents
5. Generative Shape Design
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Creating Extremum Elements Creating Polar Extremum Elements Creating a Spine Creating Combined Curves Creating Parallel Curves Creating Reflect Lines 2
Creating Adaptive Swept Surfaces Customizing For Generative Shape Design
6. Assembly Design
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 Creating an Assembly Document Inserting a Components Defining a Multi-Instantiation Fast Multi-Instantiation Using Assembly Constraints Updating an Assembly Using a Part Design Pattern Moving Components Sectioning Assembly Features Creating Scenes Exploding a Constrained Assembly Detecting Interferences Customizing Assembly Design
7. Generative Drafting workbench
7.1 Creating a New Drawing 7.2 Managing A Sheet 7.3 Adding a new sheet 7.4 Front View Creation 7.5 2D/3D Associativity 7.6 Creating a Projection View 7.7 Creating an Auxiliary View 7.8 Creating an Offset Section View / Cut 7.9 Creating an Aligned Section View / Cut 7.10 7.11 Creating a Detail View / Detail View Profile Creating a Clipping View and/or a Clipping View Profile 3
7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29
Creating an Isometric View Creating a Broken View Creating a Breakout View Creating Views via the Wizard Isolating Generated Views Not Aligning a View Scaling a View Adding a Generative Bill of Material Generating Balloons on a View Modifying a Callout Geometry Modifying a Pattern Dimension Generation Creating a Datum Feature Creating a Geometrical Tolerance Annotations Editing Properties Customizing for Generative Drafting Loading/Saving a CATDrawing
8. Interactive Drafting
8.1 Tools Toolbar 8.2 Creating Views 8.3 Defining the View Plane 8.4 Creating Views Using Folding Lines 8.5 Creating a Multiple View Projection 8.6 Reframing a View 8.7 Constraints 8.8 Creating Geometrical Constraints 8.9 Creating Constraints Between 2D and Generated Elements 8.10 8.11 8.12 Creating Dimensions Re-routing Dimensions Dress-Up Elements 4
Integration of function within the factory requires a product definition that is unique and consistent throughout the design and manufacturing process; it is computer graphics that makes possible a practical implementation of this dictum. We know that the geometry or the shape of any product can be fully described with the help of three spatial dimensions so computer models must also be three-dimensional.
1.1 Solid Model: A solid Model is an electronic description of a physical object or a group of physical objects. 2D and 3D CAD drawings are also electronic descriptions but they do not contain information about the nature of space enclosed by the geometry used to describe the object. A 2D drawing presents the visual aspect of an object from a particular viewpoint in space. Whereas a 3D drawing contains a description of the object’s appearance, and is valid from any viewpoint. However, Solid modeling (SM) requires the application of concepts that are academic in 2D drafting. The most obvious difference with SM, however, is that traditional engineering drawings are two-dimensional and solid models are inherently three-dimensional. While 2D drawings can be created manually or electronically, solid models must be created in an electronic ”drawing universe”. Solid models themselves are not physically accessible. CAD workstations are used to create, edit and display 2D representations of the electronic solid model.
Solid models are located in an electronic space that is defined in terms of 3D Cartesian coordinates. This is known as the 3D workspace or the model space. Three-dimensional coordinates are used to specify the location of points in space, the distances between pairs of points and displacements between consecutive positions of a point. A co-ordinate system consists of an origin and a system of reference planes or axes.
Three-dimensional CAD models can take three forms:
1. Wireframe: It includes only points in space and the lines connecting them. Objects are represented by their edges. 2. Surface: Mathematically defined areas span the edges of the Wireframe. 3. Solid: The space enclosed by the surfaces is defined and forms a closed volume. Solid models are the least abstract and most realistic of the three forms; they necessitate far more computing power for their creation and management than the other two forms. Solid Modeling (SM) attracts designers because the construction of complex models, especially those that lack symmetry, is very easy. Wireframe representations of complex objects are very difficult to “understand” visually, because computer displays and paper plots seldom give an indication of depth. Seeing all the edge at once leads to perceptual confusion because of ambiguities. A complex object can be decomposed into surfaces, which can be broken down into points and lines. Solid and Surface models also allow the generation of images with hidden surfaces removed, which are more realistic. Some shapes can be represented by surfaces instead of solids. Thus even designers who believe in the essential superiority of solid representations are forced to resort to surfaces for certain complex objects. Many SM systems closely integrate surface and solid capability. The most important aspect of solids is that their integrity can be computationally determined. In other words, SM systems with the aid of the computer can tell if a given object is a legitimate solid or not.
1.2 Importance of Solid Modeling:
Solid modeling is important because it is the key to obtaining productivity promises that computers offer designers. Designing is a very complex process. It is not simply a matter of filling in the blanks in a formula and obtaining an optimal answer; it is an iterative process that involves much trial and error, along with analysis. A lot of analysis tools are available today, which need solid models to work upon. The next portion of the design process that is most susceptible to improvement through computers is design verification. In this phase, a proto type of a design is built and tested. 6
Generally, the prototype is modified and tested many times before the design process moves to production. Computers make it possible to build software prototypes. These are models that exist only within the memory of the computer. These models can be subjected to computer-based simulations of the prototype tests, and the results can be used to build a real prototype. The major benefits of verifying the design within the computer are speed, cost, and flexibility. It is usually much faster to build a model within a computer than in machine shop, and costs are generally lower. Moreover, computer-based simulations can often be better representations of real-world conditions than those to which physical prototypes are subjected. More realistic representations are required by some manufacturing tasks, such as metal cutting with numerically controlled (NC) machine tools. CAM systems for designing NC toolpaths typically employ the second-level “surface” geometry in addition to wireframe, because the entire area of a part must be represented in order to tell the cutting tool where to go. But the highest form of realism requires that the interior of the part be represented as well. For that we need level three: SM systems. Solid models can be used to faithfully represent the entire geometry of a part, not just that of exterior. SM can therefore be used to determine if parts in an assembly will interfere with one another in operation-something that wireframe and surface representations cannot do. Hence solid modeling is one of the best tools used in the design process. Solid models are less abstract (more real) than drawings or 3D wireframes, their behavior under a variety of simulated conditions can tell us enough about how the real thing will behave to make the modeling process worthwhile. Solid models are easier to fix and easier to change than actual prototypes, and are less expensive. Infact a digital model can be more faithful to the proposed product than a prototype, because the limitations of prototype fabricating techniques often yields compromises that are very different from what will be made in the factory. A digital model does not suffer from the same constraints.
1.3 APPLICATIONS: Mechanical design and manufacturing have been the areas in which SM has found greatest application to date. Architecture and construction can make productive use of solids, but have largely been prohibited from doing so until recently because of the cost of sufficiently large 7
systems to handle architectural problems. SM systems are now being used to design power plants. The cost of design errors showing up in construction was so great that expensive systems to avoid such problems were readily justified.
1.4 LAYOUTS, DESIGN, AND DRAFTING:
Since the computer system is able to determine if a constructed object is a legitimate solid, it is natural desire to create any needed drawings from the solid model. In this way, the design integrity is maintained and the drawings will be consistent among themselves. The value of reducing consistency errors in complex designs is very great.
1.5 Industrial design
Industrial design is often considered to be almost a marketing function, rather than a part of engineering. By its nature, SM permits the relatively easy calculation of hidden-line and shaded images; the “model” knows whether a point is inside, outside, or on the surface of the object in question, which makes the generation of realistic images possible. Aesthetics are important to the industrial designer, to be sure. But how much better for the manufacturer when the industrial designer is able to produce models that are not only aesthetically and ergonomically valid, but to provide a usable geometric base on which the detailed design can be constructed.
The interior of a solid model is implicitly defined, so mass properties (volume, weight, surface area, centre of gravity, moments of inertia) are easy for the computer to calculate. And the fact that the SM software preserves the solid integrity of edited parts, or at least reports when that integrity is breached means that the mass property calculations can be reliably performed without fear of underlying geometric paradoxes invalidating them. Models for finite elements and other forms of structural analysis can be automatically generated from solids much more easily than from other geometric forms.
1.7 Manufacturing ENGINEERING
One of the greatest beneficiaries of SM data in the manufacturing process is the numerical control programmer. Common problems of CAD-generated data for the part programmer are flaws such as missing geometry or unconnected surfaces. The computer-verifiable nature of solids obviates these problems. In particular animated tool paths simulation is very helpful to the part programmer. Animation of motion paths in a SM environment is also helpful to the programmer of robotic systems. Without solids, automation of process planning is also impossible. With solid, it remains a challenge, but one that can be surmounted.
The Sketcher workbench provides a simple method for creating and editing 2D geometry as well as creating relations between geometrical elements. Once created, you can set constraints between geometrical elements, if you need for more complex sketches 2.1 Entering Sketcher Workbench Creating a sketch: To create a sketch, you have several possibilities: Select Start -> Mechanical Design -> Sketcher from the menu bar. Select the Sketcher icon and click the desired reference plane either in the geometry area or in
the specification tree, or select a planar surface. This creates a "non-positioned" sketch (i.e. a sketch for which you do not specify the origin and orientation of the absolute axis, which are not associative with the 3D geometry). Select the Sketch with Absolute Axis Definition icon and specify the reference plane, and the
origin and orientation of the axis system. This enables you to create a positioned sketch.
Editing an existing sketch: Double-click the sketch or an element of the sketch geometry, either in the geometry area or in the specification tree. To do this from the 3D, right-click the sketch in the specification tree, point to [sketch name] object in the contextual menu, and then select Edit.
2.2 Creating a Positioned Sketch Here you will learn how to create a positioned sketch, in which you specify the reference plane, and the origin and orientation of the absolute axis. Creating a positioned sketch enables you to define (and later change) explicitly the position of the sketch absolute axis. This offers the following advantages: You can use the absolute axis directions like external references for the sketched profile geometry. When the geometry of the part evolves and the associated position of the sketch changes, the shape of the sketched profile (2D geometry of the sketch) remains unchanged (even if the sketched profile is under-constrained). Creating a positioned sketch also ensures associativity with the 3D geometry. Click the down arrow next to the Sketcher icon and select the Sketch with Absolute Axis Definition icon ,
. The Sketch Positioning dialog box
appears. In the Type field in the Sketch Support area, two options are available: Positioned (preselected): creates a positioned sketch for which you specify the origin and orientation of the absolute axis. Sliding: creates a "non-positioned" sketch, i.e. a sketch for which you do not specify the origin and orientation of the absolute axis. 2.3 Using Tools For Sketching This task shows how tools in sketcher workbench can assist you when sketching elements.
Snap to Point If activated, this option makes your sketch begin or end on the points of the grid. As you are sketching the points are snapped to the intersection points of the grid. Construction/Standard Elements: You can create two types of elements: standard elements and construction elements. Note that creating standard or construction elements is based upon the same methodology. If standard elements represent the most commonly created elements, on some occasions, you will have to create geometry just to facilitate your design. Construction elements 10
aim at helping you in sketching the required profile. Click the Construction/Standard Element option command from the Sketch tools toolbar so that the elements you are now going to create be either standard or construction element. As construction elements are not taken into account when creating features, note that they do not appear outside the Sketcher. Geometrical Constraints: When selected, the Geometrical Constraint option command allows forcing a limitation between one or more geometry elements & creates Geometrical Constraint when sketching elements. Dimensional Constraints: When selected, the Dimensional Constraint option command allows forcing a dimensional limitation on one or more profile type elements provided you use the value fields in the Sketch tools toolbar for creating this profile. 2.4 Using Colors Two types of colors may be applied to sketched elements. These two types of colors correspond to colors illustrating: Graphical properties Colors that can be modified. These colors can therefore be modified using the contextual menu (Properties option and Graphic tab). OR Constraint diagnostics Colors that represent constraint diagnostics are colors that are imposed to elements whatever the graphical properties previously assigned to these elements and in accordance with given diagnostics. As a result, as soon as the diagnostic is solved, the element is assigned the color as defined in the Properties dialog box (Graphic tab). COLORS and GRAPHICAL PROPERTIES Grey: Construction Element Elements that are internal to, and only visualized by, the sketch. These elements are used as positioning references. These elements cannot be visualized in the 3D and therefore cannot be used to generate solid primitives. Yellow: Non-Modifiable Element For example, uses edges. These elements cannot be modified, graphically speaking.
Red Orange: Selected Element A subgroup of elements actually selected (the Select icon similarly active).
White Brown Green Purple Red
Under-Constrained Element Element not changed Fixed Element & Iso-Constrained Element Over constrained Element Inconsistent Element
2.5 Using Smart Pick SmartPick is a smart and easy way to use positioning tool, which will assist you when using most of the commands for creating Sketcher geometrical elements. SmartPick will give you higher productivity by decreasing the number of the interactions necessary for positioning these geometrical elements. According to the various active options, you can create the geometrical constraints that are equivalent to the snapping you performed. SmartPick will return information via symbols. Using SmartPick, you will easily specify a location: somewhere on the grid, using coordinates, on a point, at the extremity point of a curve, at the midpoint of a line, at the center of a circle or an ellipse, all over a curve, at the intersection point of two curves, aligned at a vertical/horizontal position, on the fictitious perpendicular line through a line end point, any of the above cases possibly combined together, whenever possible. You will progressively specify this location by providing information using the contextual menu. Note that if you position the cursor outside the zone that is allowed for creating a given element, the 2.6 Creating Constraints 2.6.1 Creating Dimensional/Geometrical Constraints Here we will see how to set dimensional or geometrical constraints between one, two or three elements. The constraints are in priority dimensional. Use the contextual menu to get other types of 12 symbol appears.
constraints and to position this constraint as desired. Select the Constraint icon
Constraint toolbar. Select a first element. Select a second element. Accordingly dimensional constrain will appear between two selected elements. For editing, double-click the constraint you wish to edit. 2.6.2 Creating a Contact Constraint This task shows you how to apply a constraint with a relative positioning that can be compared to contact. You can either select the geometry or the command first. This constraint can be created between either two elements. These constraints are in priority: concentricity, coincidence and tangency. Select the Constraint Contact icon subtoolbar) for giving Contact Constraint. 2.6.3 Creating Constraints via a Dialog Box from the Constraint toolbar (Constraint Creation
Multi-select the elements to be constrained. Click the Constraints Defined in Dialog Box icon from the Constraint toolbar. The Constraint Definition dialog box appears indicating the types of constraints you can set between the selected elements (selectable options). These constraints may be constraints to be applied either one per element (Length, Fix, Horizontal, Vertical) or constraints between two selected elements (Distance, Angle, Coincidence, Parallelism or Perpendicular). Multi-selection for Constraints is available. If constraints already exist, they are checked in the dialog box, by default. 2.6.4 Auto-Constraining a Group of Elements The Auto Constraint command detects possible constraints between the selected elements and imposes these constraints once detected. Select the profile to be constrained. Click the Auto Constraint icon from the Constraint toolbar. The Auto Constraint dialog box is displayed. The
Elements to be constrained field indicates all the elements detected by the application. The Reference Elements option allows you to select references to be used to detect possible constraints between these references and the elements selected. Once the profile is fully constrained, the application displays it in green. Click OK to constrain the sketch. 13
2.7 Sketching Simple Profiles a) Creating a Profile This task shows how to create a closed profile. A profile may also be open (if you click the profile end point in the free space). Profiles may be composed of lines and arcs, which you create either by clicking or using the Sketch tools toolbar. Click the Profile icon from the Profiles toolbar. Line (active by
The Sketch tools toolbar appears with option commands and values. default) Tangent Arc
Three Point Arc. Press and hold the left mouse button down /
Dragging the cursor allows you to activate the Tangent Arc mode automatically. If you cannot manage creating the tangent arc using the left mouse button, what you can do is select the Tangent Arc option command in the Sketch tools toolbar. Select the Three Points Arc option command
from the Sketch tools toolbar to create three-point arc.
b) Creating a Rectangle
Click the Rectangle icon
from the Profiles toolbar. The Sketch tools toolbar now displays
values for defining the rectangle. Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values to create points & then lines for rectangle. c) Creating an Oriented Rectangle It creates a rectangle in the direction of your choice by defining three extemity points of the rectangle. Click the Oriented Rectangle icon from the Profiles toolbar (Predefined Profile
subtoolbar). Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values. Click to create the oriented rectangle.
d) Creating a Parallelogram
Click the Parallelogram icon
from the Profiles toolbar (Predefined Profile subtoolbar). Position
the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values for three points. Click to create the parallelogram. e) Creating an Elongated Hole
Click the Elongated Hole icon
from the Profiles toolbar (Predefined Profile subtoolbar). The
Sketch tools toolbar now displays values for defining the elongated hole center-to-center axis (first and second center point) and then either the elongated hole radius or a point on this elongated hole. Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values for two centers& oblong distance. f) Creating a Cylindrical Elongated Hole
Click the Cylindrical Elongated Hole icon
from the Profiles toolbar (Predefined Profile
subtoolbar). The Sketch tools toolbar now displays values for defining the cylindrical elongated hole. You are going to define the (i) circle center, (ii) arc extremities and the (iii) radius of the cylindrical elongated hole. Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values. g) Creating a Keyhole Profile
Click the Keyhole Profile icon
from the Profiles icon (Predefined Profile sub toolbar). The
Sketch tools toolbar now displays values for defining the keyhole profile, two centers & two radii. Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values. h) Creating an Hexagon
Click the Hexagon icon
from the Profiles icon (Predefined Profile subtoolbar). The Sketch
tools toolbar now displays values for defining the hexagon center and then either a point on this hexagon or the hexagon dimension and angle. i) Creating a Circle It shows how to create a circle. We will use the Sketch tools toolbar but of course you can create this circle manually. By default, circle centers appear on the sketch. Click the Circle icon from
the Profiles toolbar (Circle sub-toolbar). The Sketch tools toolbar now displays values for defining the circle. Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values. When you create a circle using the Sketch tools toolbar, constraints are similarly assigned to this circle. j) Creating a Three Point Circle It shows how to create a circle that goes through three points. Click the Three Point Circle icon from the Profiles toolbar (Circle sub toolbar). The Sketch tools toolbar will display one after the other values for defining the three points of the circle: values for defining the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) values of a point on the circle or else the radius of this circle. k) Creating a Circle Using Coordinates It shows how to create a circle using center point coordinate with use of Cartesian coordinates &also use of polar coordinates. l) Creating a Tri-Tangent Circle It shows how to create a tri-tangent circle by creating three tangents. Click the Tri-Tangent Circle icon from the Profiles toolbar (Circle subtoolbar). Click three elements. The tri-tangent circle
appears as well as the corresponding constraints provided you activated the Internal Constraints icon .
m) Creating an Arc 16
It shows how to create an arc. There are three possibilities. a) The arc center point, start point and end point. b) Through three points - start, middle, end. c) Through three points –start, end, middle. n) Creating a Spline
Click the Spline icon
from the Profiles toolbar. Click to indicate the points through which the
spline goes. Double-click to end the spline. Clicking another command ends the spline too. Double-click the control point you wish to edit. o) Connecting Elements It shows you how to connect two curve type elements using either with an arc or a spline. Two connect option commands appear in the Sketch tools toolbar, Connect With Arc & Connect With Spline. p) Creating an Ellipse It shows how to create an ellipse (made of two infinite axes). The Sketch tools toolbar displays values for defining the ellipse center point, major and then minor semi-axis endpoint. Position the cursor in the desired fields and key in the desired values. q) Creating a Parabola by Focus
Click the Parabola by Focus icon
from the Profiles toolbar (Conic subtoolbar). To create a
Parabola click the focus, click apex and then the two-extremity points of parabola. r) Creating a Hyperbola by Focus
Click the Hyperbola by Focus icon
from the Profiles toolbar (Conic subtoolbar). To create a
hyperbola click the focus, center and apex, and then the hyperbola two extremity points. s) Creating a Conic 17
This task shows how to create a conic type element by clicking desired points and, if needed, using tangents or entering the excentricity into the Sketch tools toolbar. As a result, you will create one of the following: an ellipse, a circle, a parabola or a hyperbola.
t) Creating a Line
Click the Line icon
from the Profiles toolbar. The Sketch tools toolbar now displays values for
defining in the rectangle. Click the line first point (first point). Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch tools toolbar) and key in the desired values for second point. To edit, double-click the constraint corresponding to the value to be modified. u) Creating an Infinite Line
Click the Infinite Line icon
from the Profile toolbar (Line sub toolbar). To create an infinite
line either horizontal or vertical, or still according to two points you will specify select option in tool bar. v) Creating a Bi-Tangent Line
Click the Bi-Tangent Line icon
from the Profiles toolbar (Line subtoolbar). Click two
elements to witch line should be tangent. Tangents are created as close as possible to where you clicked on the circle. w) Creating a Bisecting Line This task shows how to create an infinite bisecting line by clicking two points on two existing lines. Click the Bisecting Line icon from the Profiles toolbar (Line subtoolbar). Click two
points on the two existing lines, one after the other. The infinite bisecting line automatically appears, in accordance with both points previously clicked. x) Creating an Axis
This task shows how to create an axis. You will need axes whenever creating shafts and grooves. Click the Axis icon from the Profiles toolbar. Position the cursor in the desired field (Sketch
tools toolbar) and key in the desired values.
y) Creating a Point This task shows you how to create a point. In this task, we will use the Sketch tools toolbar but, of course you can create this point manually. Click the Point icon from the Profiles toolbar. The
Sketch tools toolbar displays values for defining the point coordinates: H (horizontal) and V (vertical). Position the cursor in the desired field and key in the desired values. Creating a Point Using Coordinates: Create a point by indicating coordinates. Creating Equidistant Points: Create a set of equidistant points on a curve. Creating a Point Using Intersection: Create one or more points by intersecting curve type elements. Creating a Point Using Projection: Create one or more points by projecting points onto curve type elements. z) 1) Creating Centered Rectangles.
This task shows you how to create a centered rectangle. Click the Centered Rectangle icon: Click a point in the geometry area or select an existing one. Drag the cursor to create the centered rectangle.
2) Creating Centered Parallelograms This task shows you how to create a centered parallelogram. Click the Centered Parallelogram icon: . Select a first line (or an axis). Select a second line (or an axis).
2.8 Performing Operations on Profiles 1) Creating Corners
This task shows how to create a rounded corner (arc tangent to two curves) between two lines using trimming operation. You can create rounded corners between curves. Click the Corner icon from the Operations toolbar. The possible corner options are displayed in the Sketch tools toolbar: the Trim All Elements option command is activated by default. Select the two lines.
The second line is also highlighted, and the two lines are joined by the rounded corner which moves as you move the cursor. This lets you vary the dimensions of the corner. Enter the corner radius value in the Sketch tools toolbar. You can also click when you are satisfied with the corner dimensions. 2) Creating Chamfers This task shows how to create a chamfer between two lines trimming either all, the first or none of the elements, and more precisely using one of the following chamfer definitions: Angle/Hypotenuse, Length1/Length2, Length1/Angle. Click the Chamfer icon from the
Operation toolbar. The possible chamfer options are displayed in the Sketch tools toolbar. Trim All / First / No element. Select the two lines. Click when you are satisfied with the dimensions of the chamfer. 3) Trimming Elements Trimming two elements: This task shows how to trim two lines (either one element or all the elements). Create two intersecting lines. Click the Trim icon from the Operations toolbar. The
Trim toolbar options display in the Sketch tools. The Trim All option is the command activated by default. Select the first line. Position the cursor on the element to be trimmed. The location of the relimitation depends on the location of the cursor.
Trimming one element: This task shows how to trim just one element. Click the Trim icon from the Operations toolbar. Click the Trim One Element option curve will only be trimmed by second curve. . Select the two curves. First
4) Breaking and Trimming 20
This task shows how to quickly delete elements intersected by other Sketcher elements using breaking and trimming operations. Click the Quick Trim icon from the Operation toolbar
(Relimitations subtoolbar). The possible trim option commands are displayed in the Sketch tools toolbar. These options are Rubber In, Rubber out, and Break.
5) Closing Elements This task shows how to close circles, ellipses or splines using relimiting operation. Click the Close icon from the Operation toolbar (Relimitations subtoolbar). Select one or more elements to be
relimited. For example, a three point arc. The arc will now be closed. 6) Complement an Arc (Circle or Ellipse) This task shows how to complement an arc (circle or an ellipse). Create a three points arc. Click on the arc to be complemented to select it. Click the Complement icon from the Operation toolbar
(Relimitations subtoolbar). The complementary arc appears for selected arc. 7) Breaking Elements The Break command lets you break any types of curves. The elements used for breaking curves can be any Sketcher element. Click the Break icon from the Operations toolbar. Select the line
to be broken. Select the breaking element The selected element is broken at the selection. The line is now composed of two movable segments. 8) Creating Symmetrical Elements This task shows you how to repeat existing Sketcher elements using a line, a construction line or an axis. Select the profile to be duplicated by symmetry. Click the Symmetry icon from the
Operations toolbar. The selected profile is duplicated and a symmetry constraint is created on the condition you previously activated the Dimensional Constraint option toolbar. 21 from the Sketch tools
9) Translating Elements This task will show you how to perform a translation on 2D elements by defining the duplicate mode and then selecting the element to be duplicated. Multi-selection is not available. Click the Translation icon from the Operation toolbar (Transformation subtoolbar). The Translation
Definition dialog box displays and will remain displayed all along your translation creation. Enter the number of copies you need. The duplicate mode is activated by default. Select the element(s) to be translated. Click the translation vector start point or select an existing one. In the Translation Definition dialog box, enter a precise value for the translation length. Click OK in the Translation Definition dialog box to end the translation. 10) Rotating Elements This task will show you how to rotate elements by defining the duplicate mode and then selecting the element to be duplicated. Click the Rotation icon from the Operations toolbar
(Transformation subtoolbar). The Rotation Definition dialog box appears and will remain displayed all along the rotation. De-activate the Duplicate mode, if needed. Select the geometry to be rotated. Here, multi-select the entire profile. Select or click the rotation center point. Select or click a point to define the reference line that will be used for computing the angle. Select or click a point to define an angle. Click OK in the Rotation Definition dialog box to end the rotation. 11) Scaling Elements This task will show you how to scale an entire profile. In other words, you are going to resize a profile to the dimension you specify. Click the Scale icon from the Operation toolbar
(Transformation subtoolbar). The Scale Definition dialog box appears. Select the element(s) to be scaled. Enter the center point value in the Sketch tools toolbar or click the center point on the geometry. Enter Scale Value in the displayed Scale Definition dialog box. Selected elements will be scaled according to scale factor. 12) Offsetting Elements
This task shows how to duplicate an element of the following type: line, arc or circle. Click the Offset icon from the Operations toolbar (Transformation subtoolbar). There are two
possibilities, depending on whether the line you want to duplicate by offset is already selected or not: If the line is already selected, the line to be created appears immediately. If the line is not already selected, select it. The line to be created appears. Select a point or click where you want the new element to be located. The selected line is duplicated. Both lines are parallel.
You can also apply one or more offset instances to profiles made of several elements. You can offset elements by using tangency propagation or point propagation, by creating an offset element that is tangent to the first one, by creating several offset instances.
13) Projecting 3D Elements onto the Sketch Plane This task shows how to project edges (elements you select in the Part Design workbench) onto the sketch plane. Click the Project 3D Elements icon from the Operations toolbar (3D Geometry
subtoolbar). Multi-select the edges you wish to project onto the sketch plane. The edges are projected onto the sketch plane. These projections are yellow.
14) Intersecting 3D Elements with the Sketch Plane This task shows how to intersect a face and the sketch plane. Select the face of interest. Click the Intersect 3D Elements icon from the Operations toolbar (3D Geometry subtoolbar). The
software computes and displays the intersection between the face and the sketch plane. The intersection is yellow. 15) Creating Silhouette Edges This task shows how to create silhouette edges to be used in sketches as geometry or reference elements. Click the 3D Silhouette Edges icon from the Operation toolbar (3D Geometry
subtoolbar). Select the surface. The silhouette edges are created onto the sketch plane. These 23
silhouette edges are yellow if they are associative with the 3D. You cannot move or modify them but you can delete one of them which means deleting one trace independently from the other. 2.9 Cutting the Part by the Sketch Plane This task shows how to make some edges visible. In other words, you are going to simplify the sketch plane view by hiding the portion of material you do not need for sketching. Select the plane on which you need to sketch a new profile and enter the Sketcher workbench. Click the Cut Part by Sketch Plane icon on the Tools toolbar to hide the portion of part you do not want to see in the
Sketcher. You can now sketch the required profile. 2.10 Sketch solving status This task explains how to display a quick diagnosis of a sketch geometry. You will be provided an overall status of the sketch geometry as a whole, so that can correct any constraint-related problem accordingly. Click the Sketch Solving Status icon status of the sketch geometry. 2.11 Customizing for Sketcher Select the Tools -> Options command to display the Options dialog box. The Options dialog box appears. Expand the Mechanical Design option, and then click Sketcher. The Sketcher tab appears, containing the following sets of options: Grid: options available Display, Primary spacing, Graduations, Snap to point and Allow Distortions Sketch Plane: options available Shade sketch plane, Position sketch plane parallel to screen. Geometry: options available Create circle and ellipse centers. Constraints: options available Create detected constraints Colors: options available Visualization of diagnostic. in the Tools toolbar. It indicates the overall
The Part Design application makes it possible to design precise 3D mechanical parts with an intuitive and flexible user interface, from sketching in an assembly context to iterative detailed design. Part Design application will enable you to accommodate design requirements for parts of various complexities, from simple to advance. This application, which combines the power of feature-based design with the flexibility of a Boolean approach, offers a highly productive. 3.1 Opening a New CATPart Document. This task shows you how to open a new CATPart document. Select the File -> New commands (or click the New icon). The New dialog box is displayed, allowing you to choose the type of
document you need. Select Part in the List of Types field and click OK. The Part Design workbench is loaded and a CATPart document opens. The Part Design workbench document is divided into: a) the specification tree, b) the geometry area, c) specific toolbars, a number of contextual commands available in the specification tree and in the geometry. Remember that these commands can also be accessed from the menu bar.
You will notice that CATIA provides three planes to let you start your design. Actually, designing a part from scratch will first require designing a sketch. Sketching profiles is performed in the Sketcher workbench, which is fully integrated into Part Design. To open it, just click the Sketcher icon and select the work plane of your choice. The Sketcher workbench then provides a large
number of tools allowing you to sketch the profiles you need. 25
3.2 Reference Elements You can display the Reference Elements toolbar using the View -> Tool bars -> Reference Elements (extended/compact) command.
3.2.1 Creating Points
This task shows the various methods for creating points. Click the Point icon Definition dialog box appears. Use the combo to choose the desired point type.
. The Point
Coordinates: Creating point with X, Y, Z coordinates in the current axis-system On curve: Creating point on curve. On plane: Creating point on plane On surface: Creating point on a surface. Circle center: Creating point of a circle, ellipse. Tangent on curve: Creating point tangent to curve. Between: Creating point between two other points. 3.2.2 Creating Lines
Click the Line icon
. The Line Definition dialog box appears. Use the combo to choose the
desired line type. A line type will be proposed automatically in some cases depending on your first element selection. Point – Point: Create line between the two points. Point – Direction: Create line from a point along a direction. Angle or normal to curve: Create line at an angle to curve. Tangent to curve: Create line tangent to curve. Normal to surface: Create line normal to surface. Bisecting: Create line for bisector of two lines. 26
Regardless of the line type, Start and End values are specified by entering distance values or by using the graphic manipulators. Check the Mirrored extent option to create a line symmetrically in relation to the selected Start point.
3.2.3 Creating Planes
This task shows the various methods for creating planes. Click the Plane icon
. The Plane
Definition dialog box appears. Use the combo to choose the desired Plane type. Once you have defined the plane, it is represented by a red square symbol, which you can move using the graphic manipulator. Offset from plane: Create a plane at a distance from reference plane. Parallel through point: Create a plane passing through a point & parallel to reference plane. Angle or normal to plane: Create a plane at an angle to reference plane. Through three points Through two lines Through point and line Through planar curve Tangent to surface Normal to curve Mean through points Equation
3.3 Sketch-Based Features
Features are entities you combine to make up your part. The features presented here are obtained by applying commands on initial profiles created in the Sketcher workbench or in the Generative Shape Design workbench. Some operations consist in adding material, others in removing material. In this section, you will learn how to create the following features: Pad, Pocket, Shaft, Groove, Rib, Slot, Loft, and Remove Loft. 27
3.3.1 PAD Creating a pad means extruding a profile or a surface in one or two directions. The application lets you choose the limits of creation as well as the direction of extrusion. Select Sketch as the profile to be extruded. By default, if you extrude a profile, the application extrudes normal to the plane used to create the profile. You will notice that by default, the application specifies the length of your pad. But you can use the following options too: Up to Next ,Up to Last, Up to Plane, Up to Surface. You can increase or decrease length values by dragging LIM1 or LIM2 manipulators. Reverse direction option lets you choose which side of the profile is to be extruded. Click the Mirrored extent option to extrude the profile in the opposite direction using the same length value. If you wish to define another length for this direction, you do not have to click the Mirrored extent button. Just click the More button and define the second limit.
3.3.2 Multi-Pad With this task you can extrude multiple profiles belonging to a same sketch using different length values. The multi-pad capability lets you do this at one time. Select Sketch that contains the profiles to be extruded. Note that all profiles must be closed and must not intersect. The Multi-Pad Definition dialog box appears and the profiles are highlighted in green. For each of them, you can drag associated manipulators to define the extrusion value.
3.3.3 Pocket Creating a pocket consists in extruding a profile or a surface and removing the material resulting from the extrusion. The application lets you choose the limits of creation as well as the direction of extrusion. The limits you can use are the same as those available for creating pads. Select the profile to be extruded. Click the Pocket icon . You can define a specific depth for your pocket
or set one of these options: up to next, up to last, up to plane, up to surface. To define a specific depth, set the Type parameter to Dimension. Alternatively, select LIM1 manipulator and drag it downwards. By default, if you extrude a profile, the application extrudes normal to the plane used to create the profile. To specify another direction, click the more button to display the whole Pocket Definition dialog box, uncheck the Normal to sketch option and select a new creation direction. Optionally click Preview to see the result. Click OK to create the pocket. The specification tree indicates this creation. Double-click Pocket to edit it.
3.3.4 Multi-Pocket This task shows you how to create a pocket feature from distinct profiles belonging to a same sketch and this, using different length values. The multi-pocket capability lets you do this at one time. Click the Multi-Pocket icon . Select Sketch that contains the profiles to be extruded. Note 29
that all profiles must be closed and must not intersect. The Multi-Pocket Definition dialog box appears and the profiles are highlighted in green. For each of them, you can drag associated manipulators to define the extrusion value.
3.3.5 Thin Solids When creating pads, pockets and stiffeners, you can now add thickness to both sides of their profiles. The resulting features are then called "thin solids". This task shows you how to add thickness to a pad. The method described here is also valid for pockets. Enter Thickness1 's value, and click Preview to see the result. A thickness has been added to the profile as it is extruded. The profile is previewed in dotted line. Enter Thickness2 's value, and click Preview to see the result. Material has been added to the other side of the profile. To add material equally to both sides of the profile, check "Neutral fiber" and click Preview to see the result. Checking the "Merge Ends" option trims extrusions to existing material. 3.3.6 Shaft This task illustrates how to create a shaft that is a revolved feature. You need an open or closed profile, and an axis about which the feature will revolve. Note that you can use wireframe geometry as your profile and axes. Select the open profile. Click the Shaft icon . The Shaft
Definition dialog box is displayed. The application displays the name of the selected sketch in the Selection field from the Profile frame. For the purposes of our scenario, the profile and the axis belong to the same sketch. Consequently, you do not have to select the axis. You can create shafts from sketches including several closed profiles. These profiles must not intersect and they must be on the same side of the axis. If needed, you can change the sketch by clicking the field and by selecting another sketch in the geometry or in the specification tree. But you can also edit your sketch by clicking the icon that opens the Sketcher. Once you have done
your modifications, the Shaft Definition dialog box reappears to let you finish your design. The application previews limits LIM1 that corresponds to the first angle value, and LIM2 that corresponds to the second angle value. The first angle value is by default 360 degrees. Enter the values of your choice in the fields First angle and Second angle. Alternatively, select LIM1 or 30
LIM2 manipulator and drag them onto the value of your choice. Click Preview to see the result. Click OK to confirm. The shaft is created. The specification tree mentions it has been created.
3.3.7 Groove Grooves are revolved features that remove material from existing features. This task shows you how to create a groove, that is how to revolve a profile about an axis (or construction line). You can use wireframe geometry as your profile and axes. Click the Groove icon . Select the
profile. The Groove Definition dialog box is displayed. The application displays the name of the selected sketch in the Selection field from the Profile frame. The Selection field in the Axis frame is reserved for the axes you explicitly select. For the purposes of our scenario, the profile and the axis belong to the same sketch. Consequently, you do not have to select the axis. The system previews a groove entirely revolving about the axis. You can create grooves from sketches including several closed profiles. These profiles must not intersect and they must be on the same side of the axis. If needed, you can change the sketch by clicking the Selection field and by selecting another sketch in the geometry or in the specification tree. The application previews the limits LIM1 and LIM2 of the groove to be created. You can select these limits and drag them onto the desired value or enter angle values in the appropriate fields. Click the Reverse Direction button to inverse the revolution direction. Click OK to confirm the
operation. CATIA removes material around the cylinder. The specification tree indicates the groove has been created. This is your groove: Click OK to confirm.
3.3.8 Hole Creating a hole consists in removing material from a body. Various shapes of standard holes can be created. These holes are:
Counter Bored Countersunk
If you wish to use the Up to Plane or Up to Surface option, you can then define an offset between the limit plane (or surface) and the bottom of the hole. By default, the application creates the hole normal to the sketch face. But you can also define a creation direction not normal to the face by unchecking the Normal to surface option and selecting an edge or a line. 3.3.9 Threaded Holes The Thread capability removes material surrounding the hole. To define a thread, you can enter the values of your choice, but you can use standard values. You can define three different thread types: No Standard: uses values entered by the user, Metric Thin Pitch: uses AFNOR standard values, Metric Thick Pitch: uses AFNOR standard values. Define the parameters as per your requirement to create threaded hole. 3.3.10 Rib This task shows you how to create a rib that is how to sweep a profile along a center curve to create material. To define a rib, you need a center curve, a planar profile and possibly a reference 32
element or a pulling direction. It should be kept in mind that 3D curve if selected as center curves must be continuous in tangency & if the center curve is planar, it can be discontinuous in tangency. To create Rib, Click the Rib icon . The Rib Definition dialog box is displayed. Select
the profile you wish to sweep. Your profile has been designed in a plane normal to the plane used to define the center curve. It should be a closed profile. The application now previews the rib to be created. You can control its position by choosing one of the following options: Keep Angle: keeps the angle value between the sketch plane used for the profile and the tangent of the center curve. Pulling Direction: sweeps the profile with respect to a specified direction. To define this direction, you can select a plane or an edge. Reference Surface: the angle value between axis and the reference surface is constant.
The Merge ends option is to be used in specific cases. It creates materials between the ends of the rib and existing material provided that existing material trims both ends. Check the Thick Profile option to add thickness to both sides of Sketch.2. New options are then available. Click OK. The rib is created. The specification tree mentions this creation.
This task shows you how to create a slot that is how to sweep a profile along a center curve to remove material. To define a slot, you need a center curve, a planar profile, a reference element and optionally a pulling direction. Click the Slot icon . The Slot Definition dialog box is displayed. Select the profile. The profile
has been designed in a plane normal to the plane used to define the center curve. It is closed. Slots can also be created from sketches including several profiles. These profiles must be closed and must not intersect. You can control the profile position by choosing one of the following options: Keep angle, Pulling direction, Reference surface. The Merge ends option is to be used in specific cases. It lets the application create material between the ends of the slot and existing material. Check the Thick Profile option to add thickness to both sides. 3.3.12 Loft You can generate a loft feature by sweeping one or more planar section curves along a computed or user-defined spine. The feature can be made to respect one or more guide curves. The resulting feature is a closed volume. Click the Loft icon .The Loft Definition dialog box appears. Select the three section curves.
They are highlighted in the geometry area. The Loft capability assumes that the section curves to be used do not intersect. Click Apply to preview the loft to be created. You can note that by default, tangency discontinuity points are coupled. Several coupling types are available in the Coupling tab: Ratio, Tangency, Tangency then curvature, Vertices.
By default, the application computes a spine, but if you wish to impose a curve as the spine to be used, you just need to click the Spine tab then the Spine field and select the spine of your choice in the geometry. Click OK to create the volume. The feature (identified as Loft.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
3.3.13 Remove Lofted Material This task shows how to remove lofted material. The Remove Loft capability generates lofted material surface by sweeping one or several planar section curves along a computed or userdefined spine then removes this material. Click the Remove Loft icon . The Remove Loft Definition dialog box appears. Select required
sections & guide curves if needed. By default, the application computes a spine, but if you wish to impose a curve as the spine to be used, you just need to click the Spine tab then the Spine field and select the spine of your choice in the geometry. Click OK to create the lofted surface. The feature (identified as Loft.xxx) is added to the specification tree. 3.3.14 Stiffener This task shows you how to create a stiffener by specifying creation directions. Select the profile to be extruded. This profile has to be created in a plane normal to the face on which the stiffener will lie. You can use wireframe geometry as your profile. If you need to use an open profile, make sure that existing material can fully limit the extrusion of this profile. Click the Stiffener icon Stiffener Definition dialog box is displayed. . The
Two creation modes are available: 35
From side: the extrusion is performed in the profile's plane and the thickness is added normal to the plane. Check the Neutral Fiber option. This option adds material equally to both sides of the profile. Optionally click Preview to see the result. Click OK. The stiffener is created. The specification tree indicates it has been created. From Top: the extrusion is performed normal to the profile's plane and the thickness is added in the profile's plane. The "Neutral Fiber" option adds the same thickness to both sides of the profile. You just need to specify the value of your choice in "Thickness 1" field and this thickness is evenly added to each side of the profile. Conversely, if you wish to add different thickness on both sides of the profile, just uncheck the "Neutral Fiber" option and then specify the value of your choice in "Thickness 2" field.
3.4 DRESSING UP OF SOLIDS 3.4.1 Edge Fillet Edge fillets are smooth transitional surfaces between two adjacent faces. With the use of a constant radius: the same radius value is applied to the entire edges. Click the Edge Fillet icon . The
Edge Fillet Definition dialog box appears. Select the edges. The edge selected then appears in the Objects to fillet field. CATIA displays the radius value. Clicking Preview previews the fillet to be created. Two propagation modes are available: Minimal, Tangency. If you set the Tangency mode, the option "Trim ribbons" becomes available; you can then trim the fillets to be created. Use Limiting Elements to limit the fillet. When filleting an edge, the fillet may sometimes affect other edges of the part, depending on the radius value you specified. With the Edges to keep option the application detects these edges and stops the fillet to these edges.
3.4.2 Face-Face Fillet You generally use the Face-face fillet command when there is no intersection between the faces or when there are more than two sharp edges between the faces. Select the faces to be filleted. Click Preview to see the fillet to be created. Click OK. The faces are filleted. This creation is indicated in the specification tree. Instead of entering a radius value, you can use a "hold curve" to compute the fillet. Depending on the curve's shape, the fillet's radius value is then more or less variable. 3.4.3 Tritangent Fillet The creation of tritangent fillets involves the removal of one of the three faces selected. You need three faces two of which are supporting faces. Select the faces to be filleted. Select the face to be removed. The fillet will be tangent to this face. Click Preview to see the fillet to be created. The creation of this fillet is indicated in the specification tree indicates the opposite portion of material. Click OK. 3.4.4 Chamfer Chamfering consists in removing or adding a flat section from a selected edge to create a beveled surface between the two original faces common to that edge. The default parameters to be defined are Length1 and Angle. You can change this creation mode and set Length1 and Length2. Chamfers can be created by selecting a face; the application chamfers its edges. Click Preview to see the chamfers to be created. Click OK. The specification tree indicates this creation.
3.4.5 Basic Draft
Drafts are defined on molded parts to make them easier to remove from molds. The characteristic elements are: Pulling direction: this direction corresponds to the reference from which the draft faces are defined. Draft angle: this is the angle that the draft faces make with the pulling direction. Parting element: this plane, face or surface cuts the part in two and each portion is drafted according to its previously defined direction. Neutral element: this element defines a neutral curve on which the drafted face will lie. This element will remain the same during the draft.
The Propagation option can be set to: None: there is no propagation, Smooth: the application integrates the faces propagated in tangency onto the neutral face to define the neutral element.
Parting = Neutral to reuse the plane you selected as the neutral element. If Keep Parting =Neutral, you then can also check the option Draft both sides. Click OK. Material has been removed & the face is drafted.
3.4.6 Variable Angle Draft
Click the Variable Angle Draft icon
. The Draft Definition dialog box that appears, displays the
variable angle draft option as activated. Select the face to be drafted. Select face as the neutral element. The application detects two vertices and displays two identical radius values. Increase the angle value: only one value is modified accordingly in the geometry. To edit the other angle value, select the value in the geometry and increase it in the dialog box. To add a point on the edge, click the Points field. You can add as many points as you wish. Click OK to confirm. 3.4.7 Draft from Reflect Lines This will draft a face by using reflect lines as neutral lines from which the resulting faces will be generated. Click the Draft from Reflect Lines icon . The Draft from Reflect Lines Definition
dialog box is displayed and an arrow appears, indicating the default pulling direction. Select the face. The application detects reflect line and displays it in pink. This line is used to support the drafted faces. Enter an angle value in the Angle field. The reflect line is moved accordingly. Click Preview to get an idea of what the draft will look like.
3.4.8 Shell Shelling a feature means emptying it, while keeping a given thickness on its sides. Shelling may also consist in adding thickness to the outside. Click the Shell icon . The Shell Definition
dialog box appears. The selected face becomes purple. Select the face to be removed. Enter the Default inside thickness field. Click OK. The feature is shelled.
You can add or remove thickness to parts. Click the Thickness icon
. The Thickness Definition
dialog box is displayed. Select the faces to thicken. Enter a positive value. Click OK. The part is thickened accordingly. This creation appears in the specification tree. 3.4.10 Thread/Tap The Thread/Tap capability creates threads or taps, depending on the cylindrical entity of interest. Click the Thread/Tap icon . The Thread/Tap Definition dialog box is displayed. Select the
cylindrical surface you wish to thread. Select the upper face as the limit face. Limit faces must be planar. The application previews the thread. The Numerical Definition frame provides three different thread types: No Standard: uses values entered by the user, Metric Thin Pitch: uses AFNOR standard values, Metric Thick Pitch:: uses AFNOR standard values.
Enter the thread depth, pitch value. Check the Left-Threaded option. Click Preview. Red lines provide a simplified representation of the thread. Click OK to confirm. There is no geometrical representation is the geometry area, but the thread (identified as Thread.xxx) is added to the specification tree. 3.5 Transformation Features Following are different transformation features available 3.5.1 Translation The Translate command applies to current bodies. This task shows you how to translate a body. Click the Translate icon . The Translate Definition dialog box appears. Select a line to take its
orientation as the translation direction or a plane to take its normal as the translation direction. You can also specify the direction by means of X, Y, Z vector components by using the contextual menu on the Direction area. Specify the translation distance by entering a value. Click OK to create the translated element. The element (identified as Translate.xxx) is added to the specification tree. 40
3.5.2 Rotation This task shows you how to rotate geometry about an axis. The command applies to current bodies. Click the Rotate icon . The Rotate Definition dialog box appears. Select an edge as the
rotation axis. Enter a value for the rotation angle. The element is rotated. You can drag it by using the graphic manipulator to adjust the rotation. Click OK to create the rotated element. The element (identified as Rotate.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
3.5.3 Symmetry This task shows how to transform geometry by means of a symmetry operation. The Symmetry command applies to current bodies. Click the Symmetry icon .The Symmetry Definition
dialog box appears. Select a point, line or plane as reference element. Click OK to create the symmetrical element. The original element is no longer visible but remains in the specification tree. The new element (identified as Symmetry.xxx) is added to the specification tree. 3.5.4 Mirror Mirroring a body or a list of features consists in duplicating these elements using symmetry. You can select a face or a plane to define the mirror reference. Multi-select both pads as the features to be mirrored. Click the Mirror icon . The Mirror Definition dialog box appears. Select the
lateral face to define the mirror reference. The application previews the material to be created. Click OK to confirm the operation. The pads are mirrored. The specification tree mentions this creation. 3.5.5 Rectangular Pattern 41
You may need to duplicate the whole geometry of one or more features and to position this geometry on a part. Patterns let you do so. CATIA allows you to define three types of patterns: rectangular, circular and user patterns. These features accelerate the creation process.
Rectangular Pattern task shows you how to duplicate the geometry of one pocket right away at the location of your choice using a rectangular pattern. Select the feature you wish to copy. Click the Rectangular Pattern icon . The Rectangular Pattern Definition dialog box that appears
displays the name of the geometry to pattern. Click the Reference element field and select the edge to specify the first direction of creation. An arrow is displayed on the pad. If needed, check the Reverse button or click the arrow to modify the direction. The parameters you can choose are: Instances & Length, Instances & Spacing, Spacing & Length. Choosing Instances & Spacing dims. Enter 3 as the number of instances you wish to obtain in the first direction. Defining the spacing along the grid. Checking the Keep specifications option creates instances with the limit Up to Next (Up to Last, Up to Plane or Up to Surface) defined for the original feature. Now, click the Second Direction tab to define other parameters. Note that defining a second direction is not compulsory. Creating a rectangular defining only one direction is possible. Click the Reference element field and select the edge to the left to define the second direction. Let the Instances & Spacing option. Click Preview to make sure the pattern meets your needs. Additional pockets will be aligned along this second direction. Click OK.This is the resulting pattern. The feature "RectPattern.1" is displayed in the specification tree 3.5.6 Circular Pattern This task will show you how to duplicate geometry of one or more features right away at the location of your choice using a circular pattern. Make sure the item you wish to duplicate is correctly located in relation to the circular rotation axis. Select the pad which geometry you wish to copy. Click the Circular Pattern icon . The Circular Pattern Definition dialog box is
displayed and the feature's name appears in the Object field. The Parameters field lets you choose the type of parameters you wish to specify so that the application will be able to compute the location of the items copied. These parameters are: Instances & total angle, Instances & angular spacing, Angular spacing & total angle, complete crown. 42
Set the Instances & Angular spacing options to define the parameters you wish to specify. Enter 7 as the number of pads you wish to obtain. Enter 50 degrees as the angular spacing. Click the Reference element field and select the upper face to determine the rotation axis. This axis will be normal to the face. Two arrows are then displayed on the pad. To define a direction, you can select an edge or a planar face. Click Preview. The pad will be repeated seven times. Now, you are going to add a crown to your part. To do so, click the Crown Definition tab. Enter 2 in the Circle(s) field. Enter -18 mm in the Circle spacing field. Click OK. One more ring of pads will be added. 3.5.7 User Pattern The User Pattern command lets you duplicate a feature as many times as you wish at the locations of your choice. Locating instances consists in specifying anchor points. These points are created in the Sketch. Select the feature you wish to duplicate. Click the User Pattern icon . The User
Pattern dialog box is displayed. The feature appears in the Object field. Select 'Sketch ' in the specification tree and click Preview. Click OK. The specification tree indicates this creation. 3.5.8 Scaling Scaling a body means resizing it to the dimension you specify. Select the body to be scaled. Click the Scaling icon . The Scaling Definition dialog box appears. Select the reference point located
on the body. Enter a value in the Ratio field or select the manipulator and drag it. The ratio increases as you drag the manipulator in the direction pointed by the right end arrow. Click OK. The body is scaled. The specification tree indicates you performed this operation.
3.6.1 Measuring Distances & Angles between Geometrical Entities & Points
This task explains how to measure minimum distances and angles between geometrical entities (surfaces, edges, vertices and entire products) or between points. Click the Measure Between icon. The Measure Between dialog box appears. The Measure Item command is accessible from the Measure Between dialog box. Simply click the Measure Item Select the desired measure type. icon in the Definition box.
Any geometry (default mode): measures distances and angles between defined geometrical entities (points, edges, surfaces, etc.). Exact else approximate (default mode): measures access exact data and wherever possible true values are given. If exact values cannot be measured, approximate values are given (identified by a ~ sign). Approximate: measures are made on tessellated objects and approximate values are given (identified by a ~ sign). Click to select a surface, edge or vertex, or an entire product (selection 1). Click to select another surface, edge or vertex, or an entire product (selection 2). A line representing the minimum distance vector is drawn between the selected items in the geometry area. Appropriate distance values are displayed in the dialog box. 3.6.2 Measuring Properties This task explains how to measure the properties associated to a selected item (points, edges, surfaces and entire products). This command lets you choose the selection mode, the calculation mode and axis system when measuring properties. Switch to Design Mode. Set View -> Render Style to Shading with Edges. Click the Measure Item icon. The Measure Item dialog box
appears. By default, properties of active products are measured with respect to the product axis system. Properties of active parts are measured with respect to the part axis system. The Keep Measure option lets you keep current and subsequent measures as features. This is useful if you want to keep measures as annotations for example. 3.6.3 Measuring Inertia 44
This task explains how to measure the inertia properties of an object. You can measure the inertia properties of both surfaces and volumes. The area, density, mass and volume (volumes only) of the object are also calculated. Measures are persistent: a Keep Measure option in the Measure Inertia dialog box lets you keep the current measure as a feature in the specification tree. Click the Measure Inertia icon. Click to select the desired item in the specification tree. The
Dialog Box expands to display the results for the selected item. The measure is made on the selection, geometry or assembly. To measure the inertia of individual sub-products making up an assembly and see the results in the document window, you must select the desired sub-product. In addition to the center of gravity G, the principal moments of inertia M and the matrix of inertia calculated with respect to the center of gravity, the dialog box also gives the area, volume (volumes only), density and mass of the selected item.
3.7 Surface-Based Features
3.7.1 Split You can split a body with a plane, face or surface. Select the blue pad as the body to be split. Click the Split icon . Select the splitting surface. The Split Definition dialog box is displayed,
indicating the splitting element. An arrow appears indicating the portion of body that will be kept. If the arrow points in the wrong direction, you can click it to reverse the direction. Click OK. The body is split. Material has been removed. The specification tree indicates you performed the operation.
INITIAL 3.7.2 Thick Surface
You can add material to a surface in two opposite directions by using the Thick Surface capability. Select the object you wish to thicken, that is the extrude element. Click the Thick Surface icon . The Thick Surface Definition dialog box is displayed. In the geometry area, the arrow that appears on the extrude element indicates the first offset direction. If you need to reverse the arrow, just click it. Enter 10mm as the first offset value and 6mm as the second offset value. Click OK. The surface is thickened. The specification tree indicates you performed the operation.
INITIAL 3.7.3 Close Surface
This task shows you to close surfaces. Select the surface to be closed. Click the Close Surface icon . The Close Surface Definition dialog box is displayed. Click OK. The surface is closed . The specification tree indicates you performed the operation. 46
3.7.4 Sew Surface Sewing means joining together a surface and a body. This capability consists in computing the intersection between a given surface and a body while removing useless material. You can sew all types of surfaces onto bodies. Select the surface you wish to sew onto the body. Click the Sew Surface icon . The Sew Surface Definition dialog box is displayed, indicating the object to be
sewn. An arrow appears indicating the portion of material that will be kept. Click the arrow to reverse the direction. Click OK. The surface is sewn onto the body. Some material has been removed. The specification tree indicates you performed the operation.
3.8 Advanced Tasks This section will explain and illustrate how to perform operations on bodies and will provide recommendations about how to optimize the use of the application. 3.8.1 Inserting a New Body This task shows you how to insert a new body into the part. When your part includes several bodies, you can then associate these bodies in different ways to obtain the final shape of the part. Click the Insert Body icon. The result is immediate. CATIA displays this new body referred to
as "Body.x" in the specification tree. It is underlined, indicating that it is the active body. You can now construct this new body using the diverse commands available in this workbench or in other workbenches. You will notice that Part Body and Body.x are autonomous. The operations you would accomplish on any of them would not affect the integrity of the other one. Now, if you wish to combine them, refer to the following tasks showing the different ways of attaching bodies: Adding Bodies, Assembling Bodies, Intersecting Bodies, Removing Bodies, Trimming Bodies. 3.8.2 Assembling Bodies Assembling is an operation integrating your part specifications. It allows you to create complex geometry. Example: you are going to assemble a pocket on Part Body. You will note that as this pocket is the first feature of the body, material has been added. To assemble them, select Body 2 and click the Assemble icon . The Assemble dialog box displays to let you determine the
operation you wish to perform. By default, CATIA proposes to assemble the selected body to Part Body. Click OK to confirm. During the operation, CATIA removes the material defined by the pocket from Part Body. This is your new Part Body.
3.8.3 Adding Bodies This task illustrates how to add a body to another body. Adding a body to another one means uniting them. Click the Add icon . The Add dialog box that appears displays the name of the
selected body and the Part Body. By default, the application proposes to add the selected body to
Part Body. Click OK. You will note that: the material common to Part Body and Body.1 has been removed. INITIAL
3.8.4 Removing Bodies
This task illustrates how to remove a body from another body. Click the Remove icon
The result is immediate. However, if the specification tree is composed of several bodies, a dialog box displays to let you determine the second body you wish to use. By default, the application proposes to remove the selected body from Part Body. 3.8.5 Intersecting Bodies The material resulting from an intersection operation between two bodies is the material shared by these bodies. When working in a CATProduct document, it is no longer necessary to copy and paste the bodies belonging to distinct parts before associating them. You can directly associate these bodies using the same steps as described in this task. Click the Intersect... icon. The
Intersect dialog box displays to let you determine the second body you wish to use. By default, the
application proposes to intersect the selected body to Part Body. Click OK to confirm. Click OK to confirm. CATIA computes the intersection between the two bodies. 3.8.6 Trimming Bodies Applying the Union Trim command on a body entails defining the elements to be kept or removed while performing the union operation. You need to select the required bodies and specify the faces you wish to keep or remove. Click the Union Trim icon . Select the body you wish to trim, i.e.
Body.2. The Trim Definition dialog box is displayed. The faces you cannot select are displayed in red. Click the Faces to remove field and select Body.2 's inner face. The selected face appears in pink, meaning that the application is going to remove it. Click the Faces to keep field and select Part Body. 's inner face. This face becomes blue, meaning that the application is going to keep it. Clicking the Preview button lets you check if your specifications meet your needs or not. To restore the view, you simply need to click the Undo command. Click OK to confirm. The
application computes the material to be removed. The operation (identified as Trim.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
3.8.7 Remove Lump
The Remove Lump command lets you reshape a body by removing material. To remove material, either you specify the faces you wish to remove or conversely, the faces you wish to keep. In some cases, you need to specify both the faces to remove and the faces to keep. Select the body you wish to reshape, that is Part Body. Click the Remove Lump icon . The Remove Lump dialog box
appears. The application prompts you to specify the faces you wish to remove as well as the faces you need to keep. Click the Faces to remove field and select the colored face. The selected face appears in pink, meaning that it will be removed during the operation. Click OK.
3.9 Customizing a Part Design Work Bench
3.9.1 Customizing a CATPart document This task shows you how to set general settings. Select the Tools -> Options... command. Click the Infrastructure category, the Part Infrastructure subcategory, then the Part Document tab. The tab appears, containing one option: New Part Check Create an Axis System when creating a new part if you wish to create a threeaxis system which origin point is defined by the intersection of the three default planes that is plane xy, plane yz, and plane zx. When the CATPart is open, the axis system is displayed both in the geometry and in the specification tree 3.9.2 Customizing General Settings
This task shows you how to set general settings. Select the Tools -> Options... command Click the Infrastructure category, then the Part Infrastructure subcategory. The General tab appears, containing three categories of options: External References, Update, and Delete Operation. External References- Checking the Keep link with selected object option lets you maintain the links between external references, copied elements for example, and their origins when you are editing these elements. This option is used as you are editing parts included in assemblies. If later you need to cut the link between external references and their origin, you just need to use the Isolate command.- Check Create external references in Show mode to define the visualization mode for the elements while they are being created.- Check Confirm when creating a link with selected object- Check Only use published elements for external selection if you want to make only published elements valid for selection. Update- Check Manual: you wish to control your update operations. Check Automatic: parts are updated automatically. Check Synchronize all external references for update to make sure that CATIA updates elements copied from other parts. Delete Operation - Check Display the Delete dialog box if you wish to access filters for deletion Check Delete referenced sketches if you wish to delete sketches associated to features while you are deleting those features. Sketches will be deleted only if they are exclusive, which means that if they are shared by other features, they will not be deleted. 3.9.3 Customizing the Tree and Geometry Views This task shows you how to control the display of the elements you create in the specification tree. It also shows you how to control the display of features in the geometry area. Select the Tools -> Options command. The Options dialog box is displayed. Click the Infrastructure category, then the Part Infrastructure subcategory, then Display tab. The tab appears, containing two categories of options: Specification tree, Geometry, from where we can customize the Tree and Geometry Views.
4.Wireframe and Surface workbench
The basic tasks you will perform in the Wireframe and Surface workbench are mainly the creation of wireframe and surface geometry you will use to build your part design. When creating a geometric element, you often need to select other elements as inputs. When selecting a sketch as 54
the input element, some restrictions apply, depending on the feature you are creating. You should avoid selecting self-intersecting sketches as well as sketches containing heterogeneous elements such as a curve and a point for example. 4.1 Creating Multiple Points This task shows how to create several points at a time. Click the Point & Planes Repetition icon . Select a curve or a Point on curve. The Multiple Points Creation dialog box appears.
Define the number or points to be created (instances field). If you check the with end points option, the last and first instances are the curve end points. Click OK to create the point instances evenly spaced over the curve on the direction indicated by the arrow.
4.2 Creating Planes Between Other Planes This task shows how to create any number of planes between two existing planes, in only one operation. Click the Planes Repetition icon . The Planes Between dialog box appears. Select
the two planes between which the new planes must be created. Specify the number of planes to be created between the two selected planes. Click OK to create the planes. 4.3 Creating Polylines
This task shows how to create a Polyline that is a broken line made of several connected segments. These linear segments may be connected by blending radii. Click the Polyline icon . The
Polyline Definition dialog box appears. Select several points in a row to create a polyline. It is possible to add or remove points on polyline. Click OK in the dialog box to create the polyline.
4.4 Creating Circles This task shows the various methods for creating circles and circular arcs. Click the Circle icon . The Circle Definition dialog box appears. Use the combo to choose the desired circle type: Center and radius, Center and point, Two points and radius, Three points, Bitangent and radius , Bitangent and point ,Tritangent. Enter all input as specified. For example for first option: Select a point as circle Center. Select the Support plane or surface where the circle is to be created. Enter a Radius value. Depending on the active Circle Limitations icon, the corresponding circle or circular arc is displayed. Click OK to create the circle or circular arc. The circle (identified as Circle.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
4.5 Creating Splines This task shows the various methods for creating spline curves. Click the Spline icon . The
Spline Definition dialog box appears. Select two or more points where the spline is to pass. An updated spline is visualized each time a point is selected. It is possible to edit the spline by first selecting a point in the dialog box list then choosing a button to either: Add a point after the selected point, Add a point before the selected point, Remove the selected point, Replace the selected point by another point. You can select the Geometry on support check box, and select a support.
4.6 Creating a Helix This task shows the various methods for creating helical 3D curves, such as coils and springs for example. Click the Helix icon . The Helix Curve Definition dialog box appears. Select a
starting point and an axis. Set the helix parameters: Pitch, Height, Orientation, Starting Angle, Taper Angle, Profile. Click OK to create the helix. The helical curve (identified as Helix.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
4.7 Creating Corners This task shows you how to create a corner between two curves or between a point and a curve. Click the Corner icon . The Corner Definition dialog box appears. Select two curves as
reference element. The corner will be created between these two references. Select the Support surface. The resulting corner is a curve seen as an arc of circle lying on a support place or surface. The reference elements must lie on this support, as well as the center of the circle defining the corner. Enter a Radius value. Several solutions may be possible, so click the Next Solution button to move to another corner solution, or directly select the corner you want in the geometry. You can select the Trim elements check box if you want to trim and assemble the two reference elements to the corner. Click OK to create the corner.
4.8 Creating Connect Curves This task shows how to create connecting curves between two existing curves. Click the Connect Curve icon . The Connect Curve Definition dialog box appears. Select a first Point on
a curve then a second Point on a second curve. Use the combos to specify the desired Continuity type: Point, Tangency or Curvature. You can select the Trim elements check box if you want to trim and assemble the two initial curves to the connect curve. Click OK to create the connect curve.
4.9 Creating Spirals This task shows how to create curves in the shape of spirals, that is a in 2D plane. Click the Spiral icon . The Spiral Curve Definition dialog box appears.
Select a supporting plane and the Center point for the spiral. Specify a Reference direction along which the Start radius value is measured and from which the angle is computed, when the spiral is defined by an angle. Specify the Start radius value, that is the distance from the Center point, along the Reference direction, at which the spiral's first revolution starts.Define the spiral's Orientation, that is the rotation direction: clockwise or counter clockwise 59
4.10 Creating Projections This task shows you how to create geometry by projecting one or more elements onto a support. The projection may be normal or along a direction. Click the Projection icon . The Projection
Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be projected. You can select several elements to be projected. Select the Support element. Use the combo to specify the direction type for the projection: Normal or Along a direction. Click OK to create the projection element. The projection is added to the specification tree.
4.11 Creating Conic Curves This task shows the various methods for creating conics, that is curves defined by five constraints: start and end points, passing points or tangents. The resulting curves are arcs of either parabolas, hyperbolas or ellipses. Click the Conic icon . The Conic Definition dialog box opens.
Fill in the conic curve parameters, depending on the type of curve to be created by selecting geometric elements (points, lines, etc.)
4.12 Creating Intersections This task shows you how to create wireframe geometry by intersecting elements. Click the Intersection icon . The Intersection Definition dialog box appears. Select the two elements to
be intersected. The intersection is displayed. Choose the type of intersection to be displayed: A Curve, Point, A Contour, A Face. Click OK to create the intersection element. This element (identified as Intersect.xxx) is added to the specification tree. Avoid using input elements, which are tangent to each other since this may result in geometric instabilities in the tangency zone.
4.13 Creating Surfaces Wireframe and Surface allows you to model both simple and complex surfaces using techniques such as extruding, lofting and sweeping. Two creation modes are available: either you create geometry with its history or not. Geometry with no history is called a datum. For creating datum feature use create datum icon in tool menu icon. 4.13.1 Creating Extruded Surfaces This task shows how to create a surface by extruding a profile along a given direction. Click the Extrude icon . The Extruded Surface Definition dialog box appears. Select the profile to be
extruded and specify the desired extrusion direction. Enter numerical values or use the graphic manipulators to define the start and end limits of the extrusion. You can click the Reverse Direction button to display the extrusion on the other side of the selected profile. Click OK to create the surface.
4.13.2 Creating Revolution Surfaces This task shows how to create a surface by revolving a planar profile about an axis. Click the Revolve icon . The Revolution Surface Definition dialog box appears. Select the Profile
and a line indicating the desired Revolution axis. Enter angle values or use the graphic manipulators to define the angular limits of the revolution surface. Click OK to create the surface. There must be no intersection between the axis and the profile. If the profile is a sketch containing an axis, the latter is selected by default as the revolution axis. You can select another revolution axis simply by selecting a new line.
4.13.3 Creating Spherical Surfaces This task shows how to create surfaces in the shape of a sphere. The spherical surface is based on a center point, an axis-system defining the meridian & parallel curves orientation, and angular limits. Click the Sphere icon from the Extrude-Revolution toolbar. The Sphere Surface Definition
dialog box is displayed. Select the center point of the sphere. Click Apply to preview the surface. Modify the Sphere radius and the Angular Limits as required. Click OK to create the surface.
4.13.4 Creating Offset Surfaces
This task shows how to create a surface by offsetting an existing surface. Click the Offset icon . The Offset Surface Definition dialog box appears. Select the surface to be offset. Specify the offset by entering a value or using the graphic manipulator. An arrow indicates the proposed direction for the offset. The offset surface is displayed normal to the reference surface. Click Apply to previews the offset surface. Check the Both sides button to generate two offset surfaces, one on each side of the reference surface. Click OK to create the surfaces. 4.13.5 Creating Swept Surfaces a) Using an Explicit Profile This task shows how to create a swept surface that uses an explicit profile. You can create a swept surface by sweeping out a profile in planes normal to a spine curve while taking other user-defined parameters (such as guide curves and reference elements) into account. You can sweep an explicit profile: along one or two guide curves (in this case the first guide curve is used as the spine), along 64
one or two guide curves while respecting a spine. The profile is swept out in planes normal to the spine. This task shows how to create swept surfaces that use an explicit profile. Click the Sweep icon . The Swept Surface Definition dialog box appears. Click the Explicit profile icon. Select the planar Profile to be swept out. Select a Guide curve. If needed, select a Spine. If no spine is selected, the guide curve is implicitly used as the spine. You can define relimiters (points or planes) in order to longitudinally reduce the domain of the sweep, if the swept surface is longer than necessary for example. If needed, select a Second Guide. If you want to control the position of the profile during the sweep, you can select a reference Surface. In the Smooth sweeping section, you can check: the Angular correction option to smooth the sweeping motion along the reference surface. Click OK to create the swept surface. b) Using a Linear Profile This command is only available with the Generative Shape Design product. This task shows how to create swept surfaces that use an implicit linear profile. Click the Sweep icon . The Swept
Surface Definition dialog box appears. Click the Line profile icon. The five possible cases are Two limits, Limit and middle, With reference surface, With reference curve, With tangency surface, With draft direction. Click the Law button if you want a specific law to be applied rather that the absolute value. Click OK to create the swept surface. The surface (identified as Sweep.xxx) is added to the specification tree. c) Using a Circular Profile This command is only available with the Generative Shape Design product. This task shows how to create swept surfaces that use an implicit circular profile. Click the Sweep icon . The Swept
Surface Definition dialog box appears. Click the Circle icon, then use the combo to choose the subtype. The two following cases are possible using guide curves: Select three guide curves, Select two guide curves and enter a Radius value. You can then choose between four possible solutions by clicking the Other Solution button.
The two following cases are possible using a center curve: Select a Center Curve and a Reference angle curve, Select a Center Curve and enter a Radius value. The two following cases are possible using a reference surface to which the swept surface is to be tangent: Select two guide curves, and a reference surface to which the sweep is to be tangent. Select guide curves, a reference surface to which the sweep is to be tangent, and enter a radius value. Click OK to create the swept surface. The surface (identified as Sweep.xxx) is added to the specification tree. d) Using a Conical Profile This command is only available with the Generative Shape Design product. This task shows how to create swept surfaces that use an implicit conical profile, such as parabolas, hyperbolas or ellipses. Click the Sweep icon . The Swept Surface Definition dialog box appears. Click the
Conic icon, and then use the combo to choose the subtype. Two guides, Three guides, Four guides, Five guides. Click OK to create the swept surface. The surface (identified as Sweep.xxx) is added to the specification tree. 4.13.6 Creating Filling Surfaces This task shows how to create fill surfaces between a number of boundary segments. Click the Fill icon . The Fill Surface Definition dialog box appears. Select curves or surface edges to form a
closed boundary. You can edit the boundary by first selecting an element in the dialog box list then choosing a button to either. Add a new element after or before the selected one, Remove the selected element, Replace the selected element by another curve. Select a passing point. This point should lie within the area delimited by the selected curves. If not, the results may be inconsistent. Click OK to create the fill surface. 4.13.7 Creating Lofted Surfaces You can generate a lofted surface by sweeping one or two planar section curves along a computed or user-defined spine. The surface can be made to respect one or more guide curves. Click the Loft icon . The Lofted Surface Definition dialog box appears. Select one or two section curves. If 66
needed, select one or more guide curves. In the Spine tab page, select the Spine check box to use an automatically computed spine or select a curve to impose that curve as the spine. The Relimitation tab lets you specify the loft relimitation type. You can choose to limit the loft only on the Start section, only on the End section, on both, or on none. Use the Planar surface detection check button to automatically convert planar surfaces into planes. Several coupling types are available, depending on the section configuration: Ratio, Tangency, Tangency then curvature, Vertices. Click OK to create the lofted surface. 4.13.8 Creating Blended Surfaces This task shows how to create a blended surface, that is a surface between two wireframe elements, taking a number of constraints into account, such as tension, continuity, and so forth. Click the Blend icon . The Blend Definition dialog box appears. Successively select the first
curve and its support, then the second curve and its support. Set the continuity type using the Basic tab. Activate the Trim first/second support option to trim them by the curve and assemble them to the blend surface. You can also specify whether and where the blend boundaries must be tangent to the supports boundaries: Both extremities, None, Start extremity, End extremity. Set the tension type using the Tension tab. It defines the tension of the blend at its limits. Click OK. The surface (identified as Blend.xxx) is added to the specification tree. 4.14 Performing Operations on Shape Geometry Wireframe and Surface allows you to modify your design using techniques such as trimming, translating and rotating. 4.14.1 Splitting Geometry This task shows how to split a surface or wireframe element by means of a cutting element. Click the Split icon . The Split Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be split. Select
the cutting element. A preview of the split appears. You can change the portion to be kept by selecting that portion. You can select several cutting elements. In that case, note that the selection order is important as the area to be split is defined according to the side to be kept in relation to current splitting element. 67
The Elements to remove and Elements to keep options allow defining the portions to be removed or kept when performing the split operation. Click OK to split the element. Check the Keep both sides option to retain the split element after the operation. In that case it appears as a separate Split.xxx element in the specification tree. Check the Intersections computation button to create an aggregated intersection when performing the splitting operation.
4.14.2 Trimming Geometry
This task shows how to trim two surfaces or two wireframe elements. Click the Trim icon
Trim Definition dialog box appears. Select the two surfaces or two wireframe elements to be trimmed. A preview of the trimmed element appears. You can change the portion to be kept by selecting that portion. You can also select the portions to be kept by clicking the Other side of element 1 and Other side of element 2 buttons. You are advised to use the Elements to remove and Elements to keep options to define the portions to be kept or removed. Click OK to trim the surfaces or wireframe elements. The trimmed element (identified as Trim.xxx) is added to the specification tree. Check the Result simplification button to allow the system to automatically reduce the number of faces in the resulting trim whenever possible.
4.14.3 Boundary Curves
This task shows how to create boundary curves. Click the Boundary icon
. The Boundary
Definition dialog box appears. Select a Surface edge. The boundary curve is displayed according to the selected propagation type. You can relimit the boundary curve by means of two elements, a point on the curve for example. Click OK to create the boundary curve.
4.14.4 Extracting Geometry This task shows how to perform an extract from elements (curves, points, solids, and so forth.). This may be especially useful when a generated element is composed of several non-connex subelements. Using the extract capability you can generate separate elements from these sub-elements, without deleting the initial element. Select an edge or the face of an element. The selected element is highlighted. Click the Extract icon . The Extract Definition dialog box is displayed. Choose
the Propagation type: Point continuity, No propagation, or Tangent continuity. Click OK to extract the element. The extracted element (identified as Extract.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
4.14.5 Translating Geometry This task shows you how to translate one, or more, point, line or surface element. Click the Translate icon . The Translate Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be
translated. Select the Vector Definition. Click OK to create the translated element. The element (identified as Translate .xxx) is added to the specification tree. 4.14.6 Rotating Geometry
This task shows you how to rotate geometry about an axis. Click the Rotate icon
. The Rotate
Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be rotated. Select a line as the rotation axis. Enter a value or use the Drag manipulator to specify the rotation angle. Click OK to create the rotated element. Use the Repeat object after OK checkbox to create several rotated surfaces. Click OK. 4.14.7 Performing a Symmetry on Geometry This task shows you how to transform geometry by means of a symmetry operation. Click the Symmetry icon . The Symmetry Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be
transformed by symmetry. Select a point, line or plane as reference element. Click OK to create the symmetrical element. 4.14.8 Transforming Geometry by Scaling This task shows you how to transform geometry by means of a scaling operation. Click the Scaling icon . The Scaling Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be transformed by
scaling. Select the scaling reference point, plane or planar surface. Specify the scaling ratio by entering a value or using the Drag manipulator. Click OK to create the scaled element. 4.14.9 Transforming Geometry by Affinity This task shows you how to transform geometry by means of an affinity operation. Click the Affinity icon . The Affinity Definition dialog box appears. Select the element to be
transformed by affinity. Specify the characteristics of the axis system to be used for the affinity 70
operation. Specify the affinity ratios by entering the desired X, Y, Z values. Click OK to create the affinity element. 4.14.10 Extrapolating Surfaces
This task shows you how to extrapolate a surface boundary. Click the Extrapolate icon
Extrapolate Definition dialog box appears. Select a surface Boundary. Select the surface to be Extrapolated. Specify the Limit of the extrapolation by either by entering the value of the extrapolation length or selecting a limit surface or plane. Specify the Continuity type tangent & curvature. Specify Extremities conditions between the extrapolated surface and the support surface: tangent & normal. Select the Assemble result check box if you want the extrapolated surface to be assembled to the support surface. Click OK to create the extrapolated surface. 4.14.11 Joining Surfaces or Curves This task shows how to join two surfaces or two curves. The surfaces or curves to be joined must be adjacent. Click the Join icon. The Join Definition dialog box appears. Select the surfaces or
curves to be joined. Check the Check tangency button to find out whether the elements to be joined are tangent. Check the Check connexity button to find out whether the elements to be joined are connex. Check the Check manifold button to find out whether the resulting join is manifold. Other options available are Simplify the result, Ignore erroneous elements, Merging distance, Angle Tolerance, Sub-Elements To Remove, federation. Click OK to create the joined surface or curve.
4.14.12 Healing Geometry This task shows how to heal surfaces, that is how to fill any gap that may be appearing between two surfaces. Click the Healing icon. The Healing Definition dialog box appears. Select the
surfaces to be healed. From the Parameters tab, define the distance below which elements are to be healed. You can also set the Distance objective. Click OK to create the healed surfaces. The surface (identified as Heal.xxx) is added to the specification tree. Provided the Tangent mode is active, you can retain sharp edges, by clicking the Sharpness tab, and selecting one or more edges. The Sharpness angle allows to redefine the limit between a sharp angle and a flat angle. 4.14.13 Restoring a Surface In this task you will learn how to restore the limits of a surface when it has been split using the Break Surface or Curve icon. Click the Untrim icon in the Join-Healing Modification
toolbar. The Untrim dialog box is displayed. Select the surface which limits should be restored. Select the surface which limits should be restored. Click OK in the dialog box. A progression bar is displayed, while the surface is restored.
4.14.14 Disassembling Elements In this task you will learn how to disassemble multi-cell bodies into mono-cell bodies. Select the element to be disassembled. Click the Disassemble icon in the Join-Healing toolbar. The
Disassemble dialog box is displayed. Choose the disassembling mode: All Cells: all cells are disassembled, Domains Only: elements are partially disassembled. A resulting element can be made of several cells. Click OK in the dialog box. A progression bar is displayed, while the surface is being disassembled. The selected element is disassembled, that is to say independent elements are created, that can be manipulated independently.
4.14.15 Smoothing Curves This task shows how to smooth a curve, i.e. fill the gaps, and smooth tangency and curvature discontinuities, in order to generate better quality geometry when using this curve to create other elements. Click the Curve Smooth icon . Select the curve to be smoothed. Texts are displayed
on the curve indicating its discontinuities before smoothing, and type of discontinuity (point, curvature or tangency) and their values (In area). These values type are expressed in the following units: for a point discontinuity: the unit is the document's distance unit (mm by default) for a tangency discontinuity: the unit is the document's angular unit (degree by default) for a curvature discontinuity: the value is a ratio between 0 and 1
4.15 Updating Your Design This task explains how and when you should update your design. The point of updating your design is to make the application take your last operation into account. Indeed some changes to geometry or a constraint may require rebuilding the part. To warn you that an update is needed, CATIA displays the update symbol next to the part name and displays the corresponding geometry in bright red. To update a part, the application provides two update modes: automatic update, manual update. To update the part, click the Update icon evolution of the operation. 73 . A progression bar indicates the
4.16 Defining an Axis System This task explains how to define a new three-axis system locally. There are two ways of defining it: either by selecting geometry or by entering coordinates. Select the Insert -> Axis System command or click the Axis System icon . The Axis System Definition dialog box is displayed.
An axis system is composed of an origin point and three orthogonal axes. The axis system displayed in the specification tree. 4.17 Managing Open Bodies in the Specification Tree This task shows how to manage the specification tree. This involves; inserting open body entities, removing open body entities and changing body. a) Inserting an Open Body: In the specification tree, select the branch of your choice. This branch will be considered as a child of the new open body and can be an open body or a feature. Select the Insert -> Open Body menu command. The result is immediate. CATIA displays this new Open_body.x, incrementing its name in relation to the pre-existing bodies, in the specification tree. It is underlined, indicating that it is the active open body. b) Removing an Open Body: This is only possible when the father location of the open body is another open body. Right-click the desired open body then select the Remove Open Body contextual command. The open body is removed and its constituent entities are included in the father open body. c) Moving an open body to a new body: Right-click the desired open body in the specification tree and select the Change Body command from the contextual menu. The Change Body dialog box appears. Select the new body where the open body is to be located. Click OK to move the open body to the new body. 4.18 Hiding/Showing Open Bodies and Their Contents This task shows how to use the Hide/Show command on different level of open bodies and for different purposes. In the specification tree, select the open body or contents of open body you wish to hide/show. Right-click to display the contextual menu and choose the Hide/show
command. The open body or it’s content is hidden, if it was visible, or becomes visible, if it was hidden.
5. Generative Shape Design
The Generative Shape Design workbench allows you to quickly model both simple and complex shapes using wireframe and surface features. It provides a large set of tools for creating and editing shape designs and, when combined with other products such as Part Design, it meets the requirements of solid-based hybrid modeling. All basic commands in GSD are identical to commands in WF&SD. Advance commands in GSD are as follows.
5.1 Creating Extremum Elements This command is only available with the Generative Shape Design product. This task shows how to create extremum elements (points, edges or faces), that is elements at the minimum or maximum distance on a curve, a surface, or a pad, according to given directions. Click the Extremum icon . The Extremum Definition dialog box is displayed. Set the correct options: Max, Min.
Select a curve. Select the direction into which the extremum point must be identified. Click OK. The point (identified as Extremum.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
5.2 Creating Polar Extremum Elements
This command is only available with the Generative Shape Design product. This task shows how to create an element of extremum radius or angle, on a planar contour. Click the Polar Extremum icon . The Polar Extremum Definition dialog box appears. Select the contour or curve on which
the extremum element is to be created. Select the supporting surface of the contour. Specify the axis origin and a reference direction, in order to determine the axis system in which the extremum element is to be created. Click Preview. Depending on the selected computation type, the results can be: Min radius, Max radius, Min angle, Max angle. The radius or angle value is displayed in the Polar Extremum Definition dialog box for information. Click OK to create the extremum point. The element (identified as Polar Extremum.xxx), a point in this case, is added to the specification tree.
5.3 Creating a Spine This command is only available with the Generative Shape Design product. This task shows how to create a spine, that is a curve normal to a list of ordered planes or planar curves. These spines are useful when creating complex surfaces such as swept, lofted, or filleted surfaces. Creating a Spine Based on Planes: Click the Spine icon . The Spine Curve Definition dialog
box is displayed. Successively select planes. Click Preview. The spine is displayed. You can also select a start point. Click OK. Creating a Spine Based on Guiding Curves: Click the Spine icon. The Spine Curve Definition dialog box is displayed. Click within the Guide list and successively select two guiding curves. Click OK to create the spine. 76
5.4 Creating Combined Curves This task shows you how to create combined curves, that is a curve resulting from the intersection of the extrusion of two curves. Click the Combine icon . The Combine Definition dialog box
appears. Choose the combine type: normal or along directions. Successively select the two curves to be combined. Click OK to create the element. The combine (identified as Combine.xxx) is added to the specification tree.
5.5 Creating Parallel Curves This task shows you how to create a curve that is parallel to a reference curve. Click the Parallel Curve icon . The Parallel Curve Definition dialog box appears. Select the reference Curve to
be offset. Select the Support plane or surface on which the reference curve lies. Specify the offset of the parallel curve
5.6 Creating Reflect Lines This task shows you how to create reflect lines, whether closed or open. Reflect lines are curves for which the normal to the surface in each point present the same angle with a specified direction. Click the Reflect Lines icon . select the support surface and a direction. Key in an angle,
representing the value between the selected direction and the normal to the surface
5.7 Creating Adaptive Swept Surfaces This task shows how to create swept surfaces that use an implicit profile and its constraints along a guiding curve. These swept surfaces are created based on sections along the guiding curve and constraints that can be specified for each of these sections. When designing the profile to be swept, keep in mind that the constraints imposed on the sketched profile affect the resulting swept surface. Click the Adaptive Sweep icon . The Adaptive Sweep dialog box appears. Select the Guiding
curve. The Reference surface is optional. It is the surface on which the guiding curve lies and is used to define the axis system in which the swept surface is created. Select the Sketch to be swept along the guiding curve. The list in the Sections tab is automatically updated with the first section being at the intersection of the selected sketch and guiding curve. Select points on guide to add other sections. Click the Parameters tab to display and redefine the constraints on a given section. Click Preview to preview the swept surface. Click OK to create the swept surface.
5.8 Customizing For Generative Shape Design This section describes how to customize different settings specific to the Generative Shape Design workbench. The settings described here deal with permanent setting customization. Select the Tools -> Options command. The Options dialog box is displayed. Select the Shape -> Generative Shape Design. The General tab displays. Choose the Smoothing Type: None: deactivates the smoothing result, G1 : enhances the current continuity to tangent continuity, G2 : enhances the current continuity to curvature continuity. You can specify a maximum deviation to set the allowed deviation between the initial element and the smoothed element by entering a value or using the spinners. Click OK to confirm setting these permanent options.
6. Assembly Design
The Assembly Design used to create an assembly starting from scratch. Here is illustration of the several stages of creation you may encounter for an assembly.
6.1 Creating an Assembly Document This task will show you how to enter the Assembly Design workbench to create a new assembly from scratch. Select the Start -> Mechanical Design -> Assembly Design command to launch the required workbench. The Assembly Design workbench is opened. You can see that "Product1" is displayed in the specification tree, indicating the building block of the assembly to be created. To create an assembly, you need products. The application uses the term "product" or "component" to indicate assemblies or parts. You can use parts to create products. Those products can in turn be used to create other products. The product document contains: a specification tree to the left of the application window, specific toolbars to the right of the application window, a number of contextual commands available in the specification tree and in the geometry. Note that these commands can also be accessed from the menu bar. 6.2 Inserting a Components 6.2.1 Inserting a New Component This task will show you how to insert a component into an existing assembly. In the specification tree, select Product1 and click the New Component icon includes Product1 (Product1.1). 6.2.2 Inserting a New Product This task will show you how to insert a product in an existing assembly. In the specification tree, select Product1 and click the New Product specification tree. 6.2.3 Inserting a New Part icon. The Product2 (Product2.1) is created in the . The structure of your assembly now
This task will show you how to insert a new part in an existing assembly. In the specification tree, select Product1 and click the New Part icon . If geometry exists in the assembly, the New Part:
Origin Point dialog box is displayed, proposing two options to locate the part: Click Yes to locate the part origin point on a selected point, on another component for example. Click No to define the origin point of a component based on the origin point of the parent component. 6.3 Defining a Multi-Instantiation This task shows you how to repeat components as many times as you wish in the direction of your choice. Select the component you wish to instantiate. Click the Define Multi-Instantiation icon . The Multi-Instantiation dialog box is displayed, indicating the name of the component to be instantiated. The Parameters option lets you choose between the following categories of parameters to define: Instances & Spacing, Instances & Length and Spacing & Length. To define the direction of creation, check x-axis. The application previews the location of the new components. Click OK to create the components.
6.4 Fast Multi-Instantiation This task shows you how to repeat components using the parameters previously set in the Multi Instantiation command. You will use the Fast Multi-Instantiation command to quickly repeat the component of your choice. The operation is very simple. Select the component you wish to instantiate. Click the Fast Multi-Instantiation icon . The result is immediate. Three components
are created according to the parameters defined in the Multi-Instantiation dialog box.
6.5 Using Assembly Constraints This section describes the notions and operating modes you will need to set and use constraints in your assembly structure. Constraints allow you to position mechanical components correctly in relation to the other components of the assembly. You just need to specify the type of constraints you wish to set up between two components, and the system will place the components exactly the way you want. Setting constraints is rather an easy task. However, you should keep in mind the 80
following: You can apply constraints only between the child components of the active component. You cannot define constraints between two geometric elements belonging to the same component. You cannot apply a constraint between two components belonging to the same subassembly if this subassembly is not the active component. The active component is blue framed (default color) and underlined. Double-clicking activates it. The selected component is orange framed (default color). 6.5.1 Creating a Coincidence Constraint Coincidence-type constraints are used to align elements. Depending on the selected elements, you may obtain concentricity, coaxiality or coplanarity. Click the Coincidence Constraint icon .
Select the face to be constrained. Select the second face to be constrained. Green arrows appear on the selected faces, indicating orientations. The Constraint Properties dialog box that appears displays the properties of the constraint. The components involved and their status are indicated. You can define the orientation of the faces to be constrained by choosing one of these options: Undefined (the application finds the best solution), Same, opposite. Click OK to create the coincidence constraint. This constraint is added to the specification tree too.
6.5.2 Creating a Contact Constraint Contact-type constraints can be created between two planar faces (directed planes). Click the Contact Constraint icon . Select the faces to be constrained. As the contact constraint is
created, one component is moved so as to adopt its new position. Green graphic symbols are
displayed in the geometry area to indicate that this constraint has been defined. This constraint is added to the specification tree. 6.5.3 Creating an Offset Constraint When defining an offset constraint between two components, you need to specify how faces should be oriented. Click the Offset Constraint icon . Select the faces to be constrained. The
Constraint Properties dialog box that appears displays the properties of the constraint. The components involved and their status are indicated. You can define the orientation of the faces to be constrained by choosing one of these options. Click OK to create the offset constraint. 6.5.4 Creating an Angle Constraint Angle-type constraints fall into three categories: Angle, Parallelism (angle value equals zero), Perpendicularity (angle value equals 90 degrees). When setting an angle constraint, you will have to define an angle value. Click the Angle Constraint icon . Select the faces to be constrained.
The Constraint Properties dialog box is displayed with the properties of the selected constraint and the list of available constraints. Keep the Angle option. Enter angle in the Angle field and keep Sector 1. Note that four sectors are available: constraint. 6.5.5 Fixing a Component Fixing a component means preventing this component from moving from its parents during the update operation. There are two ways of fixing a component: by fixing its position according to the geometrical origin of the assembly, which means setting an absolute position. This operation is referred to as "Fix in space". By fixing its position according to other components, which means setting a relative position. This operation is referred to as "Fix". Fix in Space: Click the Fix icon . Select the component to be fixed, that is the light blue . Click OK to create the angle
component. The constraint is created. A green anchor is displayed in the geometry area to indicate that this constraint has been defined. Fix: Double-click the fix constraint you have just created to edit it. In the dialog box that appears, click More to expand the dialog box. Uncheck the Fix in space option to the left of the dialog box. 82
The lock symbol is no longer displayed in the specification tree, meaning that the component is positioned according to the other components only. Move the fixed component. Click OK to confirm. Update the assembly: now the component remains at its location.
6.5.6 Fixing Components Together This task consists in fixing two components together. The Fix Together command attaches selected elements together. You can select as many components as you wish, but they must belong to the active component. Click the Fix Together icon . You can select the components in the
specification tree or in the geometry area. The Fix Together dialog box appears, displaying the list of selected components. In the Name field, enter a new name for the group of components you want to create. Click OK. The components are attached to each other. Moving one of them moves the other one too. 6.5.7 Using the Quick Constraint Command The Quick Constraint command creates the first possible constraint as specified in the priority list. Double-click the Quick Constraint icon . Select the two entities to be constrained. The possible
constrain between these will be according to list specifying the order of constraint creation: Surface contact, Coincidence, Offset, Angle and Parallelism. The first constraint in the list can now be set. A surface contact constraint is created & constraint is added to the specification tree. 6.5.8 Changing Constraints Changing a constraint means replacing the type of this constraint by another type. This operation is possible depending on the supporting elements. You can select any constraints, not necessarily in the active component. Select the constraint to be changed. Click the Change Constraint icon .
The Change Type dialog box that appears, displays all possible constraints. Select the new type of constraint. Click Apply to preview the constraint in the specification tree and the geometry. Click OK to validate the operation. 83
6.5.9 Deactivating or Activating Constraints Deactivating or activating constraints means specifying if these constraints must be taken into account during updates or not. Select any activated constraint. Right-click and select the Deactivate contextual command. The constraint is deactivated. The graphic symbol representing the deactivated constraint is now displayed in white. Repeat step and right-click to select the Activate contextual command to activate the selected constraint. 6.6 Updating an Assembly Updating an assembly means updating its components as well as its constraints. The application lets you choose between updating the whole assembly or the components of your choice. The constraints are in black, indicating they need an update. The default color is black, but the application allows you to redefine the colors you want. To do so, refer to Customizing Constraint Appearance. Select the Tools -> Options command, then expand the Mechanical Design section to the left to access Assembly Design options. You can choose between two update modes within the Assembly Design workbench: Automatic or Manual. Check the Manual option in the Update frame. Click OK to confirm and close the dialog box. Click the Update icon whole assembly. The assembly is updated. 6.7 Using a Part Design Pattern This task shows you how to repeat a component using a pattern created in Part Design. Select the rectangular pattern in the tree or in the geometry. Control-click to select the component to be repeated. Click the Reuse Pattern icon . The Instantiation on a pattern dialog box is displayed, to update the
indicating the name of the pattern, the number of instances to be created (for information only) and the name of the component to be repeated. There are two work modes: Using associativity with the geometry: the option "Keep link with the pattern" is on, Using no associativity: the option is off.
To define the first instance of the component to be duplicated, three options are available: Reuse the original component, create a new instance, cut & paste the original component. 84
Click OK to repeat the second component. The new component "xxx on RectPattern.xx" is displayed in the tree. An entity "Assembly features" has been created in the tree. "Reused Rectangular Pattern.1" is displayed below this entity. If you use the option "generated constraints", the Reuse Constraints section displays the constraints detected for the component and makes all original constraints available for selection: You can define whether you wish to reproduce one or more original constraints when instantiating the component.
6.8 Moving Components 6.8.1 Manipulating Components The Manipulate command lets you move a component freehand with the mouse. The Manipulation Parameters dialog box appears after selecting command. You can translate or rotate components using one of the following options: The first and second horizontal rows are reserved for translations. You can move your component along the x, y or z-axis as well as in the xy, yz and xz planes. The third row is reserved for rotations. You can rotate your component around the x, y or z-axis. The fourth column lets you specify the direction of your choice by selecting a geometric element. This element defines the direction of the move or the axis of rotation.
6.8.2 Snapping Components The Snap command projects the geometric element of a component onto another geometric element belonging to the same or to a different component. Using this command is a convenient way to translate or rotate components. Depending on the selected elements, you will obtain different results. 85
First Element Selected point point point line line plane
Last Element Selected point line plane line plane line
Identical points. The point is projected onto the line. The point is projected onto the plane. Both lines become collinear. The line is projected onto the plane. The plane passes through the line.
6.8.3 Smart Move The Smart Move command combines the Manipulate and Snap capabilities. Optionally, it creates constraints. The Quick Constraint frame contains the list of the constraints that can be set. This list displays these constraints in a hierarchical order and can be edited by using both arrows to right of the dialog box. The application creates the first possible constraint as specified in the list of constraints having priority. 6.9 Sectioning This task you will create section planes, orient the plane with respect to the absolute axis system, invert the normal vector of the plane. Click the Sectioning icon. The section plane is
automatically created. The plane is created parallel to absolute coordinates Y, Z. The center of the plane is located at the center of the bounding sphere around the products in the selection you defined. Line segments visualized represent the intersection of the plane with all products in the selection. The Sectioning Definition dialog box contains a wide variety of tools letting you position, move and rotate the section plane. A Preview window, showing the generated section, also appears. 3D section cuts cut away the material from the plane. Click the Volume Cut icon in the Sectioning Definition dialog box to obtain a section cut. You can position section planes with respect to a geometrical target (a face, edge, reference plane or cylinder axis). You can view the generated section in a separate viewer. 86
6.10 Assembly Features Prior to creating assembly features, keep in mind the following. You can create assembly features only between the child components of the active product. The active product at least must include two components, which in turn must contain one part at least. You cannot create assembly features between two geometric elements belonging to the same component. The different assembly features you can create are: Split, Hole, Pocket, Remove, Add, Perform a Symmetry. 6.10.1 Assembly Split The dialog box that appears when you click Assembly Split, displays the names as well as the paths of the parts that may be affected by the split action. Move the parts to the list 'Affected parts". Arrows in the geometry indicate the portion of parts that will be kept after splitting. If the arrows point in the wrong direction, click them to reverse the direction. Click OK to confirm. To edit an assembly split, double-click 'Assembly Split.X' in assembly features available in history tree. 6.11 Creating Scenes Scenes enable you to: work on the evolution of an assembly in a separate window from the actual assembly and to impart updates to the assembly as you see fit. Save a copy of an assembly in a separate window, work on the evolution of that assembly directly on the assembly. You can modify the following attributes either in the scene or in the assembly without the modifications being replicated in the other: the viewpoint, the graphical attributes of the components, the "show" or "hide" state of the components, the "active" or "not-active" state of the components. Scenes are identified by name in the specification tree and by a graphical representation in the geometry area. Click the Create Scene icon . The Edit Scene dialog box and a scene representation in the
document window are displayed. Click Ok to end the scene creation. You are now in a scene window: The background color turns to green. Scene 1 is identified in the specification tree. Perform the required modifications. For instance modify: viewpoint, graphical attributes, show-no show. Within a scene, click the Reset selected products icon to reposition the components as 87
they were in the initial product. Note that color attributes and the show-hide specification are not taken into account when using the Reset selected products icon. Click the Exit From Scene icon to swap to the initial window. Double-click Scene 1 either in the specification tree or in the geometry area to swap to the scene window.
6.12 Exploding a Constrained Assembly This task shows how to explode an assembly taking into account the assembly constraints. This Explode type is applicable only to specific cases. When the assembly is assigned coincidence constraints: axis/axis & plane/plane. Click the Explode icon . The Explode dialog box is
displayed. Wheel Assembly is selected by default, keep the selection as it is. The Depth parameter lets you choose between a total (All levels) or partial (First level) exploded view. Keep All levels set by default. Set the explode type. 3D is the default type. Keep it. Click Apply to perform the operation. 6.13 Detecting Interferences Checking for interferences is done in two steps: Initial computation: detects and identifies the different types of interference. Detailed computation: computes the graphics representation of interferences as well as the minimum distance. Two interference types are available: Contact + Clash, Clearance + Contact + Clash. Results differ depending on the interference type selected for the analysis. Four computation types are available: Between all components, Inside one selection, Selection against all, Between two selections. Click Apply to check for interferences. A progress bar is displayed letting you monitor and, if necessary, interrupt (Cancel option) the calculation. The Check Clash dialog box expands to show the results. Clash: red intersection curves identify clashing products. Contact: yellow triangles identify products in contact. Clearance: green triangles identify products separated by less than the specified clearance distance.
6.14 Customizing Assembly Design 6.14.1 Customizing Assembly Design Settings This task will show you how to customize Assembly Design settings. Select Tools -> Options. Click the Mechanical Design category, then the Assembly Design subcategory. The General tab appears, displaying the following options: Update, Access to geometry, Move components. 6.14.2 Customizing General Settings Select the Tools -> Options... command. Click the Infrastructure category, then the Part Infrastructure subcategory. The General tab appears, containing three categories of options: External References, Update and Delete Operation 6.14.3 Customizing Assembly Constraints Select Tools -> Options. Click the Mechanical Design category, then the Assembly Design subcategory. In the Constraints tab the following options are available: Paste Components, Constraint Creation, Quick Constraint.
7.Generative Drafting workbench
The Generative Drafting workbench provides a simple method to create and modify views on a predefined sheet. You may also add, modify and/or delete dressup and 2D elements to these views. All this is performed on a sheet which may include a frame and a title block and will eventually be printed.
7.1 Creating a New Drawing This task will show you how to create more or less automatically a new drawing with pre-defined views generated from a part. Select the Start -> Mechanical Design commands. Select the Drafting workbench. .The New Drawing Creation
dialog box appears with information on views that can possibly be created, as well as information on the drawing standards. Select the views you want to be automatically created on your drawing from the New Drawing Creation dialog box. Click OK. 7.2 Managing A Sheet The Generative Drafting workbench provides a simple method for managing a sheet. A sheet contains: a main view: a view which supports the geometry directly created in the sheet, a background view: a view dedicated to frames and title blocks, interactive or generated views. Click the New icon from the Standard toolbar or select File -> New... from the menu bar. Select the
Drawing workbench, and click OK. From the New Drawing dialog box, select the ISO standard, or the A0 ISO format. Select the orientation type. Select the 1:1 scale, and then click OK.
7.3 Adding a new sheet You can add new sheets at any time. These new sheets will be assigned the same standard, format and orientation as the sheet first created and defined using the New Drawing dialog (default setting). Even though you then delete sheet1, the sheets newly created will keep the same name. Click the New Sheet icon from the Drawing toolbar. The new sheet automatically appears.
7.4 Front View Creation The Generative Drafting workbench provides a simple method to create views on a predefined sheet. What is the Active View? The active view is the view from which other views will be generated. This is also the view in which all the modifications will be performed. The active view is framed in red. The non-active views are framed in blue. When you create a view, until you click at the desired view location, the view to be created is framed in green. If you click this view, it becomes the active view and is framed in red. 91
Start creating the front view. Click the Front View icon
from the Views toolbar. Select
object. Click on sheet to place front view. Blue arrows appear. Click the right or left arrow to visualize the right or left side, respectively. Click the bottom arrow to visualize the bottom side. Click the counterclockwise arrow to rotate the reference plane. Click inside the sheet to generate the view. Right-click the frame of the view, select the Properties option from the contextual menu, View tab and check the required options in the Properties dialog box. 7.5 2D/3D Associativity On Views: A generative view results from specifications in a 3D document. This specification corresponds either to the whole document or to a feature in the document. Any modification applied to the specifications, before the generated view(s) is/are updated, is detected. You can perform an update. You can update all views or a selection of views. The Update icon is active
in the Update toolbar when a sheet (or drawing) contains views that need to be updated (this can be all views in the sheet or some of them only). You can update all views in the active sheet by clicking this icon. An update symbol appears in the specification tree for the views that need to
be updated. You can update a selection of views by selecting and right-clicking the view(s) you want to update and choosing Update Selection from the contextual menu.
On Generated Dimensions: Generated dimensions are associative with the 3D part constraints on the condition you checked the Generation dimensions when updating the sheet option from the Options dialog box (Tools -> Options -> Mechanical Design -> Drafting -> Generation tab). Note that these dimensions will be re-generated in accordance with the other options checked/unchecked in the Options dialog box.
7.6 Creating a Projection View This task will show you how to create projection views on the sheet, relatively to the front view previously generated. Click the Drawing window, and double-click the Projection View icon from the Views toolbar (Projections subtoolbar). As you move the cursor, a previewed projection 92
view in a green frame appears on the sheet. Define the projection view position by positioning the cursor at the desired view location, for example the right view position. Click inside the green frame to generate the view. 7.7 Creating an Auxiliary View This task will show you how to create an auxiliary view. Many objects are of such shape that their principal faces cannot always be assumed parallel to the regular planes of projection. Creating an auxiliary view allows showing the true shapes by assuming a direction of sight perpendicular to planes that are perpendicular of the curves. This auxiliary view, together with the top view, completely describes the object. Click the Auxiliary View icon (Projections subtoolbar). Click an edge on the view. The selected edge becomes a line that you can position where desired using the cursor. This line/callout will be automatically used as the plane. Click to position the callout. The reference plane is automatically positioned according to the selected edge. Positioning the auxiliary view callout amounts to defining the auxiliary view direction. Click to position the auxiliary view. 7.8 Creating an Offset Section View / Cut This task will show you how to create an offset section view/cut using a cutting profile as cutting plane. In sectioning through irregular objects, it is often desirable to show several features that do not lie in a straight line by offsetting or bending the cutting plane. Click the Drawing window, and click the Offset Section View icon or the Offset Section Cut icon from the Views toolbar from the Views toolbar
(Sections subtoolbar). Select the holes and points required for sketching the cutting profile. If you are not satisfied with the profile you create, you can, at any time, use Undo or Redo icons.
The section plane appears on the 3D part and moves dynamically on the part. Double-click to end the cutting profile creation. OFFSET SECTION CUT: In this particular case, only cut portion
of solid is visible in section view.
7.9 Creating an Aligned Section View / Cut This task will show you how to create an aligned section view and/or aligned section cut using a cutting profile as cutting plane. An aligned section view / cut is a view created from a cutting profile defined from non-parallel planes. In order to include in a section certain angled elements, the cutting plane may be bent so as to pass through those features. The plane and feature are then imagined to be revolved into the original plane. Click the Drawing window, and click the Aligned Section Cut . Select the points and circles required for sketching the cutting profile. The section
plane also appears on the 3D part and moves dynamically on the part. Double-click to end the cutting profile creation. Click to generate the view. 7.10 Creating a Detail View / Detail View Profile A detail view is a partial generated view that shows only what is necessary in the clear description of the object. It shows you how to create from the 3D a detail view using either a circle as callout or a sketched profile. In this particular case, we create a detail view using a sketched profile as we create this detail view from an oblong part. Note that for creating a detail view using a circle, the dialog is exactly the same. Click the Drawing window, and click the Detail View icon from the
Views toolbar (Details subtoolbar). Click the callout center. Drag to select the callout radius and click a point to terminate the selection. Or, if you create a detail view using a sketched profile, you will click the Detail View Profile icon . Create the points required for sketching a polygon used
as profile. Double click to end the cutting profile creation. Click to generate the detail view. The default scale is 2 (twice the scale of the active view). You can modify this scale. 7.11 Creating a Clipping View and/or a Clipping View Profile A clipping view is a partial view that shows only what is necessary in the clear description of the object. This operation is applied directly onto the active view. Here we will see how to create both a clipping view using a circle as callout. You can also use a roughly sketched profile. Click the Drawing window, and click the Clipping View icon from the Views toolbar (Clippings
subtoolbar). If you create a clipping view using a sketched profile, you will select the Clipping 94
Profile View icon
. Select the center of the circle or select the required points for sketching a
polygon. Double-click to end the cutting profile creation. 7.12 Creating an Isometric View To produce an isometric projection, it is necessary to place the object so that its principal edges make equal angles with the plane of projection and are therefore foreshortened equally. Click the Drawing window, and click the Isometric View icon from the Views toolbar (Projections
subtoolbar). Click the 3D part. A green frame with the preview of the isometric view to be created, as well as blue manipulators appear. You can re-define the view to be created position using these manipulators: to the bottom, the left, the right, the top, or rotated using a given snapping or according to an edited rotation angle. 7.13 Creating a Broken View A broken view is a view that allows shortening an elongated object. Here we will see how create a broken view from an active and up to date generative view. We will define two profiles corresponding to the part to be broken from the view extremities. Click the Broken View icon from the Views toolbar. Click a first point corresponding to the first extremity of the first profile. A green dotted profile appears which allows you to position the profile either vertically or horizontally. Click a second point corresponding to the profile second extremity. If needed, translate the profile. Red zones appear. Click a point for defining the position of the second green profile that appears. Click on the sheet. 7.14 Creating a Breakout View Here we will remove locally material from a generated view in order to visualize the remaining visible internal part. A breakout view is one not in direct projection from the view containing the cutting profile. A breakout view is often a partial section. Click the Drawing window, and click the Breakout View icon from the Views toolbar (Break View sub toolbar). Click the first point of
the breakout profile. Click as many points as desired for creating the profile. Double-click to end
the profile creation and automatically close this profile. Or Click on the profile first point to close and end the profile creation. 7.15 Creating Views via the Wizard This task will show you how to create views using a wizard. These views are views that are generated automatically once the CATDrawing document is opened. Click the Drawing window, and click the Wizard icon from the Views toolbar (Wizard subtoolbar). Select the desired view
configuration from the View Wizard. Click next add any other view if required. Click the FINISH button from the View Wizard. Select the CATPart document. Click on the desired 3D part plane to be used as reference plane The views now appear on the CATDrawing document: they are previewed in green frames and can be re-oriented thanks to the blue arrows that appear. Use the blue arrows to have the views re-oriented as desired. Once you are satisfied, click on the sheet to make the views be actually created. 7.16 Isolating Generated Views This task will show you how isolate either a selection of generated views (one or more), or all views in the drawing. Isolating a view amounts to: suppressing associativity between an existing CATPart (or CATProduct) and the corresponding generated view, transforming a generated view into an interactive view. Select the views you want to isolate (for example, the Top view, Bottom view, Left view and Right view), and right-click them. From the contextual menu, select Selected objects -> isolate. 7.17 Not Aligning a View This task will show you how not to align a right projection view to the parent front view. At creation, views are by default linked to the parent view. You will then reposition the parent view as well as the still-aligned child views. Right-click the frame of the view not to be aligned. Select the View Positioning -> Do Not Align View option from the displayed contextual menu. Select & Drag the left projection view to the required location. Click to position the left view. 7.18 Scaling a View
This task will show you how to modify the scale of a view. Right-click the frame of the view to be modified. In this case, right-click the detail view. Select the Properties option from the displayed contextual menu. Enter the new Scale value in the Properties dialog box. Click OK. The detail view is updated. 7.19 Adding a Generative Bill of Material This task will show you how to insert Bill of Material information into the active view. This Bill of Material corresponds to information on the product element which the views were generated from. This Bill of Material, or parts list, consists of an itemized list of the several parts of a structure shown on a cat drawing or on an assembly. Click the Insert Bill of Material icon , if you are in
the background view. Click the Product from the specification tree in the CATProduct document. Click the point at which the Bill of Material is to be inserted. Before positioning the Bill of Material, you can pre-define the position. To modify the contents of the Bill of Material and display given properties, go to Product Structure workbench, select from the menu bar: Analyze>Bill of Material ->Listing Report. 7.20 Generating Balloons on a View This task will show you how to generate in the active view balloons corresponding to references defined on the different parts of an assembly. Double-click the view in which you want to generate the balloons. In this particular case, double-click the front view. This view is now active. Select the Generate Balloons icon on the Dimension Generation toolbar. The balloons that were
previously created on the CAT Product are automatically generated onto the active view. If needed, multi-select these balloons and modify the font size from the Text Properties toolbar. You can also select and drag a balloon to change its position. Balloons generated
7.21 Modifying a Callout Geometry This task will show you how to modify the geometrical characteristics of a callout used when creating detail views, section views and section cuts. For modifying the detail and section callout, you will go through some kind of a sub-workbench and modify the existing callout geometry, 97
reverse the callout direction or replace the callout. Double-click the callout to be modified. The Edit/Replace toolbar appears. Drag one of the element components to the desired location. Click the End Profile Edition icon from the Edit/Replace toolbar. After the callout arrow is properly
positioned, the section view is automatically updated. 7.22 Modifying a Pattern This task will show you how to modify the pattern of a view and apply a material to this pattern. You can recover a material applied to a part on the section view pattern. Right-click the pattern to be modified. Select Properties from the displayed contextual menu. The Properties dialog box displays the view current pattern. Select Pattern table switch and select a new pattern from the Pattern table that appears. Then click OK in this Pattern table. Click OK in the Properties table to confirm your operation. You can also customize different hatching types by entering the desired values in the box called Hatching. 7.23 Dimension Generation The Generative Drafting workbench provides a simple method for generating dimensions. Generated dimensions are associative to the elements created from a part or an assembly. Note that for views that are generated from surfaces, only sketched constraints are generated. The generated dimensions are positioned according to the views that are most representative. The generated dimensions will be positioned according to the following criteria: 1. On the view for which the dimension are generated. 2. On the view on which the dimension is better visualized. For example, a view on which elements are visualized in non-hidden lines instead of hidden lines. 3. On the view with a bigger scale. 4. On views including more dimensions. What About the Dimensions that may be Generated from Constrained 3D Elements Constrained 3D Elements Sketcher 3D part Features: Generated Dimension Types All dimensions: angle, distance, radius, diameter Angle, distance The dimensions below: 98
Pad Pocket Shaft/Groove Hole Fillet constraint variable Shell Thickness Stiffener Assembly constraints 7.23.1 Generating Dimensions in One Shot
distance distance angle Constraints and associated dimensions Radius/Radii Distance Distance Distance All assembly dimensions
This task will show you how to generate dimensions in one shot from the constraints of a 3D part. Only the following constraints can be generated: distance, length, angle, radius and diameter. Constraints may be of three kinds: created manually (i) via the sketcher or (ii) via the 3D part, or else (iii) automatically created via internal parameters. Click the Generating Dimensions icon from the Generation toolbar (Dimension Generation subtoolbar). In the case of drawings with several views, by default, dimensions are generated on all the views. The Generated Dimensions Analysis dialog box showing the dimensions and constraints generated for each part (in this case, there is only one) is automatically displayed. Click OK to close the dialog box. 7.23.2 Generating Dimensions Semi-Automatically This task will show you how to generate dimensions step by step from the constraints of a 3D part. Click the Generating dimensions step by step icon from the Generation toolbar (Dimension
Generation subtoolbar). The Step-by-step generation dialog box displays and will remain displayed until the end of the dimension generation. Check the Visualization in 3D & Timeout options. Click the Next Dimension Generation switch button appear one after the other on the views. to start the dimension generation. Dimensions
Click the Not Generated option
, constraint is automatically excluded and the dimension will or, on the contrary,
not generated. Note that you can stop at anytime the generation by clicking accelerate the process by clicking 7.24 Creating a Datum Feature .
This task will show you how to create a datum feature. Click the Datum Feature icon
Dimensioning toolbar. Select the point at which you want the datum feature to be attached (attachment point). Select the point at which you want the datum feature to be anchored (anchor point). The Datum Feature Creation dialog box is displayed with A as default value (incremental value). Enter the desired character string, if needed. Click OK. The datum feature is created. 7.25 Creating a Geometrical Tolerance This task shows you how to create a geometrical tolerance (annotation). You can also copy an existing geometric tolerance. You can set text properties either before or after you create the text. Click the Geometric Tolerance icon from the Dimensioning toolbar. Select an element
(geometry, dimension, text or point) or click in the free space to position the anchor point of the geometrical tolerance. If you select an element, the anchor point will be an arrow. If you select a point in the free space, the anchor point will be a small balloon. If you select a dimension or a text, no leader will be created. The geometric tolerance will be displayed just below the element you selected. Move the cursor to position the geometrical tolerance and then click at the chosen location. The Geometrical Tolerance dialog box appears. Specify the tolerance type by clicking the Tolerance Symbol button and selecting the appropriate symbol. Click OK when you're done. The geometrical tolerance is created.
7.26 Annotations 7.26.1 Setting Text Properties This task explains how to set the properties of a text, such as font style, size, justification, etc. Text properties can be applied to text, dimension text, text with leader, balloon and datum target, as well as to text included in datum features and geometrical tolerances. You can set the properties of a text either before or after creating it. Choose View -> Toolbars, and select Text Properties. The Text Properties toolbar is displayed. Set the properties of a text. 7.26.2 Creating a Text With a Leader This task shows you how to create a text with a leader either in the free space or associated with an element. You can set text properties either before or after you create the text. Click the Text With Leader icon from the Annotations toolbar. Click the point on the element you want the leader
to begin (arrow end). A red frame appears. Click in the free space to define a location for the text. If needed, drag the frame and/or arrow to a new location. The Text Editor dialog box is displayed. Enter the text in the Text Editor dialog box or directly on the drawing. 101
7.26.3 Creating a Balloon This task will show you how to create a balloon. You can set text properties either before or after you create the text. Click the Balloon icon from the Annotations toolbar (Text subtoolbar).
Select an element. Click to define the balloon anchor point. The Balloon Creation dialog box appears; with the value 1 is pre-entered in the field. You can enter another string or value as needed. Click OK.
7.26.4 Creating Associative Balloons on Generated Product Views This task will show you how to create associative balloons on views generated from a product. Open any CATProduct document. On this CATProduct document, Product Structure sub products have already been assigned numbers (Generate Numbering icon). Go to Generative Drafting workbench by opening CATDrawing document for same assembly product. Click the Balloon icon from the Annotations toolbar. Go over one of the part with your cursor. Create a balloon by selecting an edge. The number of the balloon corresponds to the number of the subproduct created in the product which the views were generated from. Note that if you modify the numbering in the product and then regenerate the product, the balloon modification will be applied to the generated views only after you perform a view update.
7.26.5 Creating a Roughness Symbol This task will show you how to create a roughness symbol. You can set text properties either before or after you create the roughness symbol. Click the Roughness Symbol icon from the
Annotations toolbar. Select the attachment point of the roughness symbol. The Roughness Symbol Editor dialog box is displayed. Enter values in the desired field(s). For example, Ra=1.6. Click OK. If needed, modify the roughness symbol position by dragging it to the required location. Click in the free space to validate the roughness symbol creation.
7.26.6 Creating a Welding Symbol This task will show you how to create a welding symbol. You can set text properties either before or after you create the text. Click the Welding Symbol icon from the Annotations toolbar.
Select an element or click in the free space to position the anchor point of the welding symbol, and then click to validate. The welding leader will appear. Move the cursor to position the welding symbol and then click at the chosen location. The Welding creation dialog box is displayed. Type the desired values in the upper and/or lower field(s). Click the symbol buttons to choose the welding symbol, complementary symbols and/or finish symbols. The welding symbols available depend on your standard. Click OK. The welding symbol is created. 7.26.7 Creating a Geometry Weld
This task will show you how to create a geometry weld. Click the Weld icon
Annotations toolbar. Select the two elements. The geometry default weld symbol automatically appears on the drawing. The Welding Editor dialog box is displayed. If needed, modify the geometry-welding symbol. If needed, modify the type of the geometry-welding symbol by selecting the Change Type option from the Welding Editor dialog box. Click OK. 7.26.8 Creating/Modifying a Table This task shows you how to create and edit a table. In this table, you can add text, insert columns, rows, merges cells, invert lines, invert columns, switch lines and columns, and insert views. You can also split a table, import a table, and insert a view in a table. Click the icon to launch the
command. Click a point in the drawing to choose the table position. The following panel allows you to set the number of columns and rows you want for the table. The line height corresponds to the height of a string. The line width corresponds to 5 times a string height. Click ok to validate the creation. 7.27 Editing Properties
This section discusses how to quickly access and edit information on 2D geometry, dress-up elements, annotations and dimensions in a single dialog box, provided you use the Edit>Properties contextual command.
a)Editing View Properties This task explains how to edit view properties. Right-click on the front view and select properties. Choose the View tab. Choose your options. Visualization and behavior: Display view frame: show/hide the view frame, Lock view: if you check this option, no more modification allowed in the view. Visual clipping: let’s you reframe a view so as to display only part of it. Scale and Orientation Angle: the angle between the view and the sheet, Scale: the scale of the view. Dress up: Hidden lines, Center line, 3D spec, Axis, Thread, 3D Wireframe, 3D Colors, Fillets, 3D Points. View Name: Allows you to modify the name of the view. Among other things, you can create a formula for the view name.
b)Editing 2D Geometry Graphic &Feature Properties This task shows you how to access and, if needed, edit information on 2D geometry features (name and stamp). Select a 2D element on the CATDrawing you opened. Select the Edit->Properties command and click the Feature Properties tab. You can also right click the 2D element and then select the Properties command from the displayed contextual menu. Click the Graphic Tab, Lines and Curves option; Pickable option and Layers options are available for changing graphic properties. Click OK. c)Editing Annotation Font Properties This task explains how to access and, if needed, edit annotation font properties. Double-click the text to switch it to edit mode. Select the whole text (you can also select only part of the text) and
then select the Edit-> Properties command. In the Properties dialog box that appears, click the Font tab. The associated panel is displayed. Change Annotation Font Properties as per requirement.
d)Editing Dimension Text Properties This task explains how to access and, if needed, edit dimension text properties. Select a dimension (whatever the type) on the CATDrawing you opened. Select the Edit-> Properties command and click the Dimension Texts tab. Modify the available options. f)Editing Dimension Value Properties This task explains how to access and, if needed, edit dimension value properties. Select a dimension (whatever the type) on the CATDrawing you opened. Select the Edit-> Properties command and click the Value tab. Modify the available options. Fake Dimension: check this option to display fake dimensions, you can choose to display numerical or alphanumerical fake dimensions. 7.28 Customizing for Generative Drafting a)General Settings This task shows you how to set general settings to be used in the Drafting workbench. Select the Tools->Options command. The Options dialog box appears. Ruler: Checking the Show Ruler option displays the ruler in your sheet. It means you visualize the cursor coordinates as you are drawing. Grid: To define your grid, enter the values of your choice in the Primary fields. The Primary spacing option lets you define the spacing between the major lines of the grid. The Graduations field lets you set the number of graduations between the major lines of the grid, which actually consists in defining a secondary grid. The Display option allows displaying the grid in your session. The Snap to point option needs be checked if the geometry needs to begin or end on the points of the grid. Rotation: The Rotation Snap Angle option allows snapping with a given angle for rotating elements. This option is used to rotate text elements (text, frame, or leader). In other words, it defines the snapping value used when rotating an element using the Select or Rotate commands. 105
Colors: You can customize given options for modifying the drawing background color. Tree: You can display or not parameters and relations in the specification tree. View axis: When you activate a view, you can choose to visualize the view axis. In addition, you can define whether these axes can be zoomed. b)Dimension Creation You can customize given options when creating or re-positioning dimensions. Select the Dimension tab in Options. Dimension Creation: Dimension following the mouse (ctrl toggles): you can decide that the dimension line is positioned according to the cursor, following it dynamically during the creation process. Constant offset between dimension line and geometry: the distance between the created dimension and the geometry remains the same when you move the geometry. Default dimension line/geometry distance: if you position the dimension according to the cursor, you can define the value at which the dimension is created. If you create associativity between the dimension and the geometry, you can define the value at which the dimension will remain positioned. If you click the Associativity on 3D switch button the following dialog box appears: A link can be applied between a dimension and the 3D part. As a result, when you update the drawing, the dimension is automatically re-computed. Create driving dimensions: the dimension you will create will drive the geometry. Move: The Configure switch button allows you to choose either the dimension to be snapped on the grid or/and the dimension value to be located at its default position between symbols (it will work only if the cursor is between the symbols). Line-Up: You can organize dimensions into a system with a linear offset. The offset will align the dimensions to each other as well as the smallest dimension to the reference element. Analysis Display Mode: Colors can be customized with the Activate analysis display mode option. To activate this mode, select this option and then click the Types and colors button. The Types and colors of dimensions dialog box lets you assign the desired color(s) to the selected dimension types. c) Geometry and Dimension Generation 106
You can customize given options for controlling geometry and dimension generation whenever you need to update sheets. Select the Generation tab. Geometry generation / Dress up: The following geometry is possibly generated (provided you check the desired options using the contextual menu, Properties option, View tab): Generate axis, Generate threads, Generate centerlines, Hidden lines, Generate fillet, 3D colors inheritance, Project 3D wireframe, Project 3D points, Apply 3D specification. Dimension generation: The generated dimensions are positioned according to the views most representative. The dimensions are generated on the views on the condition the settings were previously switched to the dimension generation option. Generate dimensions when updating the sheet , Filters before generation, Automatic positioning after generation, Allow automatic transfer between views, Analysis after generation, Generate dimensions from parts included in assembly views, Delay between generations for step-by-step mode, Balloon generation: If you select Creation of a balloon for each instance of a product, a balloon will be generated for each instance of a component: therefore, if a component is used two times within a product, then the balloon will be generated twice.
d)Geometry Creation You can customize given options when creating 2D geometry, either or not using SmartPick, or still adding constraints to this geometry. Select the Geometry tab. Geometry: You can decide that you want to create circle and ellipses centers and that you want to be able to drag elements, end points included. Constraints creation: You can create or not the geometrical or dimensional constraints detected by the SmartPick tool. If all of the detection options are unchecked, the Create detected constraints option is not available. SmartPick: (switch button) As you create more and more elements, Smart Pick detects multiple directions and positions, and more and more relationships with existing elements. The SmartPick category provides these options: Support lines and circles, Alignment, Parallelism, perpendicularity and tangency, Horizontality and verticality. Constraints Visualization: Check the Visualize constraints option to visualize the logical constraints specific to the elements. 107
Colors: Two types of colors may be applied to sketched elements. These two types of colors correspond to colors illustrating: Graphical properties-Colors that can be modified. Constraint diagnostics- Colors that represent constraint diagnostics are colors that are imposed to elements whatever the graphical properties previously assigned to these elements and in accordance with given diagnostics. Over-constrained elements: the dimensioning scheme is overconstrained: too many dimensions were applied to the geometry. Inconsistent elements: At least one dimension value needs to be changed. This is also the case when elements are underconstrained and the system proposes defaults that do not lead to a solution. Not-changed elements: Some geometrical elements are over-defined or not consistent. As a result, geometry that depend(s) on the problematic area will not be recalculated. Iso-constrained elements: All the relevant dimensions are satisfied. The geometry is fixed and cannot be moved from its geometrical support.
If you click the other color of the elements switch button, the following dialog box appears. Isolated elements: use-edge that no more depends on the 3D. Protected elements: non-modifiable elements. Construction elements: A construction element is an element that is internal to, and only visualized by, the sketch. This element is used as positioning reference. It is not used for creating solid primitives. SmartPick: colors used for SmartPick assistant elements and symbols. e)View and Sheet Layout You can customize given options when creating views or when adding sheets. Select the Layout tab. It contains the following sets of options: View creation: When creating a view, you can define that you want or not the view name, scaling factor or frame to appear, and that you want broken and breakout specifications to be reproduced. New sheet: You can define that when creating a new sheet, you want the source sheet to be the first or one sheet from another drawing. Background view: You can specify the path to the directory-containing frame and title block. Section/Projection Callout: You can choose the callout elements size not to be dependant on the view scale. For this before callout creation check this option. f)Annotations
You can customize given options when creating annotations. Select the Annotation tab. It contains the following sets of options: Annotation Creation: Select the items you want to snap: text and/or leader. Snapping will be performed when the Activate Snapping box is checked, taking into account the option selected in the Activate snapping dialog box Move: Select Activate Snapping to activate snapping. Click the Configure button to specify whether you want the annotation to be snapped on the grid, according to the orientation, or both. This will apply to the annotations selected in the Annotation Creation area. To deactivate snapping when creating or moving annotations, press the shift key. 2D Component Creation: Select Create all 2D component instances with the same size if you want all 2D component instances to have the same size when you create them, no matter what the view scale is. 7.29 Loading/Saving a CATDrawing This task will show you how to load and save a CATDrawing document from an existing CATPart document. In this particular case, all the links that exist between the CATPart document and the CATDrawing document will be resolved, as you will choose to load the referenced document. You can now modify your CATPart choosing not to update the related CATDrawing document. It is now possible to customize the settings. Activate the settings. For this: Select the Tools -> Options... command. Click General in the list of objects to the left of the Options dialog box (General tab). Make sure the Load referenced documents option (default option) is actually checked. Press OK. Open the CATDrawing document for your CATPART document. Make sure the specification tree actually appears. Make sure the symbols are not broken which would means that links between the CATPart and the projection views are unresolved. Select the Edit->Links command. The Links dialog box appears with the existing links between the CATDrawing and its related CATPart. Press OK.
8. Interactive Drafting The basic tasks you will perform in the Interactive Drafting workbench mainly deal with creating and modifying 2D elements and their related attributes on a predefined sheet. 8.1 Tools Toolbar The Tools toolbar displays both command options and given fields/values that appear in accordance with the command you select. The Tools toolbar provides the following options: Grid, Snap to Point,
Analysis Display Mode: This option allows visualizing the colors assigned to the different types of dimensions. These displayed colors correspond to the colors customized in the Options dialog box. To modify these colors, go to Tools -> Options -> Mechanical Design -> Drafting (Dimension tab). Then check Activate analysis display mode and, if needed, click the Types and colors switch button to assign the desired color(s) to the desired dimension types.
Create Constraints, Create Detected Constraints, Filter Generated Elements Depending on the selected command, the Tools toolbar may also provide the following options: Projected Dimension, View, Force Dimension on Element, Force Horizontal Dimension in
Force Vertical Dimension in View,
True Length Dimension
8.2 Creating Views
Interactive Drafting elements necessarily need to be positioned in a view. In other words, you will first create a view on a sheet and then add 2D geometry, dimensions, annotations and/or dressup elements in this view. Click the New View icon . Click the Drawing window. A blue axis
displays in a red frame. The front view created & displayed in the specification tree. You can now create 2D geometry in this view. Click the New View icon again and select a projection
direction to create more views. The views created are projection views as they are linked to the front view. From an active front view, you can create: a top view, a bottom view, a left view and a right view. 8.3 Defining the View Plane This task will show you how to define the plane of a view (a front view, an isometric view or an auxiliary view). Any created view lies on a 3D plane. In other words, a view lies on some kind of a 3D plane whose definition can be accessed using the Plane Definition dialog box. The view plane can be defined and if needed, modified in this dialog box. The view plane will be defined in accordance with two vectors and an origin point. Define the front view plane: Activate the view in which you want to change the plane definition, by double-clicking on this view. Click the View Plane Definition icon from the Multi View toolbar. Select the desired options from the View Plane Definition dialog box. Press OK. Define the isometric view plane: Click the New View icon in order to create an empty view.
In this case, position the cursor so as to create an isometric view. Make sure the view in which you want to change the plane definition is active. For this, double-click on this isometric view. Click the View Plane Definition icon from the Multi View toolbar. The Plane Definition dialog box appears. Enter the desired options from the dialog box (Isometric). Press OK. 8.4 Creating Views Using Folding Lines This task will show you how to add geometry in views using folding lines as an assistant. This is true for any kind of view, as long as the planes they correspond to are not parallel. For example, you cannot have folding lines between a front view and a rear view. Make sure the view in which you are going to create geometry using folding lines is active. Right-click the view used as reference. Select the object ->Show folding Lines option. Click the Profile icon and create 111
geometry in the top view using auto detection on folding lines. At any time, you can right-click the view and suppress these folding line using the option in contextual menu.
8.5 Creating a Multiple View Projection This task will show you how to generate geometry in a view by projecting geometry from previously defined views. Selected objects are projected onto a plane or ruled surface defined by the user, and then transformed into the receiving view. Projected geometry retains the same attributes it had in the original multi-view. You will first add elements to an existing view, using the Action-Object mode. You will then create an isometric view from scratch, using the ObjectAction mode. Add elements to an existing view, using the Action-Object mode. Click the Multiple View Projection icon from the Multi View toolbar Select the Tools -> Multi View -> Multiple View
Projection command from the menu bar. Select the object defining the target plane or surface to be used. This element can be any mono-parametered elements (line, circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola, curve). In this case, select an arc of a circle in the front view. Select, in another view, the object to be projected. In this case, select a circle in the top view. Select more elements to be projected, if needed, or click in the open space or still another command if you want to terminate this command.
Create an isometric view from scratch, using the Object-Action mode. Make the isometric view active (double-click). Multi-select the elements to be projected into the isometric empty view. In this case, select the whole front view. Click the Multiple View projection icon from the Multi View toolbar. Select the object defining the view to be created. All the elements are automatically projected onto the active view. Repeat the steps above (Object-Action) with the various elements to be projected that will allow generating the isometric view.
8.6 Reframing a View In this task, you will learn how to reframe a view so as to display only part of it. Select the view and right-click the view frame. In the contextual menu, choose Properties. Click the View tab. In the Visualization and Behavior area, select the Visual Clipping check box. Click OK. The new frame appears as a rectangle in the view. You can now define the position and size of your frame on the view. Click on the frame to select it. Drag the manipulators to resize the frame, as you want. The frame can only be rectangular. You can reframe any type of view: front views, isometric views, details views, clipping views, etc. 8.7 Constraints A constraint is a geometric or dimension relation between two elements. A constraint is defined by: a type: for example, a distance constraint, a mode: measured or constraining mode, a configuration. If you want constraints to be created, before inserting constraints make sure the 114
constraint creation option command is active in the Tools toolbar. A constraint is a kind of relationship that allows specifying the geometry. In other words, if you modify the geometry afterwards via the geometry itself, these relations will be taken into account. Two kinds of constraint can be applied geometrical constraints & dimensional constraints. 8.8 Creating Geometrical Constraints This task shows you how to set a relationship that forces a limitation between one or more geometrical elements. Make sure the Show Constraints command option is active (Tools
toolbar). Select the geometrical elements to be constrained to each others. Click the Constraint with Dialog Box icon from the Geometry Modification toolbar. The Constraint Definition
dialog box appears. Modify the Constraint Definition dialog box. It is impossible to create constraints between 2D and generated elements via the Constraint Definition dialog box. In the Constraint Definition dialog box, you can only create constraints between similar elements. In other words, you can create constraints either between 2D elements, or between generated elements, but not between a mix of these. 8.9 Creating Constraints Between 2D and Generated Elements This task shows you how to create associative constraints between 2D elements and generated elements. Click the geometrical constraints command icon and select the line. The most logical constraint is automatically offered. Select an edge from the drawing you have opened. The software proposes you parallelism by default. If you choose this constraint, click in the drawing, otherwise right-click and select Perpendicularity in the contextual menu. A constraint is created between a generated element and a sketched element. You can delete this constraint: right-click on the created constraint and select delete in the contextual menu. 8.10 Creating Dimensions In this task, you will learn how to create dimensions. When creating dimensions on elements, you can preview the dimensions to be created. On the Dimensioning toolbar, click the Dimensions icon. Click a first element in the view. If needed, click a second element in the view. The or in the Tools 115
dimension type is automatically defined according to the selected elements (
toolbar). If you right-click the dimension before creation, a contextual menu lets you modify the dimension type and value orientation as well as add funnels. Using this contextual menu once the dimension is created, you can also access the Properties options. 8.11 Re-routing Dimensions This task will show you how to re-route dimensions, i.e. to recalculate dimensions taking into account new geometry elements which are compatible with the re-routed dimension type. Select the Re-route Dimension icon from the Dimensioning toolbar (Extension Line Interruptions
sub-toolbar). Select the dimension. You can notice that the cursor indicates the type of dimension you are selecting. Select the first element you want to take into account for the dimension rerouting, and then the second element. A preview of the re-routed angle dimension is displayed. Click to validate the dimension creation. 8.12 Dress-Up Elements The Interactive Drafting workbench provides a simple method to create the following view dress up elements on existing 2D elements. a) Creating Center Lines (No Reference) This task will show you how to apply a pair of centerlines to a circle or an ellipse. Click the Center Line icon from the Dress up toolbar. Select a circle. Centerlines are automatically applied to
the circle Click in the drawing to confirm the creation and select the centerlines. b) Creating Center Lines (Reference) This task will show you how to apply a pair of centerlines to a circle or an ellipse with respect to a reference (linear or circular). Click the Center Line with Reference icon from the Dress up
toolbar. You can multi-select circles before you enter the command to create centerlines for all selected circles. Select the circle to be applied a pair of centerlines. Select the reference line. The centerline created is associative with the reference line. To modify a pair of centerlines at one or more end(s) of this/these centerlines, click the centerline. Red end points appear. Select any end point and drag to move all the centerline extremities to a new position.
c) Creating Threads (No Reference) This task will show you how to create a thread without a reference. In this particular case, you will apply a thread to a hole. Click the Drawing window, and click the Thread icon up toolbar. You can also multi-select holes before clicking the Thread icon command displays two options in the Tools toolbar. The Tap type option activated by default. Select the Thread type option from the Dress . Activating this (Tools toolbar) is
(Tools toolbar). Select the hole (or circle) to
which you want to apply a thread. The thread is created. Select an axis line manipulator and drag it along a direction. Thread axis lines are modified symmetrically. d) Creating Threads (Reference) This task shows you how to create a thread with a reference, either circular (circle or point) or linear (line). Click the Drawing window, and click the Thread with Reference icon Dress up toolbar. Select the Reference Thread type option line. The thread is created according to this reference. e) Creating Axis Lines This task will show you how to create an axis line. Click the Drawing window, and click the Axis Line icon from the Dress up toolbar. Select two lines. The axis line is created. from the
(Tools toolbar). Select a reference
f) Creating Axis Lines and Center Lines This task will show you how to create simultaneously axis and centerlines on several circles. Click the Drawing window, and click the Axis Line and Center Line icon Select two circles. The axes and centerlines are created. g) Creating an Area Fill An area fill is a closed area on which you then apply graphical dress-up element called patterns (these can be hatching, dotting or coloring). You can create area fills on the following elements: sketched elements, generated elements, part-sketched, part-generated elements. Define boundaries for your area fill by creating lines. The boundaries for your area fill may consist of both sketched and generated elements. In the Graphic Properties toolbar, click the down arrow besides the Pattern icon. In the Pattern dialog box, select a pattern for your area fill and click OK. 117 from the Dress up toolbar.
Click the Area Fill icon
from the Dress Up toolbar. The Area Detection dialog box
appears. Click the Automatic option and then click inside the area for which you just defined boundaries, under the line, which represents the fillet edge. The software automatically detects the area to fill based on where you clicked and fills this area with the selected pattern. The Areas to Fill dialog box disappears. f) Creating Arrows This task will show you how to create an arrow. For the purpose of this exercise, you will use an arrow to illustrate the kind of hole you want to apply to a circle. Click the Drawing window, and select Insert->Dress up->Arrow from the menu bar. Click a point or select an object to define the arrow starting point (the tail). Click another point or select another object to define the arrow extremity (the head). The arrow is created. The arrow and the selected object are associative. To modify the position of the arrow, click the arrow and use the yellow manipulators to drag it to its new location. To add a breakpoint to the arrow, select it and right-click on a yellow manipulator. A contextual menu appears. Select Add a Breakpoint. A breakpoint is added to the arrow; you can drag it to change the arrow path.
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