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Catalogue Reference:CAB/24/248

Image Reference:0047

Printed

for the Cabinet.

April

1934.

SECRET. C P . I l l (34). CABINET. THE K E N Y A LAND COMMISSION REPORT.

Copy No.

36

Memorandum

by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.

I A M circulating with this memorandum the Report of the Kenya Land Commission, on which I must make an early pronouncement. 1. The Cabinet will remember that I appointed the Commission on the recommendation of the Joint Select Committee. The Commission^ terms o f reference are set out on page 1 of the Report. The Commission were directed : (a) To consider the present and prospective needs of the native population with regard to land and the desirability and practicability of setting aside further land for native use. (6) To determine native claims with regard to land, whether alienated or not, and to make recommendations for their fair settlement. (c) To consider and make recommendations with regard to native rights under the Crown Lands Ordinance. (d) To define the (European) Highlands. (e) To review the working of the Native Lands Trust Ordinance, and to recommend how the administrative difficulties thereunder can best be met. 2. The Report is one of the most careful and thorough pieces of work I have, ever seen. W e were very fortunate in the personnel of the Commission. Sir Morris Carter was an ideal Chairman. To his legal experience as Chief Justice of Uganda and later of Tanganyika he added special experience gained in presiding over a similar land enquiry in Southern Rhodesia. He was equally fortunate in his colleagues. Mr. Hemsted had been a successful Provincial Commissioner in Kenya, and Captain Wilson is well known there as a practical farmer and a model employer. 3. The thoroughness with which the Commission conducted their enquiry may be gauged by the fact that they examined 736 witnesses, 487 of whom were natives, and received and considered over 500 memoranda. Most of the native evidence was taken in public assemblies, and the Commission always asked the assembled natives, before the end of the baraza, whether they agreed with the statements made. They were thus able to judge to what extent the opinions expressed were representative of the general feeling of the tribe. The Report is characterised not only by the thoroughness with which they investigated every claim and the economic requirements of every tribe, but also by a remarkable insight into native mentality. 4. I will summarise, as shortly as I can, the main findings and recommen dations of the Commission. I have discussed the Report with the Governor and his senior officers, and with the two Kenya members of the Commission. With the exception of the suggestion that the Land Trust Board should be in the United Kingdom, with which I deal later, the Governor and I are in general agreement with all the recommendations. 5. Parts I and I I of the Report, covering over 340 pages, contain an exhaustive review of all the claims, legal, equitable, and historical, of every native tribe, and of their economic conditions and requirements, present and prospective. [9853] B

Every claim, however remote or far-fetched, was carefully examined; and additions of land, amounting in all to 1,902 square miles, are recommended in satisfaction of native claims asserted over land not noAv included in the Reserves. Further additions, totalling 1,155 square miles, are recommended to meet the present and future economic requirements of various tribes. Further areas, amounting to 939 square miles, are recommended for the exclusive use of natives, but are not allocated to any particular tribe. The Commission have been careful to consider the prospective needs, not only of natives living within the Reserves, but of natives now living outside the Reserves who may return. A further addition of 1,500 acres to the Kavirondo Reserve is recommended to compensate for any surface land excluded from the Reserve for mining leases in the near future, though the Commission recommend an alternative system for mining leases, to which I shall refer later, and which the Commission think will be both more convenient and more popular. 6. The Commission differentiate between land to be added to the Reserves to meet claims made as of right, and land which is to be added to satisfy the economic requirements of the natives. The former (Class A lands) they recommend should be added unconditionally. The latter is to be subject to conditions of economic user, and is further divided into three classes : Class B (I).Land added to meet a permanent need. Class B (II).Land added to fulfil a need which appears to be of a more temporary character. Class C.Land to be set apart for alienation on lease to natives, whether as groups, families or individuals. The recommendation that land added on economic grounds should be subject t o special conditions is a very wise provision, having regard to the vital importance of encouraging better methods of agriculture, particularly in over-stocked areas. 7. The Commission recommend that a number of exchanges of land should be carried out in order to make the boundaries of the Reserves more convenient. These recommendations appear to be sound, but the Governor wishes to go into them in detail with the Chief Native Commissioner and the local officers before finally approving of them. 8. The Commission further recommend that a number of Reserves should be amalgamated. Their general argument is, I think, conclusive. Separate Reserves have been gazetted in the past for tribes which are closely related; and there is a gradual tendency to inter-penetration, which is greatly to be encouraged, as it is very desirable that there should be a natural and spontaneous movement from the more densely to the less densely populated areas. Not only are tribal divisions tending in some cases to become blurred, but as agricultural practice improves, individual, family and group ownership is developing satisfactorily. While the general principle of amalgamating like with like is clearly sound, the Governor has reasonably asked that he may have more time to consider the details of the proposals. 9. The additions recommended are equitable, and, I think, generous to the natives. Certain of the recommendations which give to natives land claimed as European Highlands may be adversely criticised by settlers, but I am sure that they should be supported, and that the additions recommended by the Commission should be accepted in their entirety. .1.0. The Tlighlands. Commission have defined the boundaries of the European

11: The Commission recommend that the boundaries of the Reserves and of the Class C lands (native leasehold areas), and of the Highlands, should be declared Iry an Order in Council. This will give an added sense of security, in that these' boundaries cannot be altered by local Ordinance. . 12. Frontier nomadic part of The Commission make a special recommendation about the Northern and Turkana Districts; large, sparsely populated areas, inhabited by tribes, which observe no fixed- boundaries. They recommend that no these territories should be gazetted as. native Reserves, but that the

territories should be recognised as land in which natives have a prior interest, and leases to non-natives should not be allowed to such an extent as to justify the apprehension that the natives might not have sufficient land remaining for their use; and they recommend that the priority of native interests should be safeguarded by a special section under the Lands Trust Ordinance. 13. The legal position under the Crown Lands Ordinances is obscure, and might give rise to claims in future if not finally disposed of. The whole position is fully discussed in Part I I I , Chapter 7. If, as is proposed, the large additions of land recommended are made to the Reserves in settlement of all claims which the Commission consider can in any way be established in regard to past alienations, and if cash compensation is made to certain Kikuyu still living on farms (paragraph 1835), and if the provisos recommended in paragraph 1854 are observed, all legitimate native claims will have been fully satisfied. Once these claims are so satisfied, it is essential that the Order in Council should declare that these provisions constitute a final settlement, and that the sections of the Crown Lands Ordinances, 1902 and 1915, which may or may not create uncertain and unknown rights, should be declared inoperative. 14. Having disposed of native claims and economic requirements, by the additions of land referred to above, and having determined the boundaries of the Highlands, the Commission recommend that all other lands (Class D) shall be treated as areas in which natives will have equal rights with other races in respect of the acquisition of land. 15. Following on their detailed accounts of the conditions obtaining in the various Reserves, the Commission, in Part I I I , Chapter 10, face up to the grave problem of over-stocking. Everyone who knows Kenya is familiar with the problem. In 1929 Sir Daniel Hall's Agricultural Commission stressed the gravity and urgency of this problem. Writing of the Ukamba, that Commission observed : " I t is not too much to say that a desert has already been created where grazing formerly was good, and where even cultivation existed; and that the same desert conditions are steadily approaching the land at present carrying stock and cultivation." A n d again : " I t is necessary to take in hand at once the reduction in the numbers of livestock kept by the natives. Though the ultimate solution can only be obtained by the education of the native to treat his livestock as a means of producing food, it will in some cases be necessary to apply immediate compulsion to get the natives to part with the stock that are in excess of what the land will carry." 16. The situation bristles with difficulties. Cattle are currency, and a very debased currency. A bad cow has the same value as a good cow, and 10 (?) goats equal 1 cow. Gresham's Law has worked immutably, and bad stock have driven out the good. And this debased currency is valid for one purpose only the purchase of wives. Meat is but little eaten by the tribes who are the worst offenders. There is no market for bad stock, even if the natives were prepared to sell; and there is a complicated trust ownership in cattle which makes it impossible for a man to sell a cow even if he could, without a wide family council. Government has aggravated and, indeed, largely created the problem by its good intentions. The Veterinary Service has stopped the spread of disease; and it cannot suspend this work without serious danger to valuable European herds. Government has tried to educate the natives in better husbandry, but these efforts have been largely ineffective in the backward tribes, where the evil is most persistent. Hitherto Government has shied at the only effective way of dealing with the problem. 17. The Commission are insistent on the seriousness of the evil and the need for immediate action. " I t is definitely not a problem which can be solved by an increase of land. I f the uncontrolled increase of stock be permitted to continue, then the whole of Africa would be insufficient to satisfy the wants of the future." " W e have heard in evidence that 20 years ago the Kamasia Reserve was still a well-grassed country, and the Suk were moving their grazing areas every year with a view to controlling the grass Conditions in the Kamba Reserve and in the drier parts of the Masai Reserve were still tolerable. Now,, in many parts where there used to be grass, there is nothing but bare earth." [9853] B 2

W e therefore recommend, with all the emphasis at our command, that action be taken with the least possible delay to inaugurate the culling of surplus stock and to pursue unremittingly a policy of controlling the cattle population within the limits which the grazing facilities available from time to time dictate. W e should make no such recommendation if we were not satisfied that, in spite of all the difficulties, such a course is practicable. This opinion is already shared by several of the senior administrative officers upon whom will fall the burden of seeing that the task is carried out." 18. The Commission accordingly recommend that the principle of compulsion in reducing the numbers of stock in areas now being devastated by over-stocking be accepted, and that the provisions of the Crop Production and Livestock Ordinance be put into force in those areas as soon as practicable. They also recommend the establishment of one or more fertiliser factories (blood and bone) to create a market for the stock. I am advised that there would be a ready sale for the fertiliser produced. They further recommend that a committee should be appointed to consider the matter in detail. The problem is one which must be faced; and the Government will go thoroughly into the practical details o f carrying out the recommendations in a selected area or selected areas where the need is greatest. 19. While land is being ruined by over-stocking in some Reserves, e.g., Masai, Ukamba, Kamasia, Njemps, Suk, it is satisfactory to note that the most populous tribes, like the Kikuyu and the Kavirondo, are comparatively free from this affliction, and are improving their agricultural standards. 20. In Chapters 3-6 of Part I I I the Commission review exhaustively the working of the Native Lands Trust Ordinance and make a series o f recommendations. Though their recommendations with regard to mining leases form a co-ordinated part of their general recommendations for the acquisition of plots within the Natives Reserves for public and other purposes, it will be convenient, in view of the immediate importance of the mining industry, if I deal separately with mining leases. 21. I am glad to say that, before I left, I was able to pay a visit to Kakamega. I motored through part of the mining area; I visited two of the largest mining undertakings; and I flew low over a large area where prospecting is in progress. I can confirm from personal experience all the information which I have given in the House of Commons. Relations between mining companies and prospectors and the natives are excellent. Numbers of natives are employed, and are obviously well satisfied with their employment. There is very little disturbance of land; and where there is disturbance, compensation is on a generous and, indeed, a lavish scale. No native has had to move away from his area. A valuable market has been created for native produce and native timber. Roads have been greatly improved by mining companies. Most important of all, I verified the nature of the goldfield as it is being disclosed by the operations to date. T o compare this area with the Rand is ridiculous. The field consists of narrow seams separated by considerable areas of intervening land. For example, Tanganyika Concessions are working two rich narrow seams 1,200 yards apart. Consequently it is highly improbable that any natives will have to move to other districts. The areas required for surface leases will be small. 22. The Cabinet will remember that the inelasticity of the existing Ordinance led to an amendment passed in 1932 providing for the exclusion of land required for surface leases. The Commission approved of this at the time as an immediate measure; but the result of their enquiry and of the native evidence which they have heard have led them to recommend an alternative method which is, in their judgment, more convenient and also likely to be much more in accord with native, sentiment and prejudice. The Commission recommend (Part I I I , Chapter 3) that the usual procedure for any lease in a Reserve should be by a process of " setting apart' and not by exclusion. The procedure would be as follows : The Provincial Commissioner would have the power to set apart land for public purposes or as a step preliminary to the issue of any lease, where he is satisfied that it will be for the benefit of the natives resident in the tribal unit concerned, either in respect of the use to which the land is to be put or because of the revenue to be expected from rents. Before the land is set apart, the

Provincial Commissioner must consult the local natives, the Local Native Council and the Local Land Board, which it is proposed should in future consist entirely of natives under the chairmanship of the District Commissioner. In addition to this, due compensation must have been arranged. I f the Local Land Board and the Provincial Commissioner are in disagreement, the matter must be referred to the Governor. I f the land to be set apart is more than 10 acres, the Lands Trust Board are to have the power of veto. Where land is set apart and leased, it will remain a part of the Reserve. In paragraphs 1573-1577 the Commission give their reasons why, in their opinion, this process of setting apart as opposed to exclusion from the Reserve is more convenient, more to the advantage of the natives and more in accord with native sentiment. I propose that the Native Lands Trust Ordinance should be amended forthwith to enable mining leases to be dealt with in this way, in advance of the long and more complicated Ordinance which will be required to give effect to the other amendments recommended by the Commission. 23. The close examination which the Commission have made of the working of the Native Lands Trust Ordinance shows that it is administratively inconvenient in many ways; that its inelasticity has operated to the detriment of the natives; that it ignores native private rights, which are becoming increasingly important; that it tends to cramp initiative and development; and that it involves the Board in a mass of administrative detail with which it is unsuited and unable to cope, and which is the proper function of the Government officers in the District. 24. The Commission demonstrate the fundamental defect in the Ordinance, viz., the failure to differentiate between the functions of protection and administration. This distinction was clearly laid down by Sir Reginald Mant, Sir George Schuster, and Mr. Oldham in the Hilton Young Report: ' ' The first and principal need, which may be described as the ' protective need,' is to fix the areas to be set aside, and provide secure protection for the preservation of the beneficial rights over such areas to the natives. ' ' The second and almost equally important need, which we will call the ' constructive need,' is to provide for the actual use of land in such a manner as will be of the greatest benefit to the natives " I t is not sufficient merely to reserve the land under the dead hand of a rigid and unalienable legal restriction, and it is a necessary consequence of these considerations that a measure which aims at preserving the beneficial use of the land to the natives must include regulations for handling i t . " The Commission criticise strongly the failure to observe this distinction. Of the provision requiring all matters relating to management and development to be dealt with by the Lands Trust Board, they say : '' The clause implies a static condition in which the initiation of development lies with the Lands Trust Board, which asks the advice of the Local Board, and, finally, authorises somebody to do something so that the reserve may be developed. W e prefer to think of a dynamic condition in which natives are themselves the principal developing agents by cultivating their own crops on their own land and pursuing their lawful occasions, the Lands Trust Board being only concerned in a protective capacity. Advice or regulation required for helping the natives to develop their own land should be the active concern of Government. W e agree, however, that the Lands Trust Board should make representations, if it considers that Government is neglecting its duty in this respect. ' ' Constant reference of petty matters to the Lands Trust Board has the triple disadvantage that it distracts the attention of the Board from more serious duties, holds up legitimate development, and introduces a creeping paralysis into the power, and, ultimately, the will of the Government to govern." 25. The Commission accordingly recommend that the business of detailed management and of development should be the function of Government, and the duty of protection the function of the Board. The areas of the Native Reserves

as enlarged and reconstituted will be secured by Order in Council. The Board will be relieved of a mass of minor administrative matters, but will have jurisdiction in all larger proposals affecting land within the Reserves, e.g., exchanges of land, whether by exclusion and addition or by mutual lease; the power of veto over the setting apart or leasing of land in excess of 10 acres ;* the power to issue general or special instructions in the granting of licences;! and consultation in all major cases of water permits. The Board is, moreover, to have general power and duty of supervision, and of making representations to the Governor, and, if necessary, to the Secretary of State, if i t considers that the land is not being devoted to the use and benefit of the natives, or is not being properly conserved and developed. The whole of Chapter 6, in which the detailed working of the Ordinance is reviewed, is well worth reading. I am sure the Commission are right in insisting on the distinction between the protective and administrative functions, and I propose generally to adopt their recommendations. 26. I come now to the suggestion of the Commission with which both the Governor and I disagree. In paragraphs 1692-1697 the Commission recommend that the present Land Trust Board in Kenya should be abolished and superseded by a Board appointed by Order in Council. They make the tentative suggestion that the Board so constituted should sit in London, but the Cabinet will see that only one member makes this a definite recommendation. My discussions with the members of the Commission showed that they had not appreciated the difficulties and objections. I f they had done so, I do not think the recommenda tion would have been made, and I am sure they will raise no objection to the proposal being turned down. Incidentally, the recommendation was made under a misconception of the functions of the Privy Council. But apart from this, I am convinced that the proposal is unsound in principle and unworkable in practice. In principle, the ultimate authority must be the Secretary of State, responsible to Parliament. A Board responsible to the Privy Council would be an impossible innovation. In practice, I cannot see how a London board could possibly discharge its functions. I have already drawn the attention of the Cabinet to a number of these. As I have pointed out, the assent or opinion of the Board is required in all the more important administrative decisions with regard to land within the Reserves, and they have further the general power and duty to make representations to the Governor if they consider that the land is not being devoted and developed to the best advantage. These are very important functions. They can only be discharged by a body with intimate and continuing knowledge of local conditions, and by men on the spot able to discuss proposals with the responsible officers of Government and with Local Native Councils. A board in London could not possess these qualities; it would operate ineffectively and with intolerable delay. I f the Board is to function effectively it must reside in Kenya. 27. I think, however, there is force in the argument that the Board, as at present constituted, is over-weighted with Government representatives and members of the Legislative Council. I t makes, or appears to make, the Government too much a judge in its own cause. I have suggested to the Governor that a new board should be constituted as follows : The Chief Native Commissioner, who is the Senior Officer specially charged with native interests, as Chairman; the twoi members of the Legislative Council appointed to represent native interests; two independent persons who are neither officers of Government nor members of the Legislative Council. A s the Board will be relieved of a mass of trivial and unimportant work, it should be possible to secure two really able men with first-class agricultural or business experience. In this way I think criticisms of the Commission would be fairly met, and a thoroughly
* S u b j e c t to t h e d i s c r e t i o n of the B o a r d to d e l e g a t e to the Chief N a t i v e C o m m i s s i o n e r the p o w e r of a s s e n t i n g t o t h e s e t t i n g apart of land not e x c e e d i n g 100 acres and t h e leasing of land not e x c e e d i n g 50 acres. j " A s r e g a r d s m i n i n g l i c e n c e s , the C o m m i s s i o n r e c o m m e n d t h a t the B o a r d should not have the p o w e r of v e t o b u t should be able t o m a k e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t o the G o v e r n o r or the Secretary of S t a t e . I A s e c o n d m e m b e r is b e i n g a d d e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the Joint Select C o m m i t t e e .

competent and impartial Board would be established. The Governor has asked for further time to consider this suggestion. Unless I obtain his concurrence before making an announcement on the Report, I should propose to announce that His Majesty's Government do not accept the proposal to establish a Board in London, for the reasons which I have given, but that the constitution of the Board in Kenya is under consideration. 28. Lastly, I come to the question of finance. The recommendations of the Commission for the acquisiton of land to be added to the Reserves and for certain ancillary purposes and for compensation involve an estimated capital expenditure of 36,000, and a recurrent charge of 1,300 a year. The cost of the Commission, apart from the cost of publishing the Report, is approximately 6,000. In addition, the Government will be involved in considerable expenditure in establishing, or assisting to establish, a fertiliser factory or factories (see paragraph 18 above), and in development within the Reserves. The Commission make a very strong recommendation as to how this money should be found. In support of this recommendation, Kenya is for once united Government, settlers, missionaries, officials, Indians and natives. I am bound to say that, in my opinion, the justice of the claim made on the Imperial Government is unanswerable. I would ask my colleagues particularly to read paragraphs 2048-2068 of the Report. The facts are not in dispute. I t is not a pleasant or a creditable story. I think, on reading it, Cabinet will agree with the Commission when they conclude : " W e consider that if such treatment (i.e., the retention of the money owing to dead porters killed in the W a r ) were meted out, it would constitute a much more callous violation of the principles of trusteeship to the natives than any of the injuries which the natives have suffered by the alienation of their land." (Initialled) P. C.-L. Colonial Office, Downing April 18, 1934. Street,

E n c l o s u r e t o Memorandum Toy the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e f o r the C o l o n i e s , CP, 111(34).

REPORT
of the

KENYA

LAND

COMMISSION

Personnel SIE MR. MORRIS R. W. P.

of

the

Commission: C.B.E. O.B.E., D.S.O. (Chairman),

CARTER,

HEMSTED, WILSON,

CAPT.

0'B.

MR.

S. H .

FAZAN,

O.B.E.

(Secretary).

I Note.All e x p e n d i t u r e i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e C o m m i s s i o n , o t h e r t h a n t h e cost of p r i n t i n g t h i s R e p o r t , w a s b o r n e b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t ml K e n y a . T h e c o s t o f p r i n t i n g a n d p u b l i s h i n g t h i s R e p o r t is Estimated at 1 , 0 4 0 .

THE

EVIDENCE
VOLUME I.

E v i d e n c e relating to the K i k u y u P r o v i n c e .

VOLUME

II. Northern Erontie

E v i d e n c e relating to the Masai, U k a m b a , Turkana, Rift Valley and Nzoia Province.

VOLUME

III.

E v i d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o t h e N y a n z a a n d C o a s t P r o v i n c e s ; tli, E u r o p e a n H i g h l a n d s ; t h e w o r k i n g of t h e L a n d s T r u s t Ordinance E c o n o m i c s a n d e v i d e n c e of g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g tlx e v i d e n c e t a k e n i n L o n d o n e x c e p t t h a t p a r t o f i t w h i c h relate, to the K i k u y u Province.

* Non-Parliamentary Publication, Colonial N o . 91, May, 1934.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTORY.
PAGE GENERAL A INTRODUCTION STATEMENT O N TILE CLASSIFICATION PART The INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER STATEMENT Kikuyu I. Province. 9 O F LANDS 1 7

PRELIMINARY

I . - P r e l i m i n a r y observations on the principles and governing factors in the matter of the Kikuyu claims

11

II.Conditions obtaining in the Itikuyu country and on its borders when the Protectorate was declared, with some incidental notes on subsequent developments until 1902 ... ... ... ... IS C H A P T E R III.The Western border when the "Protectorate was declared 29 C H A P T E R IV.The Southern border when the Protectorate was declared 46 C H A P T E R V.The Eastern and Northern borders when the Protectorate ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 57 was declared C H A P T E R VI.-The " ProHt and Loss " account 71 C H A P T E R VII.An Examination of P r i v a t e Rights and Claims. P a r t 1: The Historical Basis ... 78 C H A P T E R VIII.An Examination of Private Rights and Claims. Part 2 : The number of persons claiming rights on land which has been alienated ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 95 C H A P T E R IX.An Examination of Private Rights and Claims. Part 3: The question of compensation for loss of private rights and for disturbance ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 102
CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER

X.Exchanges, Adjustments, and Special Cases ... ... 115 XLRecommendations for the Settlement of the Kikuyu ... 129 Claims under the third, fourth and fifth terms of reference ...

CHAPTER CHAPTER

XII.Economic needs.

A preliminary statement of "the issues 139

summary of the economic position in the Kikuyu Reserves ... ..... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..... 141 C H A P T E R XIV.A discussion of means by which a better use could be made of the land ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 145
CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER

XIII,A

XV.Requirements external t o the Reserve

...

...

... 153

Township and Commonage

XVI.Land Problems of the Meru and Embu Districts ... 160 XVII.Certain, land problems connected with the Nairobi
... ... ... ... ... 165
PART Provinces other II. than Kikuyu.

CHAPTER

I.The Masai Province. Some observations on the Agreements


land ... 185 problems ... ... 195. ... ... 204 210

CHAPTER.

of 1904 and 1911 and their effects II.The Masai P r o v i n c e : Certain specific ... ... ... connected with the Masai tribe

CHAPTER CHAPTER

III.-The K a m b a Tribe.
settlement ,

A short economic survey

their

IV.Land problems of the Kamba tribe and proposals for

CHAPTER

mendations regarding the manner in which occupation should be held and safeguarded
CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER

V.The Northern Frontier and Turkana Provinces.


the ... land ...

PARE

Recom in native ... ... 220 226 241 247 2C2 27]

V I . T h e Samburu question in relation to the Leroki Plateau V I I . T h e land problems of the West Suk (Turkana Province) V I I I . T h e R i f t Valley Province I X . - T h e Nzoia P r o v i n c e : X . T h e Nzoia P r o v i n c e :
(b)

(a) The Elgeyo and Marakwet ... The Nandi and the El Gonyi ...

X I . T h e Nyanza P r o v i n c e : ( a ) The adequacy of the three Kavirondo Reserves to the needs of the occupant tribes ... ... 287 CHAPTER XII.The Nyanza Province: (b) Claims of right in the Kavirondo Districts ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 292
CHAPTER

X I I I . T h e Nyanza Kakamega District ... South

Province: ... ..

(c) Mining ... ...

Leases in ... ...

the ... 208 302 309 33!

CHAPTER

X I V . T h e Nyanza Province: (d) The Land Problems of the LunVbwa District ... ... ... ... ... ... ... X V . T h e Coast P r o v i n c e : (o) The N a t i v e Reserves Facilities for natives to own ... ... ... ... ...
III.

CHAPTER CHAPTER

X V I . T h e Coast P r o v i n c e : (b) or occupy land in the ten-mile strip


PART

The Problems comprehensively considered.


CHAPTER

I.The general conditions obtaining in the N a t i v e Reserves in respect of the use of land ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 341! II.The general lines proposed for the solution of the native
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 365

CHAPTER

land problem
CHAPTER

III.Problems which arise in connexion with the acquisition


388
IIS

of plots, for public purposes; social service; trade, or industry, in N a t i v e Reserves ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
CHAPTER CHAPTER

tion, and control of land in Native Reserves


CHAPTER CHAPTER

IV.Land tenure by natives in the Reserves ... ... ... V.The appropriate method for the protection, administra
... ... ... ... V I . T h e working of the Lands Trust Ordinance native rights ... ... ... ... ... or claims ... ... ... ... ... ...

426 434

VII.Existing Reserves ... ... outside Native

outside Native ... ... ... 45S ... ... natives ... ... 466 ... ... 483 49! 510

CHAPTER

VIII.Facilities recommended to be provided for


Reserves IX.Definition of the European Highlands

CHAPTER CHAPTER

X . T h e position created by uneconomic accumulation of live stock, and proposals for amelioration ... ... ... ... ... XLThe financial of aspect of our recommendations recommendations ... ... ... ... ... ... XII.Summary

CHAPTER CHAPTER

5!^

LIST

OF

APPENDICES

INDEX

vn 53 9

List of Appendices
[ppcndix No.
TExtracts from documents and evidence relating to the question of the extent of K i k u y u Territory in the period 1895-1902 ...

PG AE
539

IIExtracts from the Crown Lands Ordinances, 1902 and 1915 ... 558 1 The extent of land now in occupation iby Missions, which has 1 been " t a k e n from the K i k u y u " ... ... ... ... ... 560 [VValuation of Areas ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 561 563 566 568 572 ... ... 579 580 586 VDescription of the Blocks recommended to be added t o the Kikuyu N a t i v e Reserve as N a t i v e Lands Class A ... ... V I A short description of the Githaka System. Being a series of extracts from the Report of the 1929 Committee on Native Land Tenure in Kikuyu Province ... ... ... ... VIIThe method of tenure for school and church plots in the Kikuyu Reserve VIIIThe Masai Agreements TXRainfall records for Solai, Nakuru and Kabarnet XExtracts from official reports concerning the effects of the present (1933) drought XIFigures showing results obtainable in bush clearing by organized native labour ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... XIIDetails of the figures given in the table a t section 1966, showing areas included in tho 192S Sub-Committee's definition of the European Highlands but now recommended t o be excluded ... XIIIRecommendations involving direct expenditure

587 589

(23366-2)

W t . 1115-3191

3240

5/34

P. St.

G 3

e r r a t a PAGE 38, LAST L I N E - F o r " 1 0 0 " read " 1 0 0 0 " . PAGE 39, LINE 4.For " to " read " of". PAGE 188, SECTION 650.For " 5850 square miles " read " 9210 square miles " . PAGE 190, SECTION 656.For "3730 square miles " read " 3 7 0 square miles " . NOTE.It is regretted that the errors in the above figures, which were due to a misunderstanding, had escaped the notice of the Commissioners until the Report was in print. The two errors, in a sense, cancel each other, since the total remains the same. PAGE 194, SECTION 672.For " industrial" read " industrious '

297

298

[REPORT OF T H E KENYA LAND COMMISSION


T H E R T . - H O N . M A J O R SIR P H I L I P C U N L I F F E - L I S T E R , T.C., G.B.E., M.C., M . P . , SECRETARY OF STATE FOR THE COLONIES.

BiR,
We, the undersigned our Commissioners, fcubmit h e r e w i t h Report.

have

the

honour

to

Introduction
c o n s i d e r Appointment and Terms of K e n y a . Reference. We w e r e also a p p o i n t e d b y H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e G o v e r n o r u n d e r t h e 1. W e appointed by you in April, 1932, to and r e p o r t upon certain land problems in the Colony of Commissions of I n q u i r y O r d i n a n c e , in o r d e r t h a t w e m i g h t b e i n a position t o t a k e e v i d e n c e on o a t h i n K e n y a , o u r a p p o i n t m e n t being ihlished i n t h e O f f i c i a l G a z e t t e of the C o l o n y under Government : on set

were

Notice N o .

41S o f 1 1 t h J u n e , 1 9 3 2 . are as set o u t h e r e b e l o w

2. T h e t e r m s o f o u r r e f e r e n c e (1) and p r o s p e c t i v e , w i t h r e s p e c t tribal or on i n d i v i d u a l (2) T o ting aside (a) (b) occupancy consider further of tribes; and tenure.

T o c o n s i d e r t h e n e e d s of t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , p r e s e n t to l a n d , w h e t h e r t o b e h e l d and practicability present or of

the desirability areas of land

for

the

future

c o m m u n i t i e s , b o d i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l n a t i v e s of r e c o g n i z e d d e t r i b a l i z e d n a t i v e s , t h a t i s , n a t i v e s w h o b e l o n g t o no tribe or w h o h a v e severed c o n n e x i o n to which they once belonged. to non-natives settlement and of to make claims with the tribe

( 3 ) T o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t of c l a i m s a s s e r t e d by natives over land for alienated the recommendations adequate such

whether by legislation or o t h e r w i s e .

INTRODUCTION

( 4 ) T o e x a m i n e c l a i m s a s s e r t e d b y n a t i v e s o v e r lam] y e t a l i e n a t e d a n d t o m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r the adcqu s e t t l e m e n t of such c l a i m s . ( o ) T o c o n s i d e r t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t of t h e rights li b y n a t i v e s u n d e r s e c t i o n 86 of t h e C r o w n L a n d s Ordina ( C h a p t e r 140 of t h e R e v i s e d E d i t i o n ) , a n d w h e t h e r bet m e a n s c o u l d b e a d o p t e d f o r d e a l i n g w i t h such r i g h t s in resp of (a) (b) within 1923. . (7) T o Ordinance, difficulties whether involving Ordinance. Places at which heard" ' i
0 6

land already a l i e n a t e d ;

and

l a n d a l i e n a t e d in t h e f u t u r e . persons in the and of European descent the are White to have

(6) T o define t h e a r e a , g e n e r a l l y k n o w n as t h e Highlam which privileged position review 1930, that by any accordance working to of with the how arisen or Paper

Native any can

L a n d s Tn administrati best of be n with; the s;

consider have the

may

already

supplemental departure

legislation from

otherwise

principles

3 . I n o r d e r t h a t w e m i g h t h a v e t h e a d v a n t a g e of r e c e i v i n g ! t e s t i m o n y of r e t i r e d c i v i l s e r v a n t s a n d o t h e r p e r s o n s n o w reside E n g l a n d , w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e of K e n y a is of l o n g s t a n d i n g , it w arranged, with the Chairman for K e n y a . t h e c o n c u r r e n c e of t h e o t h e r C o m m i s s i o n e r s , t! before embarki should h e a r e v i d e n c e i n L o n d o n

T h i s e v i d e n c e w a s t a k e n b y h i m i n J u n e , 1932.

4 . W e a s s e m b l e d i n N a i r o b i o n 2 n d A u g u s t , 1 9 3 2 , and spt t h e n e x t t h r e e - a n d - a - h a l f m o n t h s i n v i s i t i n g t h e p r o v i n c e s in tin T h i s w a s d o n e w i t h t h e d o u b l e p u r p o s e of e n a b l i n g w i t n e s s e s re d e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e s t o a p p e a r b e f o r e us w i t h o u t t h e inconvenien of c o m i n g to N a i r o b i , a n d a l s o of a f f o r d i n g us a n opportunity s t u d y i n g s o m e of t h e l o c a l p r o b l e m s o n t h e s p o t . Announceinet i n t h e Official G a z e t t e a n d i n l o c a l n e w s p a p e r s g a v e t o t h e pub! n o t i f i c a t i o n of our sessions at v a r i o u s c e n t r e s a n d of o u r desire obtain evidence. T h e n u m b e r of p l a c e s a t w h i c h w e sat to lie e v i d e n c e i n t h e c o u r s e of o u r t o u r w a s f o r t y - t w o . 5. F r o m t h e 23rd N o v e m b e r u n t i l t h e e n d of F e b r u a r y i w e r e p r i n c i p a l l y e m p l o y e d in h e a r i n g e v i d e n c e f r o m n a t i v e s a i n o n - n a t i v e s i n N a i r o b i , b u t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w e a l s o visited t! C o a s t P r o v i n c e , t h e L e r o k i P l a t e a u , a n d v a r i o u s p a r t s of Kikuj T h e m o n t h of M a r c h w a s s p e n t p r i n c i p a l l y i n h e a r i n g t h e eviden of H e a d s of G o v e r n m e n t D e p a r t m e n t s , a n d t h e e n s u i n g tin m o n t h s w e r e d e v o t e d t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e r e p o r t a n d in taki supplementary evidence.

INTRODUCTION

(i. A l t o g e t h e r 736 w i t n e s s e s h a v e b e e n h e a r d a n d 507 m e m or- The number nda have b e e n p r e s e n t e d . f the witnesses e x a m i n e d on-natives. een recorded There eceived Of the latter I t m a y b e o f i n t e r e s t t o r e c o r d t h a t 487 have been natives a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r Government officials. have T h e great documents claims by 94 were

^nfSd.

N o t included i n t h e a b o v e list a r e 212 s t a t e m e n t s w h i c h by magistrates statements been also Kikuyn and forwarded are by natives. 400 l e t t e r s dealing with or other private t o us. lajprity of these have from

some

natives,

amities o r g r o u p s . I t will therefore be apparent that there has been n o lack of or public they agree of t h e literal on which t o w o r k . 7. M o s t o f t h e n a t i v e e v i d e n c e w a s t a k e n i n barazas ssemblies, a n d i t h a s a l w a y s embled n a t i v e s b e f o r e o what extent it]i t h e s t a t e m e n t s m a d e . eneral f e e l i n g been our practice t h e e n d o f t h e baraza expressed whether to ask the as

I n this w a y w e have been able to judge are representative

the opinions of t h e tribe.

8. I n a l l c a s e s t h e r e c o r d e d emoranda submitted by them

statements

of w i t n e s s e s a n d t h e copies) have been made

(or accurate

need o n t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d o f e v i d e n c e . or t h e f o l l o w i n g read reasons :

I n m o s t cases t h e y also

ppear i n t h e p r i n t e d v e r s i o n , e x c e p t i o n s b e i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y

( a ) I f t h e m e m o r a n d u m is a p r i n t e d d o c u m e n t a v a i l a b l e t o b e elsewhere. (li) I f t h e m e m o r a n d u m i s , i n o u r j u d g m e n t , t o o v o l u m i n o u s to b e p r i n t e d , regard b e i n g h a d to its value in c o n n e x i o n with our inquiry. (c) I f the witness lisheci, on has desired that t h e evidence that be not pub would be the ground its publication

against t h e public policy or interest. (d) I n t h e c a s e o f t h e Secretary's p r e c i s , p r e p a r e d b e f o r e t h e arrival of t h e C o m m i s s i o n , only a summary has been confidential reference printed, because t h e original contains extracts from p r o ceedings i n t h e E x e c u t i v e Council a n d other to t h e Secretary 9. A f u r t h e r I) go o voluminous exception of State. h a s been m a d e i n t h e case authorized of c l a i m s are far the pubmatter, w h i c h could n o t be published without

Kikuyu families

or groups. which

These, appears

taken collectively,

to be printed.

B u t w e have

Jralion tinted

of a s u m m a r y evidence.

at p p . 258 to 375 o f - t h e

INTRODUCTION

10. T h e but

evidence

of

all

witnesses

who

have

appeared

before

the Commission the evidence

in K e n y a taken

has b e e n

taken was

on o a t h or

affirmation, Chairmat

in L o n d o n

not, since the

h a d n o a u t h o r i t y to a d m i n i s t e r o a t h s in E n g l a n d . rection, and the in t h e case of any native witnesses

I t h a s been o r u

p r a c t i c e to s e n d t h e r e c o r d of h i s e v i d e n c e t o e a c h w i t n e s s for- cor t h e r e c o r d has beet been made. submitter us, ever sent t o t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r t o be c h e c k e d o v e r b y him will natives and 11. W e by persons such and though oath; necessary corrections have

have also taken who we have have not memoranda files,

cognizance able in to not

of m e m o r a n d a appear before cases been material

been

have

all of

affirmed r,t contained i


;

availed

ourselves

Government

printed books, maps and other documents. 0 m

o w n e x p e r i e n c e of t h e C o l o n y is c o n s i d e r a b l e , a n d w e h a v e regards, it as l e g i t i m a t e , a n d i n d e e d i n e v i t a b l e , t h a t w e should use it asr background A principle Recommend a - " ^ tion against which to test the rival merits of conflict:!:, statements and 12. A f t e r of the claims. o u r c o n c l u s i o n s o n t h e e v i d e n c e , w e !ia\ in the light of facts as t h e y exis

reaching

e n d e a v o u r e d to m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h o f f e r a p r a c t i c a l soli various problems to-day.

tioiio.
Arrangement
0 6

13. T h e

report

is d i v i d e d

into

three

parts.

The

first

part

d e v o t e d to t h e K i k u y u P r o v i n c e ; t h e s e c o n d t o t h e o t h e r province: a n d i n t h e t h i r d p a r t w e a t t e m p t a r e v i e w of t h e n a t i v e l a n d pro! lems as a w h o l e . 14. T h e that case, we but A chapter part. w h i c h sets t h e K i k u y u to of the needs of Provim on the definition of the Highland is a l s o i n c l u d e d in this

above arrangement, more importance degree

in o n e p a r t a n d all t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s in a n o t h e r p a r t , m a y sug^ei attach the the Kikuyu i T h i s is not tli to w h i c h tlii r e s p e c t o f l a n d t h a n to t h e n e e d s of o t h e r t r i b e s . exceptional individualism

t r i b e has a t t a i n e d in its c o n c e p t i o n s of l a n d h o l d i n g . in conjunct!! w i t h o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s wdiich w e shall e x p l a i n , h a v e renderedtli just and settlement have of the K i k u y u land problems especially detail than intricate has bee demanded examination in g r e a t e r

necessary for other tribes. 15. Tn part claims grounds regarding pastoral our examination arrangement on historical or f u t u r e tribes system of by provinces which In and in we have for winch the inn rest o

a d o p t e d an asserted of the

we review those each

s e p a r a t e l y tl

grounds needs. we of have, land

present

r e a c h i n g o u r conclusio case, taken in: that t!

several and

a c c o u n t t h e s t a t e of a d v a n c e m e n t practice

of t h e t r i b e , i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l ai tenure. Tn o r d e r

300
INTRODUCTION
reasons f o r o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a y b e a p p r e c i a t e d w e h a v e i n cluded a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n of e a c h t r i b e in these r e s p e c t s . W e a l s o i n c l u d e s e c t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h e x c h a n g e s , diustments, and special cases. 16. I n t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y in the f i n a l p a r t of o u r B e p o r t w e e n l a r g e t h e s c o p e of o u r i n q u i r y a n d c o n s i d e r h o w t h e tribal l a n d s m a y b e s t b e s a f e g u a r d e d in t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e o c c u p a n t tribes; h o w they m a y be conserved against m i s u s e ; h o w they m a y je e x t e n d e d if n e e d s h o u l d a r i s e ; h o w p r o t e c t i o n m a y b e s t b e g i v e n to t h e p r i v a t e r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s , or g r o u p s ; a n d , finally, w h a t p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d b e m a d e f o r n a t i v e s w h o have emerged f r o m a tribal state and w i s h to hold land on s o m e m o r e dividual f o r m of t e n u r e t h a n is p o s s i b l e t o t h e m in t h e r e s e r v e s . 17. A s m a l l p o i n t h a s to b e m e n t i o n e d in r e g a r d to t h e s p e l l ing of n a t i v e n a m e s . T h e r e a r e s o m e n a m e s w h i c h a r e c o m m o n l y pelt in a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t w a y s : e . g . , L i m u r u , L i m o r u , a n d L a m u r u ; K i a m b u a n d K y a m b u ; Dagoretti and D a g o r e t i . I n t h e s e cases w e h a v e a d o p t e d a u n i f o r m s p e l l i n g , e v e n w h e n q u o t i n g f r o m m e m o r a n d a of w i t n e s s e s w h o m a y h a v e s p e l t t h e w o r d in a d i f f e r e n t way. T h e s a m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n a p p l i e s to n a t i v e n a m e s s t a t e d in the p l u r a l , a n d w e find v a r i o u s l y t h e A k a m b a , t h e Wakamba, t h e Awakamba and the K a m b a . I n these cases w e h a v e f o l l o w e d t h e practice of g i v i n g t h e r o o t w o r d s i m p l y : t h e K a m b a , t h e D o r o b o , She M a s a i , e t c . , b u t w e h a v e m a d e an e x c e p t i o n in t h e c a s e of t h e [word githaka, w h e r e w e s h o w githaka in the s i n g u l a r a n d ithaka a the plural. T h e r e are a f e w cases w h e r e a w r o n g s p e l l i n g has [ b e c o m e h a l l o w e d b y u s a g e , e.g., K a p i t i , w h i c h d e r i v e s its n a m e r o m the K a p u t i e i s e c t i o n of t h e M a s a i . W e u s e t h e first s p e l l i n g [in r e f e r e n c e to t h e p l a c e a n d t h e l a t t e r in r e f e r e n c e to t h e p e o p l e . [These s m a l l p o i n t s o u g h t , p e r h a p s , t o b e m e n t i o n e d . 18. W e h a v e b e e n g r e a t l y assisted in our -y ^'
P v l n g

jj

0 f

"

Ivith

which

witnesses

of

all

races

have
which

task

by

the

readiness to

Acknowlcdg
m e n

come

forward

give
We us we Mr. also have

"

vidence, and the careful b m e m b e r s of y e also m o s t Jry t h e officers een asked. grateful of the in

memoranda the help

which have been has been for

submitted

t h e joublic a n d b y G o v e r n m e n t for Land and Survey

departments. afforded who which

Departments

indefatigable

supplying

all the

information

Bfiave

I n this c o n n e x i o n w e expressly desire

to

mention We are the

3. E . M o r t i m e r , o f t h e L a n d D e p a r t m e n t , a n d M r . E . J . nd M r . C. G . E a n n i n , of t h e should and Survey Department. lost g r a t e f u l to the S u r v e y o r G e n e r a l

Gosden

ices of h i s staff uaps a n d p l a n s , fhat


exacting

to

be

for

arranging

a v a i l a b l e t o us

Mr.

F.

for

that

ser
of

the preparation the

W.

Knightly,

Government some

Winter, a n d h i s staff, for

f u l f i l l i n g so a b l y a n d w i l l i n g l y our

requirements.

INTRODUCTION

19.

I t is a s o u r c e of r e g r e t t o u s t h a t , e v e n i n so l o n g a report

w e h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e t o d o f u l l j u s t i c e t o all t h e w e a l t h o f material that has b e e n placed at our c o m m a n d , a n d w e w i s h to invite t e h particular attention of Government stand in to the many able a n d most useful, m e m o r a n d a 20. W e our which evidence.

d e s i r e t o p l a c e o n r e c o r d o u r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e wort Mr. our S. H . task Fazan, without would have been whose even ability more and nn

d o n e b y t h e m e m b e r s o f o u r staff, a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e services oi Secretary, industry tiring protracted

than has been the case. T h e p r e c i s w h i c h h e p r e p a r e d p r i o r t o o u r a s s e m b l i n g were oi t h e g r e a t e s t a s s i s t a n c e i n h e l p i n g u s to o b t a i n a g r a s p of t h e prob l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g u s , a n d h i s w o r k i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e draftinj of t h e report has been invaluable. H e w a s p e c u l i a r l y fitted f o r t h e w o r k of S e c r e t a r y b y h i s knew, l e d g e of l a n d p r o b l e m s i n g e n e r a l a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r of those is K i k u y u , of b o t h o f w h i c h h e h a s m a d e a c l o s e s t u d y . W e a l s o w i s h t o e x p r e s s g r a t i t u d e t o M r . J . F . G . Troughtor f o r h i s a b l e s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e f o u r m o n t h s i n w h i c h h e acted a. A s s i s t a n t S e c r e t a r y . H e d i s p l a y e d g r e a t e n e r g y a n d c a p a b i l i t y , and t h e w o r k w h i c h h e d i d i n c o l l a t i n g m a t e r i a l f o r t h e p r e p a r a t i o n oi t h e second p a r t of t h e report w a s m o s t v a l u a b l e . 21. I n c o n c l u s i o n w e w i s h t o e x p r e s s o u r g r a t i t u d e for thi m o s t g e n e r o u s h o s p i t a l i t y w h i c h w e h a v e r e c e i v e d o n a l l sides.

Classification of L a n d s
(A preliminary statement.) 2 2 . T h e r e is a p r e l i m i n a r y p o i n t w h i c h w e w i s h t o m a k e c l e a r . B i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e c h a p t e r s w h i c h f o l l o w w e s h a l l s o m e t i m e s have o c c a s i o n t o r e c o m m e n d t h a t a d d i t i o n s b e m a d e t o n a t i v e reserves. I n such c a s e s w e shall d r a w a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n l a n d which w e r e c o m m e n d t o b e a d d e d i n s a t i s f a c t i o n of a c l a i m o f r i " h t based o n h i s t o r i c a l g r o u n d s o r o n p r e s e n t a n d c o n t i n u o u s u s e , and l a n d w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d t o b e a d d e d t o s a t i s f y e c o n o m i c needs. F o r e a s e of r e f e r e n c e w e s h a l l a l l u d e t o t h e first c l a s s as A , and t h e s e c o n d as B , a n d in t h e t h i r d p a r t of o u r R e p o r t w e shall make c l e a r t h e s a f e g u a r d s a n d s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t o w h i c h , in o u r opinion, the g r a n t s u n d e r e a c h class o u g h t to be subject. 23. C l a s s B w e s h a l l d i v i d e i n t o B I a n d B 2 , t h e f o r m e r b e i n g land w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d t o be a d d e d b e c a u s e t h e t r i b e a p p e a r s likely t o h a v e p e r m a n e n t n e e d o f i t , a n d t h e l a t t e r b e i n g l a n d ivhich w e r e c o m m e n d t o b e a d d e d t o f u l f i l a n e e d w h i c h a p p e a r s to be of a m o r e t e m p o r a r y c h a r a c t e r . T h e n a t u r e of t h e s e c u r i t y which w e r e c o m m e n d t o b e p r o v i d e d i n e a c h c a s e w i l l b e m a d e :lear i n P a r t I I I . 24. T h e r e is a t h i r d c l a s s o f l a n d in w h i c h w e s h a l l r e c o m mend s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r n a t i v e s , b u t n o t o n t r i b a l l i n e s . T o t h i s :lass of l a n d w e r e f e r as C l a s s C , a n d w e s h a l l r e c o m m e n d t h a t the n o r m a l m e t h o d o f t e n u r e s h a l l b e b y l e a s e . 25. O c c a s i o n a l l y a r e f e r e n c e w i l l b e f o u n d t o " C l a s s D . " . This s l a n d i n w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t n o s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e of r a c e should o b t a i n i n r e s p e c t e i t h e r of i n i t i a l g r a n t s or t r a n s f e r s . Class D svould in effect b e a l l t h e l a n d i n t h e c o u n t r y w h i c h is n e i t h e r existing n a t i v e r e s e r v e n o r A , B o r C , n o r E u r o p e a n h i g h l a n d s , w r an a r e a , such as T u r k a n a j i n w h i c h c e r t a i n n a t i v e t r i b e s h a v e special, t h o u g h n o t e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s . 2 6 . A l t h o u g h w e s h a l l find i t c o n v e n i e n t , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of -lie R e p o r t , t o r e f e r t o t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s h e r e d e s c r i b e d as A , 3. C or D , as t h e c a s e m a y b e , w e s h a l l , t o w a r d s t h e e n d of o u r Report, p r o p o s e m o r e s u i t a b l e d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r t h e m .

P A R T THE KIKUYU

I PROVINCE

INTRODUCTION. 27. I n the first fifteen c h a p t e r s of t h i s p a r t w e s h a l l d e a l W h e n e v e r such or the Kikuyu be should with the l a n d p r o b l e m s of t h e t h r e e d i s t r i c t s of K i k u y u p r o p e r , South N y e r i , F o r t H a l l a n d K i a m b u . as K i k u y u l a n d , heserves occur the in Kikuyu these country, chapters, namely, or to and

expressions Reserve

they

understood Meru.

relate t o t h e K i k u y u

p r o p e r l y so c a l l e d , i n c l u s i v e of t h e N d i a

Kichugu sections, but e x c l u d i n g the E m b u and the lems of final the E m b u of with and Meru we

28. I n the s i x t e e n t h c h a p t e r w e shall deal w i t h t h e l a n d p r o b tribes, and in t h e s e v e n t e e n t h shall consider and certain problems Township Commonage, and in since chapter this the Part

connexion

Nairobi

N a i r o b i is o f f i c i a l l y p a r t of t h e K i k u y u

Province.

2 9 . T h e n a t i v e l a n d p r o b l e m s of t h e N o r t h N y e r i D i s t r i c t b e a r relation t o t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r r a t h e r t h a n t o t h e K i k u y u Province, and w i l l t h e r e f o r e be held o v e r for discussion i n P a r t I I .

CHAPTER
PRELIMINARY AND OF OBSERVATIONS FACTORS KIKUYU THE

I.
ON IN T H E THE PRINCIPLES MATTER

GOVERNING-

CLAIMS.

3 0 . W e t h i n k t h a t i t w o u l d b e w e l l at t h e o u t s e t t o s t a t e clearly t h e p r i n c i p l e s a n d e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n o u r o p i n i o n are of i m p o r t a n c e i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e K i k u y u c l a i m s . ( 1 ) I f a t r i b e h a s suffered l o s s t h r o u g h a l i e n a t i o n of p a r t of i t s t e r r i t o r y , i t is i n e q u i t y e n t i t l e d t o b e c o m p e n s a t e d . But t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n m i g h t p r o p e r l y b e a s s e s s e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e e x t e n t of t h e t r u e l o s s s u s t a i n e d , t h a t i s t o s a y , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d e g r e e of u s e w h i c h w a s m a d e of t h e l a n d a n d t h e p u r p o s e w h i c h it s e r v e d , w h e t h e r a t t h e t i m e of t h e a l i e n a t i o n or as a r e a s o n a b l e r e s e r v a t i o n f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . We cannot accept the principle t h a t , because a tribe has lost l a n d , it is n e c e s s a r i l y a n d o f r i g h t e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e e q u a l or e q u i v a l e n t l a n d e l s e w h e r e , i r r e s p e c t i v e l y of t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Argument.It is a p r o p e r f u n c t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t t o s e c u r e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of l a n d t o t h e b e s t a d v a n t a g e . W h i l e p r i v a t e r i g h t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d , a p o w e r of i n t e r v e n t i o n is c o m m o n l y p r e s e r v e d t o t h e C r o w n b y m e a n s of land acquisition acts and similar legislation, i n order that t h e p o w e r of G o v e r n m e n t t o s e c u r e a p r o p e r d e v e l o p m e n t should n o t be i m p a i r e d . If therefore t h e p o s s e s s i o n of large undeveloped t r a c t s of l a n d b y a n y t r i b e , p e r s o n or c l a s s is p r e j u d i c i a l to t h e w e l f a r e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of a c o u n t r y , i t w o u l d b e a p r o p e r e x e r c i s e o f t h e f u n c t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t , w h e n it has a r m e d itself w i t h the necessary p o w e r s , t o i n t e r v e n e a n d adjust t h e m a t t e r . T h e j u s t c o m p e n s a t i o n is f o r t h e e x t e n t of t h e t r u e loss s u s t a i n e d , a n d i t w o u l d d e f e a t t h e w h o l e p u r p o s e o f t h e a c t i o n if i t w e r e h e l d t h a t f o r e v e r y p i e c e of l a n d t a k e n a n e q u a l p i e c e m u s t b e a d d e d . T h a t t h e G o v e r n m e n t in this c o u n t r y m a y some times h a v e taken action before it had provided itself w i t h full l e g a l c o v e r d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e e s s e n t i a l e q u i t y of t h e c a s e as b e t w e e n t h e C r o w n a n d t h e n a t i v e , w h i c h is s i m p l y a m a t t e r of a s s e s s i n g an e q u i v a l e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e e x t e n t of t h e t r u e loss sustained. (2) T h e l a n d o u g h t t o be a c c o u n t e d fully used if t h e p o p u l a t i o n , r e g a r d b e i n g h a d t o t h e d e g r e e of i t s s k i l l a n d i t s m o d e of l i f e , w a s l i v i n g a t o r b e y o n d t h e o p t i m u m d e n s i t y .

KIKTJYTJ PART ICHAPTER i]

PROVINCE CERTAIN G U I D I N G PRINCIM,E


S

W h e r e s u c h c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l , t h e t r i b e is e n t i t l e d to be cum. p e n s a t e d u p t o t h e f u l l v a l u e o f a n y of i t s l a n d w h i c h is taken. B u t t h e g r e a t e r t h e m a r g i n b y w h i c h t h e p o p u l a t i o n falls shot! of t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t , t h e g r e a t e r i s t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n of Govern m e n t for r e g a r d i n g u n o c c u p i e d l a n d as w a s t e l a n d of which it h a d t h e r i g h t a n d d u t y t o m a k e d i s p o s a l in t h e w a y which it d e e m e d b e s t f o r t h e c o u n t r y at l a r g e . I n such case compensa t i o n m i g h t j u s t l y b e assessed o n t h e e x t e n t of t h e useful pur p o s e s w h i c h t h e l a n d s e r v e d a n d n o t o n t h e e x t e n t of t h e land I f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w e r e v e r y s p a r s e it m i g h t w e l l b e held thai c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a s c o u l d b e a l i e n a t e d w i t h o u t c a u s i n g any los* b e y o n d a c e r t a i n loss of a m e n i t i e s . Argument.It is c l e a r t h a t o n o c c a s i o n Government h a v e a c t e d o n t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e b a s i s o f compensator, s h o u l d b e t h e v a l u e w h i c h t h e l a n d p o s s e s s e d for th p e r s o n f r o m w h o m i t w a s t a k e n , r e g a r d b e i n g h a d to th p u r p o s e f o r w h i c h h e w a s u s i n g i t . W e m a y c i t e (thou;;! w e d o n o t w i s h t o b e t a k e n as e x p r e s s i n g a n opinion oi t h e e q u i t y of such a c t i o n in t h e case of p r i v a t e land o w n e r s ) t h e p r o c e d u r e u n d e r t h e C o n g e s t e d D i s t r i c t Act in S c o t l a n d a n d I r e l a n d b y w h i c h s m a l l h o l d i n g s wei c a r v e d f r o m t h e m o o r l a n d s o f l a r g e l a n d o w n e r s o n nomina c o m p e n s a t i o n , o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e l a n d w a s in exees of r e a s o n a b l e r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d t h a t all t h a t h a d occurre w a s a t r i f l i n g l o s s of a m e n i t i e s . A l t h o u g h t h e s e t w o p r i n c i p l e s , if w*e h a d a d h e r e d to them would h a v e provided justification for giving t h e K i k u y u sub s t a n t i a l l y l e s s t h a n a n e q u i v a l e n t a r e a f o r t h e l a n d l o s t , yet i t h e s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e a l i e n a t i o n s an which are of described below, that we we determined that it would h m o r e in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d i c t a t e s of t h e p o s i t i o n aud th interests the K i k u y u should a g r e e t o s e t t l e thei equivalent c l a i m s of r i g h t b y a d d i n g t o t h e r e s e r v e a n a r e a t h e t o t a l e x t e n t of t h e i r losses.

(3) B r o a d l y r e g a r d e d , t h e e x t e n t of n a t i v e occupation t h e P o r t H a l l D i s t r i c t b o t h before and after the famine 189S-99 m u s t b e h e l d to h a v e b e e n e q u a l to or p o s s i b l y beyoin t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of o p t i m u m - d e n s i t y w i t h i n t h e area whicl w e shall describe as u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y . I n tli K i a m b u d i s t r i c t , a n d p o s s i b l y a l s o i n t h e N y e r i d i s t r i c t , tl e x t e n t of n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n w a s b e l o w t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s t h e t i m e w h e n t h e a l i e n a t i o n s t o o k p l a c e . B u t t h e amount l a n d r e q u i r e d f o r r e a s o n a b l e e x p a n s i o n , a n d t h e far-reachiii e f f e c t o f E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t i n d r a w i n g p o p u l a t i o n toward t h e m a i n c e n t r e s w e r e h a r d l y t o b e f o r e s e e n , a n d in our opinio

K I K U Y U HUT I C J I A P T E B I]

PROVINCE CERTAIN G U I D I N G PRINCIPLES

adequate provision was not m a d e . able that a claim a s of

W e therefore t h i n k it equit of

right should be allowed in respect

the l a n d l o s t in t h e s e t w o d i s t r i c t s , w h i c h w a s , h o w e v e r , in a great measure discharged w h e n the N d e i y a and M w e a were m a d e available for occupation by t h e Kikuyu. districts

Argument.Section (57 in C h a p t e r I I shows the p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s as t h e y s t o o d in 1902 as n e a r l y as c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d . C o m p a r e d w i t h t h e a r e a w h i c h w e have found t o h a v e been u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u territory at 1 he t i m e , t h e d e n s i t y in t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y , o v e r a l l . appears to h a v e been in the neighbourhood of 250 to t h e s q u a r e m i l e , a n d in t h e K i a m b n d i s t r i c t a b o u t 150 to t h e s q u a r e m i l e , t h o u g h i n t h e a r e a s w h i c h w e r e a l i e n a t e d it w a s less t h a n h a l f t h a t d e n s i t y ( s e e s e c t i o n 3 1 8 ) . M r . A i n s w o r t h , the Provincial Commissioner, Ukamba, w r o t e in t h a t y e a r a l e t t e r t o t h e A c t i n g C o m m i s s i o n e r d a t e d 2 2 n d S e p t e m b e r , 1902 : " I n t r a v e l l i n g through the K i k u y u country south of the T h i k a , the m a i n point that strikes the traveller i s t h e s p a r s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e l a r g e a r e a s of g o o d land uncultivated. without in It is very evident unduly indeed that in t h e r e is a m p l e r o o m f o r v e r y e x t e n s i v e s e t t l e m e n t the country on native (4) T h e density white of in a n y w a y occupation." the K i a m b u not in district increased the the of a of only by restricting the establishment Better

encroaching"

alienations

the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , which and resulted market

a r e a , but a l s o in o t h e r w a y s . settlement town considerable

T h e y w e r e p a r t of t h e p o l i c y at N a i r o b i . : their food requirements for the market, a

transport,

better health conditions and better markets have had a great effect o n t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n (a) Instead of g r o w i n g now for grow

only,

the natives

procedure

which requires m o r e industry and m o r e land, except i n so f a r as t h e r e h a s b e e n a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e i r skill i n (b) The kept in husbandry. increase by of the population it w a s in of formerly Nairobi Kikuyu has not subject. settlers has other markets from the been check the periodic visitations of disease natural

and f a m i n e (c) T h e m o n e y oi' by attracted

to which

to be m a d e either by w o r k i n g for produce numbers large

selling

districts into K i a m b u

district.

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER I]

PROVINCE CERTAIN G U I D I N G PiiiNcmt

While

it w o u l d

be ridiculous for

the Kikuyu

t o make

g r i e v a n c e o u t of c i r c u m s t a n c e s f r o m w h i c h t h e y h a v e bencfite so g r e a t l y , n e v e r t h e l e s s a g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n an its l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s has t a k e n problems become of local congestion perhaps general and p l a c e as a c o n s e q u e n c e , an. arising in which next threaten t, generation the are

acute

G o v e r n m e n t r e c o g n i z e s a n o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e need o f t h e n a t i v e s , a n d w e h a v e t o d e a l w i t h t h i s p r o b l e m nude t h e first t e r m of reference. ( 5 ) W h i l e b l o c k a d d i t i o n s t o t h e r e s e r v e a r e n o t the onl o r n e c e s s a r i l y t h e b e s t w a y o f d e a l i n g w i t h c o n g e s t i o n proi l e m s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i f l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e , w e r e g a r d it as ex p e d i e n t , in o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l e r e s e r v a t i o n for ex pan s i o n as m e n t i o n e d in p a r a g r a p h ( 3 ) a b o v e , a n d to c o n v i n c e th K i k u y u of G o v e r n m e n t s d e s i r e t o d i s c h a r g e all m o r a l obliga t i o n s w h i c h c a n p o s s i b l y b e c o n s i d e r e d t o e x i s t t o w a r d s them t h a t a " p r o f i t a n d l o s s " a c c o u n t s h o u l d b e m a d e setting oi t h e a r e a s of " u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y " w h i c h h a v e bee: t a k e n a w a y a g a i n s t t h e a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s w h i c h h a v e beei g r a n t e d , a n d t h a t b l o c k a d d i t i o n s s h o u l d b e m a d e t o t h e resen e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e b a l a n c e of t h e K i k u y u l o s s e s . (6) A l t h o u g h w e h a v e d r a w n t h e b o u n d a r y of unequivoca K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y i n s u c h a w a y as t o i n c l u d e m u c h debatabl g r o u n d , w e s h a l l h a v e t o c o n s i d e r i s o l a t e d c a s e s of village b u i l t b y i n d i v i d u a l K i k u y u f a m i l i e s w h o h a d v e n t u r e d beyon t h e c o n f i n e s of t h e t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y a n d h a v e to b e r e g a r d e d a d i s c o n n e c t e d o u t p o s t s . I n s o m e c a s e s , a s , f o r i n s t a n c e , in th L a r i a r e a , a c c o u n t h a s b e e n t a k e n of such i s o l a t e d occupatioi i n r e a c h i n g o u r a s s e s s m e n t , b u t it h a s n a t u r a l l y n o t been po s i b l e t o i n c l u d e e v e r y v i l l a g e i n o u r r e c k o n i n g , and nior. e s p e c i a l l y o n t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n b o r d e r t h e r e w e r e several smal c l e a r i n g s i n t h e b u s h f o r w d i i c h w e h a v e n o t m a d e specific allow ance. W e d o n o t c o n s i d e r i t p r a c t i c a b l e t o d o s o , but w r e c o m m e n d t h a t , as f a r as a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e t r i b e at larg, i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e q u e s t i o n s h o u l d b e m e r g e d i n t h e w i d e r pro!) l e m w i t h w h i c h w e d e a l u n d e r t h e first t e r m o f reference n a m e l y t h e d u t y of m a k i n g a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n f o r f u t u r e need; T h e s e c l e a r i n g s in t h e f o r e s t w e r e t h e m e t h o d b y w h i c h th; t r i b e e x p a n d e d a n d , i f w e c a n offer o t h e r m e a n s o f expansion the t r i b e w i l l b e a d e q u a t e l y c o m p e n s a t e d in this respect. ( 7 ) A s e t t l e m e n t o n t r i b a l l i n e s m a y n o t b e e n o u g h . Tli, i n t e r e s t s of p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p s or f a m i l i e s w h o h a v e lost lan! h a v e a l s o t o be c o n s i d e r e d . C h a p t e r s V I I t o X a r e devoted t c t h i s a s p e c t of t h e K i k u y u c l a i m s a n d w e h a v e m a d e such pro p o s a l s as w e c o n s i d e r t o b e j u s t a n d p r a c t i c a b l e a t this date

K I K U Y U 'AHT I C H A P T E R I]

PROVINCE CERTAIN G U I D I N G PRINCIPLES

W e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t p r o p o s e d is j u s t b o t h t o t h e tribe and to the i n d i v i d u a l s w h o c o m p o s e it. I n order to satisfy ourselves o n this p o i n t w e h a v e m a d e an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e general nature of the p r i v a t e c l a i m s and the basis on w h i c h they rest, but w e are fully persuaded that w e are n o t required under o u r t e r m s o f r e f e r e n c e t o c a r r y o u r i n q u i r i e s b e y o n d t h i s necessary p o i n t , and w e h a v e not d o n e so. 31. I t w i l l n o w b e r e l e v a n t t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t areas should be

Regarded as h a v i n g b e e n " u n e q u i v o c a l I v i k u y u t e r r i t o r y . " T h e Bext f o u r c h a p t e r s w i l l b e d e v o t e d t o d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n a s fit existed w h e n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s d e c l a r e d , b u t w e shall n o t Begard a b s o l u t e l y e v e r y t h i n g w h i c h h a s b e e n a d d e d s i n c e t h a t d a t e I s a gift by G o v e r n m e n t . A t r a d i t i o n a l m e t h o d o f e x t e n d i n g t e r r i Bory e x i s t e d b y first c l e a r i n g a n d u s e , a n d w e shall a l l o w t h a t c e r t a i n Band was a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e d i n t h a t m a n n e r , e x c e p t t h a t i n c e r t a i n Breas, w h e r e officers of t h e F o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t w e r e a c t i v e l y e m Bloyed a f t e r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t i n 1 9 0 2 , w e s h a l l n o t
B^cognize s u c h a c q u i s i t i o n a f t e r t h a t d a t e , n o r s h a l l w e r e c o g n i z e B e l s e w h e r e after d e f i n i t e a r e a s w e r e d e m a i c a t e d a s f o r e s t r e s e r v e .
-

CHAPTER
CONDITIONS AND ON THE (Together with OBTAINING ITS IN

II.
THE KIKUYU TIME COUNT WHEN

BORDERS

AT

T H E

PROTECTORATE some incidental notes

WAS on

DECLARED. subsequent development

until

1902.)

3 2 . A l l e a r l y a c c o u n t s of t h e K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y a g r e e in sta The Existence cf a Forest t h a t it w a s s u r r o u n d e d b y a b e l t of f o r e s t of v a r y i n g w i d t h whit Belt surround ing the K i k u y u s e r v e d t o p r o t e c t t h e t r i b e a g a i n s t i t s e n e m i e s . T h e y f u r t h e r agre t h a t t h e K i k u y u did n o t v e n t u r e o u t s i d e t h i s b e l t t o b u i l d or cult country. v a t e or g r a z e t h e i r c a t t l e b e y o n d it u n t i l t h e M a s a i p o w e r bega s e r i o u s l y to w a n e , o w i n g t o i n t e r n e c i n e w a r a n d t h e tremendoti l o s s e s of t h e i r c a t t l e b y d i s e a s e a n d u n t i l t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e had bee declared. T h e l a n d m a y t h e r e f o r e b e s a i d , b r o a d l y speaking h a v e h a d tw-o f r o n t i e r s t h e o u t s i d e a n d t h e i n s i d e of t h e fore; b e l t , a n d it w i l l p r o b a b l y b e a f a i r d i s t i n c t i o n t o r e g a r d all t! l a n d i n s i d e t h e b e l t as h a v i n g b e e n a t t h a t t i m e "unequivoc; K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y " and the belt itself as h a v i n g been "partially intermittently- used by t h e K i k u y u . "
:

3 3 . A s e r i e s of e x t r a c t s f r o m p u b l i s h e d w o r k s w i l l be foiia i n A p p e n d i x N o . 1, s e c t i o n (a). A p e r u s a l of t h e s e e x t r a c t s show q u i t e c l e a r l y t h a t t h e c o u n t r y t h e n o c c u p i e d b y t h e K i k u y u was f a c t s u r r o u n d e d b y such a b e l t of f o r e s t . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g its esac p o s i t i o n , it w i l l b e w e l l to d i s p o s e of t h r e e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h : concerning it, namely : from the ( I ) W e r e t h e M a s a i a n d o t h e r t r i b e s e n t i r e l y exclude a l l u s e of t h e l a n d s u r r o u n d e d b y t h e f o r e s t b e l t ? (2) W e r e land the Kikuyu it? entirely- e x c l u d e d from t h e use i outside

( 3 ) I s t h e b e l t i t s e l f t o b e r e g a r d e d as K i k u y u couiitn T o whtit- e x t e n t c o u l d t h e K i k u y u m a k e f r e e a n d unfettered u of i t ? E x t e n t of Penetration or occupation by Masai 01 other Tribes in.o the area surround od by the Forest Belt. 3 4 . I n t h i s c o n n & v o n w e h a v e t o c o n s i d e r : (a) D o r o b o ; (I M a s a i ; a n d (c) K a m b a . T h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n b e f o r e t h e Kikuy L a n d T e n u r e C o m m i t t e e as w e l l as h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n before t!ii C o m m i s s i o n m a k e s i t c l e a r t h a t v e r y f e w , if a n y . D o r o b o wet l i v i n g in t h e P o r t H a l l or N y e r i D i s t r i c t s at t h i s t i m e . B u t the i n h a b i t e d t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t b e f o r e t h e a r r i v a l of t h e Kikuvti w h o p r o g r e s s i v e l y s u p e r s e d e d thejn a n d b e c a m e m a s t e r s of tli l a n d b y a s e r i e s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s in w h i c h t h e p a y m e n t of goat sometimes played a part. Some t h e s e " s a l e s " a p p e a r to hav t a k e n p l a c e a s m u c h as e i g h t y y e a r s a g o , b u t m a n y o t h e r s are

K I K U Y U l'.\iiT I - C H A P T E R II]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS FROM 1895 TO 1902

There ltior e r e c e n t d a t e a n d s i n c e t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s d e c l a r e d . Iias a l s o b e e n e v i d e n c e t h a t s o m e of t h e e a r l i e r p a y m e n t s t o t h e ll)orobo, m a d e b e f o r e t h a t d a t e , w e r e s u p p l e m e n t e d b y a l a t e r p a y erit m a d e le K i k u y u oil e v e n in afterwards. were their now not in own turn The position i n 1S95 t h e r e f o r e exclusive were was that the many Von all c a s e s t h e country. possessors of

There

undoubtedly by

orobo w h o r e t a i n e d r i g h t s of v a r i o u s k i n d s . 35. W e to the M a s a i . The account g i v e n o l m e l ( T e l e k i , p . 2 8 8 , et seq.) i'honison's netration ccupied by book, into the in "Through the part of m a k e s it clear t h a t they Masailand", the forest Africa", p. 308, was K.E. regarded 1883, time that

n e n t r y i n t o t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y as a v e r y f o r m i d a b l e

proposition.

period at that out

ihows c l e a r l y t h a t t h e M a s a i n e v e r s u c c e e d e d i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s a t which p. I l l ) Kikuyu. British Major East MacDonald, ("Soldiering

nd S u r v e y i n g

points

aptain L u g a r d i n 1 8 9 i d e c i d e d a g a i n s t m a k i n g h i s s t a t i o n a t F o r t mith b e c a u s e t h e M a s a i " c o u l d hardly venture to visit a effect. station have the m i d s t of t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y e n e m i e s . " ^ven p e r s o n a l t e s t i m o n y t o t h e s a m e Several witnesses

36. W h i l e t h e r e is n o serious e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h e p r o p o s i t i o n at t h e K i k u y u w e r e r e a s o n a b l y s e c u r e b e h i n d t h e i r f o r e s t b o u n d ies a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h e m s e l v e s a l o o f f r o m t h e M a s a i , t h e r e a r e me e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s a l l e g e d w h i c h r e q u i r e n o t i c e . Statements ve b e e n m a d e i n e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e M a s a i : (1) T o o k their cattle t o t h e salt-lick at t h e T h a t h i n i S w a m p , w h i c h w a s o n t h e i n n e r e d g e of t h e f o r e s t b e l t . (2) D r o v e their cattle f r o m the K a p i t i P l a i n s K i n a n g o p across w h a t is n o w t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y . to the

( 3 ) B u i l t manyattas, of w h i c h r e m a i n s e x i s t o n Mr. M a c L e l l a n W i l s o n ' s farm w h i c h is inside the forest belt, and o n t h e C h u r c h of S c o t l a n d M i s s i o n l a n d at K i k u y u a n d e l s e where. 37. T h e first of t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s r e s t s o n t h e e v i d e n c e of iacLellan W i l s o n , w h i c h is s u p p o r t e d b y t h e e v i d e n c e of id M a s a i witnesses; but correspondence preserved on e N o . 346/21/13 s h o w s t h a t M r . I s a a c , P r o v i n c i a l Mr. Swahili Kiambu had 1, of

Commissioner, never

uired i n t o t h i s m a t t e r in 1 9 1 3 , a n d t h a t a n o l d M a s a i w h o ed n e a r T h a t h i n i a d m i t t e d t h a t i t w a s a K i k u y u s a l t - l i c k , d by the M a s a i e x c e p t tion (/i). occasionally in a r a i d (see Appendix

T h e s e c o n d s t a t e m e n t is b a s e d o n t h e m e m o r a n d u m

onel J o h n A i n s w o r t h , t h e r e b e i n g s o m e s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e b y lasai n a m e d S a y e t O l e N a g i l a , a n d s o m e e v i d e n c e of a s o m e w h a t trary effect by Mr. Knapp and Canon Leakey. The evidence ;

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER II]

PROVINCE C O N D I T I O N S PROM 1895 TO lgrs

regarding

the

r e m a i n s of

Masai

nianyaitas

in Kikuyu

country i,

b y M r . M a c L e l l a n W i l s o n , D r . A r t h u r , M r . B l o c k , B r o t h e r Solanu Zipper, M r . M c Q u e e n and others. 38. W e b e l i e v e t h a t M r . M a c L e l l a n W i l s o n ' s v i e w s a r e correct to the extent :at t h e t i m e o f the Kikuyu 39. T h e
-

that T h a t h i n i

was formerly

a s a l t - l i c k used by tin

M a s a i ; b u t w e a r e of o p i n i o n t h a t it h a d b e e n a b a n d o n e d b y then t h e c a t t l e p l a g u e s a n d t h e i r i n t e r - t r i b a l w a r s , an mentioned when by Colonel Ainsworth He was not i; used fo after th t h e r e a f t e r h a d t h e u s e of i t . track h e s a w it in became 1898. Laibon r e g a r d e d it as

ase very

by

the M a s a i years before

old

track, and had, been told that Lenana

it had not been "because

many the

K i k u y u b e g a n to m o v e s o u t h of t h e C h a n i a t h e r e w a s t r o u b l e wit! Kikuyu.'' Since T h o m s o n in 1 8 8 4 r e c o r d e d t h e s o u t h e r n limr of the K i k u y u as b e i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f N g o n g o B a g a s , it is clea: -that if t h e K i k u y u h a d n o t y e t c r o s s e d t h e C h a n i a w h e n t h a t trac! w a s m a d e , it m u s t h a v e b e e n a v e r y o l d t r a c k indeed.

4 0 . M r . K n a p p r e f e r s t o i t i n h i s e v i d e n c e a n d s t a t e s that a: inquiry mining was held whether the in Nairobi concerning had ever it with a view t o deter this c o u n t r y been used b y but t h e Masai that on or. throne

T h e K i k u y u s t o r y a d v a n c e d at t h e i n q u i r y , a c c o r d i n g t o M r . Knap[ was that track was really a Kikuyu track o c c a s i o n a p a r t y of M a s a i moron exterrhinated Masai and that tried to force their way ever afterwards

w i t h , c a t t l e t o t h e K i n a n g o p a n d w e r e a t t a c k e d b y t h e K i k u y u an the Kikuyu c a l l e d it & track in derision. This explanation c e r t a i n l y n o t does nt T h e b e s t v i e w of tl:

square with Colonel

A i n s w o r t h ' s a c c o u n t of a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y dee

t r a c k , w h i c h c a u s e d h i m t o ask t h e q u e s t i o n . Masai used t h e

"two c o n f l i c t i n g a c c o u n t s is j j r o b a b l y t h a t v e r y m a n y y e a r s ago th t r a c k , b u t t h a t o n o n e o c c a s i o n a f t e r t h e Kikuji t h e m s e l v e s s o u t h of t h e C h a n i a , a p a r t y of Masa B u t as t h e d a t e i s g i v e n a s " m a n y y e a r s befoi had established that w a y Lenana again.

w a s e x t e r m i n a t e d b y t h e m , a n d t h e M a s a i n e v e r a t t e m p t e d to pa; became L a i b o n " inquiry is i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e u s e of t h e track ha)

a l r e a d y b e e n a b a n d o n e d b y t h e M a s a i b e f o r e t h e d a t e s w i t h whit the present concerned.

4 1 . A s t o t h e p o s s i b l e p r e s e n c e of o c c a s i o n a l manyattas insic t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y , a n e x p l a n a t i o n h a s b e e n o f f e r e d by soit w i t n e s s e s t h a t s o m e t i m e s t h e r e w a s i n t e r m a r r i a g e a n d t h e relatior of t h e b r i d e s o m e t i m e s f o l l o w e d h e r ; o r m o r e g e n e r a l l y , that whe p e a c e p r e v a i l e d , s e t t l e m e n t b y M a s a i i n K i k u y u w a s allowed c sufferance. B u t D r . B o e d e k e r r e g a r d s t h e s e cases as n o t daiir b e f o r e 1 8 9 4 , w h e n M r . H a l l e s t a b l i s h e d b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s betwes

KIKUYU
MIT 1-CHAPTER II]

PROVINCE
CONDITIONS P R O M 1895 TO 1002

lie K i k u y u a u d t h e M a s a i a n d g a v e s o m e of t h e K a p u t i e i M a s a i eave to s e t t l e in t h e d i s t r i c t . T h i s would appear t o accord best vitli the r e c o r d s of t h e e a r l y e x p l o r e r s . V o n H o h n e l d o e s not mention t h a t a n y M a s a i w e r e f o u n d l i v i n g i n K i k u y u l a n d , b u t here is e v i d e n c e t o s h o w t h a t a t t h e t i m e o f t h e r i n d e r p e s t a b o u t 889 t h e K a p u t i e i M a s a i c a m e t o t h e b o r d e r s of K i k u y u c o u n t r y , uid b o t h K i k u y u a n d M a s a i w i t n e s s e s s t a t e t h a t a f t e r t h e d e f e a t of of the K a p u t i e i s e c t i o n of t h e M a s a i b y t h e I j o i t a M a s a i , a n u m b e r if t h e f o r m e r s o u g h t r e f u g e i n K i k u y u c o u n t r y a n d e s t a b l i s h e d llages t h e r e . T h i s m a y a c c o u n t f o r t h e b e l i e f of s e v e r a l r e s p o n ible w i t n e s s e s t h a t m u c h of t h e l a n d w h i c h w e c o n s i d e r t o h a v e en u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u c o u n t r y w a s o c c u p i e d b y t h e M a s a i . 42. T h e c o n c l u s i o n t h e r e f o r e s e e m s t o b e w a r r a n t e d t h a t i n t h e icriod w h i c h w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e M a s a i d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h t h e m elves a n y w d i e r e i n K i k u y u l a n d insicle t h e p r o t e c t i v e b e l t of f o r e s t s , scept as r e f u g e e s . T h e y r a i d e d t h e c o u n t r y s o m e t i m e s , a n d w e r e idecl in t u r n . S o m e t i m e s t h e y h e l p e d o n e s e c t i o n of t h e K i k u y u raid a n o t h e r ( J o h n B o y e s , p . 9 4 ) . A d d t o t h i s t h a t t h e r e w a s reciprocal a r r a n g e m e n t b y w h i c h t h e M a s a i w o m e n used t o e n t e r ikuyu c o u n t r y t o t r a d e a n d v i c e v e r s a , a n d w e h a v e s t a t e d t h e otal e x t e n t of t h e e f f e c t i v e u s e w h i c h t h e M a s a i h a d of t h e K i k u y u ountry e n c l o s e d b y t h e f o r e s t b e l t a b o u t 1 8 9 5 . A b o u t t h e d a t e hen t h e M a s a i p o w e r h a d d e c l i n e d a n d s o m e of t h e e l e m e n t s h a d ade f r i e n d s w i t h t h e K i k u y u a n d s e t t l e d a m o n g t h e m , t h e r e w a s lore r e c i p r o c i t y a n d M a s a i c a t t l e w e r e s o m e t i m e s s e e n g r a z i n g in ikuyu c o u n t r y . 43. T u r n i n g t o t h e K a m b a w e find s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s i n e v i d uce t o m u t u a l r a i d s b e t w e e n t h e K i k u y u a n d t h e . K a m b a , b u t t h e f e r e n c e is t o t h e p e r i o d a f t e r t h e M a s a i p o w e r h a d b e g u n t o ecline. N e v e r t h e l e s s i t c a n n o t b e h e l d t h a t e v e n b e f o r e t h i s t h e kuyu w e r e e n t i r e h i m m u n e f r o m K a m b a r a i d s . I n a p a s s a g e hich w i l l b e c i t e d i n a n o t h e r c o n n e x i o n b e l o w ( s e c t i o n 188) V o n ohnel o b s e r v e s t h a t w h e n h e a n d C o u n t T e l e k i w e r e a l i t t l e s o u t h the T h i k a a n d t o t h e w e s t o f t h e b o u n d a r y w o o d t h e y w e n t rough a n a r e a w h i c h t h e K i k u y u h a d l e f t u n i n h a b i t e d f o r f e a r of uniba " s l a v e r a i d s . "
r

44. S u b j e c t t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e t h e l a n d sur uiicled b y t h e f o r e s t b e l t m a y b e h e l d t o b e " u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u rritory." T h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h i t w a s e f f e c t i v e l y o c c u p i e d i s an sue w h i c h w e h o l d o v e r f o r l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n . 45. W e now- t u r n t o t h e s e c o n d q u e s t i o n : " W e r e the K i k u y u E x t e n t of
1

tirely e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e u s e of a n y l a n d b e y o n d t h e f o r e s t b e l t ? " ^ F o ^ b ^ T " xtracts f r o m b o o k s w i l l b e f o u n d i n s e c t i o n (a) of A p p e n d i x N o . 1 the ^ F o r e s t " ; ' lich s h o w t h a t t h e K i k u y u c a n h a v e m a d e v e r y l i t t l e u s e o f t h e IKI outside t h e f o r e s t p r i o r t o t h e d e c l i n e of t h e M a s a i p o w e r ,
B e l t

K I K U Y U PAIIT I C H A P T E U II]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS FIIOM 1895 TO VJ[

t h o u g h it w o u l d s e e m f r o m L o r d L u g a r c T s " R i s e of our A f r i c a n E m p i r e " ( p . 3 3 5 ) t h a t t h e y s o m e t i m e s set fire t o the Mass g r a z i n g i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e M a s a i u s i n g i t , b u t t h e r e is e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e K i k u y u c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e y themsehx u s e d t o g o o u t of t h e f o r e s t o n t o t h e p l a i n s t o g r a z e t h e i r cat tit T h e o n l y E u r o p e a n w i t n e s s e s w h o c a n s p e a k of t h a t period at C o l o n e l A i n s w o r t h a n d M r . C . W . H o b l e y , a n d t h e i r evidenc s h o w s c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t up t i l l 1894 p r a c t i c a l l y n o c u l t i v a t i o n an n o n a t i v e s o t h e r t h a n t h e M a s a i w e r e seen o u t s i d e t h e forest be! i n t h e g e n e r a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e s i t e w h e r e N a i r o b i n o w stands T h e r e l e v a n t e x t r a c t s f r o m t h e i r e v i d e n c e w i l l b e f o u n d in sectio (b) of t h e A p p e n d i x . B u t s h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d K i k u y u village began to appear. (See e v i d e n c e , p p . 6 5 3 . 7 1 8 , 7 4 2 , 863 and S7: b y M r . S a n d b a c h B a k e r , M r . M c Q u e e n . M r . T . A . W o o d , hi Canon L e a k e y and R e v . Canon Burns.)
;

4 6 . T h e f u r t h e r r e c o r d e d e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s , h o w e v e r , that tfc K i k u y u w e r e s l o w t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e a b s e n c e of t h e M a s f r o m t h i s p l a i n . T h e e x t r a c t s f r o m e v i d e n c e g i v e n in section (j a n d (h) of t h e A p p e n d i x p r o v e t h a t t h e r e w a s n o p e r m a n e n t occt p a t i o n of t h e s e p l a i n s e i t h e r b y t h e K i k u y u or b y t h e K a m b a a t h i s t i m e . B o t h M r . L a n e a n d M r . T a t e r e f e r t o c o n s t a n t raidin b e t w e e n the K i k u y u and the K a m b a , which m a y explain H i reason. 4 7 . T h e b e s t v i e w on the e v i d e n c e a p p e a r s t o be t h a t , befoi t h e d e c l i n e of t h e M a s a i p o w e r h a d b e c o m e e v i d e n t , t h e Kikuy d i d n o t v e n t u r e o n t o t h e s e p l a i n s at a l l . B y 189S t h e i r h u t s bega t o b e s e e n o n t h e v e r y e d g e o f t h e f o r e s t b e l t n e a r M u t h a i g a at: p e r h a p s e l s e w h e r e , b u t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s t h e use whic t h e y m a d e of t h e p l a i n s f o r g r a z i n g o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s w a s so sligt t h a t i t e s c a p e d t h e n o t i c e of t r a v e l l e r s , e x c e p t t h a t possibly the c r o s s e d i t f o r t h e p u r p o s e of r a i d i n g t h e K a m b a . 48. A north Major of similar situation perhaps of existed on the p l a i n s to & the K i k u y u N y e r i District. Compare t h e evidence i

Orde B r o w n

( E v i d e n c e p p . 3S3 a n d 3 8 4 ) .

" O f t h e p l a i n b e t w e e n K i a m b u a n d F o r t H a l l up to Nye I b e l i e v e t h e K i k u y u w e r e v e r y l a r g e l y d e n i e d occupation I the Masai . . . I n m y o p i n i o n , w h a t t h e y c l a i m and wh t h e y really occupied are t w o very different things."' 4 9 . W h i l e w e f i n d n o t h i n g i n t h e e v i d e n c e or in r e c o r d s : s h o w t h a t n a t i v e s o f t h e K i a m b u or E o r t H a l l d i s t r i c t s e v e r pen t r a t e d t o a n y e x t e n t b e y o n d t h e f o r e s t b e l t w i t h i n t h e period wit w h i c h w e a r e c o n c e r n e d , i t s e e m s t h a t o n t h e n o r t h e r n frontier t h e N y e r i K i k u y u m o r e i n t e r c o u r s e p r e v a i l e d a n d c e r t a i n ICikin families established friendly relations w i t h the M a s a i . T h e oi; s t a n d i n g c a s e s e e m s t o b e t h a t of W a n g o m b e . H e a d m a n Nderi

K I K U Y U VutT ICHAPTER II]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS most 1895 TO 1902

h e r , w h o m M r . J o h n B o y e s r e g a r d e d as b e i n g ' ' o n e of t h e t h r e e -tiling c h i e f s a t t h a t t i m e " ( p . 143 of h i s b o o k ) a n d " b y far t h e (ingest a n d m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l o f t h e t h r e e . " T h e p o s i t i o n of t h i s tillage w a s c l o s e t o N i a n a H i l l on t h e b o r d e r s of t h e f o r e s t r e s e r v e " n w h a t is n o w C h i e f M u r i g o ' s L o c a t i o n , a n d it is so s h o w n i n t h e nap w h i c h w a s m a d e a b o u t 1898 t o i l l u s t r a t e S i r A l f r e d M a c k i n d e r ' s purney. I t is M a p S h e e t A 3 7 / B ; a c o p y h a s b e e n f i l e d i n V o l u m e of t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d of t h e e v i d e n c e . 50. N e v e r t h e l e s s , it i s n o t t o b e s u p p o s e d t h a t d r e a d of t h e Masai d i d n o t o p e r a t e in t h e N y e r i D i s t r i c t as e l s e w h e r e t o k e e p he K i k u y u w i t h i n b o u n d s . In Nyeri Native Tribunal Revision ?ase 2 3 / 2 9 , w h i c h w a s a d i s p u t e a b o u t a githaka c l o s e b y N y e r i Jill, but i n s i d e t h e g a z e t t e d K i k u y u Reserve, the defendant fated : "Before and n o b o d y the M a s a i . the first m a n iished h i m s e l f 51. Before :Spect of the the went When Government there my father came, of went all lions that and land was bush and not because elephants

in, although he was

w h o w e n t into the bush, n o b o d y else had estab in that part and n o

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fixed." have The the land some as a

leaving the question matter to which

of t h e K i k u y u must be

claim to made.

leen in o c c u p a t i o n of l a n d o u t s i d e t h e f o i ' e s t b e l t , t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r reference Southern K i k u y u )y i n d i v i d u a l oncerned support their claim to the land not only on of p u r c h a s e o f claim that groups or for families. They

[round of o c c u p a t i o n , b u t a l s o o n t h e g r o u n d Kikuyu

if t h i s l a n d is s i t u a t e d b e y o n d t h e f o r e s t b e l t a n d t h a t t h e bought it p a r t l y their present W e irovision f o r f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . and sales. 52. W e he K i k u y u The first now come make part free to t h e t h i r d q u e s t i o n : " I s country? use To of and unfettered it?" deal w i t h the claim in

families Chapter Dorobo

use a n d p a r t l y

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E x t e n t of the actual Forest Belt.

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Shere s e e m s t o b e a c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n a m o n g t h e e a r l i e r a u t h o r i K e s that " K i k u y u l a n d " i n c l u d e d t h e p r o t e c t i v e b e l t of f o r e s t . K P i e W e s t K e n y a F o r e s t , b u t t h a t i t i n c l u d e d so m u c h of t h e not t o say t h a t i t i n c l u d e d t h e w h o l e o f t h e A b e r d a r e F o r e s t

Bouriding f o r e s t a s w a s u s e d b y t h e K i k u y u f o r t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n . if 53. B u t t h e m o r e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s w h e t h e r t h e K i k u y u h a d S h e e x c l u s i v e a n d u n r e s t r i c t e d u s e of t h i s f o r e s t a n d w h a t w e r e t h e B s c s to w h i c h t h e y c o u l d p u t i t .

KIKUYXJ PART I C H A P T E R II]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS PUOM 1895 TO Hf S iJ

They

h a d n o t t h e e x c l u s i v e use of i t .

T h e D o r o b o also wen Tin-,

t h e r e , at l e a s t in t h e p a r t s b o r d e r i n g o n t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t .

h u n t e d t h e r e a n d , if w e b e l i e v e K i k u y u a c c o u n t s , w e r e t h e origina o w n e r s , a n d s t i l l o w n e d l a r g e u n s o l d p o r t i o n s of it u n t i l a bompara tively recent date. The Masai dispute this. According to then t h e r e a r e K i k u y u D o r o b o w h o a r e i n r e a l i t y K i k u y u w h o h a v e taker to h u n t i n g , a n d M a s a i D o r o b o w h o a r e t r u e D o r o b o a n d serfs of thi Masai admit w h o would not have allowed may have them t o d i s p o s e of it. The\ that the D o r o b o shall d i s p o s e d of it s e c r e t l y on this very after tin

Masai power had declined. 54. W e (a) It review the evidence contention! was "Para s u b j e c t in a l a t e r c h a p t e r . mount" T w o p o i n t s o n l y n e e d he s t a t e d here :

is s a i d b y t h e K i k u y u t h a t w h e n K i n a n j u i

C h i e f , a s e c o n d a r y p a y m e n t at a d a t e w e l l aftei them that final. If t h i s is t r u e , i t c o n s t i t u t e s ai date the purchases w e r e no

1900 w a s m a d e t o t h e D o r o b o t o c o m p l e t e t h e purchase; and make admission final. (b) T h e D o r o b o c l a i m t h a t t h e r e a r e l a r g e a r e a s i n the forest a n d s o m e a r e a s i n t h e K i k u y u K e s e r v e i t s e l f w h i c h have n e v e r b e e n sold y e t a n d a r e still theirs. 5 5 . T h a t i s o n e of t h e r e s p e c t s i n w h i c h t h e K i k u y u had nut a n e x c l u s i v e use of t h e f o r e s t . T h e o t h e r is i n r e s p e c t of the Masai. T h e n e r v o u s n e s s c r e a t e d b y t h e M a s a i r a i d s is w e l l illustrated in t h e f o l l o w i n g description by V o n H o h n e l : Page 289 ( A t N g o n g o B a g a s ) . " W e h a d . . . n o need t o b e a n x i o u s a b o u t p r o v i s i o n s . E v e n l a r g e c a r a v a n s such as o u r s c o u l d e a s i l y i n n o r m a l s e a s o n s b u y f o o d f o r s e v e r a l mouth; o f t h e K i k u y u i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e . T h e r e a r e n o market e x a c t l y l i k e t h o s e i n o t h e r p a r t s o f A f r i c a , as t h e K i k u y u dc n o t v e n t u r e o u t o f t h e f o r e s t s f o r f e a r of t h e M a s a i and cara v a n s h a v e t o s e e k t h e m . A w e l l - a r m e d c o n t i n g e n t of a travel l i n g p a r t y g o e s i n t o t h e w o o d a n d c a l l s t h e a t t e n t i o n of the n a t i v e s b y firing t w o or t h r e e shots . . . I n a f e w minutes t h e s i g n a l is a n s w e r e d b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e of s o m e e n v o y s , a t i m e a n d s p o t a r e f i x e d o n f o r t h e h o l d i n g of a m a r k e t and ii. d u e c o u r s e t h e t r a d e r s m a k e t h e i r w a y t o t h e r e n d e z v o u s soon t o b e j o i n e d b y h u n d r e d s o f m e n a n d w o m e n l a d e n w i t h the s u p e r f l u o u s p r o d u c e of t h e i r fields, w h i c h t h e y a r e v e r y glad t o d i s p o s e of. A l l n o w g o e s m e r r i l y a n d i n a f e w m i n u t e s pile. of p r o v i s i o n s a r e e x c h a n g e d f o r s t r i n g s of b e a d s , but the s l i g h t e s t m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a n u n m e a n i n g a n d g e n e r a l l y quite g r o u n d l e s s c r y of t e r r o r f r o m e i t h e r s i d e is e n o u g h to cause ali the n a t i v e s to flee w i l d l y a w a y . . . " ( V o n H o h n e l t h e n goe; up to that

K I K U Y U PART I C H A P T E R II]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS FROM 1895 TO 1902

on t o d e s c r i b e h o w an o l d M a s a i w o m a n w a s u s e d as a n i n t e r inediary and a m a r k e t w a s I which sale.) A passage from "James Hannington" by in the Rev. E. C. [ U n w s o n , w h i c h is q u o t e d i n s e c t i o n ( a ) of t h e A p p e n d i x , a l s o i l l u s irates t h e e x t r e m e wod. 50. E v e n o n t h e i n n e r e d g e of t h e f o r e s t b e l t n e a r L i i n u r u Station t h e K i k u y u d o n o t s e e m to h a v e b e e n v e r y sure of t h e m ;elves. A s a n e x a m p l e , M r . S . M o r s o n , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e y e a r 190-1, m e n t i o n s in h i s e v i d e n c e t h a t c e r t a i n K i k u y u w e r e u n w i l l i n g t o proceed f r o m L i m u r u o n t o U p l a n d s f o r f e a r of t h e M a s a i . 57. W h e t h e r t h e M a s a i m a d e a n y g r e a t use of t h e f o r e s t g l a d e s tor p u r p o s e s of g r a z i n g e x c e p t i n t i m e s of d r o u g h t is p e r h a p s o p e n to d o u b t , t h o u g h t h e e v i d e n c e of M r . P a t t e r s o n s t a t e s q u i t e i e f m i t e l y t h a t t h e y d i d g r a z e t h e r e to s o m e e x t e n t . Thomson lop. c i t . , p . 3 1 0 ) c o n f i r m s t h i s . T h e r e l e v a n t e x t r a c t s w i l l b e f o u n d n s e c t i o n (a) of t h e A p p e n d i x . S o m e M a s a i w i t n e s s e s h a v e s t a t e d hat t h e M a s a i moran used t o assemble in the forest for h o l d i n g n e a t - f e a s t s , a n d w e a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h i s is t r u e i n s p i t e of s o m e jvidence to t h e c o n t r a r y . The Masai Elder Lengemogik Ole Nakorde d e p o s e d t h a t t h e f o r e s t b e l t on t h e s o u t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n jorder of K i k u y u w a s M a s a i c o u n t r y , b u t t h a t t h e y s o l d s o m e o f it :o D o r o b o f a m i l i e s , s o m e of w h o m w e r e a f t e r w a r d s a d o p t e d b y Kikuyu. H e r e p r e s e n t e d t h i s t o h a v e h a p p e n e d b e f o r e t h e w h i t e nen c a m e . 58. T h e s t a t e m e n t that the forest f o r m e d a p r o t e c t i v e belt -otind t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y p o s s i b l y c o n t a i n s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t was left b y the K i k u y u for that p u r p o s e . T h a t can o n l y be p a r ially t r u e . T h e r e w e r e p e r h a p s p l a c e s w h e r e i t h a d w o r n so t h i n fiat t h e K i k u y u c o u l d n o t v e n t u r e t o c u t a n y m o r e f o r f e a r of lestroying t h e b a r r i e r , a n d p r o b a b l y t h a t i s w h a t M r . M a c G r e g o r loss m e a n t w h e n h e s t a t e d i n h i s e v i d e n c e t h a t it w a s d e l i b e r a t e l y eft b y t h e K i k u y u . B u t t h e r e w e r e p l a c e s w h e r e t h e f o r e s t w a s f a r leeper t h a n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of p r o t e c t i o n d e m a n d e d , e . g . , o n t h e lopes of t h e A b e r d a r e s , a n d w e m a y t a k e it as c e r t a i n t h a t t h e s e arge t r a c t s w e r e n o t d e l i b e r a t e l y l e f t , b u t t h e K i k u y u w e r e d e s t r o y ng t h e m as f a s t as t h e y c o u l d . W h i l e w e m a y a g r e e t h a t t h e c o m aratively n a r r o w f r i n g e s of forest on the south and east and lossibly t h e n o r t h w e r e o c c u p i e d b y t h e K i k u y u t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t ban t h e y w e r e o c c u p i e d b y t h e D o r o b o or M a s a i a n d m a y , in a [eneral s e n s e a n d w i t h i n l i m i t s , b e c a l l e d K i k u y u c o u n t r y , i t c a n tot in a n y s e n s e b e h e l d t h a t t h e r e m o t e r p a r t s of t h e f o r e s t o n be A b e r d a r e s h a d a n y t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e K i k u y u . T h e r e is n o
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K I K U Y U PAIIT I C H A P T E R . I I ]

P R O Y I N CK C O N D I T I O N S FROM 1895 TO 1902

l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e y m a d e a n y u s e of t h e m at a l l . T h a t t h e y used t o g r a z e t h e i r g o a t s " a g o o d w a y i n " i s a d m i t t e d b y M r . A . (;, B a k e r i n h i s e v i d e n c e , b u t h e a l s o s t a t e s t h a t t h e g l a d e s which o c c u r o n t h e A b e r d a r e s a r e i n f r e q u e n t a n d g e n e r a l l y t h e result o! human destruction. 5 9 . T h e p r e s e n t g a z e t t e d b o u n d a r y of t h e A b e r d a r e s is at an average, a l t i t u d e of 7,000 f e e t , a n d i t c o u l d t h e r e f o r e h a v e been ol no u s e t o t h e K i k u y u in t h o s e d a y s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n . W e m a y here q u o t e f r o m a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y M r . H o b l e y i n 1913 : " F r o m 5,300 f e e t t o a b o u t 5,900 f e e t is t h e g r a z i n g zone w h e r e i t is n o t c o v e r e d b y f o r e s t , a n d t h e w i l d oat gras; thungari is p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e f o r c a t t l e . A b o v e t h i s contom c o m e s t h e m a i z e a n d m i l l e t z o n e w h i c h e x t e n d s f r o m about 5,900 f e e t t o 6,700 f e e t . A b o v e t h a t a l t i t u d e n a t i v e cereals wil not f l o u r i s h w e l l , t h e y a r e l i a b l e t o f r o s t a n d a r e general!; d w a r f e d ; t h e o n l y g r a i n t h e K i k u y u g r o w a b o v e t h a t altitndi is a Pennisetum c a l l e d Kinyoli or Kamanga w h i c h is not : p r o f i t a b l e g r a i n t o g r o w ; a b o v e 6,700 f e e t s w e e t p o t a t o e s evei become very s m a l l . " 60. I t i s t h e r e f o r e q u i t e u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e K i k u y u m a d e an; use a t a l l of p a r t s of t h e A b e r d a r e s w h i c h w e r e m o r e r e m o t e thai t w o m i l e s f r o m t h e f o r e s t e d g e as it e x i s t e d a t t h e t i m e . T h e con e l u s i o n s w h i c h w e s u g g e s t as t o t h e p o s i t i o n a b o u t 1S95 is that tin f o r e s t b e l t w a s K i k u y u l a n d o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e Kikuyi w e r e m a k i n g u s e of i t , b u t t h a t t h e y h a d n o t b y a n y m e a n s th e x c l u s i v e o r u n i m p e d e d u s e of i t ; t h a t t h e l a n d s u r r o u n d e d by th f o r e s t b e l t w a s e x c l u s i v e l y K i k u y u ; a n d t h a t t h e l a n d external ti t h e f o r e s t b e l t w a s n o t K i k u y u at a l l . 6 1 . I t n o w r e m a i n s t o d e f i n e t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f o r e s t belt an g e n e r a l l y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e K i k u y u b o u n d a r i e s . B u t f i r s t , in orde to c o m p l e t e t h i s s u r v e y of c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n i n g i n K i k u y u w h e n tli P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s d e c l a r e d a n d t o p r o v i d e p r e l i m i n a r y data neces s a r y f o r t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c h a p t e r s w h i c h f o l l o w , it will b n e c e s s a r y t o a t t e m p t a n e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e d e g r e e of density a w h i c h K i k u y u l a n d w a s i n h a b i t e d . I t w i l l n o t b e p o s s i b l e to giv e v e n a r o u g h e s t i m a t e of t h e d e n s i t y o b t a i n i n g w h e n the Pro t e c t o r a t e w a s d e c l a r e d a n d t h e r e is n o p r a c t i c a l r e a s o n f o r attempt i n g i t . W e m a y c o n t e n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h s a y i n g t h a t in all reason a b l e p r o b a b i l i t y t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1895 m u s t h a v e b e e n considei a b l y g r e a t e r t h a n i t w a s i n 1 9 0 2 , b e c a u s e b y 1902 i t h a d not ye h a d t i m e t o r e c o v e r f r o m t h e m o r t a l i t y c a u s e d b y t h e 1S98-9 f a m i n e . B u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n t y e a r is 1 9 0 2 , at w h i c h d a t e the polio of a l i e n a t i o n of u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d t o E u r o p e a n s m a y b e said to ha? b e g u n , a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t a m e t h o d o f c a l c u l a t i o n can be foun w h i c h is s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e t o p r e s e n t a n a p p r o x i m a t e l y accural picture.

310
KIKUYU 'AUT I C H A P T E R II] PBOVINCE CONDITIONS FROM 1895 TO 1902

6 2 . I t is a s t r a n g e t h i n g t h a t a m o n g a l l t h a t h a s b e e n w r i t t e n The Popula o d e f e n d or t o a t t a c k t h e a c t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t in r e s p e c t o f t h e j , ' i 9 2 l i e n a t i o n of u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d w h i c h w a s e i t h e r i n o r n e a r t h e Ivikuyu t e r r i t o r y , t h e r e s h o u l d b e n o c o n t e m p o r a r y r e c o r d o f t h e


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r o r e e of p o p u l a t i o n - d e n s i t y i n t h e I v i k u y u c o u n t r y a n d a p p a r e n t l y o r e c o r d of a n y s u b s e q u e n t a t t e m p t t o e s t i m a t e w h a t i t w a s . T h e r e e r e c o r d s of a f e w g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , s u c h , f o r i n s t a n c e , a s t h a t ie K i k u y u c o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o " b u n c h u p " a n d w o u l d " b e a r q u e e z i n g " , a n d a s t a t e m e n t i n a s u r v e y o r s m a p o f 1907 t h a t there is a m p l e r o o m f o r f u r t h e r s e t t l e m e n t s h o u l d i t b e f o u n d

ecessary t o m o v e m o r e K i k u y u i n t o t h e r e s e r v e . " D e s c r i p t i o n s of le c o u n t r y s h o w t h a t , w h i l e s o m e of it c o u l d b e d e s c r i b e d a s " o n e isfc g a r d e n " , t h e r e w e r e m a n y p a r t s w h i c h s t i l l h a d a l l t h e a p p e a r nce of u n b r o k e n f o r e s t . F r o m s u c h a l l u s i o n s a n d f r o m t h e o p i n i o n s f w i t n e s s e s w e a r e a b l e , in s p i t e of t h e w i d e d i v e r g e n c e o f v i e w s ixpressed. t o g e t a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n , w h i c h , h o w e v e r , w e h a v e found it useful t o c o r r e c t i n t h e l i g h t of d e d u c t i o n s d r a w n f r o m t h e itatistics a v a i l a b l e f o r l a t e r y e a r s . 63. W e m u s t a n t i c i p a t e t h e r e s u l t s of o u r survey' o f t h e b o u n d -

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bid t h a t b y 1 9 0 2 , b e f o r e a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e a l i e n a t i o n s , i t h a d s p r e a d square m i l e s 1 to section 64. I n t h e m e m o r a n d u m o n " T h e K a t e of P o p u l a t i o n I n c r e a s e if t h e K i k u y u T r i b e " , w h i c h s t a n d s i n t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d of t h e vidence a n d w h i c h we c o n s i d e r t o b e a s a c c u r a t e as is o b t a i n a b l e n t h e d a t a , t h e t o t a l n u m b e r of K i k u y u m a r r i e d w o m e n i n 1 9 0 9 , e e a r l i e s t y e a r o f w h i c h a c c o u n t is t a k e n , is g i v e n as 1 2 4 , 6 7 9 f o r Uyeri, P o r t H a l l a n d K i a m b u D i s t r i c t s e x c l u s i v e of w h a t is n o w ihe K e r u g u y a s u b - D i s t r i c t . I n t h e y e a r s b e t w e e n 1 9 2 2 a n d 1 9 3 1 , i w h i c h a n e s t i m a t e f o r t h e w h o l e a r e a is i n c l u d e d , t h e K e r u g u y a gures r a n g e b e t w e e n 1 8 . 2 p e r c e n t a n d 1 8 . 8 p e r c e n t of t h e t o t a l , lie p e r c e n t a g e a p p e a r i n g t o i n c r e a s e s l i g h t l y a s t h e y e a r s g o o n . jVe m a y p e r h a p s a s s u m e w i t h o u t a n y g r a v e e r r o r t h a t it w a s a b o u t 8 p e r c e n t in 1 9 0 9 , w h i c h w o u l d m a k e t h e t o t a l of m a r r i e d w o m e n pr t h e t h r e e d i s t r i c t s 1 5 2 , 0 S 4 a t t h a t t i m e . 65. I n t h e t a b l e s h o w i n g t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r a l l K i k u y u n 1931 m a r r i e d w o j n e n a r e f o u n d t o b e 2 9 . 4 p e r c e n t of t h e w h o l e jnd the c h i l d r e n 4 1 p e r c e n t . B u t i n 1909 it is p r o b a b l e , f o r r e a s o n s vhich a p p e a r i n t h e m e m o r a n d u m , t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c h i l d r e n ras s o m e w h a t l o w e r a n d t h a t of m a r r i e d w o m e n s o m e w h a t h i g h e r , nd w e m a y p r o b a b l y s e t t h e m a r r i e d w o m e n d o w n as 3 1 p e r c e n t f the w h o l e . I n t h a t c a s e t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n 90,477 in 1909.

KIKTJYTJ PART ICHAPTER II]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS EHOM 1895 TO

lijffi

6 6 . T h e o p i n i o n g i v e n i n t h e m e m o r a n d u m a n d b a s e d on such f i g u r e s as a r e a v a i l a b l e is t h a t i n t h e p r e - w a r y e a r s t h e population w a s i n c r e a s i n g i n n o r m a l y e a r s at a r a t e of a b o u t 1.2 p e r cent yearly. I f this o p i n i o n is t r u e t h e p o p u l a t i o n w a s a b o u t 451,560 i n 1 9 0 2 , s i n c e t h e r e is n o r e a s o n w h y t h e y e a r s 1902 t o 1909 shbnltl n o t b e r e g a r d e d as n o r m a l . 67. A c o m p a r i s o n w i t h 1 9 3 1 , w h e n p r e s e n t e d in tabular form, is i n t e r e s t i n g : Resident Year. 1902 1931 ... ... Population. 451,562 489,156 ... ... Area of Territory miles), ... ... Density square 254 253 per mile. (square

1,778 1,931

1 . W h i l e i n 1902 t h e n u m b e r of K i k u y u l i v i n g outside Note K i k u y u l a n d w a s n e g l i g i b l e , in 1 9 3 1 t h e f i g u r e is e s t i m a t e d t o have b e e n 110,697. Note 2 . T h e f i g u r e J ,931 i n c l u d e s t h e M w e a a r e a (205 square m i l e s ) , t h e a d d i t i o n of w h i c h to t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e h a s been ap p r o v e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r in C o u n c i l , b u t w h i c h h a s n o t y e t been g a z e t t e d as p a r t of t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e , a l t h o u g h t h e n a t i v e s havf been a l l o w e d to occupy it. Note 3 . T h e figure 4 8 9 , 1 5 6 is t h e official e s t i m a t e for 1932. T h e figure g i v e n in t h e m e m o r a n d u m o n t h e r a t e of population i n c r e a s e i n K i k u y u is 4 9 3 , 5 0 2 . B o t h of t h e s e figures a r e estimate t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t c h i l d r e n h a v e b e e n c o m p u t e d o n a percentage b a s i s i n e a c h c a s e a n d n o t b y a c t u a l c o u n t . W e offer n o opinion a s t o w h i c h i s t h e b e t t e r e s t i m a t e b u t h a v e a c c e p t e d t h e official figure. Note 4 . I f t h e d e n s i t y is t a k e n o n l y o v e r t h e area of the r e s e r v e as g a z e t t e d ( t h e M w e a a r e a b e i n g e x c l u d e d ) t h e figure i r e n d e r e d 283 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e .
;

T h e c o n c l u s i o n s u g g e s t e d i s t h a t i n 1902 K i k u y u l a n d was in h a b i t e d i n v e r y m u c h t h e s a m e d e n s i t y as it is n o w a n d that a l t h o u g h t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d g r e a t l y , t h e m e t h o d of clis p o s i n g of the s u r p l u s h a s b e e n b y a r e s o r t t o s q u a t t i n g on alienatcc lands. 6 8 . T h e r e a r e t w o r e a s o n s w h y t h e h i g h o r d e r of population d e n s i t y w h i c h o b t a i n e d in 1902 w a s n o t r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . The first is t h a t t h e K i k u y u d i d n o t g r o w p r o d u c e l o r t h e m a r k e t exten s i v e l y at t h a t t i m e , b u t g r e w i t p r i n c i p a l l y f o r t h e i r o w n consunij) t i o n . I t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t , a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e Liniurt f a r m s w e r e a l i e n a t e d , t h e a v e r a g e K i k u y u w o m a n had about om acre under cultivation. T h a t w o u l d m e a n t h a t i n t h e Kikuyi c o u n t r y a s a w h o l e o n l y o n e a c r e in e i g h t w a s c u l t i v a t e d . A t thf p r e s e n t d a y a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e a c r e in t h r e e is c u l t i v a t e d .

K I K U Y U [ CHAPTER I I ]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS FROM 1S95 TO 1 9 0 2 '

69. T h e s e c o n d r e a s o n is t h a t t h e K i a m b u D i s t i c t w a s m u c h e generally k n o w n than the others and it was that district ::h p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d t h e a p p l i c a n t s f o r l a n d . I t w a s f a r thickly p o p u l a t e d , both because it w a s the district i n t o w h i c h K i k u y u had m o s t r e c e n t l y p e n e t r a t e d , and also b e c a u s e the nniue of 1 8 9 8 - 9 9 , b e s i d e s c a u s i n g m a n y d e a t h s , had b r o u g h t a b o u t jstampede of t h e s u r v i v o r s b a c k t o F o r t H a l l . T h e r e is n o e v i d ice f r o m w h i c h o n e c a n e s t i m a t e w i t h a n y c e r t i t u d e h o w m a n y diem had r e t u r n e d b y 1 9 0 2 . B u t , r e g a r d e d in i s o l a t i o n , the strict m u s t h a v e a p p e a r e d t o h a v e e n o u g h l a n d f o r its p o p u l a t i o n g e n e r a t i o n s t o c o m e a n d a g o o d d e a l w h i c h c o u l d r e a s o n a b l y be tired to o t h e r s . I t w a s p e r h a p s i m p e r f e c t l y r e a l i z e d t h a t it had for any y e a r s b e e n u s e d as an e x p a n s i o n area f o r the m o r e d e n s e l y mutated d i s t r i c t s o f F o r t H a l l a n d N y e r i a n d that m o r e t h a n i t s . -ii natural i n c r e a s e of p o p u l a t i o n h a d to be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t .
c r

70. T h e m e m o r a n d u m s h o w s t h e t o t a l m a r r i e d w o m e n f r o m iimbu D i s t r i c t in 1909 a s 2 3 . 3 8 0 , w h i c h m a y b e i n t e r p r e t e d as a :al p o p u l a t i o n of 7 5 , 1 3 9 , t h e w o m e n b e i n g r e c k o n e d a s 3 1 p e r tit. T h e r a t e of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e is a s s u m e d in t h e m e m o r a n d u m he 1.2 p e r c e n t , a f i g u r e w h i c h is e x t r e m e l y p r o b l e m a t i c a l , b u t not p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p r o b a b l e . T h a t w o u l d m e a n t h a t all the rious f a m i l y u n i t s w h i c h in .1909 m a d e u p a p o p u l a t i o n o f 75,439 rsons w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d in 1902 b y a s t r e n g t h of 6 9 , 4 0 1 p e r s o n s , icy w e r e n o t a l l l i v i n g i n t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t a t t h a t t i m e , s i n c e very l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of t h e m h a d t a k e n r e f u g e t e m p o r a r i l y i n nt H a l l D i s t r i c t a t t h e t i m e of t h e f a m i n e a n d h a d n o t y e t timed. T h e K i a m b u N a t i v e D e s e r v e t o - d a y is j u s t 4 0 0 s q u a r e !es in e x t e n t a n d w e h a v e f o u n d o n t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h w i l l be iewed i n t h e n e x t t h r e e c h a p t e r s t h a t t h e a r e a s a d d e d a n d t h e as t a k e n a w a y so n e a r l y b a l a n c e e a c h o t h e r t h a t t h e s a m e f i g u r e y be t a k e n , f o r t h e p u r p o s e of t h e p r e s e n t r o u g h c a l c u l a t i o n , t o the e x t e n t of K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y in t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t i n 1902. the 6 9 , 4 0 1 p e r s o n s h a d all b e e n l i v i n g in it t h e d e n s i t y w o u l d e b e e n 173 to t h e s q u a r e m i l e . Hut so h i g h a f i g u r e w o u l d b e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e 1 we m a y conclude w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of this ulation w a s l i v i n g in t h e F o r t H a l l D i s t r i c t . B u t if t h e p o p u l a t i o n o v e r all K i k u y u w a s as d e n s e a s 254 t o Kiambu, District square as square m i l e it f o l l o w s t h a t , t h e l o w e r t h e e s t i m a t e f o r tis u n l i k e l y that the density figure for the Fort Hall

h i g h e r m u s t b e t h e e s t i m a t e f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r , a n d it a p p e a r s r all could h a v e b e e n as m u c h as t h r e e h u n d r e d t o t h e

e if t h e e x t e n t of f o r e s t o r s c r u b c o v e r e d l a n d w a s a s g r e a t re d e n s e l y peopled.

have f o u n d it t o h a v e b e e n , t h o u g h p a r t s of it w e r e u n d o u b t e d l y

KIKUYU PART I C H A P T E R I I ]

PROVINCE CONDITIONS FROM 1895 TO ISlfj;

7 1 . A f t e r t a k i n g t h e s e p o i n t s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and other w h i c h w i l l b e r e v i e w e d in s e c t i o n s 2 9 1 - 3 2 1 b e l o w , w e h a v e formei t h e o p i n i o n o n t h e p r o b a b i l i t i e s of t h e c a s e t h a t t h e population d e n s i t y in t h e K i a m b u R e s e r v e in 1 9 0 2 w a s a b o u t 150 t o the squas m i l e o r p e r h a p s r a t h e r l e s s , a n d t h a t in t h e a r e a s a c t u a l l y alienatei i t w a s o n l y s o m e 73 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e . 7 2 . O n t h e basis of c a l c u l a t i o n w h i c h h a s a l r e a d y b e e n followe t h i s w o u l d m e a n t h a t o n l y 50 a c r e s in a s q u a r e m i l e , or roughly on a c r e i n t h i r t e e n , w e r e c u l t i v a t e d or f a l l o w l a n d as a g e n e r a l avera" i n t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t , w h i l e i n t h e a r e a s t a k e n f o r alienation th p r o p o r t i o n w o u l d be a b o u t o n e a c r e c u l t i v a t e d ( i n c l u d i n g fallow) i e v e r y t w e n t y - n i n e . I t is t h e r e f o r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t t h e r e shonl h a v e a p p e a r e d t o b e l a r g e t r a c t s of w a s t e l a n d s of w h i c h it w; felt t h a t t h e C r o w n m i g h t l e g i t i m a t e l y d i s p o s e . T h e a r e a s of whic t h e C r o w n a c t u a l l y d i d d i s p o s e w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of K i k m t e r r i t o r y a r e s h o w n in t h e c o l o u r e d m a p f o l l o w i n g section 227 w h i c h r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d h e r e b e m a d e . T h e r e a s o n s s u p p o r t i n g t] m a p w i l l b e g i v e n i n C h a p t e r s I I I t o V , w h i l e in C h a p t e r V I an e s t i m a t e is a t t e m p t e d of t h e n u m b e r of p e r s o n s w h o we a c t u a l l y i n h a b i t i n g t h e l a n d a t t h e t i m e w h e n it w a s alienated.

31

CHAPTER
lL'HE WESTERN BOEDER WAS (Nyeri (Note.The to W H E N the

III
THE Kamiti.) will PROTECTORATE

DECLARED.

conclusions reached in this chapter are illustrated C h a p t e r V I , and the a r g u m e n t is m a d e t o it as w e proceed.) if r e f e r e n c e

the c o l o u r e d m a p f o l l o w i n g e easier t o f o l l o w

78. W h e n C o u n t T e l e k i m a d e h i s j o u r n e y i n 1887 t h e s o u t h e r n Nyeri.. ^do-e of t h e f o r e s t b e l t e v i d e n t l y b e g a n s e v e r a l m i l e s s o u t h of t h e [resent s i t e of N y e r i . L i e crossed the G u r a , w h i c h h e calls the ura, o n the m o r n i n g of 3 r d O c t o b e r , 1 8 8 7 , a f t e r h a v i n g a l r e a d y : \a) had t r o u b l e i n c o l l e c t i n g h i s c a t t l e w h i c h " h a d d i s p e r s e d i n v e r y d i r e c t i o n " ; (b) p a s s e d s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s ; (c) had a porter fturdered and a v e n g e d h i s d e a t h . I t c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e h a v e b e e n ery e a r l y in t h e d a y w h e n h e r e a c h e d t h e r i v e r a n d h e r e c o r d s Rbat he t o o k an h o u r t o g e t t h e s a f a r i a c r o s s . M a n y n a t i v e s , o u t n u m b e r i n g his s a f a r i b y fifty t o o n e , h a d g a t h e r e d o n t h e r i d g e s jfo the n o r t h w a r d , a n d h e h a d t o m o v e w i t h c a u t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , by m i d d a y he h a d r e a c h e d t h e i n n e r e d g e of t h e b o u n d a r y f o r e s t : Page 3 - 1 7 . " W e a r r i v e d about m i d d a y at a b r o a d , s h a l l o w brook and camped at the edge of the forest of T h i s w a s our last m a r c h in I v i k u y u l a n d . wilderness." Gosden

reed-grown

the n o r t h e r n f r o n t i e r . I in the open

W e had o n l y t o p a s s t h r o u g h t h e w o o d a n d w e s h o u l d b e a g a i n uninhabited 74. T h e p o s i t i o n of t h e c a m p h a s b e e n p l a c e d b y M r . ioundarv of t h e reserve. The manner in which this

I f the S u r v e y D e p a r t m e n t a t a p o i n t f i v e m i l e s s o u t h of t h e p r e s e n t conclusion to his l a s been reached w i l l Ipurney are t o o be explained to warrant l a t e r , a n d i t is o n l y r i g h t any very precise

Say t h a t t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d b y V o n H o h n e l ' s m a p a n d d i a r y of meagre to-day. P u t it l e a v e s n o d o u b t :Soiith than it i s but that t h e forest line w a s m u c h

deductions. further

75. T h i s i s a l s o s h o w n b y t h e m a p of S i r A l f r e d M a c k i n d e r ' s purney (see c o p y f i l e d in V o l u m e I of t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d of t h e ividence). T h e c o l o u r s i n t h e o r i g i n a l a r e so f a i n t t h a t t h e c o p y as b e e n p r e p a r e d t o b r i n g t h e s e o u t m o r e c l e a r l y . T h e present iosition of the f a r m a r e a i s s h o w n i n t h e c o p y t h o u g h n a t u r a l l y n o t the o r i g i n a l . T h o u g h i t i s n o t s t a t e d o n t h e m a p a t w h a t d a t e K w a s p r e p a r e d i t m a y be c o n c l u d e d f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n of r a i l B e a d , marked " J u l y , 1 8 9 9 " t h a t i t w a s m a d e a b o u t t h a t y e a r . It jf probable t h a t t h e c o l o u r s w e r e p u t i n a t t h e s a m e t i m e . These

KIKUYU PART I C H A P T E R HI]

PROVINCE T H E OLD K I Y O Y U BOUNIJAI:

p u r p o r t t o i l l u s t r a t e : (a) g r a s s y s t e p p e s ; ( 6 ) d e n s e f o r e s t ; (c) cul v a t i o n w i t h r e m n a n t s of f o r e s t ; a n d (d) A l p i n e v e g e t a t i o n . Thf a r e so m a n y o b v i o u s i n a c c u r a c i e s i n s o m e p a r t s of t h e m a p that w o u l d b e f o o l i s h t o p l a c e t o o m u c h r e l i a n c e o n t h e o t h e r parts [ f o r w h a t it is w o r t h it m a y b e n o t i c e d t h a t t h e f o r e s t b e l t betvve N d o r o (see n e x t p a r a g r a p h ) a n d t h e c u l t i v a t e d l a n d e x t e n d s mi; f u r t h e r s o u t h t h a n t h e p r e s e n t b o u n d a r y of t h e K i k u y u Reserve. 76. C o u n t T e l e k i t o o k t h r e e d a y s m a r c h i n g t o g e t from t! i n n e r f r o n t i e r c a m p n o r t h o f t h e G u r a R i v e r t o h i s o u t e r front c a m p at N d o r o . H i s a v e r a g e daily j o u r n e y b e t w e e n N g o n g o a N d o r o w a s o n l y a b o u t f i v e m i l e s . M r . G o s d e n ' s r e p r o d u c t i o n nial t h e t o t a l a. s t r a i g h t t e n m i l e s f r o m t h e G u r a C a m p t o N d o r o . T first d a y ' s j o u r n e y w a s t h r o u g h t h i c k bush r a t h e r t h a n for (p. 348). 77. Boyes The visited position the had altered in considerably he when a M r . Jo nan. district 1898, and found man

Kakeri, whom actual that he s i t e of may

h e d e s c r i b e s as a p o w e r f u l Nyeri have Township, but

c h i e f , l i v i n g n e a r Nye in evidet

O n p a g e 139 o f h i s b o o k h e s t a t e s t h a t K a k e r i w a s l i v i n g on t he has a d m i t t e d The information that established young been mistaken. has n o w of obtained t h e man killed t a man

the District question Chief Goan been four Nduini and

Commissioner to be

was Kakeri Somali

wa Ngunju, the father at

w h o w a s a l l e g e d in evidence the man He who was

traders

Kiandongoro.

w e a l t h and influence miles north-west 78. forest

a r o u n d N y e r i , but t h e s i t e of h i s village I t h e e d g e of of t h e p r e s e n t r e s e r v e aba Nyeri Township. of the centre

l o c a t e d at a p o i n t o n

O f C h i e f N d u i n i M r . B o y e s s t a t e d t h a t , t o t h e best of 1 where they a r e l i v i n g n o w , that is reserve. Case No. 23/29 t The i north

k n o w l e d g e a n d b e l i e f , h e o r h i s f a m i l y w e r e l i v i n g r i g h t up on t edge, approximately s a y , at t h e e x t r e m e n o r t h e r n l i m i t of t h e 79. In Nyeri Native Tribunal Chief

Revision

defendant is the

w a s t h e s o n of native

N d u i n i ' s elder brother.

p u t e d p i e c e of l a n d w a s o n t h e p i e c e of reserve Nyeri Hill.

githaka
which

k n o w n as I h u r u r u , whi out west and : Nduini

juts

T h e D e f e n d a n t , h a v i n g s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e w e r e no

t h e r e till his f a t h e r first c l e a r e d t h e l a n d , p r o c e e d e d went on a h e a d , a n d N d u i n i did the


1

" G i k o n y o c a m e a f t e r w a r d s a n d p a s s e d b y m y father a: same. Beyond

even n o w there are n o

ithaka.'

8 0 . B r o t h e r B e n e d e t t o ( E v i d e n c e p p . 5 4 6 , 5 4 7 ) s t a t e d that \ k n e w I h u r u r u a n d t h a t i t w a s b u s h l a n d w h e n t h e mission fir w e n t t h e r e in 1 9 0 3 . H e h e a r d t h a t t h e A i t h i r a n d u c l a n w e r e tot:

KTKUYU PAHT I C H A P T E R III]

PROVINCE THE OLD KIYTJYU BOUNDARIES

(rest of N y e r i H i l l . C h i e f N d u i n f s f a t h e r ' s v i l l a g e , h e s t a t e d , had been at t h e s i t e o f t h e p r e s e n t K a m a k w a m a r k e t , w h i c h is in t h e reserve. 8 1 . T h e m i s s i o n to w h i c h B r o t h e r B e n e d e t t o is a t t a c h e d is at Jiathari ( L . O . 1 1 0 5 ) , w h i c h l i e s b e t w e e n N y e r i T o w n s h i p a n d (iyeri H i l l . H i s e v i d e n c e is t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o n a t i v e s t h e r e in L9Q3, arid t h a t t h e w o r d " M a t h a r i " itself m e a n s " t h e p l a c e of iividing." H e s t a t e s t h a t t h e r e w e r e M a s a i on t h e s i t e of t h e present p o l o g r o u n d w h i c h is 41- m i l e s to t h e n o r t h of N y e r i T o w n ship- . 8 2 . T h e N y e r i L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l ask f o r N y e r i H i l l on t h e (round t h a t it w a s f o r m e r l y u s e d f o r s a c r i f i c i a l p u r p o s e s . B u t n o vidence h a s b e e n a d v a n c e d t o s h o w t h a t i t w a s m o r e v e n e r a b l e Iran t h e h u n d r e d s of o t h e r p l a c e s w h i c h w e r e u s e d f o r a s i m i l a r impose. B r o t h e r B e n e d e t t o s a i d h e h a d n e v e r h e a r d of i t s h a v i n g leen used f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , t h o u g h h e a d m i t s t h a t it m i g h t h a v e ieeh. 83. T h e g a z e t t e m e n t of 1913 (Official Gazette. 1st N o v e m b e r , 91.3, p. 935) i n c l u d e d N y e r i H i l l , t h e M a t h a r i M i s s i o n a n d t h e ihiringato F o r e s t N u r s e r y in t h e r e s e r v e . T h e g a z e t t e m e n t of 1926 Official Gazette of 1 3 t h O c t o b e r . 1 9 2 6 . p . 1214-1217) excluded hem. 84. (a) I t is p r o b a b l e t h a t s o m e d e g r e e of K i k u y u this area : occupation had xisted i n

K a k e r i h a d a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g in 1898 a n d w a s r e g a r d e d b y M r . B o y e s as a p o w e r f u l c h i e f . I t s e e m s u n l i k e l y t h a t he c o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n f i n e d t o t h e s m a l l a r e a i n C h i e f N d u i n f s p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y if t h e c l a i m s of t h e f a m i l i e s of N d u i n i a n d N d e r i i n t h e s a m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d h a v e a n y s u b s t a n c e in t h e m . H e a d m a n N d e r i has s u b m i t t e d a m e m o r a n d u m c l a i m i n g K a h e h u , a n e i g h b o u r i n g area a little w a y to the north. W h i l e h i s c l a i m t h a t it w a s h i s f a t h e r ' s l a n d is b y n o m e a n s p r o v e d , it is c e r t a i n t h a t h e h i m s e l f l i v e d t h e r e w i t h h i s f o l l o w e r s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s f r o m a b o u t 1900. that

(b)

(c) T h e f a c t of i t s g a z e t t e m e n t i n 1913 s u p p o r t s t h e v i e w it w a s r e g a r d e d as K i k u y u c o u n t r y . (d) If

C h i e f N d u i n i ' s l o c a t i o n t o t h e w e s t a n d n o r t h - w e s t of it h a s r i g h t l y b e e n d e c l a r e d n a t i v e r e s e r v e , it is h a r d t o see h o w t h i s l a n d c a n h a v e b e e n s u r r o u n d e d o n t h r e e sides b y n a t i v e l a n d w i t h o u t i t s e l f h a v i n g b e e n n a t i v e land.

85. N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e r e is e v i d e n c e t h a t m u c h f o r e s t a n d t h i c k iish r e m a i n e d , a n d t h e r e is n o t h i n g t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l a n d w a s

KIKUYU PART I C H A P T E R III]

PROVINCE THE OLD K I Y U Y U POUND;

e x t e n s i v e l y used b y t h e K i k u y u f o r c u l t i v a t i o n or g r a z i n g , a p r o b a b l y n o t m u c h m a t e r i a l l o s s o c c u r r e d t h r o u g h its exclusio f r o m t h e r e s e r v e . T h e p r e s e n c e of M a s a i manyatta o n the site i t h e p r e s e n t p o l o g r o u n d m u s t h a v e a c t e d as a d i s t i n c t check on tl f r e e d o m of t h e K i k u y u to use t h e l a n d as t h e y p l e a s e d . 86. W h i l e Kikuyu Nyeri we shall not undertake 1895, w e t o say where t h e limit had w? territory w a s in consider that b y t h e time tin

administrative

station w a s established

the K i k u y u

a footing t h e r e , and that their true boundary at that t i m e follow; a l o n g t h e M u r i n g a t u R i v e r w h e r e it l e a v e s t h e p r e s e n t boundary t h e r e s e r v e u n t i l it r e a c h e s w h a t is n o w t h e w e s t e r n c o r n e r of tl forest that nursery; view 87. t h e n c e a c r o s s b y t h e n e a r e s t r o u t e t o t h e Chant to t h e p r e s e n t b o u n d a r y . According; t a k e n out of *' acce and thence by the Chania reserve. While for the p u r p o s e s of t h e "Profit and R o s s " w h i c h a p p e a r s in C h a p t e r V I , t h e w h o l e of t h i s a r e a w i l l appeal t a k e n f r o m t h e K i k u y u , i t w i l l b e t r e a t e d f o r p u r p o s e s of assess compensation Chapter X , providing as a m i s s i o n consideration. A l o n g the Aberdnres to the Southern Chania R i v e r . 8 8 . W e n o w t r a c e t h e b o r d e r a l o n g t h e A b e r d a r e s . T h e exi i n g b o u n d a r y of t h e r e s e r v e f o l l o w s t h e f o r e s t l i n e as i t stood t h e t i m e of t h e d e m a r c a t i o n i n 1 9 0 7 . I t w a s a " g i v e and tak b o u n d a r y a n d w a s d o n e o n b r o a d l i n e s ( E v i d e n c e of M r . A . B a k e r , p . 4 5 1 ) . M r . H o m e c o n s i d e r s t h a t t h e r e w a s m o r e ta t h a n g i v e ( E v i d e n c e p . 5 8 6 ) . I t i s n o t u n n a t u r a l t o suppose tl t h i s w o u l d b e t h e case b e c a u s e a n y s t r a i g h t e n i n g o u t t h e r e mij; b e w o u l d e n t a i l m u c h less l a b o u r on t h e s p o t if a p i e c e of gra l a n d p r o j e c t i n g i n t o t h e f o r e s t w a s c u t off. B u t t h e r e is n o dir evidence that there was any substantial balance either way, a both M r . B a k e r and M r . B a t t i s c o m b e thought t h a t the natives w f a i r l y t r e a t e d ( E v i d e n c e p p . 4 5 1 a n d 4 1 0 ) a n d w e a r e satisfied th h o w e v e r t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a c t u a l position 1 9 0 7 , t h e b o u n d a r y w a s a v e r y g e n e r o u s o n e a s r e g a r d s t h e Kikw as c o m p a r e d w i t h w h a t t h e p o s i t i o n m u s t h a v e b e e n in 1902. 8 9 . T h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a l a v e r a g e w i d t h of t h e F o r t H R e s e r v e is in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t w e n t y - t h r e e m i l e s . Con T e l e k i r e p r e s e n t e d t h e a v e r a g e w i d t h of t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y to f r o m e i g h t t o e l e v e n m i l e s ( p . 3 5 1 ) . T h i s c a n n o t b e taken vf s e r i o u s l y s i n c e h e w a s m e r e l y p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y at h a d n o g o o d m e a n s of o b s e r v i n g i t . B u t M r . H a l T s o p i n i o n i? as a s p e c i a l and partly case and will be r e v i e w e d station and as such townsl since t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a r e a h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d par as a G o v e r n m e n t

a b l o c k o f 6.08 s q u a r e m i l e s h a s b e e n

essential

s e r v i c e s t o t h e K i k u y u , o u g h t to be taken

K I K U Y U Mir 1CHAPTER I I I ]

PROVINCE THE O I D KIYUYU BOUNDARIES

o lightly t o b e d i s r e g a r d e d s i n c e h e k n e w t h e K i k u y u i n t i m a t e l y , is g i v e n in " B r i t i s h East Africa or I b e a " (by P . L. fctuDermott) : Page 4 2 3 . " M r . H a l l d e s c r i b e s t h e c o u n t r y a s a b o u t 100 miles in l e n g t h a n d f i f t e e n t o e i g h t e e n m i l e s i n b r e a d t h , e n circled b y a d e n s e b e l t of f o r e s t , w h i c h a f f o r d s e f f e c t i v e p r o tection to t h e p e o p l e from their e n e m i e s . T h e e l e v a t i o n of the c o u n t r y v a r i e s f r o m 6,000 t o 7,200 f t . . . . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of small p a t c h e s of e x c e l l e n t g r a s s , w h i c h a r e k e p t f o r g r a z i n g purposes, and a f e w s m a l l s w a m p s , e v e r y a v a i l a b l e p i e c e o f g r o u n d is u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n , a n d t h e d i s t r i c t m i g h t b e d e s c r i b e d as one vast g a r d e n . " T h e K i k u y u h a v e cleared their country of forest b y their own e x e r t i o n s a n d c o n t i n u e to extend this operation." 90. M r . J o h n B o y e s stated i n h i s e v i d e n c e ( p . 7 2 8 ) t h a t i n 198 the v i l l a g e o f a K i k u y u c h i e f n a m e d K a r u r i , wdio w a s o f m i x e d [orobo-Kikuyu e x t r a c t i o n , was s i t u a t e d w i t h i n a m i l e of t h e f o r e s t ge. T h a t accords p r e t t y w e l l w i t h its present p o s i t i o n , about l j les from the f o r e s t t o t h e w e s t of i t , a n d w o u l d a p p e a r j a t first ht, to s u g g e s t t h a t there h a s n o t been much d e s t r u c t i o n since it date. B u t w h i l e there may n o t h a v e been much d e s t r u c t i o n i n !e i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f K a r u r i ' s , t h i s w a s b e c a u s e h e h a d Ready c r e a t e d s o m e t h i n g of a s a l i e n t f o r h i m s e l f b y c u t t i n g a h e a d I his f e l l o w s . M u c h f o r e s t l a n d s t i l l e x i s t e d b e h i n d h i m , w h i c h Slier K i k u y u n o w e n g a g e d t h e m s e l v e s in d e s t r o y i n g . A l e t t e r ffited 15th D e c e m b e r , 1 9 0 7 , f r o m t h e C h i e f C o n s e r v a t o r o f F o r e s t s H the Secretary of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n m a k e s this clear : " T h e d e s t r u c t i o n of f o r e s t t h a t h a s t a k e n p l a c e d u r i n g t h e last f e w y e a r s c a n o n l y b e d e s c r i b e d as a p p a l l i n g . I t w i l l b e sufficient t o c i t e o n e i n s t a n c e f r o m a r e c e n t r e p o r t b y M r . C o x of t h e S u r v e y D e p a r t m e n t : 'On My m y march from survey beacon Muhenia . . . to beacon K i a h e h o . . . I noticed much destruction of forest. cultivation September

road lay a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n

edge of K i k u y u

in K a r o r i ' s d i s t r i c t , a n d w h e n I p a s s e d e a r l y in

last, t h e n a t i v e s to move f u r t h e r
91. T h e r e p o r t

w e r e cutting and burning t h e forest in order west.' " in the same year as t h e forest

was made

ndary w a s d e m a r c a t e d . iy a r e t e n m i l e s a p a r t . 18 ' 1
0 a

Y e t M u h e n i a beacon is t w o miles out miles outside it, a n d amount T h i s indicates that in 1907, t h e year in

[e t h e forest r e s e r v e a n d K i a h e h o is e i g h t

ach t h e f o r e s t r e s e r v e w a s d e m a r c a t e d , a b l o c k o f l a n d ^
o u

forty square miles on this ten-mile front w a s included

he K i k u y u N a t i v e R e s e r v e , t h o u g h i t m a i n l y c o n s i s t e d o f f o r e s t .

ICIKUYU
P A R T 1-CHAPTER I I I ]

PROVINCE
T H E O L D K I Y U Y U Bora

I f t h i s s o r t of t h i n g w a s d o n e a l l t h e w a y n o r t h t o N y e r i and I t h e w a y s o u t h t o L i m u r u , t h e r e d o e s n o t s e e m to be much IqI i n t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e w a s m o r e t a k e t h a n g i v e on tl of t h e F o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t w h e n t h e b o u n d a r i e s w e r e demareatl I t is o b v i o u s t h a t w e c a n n o t t h i n k of t h e f o r e s t e d g e of the XM d a r e s as h a v i n g b e e n a c l e a r - c u t b o u n d a r y . T h e K i k u y u wT c u t t i n g a n d b u r n i n g t h e i r w a y i n t o i t h a p h a z a r d , a n d the w a s a j a g g e d l i n e w i t h i n d e n t a t i o n s a n d p r o m o n t o r i e s extendl for miles. I t i s t h e r e f o r e q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h a coneliisl as t o w h e r e t h e forest b o u n d a r y w a s in 1895. 9 2 . W e m i g h t a t t e m p t a " g i v e - a n d - t a k e " l i n e b y way rough a p p r o x i m a t i o n , and w e m i g h t perhaps take M r . 1 e s t i m a t e a s a g u i d e a n d , b y c o m p a r i n g it w i t h t h e p r e s e n t width) t h e r e s e r v e , c o n c l u d e t h a t a n a v e r a g e dejjth of r o u n d about] m i l e s has been cleared since then. T h i s e s t i m a t e is too hig be easily credible and should certainly be discounted. The t i o n s o n t h e A b e r d a r e F o r e s t b o u n d a r y h a v e b e e n inhabitedl r e a s o n a b l e d e n s i t y f o r m a n y y e a r s , a n d t h e a p p a r e n t forest r h a v e b e e n l a r g e l y a s h e l l c o n c e a l i n g t h e h a b i t a t i o n s a n d cleari T h e v e r y r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h it has d i s a p p e a r e d h e l p s t o prove i 93. For this reason as we shall n o t Kikuyu deny to this area its j

t o be classed the forest. assistance

"unequivocal

territory"
r

in 1895, but

s h a l l a d d t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t it h a d n o t y e t b e e n f u l l y won fr T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n w e shall m a r k by in assessing the "Profit and a l i n e d r a w n on I t may bt of account m a p w i t h t h e h e l p of such i n f o r m a t i o n a s w e h a v e . Loss"

K i k u y u w h e n w e h a v e t o c o m p a r e t h e v a l u e of w h a t t h e y have 1 : g i v e n w i t h t h e v a l u e of w h a t has b e e n t a k e n 94. The area round about Nyeri, of spoken, may T h e "Western & Ivhmliu' District appropriately away. we h a v e alre way. which

be treated in the same

95. W h e n ceeding rapidly. wrote : "The Saltinia

w e c o m e s o u t h of t h e C h a n i a i n t o K i a m b u Distj I n 1907 t h e C o n s e r v a t o r of F o r e s t s ( M r . H u t e forest b e t w e e n the L a r i is b e i n g rapidly S w a m p a n d t h e AberdJ by the liativesj

t h e r e is e q u a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e forest was

Range

destroyed

h a v e e l s e w h e r e q u o t e d M r . H i n d e ' s o p i n i o n t h a t this de t i o n is g o i n g f o r w a r d at a n a l a r m i n g r a t e . that a forest belt averaging (See Pile half-a-mile to the 7,1S8.) destroyed 96. 1895, We yearly." Report M r . H i n d e esti in breadth is of Secretary

1st J u n e , i 9 0 7 , ' i n L . O . a r y in t h a t q u a r t e r is v e r y and it m a y

m a y t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e p r e s e n t forest bouj m u c h f u r t h e r o u t w a r d s than it w* as c e r t a i n that t h e 1907 ho be regarded

KIKTJTU
AIlT

PROVINCE THE OLD KIYUYU BOUNDARIES

iCHAPTER

III]

Included i n t h e r e s e r v e all that was e v e r u s e d b y t h e K i k u y u in ls',)-) i n c l u d i n g t h e f o r e s t g l a d e s i n w h i c h t h e y u s e d to d e p a s t u r e Bieir c a t t l e . I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d that the l a n d b e h i n d the p r e s e n t


r

jorest b o u n d a r y r i s e s v e r y r a p i d l y all a l o n g the Ine taken parallel t o it sit a d i s t a n c e i r e r a g e h e i g h t o f 8,000 f t .

Aberdares, and a

o f t w o m i l e s i n s h o w s an

I n spite of t h e l a r g e n u m b e r of easily their credit that stock in

huts
as dense

inch t h e K i k u y u r e p r e s e n t t o h a v e b e e n i n h a b i t e d i n t h e f o r e s t Evidence p p . 8 3 a n d 9 8 ) , o n e c a n n o t :nded t o t h e s e ere altitudes to depasture edge. irest, a n d i t m a y b e t a k e n situated nearer to the

they

the

as practically

certain

that

t h e huts

97. A s a g a i n s t t h i s v i e w m i g h t b e q u o t e d t h e v a r i o u s r e f e r e n c e s i Mianzini m's M a p ) . ikuyu : Discovery Page by Count Teleki of Lukes are Rudolf, etc. either made here "287."Purchases therefore as h a v i n g been Kikuyu country (position shown on homson's M a p , T e l e k i ' s lat c o u n t r y w a s o c c u p i e d M a p , the W a r Office M a p , and Jack rather than

B u t a closer study of t h e m

s h o w s t h a t i n so f a r as

at a l l , i t w a s b y D o r o b o

( N g o n g o B a g a s ) w h e r e t h e n a t i v e s a r e d e a l t w i t h d i r e c t , or at Mianzini, a place a little further From "Early Page Days in East Africa" o n , a*lso o n t h e b o r d e r s of (Sir Frederick Jackson). Kikuyu, w h e r e the D o r o b o act as g o - b e t w e e n s . " 1 7 2 . " O u r last c a m p i n t h e i n h a b i t e d areas w a s on

the e d g e of t h e d e e p a n d t h i c k l y w o o d e d r a v i n e . . . N e x t m o r n ing in d r i z z l i n g r a i n a n d f o g . . . w e e n t e r e d t h e forest and for the next four days we crawled along until we reached M i a n z i n i , w h e r e w e c a m p e d in a n o p e n space s u r r o u n d e d by bamboos." (Note.Sir Frederick had started his journey from a c a m p w h i c h w a s p r a c t i c a l l y o n t h e site w h e r e M u t h a i g a of w h i c h h e w e n t t h r o u g h u n i n h a b i t e d bush.) (Evidence, edge to Club

is n o w , and t o o k s i x d a y s t o g e t t o M i a n z i n i , f o r t h e l a s t four T h e C o n s e r v a t o r of F o r e s t s , M r . H . M . G a r d n e r , c o m m e n t i n g this passage in his m e m o r a n d u m t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n iwl) from 932) s t a t e s t h a t , if it t o o k S i r F r e d e r i c k f o u r d a y s t o m a r c h ( o r t h e last i n h a b i t e d a r e a s o n t h e l o w e r f o r e s t Station" a n d he adds : ianzini, t h e s e h a b i t a t i o n s m u s t h a v e b e e n e of L i m u r u " w e l l on the Nairobi

" A n invasion of the forest further than L i m u r u b y the K i k u y u did n o t b e g i n , a c c o r d i n g t o m y i n f o r m a t i o n , u n t i l t h e a d v e n t of t h e R a i l w a y . "

KIKUYU PART 1CHAPTER I I I ]

PROVINCE THE OLD KIYUYU BOI

Extract Society."

from

"Proceedings (Vol. XIII,

of new

the

Royal

Geographical

s e r i e s , 1 8 9 1 , p. 194.)

" M i a n z i u i ( 8 , 6 5 0 f t . ) . C a r a v a n s t a y e d f r o m 23rd Am to 1 0 t h S e p t e m b e r f o r f o o d t o c a r r y t h e m t o S o t i k . Jack established friendly relations w i t l y i Masai L a i b o n t h e r e . " ( T h e y e a r in r e f e r e n c e From living Evidence near of Turuthi Mianzini. is 1 8 8 9 . ) s/o Githira, the District a Dorobo Head], Gommissiona

before

Kiambu

on 22nd October,

1932.

" O u r c l a i m b e f o r e t h e L a n d C o m m i s s i o n is on behali us a l l . O u r b o u n d a r i e s a r e s h o w n r o u g h l y i n o u r petition t h e L a n d C o m m i s s i o n . W i t h i n t h o s e b o u n d a r i e s w e haves a s m a l l b i t . . . L a r i F o r e s t h a s b e e n s o l d . S o m e near Ese m e n t h a s b e e n sold a n d s o m e n o t . " 9 8 . T h e c o n c l u s i o n s u g g e s t e d is t h a t , w h i l e M i a n z i n i was g a r d e d b y t h e o l d c a r a v a n s as b e i n g K i k u y u c o u n t r y in the sense p r o v i s i o n s c o u l d be b o u g h t h e r e f r o m t h e K i k u y u t h r o u g h the me t i o n of D o r o b o , a n d in t h e s e n s e t h a t o n e h a d t o be on gt a g a i n s t t h e o c c a s i o n a l a r r o w s shot b y K i k u y u b o w m e n conee i n t h e b u s h , i t w a s n o t in a n y s e n s e in t h e p e r m a n e n t occupa of t h e K i k u y u , andt5was m o r e in t h e o c c u p a t i o n of the Dor T h e i s s u e o f t h e a l l e g e d sales of f o r e s t l a n d w i l l b e reviewei C h a p t e r V I I , b u t w i l l n o t affect t h i s o p i n i o n a s t o v i s i b l e occi tion. 9 9 . T h e c u l t i v a t i o n i n t h e L a r i a r e a , n o w r e p r e s e n t e d by L a r i a n d N g a r a r i g a R e s e r v e s , b e g a n s o m e t i m e in the period ] t o 1 9 0 2 . I n a n a r t i c l e p u b l i s h e d i n t h e J o u r n a l of t h e Afrl S o c i e t y i n 1917 t h e l a t e M r . M e r v y n B e e c h , w h o w a s t h e n Assis: D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r in c h a r g e a t D a g o r e t t i , w r o t e of it : " L o c a t i o n (e) (about 4,000 acres) w a s interesting i c o n s i s t e d o f n e w f o r e s t l a n d t o w h i c h t h e K i k u y u had s g r a t e d n o t m o r e t h a n 15 y e a r s a g o . S u c h as a r e here live b y s i d e w i t h t h e D o r o b o w i t h w h o m t h e y h a v e t o a l a r g e ex: intermarried. T h e h o l d i n g s w e r e a p p a r e n t l y bought hers h u n t i n g a r e a s a n d c u l t i v a t i o n is q u i t e r e c e n t . T h e locatioi s i t u a t e d i n t h e f o r e s t a t t h e s u m m i t of t h e K i k u y u Escarpm o v e r l o o k i n g t h e K e d o n g V a l l e y and w a s d i v i d e d into holdings." 1 0 0 . A g r o u p k n o w n as t h e M b a r i y a K i h e r i k o has livei m a n y y e a r s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of K r j a b e M i s s i o n . I t was n s e n t e d i n s w o r n e v i d e n c e b e f o r e M r . L y d e k k e r , D i s t r i c t Office F e b r u a r y , 1 9 2 8 , t h a t o n e , N g u r e , t h e f a t h e r of K i h e r i k o . bo l a n d t h e r e f r o m t w o D o r o b o n a m e d S u t w a a n d K a b i t o , sun! K i h e r i k o h i m s e l f c o m p l e t e d t h e p u r c h a s e b y a p a y m e n t of 300

316
KIICTJYTJ iir I C H A P T E R III] PROVINCE T H E OLD K I Y U Y U BOUNDARIES

ffiter

goats

having

already

been

paid

by

Ngure.

The

sons

of

B h e r i k o are m e n i n t h e p r i m e of l i f e or i n e a r l y m i d d l e a g e a n d , Bice o n e of t h e m a t t e s t e d t o h a v i n g s e e n t h e g o a t s p a i d o v e r , t h e JKnsuetion c a n n o t be of a v e r y r e m o t e d a t e , a l t h o u g h it is p o s s i b l e l i l t K i h e r i k o w a s l i v i n g t h e r e " w i t h t h e D o r o b o " , as o n e Ijs it, f o r several y e a r s b e f o r e t h a t p a y m e n t w a s m a d e . made by M r . ded i n t h e icn Vidal, District file as t h e Commissioner, DND.3/8) descendants of in same (Kiambu, shows witness re 42 his T h e census 71 m e n , and

1928, and

and 97 c h i l d r e n

Kiheriko

fhers, and if a n y o t h e r n a t i v e s w e r e l i v i n g t h e r e as r i g h t - h o l d e r s y w e r e so f e w t h a t t h e i r n a m e s w e r e n o t m e n t i o n e d . elusions I "It after spending clear two that days investigating and his spot w e r e as f o l l o w s : Kiheriko three brothers, o n w h a t is n o w strong grazing . . . was and years Mr. Yidal's claim on the

is q u i t e

M u c h a i , M a n g a r e a n d M a i n a , o w n e d a cjithaka the R a i l w a y evidence w a s b e i n g built Kiheriko's . . . There

the A f r i c a I n l a n d M i s s i o n l a n d i n t h e y e a r s b e f o r e a n d w h i l s t is . . . v e r y and that villages, shambas

grounds w e r e all situated taking place, various In

on t h e i r s o u t h e r n b o r d e r and of thefts from

" W h i l s t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e R a i l w a y i n t h i s a r e a murders coolies porters b u i l d i n g t h e R a i l w a y 1900 and 1 9 0 1 . on the information of and does the drove not took place probably in the these the Headman oil' t h e Njerogi,

consequence

Administration, suspected of place im the has

Kiheriko and his m e n , and t h e y therefore burnt a n u m b e r v i l l a g e s of K i h e r i k o called Kararua." evidence suggest more than that the of N g u r e was living a m o n g the D o r o b o when 101. T h e iate family inhabitants to a

w a y w a s built a n d p o s s i b l y a s e a r l y a s 1 8 9 5 .

This family

n d e d , as p o l y g a m o u s f a m i l i e s o f t e n d o w h e n t h e y a r e f o r t u n a t e , 1 in 1928 it r e a c h e d , a l o n g w i t h i t s d e p e n d a n t s , t h e n u m b e r of It try. does n o t i n d i c a t e the The contrary transaction till that of the land was K i k u y u is that it country was in to, On the implication Dorobo

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afterwards.

102. T h e K o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t m a p of 1 9 0 9 , of w h i c h a p h o t o h i e r e p r o d u c t i o n i n m i n i a t u r e is filed i n V o l u m e I of t h e o r i g i n a l r d of t h e e v i d e n c e , s h o w s h o w v e r y s c a n t y w a s t h e c u l t i v a t i o n at that d a t e . A n a n a l y s i s o f i t w i l l b e g i v e n l a t e r o n . Even ,ay a g r e a t p a r t of t h e a r e a is v i r g i n f o r e s t , e x c e p t f o r t h e ion to w h i c h t h e K i k u y u b e g a n t o p e n e t r a t e i n 1 9 0 2 , as M r . h reported.

K I K U Y U PART I C H A P T E R III]

PROVINCE T H E OLD K I Y U Y U BOUN

1 0 3 . T h e e v i d e n c e o f M r . G . S . B a k e r , l a t e A s s i s t a n t Co s e r v a t o r of F o r e s t s ( E v i d e n c e , p . 6 5 2 ) is t h a t t h e r e w e r e practical n o n a t i v e s o n t h e s o u t h s i d e of t h e R a i l w a y b e t w e e n K i j a b e a t t h e K a m i t i R i v e r in 1902 : "From I v i j a b e o n t h e s o u t h s i d e of t h e r a i l w a y line un o n e g o t t o a b o u t M i l e 357 o n t h e U g a n d a R a i l w a y there w . n o t a. K i k u y u i n a n y of t h e f o r e s t . T h e r e w e r e a f e w sin shambas, p r o b a b l y a b o u t a d o z e n , s o u t h - w e s t of M i l e 355." T h i s , t a k e n i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h M r . B e e c h ' s s t a t e m e n t as -the s e t t l e m e n t of t h e L a r i a r e a o n t h e n o r t h e r n s i d e h a v i n g start a b o u t 1902 a n d w i t h M r . L y d e k k e r ' s a n d M r . V i c l a l ' s investigati i n t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o n t h i s s i d e of t h e K i j a b e M i s s i o n by the fat! a n d b r o t h e r s of K i h e r i k o , p r o v e t h a t t h e w h o l e A b e r d a r e For; b e t w e e n t h e ( S o u t h e r n ) C h a n i a a n d t h e K a m i t i w a s a l m o s t free K i k u y u until after 1902. 104. T h e s a m e t h i n g applies to " U p l a n d s " . T h e Forest I p a r t m e n t m a p of 1 9 0 8 s h o w s o n l y o n e v i l l a g e on i t . I t is call Muthama's. M r . H . M . G a r d n e r , C o n s e r v a t o r of F o r e s t s , t s t a t e d i n h i s m e m o r a n d u m t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n ( E v i d e n c e , p. 9: t h a t M r . G . S . B a k e r i n f o r m e d h i m t h a t o n t h e s o u t h side oft R a i l w a y h e " o n l y r e m e m b e r e d o n e v i l l a g e b e y o n d t h e Kija S w a m p , and this b e l o n g e d to a m a n called M u t h a m a . " 1 0 5 . T h e s a m e is a l s o t r u e o f t h e b e l t o f f a r m s f r o m L. 3696 t o L . O . 2 4 1 / 2 , w h i c h j u t s u p i n t o t h e f o r e s t r e s e r v e north t h e K a m i t i R i v e r . A i r . G i l b e r t , t h e S u r v e y o r G e n e r a l , writes o c e r n i n g t h e m i n a m e m o r a n d u m a d d r e s s e d t o t h e Commission: " R e F a r m s L . O . K o s . 2 3 7 - 2 4 0 , L i m u r u . . . T h e origi: s u r v e y w a s n o t c a r r i e d o u t by m e b u t b y A i r . W o o d r u f f so y e a r s b e f o r e 1 9 1 3 . I w a s e n g a g e d o n t h e definition of : b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e f r e e h o l d a n d t h e l e a s e h o l d portions,! as e r r o r s i n t h e o r i g i n a l w o r k w e r e r e v e a l e d in t h e course of s u r v e y , I e v e n t u a l l y m a d e a r e - s u r v e y of t h e f a r m s , but n o t e x t e n d t h i s t o i n c l u d e L . E . N o . 241 t o t h e n o r t h . " A t t h e t i m e of m y s u r v e y t h e l a n d h a d been clei r o u g h l y u p to t h e s o u t h b a n k of t h e K a m i t i R i v e r shown t h e a t t a c h e d p r i n t . T h e c l e a r e d p o r t i o n s t i l l c o n t a i n e d pate of f o r e s t b u t t h e r e w e r e n u m e r o u s shambas a n d w a t t l e plar. t o n s . I n p a r t i c u l a r I r e m e m b e r a l a r g e m a i z e shamba extei i n g a c r o s s t h e b o u n d a r y l i n e I B 4 - B S 7 a n d about 200 ya northwards. " T o t h e n o r t h of t h e K a m i t i R i v e r t h e forest stretc: d e n s e a n d u n b r o k e n , t h o u g h I r e c o l l e c t s e e i n g a small elf i n g a b o u t t w o a c r e s i n e x t e n t i n L . R . 2 4 0 . T h e r e may 1 . b e e n o n e o r t w o m o r e s i m i l a r p a t c h e s w h i c h e s c a p e d my DO! b u t i n a n a r e a of 1 0 0 a c r e s t h e y w o u l d n o t u p s e t t h e statent

K I K U Y U I-CXAITER III]

PROVINCE T H E OLD K I Y C Y U BOUNDARIES

that n o r t h of t h e K a m i t i R i v e r I d i d n o t s u r v e y L . R . 2 4 1 to be seen o f i t i n t h e c o u r s e of and a b o u t a t h o u s a n d y a r d s t o the impression that the w h o l e 100. tiird Before accepting the

t h e land w a s still under forest. t h e north but f r o m w h a t could cutting the southern boundary the western boundary I derived of it w a s u n d e r d e n s e f o r e s t . " suggested what it is r i g h t can to be

conclusion and consider

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evidence,

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corded t o i t . 107. T h e t o t a l a r e a of the A b e r d a r e f o r e s t b e t w e e n the outhern) C h a n i a a n d t h e K a m i t i o n t h e n o r t h s i d e of t h e R a i i iv. t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e s n o w c o n t a i n e d i n it a n d /ether w i t h U p l a n d s a n d t h e A f r i c a I n l a n d M i s s i o n a n d t h e b e l t of ins to w h i c h w e h a v e r e f e r r e d , is 174 s q u a r e m i l e s . T h e c l a i m s ide b y K i k u y u f a m i l y g r o u p s t o r i g h t s i n t h i s a r e a h a v e b e e n nunarized in a t a b u l a t i o n ( E v i d e n c e , p. 358) w h i c h s h o w s t h a t c n u m b e r of mbaris w h i c h h a v e m a d e c l a i m s is 1 1 2 . T h e y r e p r e nt 39,597 p e r s o n s n o w l i v i n g , w h o a r e r e p r e s e n t e d as e i t h e r ' h a v K occupied t h e a r e a as r i g h t - h o l d e r s or r e l a t i o n s i n l a w o r t e n a n t s as b e i n g t h e d e s c e n d a n t s of s u c h o c c u p i e r s . O n l y t h i r t y y e a r s ving e l a p s e d s i n c e r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t h e u s e o f t h e f o r e s t w e r e i n t r o .ced b y t h e F o r e s t R u l e s of 1 9 0 2 , it is n o t c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t t h e filiation c a n h a v e d o u b l e d b y n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e i n t h a t t i m e , a n d round f i g u r e s w e m a y s a y t h a t t h e s e figures c o u l d o n l y m e a n m there, w e r e at l e a s t 2 5 , 0 0 0 a c t u a l o c c u p a n t s at t h a t t i m e . t This mild m e a n a d e n s i t y of 144 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e l i v i n g i n a c o u n t r y liich is e v e n n o w f o r t h e m o s t p a r t v i r g i n f o r e s t . 108. O n l y 8 1 of t h e s e 1 1 2 mbaris h a v e stated the n u m b e r of tits and o t h e r t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y p a i d t o t h e D o r o b o f o r t h e l a n d , heir a l l e g e d p a y m e n t s t o t a l 3 9 , 2 4 0 g o a t s , a n d o t h e r t h i n g s t o atch, i n c l u d i n g f o u r g i r l s g i v e n i n m a r r i a g e , a n d b l o o d - m o n e y f o r ro p e r s o n s k i l t e d . I f w e a l l o w f o r t h e o t h e r mbaris proportion ely, a n d e x p r e s s t h e w h o l e s u m in t e r m s of g o a t s a t a n a s s e s s ent f o l l o w i n g n a t i v e c u s t o m , w e s h o u l d a r r i v e at a g r a n d t o t a l not less t h a n 7 0 , 0 0 0 g o a t s . W h e n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e iambu D i s t r i c t w a s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of f r o m s i x t y to s i x t y re t h o u s a n d , a r e w e e x p e c t e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t n e a r l y h a l f of t h e m civ o c c u p y i n g t h e A b e r d a r e F o r e s t o r t h a t t h e t h r i f t y K i k u y u (iiiid h a v e paid t h i s c o l o s s a l s u m i n g o a t s " m a n y c e n t u r i e s p a s t " even b e f o r e 1895 f o r l a n d w h i c h w a s s t i l l v i r g i n f o r e s t i n id to a l a r g e e x t e n t is so t o - d a y ? 1902

109. M u c h of t h e c l a i m is h e a v i l y d i s p u t e d b y t h e D o r o b o . he " M b a r i y a C h o i r o " ( D o r o b o ) c l a i m 1,193 m e m b e r s a n d t h e Mbari y a T h u n g u , G a c h o k a , a n d K i n g o r a " ( a l s o D o r o b o ) c l a i m 870 m e m b e r s . E v e n t h e s e b y t h e m s e l v e s a r e a h e a v i e r p o p u l a t i o n inn the f o r e s t c a n e v e r r e a l l y h a v e s u p p o r t e d .

K I K U Y U P A H T 1 C H A P T E R 111]

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I Y U Y U BOUNDAK

110. O n e c o u l d g o o n i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e a b s u r d i t y of these exa* g e r a t i o n s . B u t i t is n o t n e c e s s a r y to l a b o u r t h e p o i n t . A f t e r ever a l l o w a n c e h a s b e e n m a d e f o r t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the s a m e mba] m a y h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d u n d e r d i f f e r e n t c l a i m s a n d so h a v e appeare t w i c e in t h e l i s t , w e d o n o t see h o w t h e K i k u y u e v i d e n c e regardiri t h i s a r o a c a n be r e g a r d e d o t h e r w i s e t h a n as a c o m p l e t e misrepre s e n t a t i o n of t h e f a c t s a n d o n e i s e m i n e n t l y justified in disregardin it I f a n y l i n g e r i n g d o u b t w e r e l e f t , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s fror M r . R . O . P r e s t o n *s " T h e G e n e s i s of a C o l o n y " should suffice t d i s p e l it : From Chapter XIX.

" K a i l - h e a d w a s n o w fast a p p r o a c h i n g t h e s u m m i t of th g r e a t K i k u y u E s c a r p m e n t . A t this h e i g h t , o v e r 7,800 feet . . w e h a d m a d e a t e m p o r a r y c a m ] ) o n t h e b o r d e r s of the Lai S w a m p . O u r c a m p h a d n o t b e e n l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d w h e n sore n a t i v e s c a m e in w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a h e r d of e l e p h a n t wet. in t h e d e n s e f o r e s t c l o s e b y . P r o m p t l y o u r g u n s w e r e mustera a n d t h r e e of us s t a r t e d o u t a f t e r t h e i v o r y . W e soon reache. t h e f o r e s t a n d p l u n g e d r i g h t i n . T h e g r e a t i n t e r l a c e d masse of b r a n c h e s a n d v i n e s o v e r h e a d m a d e t h e p l a c e a l m o s t dark but o n w e s t r u g g l e d , f o r c i n g o u r w a y t h r o u g h t h i c k l y growini b r a c k e n , p a s t t a l l t r e e f e r n s , a n d n e t w o r k of t a n g l e d creepers W e k e p t w e l l t o g e t h e r u n t i l w e r e a c h e d a p a t c h of wit b r a m b l e s . H e r e w e s t u c k . A l l a t t e m p t s t o g e t t h r o u g h failed b u t w e k e p t a t it u n t i l it s e e m e d e v i d e n t t h a t , if w e did no g i v e i n , w e w o u l d r e t u r n to c a m p in r a g s . W e gave th brambles " b e s t " a n d r e t r a c e d o u r s t e p s , m a k i n g for th elephants from another d i r e c t i o n . " From Chapter XX.

" A p p r o a c h i n g the E s c a r p m e n t the train climbs i n m m i w a b l e c u r v e s t h r o u g h d e n s e f o r e s t a n d t h e g u a r d a n d driver at s e l d o m in s i g h t of e a c h o t h e r . . . " 4 1 1 . F u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e of th K i k u y u o c c u p a t i o n in t h i s a r e a h a s b e e n g i v e n to t h e Commissio: b y M r . B a t t i s c o m b e , t h e H o n . C h a r l e s D u n d a s , M r . A . G . Bake a n d M r . I s a a c . R e l e v a n t e x t r a c t s a r e q u o t e d i n s e c t i o n (d) of th Appendix. T h e Forest Edge North of the K a m i t i . 112- W h i l e t h e e v i d e n c e s h o w s t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y evervthitii w e s t of t h e p r e s e n t b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e C h a n i a a n d the Karait f o r e s t , i t d o e s n o t s h o w h o w f a r t h e f o r e s t e x t e n d e d to the eas of t h e r e s e r v e b o u n d a r y . P r a c t i c a l l y t h e o n l y e v i d e n c e on the stilt j e c t is M r . H i n d e ' s r e p o r t t h a t d e s t r u c t i o n of f o r e s t w a s poinsr o t v e r y r a p i d l y , a n d i t is t h e r e f o r e r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e that it ex t e n d e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e f u r t h e r t o t h e e a s t w a r d in 1S95 that in 1907 w h e n t h e F o r e s t R e s e r v e w a s d e m a r c a t e d .
a s

K I K U Y U
l i n

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I Y U Y U BOUNDARIES

iCHAPTER

III]

113. W e h a v e n o w c a r r i e d o u r b o u n d a r y t o t h e K a m i t i , a n d my w e l l p a u s e a t t h i s p o i n t t o c o n s i d e r w h a t t h e K i k u y u h a v e lined or l o s t i n t h i s a r e a as t h e r e s u l t of t h e d e m a r c a t i o n o f t h e irest b o u n d a r y i n 1 9 0 7 . 114. W e l e a v e o u t of a c c o u n t t h e q u e s t i o n of K a k e r i ' s a n d her n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s r o u n d N y e r i , a l l o w i n g it t o s t a n d o v e r nil w e b a l a n c e t h e a c c o u n t i n C h a p t e r V I . H e r e w e c o n s i d e r o n l y o Aberdare boundary. 115. N o c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s p a i d to t h e n a t i v e s , a n d the q u e s ;i is w h e t h e r a n y c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s d u e . 110. T h e ;i a n y case Hows : ( 1 ) " Y o u c a l l it a " g i v e - a n d - t a k e ' l i n e o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t , w h i l e y o u t o o k s o m e of o u r c l e a r i n g s , y o u l e f t us s e v e r a l p a t c h e s a n d p r o m o n t o r i e s of f o r e s t . B u t y o u c a n n o t r e a l l y r e g a r d t h e s e as a set-cff. Y o u r o n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t a k i n g a n y f o r e s t w a s lor p r o t e c t i n g essential w a t e r supplies, and these o u t l y i n g patches w e r e not necessary for that purpose. T h e y w e r e neces sary t o us a n d y o u c a n n o t r e g a r d it as a ' s e t - o f t " t h a t y o u did not t a k e t h e m . (2) W e t h e r e f o r e c l a i m c o m p e n s a t i o n for w h a t y o u took in t h e f o r e s t t h e c l e a r i n g s w h e r e w e u s e d t o g r a z e our c a t t l e and t h e t r e e s o n w h i c h w e u s e d t o h a n g o u r h o n e y b a r r e l s . We will w a i v e the point about free timber and firewood, because w e g r a n t t h a t t h e p r e v e n t i o n of f u r t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n w a s n e c e s sary i n o u r o w n i n t e r e s t as w e l l as t h a t of t h e c o u n t r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w e h a d r e g a r d e d t h i s l a n d as o p e n to u s for f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n a n d it is p o s s i b l e t h a t w h e n w e h a v e l e a r n t t o g r o w trees i n o u r o w n r e s e r v e ( a n d i n t h i s c o n n e x i o n w e call a t t e n tion t o t h e s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d a c r e s of o u r w a t t l e p l a n t a t i o n s ) t h e s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e a r e a as f o r e s t m a y n o t be n e c e s sary, a n d w e o u g h t t o h a v e a r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t in i t . ( 3 ) W h i l e w e g r a n t t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h e f o r e s t w a s of b e n e f i t t o u s , i n t h a t it h a s h e l p e d t o c o n s e r v e our w a t e r supply a n d o u r c l i m a t e , n e v e r t h e l e s s w e t h i n k t h a t , if i t h a d belonged to a private E u r o p e a n l a n d o w n e r , he would have been c o m p e n s a t e d . ( 4 ) I n r e g a r d t o t h e a r e a south of t h e C h a n i a o u r a r g u m e n t is s t r e n g t h e n e d To these points by the the fact Forest that w e bought the land." r e p l y :
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( 1 ) " M u c h of t h e l a n d o n b o t h s i d e s o f t h e l i n e w a s s t i l l substantially forest and the K i k u y u h a d n o t y e t fully m a d e good t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n e v e n on t h e i r o w n s i d e . T h e s e t t l e m e n t

K I K U Y U yCHAPTER III]

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I Y U Y U BOUNDARIES

113. W e h a v e n o w c a r r i e d o u r b o u n d a r y t o t h e K a m i t i , a n d v w e l l p a u s e a t t h i s p o i n t to c o n s i d e r w h a t t h e K i k u y u h a v e icd or l o s t i n t h i s a r e a as t h e r e s u l t of t h e d e m a r c a t i o n of t h e ;st b o u n d a r y i n 1 9 0 7 . 114. W e l e a v e o u t of a c c o u n t t h e q u e s t i o n of K a k e r i ' s a n d er n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t s r o u n d N y e r i , a l l o w i n g i t to s t a n d o v e r T w e balance the account in Chapter V I . H e r e w e consider only Aberdare boundary. 115. N o c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s p a i d to t h e n a t i v e s , a n d t h e q u e s is w h e t h e r a n y c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s d u e . Liu. T h e c a s e for t h e K i k u y u , if t h e y w e r e e v e r c o n t e n t any c a s e w i t h m o d e r a t i o n , m i g h t b e a r g u e d b y t h e m to as

(1) " Y o u c a l l it a " g i v e - a n d - t a k e ' l i n e o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t , w h i l e y o u t o o k s o m e of o u r c l e a r i n g s , y o u l e f t us s e v e r a l p a t c h e s and p r o m o n t o r i e s of f o r e s t . B u t y o u c a n n o t r e a l l y r e g a r d t h e s e as a set-oil'. Y o u r o n l y j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t a k i n g a n y f o r e s t w a s lor p r o t e c t i n g e s s e n t i a l w a t e r s u p p l i e s , a n d t h e s e o u t l y i n g patches w e r e not n e c e s s a r y f o r t h a t p u r p o s e . T h e y w e r e n e c e s sary t o us a n d y o u c a n n o t r e g a r d it as a ' s e t - o f f ' t h a t y o u d i d not t a k e t h e m . (2) W e therefore c l a i m c o m p e n s a t i o n for w h a t y o u took in t h e f o r e s t t h e c l e a r i n g s w h e r e w e u s e d t o g r a z e o u r c a t t l e and t h e t r e e s o n w h i c h w e u s e d t o h a n g o u r h o n e y b a r r e l s . We will w a i v e t h e p o i n t about free t i m b e r a n d firewood, because w e g r a n t t h a t t h e p r e v e n t i o n of f u r t h e r d e s t r u c t i o n w a s n e c e s sary in o u r o w n i n t e r e s t as w e l l a s t h a t of t h e c o u n t r y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w e h a d r e g a r d e d t h i s l a n d as o p e n to us f o r f u t u r e expansion and it is possible that w h e n w e h a v e learnt to g r o w trees i n o u r o w n r e s e r v e ( a n d i n t h i s c o n n e x i o n w e c a l l a t t e n tion t o t h e s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d a c r e s of o u r w a t t l e p l a n t a t i o n s ) the s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e a r e a as f o r e s t m a y n o t b e n e c e s sary, a n d w e o u g h t t o h a v e a r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t in i t . (3.) W h i l e w e g r a n t t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of t h e f o r e s t w a s of b e n e f i t t o u s , i n t h a t it h a s h e l p e d t o c o n s e r v e o u r w a t e r supply a n d o u r c l i m a t e , n e v e r t h e l e s s w e t h i n k t h a t , if it h a d b e l o n g e d t o a p r i v a t e E u r o p e a n l a n d o w n e r , he w o u l d h a v e been c o m p e n s a t e d . ( 4 ) I n r e g a r d t o t h e area s o u t h of t h e C h a n i a our a r g u m e n t is s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t w e b o u g h t t h e l a n d . " To t h e s e p o i n t s the Forest Department might reply :

( I ) " M u c h o f t h e l a n d o n b o t h s i d e s of t h e l i n e w a s s t i l l substantially forest a n d t h e K i k u y u h a d n o t y e t fully m a d e good t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n e v e n on t h e i r o w n s i d e . T h e s e t t l e m e n t

K I K U Y U PART I C H A P T E R III]

PROVINCE T H E OLD K I Y U Y U BOU.\

w a s generous to t h e m . I n a d d i t i o n t o M r . C o x ' s repc Professor G r e g o r y m a y be cited ( " R i f t V a l l e y s and G e o l o ^ E a s t A f r i c a " , 1 9 2 1 , p p . 154 a n d 1 6 6 ) ; of 1 8 9 3 . " T h e c o u n t r y , e s p e c i a l l y i n N o r t h e r n Kikm land w a s t h e n c o v e r e d b y such dense forest that it was r p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n a g e n e r a l v i e w o f t h e c o u n t r y . ' of 1 9 1 9 . ' O n e of t h e m o s t s t a r t l i n g c h a n g e s betwe t h e c o n d i t i o n s of 1893 a n d 1919 w a s t h a t o b s e r v e d from i h i l l s a t N y e r i o v e r a w i d e r a n g e of o p e n d o w n s which \ replaced formerly impenetrable K i k u y u forests.' ( 2 ) T h e c l a i m f o r r e v e r s i o n a r y i n t e r e s t is n o t likely a r i s e , s i n c e n o g r e a t c o n f i d e n c e c a n b e p l a c e d i n t h e planti of t r e e s b y t h e K i k u y u . I f t h e p r i c e of w a t t l e f a l l s , they t not plant it, except a little for firewood. ( 3 ) I t is t r u e t h a t a p r i v a t e l a n d o w n e r m i g h t h a v e lit compensated. B u t t h e K i k u y u w e r e o n l y p e r m i s s i v e use a n d t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r u s e lias b e e n c o m p e n s a t e d in the and-take' line. A s f o r a m e n i t i e s , t h e b e n e f i c i a l effect of i f o r e s t on c l i m a t e a n d w a t e r s u p p l y m o r e t h a n counterbalare w h a t e v e r amenities have been lost. ( 4 ) A s t o t h e c l a i m of p u r c h a s e , o n e c a n n o t h e l p bei s c e p t i c a l w h e n m o r e t h a n 4 0 , 0 0 0 K i k u y u c l a i m r i g h t s deriv f r o m p u r c h a s e i n t h e A b e r d a r e a n d E s c a r p m e n t F o r e s t s sot of t h e C h a n i a . ( 5 ) T h e F o r e s t R u l e s of 1 9 0 2 w e r e a p p l i e d to an ; u e x t e n d i n g f o u r m i l e s e a c h s i d e of t h e R a i l w a y f r o m Linn t o K i j a b e . w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of E s t a b l i s h e d c u l t i v a t i o n of t K i k u y u o n t h e e a s t of t h e l i n e f r o m t h e L i m u r u t o the L S w a m p . ' A n d y e t t h e K i k u y u w e n t o n c l e a r i n g , w i t h the re; t h a t , w h e n t h e l i n e w a s c u t , t h e y g o t m o r e t h a n they wot o t h e r w i s e h a v e h a d , a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e t h a n t h e y deserve' 11.7. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t , o n t h e b a l a n c e of t h e s e tw^o argumen n o injustice has b e e n d o n e to the K i k u y u . taken that, w h e n G o v e r n m e n t fixed B u t t h e p o i n t must t h e b o u n d a r y , it p r e v e n t e d

K i k u y u f r o m e x p a n d i n g i n t h e m a n n e r w h i c h w a s n a t u r a l to the a n d u n d e r t h e first t e r m of r e f e r e n c e w e h a v e t h e d u t y of provid: f o r t h e i r n e e d s i n s o m e o t h e r w a y n o t n e c e s s a r i l y as a tribe, a n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b y t h e p r o v i s i o n of a b l o c k o f l a n d , b u t b y provid: s c o p e f o r t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e w a y w h i c h a p p e a r s m o s t snita for Lnri; them. 118. T h e r e r e m a i n s a further point t o be considered.

KHWrTom' Mukoma's.

F o u r a r e a s , w h i c h w e r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e f o r e s t , w e r e exclm f r o m i t b y t h e d e m a r c a t i o n of 1907 a n d t u r n e d i n t o N a t i v e Reserv T h r e e of t h e m n a m e d L a i d , N g a r a r i g a a n d K i t h i r i o n i , a r e sitna

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K I K U Y U j CHAPTF.II I I I ] PROVINCE THE OLD K I Y U Y U BOUNDARIES

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efore us t h a t i n 1902 i t w a s a l m o s t as s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d as t h e her t h r e e . 119. B e t w e e n 1902 a n d 1907 s o m e K i k u y u w h o h a d b e e n d i s ssessed f r o m imuru f a r m s nd w e s t o f d of Volume lands alienated to E u r o p e a n s and particularly began I of to colonize the orginal the Escarpment numbers. shows evidence Forest The map and at considerable the the the as and

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1 2 1 . O n a n a l y s i s t h e 30,866 a c r e s e n c l o s e d b y t h e b l u e l i n e a r e ound t o b e c o m p o s e d of 3 , 0 4 1 a c r e s d e s c r i b e d as c u l t i v a t e d ; 3 , 5 9 2 eres of g r a s s l a n d ; 7,3S8 a c r e s of s c r u b ; 16,546 a c r e s of f o r e s t , a n d 99 a c r e s of s w a m p . I f w e c o u n t t h e c u l t i v a t e d a n d g r a s s l a n d as nd i n u s e , t h e s c r u b as p a r t l y u s e d , a n d e x c l u d e t h e f o r e s t a n d -amp, w e g e t :Acres. Land Land in in use partial ... use ... ... ... ... Total ... ... ... 6,633 7,3SS 14,021

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lefore 1 9 0 2 , h a d b e e n m a d e i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e F o r e s t R u l e s if 1902, w h i c h w e r e a p p l i e d to t h i s a r e a , a n d p r o h i b i t e d t h e c u t t i n g , l a m a g i n g or r e m o v i n g of a n y t r e e , t i m b e r , or g r a s s a n d t h e p a s t u r ng of any stock.

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER III]

PROVINCE THE OLD K I Y U Y U BOUM-AII

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e q u i v a l e n t f o r all t h e c u l t i v a t e d a n d g r a s s l a n d w h i c h t h e y l o s t , a -also l e a v e a b a l a n c e of s o m e 2 , 1 0 0 a c r e s to b e set-off u s e w h i c h t h e y h a d h a d of t h e s c r u b i n w h i c h t h e i r g o a t s h a d rui 1 2 5 . T h i s w a s n o t u n g e n e r o u s t r e a t m e n t . I n s p i t e of t h e f a t h a t t h e i r c l e a r i n g s w e r e m o s t l y i l l e g i t i m a t e , t h e n a t i v e s w e r e give a fair e q u i v a l e n t for all that they had effectively occupied. X d o u b t t h i s w a s b e c a u s e i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e s e n a t i v e s , h a v i n g fo t h e i r l a n d s o n t h e L i m u r u f a r m s , s h o u l d be a l l o w e d s o m e t h i n g i -compensation. 1 2 8 . W e c o n s i d e r t h e r e f o r e t h a t w h e n G o v e r n m e n t gazette t h e s e a r e a s as n a t i v e r e s e r v e , i t a m o u n t e d to a g i f t t o t h e Kikuv w h i c h m a y l e g i t i m a t e l y be set-off a g a i n s t a n e q u i v a l e n t a r e a of tl Linluru farms. B u t w e must add t w o cpialifications. F i r s t l y , is c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e K i k u y u h a t ! t o m a k e p a y m e n t s to tl D o r o b o t o s e c u r e t h e i r f o o t i n g i n t h e n e w a r e a , a n d t h e s e paymen - e x c e e d e d t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h t h e y r e c e i v e d f o r t h e land c w h i c h t h e y w e r e d i s p o s s e s s e d , s o m e a l l o w a n c e m u s t b e m a d e ft that and for the additional disturbance involved. Secondly, w s h a l l a l l o w f o r t h e c l e a r i n g w h i c h a l r e a d y e x i s t e d i n 1 9 0 2 . But i h a p p e n s t h a t a set-off t o t h i s h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d b y o t h e r mean; s e e i n g t h a t f o u r h u n d r e d a c r e s of t h e A f r i c a I n l a n d M i s s i o n s K i j a b o h a s b e e n s u r r e n d e r e d to t h e r e s e r v e in o r d e r to aecommoelat t h e K i h e r i k o tnbari a n d L . O . 4 4 5 0 ( 4 4 0 a c r e s ) h a s b e e n earmarke as a f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e . A f e w h u n d r e d a c r e s in ado: t i o n to t h a t s h o u l d b e a sufficient set-off t o all p r e - e x i s t i n g intere?: b e f o r e 1902 a n d a l s o a sufficient c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a n y m a t e r i a l lo i n t h e s h a p e of g o a t s p a i d o v e r t o t h e D o r o b o . T h e extravagat -claims of t h e K i k u y u in r e g a r d t o t h e n u m b e r of g o a t s p a i d ove
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KIJVTJYU J. CHAPTER I I I ]

PROVINCE
THE OLD K I Y U Y U BOUNDARIES

sec section 108 a b o v e ) c o n v i n c e s us o f t h e u t t e r h o p e l e s s n e s s of etting any reliable e v i d e n c e on this p o i n t , a n d w e m u s t m a k e up for m i n d s o n t h e g e n e r a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f t h e c a s e . 127. T h e t o t a l a d d i t i o n s t o t h e K i k u y u K e s e r v e i n t h i s area,, btually g a z e t t e d or a g r e e d a n d a w a i t i n g g a z e t t e m e n t , a r e : Acres. These four reserves ... ... ... 8,750

T h e land ceded by the Africa I n l a n d M i s sion i n t h e s e t t l e m e n t w i t h t h e K-iheriko ( L . O . 388/1) L . O . 4450 Total ...

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- ^ K a m i t i a n d o n t o the c t e n t i o u s a r e a n o w k n o w n ^is t h e L i r n u r u f a r m s . A m a p has \ , p r e p a r e d b y t h e S u r v e y D e p a r t m e n t to i l l u s t r a t e C o u n t Tele j o u r n e y , a n d is r e p r o d u c e d h e r e . T h e first s t e p i n p r e p a r i n g it t o c o r r e c t t h e e r r o r in o r i e n t a t i o n w h i c h o c c u r s i n C o u n t Tele m a p and t h e n i o t r a c e out h i s l i n e o n a m o d e r n m a p . This t h e n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e n o t e s i n t h e b o o k w h i c h r e c o r d the ; t u d e s a n d s o m e o t h e r d e t a i l s w h i c h w e r e of use in f i x i n g the p t i o n , a n d c o r r e c t i o n s w e r e m a d e so as t o a g r e e w i t h these mi a n d t h e f i n a l r e s u l t i s r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g a s a c c u r a t e as circi s t a n c e s w i l l p e r m i t . I t s h o w s C o u n t T e l e k i ' s r o u t e as passing n t h e e a s t e r n e n d of t h e L i m u r u f a r m s , p o s s i b l y c r o s s i n g w h a t is i Mr. K n i g h t f a r m (a d o u b t f u l p o i n t j , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y cros w h a t are n o w K a m u n y u Syndicate, N j u n u E s t a t e , K i n g a t o r e ; Kacheroba. E x a c t accuracy, h o w e v e r , cannot be claimed.
1 2 9 e n o w c o m e

1 3 0 . T h e d a t e w h e n C o u n t T e l e k i w a s c r o s s i n g t h e area t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e p r e s e n t L i m u r u f a r m s w a s f r o m the rat i n g o f 1 3 t h S e p t e m b e r t o t h e m o r n i n g o f l o t h S e p t e m b e r , IS a n d e x t r a c t s w h i c h w i l l b e f o u n d i n s e c t i o n ( e ) of t h e Appen s h o w t h a t a t a l l e v e n t s t h e e a s t e r n e n d of t h e L i m u r u farms \ o c c u p i e d K i k u y u c o u n t r y b y I S 8 7 a n d w a s n o t i n t h e forest b I t m a y b e a s s u m e d t h a t b y 1895 t h e r e h a d b e e n s o m e fart e x t e n s i o n of cultivation t o w a r d s t h e w e s t . T h i s undoubtedly c e i v e d a v e r y s e v e r e c h e c k i n t h e f a m i n e of 1 8 9 8 - 9 9 , w h i c h lars a c c o u n t s f o r t h e f a c t t h a t , w h e n t h e s e f a r m s w e r e a l i e n a t e d , onl s p a r s e p o p u l a t i o n w a s f o u n d a n d t h i s l a n d h a d l a r g e l y reverted bush. 1 3 1 . I n a m e m o r a n d u m b y M r . H o b l e y d a t e d 2 0 t h Februt 1 9 2 1 , i n S e c r e t a r i a t E i l e A r c h i v e s 2 1 1 / V o l . 1, it is stated t " c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a c t u a l s t a n d i n g c r o p s w a s i n a f e w instan p a i d b y t h e l a n d o w n e r t o t h e n a t i v e c u l t i v a t o r . " A r e g i s t e r rece i n g t h e s e t r a n s a c t i o n s e x i s t s at K i a m b u a n d h a s b e e n examined the Commission T h e t o t a l a m o u n t e n t e r e d , r e l a t i n g t o t h e Lim a r e a , a m o u n t s t o 1,049 r u p e e s a n d 4 a n n a s , a l l p a i d b e t w e e n 1 a n d 190S. C o m p e n s a t i o n w a s p a i d at t h e r a t e of E s . 2 an :u t h i s w o u l d r e p r e s e n t 5 2 4 a c r e s o f c u l t i v a t i o n i n a t o t a l area a p p r o x i m a t e l y 20,136 a c r e s . T h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e compensat a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n p a i d f o r l a n d i n t h e c e n t r a l a n d west p a r t s o f t h e a r e a , n o t a b l y M r . B u x t o n ' s , M r . A . G. Caine's, R a i n b o w ' s , M r . D u i r s ' , M r . L a n g m o r e ' s a n d M r . H a H ' s . Ha\

K I K U Y U j CHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE T H E OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

urd t o t h e p o s i t i o n i n t h e e a s t e r n e n d of t h e a r e a m e n t i o n e d in preceding section this particular evidence perhaps indicates t t h e r e w a s n o t m u c h d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e d e g r e e of c u l t i v a at t h e e a s t e r n a n d w e s t e r n e n d s . 13'2. W h i l e the total amount of cultivation for which com total that in dation w a s p a i d r e p r e s e n t s o n l y a b o u t 1.8 p e r c e n t of t h e a of t h e L i m u r u f a r m s , i t w o u l d n o t b e r i g h t t o c o n c l u d e ; was a l l t h e c u l t i v a t i o n t h e r e w a s . t compensation w a s paid w i t h o u t u' cases t h e r e c o r d m a y a record being

I n m a n y c a s e s i t is p r o b a b l e kept, and there accept

h a v e b e e n k e p t in N a i r o b i , a n d the n a t i v e occupier did not on the land.

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ipensation, but e l e c t e d to r e m a i n

133. I n e v i d e n c e g i v e n b e f o r e u s M r . C . R . W . L a n e p o i n t s that in 1896 t h e l a n d o n b o t h s i d e s of t h e l i n e b e t w e e n K i k u y u tion a n d L i m u r u w a s o c c u p i e d a n d c u l t i v a t e d b y t h e K i k u y u . B o e d e k e r , r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s a m e y e a r , states t h a t occupation s on t h e e a s t side o n l y , b u t a d d s t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n n o r t h of t h e mini S t a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a f e w o u t c a s t s ; t h e l a n d n e a r T i g o n i s p o p u l a t e d a s t h i c k l y as t h e r e s t o f t h e r e s e r v e , w a s c u l t i v a t e d (1 had v i l l a g e s ; t h e K i k u y u h a d m o r e s h e e p a n d g o a t s t h a n t h e y vc n o w . B u t t h i s p o p u l a t i o n l a r g e l y d i s a p p e a r e d i n t h e f a m i n e , d the e v i d e n c e of M e s s r s . I m p e y a n d H a l l i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n 1 9 0 4 p population had then b e c o m e v e r y m e a g r e . 134. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e a j u s t c o n c l u s i o n o n t h i s evidence prior were the be the at the L i m u r u f a r m s w e r e s p a r s e l y o c c u p i e d b y t h e K i k u y u alienation, w e r e s o m e w h a t h e a v i l y c o v e r e d w i t h b u s h , b u t ltivation a n d o c c u p a t i o n w a s g r e a t e r .

t f o r e s t , a n d it is p r o b a b l e t h a t , b e f o r e t h e f a m i n e , t h e d e g r e e o f I f w e a t t e m p t to trace uer e d g e of t h e f o r e s t a s i t s t o o d i n 1895 w e m u s t n e c e s s a r i l y bitrary, b u t p e r h a p s w e c a n n o t d o b e t t e r t h a n d r a w i t f r o m the m a n n e r d thence i l l u s t r a t e d o n t h e m a p ) as f a r as L i m u r u the Railway to Muguga Station.

int w h e r e w e l e f t it o n t h e K a m i t i P a v e r i n a s l i g h t l y c u r v e d l i n e Station This is of "un following

obably a s o m e w h a t g e n e r o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e l i m i t o f uivocal K i k u y u c o u n t r y " ost of t h e p o i n t s of doubt.

in 1895, and gives t h e m the benefit

135. B e t w e e n 1S95 a n d 1902 t h e r e w a s a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f niissible a c q u i s i t i o n b y h o n e y c o m b i n g o f t h e f o r e s t l a n d t o t h e estward b y a f e w c l e a r i n g s a n d s e t t l e m e n t s . T h e e x t e n t of t h e ea w h i c h i n o u r j u d g m e n t m u s t b e h e l d t o h a v e b e e n a f f e c t e d i n is w a y is s h o w n o n t h e m a p b y a cross h a t c h i n g of y e l l o w a n d ' on a g r e e n b a c k g r o u n d , a n d is 4.50 s q u a r e m i l e s of c o u n t r y , :uated c l o s e t o t h e R a i l w a y , b e t w e e n t h e K a m i t i R i v e r a n d t h e nguga F o r e s t .

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE THE O L D K I K U Y U BOU

1 3 6 . T h e e v i d e n c e o n w h i c h t h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s based i. c i p a l l y a m a p , K i a m b u N o . 1 of 1 9 0 7 , w h i c h s h o w s several \ on t h e l a n d l e a s e d t o M r . K a y M o u a t ( L . O . 176 a n d J77 D a g o r e t t i R e g i s t e r w h i c h s h o w s c o m p e n s a t i o n p a i d out n a t i v e v i l l a g e s o n t h a t l a n d ; a n d M r . L a n e ' s e v i d e n c e , refer 1896 o r 1897, t h a t t h e r e w a s c u l t i v a t i o n b o t h s i d e s of the r f r o m L i m u r u t o K i k u y u S t a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e . T h e l a t t e r e\ d o e s n o t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e r e c o l l e c t i o n s of o t h e r witness it is e v i d e n t t h a t s u c h c u l t i v a t i o n as t h e r e w a s m u s t hav very sparse. T h e map to which the late M r . Justice H . sioner in K e n y a ; a copy of t h e o r i g i n a l r e c o r d of r e f e r e n c e is m a d e a b o v e w a s prepa 11. M c C l u r e , f o r m e r l y a D i s t r i c t Ci of it h a s b e e n filed at t h e e n d of Y o the evidence.

. 1 3 7 . I t is f o r t u n a t e t h a t o n e of o u r n u m b e r , M r . H e h a s p e r s o n a l r e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e a r e a as it w a s i n 1904, i h a v e t h e r e f o r e been able t o m a k e our decision w i t h m o r e e e than w o u l d o t h e r w i s e have been the case. W e h a v e d e c i d e t h i s a r e a of 4 . 5 0 s q u a r e m i l e s w a s , as t o i t s g e n e r a l character, l a n d , but t h a t b y 1 9 0 2 t h e r e w e r e K i k u y u c l e a r i n g s in ii c r e a t e d a K i k u y u i n t e r e s t , w h i c h w e m a y f a i r l y assess as ext o v e r o n e - q u a r t e r of t h e w h o l e . W e t h e r e f o r e c o m p u t e t h e tr s u s t a i n e d b y t h e K i k u y u in this a r e a , b y r e a s o n of t h e subs a l i e n a t i o n of t h e l a n d , t o b e 1.12 s q u a r e m i l e s . F r o m Muguga to K i k u y u '*"'' 1 3 8 . I t i s c l e a r f r o m M r . M c C l u r e ' s m a p t h a t t h e land ( ; s^ig f t h e r a i l w a y f r o m M u g u g a t o K i k u y u Static. t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d b y K i k u y u at t h a t d a t e , w h i l e o n t h e we: of t h e r a i l w a y 32 v i l l a g e s c a n b e c o u n t e d , of w h i c h all but t w i t h i n a m i l e of t h e r a i l w a y . T h i s m i g h t b e comparable d e n s i t y of a b o u t 3 0 p e r s o n s t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e . T h e r e can h a v e b e e n so m a n y in 1 8 9 6 , or t h e y w o u l d n o t h a v e escap n o t i c e of D r . B o e d e k e r . T h e c o n f l i c t of h i s e v i d e n c e w i t h t M r . L a n e s u g g e s t s t h a t o c c u p a t i o n o n t h e w e s t s i d e of the r w a s so sparse as n o t to b e r e a d i l y n o t i c e d . A g a i n it w i l l be s a r y t o b e a r b i t r a r y , a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e p r o p e r cours d r a w a l i n e f r o m t h e s o u t h - e a s t c o r n e r of t h e M u g u g a R e s e r v e r o u n d t h e v i l l a g e s s h o w n o n t h e m a p u n t i l t h e Ne R i v e r is r e a c h e d , a n d r e g a r d t h a t as m a r k i n g t h e i n n e r fores
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KIKTJYU P R O V I N C E
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..:-e enc m e n t i o n is m a d e by M r . S . L . H i u d e of t h e f a c t t h a t i n a M a s a i s t o c k r o u t e r a n n o r t h - w e s t n e a r t h e n o r t h b a n k of M b a g a t h i R i v e r t o w i t h i n a c o u p l e of m i l e s o f t h e S c l a t e r R o a d it t w o h o u r s ' er. 140. A s a g a i n s t t h i s t h e l a t e M r . M e r v y n B e e c h , w h e n D i s t r i c t er at D a g o r e t t i , s t a t e d t h a t h e w a s p r e p a r e d " t o p r o d u c e i n table e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e c o u n t r y r e a l l y b e l o n g e d to t h e K i k u y u . not k n o w n for certain w h a t " i n d i s p u t a b l e e v i d e n c e " Mr. n i n t e n d e d to p r o d u c e , b u t f r o m t h e p a p e r w h i c h h e a f t e r w a r d s e f o r t h e J o u r n a l of t h e A f r i c a n S o c i e t y i n 1917 i t m a y b e a s ed t h a t it r e l a t e d t o a l l e g e d p u r c h a s e s of l a n d b y K i k u y u f r o m bo. B u t the cases of w h i c h M r . B e e c h g i v e s most details a r e in t h e N d e i y a a r e a b u t i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d m o r e i m m e d i a t e l y el D a g o r e t t i , a n d e v e n t h o s e d e t a i l s h a v e n o t t u r n e d o u t , w h e n in c o u r t , to b e q u i t e as o r i g i n a l l y a l l e g e d . T h e i s s u e w a s d i n t h e c a s e of K a m a n i a n d K i t o s h o w a K a h o t o v e r s u s K i o i a g i in t h e H i g h C o u r t b e f o r e M r . J u s t i c e M a x w e l l .
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141 I t is v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , w h i l e a l m o s t all t h e l a n d b o t h de and o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e t h e w h o l e w a y f r o m N a i v a s h a t o obi a n d b e y o n d i t is c l a i m e d b y s o m e K i k u y u mbari or o t h e r , iya is a n e x c e p t i o n . N o p a r t i c u l a r mbari c l a i m s i t , b u t i t is to b e l o n g t o t h e w h o l e t r i b e . I n so f a r as t h e K i k u y u c l a i m s of r i g h t , it is p r o b a b l y h e l d b y t h e m t o b e i n c l u d e d in a n 'ed p u r c h a s e b y C h i e f K i n a n j u i f r o m t h e M a s a i of a v a s t s t r e t c h u n t r y . T h i s c l a i m w i l l b e e x a m i n e d in d e t a i l i n a n o t h e r p l a c e , it is e n o u g h f o r o u r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s t o q u o t e f r o m M r . J u s t i c e welTs j u d g m e n t in t h e case just cited : " I a m fully satisfied that K i n a n j u i only acquired r i g h t s t o any land in this n e i g h b o u r h o o d a f t e r t h e M a s a i - D o r o b o a g r e e m e n t . " ( H e had found t h e d a t e of this to b e 1899. T h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d is D a g o r e t t i . ) 142. T h e e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e first D a g o r e t t i S t a t i o n m a k e s D a g o r e t t i ami undantly extreme clear that limit or No. w h e n it w a s founded a little south Extracts from of in 1890 it w a s o n extreme limit of which sup Mr. also
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K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I K U Y U BOUNDJJ

to t h e e v i d e n c e of M r . J o h n s t o n e K e n y a t t a , w h o c o n s i d e r s thai extends to the G i t i b a . T h e r e l e v a n t p a s s a g e s a r e q u o t e d iu s a m e s e c t i o n of t h e A p p e n d i x . 1 4 3 . O n t h e w e i g h t of t h e e v i d e n c e w e a r e f u l l y satisfied ti n o t h i n g s o u t h of t h e N e a n g a r a E i v e r c a n b e c o u n t e d as having b f "unequivocal Between Eort Smith


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1 4 4 . D r . B o e d e k e r h a s g i v e n e v i d e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e arran ? b e t w e e n t h e K i k u y u a n d t h e Masai a t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a n e u t r a l z o n e , a n d h e h a s p r o d u c e d a it in i l l u s t r a t i o n of i t . T h e i m p r e s s i o n s c o n v e y e d b y t h e m a p and t h e m e m o r a n d u m a t t a c h e d t o h i s e v i d e n c e a r e p e r h a p s at variam O n e g a t h e r s f r o m t h e m e m o r a n d u m t h a t t h e n o r t h e r n boundary t h e n e u t r a l z o n e w a s p r a c t i c a l l y t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r . H e states : " I n t h e c o u r s e of t i m e H a l l finally p e r s u a d e d the Ala t o c e a s e t h e i r r a i d s i n t o t f i e K i k u y u c o u n t r y a n d in order b i n d t h e m t o t h i s h e fixed a s t r i p of n e u t r a l c o u n t r y extend: d u e e a s t b e t w e e n t h e t w o t r i b e s , w h i c h c o m m e n c e d at the he: w a t e r s of t h e M b a g a t h i s t r e a m , a n d t h e n t o w a r d s the he: w a t e r s of t h e N a i r o b i s t r e a m w h i c h a c t u a l l y h a d been ret n i z e d as t h e n a t u r a l b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e t w o t r i b e s for m a years."
s m a d e b M r H a l 1

I t is t r u e t h a t t h e e x p r e s s i o n " d u e e a s t " i n t h e a b o v e passage;: g e s t s t h a t t h e r i v e r c a n n o t h a v e b e e n t h e e x a c t b o u n d a r y , buti g e n e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s e e m s t o b e t h a t t h e r i v e r w a s t h e boundary practical purposes. W h e n , h o w e v e r , o n e t u r n s t o t h e m a p , at T h e r e a n e u t r a l z o n e i s s h o w n shac it on is s t a t e d t h a t Lukenya, and it was the "sighted f e r e n t impression is c r e a t e d . due east, and in Lukenya." possibly have a footnote sighted

i n a m o r e or l e s s u n i f o r m w i d t h a n d r u n n i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y south Nothing been w h i c h w a s s e t d u e e a s t i n t h o s e parts coi d i r e c t i o n nr conform angle I n t h e w e s t e r n half of; t h i s l i n e is i n makes

obviously have been south-east b y east. n e u t r a l z o n e as i l l u s t r a t e d north-east by east, and on the m a p

w i t h t h e g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n of t h e r i v e r , b u t a f t e r t h a t t h e river tin its g e n e r a l direction an perhaps thirty degrees w i t h t h e line of the neutral 145. A supplementary Boedeker, w h o replied : question was therefore zone. put to I

" T h e e x t e n t of t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s i l l u s t r a t e d by : t r i a n g l e i n d i c a t e d b y r e d d o t s w h i c h I h a v e n o w caused to p u t o n t h e m a p . I n m y r e c o l l e c t i o n t h i s t r i a n g l e w a s aim e n t i r e l y c o v e r e d w i t h f o r e s t , a n d w h e t h e r or n o t M r . Ha' n e u t r a l z o n e i n c l u d e d i t , t h e r e w e r e n o K i k u y u l i v i n g or en v a t i n g t h e r e a n d f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i t c a n b e included the forest b e l t . "

324
K I K U Y U ICHAPTER IV] PROVINCE T H E OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

e p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s m a p is s h o w n i n t h e ing' p a g e 701 of t h e p r i n t e d 14G. I t is r e g r e t t e d that evidence. no official

first

of t h e t w o of Mr.

maps Hall's

account

eatv" has been found. W e are satisfied, h o w e v e r , that t h e r e s an a r r a n g e m e n t of t h i s k i n d , a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t , w h e t h e r i t is m a d e i n 1891 o r n o t t i l l t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , t h e de facto situa i was that the K i k u y u had not the undisputed r i g h t to land th of t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r a n d w e c o n s i d e r i t t o b e p r o p e r l y e x ded f r o m " u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y . " 147. A . s t a t e m e n t c o n t a i n e d i n a m e m o r a n d u m b y M r . 0. 38/1/2/12 "About Government reserve. tain The enough of 20th February, 1912) provides t i m o n y : 1909 t h e Q u a r a n t i n e B o a r d w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l moved all these these (Kikuyu) cattle; cattle back were into nearly agricultural portion grass for of t h e r e s e r v e d i d n o t so t h e y of the con all they Hobley corroborative

l o c a t e d i n a n a r e a s o u t h of t h e R a i l w a y , w h i c h p r e v i o u s l y had b e e n n e r v o u s of o c c u p y i n g o n a c c o u n t of t h e M a s a i . a kind of neutral zone between the two tribes."

It was

the o t h e r h a n d , a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y M r s . H i n d e , w i d o w of M r . nde, a f o r m e r P r o v i n c i a l C o r p m i s s i o n e r , m a k e s m e n t i o n o f A i r . 1 h a v i n g fixed a b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e K i k u y u a n d A l a s a i , 1 ich w a s r e s p e c t e d b y b o t h s i d e s , b u t s a y s n o t h i n g a b o u t a n e u t r a l e (see s e c t i o n (g) of t h e A p p e n d i x ) . 148. B e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g t h i s c h a p t e r i t w i l l b e w e l l to r e c o r d opinion on Chief K i n a n j u i ' s c l a i m to h a v e b o u g h t land to t h e ith of t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r , a n d g e n e r a l l y o n t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r land w h i c h i s n o w K i k u y u N a t i v e R e s e r v e s o u t h of t h e N a i r o b i er s h o u l d m o r e p r o p e r l y b e a c c o u n t e d as w o n b y t h e K i k u y u b y t i m a t e p r o c e s s e s of p e n e t r a t i o n , u s e , a n d p o s s i b l y p u r c h a s e , or having been g i v e n to t h e m by G o v e r n m e n t . 149. A s u m m a r y of C h i e f K i n a n j u i ' s c l a i m i s g i v e n in N o . 24 the mbari claims. I t is a m a s s of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and w e a r e sfied t h a t t h e r e i s n o s u b s t a n c e i n i t . N o r o n t h e o t h e r h a n d w e m u c h i m p r e s s e d b y t h e c l a i m s of v a r i o u s K i k u y u t h a t t h e y t i g h t " t h e l a n d f r o m t h e D o r o b o M a r i m b e a n d M u i n a m i . I t is ent f r o m t h e r e c o r d s t h a t t h e l a n d s o u t h of t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r s generally r e g a r d e d as b e l o n g i n g principally to t h e M a s a i until date of M r . PJaH's a g r e e m e n t , a n d t h e r e is i n d e e d to b e f o u n d the D a g o r e t t i R e c o r d B o o k a s t a t e m e n t b y C h i e f K i n a n j u i t o -t effect. 150. I t is n o t q u i t e c l e a r t o us w h e t h e r M r . H a l h s a r r a n g e nt w a s t h a t t h e r e w a s t o b e a n e u t r a l . z o n e , w d i i c h n e i t h e r s i d e s to u s e , or w h e t h e r h i s i n t e n t i o n w a s t h a t t h e A l a s a i s h o u l d A Summary of the Question of R i g h t s claimed to the South of the Nairobi River.

K I K U Y U PAIIT I C H A P T E R IV]

PROVINCE T H E O I . " KIKUYTJ BOVNDAI

recede and the K i k u y u advance. W e have had evidence i n b s e n s e s , b u t i n e i t h e r c a s e i t a p p e a r s t h a t u l t i m a t e l y the Kikt w e r e a l l o w e d t o o c c u p y l a n d w h i c h h a d n o t p r e v i o u s l y been the a n d t h a t a t t h e t i m e it c o u l d i n a m e a s u r e h a v e b e e n regarded a g i f t b y G o v e r n m e n t . O n t h e other h a n d w e shall n o t deny t h a t K i k u y u h a d a l r e a d y h a d a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f u s e of t h e a r e a t o e x t e n t w h i c h h a s b e e n r e v e a l e d i n t h e e v i d e n c e r e v i e w e d in C h a i I I o r t h a t s o m e f a m i l y g r o u p s a m o n g t h e m m a y a b o u t t h i s ti or p o s s i b l y a f e w y e a r s e a r l i e r h a v e m a d e c e r t a i n p a y m e n t s to D o r o b o for the e n j o y m e n t of certain facilities. 151. W e consider t h a t , on b a l a n c e , t h e p o s i t i o n about t h e v 1902 w a s t h a t t h e a r e a h a d b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o c o n s i d e r a b l e p c n e i t i o n b y t h e K i k u y u e i t h e r w i t h t h e d e f i n i t e p e r m i s s i o n or a t le w i t h t h e acquiescence of G o v e r n m e n t . 152. tion of able Chief to But it appears that, wlien the alienation took place, l a r g e a c c r e t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n in t h i s a r e a o c c u r r e d b y t h e i m m i j natives from settle there Kinanjui the f a r m s , a n d it is b e l i e v e d that t h e y w and acquire having bailiff. finding o n t h e issue w h e t h e r t h e 1 : or as h e l d b y t h e given." whether t o so Kikuyu rights without much cliliicu! o r \m constituted himself

apparently

b e e n c o n s t i t u t e d as a s o r t of 153. O n these facts our

should r a n k as g i v e n by G o v e r n m e n t 154. On the further against the

a p r i o r r i g h t , is t h a t i t m u s t r a n k as " m o s t l y

point w h i c h arises, n a m e l y , alienations, we consider

a r e a g i v e n b e f o r e t h e a l i e n a t i o n s s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o be set-ott compensation extent claim south map (Le., it on of can that b e so s e t - o f f , a n d a f t e r consider can of weighing t h e merits of

b o t h sides w e the Nairobi

that, with be reckoned 7.60 square

the exception o f : as a miles half set-off of as agai

b l o c k s t o b e m e n t i o n e d b e l o w , h a l f t h e a r e a of t h e n a t i v e rese River an area the alienations. 3.80 I t has been cross-hatched blue and yellow on which I admissi miles) counts as g i v e n and

and represents square

acquired. 155. was T h e t w o blocks excluded f r o m this to the Kikuyu when eastern the finding are show

b l u e , a n d c o m p r i s e a t o t a l of 1.24 s q u a r e m i l e s . given marcated for in 1907, and t h e block was

T h e western bl Forest w a s in exeha: given

Dagoretti

f o r c e r t a i n losses in t h e K a b e t e area, i n c l u d i n g t h e land aliena t h e J e a n e s S c h o o l , t h e N a t i v e I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g Depot, and the Reformatory .


7

Scott Laboratory,

These

t w o blocks m

i n o u r j u d g m e n t , b e a c c o u n t e d t o h a v e b e e n a d d e d b y Governm from land which was not formerly K i k u y u territory.

K.1KUYU j j CHAPTER I V ]

PROVINCE THE OLD KTKUYU BOUNDARIES

156. T h e n e x t t a s k is t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e S j j?,rUi cst e d g e c r o s s e d t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r a n d r a n n o r t h w a r d s , f o r m i n g tlio Nairobi e eastern b o u n d a r y of e f f e c t i v e K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y p a s t F o r t S m i t h River, d towards K i a m b u .


a F g

157. D r . B o e d e k e r d r e w o n a m a p a t t a c h e d t o h i s e v i d e n c e t h e sition of t h e f o r e s t i n t h i s q u a r t e r a s h e c o n c e i v e d i t t o h a v e b e e n out 1895. S r d j s e q u e n t l y , h e a m e n d e d t h i s b y a n o t h e r l i n e , w h i c h considered t o b e m o r e c o r r e c t a f t e r s e e i n g h i s o r i g i n a l l i n e r e p r o ced on a l a r g e scale m a p , w h i c h s h o w s m o r e d e t a i l . According his a m e n d e d l i n e , t h e f o r e s t e d g e n o r t h of t h e r i v e r s t a r t s at t h e jih-eastern c o r n e r of L . O . 6863 ( S t . A u s t i n ' s M i s s i o n ) a n d t h e n s to t h e n o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r of t h e p r e s e n t K a r u r a F o r e s t R e s e r v e ; ence b y t h e K a r u r a R i v e r t o t h e n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r of L . O . 4 8 8 7 ; enre to t h e s o u t h - w e s t c o m e r of L . O . 7 6 / 3 ; a n d t h e n c e t o t h e rth-west c o r n e r of L . O . 7 9 , o n t h e e a s t e r n e d g e of t h e T h a t h i n i amp. A t t h i s p o i n t i t s t o p s , s i n c e D r . B o e d e k e r h a d n o p e r s o n a l owledge of it t o t h e n o r t h w a r d . T h i s a m e n d e d l i n e is s h o w n o n e second m a p a t t a c h e d t o h i s e v i d e n c e . T h i s l i n e m u s t n o w b e mpared w i t h t h e o t h e r e v i d e n c e w h i c h w e h a v e o n t h e s u b j e c t , il w e m a y first c o n s i d e r i t w h e r e i t p a s s e s t o t h e e a s t of F o r t lilh. 158. T h a t F o r t S m i t h i t s e l f w a s b u i l t i n K i k u y u c o u n t r y is rtain. L o r d L u g a r d m e n t i o n s i n h i s b o o k t h a t h e d i s a p p r o v e d o f e boma s i t e b e c a u s e " i t w a s s i t u a t e d i n t h e v e r y h e a r t of t h e llages a n d fields of t h e K i k u y u . " 159. E v i d e n c e given to the Commission suggests that the -est e d g e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of N a i r o b i w a s n o t v e r y f a r a w a y f r o m e F o r t . T h e r e l e v a n t p a s s a g e s a r e q u o t e d i n s e c t i o n (g) of t h e pendix. 160. T h e r e is a n o t a b l e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n d e p i c t e d the w i t n e s s e s w h o s e e v i d e n c e r e l a t e s t o t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e 1900 d that d e c r i b e d b y t h e w i t n e s s e s w h o first c a m e t o K e n y a a f t e r rds. T h e a l l u s i o n s m a d e b y t h e l a t t e r w i t n e s s e s t o t h e p o s s i b l e stence of g r o u n d l a n d l o r d s is i n t e r e s t i n g a n d w i l l b e r e v i e w e d a later c h a p t e r , b u t t h e m a t t e r of i m m e d i a t e c o n c e r n is t h e p o s i n of t h e f o r e s t b o u n d a r y t o t h e e a s t w a r d of F o r t S m i t h i n 1895 d the l i m i t o f e f f e c t i v e o r u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u o c c u p a t i o n . We vefore a t t a c h t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y e v i d e n c e , d receive f r o m it a f a i r l y s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e l i m i t of iuyu c u l t i v a t i o n i n 1895 w a s a t t h e e a s t e r n e n d o f t h e S c o t t boratory g r o u n d . W h e t h e r t h e f o r e s t b e g a n i m m e d i a t e l y or s o m e ssland o r s c r u b c o u n t r y i n t e r v e n e d i s a p o i n t w h i c h r e m a i n s i n bt. ^ i3 fj; f Smith,
e Q b a c o r

^ p t
0 o r

K I K U Y U PAUT ICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE TlIK Of.D K I K U Y U B O L N D J

161. F a t h e r

Bernhard

differs

from

Dr.

Boedeker

as to

p o i n t w h e r e t h e f o r e s t e d g e s t a r t e d n o r t h of t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r , : p u t s it at t h e j u n c t i o n o f t h e N e a n g a r a a n d N a i r o b i R i v e r s near south-east whence c o r n e r of t h e G o v e r n m e n t F a r m extension to join D r . ( L . O . If Bocdek h e c o n s i d e r s t h a t it r a n e a s t w a r d

l i n e a l i t t l e south of t h e r a i l w a y . cultivation rather adopt detailed than we

D r . B o c d e k e r , t h o u g h agree

t h a t t h e s i t e of t h e S c o t t L a b o r a t o r i e s w a s w h e r e t h e first sign: a p p e a r e d , d o e s n o t a g r e e t h a t t h e f o r e s t s t a r t e d :it forest. recalled of Being Dr. somewhat which doubtful was which able to version give u L89( p o i n t , but states t h a t t h e i n t e r v e n i n g l a n d w a s s c r u b or grass! Boedeker, who

account

a journey

he undertook

about

a t t e n d a sick K i k u y u n a t i v e in t h i s l o c a l i t y , a n d o n t h e strength] his evidence w e have decided that, although the p a t i o n b y K i k u y u f o r it t o b e classed as K i k u y u indication of t h e limit of K i k u y u territory in neighbourhooi t e r r i t o r y , and this quarter, a S t . A u s t i n ' s M i s s i o n w a s w e l l t i m b e r e d , t h e r e w a s sufficient a h a v e d e c i d e d t o a c c e p t D r . B o e d e k e r ' s a m e n d e d l i n e as an accu s t o o d in 1S95. 162. I t first drew is to be n o t e d the f o r e s t that the t h e map) o n Commission which Dr. Boedi

line for

w a s a contour i

p r e p a r e d " u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e D i r e c t o r of S u r v e y s " in 1!] a n d m u c h of t h e a r e a w h i c h D r . B o e d e k c r i n c l u d e d as forest bell covered scrub. K a r u r a Forest and Thimbigwa. 163. D r . B o e d e k e r ' s a m e n d e d l i n e i n c l u d e s T h i m b i g w a in forest. H i s earlier line e x c l u d e d the g r e a t e r part of it. The e v i d e n c e on t h e c o n d i t i o n s at T h i m b i g w a i s A i r . K n a p p ' s , w e n t to l i v e t h e r e i n 1 8 9 9 . H e s t a t e s : "Mr. became We Krieger, of w h o w a s w i t h m e , t o o k u p a holding Thimbigwa from Estate, which Estate w a s t h e n hi found a 1 owner on the map with the conventional signs which indii

f o r e s t . . . A f t e r t h e f a m i n e A i r . K r i e g e r a n d I w e n t up-counj went north Thimbigwa and n u m b e r of c l e a r i n g s in t h e f o r e s t , w h i c h h a d b e e n m a d e in last f e w y e a r s . burning, grown had . . . Mr. B u t t h e s e c l e a r i n g s w h i c h h a d b e e n rnadi been abandoned in
7

the forest,

and

were ( Estate

Krieger bought over."

the T h i m b i g w a

K i s i n g a f o r a b o u t 70 g o a t s . the goats handed

I w as t h e r e a t t h e t i m e and

T h i s e x t r a c t satisfied us t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e w e r e K i k u y u c l a i m e d c e r t a i n r i g h t s t h e r e , t h e e x t e n t of wdiich w i l l have to! c o n s i d e r e d , t h e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r of t h e c o u n t r y b o t h at T h i m b a n d to t h e n o r t h of i t w a s f o r e s t .

K I K U Y U i ICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE THE OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

164. E v i d e n c e w a s g i v e n a t K i a m b u b y M r . M a c L e l l a n W i l s o n K i a m b u Station and M r . T a r t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e s i t e of K i a m b u S t a t i o n h a d n o t Eastwards. K i k u y u territory before it w a s taken b y G o v e r n m e n t for an inistrative station. O n t h e o t h e r - h a n d t h e n a t i v e s c l a i m it d i v e r s e e v i d e n c e h a s b e e n g i v e n t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n as t o t h e ticular mbari which " o w n e d " it. T h e Mbari ya A i g i have med i t , a n d so h a v e t h e M b a r i y a M e g a , w h o h a v e a l s o a p p l i e d all t h e b a c k r e n t s o n s h o p s , a m o u n t i n g t o a t o t a l o f a b o u t 35.000. M r . O r d e - B r o w n e , a D i s t r i c t Officer i n K e n y a f r o m 9 to 1 9 1 5 , h a d a n office b o y n a m e d A l i w h o c l a i m e d i t . On the er h a n d i t a p p e a r s f r o m a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y M r . H o b l e y i n 1913 t n o n e of t h e s e c l a i m s w a s r e g a r d e d b y t h e t r i b e as b e i n g so one t h a t t h e t r i b e a s a w h o l e c o u l d n o t d i s p o s e o f i t , a n d h e orted t h a t t h e t r i b e w i s h e d t o m a k e a p r e s e n t of i t t o G o v e r n nt. H o w e v e r t h e s e t h i n g s m a y b e , t h e e v i d e n c e of M r . L a n e nite c l e a r as to w h a t h e f o u n d t h e r e i n 1896 : "Either left at t h e end of 1S96 or down the beginning of 1897 is I at m i d n i g h t and w e n t the valleys to w h a t now found were

k n o w n as K i a m b u . their cattle there. to t h e K i k u y u . 165. C o l o n e l

W e t o o k t h e n a t i v e s by surprise a n d T h o s e l a n d s i n t h e v i c i n i t y of K i a m b u w e r e m o r e on the h i l l s . " in his memorandum

g r a z e d o v e r b y a f e w h e a d of c a t t l e , s h e e p a n d g o a t s , b e l o n g i n g They Ainsworth mentions the

aring of t h e s i t e f o r t h e s t a t i o n i n 1 9 0 1 . 166. O n g e n e r a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s it w o u l d s e e m t h a t t h e ambu S t a t i o n w a s s c r u b l a n d i n 1 8 9 5 , a n d n o t f o r e s t . site of

167. M r . K n a p p s t a t e d t h a t h e a n d M r . K r i e g e r w e n t n o r t h Kiambu to Kambui. m T h i m b i g w a to K a m b u i t h r o u g h forest. T h e direct p a t h w o u l d almost i m m e d i a t e l y e a s t of K i a m b u . H e d o e s n o t r e p o r t t h a t y e m e r g e d f r o m t h e forest at a n y p o i n t before t h e i r arrival at m b u i , b u t t h e y p a s s e d a n u m b e r of c l e a r i n g s w h i c h h a d b e e n de b y b u r n i n g . These appeared to M r . K n a p p to have been de b e f o r e t h e f a m i n e a n d w h e n h e f o u n d t h e m t h e y h a d b e e n ndoned and w e r e o v e r g r o w n . H e stated : " P r o m N a i r o b i to K i a m b u at this time was h e a v y but p a t c h e s of i t h a d r e c e n t l y b e e n cut d o w n . " forest,

B o e d e k e r ' s l i n e is set b a c k n e a r l y t w o m i l e s f r o m t h e c e n t r e of ambu S t a t i o n . I f M r . K n a p p is c o r r e c t , t h i s c l e a r l y n e e d s endment. 16S. M r . K n a p p f o u n d t h a t o n K a m b u i H i l l i t s e l f t h e r e h a d a a K i k u y u village fortified for protection against the M a s a i , said (a p o i n t w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n r e c o r d e d b y t h e s t e n o g r a p h e r ) t the K i k u y u h a b i t a t i o n s e x t e n d e d for about o n e m i l e east of t h e ssion. a n d a f t e r t h a t t h e r e f o l l o w e d a b o u t f o u r m i l e s of s t u m p s of

K I K U Y U PAIIT I - C H A P T E R IV]

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I K U Y U BOUNDA

r e c e n t l y f e l l e d f o r e s t , a n d t h e n o n e c a m e to t h e f o r e s t itself. K n a p p w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y r e c a l l e d o n t h i s p o i n t a n d confirmei above statement. T h e r e f e r e n c e is t o M a y , 1 9 0 2 , a n d nidi t h a t in 1895 t h e f o r e s t e d g e w a s c l o s e r t o t h e m i s s i o n , but tha K i k u y u h a d s u b s e q u e n t l y d e s t r o y e d m o r e f o r e s t a f t e r t h e Masa l e f t t h e p l a i n s . I t w o u l d be t o c l e a r i n g i n t h i s n e i g h b o u r h o o d C o l o n e l A i n s w o r i h r e f e r s i n h i s m e m o r a d u m w h e r e he states; " S o m e t i m e in 1895 a n E l d e r n a m e d N g w a l u living t h e R u i r u R i v e r g o t i n t o t r o u b l e w i t h the D i s t r i c t Con s i o n e r of K i k u y u b e c a u s e h i s p e o p l e h a d d e s t r o y e d forest near his v i l l a g e ; t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r on N g w a l u to r e t u r n to bis l o c a t i o n on t h e h i g h e r p a r t of the r Certain cattle were seized. N g w a l u a p p e a l e d to m e as C o m m i s s i o n e r f o r t h e r e t u r n of t h e c a t t l e . Consequen p r o c e e d e d w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r t o t h e spot, result of t h e v i s i t b e i n g t h a t t h e c a t t l e w e r e returned N g w a l u w a s a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n w h e r e he w a s o n his n t a k i n g not t o cut d o w n a n y m o r e of t h e f o r e s t ; the 1 e x p l a i n e d in a l l g o o d f a i t h t h a t h e w a s n o t a w a r e that he d o i n g w r o n g in c u t t i n g d o w n t h e t r e e s . N o c l a i m to the was advanced.'' I t i s n o t in t h e l e a s t p r o b a b l e t h a t N g w a l u or a n y b o d y e l s e reft; f r o m c u t t i n g m o r e t i m b e r f o r t h e n e x t s e v e n y e a r s , a n d one c o n c l u d e w i t h c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e f o r e s t e d g e as f o u n d b y M r . K in 1902 w a s f u r t h e r to t h e e a s t t h a n it h a d b e e n in 1 8 9 5 , but difficult t o say h o w m u c h f u r t h e r . T h e f a c t t h a t such a n ordei g i v e n in 1895 is i n t e r e s t i n g , s i n c e it i n d i c a t e s t h a t G o v e r n m e n i already undertaking the function, which is i n h e r e n t in s o v e r e i g n p o w e r , of e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e l a n d is used t o g o o d ud^ tage. A s w e h a v e p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , w e h a v e a g r e e d to r l a n d o b t a i n e d b e f o r e 1902 b y first c l e a r i n g a n d use a s "adnii a c q u i r e d " and to be accounted as K i k u y u territory. B u t we n o t r e g a r d it a l t o g e t h e r as l e g i t i m a t e l y w o n , b e c a u s e it is o l c l e a r f r o m t h e a b o v e i n s t a n c e a n d s e v e r a l o t h e r s t h a t m u c h wa d e s t r u c t i o n of f o r e s t w a s c a r r i e d o u t a g a i n s t t h e e x h o r t a t i o n o r d e r s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officers, a n d w e f e e l t h a t w e are p e r j s t r e t c h i n g a p o i n t in f a v o u r of t h e K i k u y u in c o u n t i n g such g ;is t h e i r t e r r i t o r y in 1 9 0 2 . A f t e r t h a t d a t e t h e r e c a n b e no qtie of m a k i n g f u r t h e r a l l o w a n c e s i n r e s j j e c t of a n y a r e a in w l E o r e s t O f f i c e r s w e r e a c t i v e l y e m p l o y e d u n d e r t h e F o r e s t Ordinal to prevent further encroachment.

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D e p a r t m e n t f o r a n y d o c u - Thika River, T h i s is p e r h a p s seems forest

ifcary e v i d e n c e of t h e f o r e s t b e l t b e t w e e n K a m b u i a n d t h e T h i k a N o t h i n g of a n y a s s i s t a n c e h a s b e e n f o u n d . very surprising, a s t h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n b e f o r e t h e C o m m i s s i o n imgest a d o u b t w h e t h e r a n y ;eT a f t e r 1 8 9 8 . ii. T h e d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e is v e r y m e a g r e . Count T e l e k i , was c a m p e d n e a r t h e T h i k a R i v e r o n 21st S e p t e m b e r , 1 8 8 7 , its t h a t p a r t of h i s j o u r n e y o u t h e 2 2 n d l a y t h r o u g h " a n u n bited d i s t r i c t " a n d a d d s : Page 331."We were told that it was deserted on ac count of t h e s l a v i n g r a i d s of t h e Kamba." o b v i o u s t r a c e s of t h i s

f o u n t T e l e k i s t a t e s t h a t o n t h i s d a y h e c a m p e d at a d i s t a n c e 'about 21- to 3 m i l e s f r o m t h e w o o d , w h i c h s e e m s t o e n c i r c l e t h e !e d i s t r i c t . " T h e c l e a r s u g g e s t i o n is t h a t , if t h e K i k u y u h a d eave an a r e a u n i n h a b i t e d , t h o u g h s i t u a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e of s o m e s inside t h e b o u n d a r y w o o d , it c a n n o t h a v e b e e n a v e r y e f f e c barrier in t h i s p a r t , a n d t h e r e w e r e p r o b a b l y g a p s i n i t . It be n o t i c e d t h a t t h e m a p i l l u s t r a t i n g S i r A l f r e d M a c k i n d e r ' s ney s h o w s n o f o r e s t h e r e , b u t o n l y a l i n e w h e r e o p e n " s t e p p e " to the e a s t is b o r d e r e d b y " c u l t i v a t i o n w i t h r e m n a n t s o f s t " to t h e w e s t , w h e r e a s T h o m s o n ' s m a p of 1884 s h o w s " H i g h st R e g i o n . " .171. D r B o e d e k e r s t a t e s i n a s u p p l e m e n t to h i s e v i d e n c e Fill' that i n 1898 h e a c c o m p a n i e d a m i l i t a r y e x p e d i t i o n ^ f r o m hakos i n t o K i k u y u c o u n t r y , a n d b e l i e v e s t h e y c r o s s e d t h e l i n e e p r e s e n t R a i l w a y - i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e N d a r u g u R i v e r , thence t h e y p r o c e e d e d w e s t w a r d s i n t o t h e K i k u y u y f o u n d n o t h i n g t h a t c o u l d b e c a l l e d a b e l t of f o r e s t . country w i t h o p e n g r a z i n g p a t c h e s . " country, " I t was

172. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d A i r . J . P a t t e r s o n m e n t i o n s t h a t i n he a n d M r . K r i e g e r c a m e f r o m t h e d i r e c t i o n of K i b w e z i a n d hed K i k u y u c o u n t r y b e t w e e n N d a r u g u a n d R u i r u R i v e r s , a n d ck a " t i m b e r b e l t " , w h i c h t h e y f o l l o w e d s o u t h w a r d s t i l l t h e y e t o T h i m b i g w a . I t is p o s s i b l e t h a t A i r . P a t t e r s o n ' s r o u t e w a s ewhat s o u t h of t h a t t a k e n b y D r . B o e d e k e r .

KIKTJYU PAUT ICHAPTER V]

PROVINCE TnE OLD K I K U Y U BOUND:

1 7 3 . T h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e e v i d e n c e o n t h i s p o i n t is by ? n e s s e s w h o t r a v e l l e d a t v a r i o u s t i m e s a l o n g t h e o l d c a r a v a n rot T h e i r e v i d e n c e i n r e g a r d t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n o f i t is that t! d i d n o t see a n y K i k u y u . M r . H a u s b u r g , w h o m a d e t h e journev 1 8 9 9 , L o r d P h i l l i m o r e , w h o m a d e it i n 1 9 0 4 , a n d L o r d Cramvor w h o m a d e i t i n 1 9 0 6 , all a t t e s t ( E v i d e n c e , p p . 3 9 1 , 414 arid f t h a t t h e y s a w n o K i k u y u n a t i v e s a n d n o c u l t i v a t i o n i n this p M r . E . B . H o m e , wdio first m a d e t h e j o u r n e y i n 1 9 0 4 , attests,; a l l t h e c o u n t r y f r o m t h e M a r a g u a t o N a i r o b i , e x c e p t for a lit c u l t i v a t i o n n e a r t h e T h a r a R i v e r , w a s " g i v e n o v e r to gat ( E v i d e n c e , p p . 585 a n d 5 8 6 ) . T h e e v i d e n c e of M r . R . W e e k s , re! i n g t o 1 9 0 3 , is t o t h e s a m e e f f e c t . D r . A r t h u r , i n 1 9 0 8 , natura saw rather m o r e cultivation, but w h e n asked : " I f a w i t n e s s c a m e b e f o r e t h e C o m m i s s i o n a n d said tl i n 1904 h e w e n t f r o m N a i r o b i t o E o r t H a l l a n d s a w practics n o signs of a n y n a t i v e s until h e got to the M a r a g u a , w o y o u think that was w r o n g ? " He replied :

" I d o n o t t h i n k it a n o v e r - w i d e s t a t e m e n t . " 1 7 4 . M r . H . R . T a t e , s p e a k i n g of 1 9 0 2 , s t a t e s : " E r o n i TL o n i n t o N a i r o b i t h e r e w a s n e v e r m u c h c u l t i v a t i o n " , but ho': n o t s a y t h a t t h e r e w a s a b s o l u t e l y n o c u l t i v a t i o n o r t h a t t h e com. w a s q u i t e u n i n h a b i t e d . H e r a t h e r c o n v e y s t h e i m p r e s s i o n thai w a s s p a r s e l y o c c u p i e d . H e s a y s : " A t T h i k a i t w a s n o t Am p o p u l a t e d " , a n d h e s p e a k s of h i s m a i l r u n n e r s b e i n g killed, parently by K a m b a raiders. 1 7 5 . I n v i e w of t h e p a u c i t y of t h e f a c t s r e v e a l e d , i t is diffic t o s u g g e s t h o w t h e b o u n d a r y of t h e l a n d e f f e c t i v e l y occupied on: t o b e p l a c e d i n t h i s a r e a . I n m o s t p a r t s w e h a v e t a k e n it to c o i n c i d e n t w i t h t h e i n n e r e d g e of t h e f o r e s t , b u t h e r e there see: t o h a v e b e e n n o f o r e s t b e l t s u f f i c i e n t t o f o r m a r e c o g n i z a b l e Iron:. P r o b a b l y t h e b e s t c o u r s e i s t o s e l e c t t w o p o i n t s w h i c h can r o u g h l y e s t a b l i s h e d a n d j o i n t h e m w i t h a l i n e o f d o t s marked q u e r i e s , a n d t h e n s e e h o w s u c h a l i n e fulfils t h e k n o w n conili::,: T h e s e t w o points are : ( a ) A p o i n t o n e m i l e e a s t of K a m b u i M i s s i o n , s i n c e M r . Kna; i n 1902 f o u n d t h e l a n d t o t h e e a s t w a r d of t h a t to :. b e e n o n l y r e c e n t l y c l e a r e d of f o r e s t , a n d t h e stump; the Jb) A trees w e r e still standing. t h e point p o i n t t w o a n d t h r e e - q u a r t e r m i l e s e a s t of

w h i c h C o u n t T e l e k i is s h o w n t o h a v e c a m p e d on :. S e p t e m b e r , 1 8 S 7 , as d e t e r m i n e d w i t h as m u c h ami: a s p o s s i b l e b y t h e S u r v e y D e p a r t m e n t f r o m t h e infot: t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h e b o o k . T h i s p o i n t is found at: n o r t h - e a s t c o r n e r of L . O . 2 9 5 5 / 7 .

KIKXJYU ICHAPTER. V]

PROVINCE THE OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

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rnment took a w a y all the g r a z i n g land w h i c h lay e a s t w a r d eneral l i m i t of t h e i r d w e l l i n g s . able t o p r o v e t h i s b y e v i d e n c e . O n e could h a r d l y e x p e c t

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nee t h a t t h e i r c a t t l e d i d n o t c o m m o n l y g r a z e so f a r t o t h e e a s t be v i s i b l e f r o m t h e r o a d , b u t t h e o l d r o a d i n t h i s a r e a r a n a t yerage d i s t a n c e of n e a r l y s e v e n m i l e s east of t h e p r e s e n t b o u n d f the r e s e r v e . T h e r e is a c e r t a i n probability in t h e the boundary between but not contention and the to and they the was cattle miles. , in d e m a r c a t i n g yu d w e l l i n g s and the K i k u y u to grazing

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they w e r e a c t u a l l y i n t h e h a b i t of g r a z i n g t h e i r c a t t l e c o n s i d e r to t h e e a s t w a r d . Id not graze t h e m i or K a m b a , out, r a i d i n g jse t h e f a r m P r u d e n c e would obviously dictate that so f a r a f i e l d as t o be a t e m p t a t i o n t o Boedeker has r e m a r k e d , t h e r e

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v i s i b i l i t y in t h i s r e g i o n a n d i n t h e d a y t i m e , w h e n t h e parties could h a v e been seen c o m i n g for line lies w h e r e it does, therefore it

1 e v e n t s it w o u l d b e a b e g g i n g of t h e q u e s t i o n t o a s s u m e t h a t , accurately deter fair appears is a -s t h e K i k u y u b o u n d a r y . the l i n e marked by the T h e r e seems to be n o w a y of row of dots and queries

ng t h e m a t t e r e x c e p t b y a n a r b i t r a r y p r o c e s s , a n d i t

s e n t a t i o n of t h e l i m i t s t o w h i c h t h e K i k u y u r e g u l a r l y u s e d t o e t h e i r c a t t l e , as o p p o s e d t o i n t e r m i t t e n t a n d p r e c a r i o u s g r a z i n g hich t h e y m a y h a v e o c c a s i o n a l l y i n d u l g e d w h e n t h e M a s a i K a m b a w e r e less a g g r e s s i v e t h a n usual. or

8. M r . K a z a n g i v e s e v i d e n c e of h a v i n g , w h e n D i s t r i c t C o m ioner of t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t , v i s i t e d L . O . 2 9 5 , a n d h e a r d t h e m e n t of t h e n a t i v e g r i e v a n c e a b o u t t h e a r e a s k n o w n as t h e

KlICUYTJ
PART X C n A i T K R V]

P R O V I N C E THE OLD KIKUYU finest

" 8 0 a c r e s " a n d t h e " 3 0 0 a c r e s " b o t h o f w h i c h a r e situated o n r i d g e b e t w e e n t h e C h a n i a a n d K a r i m e n u R i v e r s . O n the 300j h e w a s s h o w n s o m e r o o t s of t r e e s w h i c h w e r e b e i n g dug up it w a s a l l e g e d t h a t t h e y w e r e t r e e s w h i c h h a d b e e n used to m a githaka b o u n d a r y . H e r e m e m b e r s a l s o s e e i n g s o m e stumps \i h e c o n s i d e r e d to h a v e b e e n p l a n t e d i n a l i n e t o m a r k a bouiK of s o m e s o r t . T h e n a t i v e s a l l e g e d , t h o u g h w i t h o u t p r o o f , that; used t o w a t e r t h e i r c a t t l e a t t h e C h a n i a a n d K a r i m e n u Ttiv I t w i l l h e n o t i c e d t h a t t h e l i n e of d o t s h a p p e n s to pass thro their point of juncture. T W k a R r V c r to Saba-Saha.
1 7 9 V o n H o h n e l

records that w a s parallel

C o u n t T e l e k i ' s m a r c h on2 to the boundary it. hill which w o o d at a Count Tt H i s c a m p o n the 23rd H e estimated a b o v e his a

and 23rd S e p t e m b e r at a h e i g h t height With of

t a n c e of f r o m 3-1 t o 4 1 m i l e s f r o m 5,000 f t .

near t o a h i g h 2,300 f t .

c l i m b e d in o r d e r t o g e t a v i e w o f M o u n t K e n y a . of" t h e h i l l a t some t o 2,600 f t .

t h e h e l p of t h e s e d e t a i l s a n d C o u n t T e l e k T s m a p the t

has b e e n l o c a t e d as p r o b a b l y at a p o i n t a l i t t l e s h o r t of the Tt R i v e r a n d , i f t h e e d g e of t h e b o u n d a r y w o o d l a y f o u r miles to e a s t of i t , w e c a n fix a l i m i t a t a b o u t a m i l e t o t h e south-we Saba-Saba Station. fixed f u r t h e r I f w e j o i n t h a t p o i n t t o t h e o t h e r point ate I f wee t o t h e s o u t h , w e g e t t h e r o u g h p o s i t i o n of their

e d g e of t h e b o u n d a r y w o o d a c c o r d i n g t o C o u n t T e l e k i .

p a r e t h i s w i t h t h e m a p i l l u s t r a t i n g S i r A l f r e d M a c k i n d e r ' s jourr w e find t h a t t h e l i n e c o r r e s p o n d s f a i r l y c l o s e l y w i t h what is tl s h o w n as t h e l i m i t of "cultivation with remnants of forest", l a n d t o t h e e a s t of it b e i n g s h o w n as o p e n "steppe."

180. I f w e set u p t h i s l i n e f o r c r i t i c i s m b y m a r k i n g it wit l i n e of d o t s a n d e p i e r i e s , w e find t h a t i t r u n s a t a n a v e r a g e dista of a b o u t f o u r m i l e s w e s t of the p r e s e n t r a i l w a y , but only an a g e of a b o u t a m i l e w e s t of the p r e s e n t r o a d . I t is t h e line mat B C on t h e plan a b o v e . 181. T h i s a p p e a r s to a g r e e w e l l e n o u g h w i t h the evide g i v e n t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n . I f it h a d l a i n m u c h f u r t h e r to t h e e K i k u y u o c c u p a t i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d b y the witne w h o t r a v e l l e d b y t h e o l d r o u t e , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o L o r d Cranw ( E v i d e n c e , p . 479) p a s s e d t h r o u g h P u n d a M i l i a . H e took u p ! o n L . O . 8 3 , a n d v i s i t e d i t i n 1906 a n d s u b s e q u e n t years, states : " T h e r e w a s n o t a h e a d o f c a t t l e , n o t a g o a t and n native. T h e y w e r e g r a d u a l l y c o m i n g u p f r o m the west g r a d u a l l y a p p r o a c h i n g P o r t H a l l . . . T h e r e w e r e no sign c u l t i v a t i o n t o a n y t h i n g l i k e t h e e x t e n t or a n y t h i n g like as a s t h e y g o n o w , a n d n o s i g n s of o c c u p a t i o n . "

K I K U Y U 1-CHAFTKII Vj

PROVINCE THE OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

82. M r . 5) :

E.

B.

Home,

speaking

of

1904, states

(Evidence,

" G o i n g south f r o m the M a r a g u a P a v e r , there w a s a little -ultivation just b e f o r e o n e c a m e t o t h e T h a r a , a n d t h e n c e o n ivards t o N a i r o b i t h e r e w a s n o c u l t i v a t i o n a n d t h e c o u n t r y w a s (riven o v e r to g a m e . I h a v e d o n e a l o t o f s h o o t i n g i n t h i s a r e a Vim E o r t H a l l a n d t h e o n l y c u l t i v a t i o n I c a n r e m e m b e r w a s n both s i d e s o f t h e r i v e r n e a r t h e T h a r a . I s h o u l d a d d t h a t r was flat c o u n t r y a n d t h e g r a s s w a s v e r y l o n g a n d t h e r e m a y ossibly h a v e b e e n a f e w shambas w h i c h I did not see. Also he n a t i v e s w e r e s h y i n t h o s e d a y s a n d d i d n o t g o n e a r a n y oad. I o n c e d i d a safari f r o m P u n d a Alilia to the I t h a n g a ills a n d I s a w n e i t h e r p e o p l e n o r c u l t i v a t i o n . " 183. T h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e s e w i t n e s s e s s h o w s t h e c o n d i t i o n s 'iiirig i n 1904 a n d 1 9 0 6 , w h e n t h e d r e a d o f t h e M a s a i h a d b e e n lv removed. W e m a y conclude that in 1895, w h e n c o n d i t i o n s iess s e t t l e d a n d r a i d s b y K a m b a or A l a s a i w e r e m o r e f r e q u e n t , \ikiryu c o u l d h a v e h a d n o p e r m a n e n t u s e of t h e c o u n t r y b e the l i n e w h i c h w e h a v e s e t u p . T h e m o r e d o u b t f u l p o i n t i s her t h e y h a d t h e p e r m a n e n t u s e o f a l l t h e l a n d i n s i d e i t . re w e p r o c e e d t o t r a c e t h e b o u n d a r y f u r t h e r n o r t h , t h i s p o i n t be d e c i d e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e w h o l e of t h e t e n t a t i v e l i n e w h i c h et up f r o m a p o i n t o n e m i l e e a s t of K a m b u i M i s s i o n t o t h e l-east c o r n e r of L . O . 2 , 9 5 5 / 7 a n d t h e n c e t o a p o i n t a b o u t a south-west o f S a b a - S a b a S t a t i o n . 184. T h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h w e h a v e b e e n a b l e t o o b t a i n u p o n abject is e x c e e d i n g m e a g r e . W h i l e w e a r e c o n v i n c e d f r o m t h e uce of C a p t a i n C o w i e a n d M r . H a r r i e s t h a t i n 1 9 0 4 t h e l a n d s h have b e e n a l i e n a t e d i n t h i s a r e a w e r e p r a c t i c a l l y u n i n h a b i t e d unused b y a n y n a t i v e s , w e f i n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e of c r e d i - in t h e n a t i v e c l a i m s t h a t t h e y u s e d t o g r a z e t h e i r c a t t l e t h e r e e the f a m i n e . D e f i n i t e p r o o f of s u c h a n a l l e g a t i o n c a n h a r d l y xpected. 1S5. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e l i n e as s e t u p r e p r e s e n t s w h a t a hnded m a n w o u l d r e g a r d a s a n a r b i t r a r y l i n e d r a w n w i t h o u t r on t h e g e n e r a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p o s i t i o n as i t w a s b e f o r e famine. I f w e a-ccept it a s s u c h , t h e q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s her nny r e p a r a t i o n is d u e t o t h e K i k u y u f o r t h e l o s s of a n which t h e y a b a n d o n e d i n t h e f a m i n e a n d t o w h i c h t h e y h a d eturned in a n y e f f e c t i v e s t r e n g t h w h e n t h e l a n d w a s a l i e n a t e d 1 six o r s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s . 186. I t is n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e c l a i m s i n t h i s a r e a , i f o n e e x ts one o r t w o w h i c h a r e f r i v o l o u s o n t h e f a c e of t h e m , t e n d t o ade o n b e h a l f of t h e m a i n c l a n s of t h e K i k u y u r a t h e r t h a n f o r cular f a m i l y g r o u p s . T h i s appears to indicate that little in

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER V ]

PROVINCE THE O L D KIKTJYU HOBS

t h e w a y o f p r i v a t e r i g h t s h a d b e e n a s s e r t e d i n t h i s part and the claims It related is when to grazing grounds held c o m m u n a l l y bil to speak of dcsiaj clans. revertendi of therefore somewhat was left, difficult

the land

since no c o m m o n

w e l l be attributed to a clan. t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s is b y

T h e o n l y w a y i n w h i c h o n e can j

t h e i r a c t i o n s , a n d i n so f a r as we

k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f a c t s i t s e e m s t h a t w h e n t h e n a t i v e popula w h i c h h a d l a r g e l y g o n e b a c k t o t h e P o r t H a l l D i s t r i c t i n the fanI b e g a n to r e t u r n a g a i n s o u t h a c r o s s t h e C h a n i a , m a n y of the g j s o u g h t f r e s h l a n d b y c u t t i n g a n d b u r n i n g t h e i r w a y i n t o thefj w e s t w a r d s i n s t e a d of r e t u r n i n g t o t h e p l a c e s w h e r e t h e y had! W e have made very by substantial allowances ( a l t o g e t h e r somel that, s q u a r e m i l e s ) f o r l a n d w h i c h w e h a v e h e l d t o h a v e b e e n admi -acquired the K i k u y u in this w a y , a n d if w e h o l d additions must should be be allowed the to t h e 1895 b o u n d a r y be m a d e for land in favour because of abandoned! of the Kit!

-clearings, n o subtractions must weighing T h i s observation

scales u n d u l y

has all the m o r e force w h e n of e f f e c t i v e l y

w e reflect that) o c c u p i e d terri

p o p u l a t i o n h a d b e e n g r e a t l y r e d u c e d i n t h e i n t e r v a l , so that a traction rather than an expansion was to be expected. view t h e r e f o r e of t h e k n o w n f a c t t h a t t h e r e was and s o u t h w a r d , w e s h a l l n o t h o l d that t

187. I n migration

westward

w a s a n y t h i n g l i k e a s e t t l e d d e s i g n o n t h e p a r t of n a t i v e s who l a n d s on t h e e a s t e r n b o r d e r i n t h e f a m i n e t o r e t u r n t o those la h u t i t is p r o b a b l e t h a t m a n y of t h e m d i d , i n f a c t , m o v e permane - e l s e w h e r e , a n d h a d a l r e a d y d o n e so b e f o r e t h e l a n d s w h i c h they left were alienated.

188. I n t h e b l o c k i m m e d i a t e l y n o r t h of t h e C h a n i a it is del ful whether there was much occupation even before the famf V o n H o h n e l r e c o r d e d t h a t it w a s l e f t v a c a n t f o r f e a r of slave I - a n d , t h o u g h t h i s m a y h a v e b e e n o n l y a t e m p o r a r y condition, t is no reason to -occupied at a n y 189. P o r believe time. that it w a s otherwise t h a n v e r y sptuj

t h e s e r e a s o n s , a l t h o u g h i n g e n e r a l w e have reel

m e n d e d f u l l c o m p e n s a t i o n , v a l u e f o r v a l u e , f o r a c r e a g e lost toi I v i k u y u , w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e w o u l d b e n o j u s t i c e in such a si t i o n in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , b u t w e find t h a t t h e f a i r e s t thing il .regard the 190. I n matter as f o l l o w s :

t h e N g e w a - C h a n i a b l o c k t h e r e a r e 1 7 . 1 0 square ni land which were "unequivocal Kikuyu eotintj

-and i n t h e b l o c k i m m e d i a t e l y n o r t h of t h e C h a n i a t h e r e are if -square m i l e s of

331
K I K U Y U I-CHAPTER V] PROVINCE THE OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

95, a n d w h i c h w e r e a l i e n a t e d as f a r m s a t v a r i o u s d a t e s b e ii 1904 a n d 1 9 0 8 . B u t i n t h e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n 1 8 9 5 a n d 1 9 0 4 a m i n e c a u s e d t h e a b a n d o n m e n t of t h e l a n d . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e don m e n t w a s t e m p o r a r y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t f a m i l i e s w h i c h l e f t and w o u l d h a v e r e o c c u p i e d i t if it h a d n o t b e e n a l i e n a t e d , a n d ther c a s e s it w a s p e r m a n e n t i n t h a t t h e r e w e r e f a m i l i e s w h o tarily w e n t a n d c l e a r e d f r e s h l a n d e l s e w h e r e a n d n e v e r w o u l d reoccupied i t ( t o say n o t h i n g of t h e f a m i l i e s w h i c h h a d d i e d Itogether). T h e fairest basis, therefore, is half a n d half. L e t assumed t h a t h a l f t h e l a n d o c c u p i e d b y t h e s e b l o c k s ( i . e . 16.26 e m i l e s out of a t o t a l of 3 2 . 5 3 s q u a r e m i l e s ) w a s l a n d w h i c h been p e r m a n e n t l y a b a n d o n e d by t h e p r e v i o u s o c c u p i e r s w h e n land w a s a l i e n a t e d , a n d t h a t t h e . o t h e r h a l f h a d o n l y t e m p ly b e e n a b a n d o n e d a n d t h a t a niens revcrtendi existed to which -d m u s t b e h a d . 191. T h i s oses of is an arbitrary these view two of the matter count but, only in as our for 16.27 ion, f a i r t o a l l p a r t i e s , a n d w e t h e r e f o r e r e c o m m e n d t h a t compensation blocks -e m i l e s . 192. S u b j e c t t o t h e s e p r o v i s i o n s , w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e t e n t a t i v e which w e s e t u p m a y b e a c c e p t e d . 193. W e n o w c o m e t o t h e s o m e w h a t c o n t r o v e r s i a l a r e a b e F r o m Saba to F o r t n S a b a - S a b a a n d t h e M a r a g u a . T h e m a p o f t h e r e s e r v e as i t ds at p r e s e n t s h o w s a p e n i n s u l a of f a r m s j u t t i n g o u t i n t o t h e ve i n s u c h a w a y a s t o s u g g e s t t h e s u s p i c i o n t h a t i t m a y h a v e f o r m e d p a r t o f n a t i v e l a n d . T h i s i s t h e a r e a of t h e S a b a - S a b a

f^f

194. T h e y w e r e s u r v e y e d i n 190S b y M r . F . Bf. J o r d a n , w h o furnished a m e m o r a n d u m t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n s t a t i n g t h a t at time t h e r e w e r e , t o t h e b e s t of M r . J o r d a n ' s k n o w l e d g e a n d f, o n l y a b o u t 8 2 h u t s i n t h e a r e a s u r v e y e d b y h i m , of w h i c h t 50 w e r e " w e s t of K a m a . " 195. K a r n a i t s e l f , a n d f o r n e a r l y a m i l e w e s t o f i t , i s i n t h e re, a n d t h i s m u s t b e t h e l o c a l i t y h e m e a n s . T h i s l e a v e s o n l y nts i n t h e f a r m a r e a , a n d of t h e s e a b o u t 20 w e r e f o u n d o n 326, w h i c h h a s b e e n d e c l a r e d n a t i v e r e s e r v e , 12 h u t s a l t o g e t h e r o n t h e a l i e n a t e d l a n d . leaving only

U t h o u g h M r . J o r d a n f o u n d a b o u t t w e n t y h u t s o n L . O . 326 i n M r . S e t h S m i t h o n l y f o u n d a b o u t s i x h u t s t h e r e i n 1906 dence, p. 9 3 7 ) , a n d b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e r e w a s o n l y o n e I C i k u v u on L . O . 325 ( S a b a - S a b a E s t a t e ) . L . O . 3 2 3 , w h i c h w a s i n c l u d e d i n M r . J o r d a n ' s s u r v e y , is n on h i s p l a n as b e i n g i n t h e n a m e o f " H a u s b u r g , C o w e n , t and E u t h e r f o o r d . " I t s b o u n d a r y is a b o u t t h r e e m i l e s e a s t

KIKUYU PART ICHAPTER V ]

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I K U Y C Borxi

of t h e I l a i l w a y a n d a b o u t 3 f m i l e s e a s t of t h e p r e s e n t road. Hausburg h a s t o l d us in e v i d e n c e , r e l a t i n g t o 1890 : " T h e c o u n t r y r o u n d P u n d a M i l i a w a s full of ^ T a k i n g t h e o l d n a t i v e t r a c k , w h i c h is v e r y n e a r l y the s t o - d a y a s i t w a s t h e n , t h e r e w a s n o c u l t i v a t i o n , so far r e m e m b e r , t o t h e e a s t o f it a t a l l . O n t h e w e s t side there a c e r t a i n a m o u n t , i n c r e a s i n g as y o u g o i n t o t h e foot-hill; wards Port H a l l . " 1 9 6 . M r . K u t h e r f o o r d ' s e v i d e n c e r e l a t i n g t o 1904 confirms d e s c r i p t i o n . H e i n f o r m s u s t h a t h e h a d b e e n " t o l d t h a t the r s e w h y t h e r e w e r e n o n a t i v e s t h e r e w a s b e c a u s e t h e K a m b a came f o u g h t t h e r e a g a i n s t t h e K i k u y u n e a r t h e b o r d e r of t h e i r countr 197. M r . H. B. Tate, who made h i s first safari from I : fifteen t H a l l t o N a i r o b i i n 1 9 0 2 , s t a t e d i n his e v i d e n c e "There w a s definitely cultivation s o u t h of P o r t H a l l . . . w a s no cultivation

for about

I n t h e n e x t s t r e t c h o f m a r c h wee.

t o P u n d a M i l i a , w h e r e S w i f t and P u i t h e r f o o r d n o w are. Tt there." 1 9 8 . T h e s e e x t r a c t s s u g g e s t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e v e n as lati 1902 t h e r e w a s v e r y l i t t l e , if a n y , c u l t i v a t i o n t o t h e east of r o a d u n t i l o n e c r o s s e d t h e M a r a g u a a n d , s i n c e n u m e r o u s wit-ns h a v e s t a t e d t h a t t h e K i k u y u g r a d u a l l y a d v a n c e d t h e i r frontier e w a r d s w h e n t h e m e n a c e of t h e M a s a i a n d t h e K a m b a w a s reinoi b y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s e t t l e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w e m i g h t tea a b l y c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e b o u n d a r y in 1895 l a y c o n s i d e r a b l y fun t o t h e w e s t , a n d t h a t t h e S a b a - S a b a f a r m s w e r e a s o r t of no-nrai l a n d a n d a b a t t l e g r o u n d b e t w e e n t r i b e s . M r . " V i d a l , the Disfe C o m m i s s i o n e r , g o e s s o m e w a y t o s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w i n t h e follow p a s s a g e i n h i s " H i s t o r i c a l M e m o r a n d u m " ( E v i d e n c e , p. 576). " D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of Gore menfc, a n d e v e n f o r s o m e y e a r s a f t e r , t h e r e w a s a considers a m o u n t of b o r d e r w a r f a r e w i t h t h e M a s a i o n t h e o n e hand: the K a m b a on the other. F o r t h i s reason the Kikuyu \ i u n a b l e t o r e m a i n i n s e t t l e d o c c u p a t i o n o f o u t l y i n g areas,: a n y a d v a n c e t h e y m i g h t m a k e w a s o f t e n f o l l o w e d b y a spe retirement." N e v e r t h e l e s s , h e a p p e a r s , i n h i s e v i d e n c e , t o e x c l u d e t h e Saba-S; farm, a r e a f r o m t h e s c o p e of t h e s e r e m a r k s . "This i n my (Saba-Saba, Limited) He states : i s n o t a b u f f e r state. Ir

o p i n i o n , t h e a r e a m o s t l i k e l y to h a v e b e e n occupied

t h e K i k u y u , a t a n y r a t e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , b e f o r e t h e famine t h i n k i t is a r e a s o n a b l e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t a l l t h e l a n d wliid now Saba-Saba Limited was occupied by t h e K i k u y u be:

K I K U Y U I CHAPTER V]

PROVINCE THE OLD KIKUYU BOUNDARIES

it. w a s a l i e n a t e d , b e c a u s e t h e r e i s n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n o n b o t h sides of i t . I t is p r o b a b l e , I t h i n k , t h a t t h e w h o l e of t h i s estate w a s o c c u p i e d b y t h e K i k u y u . " V i d a l had n o t t h e n s e e n M r . J o r d a n ' s m e m o r a n d u m , state of t h e c a s e w h e n h e s u r v e y e d t h e l a n d in 1 9 0 8 . Mr. T a r l t o n i s of i n t e r e s t : showing

199. I n r e g a r d t o t h e c o u n t r y e a s t w a r d s , t h e e v i d e n c e of , Boyes and of M r . H e n r y

Mr. John Boycs (Evidence, p . 725) :


"After leaving Fort H a l l we followed the south b a n k of we rhe T a n a R i v e r to K i t u i . met t h e Mr. Hcnrij Relating at s o m e first K a m b a to T h e w h o l e of t h a t p l a i n w a s v a c a n t . m i l e s w e s t of the river. waterfall These Kitui." above were, where so f a r the as I

T met n o b o d y , no o t h e r tribes, no o n e t h e w h o l e w a y , till a few

Tarlton (Evidence,
1906."At from the

p p . 788 a n d 739) : shambas

Maragua joints the K i r u r u m a there w e r e a f e w n a t i v e distance r e m e m b e r , t h e o n l y sliambas which I

h a d seen s i n c e c r o s s i n g though I went right

the M a r a g u a o n t h e T o r t H a l l r o a d , a n d a f t e r t h e m I d i d n o t see a n y m o r e a t all o n t h e w h o l e safari, over t h e Y a t t a as f a r as t h e 200. W e fly-belt."


7

find n o e v i d e n c e t o show K i k u y u occupation interpretation

t h a t b e f o r e 1895 t h e r e

was the the by

permanent

of a n y l a n d t o t h e e a s t of of the evidence towards

ent r o a d b e t w e e n S a b a - S a b a a n d t h e A l a r a g u a . le be a g e n e r o u s

I t will on the

lyu if w e t a k e t h e l i m i t of e f f e c t i v e K i k u y u o c c u p a t i o n t o h a v e ted u p t o t h e r o a d a n d t h e l i m i t o f i n t e r m i t t e n t o c c u p a t i o n ;ional g r a z i n g t o h a v e s t r e t c h e d t w o m i l e s b e y o n d it.

201. T h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e n o d o u b t t h a t a f t e r t h e A l a r a g u a h a d Down i a c crossed, c u l t v a t i o n w a s f o u n d o n b o t h s i d e s of t h e r o a d . T h i s Mara-nia ested b y p r a c t i c a l l y a l l t h e w i t n e s s e s . T h e q u e s t i o n is h o w f a r the r i v e r i t w e n t . !02. T h e r e w a s a l i n e d e f i n e d b y A i r . N o r t h c o t e a b o u t 1 9 1 3 . h is k n o w n a s t h e N o r t h c o t e l i n e . I t fixed w h a t w a s c o n id t o b e t h e l i m i t of K i k u y u p e n e t r a t i o n i n t o A l w e a . Its ern e x t r e m i t y w a s a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e M a r a g u a f l o w s i n t o lagana t o f o r m t h e T a n a , a n d i t m a y b e a s s u m e d t h a t a t a l l s by t h a t d a t e t h e K i k u y u w e r e i n o c c u p a t i o n of a l l t h e l a n d the n o r t h b a n k of t h e M a r a g u a t o t h e p o i n t of c o n f l u e n c e , i M r . N o r t h c o t e ' s r e p o r t , h o w e v e r , i t is o b v i o u s t h a t t h e n a t u r e e o c c u p a t i o n w a s s p a r s e , as f a r as h u t s or c u l t i v a t i o n w a s c o n d, a l t h o u g h t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n l a r g e h e r d s of c a t t l e a t s o m e ns of t h e y e a r .

K I K U Y U PART I - C H A P T E R V]

PROVINCE T H E O L D K I K U Y U Boust

2 0 3 . T h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e at all t o s h o w w h e t h e r the Ki! r e a c h e d as f a r as t h i s as e a r l y as 1 8 9 5 . t w o considerable rivers. T h e m e n a c e of unexpc h o s t i l e a t t a c k w o u l d b e s l i g h t in t h i s a r e a s i n c e i t w a s protecte 2 0 4 . M r . T a r l t o n ' s e v i d e n c e of t h e c o n d i t i o n of affairs in is i n t e r e s t i n g : " I n M w e a t h e n a t i v e s w e r e c u l t i v a t i n g o n t h e red gro but t h e r e w e r e o l d b u r n t k r a a l s l o w e r d o w n t h a n t h a t , but as l o w as B o i n j u k i , n o t b y s o m e t w o h o u r s ' m a r c h or more t h a t t i m e t h e y h a d n o c a t t l e , a n d I w a s t o l d t h a t their c had been r e m o v e d b y G o v e r n m e n t for s o m e reason. T had b e e n a p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n . " In 1927 the K i k u y u began to raise Mr. an agitation about this

a n d c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r a n c i e n t b o u n d a r i e s r e a c h e d to t h e junctk the Thiba sioner, villages Officer and t h e T a n a . Nyeri. C h a m p i o n , t h e n D i s t r i c t Con: he personally cattle. In saw twenty 1928 t h e Dis T h i s poi South stated that

south of

t h e l i n e a n d 1,850

at K e r u g u y a

stated that the K i k u y u

c a t t l e w e r e take

f a r as B o i n j u k i , w h e r e t h e r e is a w e l l - u s e d s a l t - l i c k . nearly ten miles below the Northcote line. covered as t h e c o n f l u e n c e of t h e r i v e r s i s

F r o m t h e r e t h e cot approached.

c o n t i n u e s o p e n u n t i l a f t e r N d u n i H i l l is p a s s e d , b u t b e c o m e s 1 2 0 5 . T h a t b e i n g as f a r as t h e e v i d e n c e t a k e s u s , an arbi l i n e is n e c e s s a r y if w e a r e t o b e i n a p o s i t i o n t o m a k e a n y "1 a n d L o s s " a c c o u n t of t h e K i k u y u l a n d s . T h e h i s t o r y indica p r o g r e s s i v e a d v a n c e s o u t h - e a s t w a r d s , a n d it is p r o b a b l e that in t h e K i k u y u h a d n o t y e t p e n e t r a t e d t o t h e p o i n t where N o r t h c o t e set h i s l i n e i n 1 9 1 3 . B u t w e m a y p e r h a p s stret p o i n t i n t h e i r f a v o u r a n d f i n d , in o r d e r t o f o r m a basis of a: m e n t , t h a t t h e y h a d r e a c h e d t h i s p o i n t , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t they r e g u l a r l y g r a z i n g t h e i r c a t t l e t h e r e . I t is a l s o p o s s i b l e that s o m e t i m e s d r o v e t h e m t o t h e s a l t l i c k at B o i n j u k i ' beyont N o r t h c o t e l i n e , b u t i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s it is u n l i k e l y t h a t they a n y u s e o f t h a t a r e a i n 1895. B y 1902 w e a r e p r e p a r e d to bi t h a t t h e y w e r e m a k i n g i n t e r m i t t e n t use of i t , a n d i n so concl w e r e l y l a r g e l y o n t h e e v i d e n c e of M r . H e n r y T a r l t o n (Evid p p . 737 t o 7 4 0 ) . B u t t h e w e i g h t o f t h e e v i d e n c e i s a g a i n s t the p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e u s e m a d e of t h e a r e a b e t w e e n t h e N o r t h e o f a n d B o i n j u k i w a s m o r e t h a n i n t e r m i t t e n t a n d p a r t i a l . Then i n m a k i n g u p t h e " P r o f i t a n d L o s s " a c c o u n t w e h a v e decided to t h i s a r e a p a r t l y a s " a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e d " b y u s e and part g i v e n b y G o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n o n w h i c h w e hai c i d e d is h a l f a n d h a l f . B e l o w B o i n j u k i t o the junction o T h i b a a n d T a n a r i v e r s w e find t h a t t h e r e w a s n o occupatii

KIKTJYU T ICHAPTER V]

PROVINCE T H E OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

uvu,

a n d t h i s a r e a m u s t r a n k w h o l l y as g i v e n b y

Government.

K i k u y u h a v e b e e n a l l o w e d to occupy it and the g i f t has been roved b y t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . The extent 5 as g i v e n . of t h e l a n d in the "half and h a l f " a r e a is 6 2 . 9 0 and Boinjuki, are m i l e s , of w h i c h 3 1 . 4 5 w i l l r a n k a s a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e d T h e e x t e n t of t h e l a n d i n t h e a r e a b e l o w

the l o w e r p a r t of M w e a , is 143 s q u a r e m i l e s a n d t h i s w i l l r a n k Uy as g i v e n , m a k i n g i n a l l 1 7 4 . 4 5 s q u a r e m i l e s w h i c h r a n k as n. 206. W e n e e d n o t c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h t h e From JVIwea Northward ndary f r o m M w e a n o r t h w a r d s , s e e i n g t h a t it i s s i m p l y t h e linistrative b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n the K i k u y u a n d the E m b u . The hugu D i v i s i o n u s e d t o b e c o u n t e d as p a r t of t h e E m b u D i s t r i c t , in 1922 it w a s t r a n s f e r r e d to N y e r i a n d t h e r e a f t e r r a n k e d as -uvu. T h i s m a y b e c o u n t e d a s a n a c c e s s o f s t r e n g t h i n a p o l i t i sense t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e t r i b e g a i n e d s o m e t h i n g i n n u m b e r s p r e s t i g e , b u t c a n h a r d l y b e c a l l e d a n a d d i t i o n of t e r r i t o r y i n an arian s e n s e , s i n c e i t w a s n o t a g i f t of l a n d t o t h e K i k u y u . 207. I n o r d e r n o t to c o m p l i c a t e t h e i s s u e u n n e c e s s a r i l y i t is refore b e t t e r t o s h o w t h e p r e s e n t b o u n d a r y , t h e E u p i n g a z i , as 1 had a l w a y s b e e n t h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n t h e K i k u y u a n d t h e bu. T h i s b o u n d a r y b e g i n s a t t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e K i r R i v e r ich a f t e r w a r d s b e c o m e s t h e R u p i n g a z i ) e m e r g e s f r o m M o u n t nya F o r e s t R e s e r v e a n d g o e s s o u t h b y t h i s r i v e r t o t h e T h i b a . The N o r t h e r s Boundary baeK to "svcn a S u b - D i s t r i c t b e t w e e n 1S95 a n d t h e p r e s e n t . S i n c e t h e n a t i v e s * ' are n o t so c r o w - d e d a s i n t h e N y e r i D i s t r i c t p r o p e r , a n d h a v e le l a n d i n M w e a f o r g r a z i n g , t h e r e i s a p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e y e not d e s t r o y e d t h e f o r e s t q u i t e so r u t h l e s s l y . Nevertheless, mile w o u l d p r o b a b l y b e a v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e . 209. T h e o n l y o t h e r m a t t e r w h i c h r e q u i r e s m e n t i o n is t h e Wangoinbe'^ lormer l i o n o f t h e f o r m e r l o c a t i o n o f W a n g o m b e , t h e f a t h e r of H e a d - Location. Nderi, w h o has w r i t t e n a m e m o r a n d u m to the Commission. there s t a t e d t h a t W a n g o m b e w a s a c h i e f l i v i n g o n t h e b o r d e r s he K i k u j m c o u n t r y n e a r a p l a c e c a l l e d T h a t h w a , w h i c h is a p d m a t e l y t h e s i t e of N y e r i R a i l w a y S t a t i o n , a n d t h a t , a l i t t l e re N y e r i T o w n s h i p w a s f o u n d e d , h e o f f e r e d T h a t h w a t o G o v lent as a s i t e f o r t h e t o w n s h i p , as b e i n g a c o n v e n i e n t s i t e n e a r K i k u y u - M a s a i border and near the A m b o n i R i v e r . 210. S o o n a f t e r w a r d s W a n g o m b e d i e d a n d i s s a i d t o h a v e l e f t ying i n s t r u c t i o n t o h i s s o n N d e r i t o m o v e t o a p l a c e c a l l e d aaha b e t w e e n t h e M u r i n g a t o a n d M w i g a R i v e r s , w h e r e h e is ed t o h a v e h a d his 208. I t is q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e to s a y h o w m u c h t h e n a t i v e s h a v e back t h e f o r e s t b o u n d a r y a l l a l o n g t h e n o r t h p a r t of t h e K e r u

ngundu

(right-holding).

Nderi

moved

to

ICIKU Y U PART I C H A P T E R V ]

P R O V I N OK Tun Oi.u K I K U Y U BOI y .


b

K a m a h a a n d r e m a i n e d t h e r e n i n e y e a r s w i t h a l l h i s followers h i s f l o c k s . H e w a s t h e n m o v e d t o his p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n of Kama!; a n d c o m p l a i n s t h a t h e h a d n o p r o p e r f o o t i n g t h e r e , s i n c e i i us r i g h t - h o l d i n g of a n o t h e r m a n , n a m e d N g a t i a w a M a h e n i a . 211. I n c o n s i d e r i n g w h a t t h e b o u n d a r y w a s in 1895 w e not c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s e l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s , b u t o n l y with s i t u a t i o n as i t t h e n s t o o d , w h e n W a n g o m b e is stated t o j l i v e d n e a r T h a t h w a a n d t o h a v e had a r i g h t - h o l d i n g b e t w e e n : M w i g a and the M u r i n g a t o . 212. T h e r e s e e m s t o b e no d o u b t t h a t t h e place wc f W a n g o m b e ' s v i l l a g e s t o o d w a s on t h e s o u t h s i d e of Niatia R I t is so s h o w n in t h e m a p i l l u s t r a t i n g S i r A l f r e d Mackindi r o u t s . A n d it is q u i t e c l e a r f r o m M r . J o h n B o y e s ' account thai w a s n o t a c t u a l l y in t h e f o r e s t , but on t h o s e s l o p e s o f the hill vi, commanded a good v i e w southward. H e w r i t e s in his b o o k ip, 146) : " W a n g o m b e ' s k r a a l w a s r i g h t at the t o p of a suial m o u n t a i n w h i c h rises at t h e f o o t of M o u n t K e n y a , a n d fti t h i s v a n t a g e g r o u n d a s p l e n d i d v i e w c o u l d b e o b t a i n e d of i c o u n t r y f o r m a n y m i l e s a r o u n d . . . S p r e a d o u t as far a s : e y e c o u l d r e a c h w a s a p a n o r a m i c v i e w of t h e K i k u y u count through w h i c h I had t r a v e l l e d . " N i a n i a H i l l is just i n s i d e t h e g a z e t t e d f o r e s t r e s e r v e , b e i n g s i t u s b e t w e e n t h e p o i n t s m a r k e d B 2 a n d B 3 i n t h e s k e t c h on page of t h e e v i d e n c e . S i n c e t h e b o u n d a r y of t h e f o r e s t r e s e r v e follow t h e a c t u a l f o r e s t e d g e v e r y c l o s e l y , it a p p e a r s c l e a r t h a t W a n g o m l w a s l i v i n g o n t h e v e r y e d g e of h i s o w n c l e a r i n g s a n d t h a t t h e at i n w h i c h h e h a d e f f e c t i v e l y e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f l a y b e t w e e n the a n d T h a t h w a , w h i c h i s t h e a p p r o x i m a t e s i t e o f N y e r i Rails S t a t i o n . H e w a s , b y g e n e r a l r e p o r t , a p o w e r f u l c h i e f , as K i t a c h i e f s w e n t i n t h o s e d a y s , a n d his f o l l o w e r s p r o b a b l y number, s o m e t h o u s a n d s ( c f . , J o h n B o y e s , p p . 1 5 8 , 1 5 9 ) , a n d it is probab t h a t t h e w h o l e a r e a n o w i n t h e r e s e r v e b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o poin w a s e f f e c t i v e l y o c c u p i e d b y t h e m . B u t t h e r e s e e m s to be no evi e n c e t h a t a n y s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n of t h e i r o c c u p i e d territory it c u t off w h e n t h e b o u n d a r y w a s m a d e . 213. T h e p l a c e t o w h i c h N d e r i r e m o v e d at h i s f a t h e r s dyin r e q u e s t w a s b e t w e e n t h e M w e g a a n d M u r i n g a t o R i v e r s , a n d tit d o u b t e d l y o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e as it n o w e x i s t s . B u t n o argumet h a s b e e n a d v a n c e d t o s h o w t h a t t h e l o c a l i t y w a s i n a n y real .w a right-holding. E v i d e n c e a l r e a d y c i t e d s h o w s t h a t it was in tit f o r e s t b e l t . I t w a s n e a r M a t h a r i , " t h e p l a c e of d i v i d i n g " , ah r e f e r e n c e m a y a g a i n b e m a d e t o t h e f i l e of N y e r i R e v i s i o n C a s e ! 2 3 / 2 9 , w h i c h s h o w s t h e c o n d i t i o n s p r e v a i l i n g in t h e neiehta h o o d . T h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e o f W a n g o m b e h a v i n g e v e r e s t a b l i s h

K I K U Y U j .CIIAFTEK V]

PROVINCE THE OLD K I K U Y U BOUNDARIES

it t o h i s

rigundu

in t h i s area b y m e a n s of c l e a r i n g and. u s e . T h e r e is c l e a r l y n o A Genera! Comment Boundaries

t is a d m i t t e d t h a t h e w a s n o t l i v i n g t h e r e .

d f o r s h o w i n g t h i s . a s u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y in 1 8 9 5 . 14. W i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of t h e s o u t h e r n a n d e a s t e r n of N i a n a H i l l , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e no g r o u n d f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t f t h e l a n d now- c o n t a i n e d in t h e M o u n t K e n y a F o r e s t R e s e r v e ver e f f e c t i v e l y o c c u p i e d K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y , a n d t h e s a m e t h i n g es t o t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y of t h e r e s e r v e 14. (a) W e The it. have now completed daries. results, s u m m a r i z e d We wish, in t e r m s generally. of the K i k u y u be map The 1885 ' o aary.
s u n

our s u r v e y of

acres, will some

1 in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r a n d a r e i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e c o l o u r e d i follows ents. in t h i s p l a c e t o m a k e

general

he area s h o w n w i t h a p l a i n y e l l o w b a c k g r o u n d a n d sur ded b y a d e e p y e l l o w l i n e is t h e a r e a w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d t o b e e n " u n e q u i v o c a l . K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y ' " i n 1 8 9 5 . W h e n it is ;ed t h a t , e x c e p t i n a v e r y f e w p l a c e s w h e r e s o m e s o r t of an nient e x i s t e d , t h e l i m i t s of t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y at t h a t d a t e e n t i r e l y u n d e f i n e d , it w i l l b e u n d e r s t o o d t h a t o u r d e c i s i o n h a s ecessity b e e n a r b i t r a r y . W e h a v e a t t e m p t e d to draw a line d on such e v i d e n c e as is a v a i l a b l e and o f f e r i n g as f a i r a n i n t e r tion as is p o s s i b l e at t h i s d a t e .
r

In a f e w instances, after our line had been d r a w n , further ideration h a s s u g g e s t e d t o us t h a t p e r h a p s w e h a v e b e e n a l i t t l e -generous in o n e q u a r t e r a n d p e r h a p s n o t sufficiently- g e n e r o u s b o t h e r , a n d w e a r e i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k it p r o b a b l e that o u r d r a w of t h e l i n e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of L i m u r u S t a t i o n is a l i t t l e -generous t o t h e K i k u y u , w h i l e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d o f K a m b u i ion S t a t i o n w e h a v e n o t pierhaps a l l o w e d a s m u c h t o t h e yu a s w e m i g h t h a v e d o n e . F u r t h e r n o r t h , i n t h e N g e w a ia a r e a , w e t h i n k t h a t w e h a v e a g a i n e r r e d o n t h e side of rosity. B u t , t a k e n a l l i n a l l , w e r e g a r d t h e b o u n d a r y a s f a i r , gh if a n y t h i n g o n t h e g e n e r o u s s i d e . In r e a c h i n g o u r d e c i s i o n o u r p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n b e e n : b o o k s , m a p s a n d r e c o r d s ; t h e e v i d e n c e of E u r o p e a n als a n d n o n - o f f i c i a l s w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e c o u n t r y is of l o n g ding; and the native e v i d e n c e . O u r c o n c l u s i o n i n r e g a r d to v i d e n c e g i v e n b y t h e K i k u y u is t h a t wdiat t h e y c l a i m a n d w h a t r e a l l y o c c u p i e d a r e t w o v e r y d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , a n d w e say edly t h a t , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , v e r y l i t t l e z-eliance c a n b e d o n t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s . A s a n i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e r e a d i n e s s w i t h h the K i k u y u c o m m i t t h e m s e l v e s to w i l d l y inaccurate state ts w i t h o u t m a k i n g a n y a t t e m p t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e t r u e f a c t s , w e tion t h a t t w o r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e K i k u y u C e n t r a l A s s o c i a g i v i n g e v i d e n c e b e f o r e us a t K i a m b u c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t h e
7

R.IK.UYU PART I C H A P T E R V]

PROVINCE T H E O L D KIKUYTJ BODKDA

K i k u y u w e r e t h e o n l y p e o p l e w h o w e r e r e q u i r e d t o t a k e an o; b e f o r e t h e y g a v e t h e i r e v i d e n c e t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n , t h e fact be t h a t e v e r y w i t n e s s w h o h a s a p p e a r e d b e f o r e us in K e n y a has b( required to take an oath. I n c o n t r a - d i s t i n c t i o n to t h e K i k u y u w e c o n s i d e r that r e l i a n c e c a n b e p l a c e d on t h e e v i d e n c e of t h e old S w a h i l i carat p o r t e r s , w h i c h h a s b e e n t a k e n i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s , as t o conditic at t h e e n d of t h e l a s t , a n d t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e p r e s e n t ceritiit w e w e r e m u c h i m p r e s s e d b y t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e y g a v e e v i d e n c e , w i t h t h e i r w o n d e r f u l m e m o r y of t h e old d a y s , their of p r e j u d i c e a n d t h e g e n e r a l c o n s i s t e n c y of t h e i r e v i d e n c e , alt lion g i v e n a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a n d p l a c e s and w i t h o u t k n o w l e d g e of w't had been p r e v i o u s l y said. The 1902 Boundary alter and Areas barred yellow on the map purport to show i " a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e d " b y t h e K i k u y u a f t e r 1895 b y a process c l e a r i n g a n d first u s e . I n a g e n e r a l s e n s e w e h a v e c o n s i d e r e d tin a d m i s s i b l e e x t e n s i o n s as h a v i n g t a k e n p l a c e b e t w e e n 1895 1902 b u t , e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g t h e b o u n d a r y of t h e A b e r d a r e s , we lia c o u n t e d i n such a d d i t i o n a l c l e a r i n g as h a d t a k e n p l a c e u p to tl t i m e w h e n t h e f o r e s t b o u n d a r y w a s d e m a r c a t e d in 1 9 0 7 . T h e po t i o n b e f o r e 1902 w a s t h a t t h e r e w a s n o F o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t a n as b e f o r e s t a t e d , w e h a v e a g r e e d t h a t a c q u i s i t i o n b y first cleans a n d u s e w a s a d m i s s i b l e in a n y a r e a s in w h i c h F o r e s t Officers we: a c t i v e l y e m p l o y e d i n e n f o r c i n g r u l e s u n d e r t h e F o r e s t Ordinary O n t h e A b e r d a r e b o u n d a r y w e h a v e t a k e n t h e d a t e of t h e fore d e m a r c a t i o n of 1907 t o b e t h e d a t e at w h i c h f u r t h e r acquisition'' c l e a r i n g a n d u s e c e a s e d t o be a d m i s s i b l e .
s

C H A P T E R "VI.
THE EEOPIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT.

215. I t should b e c l e a r f r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g c h a p t e r s t h a t , w h i l e 'rst c a r e h a s b e e n t o a s c e r t a i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s as t h e y e x i s t e d the P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s declared, w e h a v e not denied t o the yu t h e r i g h t t o c o u n t a s K i k u y u c o u n t r y l a n d a d m i s s i b l y red b y t h e m b y a p r o c e s s of c l e a r i n g a n d first u s e b e t w e e n t h a t and 1902. B u t w e h a v e r e q u i r e d t o b e s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e c l e a r -as sufficiently i n t e n s i v e t o r e p r e s e n t a n e x t e n s i o n of t h e t r i b a l ier r a t h e r t h a n t h e i s o l a t e d e f f o r t of a f e w v e n t u r e s o m e i n uals, and i n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e t h a t t h e e x t e n s i o n d i d n o t ge a n y general o r d e r of G o v e r n m e n t m a d e b y p r o c l a m a t i o n rmal n o t i c e , w h i c h w a s b e i n g effectively e n f o r c e d . 216. O u r findings a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e m a p s w h i c h f o l l o w t h i s ter. T h e first s h o w s t h e s i t u a t i o n a s i t e x i s t s t o - d a y , a n d is nrpose of c o m p a r i s o n o n l y . T h e s e c o n d s h o w s : (1) A r e a s c o l o u r e d p l a i n y e l l o w , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t land w h i c h w a s u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y in 1895 a n d is still in K i k u y u o c c u p a t i o n : 1,519 13 s q u a r e m i l e s . (2) A r e a s m a r k e d in red h a t c h i n g o v e r a y e l l o w back g r o u n d , r e p r e s e n t i n g l a n d w h i c h w a s K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y in 1 S 9 5 . but w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y a l i e n a t e d . A f t e r reckoning in a f e w small m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s i n t h e r e s e r v e w h i c h a r e h e l d o n f r e e h o l d but w h i c h a r e t o o s m a l l t o b e m a r k e d , w e find t h e t o t a l o f t h i s area t o be 1 2 0 6 4 s q u a r e m i l e s , a n d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of t h e table w h i c h f o l l o w s , i t h a s b e e n s p l i t t h u s :
-

Taken by Government Lost by abandonment

.. ..

.. .. Total

.. .. ..

104-38 16-26 (Sfe 120-64

Section 190)

'otc.The total of this and the previous category (i.e., 1519-13 plus 120-64) up the total area which we find to have been " unequivocal Kikuyu territory" 5approximately 1,640 square miles. (3) Areas barred y e l l o w w h i c h represent land admissibly c q u i r e d b y t h e K i k u y u b e t w e e n 1895 a n d 1902 b y a p r o c e s s f c l e a r i n g a n d first u s e , a n d c o n c e i v a b l y i n s o m e c a s e s b y urchase a d d e d t o c l e a r i n g a n d u s e . T h i s a r e a is 1 1 P 1 7 s q u a r e iles. ( 4 ) A r e a s i n t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t m a r k e d i n yellow a n d lue p a r a l l e l l i n e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t l a n d g i v e n b y G o v e r n m e n t ut i n w h i c h t h e K i k u y u h a d a l r e a d y g a i n e d a f o o t i n g b y a r t i a l c l e a r i n g a n d use b e f o r e i t w a s g i v e n b y G o v e r n m e n t . T h e p a r t o f t h i s l a n d r a n k i n g as a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e d b y t h e v i k u y u is 1,750 a c r e s , o r , 2 ' 7 4 s q u a r e m i l e s . A n d t h e p a r t

KIKUYU
PART ICHAPTER VI]

PROVINCE
T H E P R O F I T AND L o s s Acci

r a n k i n g a s g i v e n b y G o v e r n m e n t i s 7,840 a c r e s , o r , 12-25 rep miles. T h e a r g u m e n t a p p e a r s in s e c t i o n s 118 t o 128 above marked in r e d a n d y e l l o w cross-hatching


0

(5) A r e a Kikuyu

p l a i n b a c k g r o u n d r e p r e s e n t i n g l a n d a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e : ! byi by clearing and use, but a f t e r w a r d s T h e a r e a is f o u r s q u a r e miles. c r o s s - h a t c h i n g ot in red a n d y e l l o w t a k e n away i alienated.

(6) A r e a s m a r k e d

g r e e n b a c k g r o u n d , r e p r e s e n t i n g l a u d in w h i c h t h e K i k u y u 1 w o n a f o o t i n g i n 1 9 0 2 , b u t w h i c h w a s s t i l l l a r g e l y unoccupi and b u s h - c o v e r e d , a n d w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y a l i e n a t e d b y (-love: utenc. quarter. T h e t o t a l o f t h e s e a r e a s i s 4*50 s q u a r e m i l e s , and: in K i k u y u occupation has been c o m p u t e d as o t T h e amount marked of K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y i n v o l v e d is therefi in blue hatching representing 1 ; proportion

s h o w n as .1-12 s q u a r e m i l e s (vide s e c t i o n 1 3 7 ) . (7) A r e a s given miles by Government. T h e i t e m s a r e : N c l e i y a , 73*76 sqn

(vide s e c t i o n s 139-141) ; t h e l o w e r p a r t of M w e a , !
1*24 s q u a r e m i l e s

s q u a r e m i l e s (vide s e c t i o n 2 0 5 ) ; a n d t w o s m a l l b l o c k s south Nairobi River,

(vide s e c t i o n s 154 and 1 ; 5


yellow and blue :

T o t a l , 218 square miles. (8) T w o areas cross-hatched (a) half (b) T h e u p p e r p a r t o f M w e a , 62*90 s q u a r e m i l e s , of whi (31*45 s q u a r e m i l e s ) r a n k s a s g i v e n a n d half admissibly acquired. T h e cross-hatched ranks as g i v e n area and

(Vide s e c t i o n s 2 0 4 a n d 205.
south half of the Nairobi
-

Ilh

7-(;0 s q u a r e m i l e s , o f w h i c h h a l f as

( 3 8 0 square mil acquire

admissibly

(Vide
The total

section 154.) is 70*50 s q u a r e m i l e s , of which h acquired.

of these areas

(35-25) r a n k s as g i v e n a n d half as a d m i s s i b l y

217. T h e account m a y , t h e r e f o r e , b e cast as u n d e r :

Legitimate

(as defined below, Note 1)

Kiktiyu

Territory.

Taken aivay

by

Government. Square Miles


104-33 4-00 1-12

Square

Miles
Under Category I I V VI

Under Categary I 1,519-13 II 120-64 III 111-17 IV 2-74 V 4-00 VI 1-12 VIII 35-25 Under Category I V 12-25 ,, V I I 218-00 ,, V I I I 35-25 35-25

Under Category I I 1794-05

Lost by

Abandonment.

i 9s o -:

Added

by

Government.

Balance

of Kikuyu remaining

Territory 1.9. 1.933-?;

265-50 2,059-55
2,059-5;

K I K U Y U j CHAPTER V I ]

PROVINCE "THE P R O S I T AND L O S S ACCOUNT"

Note 1 . T h e e x p r e s s i o n " L e g i t i m a t e K i k u y u T e r r i t o r y " is t o understood as c o v e r i n g : (a) l a n d w h i c h w a s e f f e c t i v e l y K i k u y u


itorv w h e n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s d e c l a r e d ; a n d (b) l a n d a d m i s y acquired b y t h e K i k u y u s i n c e t h a t d a t e u n t i l 1902 b y a p r o c e s s first c l e a r i n g a n d u s e . T h e e x p r e s s i o n is m e r e l y u s e d f o r v c u i e n c e , a n d i s n o t i n t e n d e d to i m p l y t h a t " l a n d a d d e d b y e n i m e n t " did not equally b e c o m e l e g i t i m a t e K i k u y u territory. itimate a c q u i s i t i o n of f r e s h l a n d b y a p r o c e s s of first c l e a r i n g use is h e l d b y us t o h a v e c e a s e d in 1 9 0 2 i n a r e a s in w h i c h ers of t h e F o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t w e r e a c t i v e l y e m p l o y e d a n d in r places a f t e r d e f i n i t e a r e a s w e r e d e m a r c a t e d as f o r e s t r e s e r v e . T h e deeji y e l l o w l i n e o n t h e m a p s h o w s t h e l i m i t s of l e g i t i m a t e i v u t e r r i t o r y i n 1 8 9 5 , b u t all t h e a r e a b e t w e e n i t a n d t h e b r o k e n n line was m a i n l y forest or scrub c o v e r e d in 1895, a n d to a siderable e x t e n t w a s s t i l l so c o v e r e d i n 1 9 0 2 . T h e t o t a l of 1,794'05 s q u a r e m i l e s is s o m e w h a t g r e a t e r t h a n area w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y e i t h e r 895 or i n 1 9 0 2 b e c a u s e i n 1895 t h e i t e m s u n d e r c a t e g o r i e s ( 3 ) , (5), (6) and (8) had not y e t been a c q u i r e d , w h i l e b y 1902 an of 16'26 s q u a r e m i l e s h a d b e e n l o s t b y a b a n d o n m e n t as s h o w n er c a t e g o r y ( 4 ) . T h i s f i g u r e is n o t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e p u r p o s e of ssing t h e P r o f i t a n d L o s s A c c o u n t , w h i c h w i l l b e b a l a n c e d on valuations o f t h e l a n d " a d d e d b y G o v e r n m e n t " a n d " t a k e n ay b y G o v e r n m e n t . " F o r t h e p u r p o s e of w o r k i n g o u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n 1902 section 63 a b o v e t h e e x t e n t of K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y h a s b e e n .778 s q u a r e m i l e s ( i . e . , 1,794 less s i x t e e n abandoned). shown

Note

2 . I n the above table three assumptions h a v e been made concerned.

ch a r e t r u e a s r e g a r d s t h e f a c t s as e x i s t i n g o n t h e l a n d , b u t a r e icipations as f a r as g a z e t t i n g is (i) T h e g i f t of M w e a to t h e K i k u y u has b e e n a p p r o v e d by the G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , but o w i n g t o l e g a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o n v e y a n c e the g a z e t t e m e n t has not y e t been effected. ( i i ) L . O . 4 , 4 5 0 , w h i c h is i n c l u d e d i n c a t e g o r y ( 4 ) , w a s o r i g i n ally set aside t o b e forest r e s e r v e , but w a s abandoned by the F o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t for the reason t h a t it w a s not r e q u i r e d for afforestation, and also because t h e r e w a s considerable native occupation in it. M a j o r G r a y , when D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , K i a m b u i n 1927 i n f o r m e d t h e n a t i v e s t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a l l o w e d t o r e m a i n , a n d t h e y h a v e b e e n i n u n d i s t u r b e d p o s s e s s i o n e v e r s i n c e . I t is n o w o c c u p i e d a n d c u l t i v a t e d as i n t e n s i v e l y as t h e r e s t of t h e r e s e r v e . S i n c e w e d o n o t c o n c e i v e t h a t t h e r e is a n y i n t e n t i o n of d i s t u r b i n g t h e s e n a t i v e s , w e h a v e a s s u m e d

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER VI]

PROVINCE

"THE

P R O F I T AND L o s s ACCOR

that

this

position

only awaits regularization

by gazet;

m e n t , a n d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of o u r t a b l e w e h a v e reckon i t as if i t w a s a l r e a d y p a r t of t h e r e s e r v e , (iii) F o u r hundred by of acres north the Africa natives of who the it of L . O . were 4 , 4 5 0 h a v e been si for on t h e a ceo. t h e osta to le added rendered modation in the Inland Mission resident but yet

T h e l e a s e h a s b e e n a m e n d e d a c c o r d i n g l y ; t h e l a n d is r u occupation of natives, has not owing been difficulties conveyance

the reserve.

(4).

I n t h e a b o v e t a b l e it i s i n c l u d e d in catco

Note 3 . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e a r e a s L . O . 1 6 0 , T i g o n i , has a! b e e n i n c l u d e d i n t h e " B a l a n c e , of K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y remaining I t is p a r t of t h e a r e a f o u n d b y us t o h a v e b e e n unequivo K i k u y u territory. A l t h o u g h it is n o t p a r t o f t h e g a z e t t e d Nat R e s e r v e , i t is i n p e r m i s s i v e n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n , a n d h a s therefi n o t b e e n s h o w n a s " t a k e n a w a y b y G o v e r n m e n t " ; t h e r e f o r e ii p a r t of t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e a c c o u n t . P r o p o s a l s as t o i t s futu destiny are m a d e in C h a p t e r X . Note
follows 4.The : b a l a n c e of 1,933-79 s q u a r e m i l e s i s m a d e up

Square Mih
( i ) A r e a of t h e p r e s e n t N a t i v e R e s e r v e as g a z e t t e d (ii) M w e a (iii) L . O . (iv) L a n d (v) Tigoni Total Area 4,450 surrendered by the Africa Inland 0;62 143 1,933-79 1,726-fJO 205 00 069

Mission

218.

T h e a n a l y s i s of t h e s e : Land given by Government Sq. Miles 174-55 90-95 265-50

figures,

w h e n p r e s e n t e d b y districi

is a s f o l l o w s

Districts

Land taken by Government Sq. Miles 6-95 9-14 93-41 109-50

Net gain Sq. Miles 167-60

Net loss Sq. Miles

Nyeri District Fort Hall District Kiambu District . . Total ..

9-14 2-46

156 balance of gain

337
KIKTJYTJ iCHAPTER VI] PROVINCE "THE P R O F I T AND E o s s ACCOUNT"

g e n e r a l Modification required to -est w h i c h i t p o s s e s s e s , w e d o n o t p r o p o s e t o c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s meet P r i v a t e his c h a p t e r w i t h a n y o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s than a s e t t l e m e n t and Sectional Interests. the t r i b e a t l a r g e . T h e question whether a n y settlement 219. W h i l e the above analysis is s e t down for the ch w e find to b e j u s t t o t h e t r i b e as a w h o l e r e q u i r e s in t h e i n t e r e s t s of to b e c o n s i d e r e d a unt. -220. A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h w i l l a f f e c t t h e Modifications required to unt is t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a n d t o w h a t e x t e n t e x c e p t i o n s c a n meet Special mde t o t h e g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n of e q u i v a l e n t c o m p e n s a Cases. in l a n d i n s p e c i a l c a s e s , a s f o r i n s t a n c e w h e n t h e l a n d l o v e r n m e n t h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d as a m i s s i o n or i n s o m e uer d i r e c t l y b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e n a t i v e s . xchange and other adjustments. t h e The Basis of Valuation. T h i s is a m a t t e r taken other which certain degree in of particular Chapter I X , modification modifica held con found this d i s t r i c t s o r i n d i v i d u a l s , is in w h i c h w e g i v e our is recommended on

ions o n t h e s e t t l e m e n t

of p r i v a t e r i g h t s , a n d i t w i l l b e

be c o v e r e d i n C h a p t e r X , w h i c h w i l l a l s o d e a l w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n

-221. I t is c l e a r t o u s t h a t t h e b a s i s of v a l u a t i o n m u s t b e e w h i c h the l a n d possesses for n a t i v e s . But the native

view

t and their a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d pastoral practice are c h a n g i n g and question a r i s e s w h e t h e r w e s h o u l d c o n s i d e r t h e v a l u e w h i c h t h e possessed f o r t h e K i k u y u a t t h e t i m e of t h e a l i e n a t i o n s o r t h e e w h i c h it w o u l d h a v e f o r isily i l l u s t r a t e d alienations them now, or the v a l u e farm much which :'. have f o r t h e m i n t i m e t o c o m e . occurred this locality T h e i m p o r t a n c e of t h e area. was not point When by

by considering the L i m u r u

favoured

ves, s i n c e i t w a s t o o c o l d a n d m i s t y t o b e v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s which they were accustomed to grow. heir e y e s t h e n as l o w a v e r a g e l a n d . t to p l a n t E u r o p e a n vikuyu country. potatoes and I t would have ranked have suitable average I n later y e a r s m a n y other crops m o r e

ich a c l i m a t e a n d t h e y w o u l d r e g a r d t h i s l a n d as g o o d

222. I n t h e b a r e j u s t i c e of t h e m a t t e r w e c o n s i d e r t h a t w e o u g h t gard t h e p r e s e n t . T h e q u e s t i o n of w h a t t h e n a t i v e s h a v e b e e n are. hat t h e y m a y o n e d a y b e c o m e d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o c o n c e r n t h i s of o u r a r g u m e n t a n d w e h a v e t o d e a l w i t h t h e m as t h e y e e c o n o m i c s e c t i o n s of o u r R e p o r t , w h e n w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s of n a t i v e s , w e s h a l l h a v e t o t a k e a c c o u n t of f u t u r e v i c i s s i t u d e s . 223. I n m a k i n g o u r v a l u a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , w e s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e parative v a l u e s of es p u t such land land in reference to-day. t o t h e u s e s to w h i c h the

ran

KIKUYU
PART I C H A P T E R V I ]

PROVINCE
" T H E 1'P.OFIT AND LOSS ACCOOJJ

(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

T h e land

taken a w a y b y G o v e r n m e n t comprises :

Si-

The part of the Kikuyu Station block which is marked in red hatching- on a yellow background . . .. .. .. J The part of thq Kikuyu Station block which is cross-hatched .. .. .. t. yellow and red on a plain background The block from Kabetc to Kiambu and including Fort Smith 2 3 The Kamiti River block .. ' .. .. .. .. 7 The blocks between the N g e w a and Chania Rivers (17-10") [ 1. ' square miles) and The block north of the Chania (15.43 square miles) I The total of these two areas is 32-53 square miles, of which we have agreed to regard half as lost by abandonment and half (16-27 square miles) as taken by Government (vide section 190) That part of the Limuru farm block which is hatched in red on a yellow background .. .. .. .. .. The western end of the Limuru farm block and land along the Railway near Muguga, marked in red and yellow cross-hatchings on a green background. This land is 4-50 square miles, of which we have agreed to regard 1-12 square miles as Kikuyu land taken away by Gov ernment (vide section 137) . . .. .. .. .. L.O. 4961, an island of unalienated Crown land in the Reserve .. .. .. .. .. .. near Saba Saba The block near Nyeri .. .. .. .. .. .. Mission "islands " in the Reserve (vide Appendix N o . 3) . . 4 5

Mi

7. 8.

1 : ( !

9. 10. 11.

Total
With being, very

..

19 0-

s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s , a l l t h e l a n d c a n b e regarded, purposes, good Native agricultural land, e q u a l to Reserve. comprises .. : -

for n a t i v e

average for K i a m b u

(6) T h e l a n d w h i c h 1. 2. 3. 4.

ranks as g i v e n

Sq. Ml.
The lower part of Mwea (vide Ndeiya (vide section 139) section 205) .. .. .. .. 1 3; 43H Part of the upper part of Mwea (vide section 205)

Part of the land now forming the native reserves of Lari, Ngarariga, Kithirioni and Mukoma's and the whole of L . O . 4450 and L.O. 338/1 (vide section 123) Part of the land now forming the native reserve south of the Nairobi River (i.e. half the area cross-hatched yellow and blue). ( Vide section 154) ;. T w o blocks hatched blue south of the Nairobi River section lSS"! . . .. .. (vide

5.

6.

Total

.. 2c::l

DIAGRAM OF AT
(VIDE

SHOWING KIKUYU

THE NATIVE

BOUNDARIES LANDS AS

THE

PRESENT
OFFICIAL

GAZETTED.
13TH OCTOBER

G A Z E T T E

1926)

Miles

Scale.
o

Miles

K I K U Y U j j CHAPTER V I ]

PROVINCE " T H E ,I KOPIT A N D L O S S


J

ACCOUNT"

224 n in total re t o rage.

T h e d e t a i l s of o u r v a l u a t i o n of t h e s e a r e a s h a v e b e e n set A p p e n d i x N o . 4. T h e r e s u l t of i t is t h a t w e h a v e assessed v a l u e of t h e s e 265*50 s q u a r e m i l e s to be e q u a l in e x c h a n g e 79 square m i l e s of g o o d a g r i e u h u r a . land of t h e K i a m b u

225. I t t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r s t h a t , so f a r as o u r i n q u i r y has -ied u s at p r e s e n t , t h e b a l a n c e of loss s u s t a i n e d b y t h e K i k u y u bout 30J s q u a r e m i l e s of g o o d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d or a b o u t 1 9 , 5 2 0 es. B u t t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h w e shall h a v e to r e c o m m e n d consideration of p r i v a t e c l a i m s , e x c h a n g e s , a n d s p e c i a l c a s e s be v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e , a n d t h i s c h a p t e r h a s o n l y b e e n w r i t t e n order to s u m m a r i z e s o m e p r e l i m i n a r y c a l c u l a t i o n s b e f o r e p r o ding t o c o n s i d e r t h e n a t u r e a n d effect o f t h e s e m o d i f i c a t i o n s , and final a c c o u n t w i l l n o t b e b a l a n c e d u n t i l C h a p t e r X I . 226. T h e first m a p w h i c h f o l l o w s t h i s c h a p t e r i s of t h e K i k u y u A N o t e of tive R e s e r v e a s n o w p r o c l a i m e d a n d i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y . T h e Explanation bud m a p i l l u s t r a t e s t h e P r o f i t a n d B o s s A c o u n t as b a l a n c e d i n wjneh^follow - chapter. T h e R o m a n n u m e r a l s s h o w n in t h e m a p " r e f e r - this Chapter e " r e l a t e t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s s h o w n i n s e c t i o n 216. T h e n u m b e r s rked i n A r a b i c figures in b l a c k r e f e r t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s of l a n d en a w a y a s s h o w n i n s e c t i o n 223 (a) a n d t h e n u m b e r s m a r k e d A r a b i c f i g u r e s i n r e d r e f e r t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f l a n d a d d e d as wn i n s e c t i o n 223 ( 6 ) . 227. T h e f u r t h e r a r e a s w h i c h w e s h a l l r e c o m m e n d t o b e a d d e d balance t h e a c c o u n t w i l l b e s h o w n i n a t h i r d m a p w h i c h f o l l o w s e 152.

CHAPTEE
AN EXAMINATION OP

VII.
BIGHTS AND

PRIVATE 1).

C L A I M S - ( P A R T THE 228. This chapter HISTORICAL be devoted

BASIS. to an e x a m i n a t i o n of T h e p o i n t at isst settled f

will

n a t u r e o f p r i v a t e l a n d l d g h t s a m o n g t h e K i k u y u , i n so f a r as I affect t h e issue w i t h w h i c h w e h a v e to deal. whether the Kikuyu c l a i m s of r i g h t c a n b e e q u i t a b l y block additions equivalent

s i m p l e s q u a r i n g of t h e P r o f i t a n d L o s s A c c o u n t s u m m a r i z e d it, last c h a p t e r , m a k i n g loss. If t o t h e balane, t h i s is d o n e , w i l l i t f u l f i l all t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f an e q family-groups, individually .

a b l e s e t t l e m e n t , o r is it o p e n t o t h e o b j e c t i o n t h a t t h e Kikuyu n o t h o l d l a n d as a t r i b e , b u t a s i n d i v i d u a l s o r might first the not be adequately compensated for loss

t a i n e d b y a s i m p l e a d d i t i o n of l a n d t o t h e t r i b e a s a w h o l e ? " e s s e n t i a l in a p p r o a c h i n g t h e q u e s t i o n is a j u s t appreciatio; facts. 229. In the present survey we s h a l l c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s chi complexin

w i t h the K i a m b u D i s t r i c t on account of the g r e a t e r its p r o b l e m s , and our findings on the d o c u m e n t s to w h i c h w e 230. By of far the the most have had access.

w i l l b e b a s e d u p o n t h e evidence

important of a

document

o n t h i s subjee: Land into Temm t h e Kit

the report at our

Committee to conduct

1929 o n N a t i v e general inquiry

Kikuyu Prbvince. command,

I t h a s n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e f o r u s , d u r i n g ther therefore a c c e p t t h a t r e p o r t as B u t there concern f

s y s t e m of l a n d t e n u r e a n d w e most authoritative document vealed w h y certain we aspects of the m a t t e r

a v a i l a b l e , a n d n o c a u s e h a s been into which it did not

should doubt its m a i n conclusions.

C o m m i t t e e t o c o n d u c t so c o m p l e t e a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n as w i l l be nec s a r y f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of o u r R e p o r t . w i t h the a l l e g e d sales of land b y the 231. The 1929 Committee was O n e of t h e s e is i n connex Dorobo. only concerned to investig

t h e s y s t e m o r s y s t e m s of l a n d t e n u r e p r e v a i l i n g a n d t o m a k e reco mendations. Dorobo, and H a v i n g s a t i s f i e d t h e m s e l v e s t h a t t h e s y s t e m of tern that transactions had taken place which sufficien i n s o u t h e r n K i k u y u w a s b a s e d o n a t r a d i t i o n of p u r c h a s e from t r e s e m b l e d a p u r c h a s e t o p r o v i d e a s u b s t r a t u m of f a c t f o r the tra t i o n , t h e y s e t t h e m s e l v e s t o e x a m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s y s t e m , so bas c o u l d b e d e v e l o p e d i n t o a w o r k a b l e m e t h o d o f l a n d t e n u r e for t

KIKIJVU [ill IC'lIAI'rTEtt VII]

1'HOVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND C L A I M S

foe. B e y o n d t h a t p o i n t t h e y w e r e n o t c o n c e r n e d to i n v e s t i g a t e e e x a c t t r u t h of t h e a l l e g e d s a l e s . T h i s is m a d e c l e a r i n s e c t i o n of C h a p t e r 1 o f t h e i r r e p o r t , i n w h i c h t h e y w r i t e :
!

" W e n e e d n o t e x a m i n e t h e e x a c t i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e c l a i m that t h e y " b o u g h t t h e D o r o b o o u t . " I t is a t l e a s t c e r t a i n t h a t payments w e r e m a d e , and that K i k u y u families a r e the u n disputed s u c c e s s o r s i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n of a r e a s o v e r w h i c h Dorobo families once hunted. T h i s , w h i c h is all t h a t is i m portant t o o u r p u r p o s e , i s c o m m o n g r o u n d . " -232. T h i s C o m m i s s i o n is d i f f e r e n t l y p l a c e d . S t a t e m e n t s h a v e :n m a d e by n e a r l y 200 c l a i m a n t s p u r p o r t i n g t o r e p r e s e n t a b o u t b mbari or f a m i l y g r o u p s , that the founders of those groups hight l a n d as p r i v a t e e s t a t e s f r o m D o r o b o , of w h i c h t h e y a l l e g e L G o v e r n m e n t has deprived them without adequate compensa ii. T h e t r i b e a s a w h o l e h a s a s k e d i n baraza t h a t a n y c o m p e n s a n w h i c h m a y b e g r a n t e d t o i t s h o u l d t a k e t h e f o r m of l a n d , a n d have to d e c i d e w h e t h e r it is j u s t or p r a c t i c a b l e to r e c o m m e n d U any land w h i c h m i g h t b e added t o the r e s e r v e on t h a t a c c o u n t ould b e d e v o t e d t o t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n of t h e p a r t i c u l a r mbari lich h a v e b e e n d i s p o s s e s s e d . 233. T h e issues i n the question appear to be : I f so, w h e n ? And pay

(i) W e r e p a y m e n t s m a d e t o t h e D o r o b o ? w h a t , in g e n e r a l , w e r e the amounts? (ii) W h a t w a s t h e n a t u r e , i n t e n t i o n ments ?

a n d e f f e c t of t h e s e

(iii) T o w h a t e x t e n t h a d t h e " g i t h a k a s y s t e m " d e v e l o p e d a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e a l i e n a t i o n of w h i c h t h e K i k u y u corn plain took p l a c e ? 234. I n v i e w of t h e f a c t t h a t so m a n y f a m i l y - g r o u p s h a v e - ^ y ted t h a t t h e y b o u g h t l a n d f r o m t h e D o r o b o , a n d in m o s t c a s e s Payments re s u p p l i e d d e t a i l s of t h e p a y m e n t d o w n t o t h e l a s t p o t of h o n e y , 5 ? . may s e e m s t r a n g e t h a t t h e a n s w e r s h o u l d b e i n d o u b t . B u t t h e ' ijority of t h e c l a i m s a r e so w i l d a n d e x t r a v a g a n t , and f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t i n g , t h a t n o t e v e n t h e K i k u y u c o u l d c r i t i c i z e us f o r r e iring s u b s t a n t i a t i o n f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s b e f o r e w e a f f i r m as a :t t h a t a n y p r a c t i c e of m a k i n g s u c h p a y m e n t s e x i s t e d . T o t h i s i w e h a v e c a u s e d a s e a r c h t o b e m a d e a m o n g t h e r e c o r d s of ithaka" cases at K i a m b u , a n d f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o p a y m e n t s D o r o b o h a v e b e e n f o u n d . B u t i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of !m t h e r e is s o m e c o m p l i c a t i n g c i r c u m s t a n c e , s u c h as t h e m a r r i a g e a girl or a n a d o p t i o n c e r e m o n y o r t h e p a y m e n t of b l o o d - m o n e y
e r e a d e o r o 0

a m a n s l a i n , so t h a t i t i s difficult ieh m a y h a v e b e e n m a d e w e r e i n these o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e r e ieh b o t h p a r t i e s h a v e a g r e e d t h a t

to say w h e t h e r a n y p a y m e n t s r e s p e c t of l a n d o r in r e s p e c t a r e , h o w e v e r , s e v e r a l c a s e s ID a sale took place.

' PAKT IUHAPTEK YilJ

K I K U Y U

PROVINCE 1'ntvATE R I G H T S AND (


U

235.

It

does

n o t , of course, f o l l o w

that

t h e payments ,
v

m a d e b e c a u s e t h e p a r t i e s h a v e a g r e e d t o s a y s o ; s t i l l less thai t a m o u n t e d to a purchase of land. tion which they have put upon born. place before they w e r e T h a t m a y b e o n l y an i n t e r ; r obscure happenings which t

2 3 6 . W e a r e m o r e d i s p o s e d t o b e l i e v e t h e s t o r y w h e n we it c o r r o b o r a t e d by t h e D o r o b o . T u r u t h i , t h e D o r o b o Elcie sr, l i v e s n e a r K i j a b e , a n d W a n j u g u , a son o f t h e w e l l - k n o w n 1 Doi E l d e r , M a r i m b e , a r e i m p o r t a n t w i t n e s s e s , a n d b o t h of them a d m i t t e d t h a t sales occurred. T u r u t h i s t a t e d in a m e m o r a s w o r n b e f o r e t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , K i a m b u , a n d forw t o u s : ' ' I a g r e e t h a t w e sold l a n d t o t h e K i k u y u t r i b e " W a n j u g u stated : " " M y father had much land years a g o . l i e ; m u c h o f i t . " E v e n t h e w i t n e s s K i n a r a K i m e n y e , w h o appear; d i s l i k e t h e K i k u y u i n t e n s e l y , a d m i t t e d t h a t h i s f a t h e r b e g a n , to j s o m e l a n d a n d r e c e i v e d t h i r t y g o a t s , a l t h o u g h t h e transaction r never completed. N j e n g w a a n d K a b a n g a K u b a i a r e others * a d m i t t e d t o u s t h a t t h e i r D o r o b o g r a n d f a t h e r s h a d sold l a n d . 0; a d m i s s i o n s o f t h e k i n d h a v e b e e n f o u n d i n K i a m b u f i l e s , althoti as w i l l b e s h o w n l a t e r , t h e a l l e g e d p a y m e n t s a r e o f t e n complica b y o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , s o t h a t o n e h e s i t a t e s t o a c c e p t the ti sactions u n q u e s t i o n a b l y as sales. 237. we make While w e accord considerable weight to this evidet the observation
7

that, with

t h e e x c e p t i o n of Turuthi, Kikuv Turuthi t h o s e of

i t h e s e w i t n e s s e s a r e t h e s o n s or t h e g r a n d s o n s o f p e r s o n s w h o \ a d o p t e d by t h e K i k u y u , a n d a r e p r o b a b l y a t l e a s t h a l f blood and more peared Kikuyu. 238. T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y t h e late M r . M e r v y n B e e c h , n w h e n h e w a s D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r a t D a g o r e t t i a n d p r i n t e d in than half K i k u y u identified in i n t e r e s t . Even with to us t o have, his interests

Journal of the African Society i n 1 9 1 7 , a d d s o n l y a f e w point


f a c t t o w h a t w e h a v e f r o m o t h e r s o u r c e s . H e m e n t i o n s a Dot n a m e d G o i t i b a a s b e i n g a s u r v i v i n g w i t n e s s t o a s a l e o f lam h i s f a t h e r , G a t h a g u , w h o m a y b e t h e m a n m e n t i o n e d i n Claim 1 1 ( M b a r i o f M w e n d a ) . H e a l s o m e n t i o n s t h a t a b o u t half l o c a t i o n of about 17,000 acres w a s b o u g h t f r o m M a r i m b e I K i k u y u n a m e d G i t u f o r " 5 0 0 o x e n , s h e e p a n d g o a t s . " Ha r e g a r d t o t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e K i k u y u a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o re a n d s p e a k , w e h a v e n o d o u b t o f t h e m e a n i n g o f t h i s phrase m e a n t o x e n , s h e e p a n d g o a t s t o t h e e q u i v a l e n t v a l u e o f 500 ; b y K i k u y u r e c k o n i n g , u n d e r w h i c h an o x i s r e c k o n e d a s five ? I t i s t h e r e f o r e i n s t r u c t i v e t o find t h a t i n C l a i m N o . 3 0 i t has s t a t e d t o u s t h a t G i t u b o u g h t l a n d f r o m M a r i m b e f o r 3,700 a 370 r a m s a n d a n a s s o r t m e n t of o t h e r t h i n g s .

KIKUYU
T

PROVINCE PHIVATE RIGHTS AND CLAIMS

CHAPTER V I I ]

239. T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y is b y - n o m e a n s e x c e p t i o n a l a n d w e h t o d r a w p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to t h e f a c t t h a t , w h e n e v e r it h a s n possible to take a s t a t e m e n t m a d e to t h e C o m m i s s i o n c o n c e r n t h e n u m b e r of g o a t s p a i d a n d c o m p a r e i t w i t h p r e v i o u s ements m a d e by the same party before the Commission w a s ointed, the statements h a v e been f o u n d , in practically every e, to b e u t t e r l y d i s c r e p a n t . S o m e e x a m p l e s of this w i l l be ted in a l a t e r p a r t o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 240. T h e r e is l i t t l e e v i d e n c e of f a c t P. from European sources, Watson etter h a s b e e n p r o d u c e d in e v i d e n c e , w r i t t e n b y M r . E . 30th N o v e m b e r , 1 8 9 7 , to M r . W . ed : "Unlike to demand Ukambani high prices all for the land h e r e is p r i v a t e l y land compared with what owned they

A l e x a n d e r , in w h i c h i t is

b y s o m e o n e o r m o r e of t h e n a t i v e s , a n d n o w t h e y h a v e l e a r n e d t h o u g h t of t w o y e a r s The context ago." w a s l o o k i n g for to prices is n o to a piece I t is the the land,

shows that M r . W a t s o n that his remark

and t o b u y on b e h a l f of t h e C h u r c h of S c o t l a n d M i s s i o n . bable t h e r e f o r e e to any On sales the refers that or which from ives r e q u i r e d f r o m obo. other Europeans, and hand there

reference indicate

between

themselves assimilated

purchases appear

the letter would

t the natives had already

t h e i d e a of b u y i n g :

'ch m a y b e a s i g n t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s h a d e x p e r i e n c e o f i t . 241. I n A u g u s t , 1 8 9 9 , M r . J u s t i c e C a t o r w r o t e

" I t has s o m e t i m e s b e e n asserted that t h e K i k u y u a c k n o w l e d g e i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s h i p of l a n d , b u t I h a v e h e a r d t h i s v i e w contradicted and I am disposed to t h i n k that there is no in dividual o w n e r s h i p , but t h a t t h e c h i e f s , w h e n strong e n o u g h , assume t o t h e m s e l v e s t h e r i g h t t o sell such l a n d as is n o t a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d b y t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e v i l l a g e s o v e r w h i c h they r u l e . " s l e t t e r is p r e s e r v e d in t h e a r c h i v e s o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t (S. 211,

. D.
242. M r . J o h n Boy-es m e n t i o n s i n h i s b o o k t h a t h e h a d b e e n b y a K i k u y u H e a d m a n , n a m e d K a r u r i , w h o is b e l i e v e d to h a v e of m i x e d K i k u y u - D o r o b o b l o o d , t h a t t h e K i k u y u h a d " p u r sed t r a c t s of l a n d f r o m t h e A t h i f o r p u r p o s e s of c u l t i v a t i o n . ' - ' adds : " K a r u r i h i m s e l f b a s e d h i s s t r o n g e s t c l a i m t o t h e c h i e f cy on t h e f a c t t h a t h e w a s a d i r e c t d e s c e n d a n t of t h e s e A t h i . " his e v i d e n c e g i v e n t o us a t N y e r i , M r . B o y e s s t a t e d t h a t t h i s rmation w a s g i v e n t o h i m at the t i m e t o w h i c h t h e b o o k relates, e l y , 1 8 9 8 . I t is p e r h a p s t h e e a r l i e s t r e c o r d of t h e s t o r y of t h e obo-Kikuyu l a n d sales h a v i n g b e e n t o l d t o a E u r o p e a n . I t is
1

iaiCTJYU
PART 1-CHAPTER VII]

mtOVINCB
P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND C
U:

n o t e w o r t h y t h a t K a r u r i l i v e d i u F o r t H a l l D i s t r i c t , a n d thai F o r t H a l l n a t i v e s d e n i e d i n baraza b e f o r e t h e 1929 C o m m i t t e e t t h e y h a d e v e r b o u g h t a n y l a n d f r o m t h e D o r o b o i n t h a t district! 2 4 3 . A s t h e c l a i m s f r o m t h e K i a m b u n a t i v e s h a v e reached;! Commission they have been marked on a m a p . marked with reasonable accuracy. A I n m o s t cases: conflict d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n h a v e b e e n g o o d e n o u g h t o p e r m i t o f their he great number of claims h a v e been revealed. When every allowance I f t h e s e l a n d s r e a l l y h a v e b e e n bom been made for possible mistakes

w e c a n n o t u n d e r s t a n d w h y s o m a n y c l a i m s e x i s t t o t h e same la. has r e c o r d i n g t h e c l a i m s o n t h e m a p , w e c a n n o t e s c a p e t h e conclus that there is v e r y little land w h i c h has not b e e n m a d e subject! The total number of p e r s o n s a l l e g e d to I at least t w o c l a i m s .

m e m b e r s o r d e p e n d e n t s of t h e f a m i l y g r o u p s , a f f e c t e d b y the aliefl t i o n of l a n d t o s e t t l e r s i n t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t is g r e a t e r by ml t h a n 50 p e r c e n t t h a n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e K i a m b u Nat Deserve ! from while decade These considerations seem t o us t o c a s t d o u b t on c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e s e l a n d s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y b o u g h t as p r i v a t e esta! the D o r o b o . 244. Another point which strikes us as remarkable is til most of t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s r e s e m b l i n g sale w h i c h have b* of that date left

c o r r o b o r a t e d b y t h e D o r o b o a p p e a r t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e about i 1891-1900, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officers r e c o r d of t h e m . A n d i t is s t i l l m o r e r e m a r k a b l e t h a t in the it

d e c a d e , w h e n t h e a l i e n a t i o n s u n d e r c o m p l a i n t t o o k place', nott s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d o r k n o w n b y a n y b o d y a b o u t Dor selling land or the existence of

ithaka.

If

ithaka

w e r e prit

e s t a t e s i n t h e s e n s e w h i c h i s n o w c l a i m e d , i t i s h a r d l y credible! the Kikuyu should h a v e received compensation for their

sham

o n t h e L i m u r u f a r m s a t t h e h a n d s of M r . H o p e a n d o t h e r s and; nothing to him about never to have their heard reported

githaka r i g h t s .
of them at that

A n d y e t M r . H o p e appe] date, a n d "certainly '"

existence.

2 4 5 . I t a p p e a r s t h a t i n l a t e r y e a r s , w h e n h e l e a r n t m o r e abi t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e K i k u y u h e l d t h i s l a n d , h e r e g r e t t e d t. ing recommended so m u c h o f i t f o r a l i e n a t i o n

(vide

Evidence

M r . W a d e , C h i e f N a t i v e C o m m i s s i o n e r , p p . 2 9 3 4 a n d 2935 of: p r i n t e d e v i d e n c e a n d q u o t e d i n s e c t i o n ( e ) of A p p e n d i x N o . 1). T: is p e r h a p s e v i d e n c e t h a t h e d i s c o v e r e d l a n d h o l d i n g i n K i k u y u t o m o r e private in character than he h a d r e a l i z e d , but by no m amounts gave any to an admission that

ithaka w e r e
There

private to had been

estates in' s h o w that bought''

sense wdiich is n o w

claimed.

is n o t h i n g

credence to the story that they

t h e D o r o b o , or e v e n t h a t h e h a d h e a r d it.

KIKUYU
I-OHMTKIt VII]

PROVINCE
1 ' l t I V A T U R.IGHT3 A N D Cl/AIMS

246. T h e q u e s t i o n of githaka r i g h t s first a p p e a r s as a u issue G o v e r n m e n t files w h e n it w a s r a i s e d b y M r . H o b l e y in 1 9 1 3 , Ireupon t h e i r e x i s t e n c e w a s h o t l y d i s p u t e d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , (lav t h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y b e l i e v e d t o e x i s t , b u t l i n g e r i n g d o u b t s ( r e m a i n as to w h e t h e r t h e y a m o u n t t o a " s y s t e m . " 247. W e h a v e t a k e n due n o t i c e of t h e v i e w s r e c o r d e d by dous i n q u i r e r s a n d t h e e v i d e n c e o n w h i c h t h e y w e r e b a s e d . We b oiven due w e i g h t t o the u n a n i m o u s a n d p r o b a b l y sincere lion of t h e K i a m b u n a t i v e s , e x p r e s s e d in s e v e r a l barazas, t h a t I bought t h e i r l a n d , a n d w e h a v e a l s o n o t e d o n t h e o t h e r s i d e (statement m a d e t o u s by C h i e f N d u i n i , a t N y e r i , r i r o t e s t i n g I any K i k u y u w h o said h e h a d b o u g h t h i n d f r o m t h e D o r o b o w a s I iii. '24H. A i l t h a t w e r e g a r d a s a s a f e f i n d i n g o n t h e e v i d e n c e r e led u p t o t h i s p o i n t is t h a t t h e r e h a v e b e e n i n s t a n c e s of D o r o b o living p a y m e n t s f r o m K i k u y u , w h i c h r e l a t e d in s o m e d e g r e e to use a n d m a n a g e m e n t of l a n d . W h e t h e r t h e s e p a y m e n t s w e r e innovation o r i n s t a n c e s of a g e n e r a l a n d e s t a b l i s h e d p r a c t i c e question w h i c h w e h o l d o v e r u n t i l o u r r e v i e w of t h e e v i d e n c e L the f u r t h e r issues h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d . 219. T h e n e x t q u e s t i o n is t h e d a t e of t h e p a y m e n t s . T h e c a s e s Much c o r r o b o r a t i v e e v i d e n c e h a s b e e n g i v e n to us b y D o r o b o [relate to c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t d a t e s . T h e a l l e g e d sales b y uthi's s e c t i o n i n t h e L a r i a n d E s c a r p m e n t F o r e s t s a r e a l m o s t ainly s i n c e 1900, s e e i n g t h a t t h e s e a r e a s a r e k n o w n t o h a v e i to all i n t e n t s a n d p u r p o s e s v i r g i n f o r e s t u n t i l 1 9 0 2 . The ence b e f o r e us is t h a t p a y m e n t s w e r e n o t m a d e i n a- l u m p sum that t h e K i k u y u p a i d as t h e w o r k of c l e a r i n g p r o c e e d e d , a n d efore w e c a n n o t c r e d i t that t h e K i k u y u p a i d m u c h in a d v a n c e anything w h i c h t h e y h a d n o t y e t u s e d . 250. F o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n t h e s a l e s b y M a r i m b e of l a n d s o u t h le N a i r o b i a n d N e a n g a r a r i v e r s c a n n o t h a v e b e e n m u c h b e f o r e , at w h i c h d a t e t h e l a n d w a s s t i l l v i r g i n f o r e s t , n o r m u c h a f t e r . which w a s found b y M r . Justice M a x w e l l (in a j u d g m e n t ,dy q u o t e d ) t o be t h e d a t e of t h e M a s a i - D o r o b o a g r e e m e n t , sby t h e D o r o b o w e r e t o a b a n d o n t h e l a n d s o u t h of t h e N e a n River. 251. N o n e of t h e o t h e r sales f o r w h i c h w e h a v e iof t h e m m a y h a v e b e e n b e f o r e t h e n . * cases e x a m i n e d b y M r . B e e c h . 152. A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f N a t i v e T r i b u n a l R e c o r d s t e n d s t o c o n the v i e w e x p r e s s e d i n t h e R e p o r t o f t h e 1929 Committeethat tiginal K i k u y u p u r c h a s e r s w e r e t h e f a t h e r s a n d g r a n d f a t h e r s of corroboration although

le D o r o b o can be d a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n t y b e f o r e 1 8 9 0 ,

T h e same thing applies

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER VII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AM. rjj

, men w h o a r e still a l i v e , a n d i n m o s t cases it w o u l d appearI

t h e d a t e s a l l e g e d f o r t h e o r i g i n a l " s a l e " w e r e n o t b e f o r e 1880] a p p e a l c a s e N o . 1/31 t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r h a s expressed! opinion that the transaction ( w h i c h h e d i d n o t c o n s i d e r to Thai appea
SiU' Oil 1

a m o u n t e d to a sale) h a p p e n e d " a b o u t 80 years a g o . " context, does not appear ment, and most of the other alleged date. sales w h i c h

t o h a v e b e e n m e a n t f o r a preci

r e c o r d s a p p e a r t o b e of a l a t e r

2 5 3 . T h e b u l k of t h e K i k u y u c l a i m s b e f o r e t h e C o u i n t o t h e effect that particular f a m i l y g r o u p s h a v e lost h a n d s of t h e G o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h t h e y h a d b o u g h t f r o m t h e Do M a n y of t h e c l a i m a n t s h a v e s u b m i t t e d t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s o n a [n\ f o r m , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h t h e D o r o b o as ii h a p p e n e d " m a n y c e n t u r i e s 2^ast." W e a r e f u l l y satisfied or! e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e is n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r t o j u s t i f y t h i s a n t i q u i t y . W e b e l i e v e t h a t m o s t o f t h e w i t n e s s e s filled in the w i t h o u t a n y c l e a r k n o w l e d g e of w h a t t h e p h r a s e i m p l i e d , ai d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r c l a i m t h e y o f t e n s t a t e d q u i t e f r a n k l y that it t h e y t h e m s e l v e s o r t h e i r f a t h e r s or t h e i r g r a n d f a t h e r s who d u c t e d t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s . W h e r e i t h a s n o t b e e n s t a t e d in so: w o r d s , t h e i n f e r e n c e is c l e a r l y s u g g e s t e d i n t h e c l a i m . Indei w e h a d n o t h i n g e l s e t o g u i d e us b u t t h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n us b K i k u y u mbaris, w e s h o u l d h a v e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t m o s t of the n o w u n d e r c l a i m a n d t h e b u l k of t h e K i a m b u N a t i v e Reserve i n t h e o w n e r s h i p of D o r o b o l a n d l o r d s a s l a t e a s 1880 and thai K i k u y u t h e n b e g a n t o b u y t h e l a n d , b u t t h a t it w a s still ' l a r g e l y D o r o b o i n o w n e r s h i p w h e n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s declat 2 5 4 . F o r t u n a t e l y f o r t h e K i k u y u w e a r e n o t e n t i r e l y depei o n t h e i r e v i d e n c e . W e k n o w t h a t w h e n C o u n t T e l e k i w e n t tin t h e country- i n 1887 h e f o u n d t h e m f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d in the co t r a v e r s e d b y h i m a f t e r h e c r o s s e d t h e N a i r o b i R i v e r u n t i l he t o t h e G u r a . H e s a y s t h a t K i k u y u a p p e a r e d a t practically s t r e a m w h i c h h e c r o s s e d , d e m a n d i n g hongo ( t r i b u t e ) and n o t r e m e m b e r t h a t h e m e n t i o n s t h e p r e s e n c e o f D o r o b o anvl i n t h a t piece of c o u n t r y . W e c a n n o t b r i n g o u r s e l v e s to bl t h a t , i f s u c h a t h i n g a s l a n d - o w n e r s h i p w e r e e v e r mention! t h o s e d a y s , t h e K i k u y u h a d n o t a l r e a d y s e c u r e d t h e principal in it. 2 5 5 . W e a r e t h e r e f o r e f a c e d w i t h t h e p u z z l e t h a t , whi K i k u y u s t a t e m e n t s , i f a c c e p t e d , w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t most ' l a n d w a s b o u g h t after 1880, C o u n t T e l e k f s description c o u n t r y m a k e s i t a l m o s t c e r t a i n t h a t t h e K i k u y u m u s t havd i n o c c u p a t i o n for at least a g e n e r a t i o n b e f o r e t h a t . This a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r d o u b t i n g t h e s t o r y of t h e s e " s a l e s " as t the Kikuyu.

KIKUYTJ I-CHAPTEB V I I ] -

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND CLAIMS

256. W e shall p r o c e e d w i t h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of f u r t h e r e v i d before r e c o r d i n g w h a t w e c o n s i d e r t o b e t h e t r u t h o f t h e er. W e can only say here that the only transactions lbling sale w h i c h a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y w e l l a t t e s t e d t o b e a c c e p t e d acts, t h a t is t o s a y , t h e t r a n s a c t i o n s c o r r o b o r a t e d b y t h e bo, a p p e a r t o h a v e t a k e n p l a c e ' a b o u t t h e p e r i o d 1 8 9 1 t o 1 S 9 9 . do n o t t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e a n y a n s w e r t o t h o s e w h o h o l d t h e that t h e i d e a o f o u t r i g h t sale o f l a n d w a s f o r e i g n t o t h e n a t i v e until t h e E u r o p e a n s a p p e a r e d . 57. T h e K i k u y u e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p a y m e n t s w e r e ly l i v e stock a n d h o n e y , w i t h a n a x e , a k n i f e , a n d a b r a n d i n g the to h o n o u r t h e c u s t o m . I t i s a d m i t t e d t h a t g i r l s w e r e s o m e - amounts of the s i n c l u d e d , a n d , in a f e w e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s , t h e b l o o d - m o n e y ^ " y m e n t a ?
w e r o

man

slain.

258. T h e t o t a l n u m b e r of c l a i m s m a d e is 1 9 3 , i n c l u s i v e of in c l a i m s b y t h e D o r o b o . T h e r e a r e 1 4 1 c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e I is a c c o m p a n i e d b y a s t a t e m e n t of t h e p a y m e n t a l l e g e d t o been m a d e . T h e a v e r a g e p a y m e n t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c l a i m s , s out a t 1,779 s h e e p a n d g o a t s , 180 r a m s , 1 9 f a t r a m s ( o r h e s or e w e s ) , 22 c a t t l e a n d a n u m b e r o f o t h e r t h i n g s , w h i l e t h e le total of r e c o r d e d p a y m e n t s i s 2 5 0 , 8 4 9 g o a t s , a n d t h e r e s t t o h. W e regard these figures as fantastic a n d ridiculous, liter o n e l o o k s a t t h e m f r o m t h e s t a n d p o i n t of t h e n u m b e r of s that t h e K i k u y u a r e k n o w n t o h a v e p o s s e s s e d , o r t h e g o a t m n i n g - c a p a c i t y of t h e D o r o b o , o r c o m p a r e s t h e m w i t h t h e tents r e c o r d e d i n N a t i v e T r i b u n a l c a s e s . A f e w i n s t a n c e s m a y aken :-

Claim No.

13.It

is s t a t e d

that

t h e mbari

of

Thaara

bought l a n d f r o m a D o r o b o n a m e d I t h i r u f o r 1 8 0 s h e e p a n d goats, 18 r a m s , 10 e w e s , 1 0 k n i v e s , 9 a x e s a n d 10 p o t s of honey. I n D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r ' s R e v i s i o n C a s e N o . 4 2 o f 1 9 2 1 , K a g o n e w a I t h a r a sued G e t h u n g i r i w a T h i r u a n d s t a t e d : " T h i r u , t h e f a t h e r of t h e d e f e n d a n t , sold m e a during t h e g r e a t f a m i n e f o r 30 g o a t s a n d 2 s h e e p . " President "We 1 goats. of t h e D a g o r e t t i awarded the Native Tribunal explained : on his paying one to him.

githaka

githaka

t o t h e plaintiff Kagone returned

W e decided in this w a y because T h i r u paid a goat a g o to Kagone.

tany y e a r s

The g o a t p a i d b y T h i r u p r o d u c e d 3 0 . T h i r u t o o k t h e for t h e g o a t d u r i n g t h e g r e a t famine."

githaka

259. T h i s c a s e is v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g , f o r t h o u g h w e d o n o t ss t o u n d e r s t a n d i t s d e t a i l s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a l l t h a t w a s tally p a i d b y T h i r u ( o r I t h i r u ) w a s o n e g o a t , w h i c h p r o d u c e d more, and t h e K i a m a eventually ordered h i m t o pay eleven

K I K U Y U PART I - C H A P T E R VII]

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND CU

m o r e a n d k e e p t h e (jitItalia o r t h e p a r t of i t w h i c h r e m a i n s in; reserve. T h e s e g o a t s h a v e n o w g r o w n in t h e i m a g i n a t i o n of, c l a i m a n t s t o 1 8 0 , a n d 18 r a i n s a n d JO e w e s . ClaimNo. ' 2 0 . T h e c l a i m a n t s a l l e g e 500 g o a t s paid. ] D o r o b o s o n of t h e r e c i p i e n t s a y s o n l y 8 0 r e c e i v e d . Claim N o . 2 4 . T h i s is t h e c l a i m o f t h e mbari of thei Chief Kinanjui. I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n r e v i e w e d i n a previ c h a p t e r , a n d it w i l l b e r e m e m b e r e d t h a t i n t h e case before 1 M r . J u s t i c e M a x w e l l c o m m e n t e d on t h e b a r e f a c e d l y i n g of; parties and their witnesses. Claim No. 8 6 . - I t i s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e M b a r i of Kiharai M a r i g w a b o u g h t t h e l a n d f r o m M u t h o g i n i t h e brother M a r i m b e a n d M u i n a m i for 47,424 g o a t s , 4,742 r a m s , 20 p of h o n e y , e t c . T h e c o m m e n t of M u i r u r i , son of M u i n a m i , j W a n g u g u , s o n of M a r i m b e , i s t h a t t h e i r f a t h e r s , M a r i m b e i M u i n a m i , s o u g h t a d o p t i o n b y K i h a r a , b e c a u s e o n e of tf b r o t h e r s h a d b e e n k i l l e d b y t h e K i k u y u , a n d t h e y w e r e afn O n a d o p t i o n t h e y w e r e g i v e n t e n g o a t s e a c h a n d h a d to s render a large amount of land. Claim No. 1 0 6 . T h e c l a i m a n t s s t a t e t h a t t h e y boo t h e l a n d f r o m f o u r D o r o b o i n c l u d i n g K i m e n y e M u n y u g i for c o w s , 1,300 g o a t s , 140 r a m s , e t c . T h e son o f K i m e n y i sti t h a t o n l y 3 0 g o a t s w e r e p a i d a n d t h a t t h e sale w a s n o t effect Claim No. 137 ( M b a r i of C h i r i ) . C l a i m a n t s state t they b o u g h t the land from t w o D o r o b o for a payment w h i n c l u d e d 2.650 g o a t s , 2 6 5 r a m s , a g i r l a n d b l o o d - m o n e y fo man killed. C h i e f K o i n a n g e s t a t e d o n o a t h : " T h e o r i g i n a l of c l a i m of t h e mbari of C h i r i is t h a t t h e r e w a s a D o r o b o liv i n w h a t is n o w t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e , w h o d u g a g a m e pit i i n t o t h a t g a m e p i t o n e o f t h e i r a n c e s t o r s f e l l . O n t h a t acco a n d a l s o o n a c c o u n t of t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s D o r o b o h a d taken of t h e i r g i r l s a n d m a r r i e d h e r , t h e y r e c e i v e d t h e githaka b i n s i d e a n d o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e , a n d t h e p i e c e w h i c h is out; is n o w t h e c l a i m of t h e mbari of C h i r i . " (Note.The l a n d s o c l a i m e d a p p e a r s t o b e , according t h e d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n i n t h e m e m o r a n d u m , o v e r t h r e e hund square m i l e s and includes the Y a l t a P l a t e a u . ) 260. I t w o u l d b e easy to g o on m u l t i p l y i n g instances. 1 e v i d e n c e i s o n r e c o r d t o b e e x a m i n e d b y a n y o n e w h o wishes s t u d y i t i n d e t a i l , a n d a precis o f i t h a s b e e n p r i n t e d (since i: t o o v o l u m i n o u s t o p r i n t i n f u l l . ) A f t e r s t u d y i n g t h e evidences m i t t e d b y n a t i v e s i n s u p p o r t of t h e mbari c l a i m s , w e h a v e no hesi t i o n i n c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e b u l k of i t as w o r t h l e s s . W e g o furtl

K I K U Y U VII]

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND CLAIMS

oa

that i n our o p i n i o n m a n y of t h e m e m o r a n d a a r e d e l i b e r a t e l y wish to invite especial attention Headman of Philip) Karanja, not who to to the fact that was go on on

nthful. 261. W e occasion, the representing telling lies

ve i n t e r e s t s b e f o r e u s , a s k e d l e a v e t o i n t e r r u p t t h e p r o c e e d i n g s purpose warning witnesses t the number of goats p a i d . 262. I n a s w o r n s t a t e m e n t m a d e r e c e n t l y t o t h e M a g i s t r a t e at ibn. t h e D o r o b o Elder, named Turuthi, said : " T h e p r i c e s v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e of t h e githaka. T h e l o w e s t p r i c e w a s 30 g o a t s , g o i n g u p t o 300 o r m o r e . . . As w e d i d n o t h e r d , t h e g o a t s p a i d b y t h e b u y e r w o u l d b e taken b y us t o a r e l a t i v e , t h a t i s , t o a K i k u y u i n t o w h o s e f a m i l y w e had m a r r i e d a n d h e w o u l d h e r d t h e m . As w e required meat w e w o u l d g o and g e t t h e m . . . S o m e t i m e s a g i r l w a s given, or e v e n t w o , as t h e b u y i n g price. I h a v e n e v e r m y s e l f heard of m o r e t h a n 300 g o a t s b e i n g p a i d . I d o r e m e m b e r n o w K a r u r i p a i d 400 g o a t s f o r s o m e l a n d . " the o t h e r h a n d an e l d e r l y D o r o b o w i t n e s s s t a t e d t h a t h i s f a t h e r land f o r 7,000 g o a t s b e f o r e h e w a s b o r n ; t h a t t h e payments e b y i n s t a l m e n t s , a n d t h a t h e s a w t h e l a t e r s t a g e s of t h e p a y t. W h e n q u e s t i o n s of d e t a i l w e r e p u t t o h i m h e b e c a m e v a g u e , kept to t h e figure of : 7,000. 263. S o m e of t h e K i a m b u N a t i v e T r i b u n a l c a s e s h e l p t o s h e d t on t h e m a t t e r

Central Tribunal Case No.


10/30 (from the

Revision Gases.
judgment)."Seventy goats (defendant) and the land

w e r e p a i d as b l o o d - m o n e y t o W a r a g a

in d i s p u t e w a s h a n d e d o v e r i n s t e a d of 3 0 g o a t s b a l a n c e . "

Case No. Case No. githaka f r o m

17/30 ( f r o m t h e j u d g m e n t ) . " O n e 48/30.Defendant the D o r o b o for " m y stated that he

githaka
bought

had the and

been s e c r e t l y " s o l d b y p l a i n t i f f s b r o t h e r M u t u r o f o r 9 g o a t s . " d a u g h t e r a n d 50 g o a t s

one m a n w h o m e e t t h e d e a t h . "

Dishict Commissioners Appeal Cases. Case No. 5 3 / 3 0 . D e f e n d a n t h a v i n g c l a i m e d t o bought t h e githaka f o r 1,006 g o a t s , p l a i n t i f f c o m m e n t e d :


is the v e r y Limuru to greatest lie. These amounts can buy land Uplands." 1 / 3 0 . I t is s t a t e d i n t h e j u d g m e n t t h a t

have "This from about party

Case No.

3,000 a c r e s of l a n d w e r e a l l e g e d t o h a v e b e e n s o l d , h a l f t o o n e party f o r 900 g o a t s a n d 90 r a m s , a n d h a l f t o t h e o t h e r

K I K U Y U PART I - C H A P T E R VII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND Own

for

80 g o a t s The

and

7 rams

(or

as a n o t h e r

witness

stated, 7.1 this, f K

goats). , ,. w h a t . i t 264. modest average

District

Commissioner

comments:

"All

is w o r t h , m a y records have

he some indication that, when The was the

of p r i c e s question given

oUVinj-l of geng in bora:

a t t h e t i m e as w e l l a s of t h e l i e s t h a t a r e t o l d a b o u t them." jj These show

c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e t r i b e h a s n o t b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e issue, m o estimates price of a prevailed. estimate "80 at K i a m b u t o t h e 1929 C o m m i t t e e or 1.00. s h e e p " as tl

githaka.
Hobley wrote a memorandum of f u r t h e r in Februat compensation H e nu

265. W h e n

Mr.

1912, s t a t i n g t h e case for t h e p a y m e n t the K i k u y u , he w r o t e

that the p a y m e n t s which

t h e y h a d made

t h e ' D o r o b o " o f t e n a m o u n t e d t o as m u c h as 1,000 g o a t s . " of Kihara had really paid 47,000 goats and

h a v e ' d e p e n d e d o n t h e K i k u y u f o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a n d , if the mk t h e mbari of Mbo. 30,000 g o a t s , and other of which conclude we It they now tell

mbaris

a l s o h a d p a i d t h e e n o r m o u s amout t h a t t h e y s h o u l d not h i a W e can o a these representations a i told the t o A i r . IToble payments oftt

u s , i t is s t r a n g e before truth us that

m e n t i o n e d it t o h i m a n d so h a v e i m p r o v e d t h e i r c a s e . on t h e e v i d e n c e that the exact that goats deliberately false. suppose seems probable t o 1,000 N o r in v i e w his

of a l l t h e f a l s e h o o d s t o l d to us a was always that estimate

amounted

should that

be discounted

considerably.

266. W e false. of cases in their

do not suggest the were

a l l t h e s e c l a i m s a r e deliberate; N o d o u b t t h e r e are at of t h e t r u e histej estimates by f: ignorant

T h e r e m a y be some w h i c h are true. which land, claimants, led away being into

extravagant of t h e be have that

g e n e r a l s p i r i t o f e x a g g e r a t i o n w h i c h is v e r y e v i d e n t l y a b r o a d . \YL C h i e f K o i n a n g e t e l l s us t h a t t h e bought ledge. ments for He about 9,000 represents four

githaka

mbari

of Njuntt it.

goats, he may that payments and

s i n c e r e i n h i s estimat; been no made by ini-ts or rehab

b u t h e w o u l d b e t h e first t o a d m i t t h a t h e has n o a c c u r a t e knm through generations payment record

tradition Propitiatory Aspect of the '


t o

of t h e o r i g i n a l

exists.

2 6 7 . A p o i n t w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p a y m e n t s m a y have h ^
Q w u a t

propitiation

of a n

influential paid Case died

elder No. in

as w e l l as \ i v a n d not ra a Dora! All r . 19/30

laud versa.

is t h a t In

sometimes wa were

the D o r o b o

the K i k u y u

Central

Tribunal Gikebe left

Revision : Tai. wa me. Chief

named Karanja "My properties were he given died."

G i k e b e , stated with

father,

1922 and

. . .

Mil

goats

one

land . .

to P a r a m o u n t

Kinanjui

as f r i e n d s h i p hefe

346
KIKUYTJ j CHAPTER V I I ] PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND CLAIMS

268. A n o t h e r p o i n t . t o . w h i c h w e w i s h t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n b e f o r e Payment in the form of n" t h i s s e c t i o n is t h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s w h e r i g i r l s a r e i n c l u d e d Girls or ic so-called p u r c h a s e p r i c e or w h e n l a n d is g i v e n in c o m p e n s a Blood-money. for a m a n slain. These transactions suggest that the real of to on and o r i g i n of t h e p a y m e n t s m a y h a v e b e e n t h e m a k i n g nil w a s of secondary importance. The constant reference

e and a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n f a m i l i e s a n d t h a t i n o r i g i n t h e q u e s t i o n lion also, s u p p o r t s t h i s v i e w . -269. T w e n t y - t h r e e c a s e s of g i r l s b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n t h e p u r e price a n d f o u r c a s e s of p e r s o n s b e i n g k i l l e d a n d l a n d b e i n g $ as c o m p e n s a t - o n h a v e b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n c l a i m s t o t h e C o m T i o n , a n d w e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a p e r u s a l of N a t i v e T r i b u n a l c a s e s Irevealed m o r e i n s t a n c e s of b o t h k i n d s . T27U. W e f e e l t h a t it w o u l d b e r a s h f o r us t o r e c o r d a n y d e opinion on the a m o u n t s customarily paid to t h e D o r o b o for W e have not yet a d m i t t e d that, in o r i g i n , t h e y w e r e p a y ts for l a n d a t a l l . W e c a n o n l y say at t h i s p o i n t t h a t w e a r e lied that p a y m e n t s o f g o a t s w e r e s o m e t i m e s m a d e b y K i k u y u orobo e i t h e r f o r t h e j^urpose of a l l i a n c e o r p r o p i t i a t i o n ; t h a t -iage p r i c e or b l o o d - m o n e y w a s o f t e n i n c l u d e d a n d m a y o r i g i n have b e e n t h e e s s e n c e of t h e t r a n s a c t i o n , a n d t h a t t h e s u m i n of g o a t s w a s far m o r e m o d e s t t h a n t h e K i k u y u h a v e r e p r e ed. T h e e x t e n t to w h i c h t h e u s e o r m a n a g e m e n t o r d i s p o s a l of was a c o n d i t i o n of t h e t r a n s a c t i o n is t h e p o i n t w h i c h w e s h a l l examine. 271.. A c c o r d i n g to t h e s t a t e m e n t s m a d e i n Conclusion regarding the Amounts paid t o the Dorobo.

mittee n o n e

baraza to t h e 1929 W h a t was the nature, l a n d n o r t h of t h e C h a n i a w a s b o u g h t intention and the D o r o b o , w h e r e a s all t h e K i k u y u l a n d s o u t h of t h e C h a n i a effect of these Payments. bought f r o m t h e D o r o b o . A l s o a l l p u r c h a s e o f l a n d b e t w e e n
of

the K i k u y u

yu a n d K i k u y u n o r t h of t h e C h a n i a w a s r e d e e m a b l e , b u t liases south of the Chania were redeemable. In both final

no

areas north

e was a c e r e m o n y goat, Out w h i l e it

of s p r i n k l i n g final

tatha

or t h e s t o m a c h Chania.

contents

d i d n o t m a r k the transaction as s o u t h of t h e

te C h a n i a , it did m a r k it as

272. I n o u r v i e w it w o u l d b e q u i t e a b s u r d t o s u p p o s e t h a t , t h e ent t h e K i k u y u c r o s s e d t h e C h a u i a , t h e y s t a r t e d a n e w s y s t e m n tenure. T h e y brought their conceptions w i t h t h e m . d We ose t h a t a t first, t o q u o t e t h e o p i n i o n of A i r . L a n e , " i f t h e y a D o r o b o , t h e y stuck a spear i n t o h i m . " Subsequently trade marriage relations b e g a n t o develop. A s Colonel W a t k i n s e in 1920 : " T o such p e o p l e ( D o r o b o ) t h e K i k u y u w i t h t h e i r flocks ind h e r d s m u s t h a v e a p p e a r e d f o r t u n a t e l y secured from famine, w h i l e t h e y t h e m s e l v e s , l i v i n g m y s t e r i o u s l y in g l o o m y

K I K U Y U PAHT ICHAPTER VIL]

PROVINCE PRIVATE R I O H T S AND C

forest and a r m e d w i t h poisoned a r r o w s , must beings to propitiate rather than to a t t a c k . "

have

seem

2 7 3 . B u t it i s c l e a r f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e must ha b e e n m a n y c a s e s of b l o o d s h e d . T h e r e s u l t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be fight a n d t h e n a p e a c e , a t t e n d e d b y a b l o o d c o m p e n s a t i o n whij w o u l d s o m e t i m e s b e f o u n d b y a p a y m e n t of g i r l s o r g o a t s . Nodotil t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d c o n t a i n a r e f e r e n c e to the latj a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e K i k u y u m i g h t c u t d o w n the fore? w h e r e t h e D o r o b o h u n t e d . I t i s n a t i v e c u s t o m t o k e e p excitant as e q u a l as p o s s i b l e a n d t o k e e p a l i v e t h e s e n s e of m u t u a l obligatioi a n d i t is r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t , as t h e D o r o b o found himst m o r e a n d m o r e r e s t r i c t e d in h i s h u n t i n g g r o u n d s t h r o u g h the clea i n g o p e r a t i o n s of t h e K i k u y u , h e w o u l d ask f o r s o m e t h i n g to ke t h e b a l a n c e t r u e t h a t is s o m e t h i n g e q u i v a l e n t t o w h a t the Kiktn w e r e g e t t i n g o u t of t h e l a n d . 2 7 4 . A D o r o b o w i t n e s s , w h o s e f a t h e r h a d b e e n a d o p t e d hv til K i k u y u , i n f o r m e d us t h a t , w h i l e it is t r u e t h a t p a y m e n t s w e r e mi progressively amount of as t h e c l e a r i n g p r o c e e d e d a n d t h e s e a c c o r d i n g tot! cleared, yet there was a stipulated sum for tl generations,! land

land and, though the p a y m e n t s w e r e spread over end w a s eventually reached, and the p a y m e n t

w a s irrevocable.

275. I t seems i m p r o b a b l e that the subsequent payments a b e r e g a r d e d as t h e b a l a n c e o f a s t i p u l a t e d p u r c h a s e - p r i c e , becau n a t i v e c u s t o m d i s l i k e s h a r d a n d fast a r r a n g e m e n t s of that kin T h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e first p a y m e n t w a s f o r t h e l a n d and 1 1 s u b s e q u e n t p a y m e n t s f o r t h e c l e a r i n g is h a r d t o a c c e p t , becausei c a n n o t c o n c e i v e t h a t t h e l a n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n w o r t h anythit w i t h o u t t h e r i g h t to c l e a r it. B u t a finding t h a t t h e original p a m e n t w a s i n r e s p e c t of a l l i a n c e or g o o d w i l l a n d t h a t tin' s e q u e n t p a y m e n t s w e r e f o r p r o g r e s s i v e c l e a r i n g w o u l d be reasu a b l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e v i d e n c e a n d w i t h w h a t w e c a t i brir. ourselves to b e l i e v e . . 2 7 6 . I f t h a t is t r u e , t h e r e w o u l d b e n o t h i n g e s s e n t i a l l y irrevoj a b l e a b o u t t h e t r a n s a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h in p r a c t i c e , a f t e r the h a d b e e n c l e a r e d , t h e D o r o b o w o u l d h a v e f o u n d i t h a r d to resnrdj p o s s e s s i o n . B u t just as a n a d o p t i o n c e r e m o n y can b e r e v o k e o n e s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e a l l i a n c e c o u l d c o m e t o a n e n d . T h e followitl q u o t a t i o n f r o m e v i d e n c e i n D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r s A p p e a l Caf N o . 1/31 ( K i a m b u ) p r o v i d e s s u p p o r t f o r t h e v i e w t h a t , as originallj c o n c e i v e d , the transactions w e r e not irrevocable.

Karanja Waweru Examined


already been

( a D o r o b o ) : B e s i d e s t h e 300 goats pa]

t o m y g r a n d f a t h e r , W a w e r u w a s p a i d 700 g o a t s by Kiarie. : W h y w o u l d h e p a y s o m e m o r e if the pricefc] paid?

K I K U Y U j CHAPTER V I I ]

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND CLAIMS

Karanja Waweru Examined


the land?

: A

debt on land can never be

finished. in

In the old days there w a s no o u t r i g h t sale. : D o you claim

T h e r e is t o - d a y .

that y o u h a v e a n y interest

Karanja Waweru : Y e s , I a m e n t i t l e d to r e c e i v e g o a t s w h e n I ask f o r t h e m , a n d m y d e s c e n d a n t s a f t e r m e , a n d if I d o not r e c e i v e t h e m . I a m e n t i t l e d t o t a k e a p i e c e o f l a n d a n d make it o v e r to s o m e b o d y e l s e f o r g o a t s a n d I c o u l d g e t g o a t s from t h e m w h e n e v e r I w a n t e d , a n d m y s o n ' a f t e r m e . Examined


Dorobo? : D o y o u c l a i m t h a t t i n s is K i k u y u c o u n t r y or

Karanja Waweru : K i k u y u . I a d m i t it b e l o n g s t o t h e K i k u y u t o w h o m it w a s s o l d , b u t I c l a i m t h a t 1 a m a l w a y s entitled t o r e c e i v e g o a t s o n it t o b a l a n c e t h e p r o f i t s w h i c h t h e purchaser is g e t t i n g o u t of t h e l a n d . Senior Chief Koinange : I remember that Chief K i n a n j u i made a b r o t h e r h o o d - a d o p t i o n c e r e m o n y w i t h W a w e r u and made h i m a- sort of c h i e f of t h e D o r o b o . T h e n W a w e r u t o l d his p e o p l e t h a t t h e o l d s a l e s of l a n d w h i c h h i s p e o p l e h a d made t o t h e K i k u y u w-ere n o t v a l i d , a n d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e a second purchase. 1 d o not k n o w h o w m a n y g o a t s K i a r i e paid, b u t h e p a i d s o m e . I d o n o t k n o w h o w m a n y t h o u s a n d s of g o a t s W a w e r u g o t f o r t h e D o r o b o a l t o g e t h e r , b u t t h i s s e c o n d purchase w a s final.
277. I f ore this t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e t r u e t h e p o s i t i o n of final the Kikuyu under Port and p a y m e n t w a s a n a l o g o u s t o t h a t of " A g u r i " as it e x i s t e d a n d still e x i s t s in N y e r i a n d by repayment.

ir o w n c u s t o m be r e d e e m e d

1 D i s t r i c t s , b y w h i c h l a n d is l o a n e d in e x c h a n g e f o r g o a t s

278. G r a d u a l l y t h e s i t u a t i o n c h a n g e d as t h e K i k u y u first g a i n e d qual, a n d t h e n a s u p e r i o r , p o s i t i o n . T h e t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e m a y e been a k i n d of p a r t n e r s h i p , a n d i n s o m e of t h e c l a i m s b e f o r e e find t h e D o r o b o a n d t h e K i k u y u c l a i m i n g t o o w n o r t o h a v e land i n c o m m o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n K i a m b u D i s t r i c t C o m m i s er's A p p e a l N o . 40/30 a w i t n e s s , W a c h a g a s/o Hinga, ed : " I am a Kikuyu and Bera was a Dorobo. H e was an adopted b r o t h e r o f m i n e . . . B e r a a n d I sold l a n d t o K a n g u r u t o and o t h e r l a n d w e s o l d t o N j a o . " 279. I n c l a i m s N o s . 33 a n d 9 9 it is s t a t e d t h a t t h e githaka bought f r o m a K i k u y u a n d a D o r o b o . I n c l a i m s N o s . 155 a n d the mbari o f t h e a l l e g e d D o r o b o v e n d o r h a s s u b m i t t e d a j o i n t m w i t h t h e mbari of t h e a l l e g e d b u y e r , a n d o t h e r s i m i l a r i n ces c o u l d b e q u o t e d .

K I K U Y U PART I - C H A P T E R VII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND t. ur

2 8 0 . I n m o s t c a s e s , h o w e v e r , it i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e D o r o b o soe f e l l i n t o a n i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n a n d e i t h e r l e f t t h e c o u n t r y or sou."] adoption b y the K i k u y u . I n s o m e c a s e s i t s e e m s f r o m t h e evident E v e n a f t e r a d o p t i o n the t h a t t h e y w e r e f o r c e d i n t o t h e a d o p t i o n c e r e m o n y b y t h e fear thi their lives w o u l d no t b e safe o t h e r w i s e . c l a i m that they kept some land back for their o w n use. . 2 8 1 . T h e t i m e a t w h i c h t h e K i k u y u c e a s e d m a k i n g paytnen; t o t h e D o r o b o i n r e s p e c t of t h e l a n d i s u n c e r t a i n , but i n t h e southet p a r t of t h e d i s t r i c t t h e p r a c t i c e e v i d e n t l y c o n t i n u e d until af; K i h a n j u i w a s c h i e f a n d w e r e g a r d i t as p r o b a b l e t h a t the idea of f i n a l i t y of p u r c h a s e as a d e f i n i t e t r a n s a c t i o n w a s a n innovatio i n t r o d u c e d b y h i m a n d c o p i e d f r o m E u r o p e a n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , it p r o b a b l e t h a t i n t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t of t h e d i s t r i c t t h e D o r o b o h a l r e a d y b e c o m e a b s o r b e d , or d r i v e n o u t , a n d p a y m e n t s , if fhf w e r e ever m a d e , had ceased. The.effect of Transactions.
Q

2 8 2 . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e K i k u y u L a n d T e n u r e R e p o r t , the effe f these transactions has been once h u n t e d . " reached us f r o m We that "Kikuyu that f a m i l i e s are the u i over-statement; s t r e t c h e s of t! disputed successors in the occupation families in fact regard o f a r e a s o v e r w h i c h Dotol as a n large S e v e r a l claims h t a

s o f a r as t h e w o r d " u n d i s p u t e d " is c o n c e r n e d . Dorobo In claiming Kikuyu Native Reserves.

s o m e c a s e s t h e c l a i m is m a d e in t!

w o r d s : " B e i n g D o r o b o w e i n h e r i t e d t h e l a n d f r o m o u r ancestors, T h e s e c l a i m s a r e n o t c o n f i n e d to t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t , but embra a l s o a l a r g e p a r t of t h e F o r t H a l l N a t i v e R e s e r v e . 2 8 3 . P o s s i b l y t h e K i k u y u t h e o r y t h a t t h e i r l a n d r i g h t s in tl K i a m b u D i s t r i c t r e s t o n p u r c h a s e f r o m t h e D o r o b o w o u l d not wo o u t v e r y f a v o u r a b l y f o r t h e m , if it w e r e u s e d a s t h e o n l y support their rights. T h e D o r o b o c a n r e a s o n a b l y c o n t e n d : (a) that t! sales, g e n e r a l l y speaking, are not p r o v e d , a n d that probably m m o f t h e l a n d w a s n o t s o l d ; ( 6 ) t h a t t h e o b l i g a t i o n of p r o t e c t i o n co: f e r r e d o n t h e s e K i k u y u a d o p t e r s w a s n o t c a r r i e d o u t , a n d that, s o o n a s t h e K i k u y u h a d g o t his l a n d , t h e D o r o b o w a s sometim " d e - a d o p t e d " as t h e K i k u y u t h e m s e l v e s c o n f e s s e d t o the 1 : 5 C o m m i t t e e ; (c) t h a t t h e a l l e g e d " s a l e s " , w h e n t h e y t o o k place; a l l , w e r e n o t final, b u t o n l y r e d e e m a b l e l o a n s , a s t h e action C h i e f K i n a n j u P p r o v e s , a n d t h a t t h e a l l e g e d final p a y m e n t wasc g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d b y t h e D o r o b o a n d d i d n o t r e a c h m a n y of then (d) t h a t i n m a n y c a s e s t h e y a r e s t i l l p a r t n e r s in t h e l a n d ; and t h a t , w h e n a n d in so f a r as t h e y s o l d l a n d , t h e y f r e q u e n t l y reserv; a p i e c e f o r t h e m s e l v e s , as t h e K i k u y u L a n d T e n u r e R e p o r t admit 284. W e realize their shall not-take the responsibility t h a t , if would of pronouncing i were fully to insist tt

these assertions, but w e implication,

think they

the K i k u y u

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K I K U Y U
T

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND CLAIMS

CHAPTER V I I ]

;ry l a n d q u e s t i o n ial
!

should be

decided

on historical

grounds

and

uld be m o r e w i l l i n g t o c o n c e d e s o m e t h i n g to t h e c l a i m s of b e n e occupation. 2S5. B y a p r o c e s s w h i c h c o n s i s t e d , as w e h a v e s e e n , p a r t l y of Towhatexte a n c e a n d p a r t n e r s h i p a n d p a r t l y of a d o p t i o n a n d a b s o r p t i o n , fljjjj^ rfcly of p a y m e n t , and l a r g e l y of f o r c e a n d c h i c a n e r y , t h e K i k u y u System d already succeeded the D o r o b o w h e n Count T e l e k i passed ^ f ' ^ o u " h K i k u y u l a n d i n 1 8 8 7 . " W h i l e it i s c l e a r f r o m t h e h a p h a z a r d f ? ere V in w h i c h t h e c l a n s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e m e n t alienated, s by f a m i l i e s a c t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y , y e t t h e y w e r e f o r c e d i n t o ie sort of c o h e s i o n a l o n g t h e r i d g e s b y t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h e se. A t a n y r a t e C o u n t T e l e k i f o u n d e a c h r i d g e t o b e v i r t u a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t s o v e r e i g n t y , a n d as h e c r o s s e d t h e s t r e a m w h i c h ided i t f r o m t h e n e x t h e w a s m e t b y a c r o w d o f n a t i v e s u n d e r Muthamdki, or H e a d m a n , d e m a n d i n g t r i b u t e . T h e r e seems to no d o u b t a n d , if t h e r e h a d b e e n a n y d o u b t , i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n solved b y t h e m a p of t h e c l a i m s m a d e t o t h e C o m m i s s i o n b u t at these Athamaki r e g a r d e d t h e m s e l v e s as t h e l o r d s of t h e r i d g e s \vu to t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e s t r e a m s e a c h s i d e of t h e m m e t . This int f r e q u e n t l y l a y w e l l b e y o n d t h e u t m o s t l i m i t t o w h i c h t h e 'kuyu e v e r h a v e p e n e t r a t e d , and o n e of t h e c l a i m s e m b r a c e s a l l e laud b e t w e e n t h e T h i k a a n d A t h i R i v e r s r i g h t d o w n t o t h e wita S i a n o a n d i n c l u d e s t h e l a t t a P l a t e a u . Q u i t e o b v i o u s l y t h e y ere c l a i m s of s o v e r e i g n t y r a t h e r t h a n o f l a n d h o l d i n g , a n d w e h a d in e v i d e n c e t h a t as l a t e as 1896 " e a c h h i l l t o p w a s fighting with e n e x t . " T h e e v i d e n c e of A i r . J o h n B o y e s l e a v e s n o d o u b t t h a t e various s e c t i o n s u n d e r r i v a l Athamaki w e r e r e a d y t o fight e a c h her o n t h e s l i g h t e s t p r o v o c a t i o n . T h e s i t u a t i o n c l e a r l y w a s t h a t ere w a s a series of p e t t y a n d v i r t u a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t K i k u y u g r o u p s rided f r o m e a c h o t h e r b y s t r e a m s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g w h a t h a d ssed f r o m t h e D o r o b o t o t h e K i k u y u w as n o t a n u m b e r of a g r a r i a n tates, b u t a s u c c e s s i o n of s e i g n i o r i e s a l o n g t h e r i d g e s .
0 a r r e s W r 7

286. W e find it v e r y d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h e i d e a of a p r i v a t e tate as d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e t o t a l i t y o f t h e r i d g e h a d b e e n f u l l y c o n ived at t h a t t i m e . P r i o r r i g h t s t o p a r t i c u l a r p o r t i o n s of t h e r i d g e the f a m i l y w h i c h h a d c o l o n i z e d t h e m w e r e p r o b a b l y r e c o g n i z e d some d e g r e e , but m u s t h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y n e b u l o u s , as is own b y t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f r i v a l c l a i m s w h i c h h a v e b e e n l o d g e d , obably b y t h e t i m e t h a t G o v e r n m e n t e m b a r k e d o n i t s p r o g r a m m e land s e t t l e m e n t in 1 9 0 2 , s o m e t h i n g m o r e n e a r l y r e s e m b l i n g t h e thaka s y s t e m as n o w u n d e r s t o o d h a d b e g u n t o a p p e a r in t h e m o r e ckly p o p u l a t e d a r e a s , b u t w a s s t i l l s o n e w a c o n c e p t i o n a n d so certain of its p l a c e i n n a t i v e c u s t o m t h a t , w h e n t h e L i m u r u rms w e r e a l i e n a t e d a n d s o m e of t h e s e ithaka w e r e l o s t , t h e i r istence w a s n e v e r e v e n m e n t i o n e d t o t h e o f f i c e r w h o w a s c h a r g e d th t h e d u t y of p a y i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n . A n indication that the

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER VII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND CI

u n i t of l a n d t e n u r e at t h a t t i m e w a s s t i l l t o he f o u n d i n the riij r a t h e r than t h e githaka is p r o v i d e d b y t h e f a c t that m a n y of i c l a i m s m a d e to us h a v e b e e n j o i n t c l a i m s - b y s e v e r a l mbari to i l a n d b e t w e e n the r i v e r s w i t h o u t a n y r e f e r e n c e to t h e bounilat of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l iihaka. 2 8 7 . T h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f land; E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t t o o k p l a c e h a v e b e e n w e l l - d e s c r i b e d in \ M o r t i m e r ' s m e m o r a n d u m , w h i c h h a s b e e n p r i n t e d w i t h the et e n c e . I t suffices t o s a y h e r e t h a t m o s t of t h e a l i e n a t i o n s affectt t h e K i k u y u t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n 1 9 0 2 a n d 1 9 0 7 , a l t h o u g h there w, a f e w w h i c h w e r e of a l a t e r d a t e . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e in the files s h o w that t h e r e a p p e a r e d t o t h e r e s p o n s i b l e officers of that tit t o b e p l e n t y of l a n d r e m a i n i n g f o r a l l r e a s o n a b l e requirements t h e K i k u y u . I n v i e w of t h e v e r y l a r g e a m o u n t of l a n d still remai i n g t o t h e K i k u y u at t h e t i m e t h e o p i n i o n is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . It e a s y to b e w i s e a f t e r t h e e v e n t , a n d t o say t h a t t h e conditio w h i c h w e d e s c r i b e in t h e e c o n o m i c s e c t i o n s of t h i s R e p o r t ought h a v e b e e n f o r e s e e n , n a m e l y , t h a t t h e r e w o u l d be a l a r g e natut i n c r e a s e in t h e p o p u l a t i o n a n d a t e n d e n c y t o g r a v i t a t e towat N a i r o b i a n d the r a i l w a y so t h a t p r o b l e m s of l o c a l c o n g e s t i o n wot inevitably appear. 2 8 8 . W e h a v e t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e s e d i f f i c u l t i e s call for a: s p e c i a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n o u r p a r t f o r t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n of t d i v i d u a l s o r s p e c i a l s e c t i o n s of t h e t r i b e , o r w h e t h e r a solutioni t r i b a l l i n e s w i l l suffice. 2 8 9 . W h i l e c e r t a i n a r e a s h a v e b e e n a d d e d to t h e reserve, h a s already been d e s c r i b e d , the p a r t i c u l a r r i g h t - h o l d e r s who w e d i s p o s s e s s e d did n o t r e c e i v e a n y i n d i v i d u a l a l l o c a t i o n o f land, a: w e r e c o m p e n s a t e d o n l y i n r e s p e c t of t h e i r c u l t i v a t e d g a r d e n s . 11 c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s at t h e r a t e o f t w o r u p e e s a n a c r e . 290. I n cases w h e r e t h e ) did n o t t a k e this compensation t e h h a d t h e r i g h t to r e m a i n o n t h e l a n d u n d e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n of sectk 3 1 o f t h e C r o w n L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 1 9 0 2 , a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y unrl s e c t i o n 86 o f t h e C r o w n L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 191-5. W e find it: b e a f a c t t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of t h i s l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n w a s n o t general k n o w n t o t h e n a t i v e s , a n d t h a t m a n y o f t h o s e w h o l e f t the lat m i g h t h a v e e l e c t e d t o r e m a i n if t h e y h a d k n o w n of t h e s e protectit -clauses.
7

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C L A I M S - ( P A R T N U M B E R OF P E R S O N S CLAIMING BEEN 291. W e of have now ALIENATED. our

h i s t o r i c a l The density at which the we Land h a v e t o m a k e p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e j u s t s e t t l e m e n t of t h e p r i v a t e alienated was Inhabited. s which exist on land w h i c h has been a l i e n a t e d . B e f o r e doing completed survey in of the the K i k u y u private claims, and the next chapter is w e l l that w e should m a k e affected. accurate for our purpose if we five 1.5, per acres con it com will be sufficiently c l e a r , a s f a r as w e can, what

ber of p e r s o n s are 292. I t

ider e v e r y " h o u s e h o l d " ( i . e . , t h e a v e r a g e m e m b e r s o f a m a r r i e d s f a m i l y , n o t t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of a s i n g l e h u t ) t o c o n s i s t of ons a n d t h e p r o p o r t i o n llie c u l t i v a t i o n sehold t h r o w n ultivation p e r 293. T h e rig o n l y tion w a s in f o r of wives per married man of to be per w i f e t o be one acre w i t h half-an-acre fallow W e and for the labour shall t h e r e f o r e r e c k o n t w o seems small, but we are

unmarried

and o t h e r d e p e n d a n t s . household. for allowance land which paid.

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it h a v e b e e n c o u n t e d as p a r t of t h e f a m i l y g a r d e n s w h e n

294. W e s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t first a n d t a k e t h e ited b l o c k s o n e a t a t i m e in t h e o r d e r g i v e n i n t h e s c h e d u l e ection 223 ( a ) a b o v e , t o w h i c h r e f e r e n c e s h o u l d h e r e b e m a d e , ictual e v i d e n c e o n w h i c h w e c a n b a s e a n o p i n i o n o f t h e d e n s i t y pulation in t h e s e v e r a l b l o c k s is v e r y m e a g r e , a n d i n m a n y es w e h a v e t o m a k e a g u e s s o n t h e g e n e r a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s of t h e A m o n g the factors w h i c h h a v e w e i g h t i n d e t e r m i n i n g our ute w e d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n , w h i c h w e h a v e dy r e a c h e d a n d r e c o r d e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h a t t h e g e n e r a l a v e r ilensity o b t a i n i n g i n t h e K i a m b u N a t i v e R e s e r v e i n 1902 w a s to the s q u a r e m i l e , a n d w e a l s o r e m a r k t h a t t h e s e a l i e n a t e d w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e e a s t e r n e n d of t h e L i m u r u f a r m s , situated o n t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y n e a r t h e f o r e s t e, and a r e t h e r e f o r e l i k e l y t o h a v e b e e n i n h a b i t e d a t a d e n s i t y iderably b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e r e s e r v e . 295. I n t h e K i k u y u S t a t i o n B l o c k 7.48 s q u a r e m i l e s of K i k u y u tory h a v e ale. Mr. been alienated, as s h o w n i n i t e m s 1 a n d 2 of in section 136 S o m e of the the McClure's map, mentioned above, The Kikuyu Station Block.

s the area as i n h a b i t e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e n s i t y .

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER VIII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AMI r j

v i l l a g e s w h i c h h e s h o w s m a y h a v e b e e n r e c e n t l y m o v e d hi re e l s e w h e r e , a n d h a d p o s s i b l y n o t b e e n b u i l t in 1 9 0 2 . B u t thebl i n t h e i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of K i k u y u S t a t i o n w a s n it i a t e d u n t i l 1 9 0 4 , b y w h i c h d a t e t h e d e n s i t y m u s t h a v e been a as r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e m a p . T h i s w o u l d a p p e a r to s u g g e s t a da of b e t w e e n 8 0 a n d 9 0 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e , b u t t h e a r e a alienate t h e C h u r c h of S c o t l a n d M i s s i o n is k n o w n t o h a v e b e e n m o r e th: p o p u l a t e d , a n d p r o b a b l y b r i n g s u p t h e a v e r a g e d e n s i t y per a m i l e o v e r a l l t o a b o u t 100. T h a t w o u l d g i v e 748 p e r s o n s , whoa r e g a r d a s f o r m i n g 1 5 0 f a m i l i e s o f five, h a v i n g a n a r e a of Iani c u l t i v a t i o n e q u a l to a b o u t 300 a c r e s . 296. D a g o r e t t i probably paid for Register rather " B " shows that R s . 404 since were we b e

p e n d e d i n t h i s area o n c o m p e n s a t i o n a t R s . 2 an a c r e , which fewer than 202 acres, that many small fragments were allowed t o c o u n t as acres,

u n c o m p e n s a t e d r e s i d u e w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e m o r e t h a n t h e app b a l a n c e of 9 8 a c r e s , a n d m a y h a v e b e e n m o r e l i k e 200 acre-:. ' of t h e u n c o m p e n s a t e d r e s i d u e w o u l d h a v e b e e n f o u n d on the of t h e C h u r c h of S c o t l a n d M i s s i o n , c o n c e r n i n g w h i c h D r . Et Scott wrote : "Most of the native shambas are left intact, t h e r e f o r e , of course, u n c o m p e n s a t e d . " containing holds", effective 130 h u t s , w h i c h might be would T h e " r e c o n s t r u c t e d p! to about about 87 'L,

t h e m i s s i o n i n 1 9 0 2 , p r o d u c e d in e v i d e n c e , s h o w s 19 n a t i v e vii be equal to have which expected 174 acr

cultivation.

2 9 7 . O n t h e o t h e r e s t a t e s i t w o u l d a p p e a r p r o b a b l e that p e n s a t i o n w a s p a i d a n d t h a t m o s t of t h e n a t i v e s l e f t , a n d . alt the figures d o not w o r k out in e v e r y respect, w e find it pr t h a t o u r e s t i m a t e , w h e n p u t i n t o r o u n d n u m b e r s , is approxii r i g h t , n a m e l y , t h a t t h i s b l o c k w a s i n h a b i t e d a t a d e n s i t y of: 100 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e ; t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of aboi f a m i l i e s , o f w h o m a b o u t h a l f w e r e c o m p e n s a t e d a n d t h e other p r i n c i p a l l y o c c u p y i n g t h e l a n d of t h e C h u r c h of S c o t l a n d Mi remained where they were, uncompensated. The Block from 2 9 S . I n t h e b l o c k f r o m K a b e t e t o K i a m b u ( a n d including Kabete to S m i t h ) 23 s q u a r e m i l e s of K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y h a v e b e e n alien Kiambu and including Fort T h e " e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l a n d r o u n d T o r t S m i t h an: Smith. i m m e d i a t e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of K a b e t e w a s at l e a s t as thickly l a t e d as t h e g e n e r a l a v e r a g e of t h e r e s e r v e . B u t eastwarj K a b e t e u n t i l t h e e f f e c t i v e b o r d e r w a s r e a c h e d t h e pops.1 d w i n d l e d , as w a s n a t u r a l o n t h e f r i n g e of t h e t e r r i t o r y . II n o r t h e r n e x t e n s i o n t o w a r d s K i a m b u w e h a v e found that t e h a l i e n a t e d a s f a r m s 8 0 , 8 1 , 8 2 a n d 25 w a s c o v e r e d w i t h forl w h i c h t h e r e m a y h a v e b e e n a f e w c l e a r i n g s , b u t t o the n

K I K U Y U
r

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND CLAIMS

CHAPTER V I I I ]

iii the p o p u l a t i o n b e c a m e t h i c k e r as t h e p r e s e n t r e s e r v e b o u n d was approached. T h e available evidence does not warrant a lident e s t i m a t e h u t , t h e g e n e r a l a v e r a g e d e n s i t y i n t h e r e s e r v e ) " ' 150. w e c o n s i d e r it u n l i k e l y in t h e f a c e o f t h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n Mr. L a n e . Colonel A i n s w o r t h , D r . D o e d e k e r , M r . M c C l e l l a n [son, M r . K n a p p , M r . D o u g l a s C o o p e r a n d o t h e r s , t h a t t h e rage d e n s i t y . i n this b l o c k e x c e e d e d 110 to t h e s q u a r e m i l e e v e n r allowance has been m a d e for considerable density around T o r t itii. T h i s w o u l d g i v e a t o t a l of 2,530 p e r s o n s w h o m o n e m a y aid as c o n s i s t i n g of 506 f a m i l i e s of f i v e , w h o m i g h t b e p r e s u m e d i,ive 1,012 a c r e s in c u l t i v a t i o n . 2'.!i). W e m u s t n o w c o n s i d e r h o w t h i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e a m o u n t s orded to have been paid in compensation in this area. The record ister s h o w s K s . 1,525 a n d o n e o x , a n d t h e r e is a f u r t h e r K s . 10. the total becomes than that K s . 1,685. for tlie This would which in the

a p a y m e n t of R s . 2 0 , so t h a t , if the v a l u e o f t h e o x is a s s e s s e d nominally paid out this has already resent c o m p e n s a t i o n a lesser a m o u n t n described. ipensation, for f o r 812 a c r e s , b u t was probably

reason paid

K o r must the p o i n t be n e g l e c t e d that part o f instance, the K s . 75 w h o bad m a d e c l e a r i n g s for square we miles. remain of opinion

Thimbigua them

a, was p a i d to s t r a y K i k u y u ng in t h i s b l o c k 300. A f t e r

-es outside the e f f e c t i v e l i m i t s of K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y a n d w e r e n o t of t w e n t y - t h r e e weighing these factors that mile, The was

a v e r a g e d e n s i t y in t h i s b l o c k w a s a b o u t 110 to t h e s q u a r e that t h e p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of a b o r t 506 f a m i l i e s of five. these w e r e compensated and left, while the other quarter

ires o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e R e g i s t e r s u g g e s t t h a t a b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s compensated and r e m a i n e d . 301. T h e K a m i t i ler m o r e t h a n h a l f li w i t h p o s s i b l y a n i n h a b i t e d u p to R i v e r b l o c k is an area o f 7.72 s q u a r e m i l e s , The K a m i t i of w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n f o r e s t or R i v e r Bloek f e w clei it. T h e r e m a i n d e r m a y h a v e the a v e r a g e density o b t a i n i n g in t h e reserve.

consider 100 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e to b e a r e a s o n a b l e a p p r o x i m a t i o n , s w o u l d g i v e 772 p e r s o n s w h o m w e m a y r e g a r d as 1 5 4 f a m i l i e s five. T h e l a n d a c t u a l l y c u l t i v a t e d b y t h e m w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y about 308 a c r e s . 302. T h e R e g i s t e r s h o w s R s . 555 p a i d o u t in c o m p e n s a t i o n , jch w o u l d r e p r e s e n t n o m i n a l l y 277 c u l t i v a t e d a c r e s c o m p e n s a t e d , t it is p r o b a b l e , f o r t h e r e a s o n a l r e a d y g i v e n , t h a t t h e R s . 555 e paid o u t i n r e s p e c t of a r a t h e r less a r e a o f c u l t i v a t i o n t h a n t h e linal f i g u r e . T h e u n c o m p e n s a t e d r e s i d u e m i g h t , t h e r e f o r e , b e rer to 60 a c r e s t h a n 3 1 , w h i c h is t h e o s t e n s i b l e b a l a n c e . This ibl i n d i c a t e t h a t r o u n d a b o u t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e n a t i v e s took

K I K U Y U PART I-CHAPTER VIII]

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND (

compensation pensation and

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t h a t m o s t of t h e n a t i v e s w e r e " t o l d t o q u i t . " natives generally

T h e p o i n t of tlilfj no c o m p e n s a t i o n w

3 0 3 . A f t e r w e i g h i n g t h e p o i n t s w c c o n s i d e r t h a t this b l o c k s i n h a b i t e d at a d e n s i t y of a b o u t 100 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e ; thai ;!, w e r e a b o u t 15-1 f a m i l i e s l i v i n g in i t , a n d t h a t a b o u t three-quarti of t h e m r e c e i v e d c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d m o v e d , w h i l e t h e rest remain on This Farms between the Ngewa and Chania Rivers the land. is an area of 17*10 s q u a r e m i l e s . We have Ion 1.90*2, a territ 304. T h i s to h a v e b e e n have hesitated at all. of We

p r a c t i c a l l y t h e w h o l e of it to h a v e b e e n u n i n h a b i t e d in s o l i t t l e used e v e n f o r whether it ought t o b e s h o w n as K i k u y u

t h e g r a z i n g o f c a t t l e that

c o n s i d e r t h a t v e r y l i t t l e , if a n y , of it w a s used for! use before the famine. There is n o e v i d e n c e thai

g r a z i n g of c a t t l e in 1 9 0 2 , b u t t h a t t h e r e p r o b a b l y w a s s o m e de; effective t h e t i m e of t h e a l i e n a t i o n s i n 1905 t h e r e w e r e a n y d w e l l i n g s at in t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t , b u t i n t h e s o u t h e r n part a c e r t a i n amouni compensation 305. T h e been 42 The Block North of the Chania. p a i d in was paid total and we may set down in the 50 households to h r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e e n t i r e b l o c k at that time compensation be the shown Register this area would is R s . 1 6 8 , r e p r e s e n t i n g rough equivalent compensation of t h e garden:

84 acres, w h i c h households.

3 0 6 . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e v i d e n c e t h i s b l o c k a p p e a r s to have practically-uninhabited. a n y n a t i v e s l i v i n g in i t . grazing. No record has been found of any c p e n s a t i o n p a i d , a n d it i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r at a n y t i m e there v I n so f a r a s i t w a s u s e d a t a l l , it was

The Limuru Farms (main Block).

3 0 7 . T h e p a r t o f t h e L i m u r u f a r m a r e a w h i c h i s hatched oil a y e l l o w b a c k g r o u n d o n t h e c o l o u r e d m a p f o l l o w i n g section a n d a p p e a r s as i t e m 7 in s e c t i o n 223 ( a ) is 4 5 . 9 0 s q u a r e miles, we may area at refer t o i t as t h e m a i n b l o c k i n c o h t r a - d i s t i n c t i o n to extremity which is cross-hatched. block. We its w e s t e r n

d e a l in t h e s e c t i o n s b e l o w w i t h t h e m a i n

308. W h i l e a l l t h e o t h e r a l i e n a t i o n s w e r e to s o m e extet: t h e e d g e of t h e c o u n t r y , t h e e a s t e r n e n d of t h e L i m u r u farms ( a d e f i n i t e p r o j e c t i o n i n t o t h e K i k u y u c o u n t r y . T h e r e is nothit its p o s i t i o n in c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e r e s e r v e , therefor i n d i c a t e t h a t it w a s i n h a b i t e d b e l o w t h e a v e r a g e density, a p a r t f r o m e v i d e n c e g i v e n to u s , w e should p r o b a b l y assnt s o m e w h a t s p a r s e p o p u l a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e a l t i t u d e r e n d e r e d the

K I K U Y U x I-CHAPTER VIII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND CLAIMS

j u r a b l e f o r the c r o p s w h i c h t h e K i k u y u p r i n c i p a l l y that time. Count Teleki, who crossed this area

cultivated before the went been that

ne, describes a s t a g e in his j o u r n e y w h e n h e a p p a r e n t l y states '8 that the p o p u l a t i o n stages of his was Jess in thick than it h a d but

w h a t is n o w M r . K n i g h t ' s f a r m t o w h a t is n o w N j u n u E s t a t e , previous journey Kikuyuland,

a^es o f as m a n y as 20 h u t s w e r e s t i l l e n c o u n t e r e d . 309. I n t h e f a m i n e the p o p u l a t i o n s e e m s t o h a v e d i s a p p e a r e d a l a r g e e x t e n t and to h a v e b e e n s l o w i n r e t u r n i n g . Secondary h g r e w u p , a n d s e v e r a l of t h e E u r o p e a n w i t n e s s e s h a v e d e s c r i b e d area as p r a c t i c a l l y d e v o i d of p o p u l a t i o n . D r . B o e d e k e r , h o w r, c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i t w a s as t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d a s t h e r e s t o f the 310. M r . M o r s o n d e s c r i b e s a j o u r n e y f r o m N a i r o b i to L i m u r u 1904 in w h i c h h e t o o k a r o u t e n e a r w h e r e t h e p r e s e n t " A " r o u t e I. T h i s w o u l d h a v e t a k e n h i m t h e w h o l e l e n g t h of w h a t is n o w L i m u r u f a r m s , a n d a l s o t h r o u g h a b o u t f i v e m i l e s of w h a t is 1 native r e s e r v e , but he states that h e s a w no n a t i v e s . W e take 5 to be e v i d e n c e on t h e o n e h a n d t h a t n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n w a s jrse a n d e v i d e n c e o n t h e o t h e r h a n d o f h o w v e r y e a s y it is to ;s s e e i n g t h e n a t i v e s as o n e p a s s e s t h r o u g h a c o u n t r y , u n t i l a siderable d e g r e e of d e n s i t y h a s b e e n r e a c h e d . A i r . I m p e y s t a t e s ,t in 1904 t h e r e w e r e , in h i s o p i n i o n , n o m o r e t h a n t e n n a t i v e s the s q u a r e m i l e in t h e p a r t of t h e L i m u r u f a r m s w h i c h lies ihin e i g h t m i l e s of L i m u r u , t h a t is t o s a y nearly' t h e w h o l e of in. 311. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d it is g e n e r a l l y ued o n the land and about were half were considered moved. to Of that, those when who of 1.036 f a r m s in t h i s b l o c k w e r e a l i e n a t e d , a b o u t h a l f t h e n a t i v e s c o n red all w h o 2 per acre. ;d acres. ;s. applied paid compensation the e x t e n t

T h e R e g i s t e r s h o w s a t o t a l p a y m e n t of R s .

he L i m u r u f a r m a r e a , r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r 518 c u l t i T h o s e w h o r e m a i n e d p r o b a b l y h a d a n e q u a l a m o u n t of cultivated 3 in c u l t i v a t i o n , so t h a t t h e r e w o u l d h a v e b e e n 1,036

T h i s w o u l d m e a n t h a t o n e a c r e in e v e r y 28 w a s c u l t i v a t e d .

312. S i n c e i t h a s b e e n c r e d i b l y s t a t e d t h a t a t t h a t t i m e o n e Tied w o m a n u s u a l l y c u l t i v a t e d o n e a c r e a n d t h a t m a r r i e d w o m e n e about 3*1 p e r c e n t of t h e p o 2 u d a t i o n , t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n dd b e 3 , 3 4 2 , or 73 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n is ed on s e v e r a l u n p r o v e d a s s u m p t i o n s , b u t s e e m s t o us t o be formable w i t h the p r o b a b i l i t i e s . I t takes n o account of n a t i v e s ) may have left w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n w h e n t h e farms w e r e r a t e d , but i t is n o t l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w e r e m a n y . I f w e i n c r e a s e e s t i m a t e to 80 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e w e p r o b a b l y c o v e r t h e m , and

KIKUYU
PART ICHAI-IEU VIII]

PROVINCE
PRIVATE RIGHTS AND

w e do n o t t h i n k t h a t a n y h i g h e r e s t i m a t e w o u l d b e in keepinii wjl the evidence regarding at that time. 80 to t h e s q u a r e m i l e t h e p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d be 3, 734 f a m i l i e s of five. w e m a y r e g a r d as f o r m i n g 313. A t 'I de Limuru Farms (Western Extremity). the undeveloped condition of the
counij

persons, w h o m

3 1 4 . R e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a p w i l l s h o w c e r t a i n a r e a s at w e s t e r n e n d of t h e L i m u r u f a r m s , c l o s e t o t h e R a i l w a y a n d exteul i n g s o u t h w a r d t o M u g u g a . T h i s l a n d a m o u n t s t o 4.50 square mi:! i n a l l , of w h i c h w e h a v e d e c i d e d t h a t t h r e e - q u a r t e r s w e r e la forest-covered. I n M r . M c C l u r e ' s m a p five v i l l a g e s a r e shown M r . K a y M o u a f s l a n d ( L . O . N o . 170 a n d 177) b u t , a l l told u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a e x c e e d e d thirl h o u s e h o l d s of five, so t h a t w e m a y p u t t h e d e n s i t y as between:] a n d 35 p e r s o n s t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e . T h e r e i s n o record o f coropeiisj t i o n p a i d , a n d it m a y p e r h a p s b e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e p o p u l a t i o n , si a s it w a s . r e m a i n e d o n t h e l a n d . 3 1 5 . L . O . 4 9 6 1 , 669 a c r e s , is an i s l a n d of C r o w n land in n a t i v e r e s e r v e a n d is s i t u a t e d n e a r t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n extreinitv t h e e s t a t e of S a b a - S a b a , L i m i t e d . I t w a s a l i e n a t e d in freehold j 1 9 0 4 , but h a s s i n c e r e v e r t e d t o t h e C r o w n . A t the t i m e of i a l i e n a t i o n it a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n u n o c c u p i e d . 316. B e f o r e already natives been in the the alienations, with the local are which -satisfactory chiefs now for in arrangements 1 the the disposal of charge of Clj made

I.O.

4901.

The Mock near Nyei i.

locations

N d u i n i a n d H e a d m a n N d e r i , i n t h e N y e r i D i s t r i c t a n d at t h e ! of the alienation there w e r e no residents. Mission " I s l a n d s " in the. Reserve. 317. T h e t o t a l a r e a a l i e n a t e d i n f r e e h o l d to m i s s i o n out-tat! f o r m i n g i s o l a t e d i s l a n d s in t h e r e s e r v e i s a b o u t 0 T 6 of a squtl m i l e . I n m o s t c a s e s v a c a n t l a n d s w e r e a s s i g n e d , a n d there w " d f e w , if a n y , h u t s o n a n y of this l a n d . N o a c c o u n t h a s been tat! of m i s s i o n l a n d i n t h e r e s e r v e w h i c h h a s b e e n a l i e n a t e d on b e c a u s e such l a n d h a s n o t b e e n e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e r e s e r v e and' r e n t s are paid to the L o c a l N a t i v e Council. 3 1 8 . T h e t o t a l a r e a a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e l a n d w h i c h we f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n p r o p e r l y K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y i n the Kiaitj D i s t r i c t i s 1091- s q u a r e m i l e s in a l l , e x c l u s i v e of t h e a r e a of a] m a t e l y 16J s q u a r e m i l e s w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d t o h a v e been airea a b a n d o n e d b y t h e K i k u y u b e f o r e it w a s a l i e n a t e d (vide sect] -223 (a) a b o v e ) . T h e t o t a l n u m b e r of f a m i l i e s of five which h a v e f o u n d t o b e r e s i d e n t o n t h e m is 1,594. T h i s g i v e s a ded of 73 p e r s o n s t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e a s o p p o s e d t o a b o u t 150 in] r e s e r v e . H a v i n g r e g a r d to t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a n d a l i e n a t e d v\ (a) g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g on t h e f r i n g e o f t h e t e r r i t o r y : (tV pai u n d e r f o r e s t or s c r u b in t h e K i a m b u a n d K a m i t i a r e a s , and ti

The Total Population which was Resident in the Alienated Blocks in the Kiambu Area.

KIKUYU I ICHAPTER VIII]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND CLAIMS

I? for g r a z i n g in t h e n o r t h e r n a r e a s , a n d a b o v e t h e a l t i t u d e m o s t fable f o r n a t i v e c r o p s in t h e L i m u r u a r e a , w e c o n s i d e r t h i s r e n c e to b e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e f a c t s . 319. S p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y , w e find it p r o b a b l e t h a t , w h e n G o v e n t a l i e n a t e d t h i s l a n d , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d in nclusive of f a l l o w , w a s of t h e o r d e r of o n e a c r e i n e v e r y t w e n t y lo thirty acres. T h i s consorts both w i t h the f o r e g o i n g calcula s and a l s o w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h w e h a v e f o r m e d a f t e r i n g the e v i d e n c e , b o t h n a t i v e a n d n o n - n a t i v e . 320. T h e t o t a l c o m p e n s a t i o n s h o w n a b o v e as h a v i n g b e e n p a i d s. 3,848. I t does n o t a g r e e e x a c t l y w i t h t h e t a b l e at p a g e 364 e e v i d e n c e w h i c h s h o w s E s . 3,872 a n d s u n d r y s h e e p a n d c a t t l e . d i s c r e p a n c y is n o t v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t a n d w e a r e j u s t i f i e d i n c o n ing t h a t a b o u t 9 6 2 h o u s e h o l d s w e r e c o m p e n s a t e d ( a t E s . 2 an and t w o a c r e s p e r h o u s e h o l d ) . S i n c e w e h a v e f o u n d t h e t o t a l iber o f h o u s e h o l d s t o h a v e b e e n a b o u t 1,594, t h e r e m u s t h a v e I about 632 h o u s e h o l d s or f a m i l i e s of f i v e w h o r e c e i v e d n o c o m sation a n d c o n t i n u e d t o l i v e o n t h e l a n d . 321. A f t e r 1908 n o f u r t h e r e n t r i e s a p p e a r i n t h e D a g o r e t t i ister, w h i c h is our m a i n s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g c o m sation p a i d . B u t i t is c e r t a i n t h a t b e t w e e n t h a t d a t e a n d t h e sent t i m e m a n y f a m i l i e s d r i f t e d a w a y , m o s t of t h e m u n c o m sated. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e r e s i d u e t h a t r e m a i n e d h a s i n sed i n n u m b e r s b y n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e a n d t h e p o s i t i o n t o - d a y ears to b e t h a t t h e r e are p o s s i b l y t h r e e or f o u r h u n d r e d h o u s e s l i v i n g a s o f r i g h t o n f a r m s in t h e a l i e n a t e d b l o c k s .

CHAPTER IX.
AN THE EXAMINATION OF PRIVATE 3). OF P R I V A T E RI FOR L o s s EIGHTS AND

C L A I M S - ( P A R T QUESTION OF C O M P E N S A T I O N

AND FOR DISTURBANCE. The Question of Conipensa tion. 3 2 2 . T h a t c o n c l u d e s o u r s u m m a r y of t h e t a c t s , a n d we ha n o w t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n p a i d b y Government i n d i v i d u a l s w a s a d e q u a t e o r , if i t w a s n o t a d e q u a t e , w h a t practk steps c a n be t a k e n . I n a p p r o a c h i n g t h e m a t t e r w e w i s h firs d i s p o s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a n y c l a i m of a n y sort c a n n o w e n t e r t a i n e d i n r e s p e c t of l a n d w h i c h is n o t i n c l u d e d in w h a t h a v e f o u n d t o b e e i t h e r " u n e q u i v o c a l K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y in 1 8 9 5 " " a d m i s s i b l y a c q u i r e d b y t h e K i k u y u b y 1 9 0 2 . " T o a v o i d prolisi w e s h a l l f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h i s c h a p t e r a l l u d e t o the area und t h e s e t w o h e a d s s i m p l y as " K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y . " 323. We s h a l l c o n s i d e r t h i s q u e s t i o n b o t h u n d e r its aspect of i n d i v i d u a l ithaka in clearings. sense o f estat Doro

gitliaka
R i g h t s outside "Kikuyu Territory."
GUTiaha

r i g h t s and also in respect We it. are satisfied pretence that that no

324. defined will not

the

can b e said to h a v e e x i s t e d outside " K i k u y u Any stand e x a m i n a t i o n , since w e

t e r r i t o r y " , as w e t h a t such pa If the la:

the land was bought from are satisfied

m e n t s a s w e r e m a d e t o D o r o b o w e r e b y i n s t a l m e n t s p a i d accords to the e x t e n t was not Nor were of t h e p r o g r e s s i v e c l e a r i n g of t h e l a n d . so e f f e c t i v e l y or exclusively c l e a r e d , i t is a n i n d i c a t i o n the Dorobo t h a t i t h a d n o t b e e n bougi established i There w

t h e l a n d as t o h a v e b e e n a b l e t o c l a i m a r i g h t t o s e l l i t . no effective or "elders" or aramati have claimed that they

o c c u p a t i o n b y t h e K i k u y u a n d if a n y K i k u y u headm exercised a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t such p r e t e n s i o n s a r e false. a few began the venturesome Kikuyu about the year their beyond any w h o , relyingi onwards areas i c a n n o t all only, in

authority there, w e Individual Clearings outside "Kikuyu Territory." 325. t h e Pax make that There

were in

Britannica,

1900 a n d fellows We

clearings

forest

which they would not previously have ventured. such p e r s o n s established right to land

but w e consid

that t h e y w e r e entitled to compensation for disturbance tion w a s always paid whenever responsible officer. We have

a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t , a s f a r a s c a n n o w b e a s c e r t a i n e d , such conipee a p p l i c a t i o n w a s m a d e f o r it tot no reason to suppose of t h a t natii t h e m faili

w e r e n o t f u l l y a w a r e h o w t o a p p l y f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n , b u t it wo: be impossible to do so. t o s a y at this date what percentage

353
KIKUYU HIT I - C H A P T E R IX] PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS AND C L A I M S

32G. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r a t e of c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s a d e q u a t e the case of t h o s e n a t i v e s w h o w e r e l i v i n g o u t s i d e K i k u y u t e r r i rv. They were affected able a n d to to return to their o w n right-holding in lkuyu territory lincipally extend it if n e c e s s a r y . I n t h e district District,

by the alienations, n a m e l y , K i a m b u

[ere w a s a t t h a t t i m e n o such c o n g e s t i o n a s w o u l d h a v e p r e v e n t e d leir d o i n g so, a n d t h e a c t u a l cost of m o v i n g t h e i r h u t s a f t e r r e a p their c r o p s w o u l d , i n c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n i n g a t t h a t t i m e , h a v e

en sufficiently

m e t by t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n

p r o v i d e d , since

under

e tribal c u s t o m t h e n in f o r c e a m a n w a s a l w a y s a b l e t o o b t a i n t h e

listance of h i s n e i g h b o u r s in b u i l d i n g h i s h u t , a n d t h e m a t e r i a l

1st n o t h i n g . 327. W h i l e no substantial harm was done to any individual boundaries

Stive, w e r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s e t t i n g the reserve p r e c l u d e d n a t i v e s f r o m Inept


it

of hard a n d fast

e x t e n d i n g t h e i r f r o n t i e r s by

le time-honoured m e t h o d o f c l e a r i n g a n d b u r n i n g f o r e s t , a n d we

as

an o b l i g a t i o n u n d e r t h e first of future expansion,

term

of r e f e r e n c e

to

con on for l^oss of L a n d "Kikuyu


i e m l o r v

tier the

needs

though

not necessarily of c o m p e n s a t i o n if possible,

thai l i n e s . 28. W e n o w turn Bade the comprehensive here to the consideration recommendation pss of l a n d w h i c h w a s i n s i d e K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y . that, Soukl be a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e e c p i i v a l e n t W e have already hind

to t h e b a l a n c e of l o s s , individuals (i) or

fhat we h a v e
p s have n actions. to We Slid ers; ( i i )

to c o n s i d e r
to consider holders;

is w h e t h e r a n y special r e c o m i n e n d a particular three them in groups : right-

be made shall

recompense

gitJiaka

(iii) tenants.

529. T h e s u b s t a n c e of t h e c o m p l a i n t i s t h a t i n r e s p e c t of d i s - Loss sustained j:bance t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n g i v e n t o r i g h t - h o l d e r s w a s i n a d e q u a t e , jcl that i n r e s p e c t of l a n d n o c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s g i v e n a t a l l . all consider t h e q u e s t i o n o f l a n d f i r s t . 330. I t is m o t a l t o g e t h e r t r u e t h a t n o c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s p a i d the loss of l a n d . N d e i y a g r a z i n g a r e a w a s a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e Id We h lders' "
0 lt

there

are a l s o s o m e o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d against t h e loss. B u t t h e actual

to

be

l i t k n a t e off-sets

right-holders

po suffered loss w e r e n o t g i v e n t h e l a n d . 331.. I n c o n s i d e r i n g w h a t w a s d u e t o t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r s n o t i c e list be t a k e n of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r i g h t s w h i c h t h e y e x e r c i s e d on lands ,of , w h i c h t h e y w e r e d e p r i v e d b y . n o m e a n s a m o u n t e d to Il o w n e r s h i p .

KTKUYTJ PART ICHAPTER JX]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND r
u

3 3 2 . T h e f o l l o w i n g is the a c c o u n t g i v e n in t h e K i k u y u La T e n u r e R e p o r t of the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e r i g h t s of a right-holder, as h e is t h e r e c a l l e d , a s u b - o w n e r : " W e find t h a t he is r e s t r i c t e d in t w o w a y s f r o m full o w n e r hi (a) F i r s t b y t h e p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h o t h e r m e m b e r s of the hi or mbari e n j o y o n t h e l a n d , a n d w h i c h a r e secured byi c u s t o m a r y s a n c t i o n s of t r i b a l i s m , w h i c h t e n d to prove an i n d i v i d u a l s h a r e f r o m b e i n g p r e c i s e l y denned, a d d i t i o n to t h e i n d i v i d u a l s h a r e t o w h i c h his right v i r t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , h e h a s a p a r t i n t e r e s t in the rese area of u n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d w h i c h r e m a i n s undistributed t h e h a n d s of t h e Muramati, a n d in t h i s area his right l i m i t e d b y t h e fact t h a t o t h e r m e m b e r s of t h e mbari.A h a v e r i g h t s , a n d e v e n n o n - r e s i d e n t m e m b e r s may clai to b e a c c o m m o d a t e d if t h e r e is r o o m for t h e m . r e s t r i c t i o n is d e f i n i t e l y less in K i a m b u than elsewhe a n d is d i s a p p e a r i n g . (6) S e c o n d l y , he is l i m i t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h the right u s e w h i c h h e e n j o y s d i f f e r s f r o m e x c l u s i v e u s e . Gradual t h e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e u s e s t o w h i c h l a n d c a n be put e n l a r g e d , a n d w i t h t h e r e l a x a t i o n of c l a n - c o n t r o l it f o u n d t h a t t h e r i g h t of e x c l u s i v e u s e c a n b e extended c o v e r m o s t of t h e m . . . ( i n K i a m b u ) t h o u g h grazi s t i l l r e m a i n s a c o m m o n r i g h t t h e " o w e n e r " is allowed e x e r c i s e a r i g h t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w h i c h is half-way an exclusive r i g h t . "

3 3 3 . I t is c l e a r t h e r e f o r e t h a t , w h e n t h e l a n d w a s taken a n w it w a s n o t o n l y the r i g h t - h o l d e r w h o s u f f e r e d , but that all tl m e m b e r s of t h e mbari s h a r e d i n t h e l o s s , s i n c e up t o that tis t h e s p a r e l a n d on t h e githakah a d b e e n a v a i l a b l e f o r them a , t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s to c u l t i v a t e a n d t o l i v e i n so l o n g as there w r o o m . I t is a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r , w h e n h e lost this lac h a d a s e l e c t i o n of o t h e r h o l d i n g s o p e n t o h i m , o n w h i c h he coi " c l a i m t o h e a c c o m m o d a t e d " , a n d t h a t t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r s of whit e v e r githaka h e f i n a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r h i s h o m e m u s t h a v e suffered c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i m i n u t i o n of t h e b a l a n c e of l a n d a t t h e i r dispos A t h i r d a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n is t h a t t h e r i g h t tos p a s t u r e c a t t l e o n u n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d w a s c o m m o n t o all the trifc a n d s i n c e a t l e a s t n i n e - t e n t h s of t h e l a n d w a s u n c u l t i v a t e d it clear that t h e rights of the t r i b e w e r e v e r y e x t e n s i v e . 3 3 4 . I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e question a l l o t t i n g t h e l a n d t o b e a d d e d i n c o m p e n s a t i o n , w e m u s t take it a c c o u n t n o t o n l y t h e d i s p o s s e s s e d r i g h t - h o l d e r s b u t all the hw b e r s of t h e mbari a n d , i n s o m e d e g r e e , t h e w h o l e of t h e t r i b e . 11 is a p o i n t wdtich m u s t h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t i n t h e m i n d s of t

KIKUYU j CHAI'IJ:U I X ]

PROVINCE P n i v A T B R I G H T S AND CLAIMS

uifcs w h e n t h e y s u b m i t t e d t h e i r m e m o r a n d a , s i n c e i n s t a t i n g total n u m b e r of m e m b e r s o f t h e i r mbari r e p r e s e n t e d in t h e ii they h a v e g i v e n far m o r e t h a n c o u l d e v e r h a v e b e e n r e s i d e n t the l a n d , tahd m u s t b e p r e s u m e d t o h a v e i n c l u d e d t h o s e n o n dent m e m b e r s w h o h a d a n i n t e r e s t i n i t . :;:J5. W h e n we add up the total strength of all the mbari by ing to b e c o n c e r n e d w e a r r i v e a t a t o t a l w h i c h is g r e a t e r alter every allowance has been made for the

r cent t h a n t h e total r e s i d e n t s of t h e K i a m b u N a t i v e R e s e r v e , tremendous e r a t i o n s of w h i c h t h e K i k u y u a r e c a p a b l e , w e t a k e t h i s t o b e indication t h a t m o s t of t h e m e m b e r s of t h e t r i b e c o n s i d e r t h e n i es to h a v e a n i n t e r e s t in the l a n d w h i c h h a s b e e n l o s t , a n d n o t the r e s i d e n t right-holders. 336. I t m i g h t p e r h a p s be t h o u g h t t h a t a s o l u t i o n could b e id by d i v i d i n g t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y l a n d b e t w e e n t h e d i s p o s s e s s e d t-liolders a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i z e of t h e i r f o r m e r h o l d i n g s , a n d i n s i s t i n g that t h e y s h o u l d a c c o r d t o t h e k i n d r e d of t h e i r mbari same r i g h t s a s t h e y w o u l d h a v e h a d i n t h e o r i g i n a l h i n d , ctieal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p u t this o u t of t h e q u e s t i o n . E v e n i f it been d o n e at t h e t i m e of t h e o r i g i n a l a l i e n a t i o n s , it w o u l d bubly h a v e b e e n an m r p o p u l a r a r r a n g e m e n t , a n d , w h i l e t h e ck a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e w o u l d h a v e b e e n w e l c o m e d , t h e d i s sessed r i g h t - h o l d e r s w o u l d in m a n y c a s e s h a v e p r e f e r r e d to ke t h e i r o w n a r r a n g e m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n b e o r d e r e d t o l i v e i n i t . s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t , a l t h o u g h N d e i y a , a n a r e a of 74 s q u a r e m i l e s , added t o the r e s e r v e in 1913 a n d w a s c o m m o n l y r e g a r d e d as ipensation o r p a r t c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r l o s s e s , t h e K i k u y u e kept i t as a g r a z i n g a r e a a n d h a v e g e n e r a l l y o p p o s e d a n y nestion t h a t any" p r i v a t e o r p r i o r r i g h t s s h o u l d b e c r e a t e d . T h e y e a l w a y s r e g a r d e d it a s an a s s e t o f t h e w h o l e t r i b e , a n d t h e t-holders f r o m t h e a l i e n a t e d l a n d s h a v e n e v e r c l a i m e d a n y r consideration. 337. W e a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b l e e l d e r s of t h e uyii h a v e a l w a y s r e g a r d e d t h e l o s s of t h e L i m u r u f a r m s a n d er t e r r i t o r y as a m a t t e r o f t r i b a l r a t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n , respect of c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e l a n d l o s t w e a g r e e w i t h t h i s v to t h e e x t e n t t h a t w e find it t o o f f e r t h e b e s t a n d m o s t tieable s o l u t i o n , and w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d c o m p e n s a t i o n t o tribe t o t h e f u l l e x t e n t of t h e l a n d l o s t . W e h a v e c o n s i d e r e d ther in j u s t i c e t o t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r s w e o u g h t t o r e c o m m e n d t h a t r r i g h t s s h o u l d be a c c o r d e d t o t h e m in t h e l a n d t o b e a d d e d , t if w e a r e o v e r - s o l i c i t o u s f o r t h e v a r i o u s s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a n d to r e p r o d u c e o n t h e n e w l a n d all t h e r i g h t s t h a t e x i s t e d o n t h e . so that t h e t r i b e , t h e g r o u p , t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r a n d t h e t e n a n t s uld all of therm b e p r e c i s e l y c o m p e n s a t e d , w e a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t

K I K U Y U PART ICHATTER IX]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I C I I T S AND (JIB

s u c h s o l i c i t u d e w o u l d d e f e a t i t s o w n e n d b y e m b i t t e r i n g relatk b e t w e e n g r o u p s , a n d t h a t , i n a n y c a s e , so ,precise a settlement c e r t a i n l y n o t p r a c t i c a b l e at t h i s d a t e . T h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of p e o p l e w i l l b e s e r v e d i f t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y a r e a is g i v e n as a sin;; a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e and p l a c e d u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l protection. G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e L a n d B o a r d w i t h o u t a n y special condi or obligations. 338. " W e d o n o t f o r a m o m e n t m e a n t h a t it s h o u l d be kept a c o m m o n a g e o r t h a t n o p r i v a t e r i g h t s s h o u l d be c r e a t e d , p o i n t is t h a t w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n of t h i s b l o c k o f l a n d t o the reset a n d t h e p a y m e n t of such f u r t h e r c o m p i e n s a t i o n as w e shall present r e c o m m e n d t h e t r o u b l e s of t h e past s h o u l d b e c o n s i d e r e d to been decently buried. 339. I n t h e c h a p t e r on " E x c h a n g e s , A d j u s t m e n t s m i d Sr.ee C a s e s " w e r e v i e w a n u m b e r o f s p e c i a l c a s e s . O n e of them a s t i t u t e s an e x c e p t i o n t o w h a t has just b e e n w r i t t e n , b e c a u s e a p p e a r s t o us t h a t a d e f i n i t e p l e d g e w a s g i v e n w h i c h m u s h o n o u r e d . I t i s t h e c a s e w h i c h a r o s e f r o m t h e a l i e n a t i o n of; land n o w occupied by the G o v e r n m e n t F a r m and the G o v e r n n i e Farm Extension. I n t h i s c a s e w e f e e l b o u n d t o m a k e a reco; m e n d a t i o n t h a t an a r e a in t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y b l o c k or alterna l a n d e l s e w h e r e s h o u l d be r e s e r v e d t o t h e u s e of t h e disposse mbari u n d e r t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w e shall s p e c i f y . I a r e a l s o a f e w o t h e r c a s e s in w h i c h w e s h a l l h a v e t o a f f i r m prior r i g h t s exist or should be a l l o w e d . -Compensation for Disturb ance of Right holders. 340. W e n o w yass to t h e q u e s t i o n o f c o m p e n s a t i o n for t u r b a n c e . W e a r e s t i l l s p e a k i n g o f r i g h t - h o l d e r s , and it wil c o n v e n i e n t t o c o n s i d e r t h e m i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : those who c o m p e n s a t i o n a n d l e f t t h e f a r m s b e f o r e 1 9 0 8 , t h e d a t e of the I e n t r y in t h e R e g i s t e r ; t h o s e w h o r e m a i n e d o n t h e l a n d until; 1908, b u t l e f t e v e n t u a l l y ; a n d t h o s e o r i g i n a l r i g h t - h o l d e r s or th direct d e s c e n d a n t s w h o are still on t h e l a n d . 341. vious have We h a v e f o u n d t h r o u g h a c o m p u t a t i o n m a d e in the; that the total number of householders of them who t e w e r e ri. a n d l e f t t h e l a n d b e f o r e 1 9 0 8 w e r e a b o u t 982. of k n o w i n g wdiat p r o p o r t i o n

Right-holders who took Compensation and left.

chajiter no means

compensation

h o l d e r s , b u t j u d g i n g b y g e n e r a l p r o b a b i l i t i e s , w e e s t i m a t e then b e t w e e n 750 a n d CO h o u s e h o l d e r s . tion f o r been which compensation W e h a v e c r e d i t e d each hoc h o l d ( b o t h of r i g h t - h o l d e r s a n d t e n a n t s ) w i t h t w o a c r e s of culti w a s .paid a t B s . 2 a n a c r e , and: a g r e e s w i t h t h e B s . 3,848 w h i c h w e k n o w b y t h e r e c o r d s to I t paid. 342. The position, therefore, w a s that each householders

l e f t r e c e i v e d B s . 4 , a n d h e w a s a l s o a l l o w e d t o r e a p his crop. 1

KIKTJYTJ I CHAPTER I X ]

PROVINCE PRIVATE R I G H T S AND CLAIMS

H n i p t i o n made by Government was that other land was availB to which he cotdd g o , and that the E s . 4 would be enough toB i b u r s e him for the actual expense of m o v i n g t h a t is to say, B i r o v i n g of his goods, the building of new huts, and the clearing H i e land for the new garden. B 343. W e consider that in cases where the right-holder B a l l y had other land to which he could g o , the E s . 4 probably Hie adequate to meet these charges, when regard i.s had to condiBJs prevailing iat the time. i a 3 4 4 . In those days there was no need to pay for poles or H c l i i n g grass and the building of a hut was an enterprise for Bh)i a ma-n was entitled to claim the assistance of his kindred.. Bp little expense to which he was put by way of entertainment H probably met adequately from the four rupees.

Bi345. W e need not consider here the loss of land, because weBJe already covered that point and advised full compensation, Pie for value, to the tribe as the best and only practicable means Bficaling with the matter. But w e must consider one point in H i e x i o n with it, and that is the probability that in many cases H a s not so easy as Government supposed for the right-holder to B e from one pilacc where he had been living as of right, to Hither place where he could live as of right, and that incidental BJ and inconvenience may have been caused to him beyond theBjv cost of re-erecting his huts and clearing his land. W h i l e w e B n o t prepared to admit without examination that this loss and Mpnvenience were as severe as has sometimes been stated, we can H believe that it was by no means negligible and the position B t be examined.
II 346. I t has often been stated that, when the farms were alienB ) , many of the right-holders had no other land to which they B i d go as of right and w e r e , in fact, forced to g o out and squat BjEuropean farms. W e do not deny that there may be some B e in the contention, but w e think that it is much exaggerated. BJ 347. I n the first place w e remark that, before the British B e , tribes were exposed to frequent shocks from the invasion of B p tribes, and must often have been forced t o rectify their BEiiers. W e cannot conceive that the tribe had no w a y of reBJributing its population when such (adjustments had t o be made.. B 348. Secondly, it seems to us clear from the passage which B h a v e quoted from the L a n d Tenure R e p o r t that the dispossessed Bit-holders had a right to be accommodated by their kindred. D r . B k e y thinks that because they had bought the land from t h e H o b o with borrowed goats, there would be no obligation to a d m i t

K I K U Y U PAIIT ICHAPTER IX]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AMI (JL

t h e m w i t h o u t ia r e t u r n of t h e g o a t s . T h i s s e e m s t o us to b e \ u n l i k e l y ; s u r e l y t h e r e m u s t h a v e b e e n s o m e of t h e n kindred fi wdiom they had not borrowed goats. 349. T h i r d l y , it h a s b e e n c l e a r l y s h o w n f r o m files which c conn t a i n t h e r e p o r t s of s u r v e y o r s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officers t h a t il w a s s t i l l a g r e a t d e a l of u n d e v e l o p e d l a n d i n t h e K i k u y u Although garden", there were large parts which t h e r e w e r e o t h e r l a r g e s t r e t c h e s of bush and c o u l d b e described as forest.

3 5 0 . S o m e at l e a s t of t h e d i s p o s s e s s e d r i g h t - h o l d e r s mustf, h a d r e l a t i o n s l i v i n g in t h e s e a r e a s , a n d w o u l d h a v e found -difficulty in g e t t i n g a c c o m m o d a t i o n . 3 5 1 . F o u r t h l y , w e do n o t t h i n k t h a t , t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s ; a t e n a n t s u f f e r e d m u c h d i s a b i l i t y in c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a r i g h t - h o l W e a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t n a t i v e s o f t h e N y e r i D i s t r i c t h a v e left t; r i g h t - h o l d i n g s i n l a r g e n u m b e r s a n d c o m e t o s e t t l e in Knit D i s t r i c t as t e n a n t s . T h e r e i s n o c u s t o m o f r e n t , and eases t e n a n t s b e i n g o r d e r e d t o q u i t a r e said t o h a v e b e e n e x t r e m e l y r " W e t h i n k it u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t o f bein muhoi in t h e r e s e r v e c o u l d h a v e b e e n so d i s t a s t e f u l t o a p o s s e s s e d r i g h t - h o l d e r as to h a v e f o r c e d h i m t o g o and smui i;he s e t t l e d a r e a . 3 5 2 . L a s t l y , w e o b s e r v e t h a t t h e p r a c t i c e of l e a v i n g the r e s t o g o a n d s q u a t d i d n o t b e c o m e v e r y w i d e s p r e a d until t h e i w h i c h w a s m o r e t h a n a d e c a d e a f t e r m o s t of t h e f a r m s w e r e al ated. A n d w h e n the m o v e m e n t did occur, the emigrants i m o s t l y f r o m F o r t H a l l . T h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e b e f o r e the C o n n s i o n t o s h o w t h a t d i s p o s s e s s e d r i g h t - h o l d e r s p l a y e d any n p r o m i n e n t p a r t in t h i s e m i g r a t i o n t h a n a n y o t h e r section ot community. Tt m a y v e r y w e l l h a v e b e e n s o , b u t i t has n o t i proved. 3 5 3 . O n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s u r v e y of t h e p o s i t i o n w e see I: reason t o suppose that the present squatters on European 1 ; l e f t t h e r e s e r v e b e c a u s e of d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e t e n u r l a n d . T h e d e s i r e t o find b e t t e r p a s t u r e f o r c a t t l e i s generally-; sidered to h a v e been the m o t i v e p o w e r b e h i n d the movement; g r a z i n g in t h e r e s e r v e b e i n g c o m m o n . , that is a consideration a f f e c t e d a l l c l a s s e s a l i k e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g a n y s q u a t t e r s in s e t t l e d a r e a m u s t b e h e l d t o h a v e g o n e t h e r e of t h e i r o w n free w i t h a v i e w t o b e t t e r t h e m s e l v e s a n d n o t a s a r e s u l t of any eo xnic p r e s s u r e , e x c e p t such as i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h s h o r t a g e of past 354. I n i n r e s p e c t of a n y suitable pressure of s o f a r as t h i s g e n e r a l o p i n i o n m a y h a v e to b e qtial p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s i n w h i c h r i g h t - h o l d e r s , f a i l i n g to p l a c e i n t h e r e s e r v e , w-ere c o m p e l l e d t o emigrat c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e r e is r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e that

KIKUYU -OllATTKlt IX]

PROVINCE P R I V A T E R I G H T S AND C L A I M S

I t lias g e n e r a l l y b e e n t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e . T h e a v e r a g e s q u a t t e r Iffitihtedly is r i c h e r in s t o c k t h a n t h e a v e r a g e n a t i v e i n t h e ve. a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y h a s b e e n a b l e t o m a r r y m o r e w i v e s a n d more c h i l d r e n . I t i s t r u e t h a t , if h e r e t u r n s to t h e r e s e r v e , ill p r o b a b l y b e p u t t o s o m e e x p e n s e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g h i m s e l f but, w h e n t h a t e x p e n s e h a s b e e n d e f r a y e d , i t is l i k e l y t h a t ill still b e b e t t e r off, o n b a l a n c e , t h a n h i s r e l a t i o n s w h o h a v e lined i n t h e r e s e r v e . i")5. B u t , w h e n all h a s b e e n s a i d , w e b e l i e v e t h a t , i f m o r e een k n o w n of t h e K i k u y u l a n d s y s t e m t h a n w a s k n o w n at lime, G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d h a v e m a d e s o m e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e lishment of t h e d i s p o s s e s s e d r i g h t - h o l d e r s on l a n d i n t h e i r vc w h e r e t h e y c o u l d l i v e as of r i g h t , o r w o u l d a t l e a s t h a v e lated t h e cost of d i s t u r b a n c e o n a m o r e g e n e r o u s b a s i s , so as ovule f o r all a t t e n d a n t i n c o n v e n i e n c e a n d loss of a m e n i t i e s as as the b a r e c o s t of m o v i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g t h e i r n e w l a n d . We il f o r t u n a t e t h a t v e r y l i t t l e r e a l h a r d s h i p h a s r e s u l t e d . The i n m e n t of t h e d a y a c t e d o n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o i t , a n d ertainly find n o o c c a s i o n f o r r e c o m m e n d i n g a t t h i s d a t e t h a t redress is due to a n y i n d i v i d u a l . N e v e r t h e l e s s , it m a y be w e l l row i n t o the b a l a n c e of t h e g e n e r a l s e t t l e m e n t a c e r t a i n a d nal a c r e a g e t o b e c o u n t e d , a.s i t w e r e , as a c o m p r e h e n s i v e ;ensation f o r loss of a m e n i t i e s a n d g e n e r a l d i s t u r b a n c e caused he t i m e of t h e a l i e n a t i o n s . W h i l e it i s u n d e n i a b l e t h a t t h e mi h a v e g a i n e d f a r m o r e t h a n t h e y h a v e lost' b y t h e e s t a b l i s h of w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t w i t h a l a r g e t o w n a n d a r e a d y m a r k e t heir b o r d e r s , w e s t i l l f i n d i l r e a s o n a b l e t o r e c o m m e n d t h a t such m e b e a d o p t e d s o t h a t e v e r y a s p e c t of p a s t g r i e v a n c e s m a y b e to h a v e b e e n c o v e r e d a n d finally s e t t l e d . 356. W h i l e t h i s c o u r s e is r e c o m m e n d e d a n d w i l l b e a p p r e tl. it d e e s n o t s o l v e t h e r e a l p r o b l e m , w h i c h i s e c o n o m i c , and neerned w i t h t h e d i f f i c u l t y of t h e p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i n g i t s e l f he l a n d . T h e r e t u r n of s q u a t t e r s t o t h e r e s e r v e w i l l c r e a t e jlems v e r y s i m i l a r i n t h e i r n a t u r e t o t h e l a n d a l i e n a t i o n s of a ration a g o b u t m o r e s e v e r e b e c a u s e of t h e i n c r e a s e d r i g i d i t y te (jilhalia s y s t e m . T h e m o s t p r a c t i c a l r e m e d y w h i c h w e can n m e n d f o r t h e b e n e f i t of t h e K i k u y u is t o s u g g e s t m o d i f i c a t i o n s ;h w i l l p r o v i d e g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y f o r t e n a n t s a n d b e t t e r p r o s p e c t s eir b e c o m i n g r i g h t - h o l d e r s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s w e s h a l l h a v e osals t o m a k e i n t h e e c o n o m i c s e c t i o n s of o u r r e p o r t to m e e t requirements of f u t u r e e x p a n s i o n . 357. I n C h a p t e r V I I I i t w a s c o m p u t e d t h a t a b o u t 6 3 2 h o u s e ers r e m a i n e d o n t h e l a n d w h e n t h e f a r m s w e r e a l i e n a t e d , sibly a b o u t five h u n d r e d of t h e m w e r e r i g h t - h o l d e r s . I t need ly he said t h a t t h e w h o l e c a l c u l a t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y p r o b l e m a , but n o m e a n s h a s r e v e a l e d i t s e l f o f o b t a i n i n g a b e t t e r figure. Right-holders "n'the^lirms in 1908, hut left after " '
a r F

K.1KUYU
PART J C H A P T E R IX]

PROVINCE
P R I V A T E R I G H T S ANL

M a n y of t h e s e f a m i l i e s e v e n t u a l l y l e f t , b u t w e c a n n o t say many. I t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x a c t figure, and m a y a s s u m e , w i t h sufficient a c c u r a c y , t h a t t h r e e or four 1mm families h a v e left the farms in this w a y . 358. S o f a r a s c a n be a s c e r t a i n e d n o c o m p e n s a t i o n w a s to these families. On the other hand the disturbance w a s s e v e r e , s i n c e f o r t h e m o s t j j a r t t h e y m o v e d at t h e i r o w n t i m e o c c a s i o n t o suit t h e m s e l v e s . T h e r e h a v e , h o w e v e r , b e e n si e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e s i n t h e l a s t f e w y e a r s . W e k n o w of no deft c a s e s d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s i n w h i c h r i g h t - h o l d e r s h a v e been evie i n o p e n c o n t r a v e n t i o n of t h e i r r i g h t s u n d e r s e c t i o n 86 of t h e Civ L a n d s O r d i n a n c e . B u t t h e r e h a v e p r o b a b l y b e e n cases i n \vl right-holders, after having signed a squatter's contract, h a v e i e v i c t e d c n t h e e x p i r y of t h e c o n t r a c t u n d e r t h e i m p r e s s i o n that s i g n i n g of t h e c o n t r a c t h a d p u t a n e n d t o a n y r i g h t s w h i c h ! m a y f o r m e r l y h a v e had. B u t only one case has been reveaiei s u c h a n a t u r e a s t o r e q u i r e a n y s p e c i a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n on p a r t , a n d w e s h a l l deal w i t h it in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r in w h i c h discuss E x c h a n g e s , A d j u s t m e n t s a n d S p e c i a l C a s e s . (Vide sectij 408 t o 413 b e l o w . ) 359. O u r g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n is t h a t i n calculating a r e a t o be a d d e d in g e n e r a l c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r d i s t u r b a n c e a n d ! of a t m e n i t i e s as r e c o m m e n d e d a b o v e , t h e c e r t a i n t y b e bornel m i n d t h a t s o m e of t h e s e f a m i l i e s w e r e m o v e d or w e r e i n d u c e d ! s i g n s q u a t t e r ' s c o n t r a c t s i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s w h i c h s h o u l d , i n equ:[ h a v e e n t i t l e d t h e m t o r e c e i v e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r l o s s of r i g h t s , a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t i t w o u l d b e u s e l e s s a t t h i s s t a g e t o try t o trl i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s , a n d all t h a t c a n b e d o n e is t o t a k e t h e m g e n e i ' j i n t o a c c o u n t in s e t t l i n g w i t h t h e t r i b e a t l a r g e . W e except t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o n l y such c a s e s a s m a y h a v e occurred sij t h e C o m m i s s i o n w a s a p p o i n t e d , a n d w e s h a l l d e a l w i t h their] another section below. Right-holders who are still on the L a n d .

360. W e n o w turn t o t h e c a s e o f r i g h t - h o l d e r s w h o a r e : on t h e l a n d . I n t h e case of a l l l a n d a l i e n a t e d o n l e a s e , areas w t j w e r e in t h e a c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n of n a t i v e s a t t h e t i m e o f the t i o n a r e d e e m e d t o b e e x c l u d e d . I n t h e c a s e of all l a n d s leased nrl t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h e C r o w n L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 1915, the n s e c t i o n is s e c t i o n 8 6 , t o w h i c h o u r a t t e n t i o n is e s p e c i a l l y d i r e r ! in t h e t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e . I n t h e c a s e of all l e a s e s under! Crown Lands Ordinance, 1902, the c o r r e s p o n d i n g section! s e c t i o n 3 1 . B o t h s e c t i o n s a r e q u o t e d in A p p e n d i x N o . 2 for r r e f e r e n c e , a n d w e i n t e r p r e t o u r i n s t r u c t i o n s in t h e sense thti a r e e x p e c t e d t o d e a l w i t h b o t h of theim. 361. T h e r e a r e a l s o c a s e s of n a t i v e s w h o wer'e in ocenratrd c e r t a i n h i n d s w h i c h h a v e s i n c e b e e n a l i e n a t e d as f r e e h o l d anil I

K I K U Y U LCHAPTER IX]

PROVINCE PRIVATE RIGHTS

AND CLAIMS

resident upon t h e m . T h e s e cases m u s t b e h e l d to h a v e red by a c c i d e n t , s i n c e i t is p r o v i d e d u n d e r s e c t i o n 3 0 of t h e n L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 1 9 0 2 , t h a t n o l a n d w h i c h is s u b j e c t to e r i g h t s m a y b e a l i e n a t e d as f r e e h o l d . I n s o f a r as such e x i s t a n d i n so f a r a s t h e n a t i v e s a r e s t i l l i n o c c u p a t i o n , w e der that t h e i r p o s i t i o n a n d r i g h t s are n o l e s s e n t i t l e d i n equity r e g a r d e d t h a n t h e r i g h t s of n a t i v e s o n l e a s e h o l d l a n d w h i c h r o t e c t e d u n d e r t h e c l a u s e s c i t e d . W e p r o p o s e to d e a l w i t h all t o g e t h e r . 62. H a v i n g c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a t t e r v e r y f u l l y i n t h e l i g h t of e e v i d e n c e a n d h a v i n g r e g a r d to the o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d b y t h e ney G e n e r a l , w h i c h is filed w i t h t h e o r i g i n a l e v i d e n c e , w e learly o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n c a u s e d b y t h e e x i s t e n c e of clauses i s m o s t u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . T h e m e a n i n g of t h e p h r a s e -al o c c u p a t i o n ' ' h a s b e e n v a r i o u s l y i n t e r p r e t e d , a n d the nt, A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l g i v e s t h e m a w i d e r c o n n o t a t i o n t h a n h i s cessors h a d a s s i g n e d . T h e p r e v a i l i n g u n c e r t a i n t y i s e m b a r r a s to all c o n c e r n e d . I f a c t u a l o c c u p a t i o n i n c l u d e s gittiaka t e n u r e , e c o m e i n v o l v e d at o n c e i n all .sorts of issues of f a c t . The can f e e l n o c o n f i d e n c e as to w h a t l a n d is h i s a n d w h a t i s ed to b e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e l e a s e a s t h e p r o p e r t y of s o m e yu r i g h t - h o l d e r , w h o in his t u r n w o u l d n o t b e safe a g a i n s t a ter-claim b y t h e D o r o b o on t h e score of p r e - e x i s t i n g r i g h t s , that a g a i n m i g h t b e c o n t e s t e d o n t h e g r o u n d ' t h a t t h e D o r o b o vassals of t h e Masai. of d o u b t s a r i s e s in connexion with succes363. A n o t h e r s e t

D o t h e r i g h t s of t h e " a c t u a l o c c u p i e r " c e a s e w i t h h i s d e a t h they p a s s t o h i s h e i r s ? rights? 64. W e d o n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e f a i r e s t s o l u t i o n of t h e m a t t e r he r e a c h e d b y t h e a r b i t r a m e n t se s i g n i f i c a n c e of the phrases of a C o u r t j u d g m e n t o n by draughtsmen We the in employed I s the lessee b o u n d to accommodate e l a r d all t h e p r o g e n y of t h e o c c u p i e r a n d d o t h e y a l l succeed

i r g up the o r d i n a n c e , o r the nature and effect o f t h e so-called bo l a n d s a l e s o r t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f githaka .sary a m e n d m e n t s nl O r d e r i n Go. A s ct for a the in e x i s t i n g legislation tenure. will accept even our d u t y t o p r o p o s e an e q u i t a b l e s e t t l e m e n t , t r u s t i n g t h a t t h e be m a d e , should b e c o m e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y t o ask for a Council. Land Commission of we are bound to have no great detri should principle security-, w i t h o u t deem that which of agrarian

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o n a d o c u m e n t of l e a s e w h i c h t h e y h o l d f r o m G o v e r n m e n t t o find t h a t i t c o n t a i n s a c l a u s e of such d o u b t f u l significance t h e i r p o s i t i o n is j e o p a r d i z e d . 3 6 6 . W h i l e w e d o n o t t h i n k t h a t in e q u i t y a n y e x t r e m e i p r e t a t i o n o u g h t t o b e p u t u p o n t h e c l a u s e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y i! m i g h t b e so h a s an e x t r e m e l y d i s q u i e t i n g e f f e c t , w h i c h is t e r i o u s t o t h e g o o d r e l a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y o b t a i n i n g between lessees and the resident n a t i v e s . N a t i v e p o l i t i c a l agitator: q u i c k to t a k e a d v a n t a g e of t h e s i t u a t i o n a n d t h e resultan d i s c i p l i n e is e m b a r r a s s i n g to t h e t r i b a l a u t h o r i t i e s in the re as w e l l as t o t h e E u r o p e a n s . W e c o n s i d e r it e s s e n t i a l t o the d s iand t h e r i g h t s of i t s m e m b e r s e x t e n d s h o u l d b e consolidated s t h e a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e of t h e g r a n t o f land which s h a l l r e c o m m e n d s h o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e e x t i n c t i o n of n a t i v e p r i v a t e r i g h t s o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e e x c e p t (a) such rid if a n y , as m a y b e h e l d u p o n t i t l e , a n d (b^ such r i g h t s as may It b e e n a c q u i r e d in a n o t h e r r e s e r v e , e . g . , as a muhoi under t s y s t e m of l a n d t e n u r e o b t a i n i n g . 367. G e n e r o u s c o m p e n s a t i o n for d i s t u r b a n c e must ncca p a n y t h i s e x t i n g u i s h i n g of r i g h t s . W e c o n s i d e r t h a t it should tj t h e f o r m o f a p a y m e n t in c a s h , a n d w e b e l i e v e - 2 . 0 0 0 to i a s s e s s m e n t of t h e t o t a l -sum t h a t s h o u l d b e p a i d . 368. W e d o n o t s t a t e t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n at a n y particular si submitted! c l a i m s p r e v i d e a w a r n i n g of t h e extravagant per h o u s e h o l d , b e c a u s e the e v i d e n c e and m e m o r a n d a us in t h e mbari -tensions w h i c h w o u l d be p u t f o r w a r d . t-nd w e l l - b e i n g of t h e t r i b e t h a t t h e a r e a s o v e r w h

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l o c a l n a t i v e c o u n c i l h a s a d e f i n i t e s u m g i v e n t o i t f r o m which cci pensation' should be p a i d , but w h i c h should not p r o b a b l e t h a t a jr-st d i s t r i b u t i o n c a n b e e f f e c t e d . Government and that the should decide the proportion due

C o u n c i l o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e d a t a w h i c h a r e c o n t a i n e d in this rep] Councils should then d r a w u p a list of the pets t o he c o m p e n s a t e d a n d t h e a m o u n t s p a y a b l e t o e a c h , but situ I n m a k i n g t h i s recommends; a r e a b l e t o e s t i m a t e it front

n o t actually- m a k e t h e p a y m e n t u n t i l t h e s a n c t i o n of t h e Provint Commissioner has been received. w e have had regard farms information before as o f r i g h t , a s f a r us. r e c o m m e n d a t i o n is t h a t cash o K i k u y u w h o are n o w living o n t h o s e w h o h a v e l e f t , w e consider: i n f a v o u r of t h o s e w h o h a v e was appointed. as w e t o t h e n u m b e r of f a m i l i e s n o w l i v i n g on

369. W h i l e our g e n e r a l pensation should be paid t o f a r m s as o f r i g h t , b u t n o t t o a point should be stretched farms since the Commission

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370. W e have already explained that i n our opinion the linistrative authorities, after c o n s u l t i n g t h e n a t i v e authorities, uld b e f r e e t o d e v e l o p t h e l a n d a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e i n w h a t r w a y m a y seem best i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e t r i b e , a n d w e a r e illino' t o e m b a r r a s s t h e m w i t h a n y s p e c i a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t these p e r s o n s s h o u l d r e c e i v e s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n r e g a r d t o t land. B u t w e d o n o t d o u b t b u t t h a t t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n w o u l d all in i t s p o w e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d find p r o p e r a c c o m gation i n t h e r e s e r v e , e i t h e r i n t h e a d d e d b l o c k s o r e l s e w h e r e . 3 7 1 . I n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t s h o u l d b e final w e ,mmend t h a t , as soon as t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n h a s b e e n p a i d a n d d i n g crops have been reaped and reasonable n o t i c e to quit has ii g i v e n , a l l p r i v a t e r i g h t s o f K i k u y u n a t i v e s o u t s i d e t h e K i k u y u e r v e , except those to w h i c h w e h a v e alluded a b o v e , should be ringed. W e doubt w h e t h e r this c a n b e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ac iplished w i t h o u t an O r d e r i n C o u n c i l , a n d w e t h e r e f o r e r e c o i n i d that a n Order in Council be sought. 3 7 2 . I n P a r t H I of this r e p o r t w e shall c o n s i d e r this p r o b l e m ts general application t o t h e c o u n t r y at l a r g e , a n d e x a m i n e t h e e n t to w h i c h the same t r e a t m e n t can he applied elsewhere. it must be understood that t h e r e a r e special cases, both in n y u and e l s e w h e r e , w h i c h must b e r e v i e w e d separately o n their its and those which concern K i k u y u are r e v i e w e d i n t h e pter w h i c h f o l l o w s . T h e q u e s t i o n o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e r e n t a g a i n s t lessee i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e e n h a n c e m e n t i n t h e v a l u e o f t h e which w i l l result f r o m t h e r e m o v a l of these disabilities m a y eft t o G o v e r n m e n t . Clause 31 ( 5 ) of t h e C r o w n L a n d s O r d i n , 1902, i s r e l e v a n t a s t o t h e p r o c e d u r e t o b e a d o p t e d . 3 7 3 . W e c o n s i d e r t h a t i n m o s t c a s e s t e n a n t s w e r e a d e q u a t e l y Compensation ' f " rensated w h e n t h e y l e f t t h e l a n d , a n d i n a n y c a s e n o g r i e v a n c e * * ains w h i c h t h e p a s s a g e o f t i m e h a s n o t a l r e a d y a d j u s t e d . B u t Tenants, spect of c e r r p e n s a t i o n d u e t o t e n a n t s w h o m a y o r i g i n a l l y h a v e o c c u p y i n g t h e l a n d w h e n i t w a s a l i e n a t e d , a n d w h o a r e still - i f there are a n y such c a s e s w e consider t h a t n o d i s t i n c t i o n Id b e m a d e b e t w e e n t h e t r e a t m e n t m e t e d p u t to t h e m a n d t o -holders.
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374. A s m a l l p o i n t arises i n r e s p e c t of p e r s o n s w h o w e r e Compensation uti o r a d m i n s t r a t o r s o f ithaka o n land w h i c h has been a l i e n Oitaka O v e r a n d a b o v e t h e loss s u s t i n e d b y r i g h t - h o l d e r s t h e y h a v e ' ' e d a c e r t a i n loss o f p r e s t i g e a n d p r o f i t i n t h e s h a p e o f ral g i f t s w h i c h t h e y used t o r e c e i v e . B u t n o case is r e v e a l e d as t o w a r r a n t a special t r e a t m e n t . G o v e r n m e n t is a d m i n i s t e r l:e n a t i v e r e s e r v e l a r g e l y t h r o u g h t h e n a t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s , a n d
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3 7 5 . T h e c a s e of t h e D o r o b o d e s e r v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t , g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e y d i d n o t inten r e l i n q u i s h a l l t h e i r r i g h t s in K i k u y u c o u n t r y . M o s t of tliei n o w b e e n a b s o r b e d , b u t t h e r e a r e s t i l l a f e w w h o live r e s e r v e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r in t h e f o r e s t n e a r K i j a b e . "We eon,; t h a t t h e y h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a r i g h t i n e q u i t y t o b e received the Kikuyu Reserve. W e d o n o t t h i n k i t p r a c t i c a b l e to reed r u e n d t h a t t h e K o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d to pc t h e m t o c o n t i n u e i n d e f i n i t e l y t o l i v e i n t h e f o r e s t a n d w e cons, t h a t a s m a l l a d d i t i o n a l e x t e n s i o n of t h e r e s e r v e is advigabl o r d e r t h a t a c c o m m o d a t i o n m a y b e f o u n d f o r t h e m in the re; w i t h o u t h a r d s h i p to t h e r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . W e r e c o m m e n d t h e y s h o u l d n o t be b o u n d t o o c c u p y t h i s b l o c k , but t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d c h a r g e i t s e l f w i t h t h e d u t y of finding f o r t h e m , a n d w e e x p e c t t h a t l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y w i l l b e experieu 37G. I n s u m , o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s in r e s p e c t of conipe t i o n f o r d i s t u r b a n c e a n d loss o f p r i v a t e r i g h t s o u t s i d e the res a r e as f o l l o w s : 3 7 7 . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a r e a w h i c h w e s h a l l r e c o m m e n d ti a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e i n c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e t r i b e f o r land; w e r e c o m m e n d a f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n o f 2,000 a c r e s w h i c h shoulii r e g a r d e d as c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r d i s t u r b a n c e and I of a m e n i t i e s o c c a s i o n e d by t h e a l i e n a t i o n s , a n d a further j a c r e s a s a p r o v i s i o n of l a n d so t h a t t h e t r i b e may accommcj c e r t a i n D o r o b o n o w l i v i n g i n f o r e s t s n e a r t h e t r i b a l borders, a l s o r e c o m m e n d a m o n e t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n o f 2 , 0 0 0 to be t h r o u g h t h e N a t i v e C o u n c i l s t o n a t i v e s w h o a r e still living a l i e n a t e d l a n d as o f r i g h t . 3 7 8 . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t u p o n paymeil compensation and a f t e r s t a n d i n g c r o p s h a v e b e e n reapei p r i v a t e r i g h t s of K i k u y u o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e s h o u l d cease e? s u c h as a r e h e l d u p o n t i t l e o r s u c h as m a y h a v e b e e n acquiri a n o t h e r r e s e r v e u n d e r t h e s y s t e m of l a n d t e n u r e o b t a i n i n g the n a t i v e custom o f the tribe c o n c e r n e d .
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3 7 9 . W e r e g a r d t h e j u s t a n d p e r m a n e n t s e t t l e m e n t of; m a t t e r s as o f p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e f u t u r e peace p r o s p e r i t y of the t r i b e .

359

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380. T h e r e a r e s o m e e x c h a n g e s a n d a d j u s t m e n t s w h i c h h a v e Exchanges and i s u g g e s t e d i n o r d e r t a s a t i s f y a c l a i m of r i g h t , a n d t h e r e a r e Adjustments, p i s w h i c h r e s t on a basis of c o n v e n i e n c e or e c o n o m i c a d v a n W h i l e a logical a r r a n g e m e n t m i g h t require that w e should in this p l a c e o n l y w i t h t h e f o r m e r class a n d r e s e r v e t h e l a t t e r ie r e v i e w e d i n t h e e c o n o m i c s e c t i o n s of t h e r e p o r t , it i s n o t in r r a c t i c e t o k e e p t h e i s s u e s s e p a r a t e , a n d w e t h e r e f o r e p r o I I to i n c l u d e t h e m a l l in t h e s c o p e of t h i s c h a p t e r . W e shall take t h e p r o p o s a l k n o w n as t h e T i g o n i E x c h a n g e . 181. W h e n n as T i g o n i .. [382. I t is e v i d e n t f r o m t h e r e c o r d s t h a t i t s r e s e r v a t i o n f r o m nation h a d n o t h i n g t o do w i t h a n y q u e s t i o n of n a t i v e r i g h t s , was d u e t o a n o v e r s i g h t . 383. I n 1 9 1 6 . M r . G . A . S. N o r t h c o t e , t h e n D i s t r i c t G o m ;ioner, K i a m b u , p r o p o s e d t h a t T i g o n i b e m a d e a t o w n s h i p a n d BE t h e n it h a s b e e n g e n e r a l l y k n o w n as T i g o n i Township
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n i s l a n d of u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e

[384. I n 1925 M r . W . F . G . C a m p b e l l , D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , nbu, p r o p o s e d t o m o v e t h e n a t i v e s , w h o w e r e b y t h i s t i m e Sing a t T i g o n i in v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r s w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c lorization. 1385. T h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , M r . C . M . D o b b s , r a i s e d "nrestion of n a t i v e r i g h t s , a n d i n D e c e m b e r of t h e s a m e y e a r fr H . W . G r a y , w h o had s u c c e e d e d A i r . C a m p b e l l a s D i s t r i c t lissioner, proposed that t h e m a t t e r should be s e t t l e d by c o i n t i n g t h e githaka owners. i S S . I n 1926 t h e C h i e f N a t i v e C o m m i s s i o n e r c l a i m e d t h e a r e a ic n a t i v e r e s e r v e , b u t t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r o f L a n d s o p p o s e d t h e ion on t h e ground that it w a s n o t g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c o n n e c t e d it. 187. I n J u n e , 1930, t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e r e f e r r e d t o T i g o n i despatch t o t h e G o v e r n o r , a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t i t il be h e l d f o r " n a t i v e r e q u i r e m e n t s , c o m p e n s a t i o n o r o t h e r . " 88. W e a r e s a t i s f i e d f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t a b o u t t h e y e a r the l a n d w a s a l m o s t u n i n h a b i t e d . T h e r e a p p e a r s to h a v e a s m a l l v i l l a g e or "possibly o n l y o n e h u t n e a r w h e r e t h e

KIKUYU PART I C H A P T E R X ]

PROVINCE E X C H A N G E S , ADJUSTMENT

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n e i g h b o u r h o o d , b u t l e w o r n o n e of t h e m w e r e w i t h i n the boi aries of t h e area in question. 3 8 9 . I n l a t e r y e a r s , as t h e y g r a d u a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t this I i s l a n d h a d b e e n l e f t a p p a r e n t l y f o r g o t t e n in t h e m i d d l e ol f a r m a r e a , n a t i v e s b e g a n t o filter i n t o i t f r o m h o m e s which h a d o c c u p i e d o n t h e f a r m s b e f o r e t h e y w e r e a l i e n a t e d , ami f r o m t h e r e s e r v e . B y 1 9 2 3 , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e H u t T a x Census, h a d r e a c h e d t h e n u m b e r o f 312 p e r s o n s , a n d b y 1932 this ti h a d b e e n a l m o s t d o u b l e d a n d t h e r e w e r e 607 p e r s o n s on the] a d e n s i t y of 4 1 1 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e .
;

3 9 0 . T h e n a t i v e e v i d e n c e r e p r e s e n t s t h a t t h e r e w e r e ten ill o n t h e l a n d , all b o u g h t f r o m a D o r o b o n a m e d K i m u n y i . A s o t h i s K i m u n y i a p p e a r e d b e f o r e M r . L y d e k k e r , D i s t r i c t Office! 1 9 2 1 , a n d a d m i t t e d t h e s a l e . W h i l e w e a r e n o t i m p r e s s e d bv s t a t e m e n t s a s t o t h e t a l e o f g o a t s p a i d o v e r , it a p p e a r s proba i n v i e w of a l l t h e e v i d e n c e , t h a t t h e K i k u y u h a d b e e n engaged a g c c d n u m b e r of y e a r s b e f o r e t h e f a m i n e in t h e p r o c e s s of rei i n g t h e D o r c b o o n t h e l a n d , a n d i n t h i s c a s e i t w o u l d appear t h e p r o c e s s h a d n o t b e e n c o m p l e t e d w h e n t h e f a m i n e occiirre 3 9 1 . I t a p p e a r s f r o m e v i d e n c e g i v e n to M r . L y d e k k e r it s o n of t h e D o r o b o " v e n d o r " a n d o n e o t h e r D o r o b o s t i l l had ill of t h e i r o w n on T i g o n i in 1921. 392. already the shows When 'to it The of the most probable conclusion the admittedly can never is t h a t before been covered have the the Kikuyn famine, effect acquired that in some rights in occupation land

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3 9 3 . T h e e x p e d i e n c y o f a l l o w i n g t h e s e n a t i v e s to renmir. t h i s i s l a n d in t h e m i d d l e of t h e L i m u r u f a r m a r e a has I c h a l l e n g e d n o t o n l y b y t h e E u r o p e a n s e t t l e r s of t h e neighbour: b u t a l s o b y s u c c e s s i v e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r s a t Kiarnbu. h a v e i t p r e r e r t e d t h a t i n t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e n a t i v e s themsefc w o u l d b e f a r b e t t e r f o r t h e r e s e r v e t o b e c o n s o l i d a t e d . In J 1 9 3 0 , t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r w r o t e as f o l l o w s on the s l u of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h a r e o c c a s i o n e d b y out! f r a g m e n t e d p o r t i o n s of t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e : " I do n o t " t h i n k i t i s n e c e s s a r y to l a b o u r t h e point such i s l a n d s a r e m o s t p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e e f f i c i e n t admin; t i o n of t h e d i s t r i c t . I t is a d i s t r i c t in w h i c h tribal c h a s b e c o m e w e a k e n e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s m of some o y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n a n d t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r hn;

K I K U Y U r CHAPTER X ]

PROVINCE EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS, ETO.

c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k of d e c i d i n g w h e n i t is n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e traditional authority should be m a i n t a i n e d and w h e n u p o n occasion i t m u s t b e l e t d o w n g e n t l y . " I t is n e c e s s a r y t o h a v e a n efficient s y s t e m of d i v i s i o n s and l o c a t i o n s u n d e r r e l i a b l e c h i e f s w h o m u s t be i n c l o s e t o u c h both w i t h t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r a n d w i t h t h e i r own people. " A s e c o n d p o i n t in t h e f i r m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i c t is that G o v e r n m e n t o r d e r s m u s t b e s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d . B u t t h i s becomes difficult w h e n t h e o r d e r s o p e r a t e h a r s h l y . When eyer t h e s e " i s l a n d e r s " m o v e o u t o f t h e i r i s l a n d w i t h o u t a registration certificate t h e y are liable to a r r e s t . " 394. W i t h t h e s e v i e w s w e a g r e e . H i s g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l w a s it the T i g c n i l a n d s h o u l d b e s u r r e n d e r e d in e x c h a n g e f o r a b l o c k iforest l a n d so s i t u a t e d as t o j o i n t h e L a r i N a t i v e R e s e r v e w i t h i main r e s e r v e , a n d so e l i m i n a t e t w o " i s l a n d s " b y a s i n g l e tharge. Ihe C o n s e r v a t o r of F o r e s t s h a s a g r e e d t o t h i s p r o p o s a l th certain m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s . 895. T h e basis of e x c h a n g e p r o p o s e d w a s : (a) 11 a c r e s f o r e v e r y acre. form of (fa) C c m p e r e a t i o n f o r o r d i n a r y r o u n d h u t in t h e e x e m p t i o n f r o m o n e y e a r ' s tax on t h e h u t . ic) id) (e)

C o m p e n s a t i o n for a better-class hut or house to b e a cash c o m p e n s a t i o n ad valorem. C o m p e n s a t i o n for p l a n t e d at a cash v a l u a t i o n . trees (i.e., gums and wattles)

E a c h githaka h o l d e r o n t h e l a n d s u r r e n d e r e d to b e a l l o w e d to c h o o s e w h e t h e r h e w i l l t a k e h i s s u b s t i t u t e d githaka in t h e n o r t h e r n e x t e n s i o n b l o c k , w h i c h is of high a l t i t u d e , or in t h e o t h e r b l o c k s , w h i c h a r e l o w e r , b u t n o t to b e a l l o w e d t o c h o o s e t h e p r e c i s e l o c a l i t y w h i c h s h o u l d b e a t t h e d i s c r e t i o n of t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r a n d the l o c a l L a n d B o a r d .

(.0 C o m p e n s a t i o n f o r w i r e f e n c i n g , if a n y , a t a c a s h v a l u a t i o n . lq) S u f f i c i e n t t i m e t o b e a l l o w e d f o r t h e m o v e t o b e c o n d u c t e d w i t h o u t h a r d s h i p or i n c o n v e n i e n c e . '-)%. W e are satisfied f r o m t h e r e c o r d s t h a t e v e r y c a r e w a s en in p u t t i n g t h e s e p r o p o s a l s b e f o r e t h e n a t i v e s . N o less t h a n ee barazas w e r e h e l d , t h e first t w o t o e x p l o r e t h e p o s i t i o n a n d last t o a s c e r t a i n t h e o p i n i o n of t h e n a t i v e s u p o n t h e p r o p o s a l s , are s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e s f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d t h e i r n a t u r e a n d tils, a n d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s i x out of t h e ten ithaka agreed, " a g r e e m e n t of o n e of t h e s i x , h o w e v e r , w a s c o n t i n g e n t u p o n a of l a n d b e i n g f o u n d f o r h i m i n t h e f o r e s t r e s e r v e n e a r

KJKTJYU PART ICHAPTER X ]

PROVINCE E X C H A N G E S , AD.JUSTMEN

H e a d m a n M u k o m a ' s , a n d n o t in t h e b l o c k s u g g e s t e d a coni s i o n w h i c h t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r u n d e r t o o k to r e c o m m e n l his case. 3 9 7 . W e c o n s i d e r it to b e a f a c t t h a t t h e giUiaka holdei n o w f o r t h e m o s t p a r t w i t h d r a w n t h e i r a g r e e m e n t , but we a s c l t h i s p r i n c i p a l l y t o t h e e x t r a v a g a n t h o p e s w h i c h t h e appointirj of the C o m m i s s i o n has raised. 3 9 8 . A f e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e v i d e n c e a n d t h e represent:!! m a d e f r o m a l l q u a r t e r s , w e b e l i e v e i t t o b e t o t h e advanta^J t h e s e n a t i v e s a n d the r e s e r v e as a w h o l e t h a t t h e y short o r d e r e d t o q u i t T i g o n i a n d b e a c c o m m o d a t e d and compensate the m a n n e r suggested above. Kithirioni Exchange. 3 9 9 . K i t h i r i o n i is a n i s l a n d of n a t i v e r e s e r v e of seventy s u r r o u n d e d b y t h e L a r i F o r e s t D e s e r v e . W e are satisfied thai is in t h e best i n t e r e s t s of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s t h a t t h e y should m o v e d f r o m t h e i r i s o l a t e d p o s i t i o n a n d b e c o n s o l i d a t e d with r e s t of t h e r e s e r v e , c o n d i t i o n s in r e g a r d t o c o m p e n s a t i o n 1 : t h e s a m e as f o r T i g o n i . T h i s c o u l d b e d o n e b y m o v i n g them a t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of a m i l e n o r t h of t h e i r p r e s e n t h o m e i n t o a n adjacent to the L a r i N a t i v e R e s e r v e . 4 0 0 . T h e p o s i t i o n of t h e s e n a t i v e s d i f f e r s f r o m that of T in t h a t t h e i r l a n d is - n a t i v e r e s e r v e , a n d t h e y c a n n o t be i u n l e s s t h e L a n d s T r u s t O r d i n a n c e is a m e n d e d . B u t in a p a r t of t h i s r e p o r t w e s h a l l m a k e p r o p o s a l s for an amemln; w h e r e b y a d v a n t a g e o u s e x c h a n g e s w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e , subject t h e c o n s e n t o f t h e L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l a n d t h e L a n d s T; Board. 4 0 1 . T h e t o t a l c o m p e n s a t o r y a r e a r e q u i r e d f o r Tigoni E x t e n t of L a n d required K i t h i r i o n i a t an a l l o w a n c e of a n a c r e a n d a h a l f f o r a n acre mi in Compensa tion for T i g o n i b e 1,522 acre-s. T h i s h a s t o b e a d d e d t o t h e a r e a of the genj and K i t h i r i o n i . c o m p e n s a t o r y a d d i t i o n . 402. W e , the reserve the in between This choice therefore, recommend the Bathi Reserve the River and of Laid have the t h a t 1,522 a c r e s be adde so as to form in a corn the pi main reserve the area,

s h o w n o n t h e s k e t c h m a p o p p o s i t e p a g e 24 o f t h e p r i n t e d evii would of effect consolidating but if they reserve, to take natives moved from in one Tigoni the and K i t h i r i o n i s h o u l d b e offered I prefer b l o c k s which

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-shall r e c o m m e n d t o b e a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e , w e d o n o t think t h e y s h o u l d b e p r e c l u d e d f r o m d o i n g s o , a n d w e n o t e that son) them have ( 2 ) L . O . 6905, the W h i t e Sisters. expressed White a preference Sisters for Muguga. a lease in 1912 of eerj 403. T h e obtained

l a n d c o n t a i n i n g a n a r e a o v e r w h i c h t h e n a t i v e s c l a i m rights, of t h e w e s t e r n b o u n d a r y a d j o i n i n g t h e r e s e r v e w a s n e v e r bead

361
KIKUYU I CHAPTER X ] PROVINCE EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS, ETC.

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107. B u t t h e d0 a c r e s c o n s t i t u t e a s p e c i a l c a s e . T h e con ences of M r . I s a a c ' s m i s t a k e h a v e b e e n t h a t t h i s area is iy c o v e r e d w i t h d w e l l i n g s , a n d s o m e at l e a s t of t h e n a t i v e s tut t h e r e a p p e a r t o h a v e b e e n i n c o n t i n u o u s a n d u n c h a l l e n g e d ation f r o m a b o u t 1913 u n t i l 1928 w h e n t h e m i s t a k e in t h e clary w a s d i s c o v e r e d . T h e y m u s t be h e l d t o h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d scriptive r i g h t . I t w o u l d n o t b e f a i r t o m o v e t h e m w i t h o u t generous c o m p e n s a t i o n . W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t , in order that essary d i s t u r b a n c e m a y be a v o i d e d , t h e 8 0 a c r e s b e b o u g h t the W h i t e S i s t e r s , e i t h e r b y a g r e e m e n t o r , if n e c e s s a r y , u n d e r -and A c q u i s i t i o n A c t , a n d a d d e d t o t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e a s a f the l a n d s t o b e a d d e d in g e n e r a l c o m p e n s a t i o n to t h e t r i b e . 0 8 . T h e l a n d n o w o c c u p i e d at K a b e t e b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t (3) T h e Gov ( L . O . I S 9 ) a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t F a r m E x t e n s i o n ( L . O . srnment F a r m , c o m p r i s i n g t o g e t h e r 1,518 a c r e s , w a s e x c i s e d f r o m t h e n a t i v e e r m n e n t ^ a r a i e, and a n u n d e r t a k i n g w a s g i v e n t h a t t h e l o c a l n a t i v e s s h o u l d Extension. n:pensated. T h e S e c r e t a r i a t files r e v e a l t h a t t h r e e a r e a s w e r e t o h a v e b e e n a l i e n a t e d a s f a r m s , w e r e i n c l u d e d in t h e e r e s e r v e , a n d w e r e c o n s i d e r e d as c o m p e n s a t i o n . T h e v w e r e ' 2000 ( w h i c h w a s s i t u a t e d b e t w e e n L . O . 2 9 1 / 1 a n d L . O . , L . O . 400 ( w h i c h ' w a s s i t u a t e d t o t h e w e s t of L . O . 2 4 7 / U . 0 . 4S9 ( w h i c h w a s s i t u a t e d b e t w e e n L . O . 8 6 a n d L . O . 2 2 ) . c o m p r i s e d 1,889 a c r e s a g a i n s t t h e 1.518 a c r e s o f t h e G o v e r n Parm and the G o v e r n m e n t F a r m E x t e n s i o n .

KIKUYU
PAST 1CHAPTER X j

1'ltOVINCE
E X C H A N G E S , ADJUSTMENTS

4 0 9 . T h e c o n t e n t i o n of t h e n a t i v e s is t h a t t h i s w a s not a e x c h a n g e for t w o r e a s o n s : F i r s t l y , that the areas given i c h a n g e w e r e o r i g i n a l l y K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y , a n d t h a t it i s u f f i c i e n t c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e loss of t w o p i e c e s o f Kikuyu tt t o r y t h a t G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d r e f r a i n f r o m a l i e n a t i n g three o: p i e c e s ; s e c o n d l y , t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l mbaris w h o h a d lived on t h r e e o t h e r p i e c e s n a t u r a l l y t o o k p o s s e s s i o n a n d r e s e n t e d any t r u s i o n b y t h e mba,ris d i s p o s s e s s e d of t h e l a n d a l i e n a t e d for Government Farm.
n 5

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not satisfactory, honoured.

t h a t t h e u n d e r t a k i n g t o c o m p e n s a t e has

4 1 1 . I t is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e f a m i l i e s c o n c e r n e d are M b a r i y a N y u n g u a n d o t h e r inbaris m e n t i o n e d in c l a i m N o . 5 4 1 2 . O n t h e a l i e n a t i o n o f t h e l a n d m a n y o f these nal w e n t to s q u a t o n K a r e n C o f f e e E s t a t e , w h e r e t h e y remained O c t o b e r , 1 9 3 1 , w h e n t h e y w e r e e v i c t e d . G o v e r n m e n t , bavins a p p r i s e d in a d v a n c e o f t h e i n t e n t i o n t o e v i c t , m a d e arrange!) f o r t h e i r t e m p o r a r y a c c o m m o d a t i o n in t h r e e b l o c k s in the Di etti F o r e s t area. 4 1 3 . W e shall i n c l u d e t h e s e b l o c k s i n t h e l a n d w h i c h we r e c o m m e n d t o b e a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e i n g e n e r a l compensation t h e t r i b e . W e d o n o t c o n s i d e r it n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e that s t a t u t o r y o r d e n n e d p r i v a t e r i g h t s s h o u l d b e c r e a t e d for mbari in i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , b u t w e recorm t h a t t h e b l o c k b e a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e a s a w h o l e . W e conn t h e c a s e o f t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r mbari t o t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n an m a r k t h a t an o b l i g a t i o n l i e s to e n s u r e t h a t t h e y are sui a c c o m m o d a t e d , a n d . in so f a r as m a y b e p r a c t i c a b l e or genetl d e s i r a b l e , w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t an a r e a b e set a s i d e for thei n o t l e s s in e x t e n t arid v a l u e t h a n t h e a r e a o r i g i n a l l y lost. (4) L . O . 383/1, 4 1 4 . T h e r e w e r e r i g h t h o l d e r s o n t h e l a n d alienated t "the Kiheriko A f r i c a I n l a n d M i s s i o n a t K i j a b e , a n d m o s t of t h e m w e r e oil Land." m b a r i k n o w n as K i h e r i k o . I t w a s a s s u m e d t h a t the wl t h e m %vere of t h a t mbari, a n d an a r r a n g e m e n t w a s m a d e beh t h e M i s s i o n a n d t h e K i h e r i k o w h e r e b y t h e M i s s i o n stirrendti 400 a c r e s o f l a n d t o t h e m i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of b e i n g quit f u r t h e r c l a i m s . T h e a g r e e m e n t , d a t e d 1 0 t h F e b r u a r y , 1930, s i g n e d b y s i x t e e n s e n i o r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e mbari. 41.5. T h e P r i n c i p a l of t h e M i s s i o n h a s a g r e e d and has cat! o u t t h e u n d e r t a k i n g s . T h e s u r v e y h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d ; thej

K I K U Y U ICHAPTER X ]

PROVINCE EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS, E T C .

been a l t e r e d ; a n d t h e r e n t p a y a b l e b y t h e M i s s i o n h a s b e e n ced i n it h a s proportion. in the been discovered that some of the natives claiming 116. T h e r e h a s p r o v e d t o b e a c a t c h i n t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t , t-holdings o n t h e p l a c e w e r e n o t of t h e K i h e r i k o c l a n , a n d

eriko a r e r e f u s i n g to l e t t h e m h a v e a s h a r e i n the 400 a c r e s . 417. T h e f o r m of a g r e e m e n t w h i c h w a s d a t e d 1 0 t h F e b r u a r y , , was signed on the one hand b y t h e A s s i s t a n t D i s t r i c t C o m ioner, K i a m b u a n d t h e D i s t r i c t S u r v e y o r , a n d o n t h e o t h e r by v a r i o u s n a t i v e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e K i h e r i k o mbari. I t is ie effect t h a t t h e e l d e r s a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e K i h e r i k o "in consideration of the voluntary surrender b y the Africa nd M i s s i o n of 4 0 0 a c r e s of l e a s e h o l d at K i j a b e f o r t h e b e n e 1 occupation of o u r c l a n . . . t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f w h i c h l a n d this d a y b e e n c l e a r l y p o i n t e d o u t t o us . . . h e r e b y r e n o u n c e lately o n b e h a l f of o u r s e l v e s , o u r f a m i l i e s a n d h e i r s , a l l c l a i m s tever t o t h e M i s s i o n a t K i j a b e , u n d e r 86 (i) . . . o r a n y r . . ." 418. T h e F i e l d D i r e c t o r -, 1929. In that letter s i g n i f i e d t h e a s s e n t of h i s he agreed t o surrender 400 governing 3rd to acres - in a l e t t e r t o t h e D i s t r i c t eminent " f o r t of t h i s a r e a jnts of Commissioner, K i a m b u , dated

t h e u s e of t h e K i h e r i k o c l a n " shall now satisfy in full

subject t o c e r t a i n previous oc

cations, of w h i c h t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t w a s " t h a t t h e r e l i n q u i s h all c l a i m s of the Mission the land comprising Estate."

419. W e a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t b o t h t h e F i e l d D i r e c t o r of t h e slon a n d t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r w e r e u n d e r t h e m i s ehension t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o o t h e r r i g h t h o l d e r s t o be c o m ated e x c e p t t h e " K i h e r i k o c l a n " a n d t h a t i n d r a w i n g u p t h e 'n:ent t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s i o n e r i n t e n d e d t h e " K i h e r i k o c l a n " ever a l l t h e n a t i v e r i g h t h o l d e r s o n t h e e s t a t e , a n d w e h a v e h i s ranee t h a t i t n e v e r o c c u r r e d t o h i m t h a t t h e d o c u m e n t c o u l d any o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a n a c o m p l e t e e x t i n g u i s h i n g of tative r i g h t s o n t h e e s t a t e in c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e s u r r e n d e r C acres to G o v e r n m e n t to be used for the beneficial occupa O of t h e n a t i v e s a f f e c t e d . W e a r e satisfied Id n o t h a v e a g r e e d o n a n y o t h e r t e r m s . that the Mission

420. I n all t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w e c o n s i d e r i t r i g h t t o r e c o m d that t h i s a r e a b e a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e w i t h o u t a n y s p e c i a l n a t i o n . o f p r i v a t e r i g h t s . W e c o n s i d e r t h a t , in a d m i n i s t e r i n g land, d u e r e g a r d should be g i v e n t o t h e c l a i m s o f t h e K i h e r i k o , o far as m a y b e p r a c t i c a b l e , b u t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n o t b e eel to o v e r - r i d e t h e c l a i m s of o t h e r n a t i v e s w h o w e r e r e s i d e r t t f r i g h t , a n d w h o a p p e a r t o us i n e q u i t y t o h a v e e q u a l g r o u n d s

KJKUYU
PART ICHAPTER X ]

PROVINCE
IOXCHANGES, ADJUST JI EI

for consideration;. a n d just e q u i v a l e n t Commissioner

We for

are satisfied

that t h e 400 a c r e s w e r e b y all the i v them.

the rights surrendered any distinction

n a t i v e s a n d t h a t t h e r e w a s n o i n t e n t i o n o n t h e p a r t of the 1) to create between

frA

and L . O . 180. The Church of Scotland Mission.

TJ.O.

185/2

4 2 1 . T h e C h u r c h of S c o t l a n d M i s s i o n l a n d c o n s i s t s oi ;. of l e a s e h o l d a n d an a d j o i n i n g piece- of f r e e h o l d , both obtaii 1905. T h e l e a s e h o l d w a s 2,173 a c r e s l e a s e d " f o r the purp a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d b r e e d i n g a n d r a i s i n g c a t t l e " f o r a term y e a r s u n d e r t h e C r o w n L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 1 9 0 2 . T h e freehold .1,000 a c r e s . O f t h e l e a s e h o l d 150 a c r e s h a v e b e e n sub-let to A l l i a n c e o f M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t i e s , of w h i c h 100 a c r e s w e r e for A l l i a n c e H i g h S c h o o l a n d 50 a c r e s w e r e for t h e W o m e n ' s h,' trial H o m e . a 4 2 2 . A l a r g e n u m b e r of n a t i v e s r e s i d e oi.) t h e mission l w h o c l a i m t o be t h e r e as ( !' r i g h t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e e v i d e n c e t! w o u l d a p p e a r t o be a b o u t 1,450 n a t i v e s n o w r e s i d e n t , w h o d to b e e i t h e r m e m b e r s Njunu the named exist. 423. M r . of the C a l d e r w o c d a n d M r . B a r l o w g a v e e v i d e n c e as re to surrender 2,000 The acres first of land to the N;; that sen t i n g t h e e x e c u t i v e of t h e M i s s i o n , a n d e x p r e s s e d t h e willing! Mission on Beserve certain conditions. condition was or e l s e t e n a n t s Bera. land of H i n g a or of t h e wi&nri of t h e mbari A c o u n t e r c l a i m to i of t h e s e mbari.

h a s b e e n s u b m i t t e d b y the d e s c e n d a n t s of a Lore W e h a v e i o i n t e n t i o n of p r o n o u n c i n g on the that

m e r i t s of t he: e c l a i m s , b u t it i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e m e m b e r

a r e a s u r r e n d e r e d b e p e r m a n e n t l y s e c u r e d t o t h e K i k u y u people t h e i r use a n d o c c u p a t i o n . to a c c e p t i n g t h a t be g i v e n to those T h e r e would naturally he n o obiec condition. natives now residing on the Mission lam

4 2 4 . T h e s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n w a s t h a t p r i o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s!i
1

h a v e , or m a y

be presumed

to h a v e , a l e g a l c l a i m t i n d e r the t h e M i s s i o n acq The It descend; .!;


1

L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h o s e w h o h a v e left the est a: t i m e s p a s t , but w h o w e r e in o c c u p a t i o n w h e n the land and who may now wish to return. such o r i g i n a l o c c u p i e r s w e r e a l s o i n c l u d e d . on the M i s s i o n land for a long period, but

w a s asked in have!, are not origi

t i o n t h a t t h e p r e s e n t M i s s i o n s q u a t t e r s , m a n y of w h o m who

o c c u p i e r s , s h o u l d n o t b e d e t e r r e d f r o m s e t t l i n g o n the surrende p o r t i o n s h o u l d t h e y so d e s i r e . 4 2 5 . T h e t h i r d c o n d i t i o n , w h i c h w a s a r e q u e s t r a t h e r that c o n d i t i o n , w a s t h a t githaka r i g h t s m a y b e r e s t o r e d , if possiblf t h o s e w h o o r i g i n a l l y h a d t h e m . A n d if i t is n o t p o s s i b l e to res

KTTCUYU

il-CHAPTER

X]

PROVINCE EXCHANGES,

ADJUSTMENTS,

ETC

over t h e w h o l e o f

the l a n d , then

it w a s a s k e d t h a t t h e y

be

red o v e r p a r t of the l a n d , a n d t h a t t h e mbari.? u), W a h o t h i and W a g i t h u k n 126. T h e final we condition regarded was ining t o t h e M i s s i o n 27. W h i l e athy w i t h gree and that the es should in m u s t should that the

of H i n g a , A l u t u r i iihakd. land much could of the. of the

in p a r t i c u l a r s h o u l d h a v e residue freehold. all b e c o m e

t h i s offer as g e n e r o u s and had u n d e r l y i n g these p r o p o s a l s , w e stipulation that the that rights the private between

the i n t e n t i o n it i s a, fair be m a d e Mission, necessarily so

rights by

t h e s u b j e c t of a b a r g a i n prevail against

Govern- equally There as is

safeguarded natives.

claims, perhaps by other on

rounded, w h i c h m a y as it h a p p e n s , 1 in 1 Nos. 1, 65/268). 2 and

be advanced family of the 8

disputed

claims "Mbari"

this e s t a t e , claims

(Evidence, in the the be

B u t e v e n if t h e r e w e r e n o such p o i n t s of c o n t e n t i o n , c l e a r l y h e u n w i s e , s i n c e it w o u l d r e s u l t would impede a the process of adapting with would

a guarantee would e district, In s y s t e m 28. Wo which

reation of an a n o m a l o u s f o r m of t e n u r e in t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a r t in c o n f o r m i t y therefore and area We the with modern to requirements. interview that it

arranged should for

further them

ion a u t h o r i t i e s ruble t h a t al c o n d i t i o n s .

represented

be added

to t h e r e s e r v e the private

without would of and the giving rights

g a v e our assurance that our R e p o r t safeguarding Kikuyu on this (vide

lin r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s security ITT

es, and w o u l d a l s o p r o p o s e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of r u l e s for to tenants in Relying section passim). assurance. Dr.

517 b e l o w Arthur,

rater of t h e A l i s s i o n , a g r e e d t o s u r r e n d e r t h e 2 , 0 0 0 a c r e s f o r ion to t h e r e s e r v e w i t h o u t a n y s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a s to t e n u r e . 29. W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t in consideration of the surrender of or '0 t h o u s a n d a c r e s t h e r e s i d u e of 1,000 a c r e s r e m a i n i n g t o t h e 011 s h o u l d all b e f r e e h o l d , a n y i n c i d e n t a l c o s t o f c o n v e r s i o n y being b o r n e :'S0. I n by Government. we shall make a recommendation about lying than lands now find

section 474 b e l o w

w o u l d h a v e t h e e f f e c t of c o n n e c t i n g t h e N d e i y a g r a z i n g a r e a i area s u r r e n d e r e d , b y m e a n s of a c o r r i d o r c o n s i s t i n g o f 31. L . O . 123 is a p i e c e of l a n d , 2,049 a c r e s i n e x t e n t , to the east of R u i r u Township, and more tired a c r e s of l a n d e x c i s e d f r o m t h e D a g o r e t t i E o r e s t R e s e r v e . two m i l e s

miles f r o m t h e n e a r e s t p o i n t of t h e K i k u y u N a t i v e

Reserve,

s r e s e r v e d for t h e n a t i v e s i n 1904- w h e n t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a l i e n a t e d , b u t is n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e N a t i v e R e s e r v e as ted. The reason for its reservation in 1904 was tc

KIICUYU
PART I C H A P T E R X]

PROVINCE
EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS

accommodation lands of which depasturing

for

natives disturbed had formerly cattle.

b y t h e a l i e n a t i o n of ctrl use in s o m e decree!

they

made

their

4 3 2 . F o r s o m e y e a r s b e f o r e 1 9 3 1 n a t i v e s h a d ceased to oo t h i s l a n d , a n d in J a n u a r y alienation 433. another equivalent to t h e H u a i of t h a t y e a r G o v e r n m e n t but w i t h authorize Sisal C o m p a n y , t h e proviso

t h e q u e s t i o n o f c o m p e n s a t i o n m u s t r e m a i n o p e n f o r considers S i n c e w e a r e n o w p r o p o s i n g t o c o m p e n s a t e the Kikti manner (namely, by block to additions in o t h e r quari t o t h e b a l a n c e of l o s s s u f f e r e d lapse. b y t h e t r i b e ) , thee

to this area should be a l l o w e d

(7) L.O. 4961, 4 3 4 . L . O . 4 9 6 1 , g e n e r a l l y k n o w n as P a u l C l a r k e ' s Par: "Paul a n a r e a of 669 a c r e s w h i c h w a s g r a n t e d i n f r e e h o l d in 1901 Clai'ke's Farm." w a s n o t o c c u p i e d e x c e p t f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d in 1906 w h e n Go m e n t u s e d i t f o r d e p a s t u r i n g c a t t l e c a p t u r e d in t h e E m b u Ex tion. years It changed its hands twice, and came into the ownershi M r . P a u l C l a r k e , w h o first b e g a n t o d e v e l o p it in 1 9 2 5 , twenty after first alienation. T h e farm have is comp Eeserve, and they b e e n using i 435. T h e natives p r o m p t l y protested. surrounded by N a t i v e as a n y o t h e r p a r t of t h e r e s e r v e . that with they had k n o w n that nothing Mr. of

T h e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e reason it. were considered by Coven by a gran Thei ainounti was compensated

t h e y h a d n o t p r o t e s t e d w h e n t h e f a r m w a s o r i g i n a l l y alienate' 436. T h e s e the result representations Clarke

l a n d e l s e w h e r e , a n d L . O . 496.1 r e v e r t e d t o t h e C r o w n . c l a i m of right w a s m e t by a p r o p o r t i o n of the f a r m Native been cupied Eeserve. to the of An the land. land acre and Maragua a half Electric of

276 a c r e s b e i n g set a s i d e f o r t h e i r u s e , b u t it w a s not gazetl t h e r e m a i n d e r has Company. T! acres) r a n k s as leased Power 391A

mainder

(approximately

Crown

4 3 7 . B e c a u s e t h e l a n d f a l l s - w i t h i n t h e a r e a w h i c h we f o u n d t o h a v e b e e n E i k u y u t e r r i t o r y a n d b e c a u s e it is ent s u r r o u n d e d b y g a z e t t e d N a t i v e E e s e r v e , w e r e c o m m e n d tli w h o l e o f it b e g a z e t t e d a s N a t i v e E e s e r v e , a n d t h a t the re the leased area be paid to the L o c a l N a t i v e Council. (8) L.O. 325/R, Saba tiSaba, Ltd. 438. L . O . 325/B, S a b a - S a b a , Limited, l i e s outside tin w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d to h a v e b e e n K i k u y u t e r r i t o r y , and the e n c e s h o w s t h a t as l a t e a s 1908 t h e r e w e r e o n l y a v e r y f e w Ki h u t s on Seth it (compare the e v i d e n c e 195). of Air. P . P I . Jordan a d n Smith at section

364
KIKUYU
T

PROVINCE
EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS, ETC.

PTIAPTER X"i

The

District

Commissioner

has

given

evidence claim

to

the

et that a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,000 a c r e s of t h e f a r m a r e n o w o c c u p i e d 45 n a t i v e s a n d t h e i r f a m i l i e s , a n u m b e r of t-holders a n d others who claim rights on whom other to be the p a r t s of

MO. S i n c e w e h a v e f o u n d t h a t the l a n d l i e s o u t s i d e t h e b o u n d s of w h a t ressed w i t h 111. A 1,000 was effective K i k u y u the claims to r i g h t territory, holdings. native occupation He (in the we are not greatly

s u g g e s t i o n m a d e b y t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r is t h a t acres which are now under on t h e p l a n a t t a c h e d t o h i s e v i d e n c e ) b e t h e m 1,000 acquired considers

tion s h o w n

aba-Saba, L i m i t e d , and added t o the r e s e r v e . this c o u l d b e d o n e b y o f f e r i n g one or t h a t t h e land

acres elsewhere. the the may

142. I n v i e w of all t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h i s be p u r c h a s e d , a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t added t o t h e r e s e r v e m u s t b e u n d e r s t o o d t o f o r m p a r t of ral c o n d e n s a t i o n to t h e t r i b e , and t h a t t h e b l o c k a d d i t i o n educed a c c o r d i n g l y . 443. T h e r e is a l s o a s m a l l m a t t e r of 22 a c r e s of t h e f a r m w h i c h (Thika the They a r e i n c l u d e d in t h e f a r m , according to o the n o r t h of t h e P u b l i c W o r k s D e p a r t m e n t m a i n r o a d brfc H a l l ) .

deeds, but in t h e r e s e r v e a c c o r d i n g to t h e g a z e t t e m e n t of 1 9 2 6 : the d e p o s i t e d p l a n w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e g a z e t t e m e n t the t i t l e d e e d s a n d n o t w i t h the g a z e t t e m e n t . The agreed District acquired to be

missioner s t a t e s t h a t t h e n a t i v e s h a v e b e e n i n b e n e f i c i a l o c c u p a since 1908 a n d m u s t , in h i s o p i n i o n , b e h e l d t o h a v e escriptive r i g h t . We lit f r o m t h e f a r m a n d a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e . 444. L . O . 1 3 2 2 , D a g o r e t t i T o w n s h i p R e s e r v e , h a s b e e n e x ed f r o m t h e N a t i v e R e s e r v e . I t is t h e site of the Dafforetti . rrnent occupied n shops. sub-station, by . which is now closed,
to

consider that t h e 22 acres ought

(9) L . O . . 1323, K etti


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township and besides the Reserve, 50


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the G o v e r n m e n t the G o v e r n m e n t fifty

buildings there buildings and

a r e also a f e w fifty We acres, but would recommend service Native W e shops

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acres be returned to the r e s e r v e , but that t e n and social shops b e i n g paid to the L o c a l

re, t h e r e n t s f r o m t h e s wholly

cil, b u t t h e a r e a o c c u p i e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t S t a t i o n , w h i c h f o r t h e b e n e f i t of t h e n a t i v e s , b e i n g r e n t f r e e . annum. nforrred t h a t t h e r e v e n u e s a t p r e s e n t d e r i v e d f r o m t h e s h o p s 57-12-0 p e r

KIKUYU
PART ICHAPTER X ]

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EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS

-445. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e w h o l e a r e a m a y l e g i t i m a t e i n c l u d e d as p a r t of t h e 2 1 , 0 0 0 a c r e s of c o m p e n s a t o r y land w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d to be added t o the r e s e r v e . (10) Njengu Salt-lick. 446. N j e n g u s a l t - l i c k i s p a r t o f the S o u t h N y e r i X R e s e r v e a n d is j o i n e d t o t h e m a i n r e s e r v e b y a r o a d of access a p p e a r s that s q u a t t e r s t o c k f r o m t h e N o r t h N y e r i settled I a l s o use t h i s s a l t - l i c k a n d , s i n c e t h e y b e l o n g t o K i k u y u , it i s j certain that the natives do n o t g r u d g e t h e m this facility. 1 n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o p e r c o n t r o l t o p r e v e n t i n f e c t i o n m a k e s it nece; t o r e c o m m e n d t h a t a p a r t o f t h e s a l t - l i c k b e k e p t f o r the tis s q u a t t e r c a t t l e . W e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e e x a c t a r r a n g e m e n t s cr a e f f e c t e d b y n e g o t i a t i o n a n d t h e r e is n o o c c a s i o n f o r any deta r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o n o u r p a r t , b u t w e a g r e e w i t h tlste g e n e r a l oh o f t h e p r o p o s a l . T h e r e i s n o n e e d f o r e x c i s i o n a n d t h e method be either by setting aside or by lease. T h e r e h a s a l s o b e e n a p r o p o s a l for c h a n g i n g t h e line o; p r o a c h t o t h e s a l t - l i c k , a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the witne s t a n d o n t h e r e c o r d of t h e e v i d e n c e ( p . 5 1 2 ) . W e commend g e n e r a l l i n e s of t h e p r o p o s a l of t h e M o u n t K e n y a Associatioi t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t a n d s u g g e s t t h a t , w h e n a. a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e h a s b e e n f o u n d it s h o u l d b e t w o hunt f e e t w i d e . T h e r e q u i r e d a d j u s t m e n t s h o u l d t h e n b e m a d e by c h a n g e u n d e r t h e e n a b l i n g c l a u s e s w h i c h w e s h a l l recommenc b e included in t h e L a n d s T r u s t O r d i n a n c e . (11) Salt-lick, N y e r i Town ship. 4 4 7 . T h e s a l t - l i c k i n N y e r i T o w n s h i p is c l a i m e d b y the nat: b u t i n v i e w of t h e e v i d e n c e w e h a v e r e c e i v e d w e do not cons, t h a t a c a s e h a s b e e n m a d e o u t f o r e x c i s i n g it f r o m the towns a n d a d d i n g it t o t h e N a t i v e R e s e r v e . T h e r e a r e s t r o n g med o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e u s e of t h e s a l t - l i c k b y t h e n a t i v e s , and we tt t h a t s u c h a m a t t e r s h o u l d b e o n e w h i c h t h e t o w n s h i p author: should decide themselves. 4 4 8 . T h e r e is a p i e c e of l a n d a t t h e s o u t h - w e s t corn: Ndei.ya w h i c h t h e K i k u y u loan to t h e M a s a i in exchange p i e c e of l a n d t o t h e s o u t h - e a s t of N d e i y a , n e a r the Dagorl F o r e s t . T h i s i s n o m i n a l l y a n a n n u a l a r r a n g e m e n t and it is to] m u t u a l c o n v e n i e n c e o f b o t h p a r t i e s ; i t h a s b e e n suggested p e r m a n e n t e x c h a n g e , s o m e w h a t o n t h e l i n e s of t h e present m e n t , m i g h t b e e f f e c t e d . W e s h a l l r e t u r n t o t h e consideration t h i s m a t t e r i n s e c t i o n s 701 a n d 709 b e l o w , w h e n w e are de with the Masai Province. 4 4 9 . T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s m i n o r a d j u s t m e n t s w h i c h could e a h a v e b e e n m a d e b y e x c h a n g e , if t h e L a n d s T r u s t Ordinance p r o v i d e d a m a c h i n e r y f o r e x c h a n g e s . W e c o n s i d e r that we s ! d i s c h a r g e o u r d u t y i n r e s p e c t of t h e s e c a s e s if w e r e c o m m e n d ; a b l e p r o v i s i o n t o b e m a d e i n t h e o r d i n a n c e , a n d i t is n o t nece-;

(12) The Ndeiya Exchange

(13) Various Minor Adjustments.

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.is t o e x a m i n e t h e m i n d i v i d u a l l y . tion of an a c r e , L . O .

I n s t a n c e s of t h i s k i n d a p p e a r an 187 not

e p r o v i d e d b y t h e c a s e s of G e t h u m b w i n i , L i m i t e d , r e g a r d i n g a 226 ( M i s s C o l l y e r ) r e g a r d i n g p a r t of of a b o u n d a r y . the reserve , L . O . 227 ( M r s . G r i s t ) r e g a r d i n g 0.7 o f an a c r e a n d L . O . Boedeker) regarding the straightening also cases been m a d e where approved a additions to b e c a u s e of difficulties remedy. general recommendations that have

There which

in t h e o r d i n a n c e , f o r

hall h a v e t o p r o p o s e 450. W e 'de exceptions to

Special Cases c o m affecting thp Question or ation s h o u l d be p a i d in l a n d up t o t h e full v a l u e of t h e l a n d Compensation. T h e r e a s o n f o r r e g a r d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e s as e x c e p t i o n a l our applied for the direct benefit of t h e natives.

n o w t u r n t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of s p e c i a l c a s e s w h i c h

at the l a n d s u r r e n d e r e d h a s , i n w h o l e o r i n p a r t , b e e n

Tviees

451. T h e t o t a l a c r e a g e a l i e n a t e d to m i s s i o n s o r e d u c a t i o n a l (1) Mission^ tutions w i t h i n t h e a r e a w h i c h w e h a v e f o u n d to h a v e b e e n and Eduo* tional riiyu t e r r i t o r y " m a y b e assessed a t 7,939 a c r e s as s h o w n in Institutions endix 3. T h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e of d i r e c t b e n e f i t t o t h e K i k u y u , on that g r o u n d a c l a i m m i g h t be b a s e d t h a t t h e w h o l e of t h e s e s should b e p l a c e d , so t o s p e a k , o n the f r e e l i s t , t h a t i s t o s a y , w e s h o u l d n o t r e c o m m e n d a n y c o m p e n s a t i o n t o be p a i d use of t h e m . A V e d o n o t , h o w e v e r , t a k e t h a t v i e w e n t i r e l y , distinguish t w o c l a s s e s o f such l a n d , n a m e l y , l a n d n e c e s s a r y he m i s s i o n or o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n t o d i s c h a r g e i t s tions s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , a n d l a n d w h i c h h a s b e e n g r a n t e d as a es of e n d o w m e n t . S i n c e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n is a n i m nt part of t h e t r a i n i n g , t h e a c r e a g e f a l l i n g i n t h e first of t h e s e cries is f a i r l y l a r g e , a n d p r o v i s i o n for t h e h o u s e s a n d g a r d e n s sident n a t i v e a d h e r e n t s of the m i s s i o n m a y o c c u p y a c o n able a r e a i n s o m e c a s e s . M o r e o v e r , a p l a n t a t i o n of w a t t l e r e w o o d is g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e d . T a k i n g t h e s e p o i n t s i n t o c o n l i o n w e h a v e a g r e e d t o r e g a r d 2 , 3 0 0 a c r e s a s t h e t o t a l sum d a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e d t o e n a b l e a l l t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s t o fulfil functions. I t has b e e n necessary t o be arbitrary and to an a s s e s s m e n t o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s . Captain W i l s o n considered to be t h e b e s t a s s e s s m e n t w h i l e M r . F f e m s t e d t h o u g h t 2 , 1 0 0 , we h a v e a g r e e d t o c o m p r o m i s e o n t h e figure s t a t e d . 52. A l l lead of t h e r e m a i n d e r of t h e l a n d w e c o n s i d e r t o f a l l endowment sold land, intended to be f a r m e d at a under profit right be

tier to p r o v i d e f u n d s f o r t h e m i s s i o n , a n d in s e m e c a s e s p a r t s have b e e n eneral or s u b - l e a s e d . that "We do not equal c o n s i d e r it land of t h i s c h a r a c t e r s h o u l d be e x e m p t e d f r o m t h e s c o p e of recommendations compensation lost. must for t h e K i k u y u in r e t u r n for t h e l a n d

KiKUYU
PART ICHAPTER XJ

ritOVlNCE
EXCHANGES, ADJUSTMENTS

453. B u t i n r e g a r d t o t h e 2,300 a c r e s w e c o n s i d e r t h a t fication e x i s t s f o r p u t t i n g t h e m o n t h e " f r e e l i s t . " E v e n h, m i g h t b e o b j e c t e d t h a t , h o w e v e r m u c h t h e t r i b e as a whole h a v e been a d v a n t a g e d , there were right holders w h o w o n p o s s e s s e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e f u l l c o m p e n s a t i o n m u s t b e paid. \ l a n d t e n u r e h a s b e c c m e t r u l y i n d i v i d u a l , t h i s o b j e c t i o n would t o b e s u s t a i n e d , b u t a s t h i n g s w e r e w h e n t h e l a n d w a s alien a n d as t h e y s t i l l a r e , a l l u n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d , t h o u g h subje " r i g h t s " , is a t t h e d i s p o s a l of t h e w h o l e t r i b e f o r p u r p o s e s o f i n g , a n d m o s t of t h e l a n d a l i e n a t e d t o m i s s i o n s w a s of t h a t T h i s p o i n t h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r e d in a l l i t s b e a r i n g s in a pre c h a p t e r , a n d w e a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t n o i n j u s t i c e w i l l be c a n s , a n y o n e by the course proposed. 454. W e , t h e r e f o r e , r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e t o t a l compens a c r e a g e s h o w n a s p a y a b l e t o t h e K i k u y u b e r e d u c e d b y 2,BOO in c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e b e n e f i t s w h i c h t h e K i k u y u a r e r l c m i n g the institutions concerned. (2) N y e r i Township. 455. N y e r i T o w n s h i p R e s e r v e c o m p r i s e s approximately a c r e s . I t c o n t a i n s t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i v e H e a d q u a r t e r s of t h e v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r a n d of t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r i n e! of t h e N y e r i N a t i v e B e s e r v e as w e l l as t h e D i s t r i c t Commiss in c h a r g e cf t h e s e t t l e d a r e a . T h e r e is a h o s p i t a l f o r natives. numerous shops and stores. 450. H a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n i n g at t h e w h e n t h e l a n d w a s a l i e n a t e d , w e d o n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t any r lar group w a s u n g e n e r o u s l y treated. C h i e f N d u i n i a n d Head N d e r i , t h e r e s p e c t i v e h e a d s of t h e s e c t i o n s m o s t concerned u n d o u b t e d l y b e e n a d v a n c e d in p o s i t i o n a n d p r o s p e r i t y since G o v e r n m e n t S t a t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d , a n d a d e q u a t e provision m a d e f o r t h e l a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e i r p e o p l e , w h o also prospered from them propinquity t o the t o w n . 457. W e f e e l j u s t i f i e d i n r e c o m m e n d i n g t h a t t h e townshi r e g a r d e d as e x i s t i n g e q u a l l y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e r e s e r v e a s e t t l e d a r e a , a n d t h a t 7C0 a c r e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e h a l f intere t h e n a t i v e s , b e p l a c e d o n w h a t w e h a v e c a l l e d t h e " f r e e list w h i c h n o c o m p e n s a t i o n will be r e q u i r e d . 458. T h e t o w n s h i p s o f F o r t H a l l a n d K i a m b u are inc in the N a t i v e B e s e r v e a n d call f o r n o special r e m a r k s in this The Total of List" '
1 1 6 0 o n , n

4 5 9 . T h e t o t a l of t h e l a n d w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d for i r e " l i s t " ( i . e . , l a n d f o r w h i c h n o c o m p e n s a t i o n nee p a i d ) is 3,CCO a c r e s , of w h i c h 2,300 a c r e s r e p r e s e n t land d d e v e l o p e d as m i s s i o n s t a t i o n s and 700 a c r e s r e p r e s e n t the e ? of t h e n a t i v e i n t e r e s t i n N y e r i T o w n s h i p .
e l r e e

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60. T h e r e s u l t of o u r s u m m a r y in C h a p t e r Y I w a s t o s h o w The Acreage a l t o g e t h e r 2 6 5 - s q u a r e m i l e s of t e r r i t o r y h a v e b e e n g i v e n b y recommended to be added. -nment to t h e K i k u y u a n d I G O i square, m i l e s h a v e b e e n t a k e n , an a p p a r e n t g a i n of 156 s q u a r e m i l e s t o t h e K i k u y u . But taking i n t o account the c o m p a r a t i v e values of the l a n d g i v e n a k e n , w e f o u n d t h a t t h e v a l u e of w h a t h a s b e e n t a k e n f r o m \ ikuyu is g r e a t e r t h a n w h a t h a s b e e n g i v e n t o therm by a , w h i c h w e assessed as 1 9 , 5 2 0 acres of g o o d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d section 2 2 5 ) . B u t in o u r r e v i e w of s p e c i a l cases i n C h a p t e r X a-ve f o u n d t h a t t h e r e a r e 3 , 0 0 0 acres of t h i s l a n d f o r w h i c h n o ensation n e e d be p a i d b e c a u s e t h e l a n d i s d e v o t e d t o s e r v i c e s ehalf of the K i k u y u . T h e b a l a n c e of l a n d w e r e c o m m e n d to b e d to t h e r e s e r v e in e x c h a n g e f o r l a n d lost is, t h e r e f o r e , 1 6 , 5 2 0 461. B u t t h i s a m o u n t m u s t b e i n c r e a s e d b y 2 , 0 0 0 a c r e s to b e oned as a g e n e r a l c o m p e n s a t i o n for d i s t u r b a n c e ; a f u r t h e r acres in c o n n e x i o n w i t h t h e a d m i s s i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e of in D o r o b o n o w r e s i d e n t in t h e F o r e s t R e s e r v e ; a n d , if t h e itions p r o p o s e d f o r t h e T i g o n i a n d K i t h i r i o n i e x c h a n g e s a r e ted, a f u r t h e r 1,522 a c r e s t o pjrovide f o r t h e m . 62. O n t h e s e f i g u r e s t h e t o t a l i n f a v o u r of t h e K i k u y u b e s 21,042 a c r e s . B u t in a c a l c u l a t i o n of this k i n d i t is n o t le to b e e x a c t l y a c c u r a t e , a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t it is b e t t e r m e a r o u n d figure a n d c a l l it 21,000 a c r e s , a n d w e r e c o r n that t h i s a m o u n t of l a n d be a d d e d t o the K i k u y u N a t i v e ve. T h i s is e x c l u s i v e of c e r t a i n o t h e r a r e a s w h i c h a r e dy in n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a n d h a v e b e e n r e c k o n e d b y us t h r o u g h ris c a l c u l a t i o n , a s e x p l a i n e d in t h e n o t e s a n d t a b l e in C h a p t e r o be a l r e a d y p a r t o f t h e N a t i v e R e s e r v e , a l t h o u g h t h e i r f o r m a l ion h a s n o t y e t b e e n c o n c l u d e d b y g a z e t t e m e n t . T h e y a r e : ' M w e a : 205 s q . m i l e s ( a d d i t i o n a p p r o v e d b y H i s E x c e l lency t h e G o v e r n o r in Council). L.O. L.O. 63. W e 4450 : 0.69 s q . 3 8 8 / 1 : 0.62 sq. miles. miles, n o w be g i v e n : Recommenda Settlement of $j^^k" "
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388/1, c o m p r i s i n g in a l l s o m e 132,038 a c r e s , b e a d d e d t o t h e e Eeserve;

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KIKITYU PART ICHAPTER X I ]

PROVINCE SETTLEMENT OF THE CLAIMS

e x t e n t o f 2 1 , 0 0 0 a c r e s c o n t i g u o u s t o t h e N a t i v e R e s e r v e be to i t , t h e s a i d t o t a l b e i n g c o m p r i s e d a s u n d e r : Acres Item Item Item Item Compensation for land lost to the tribe In connexion with the admission Dorobo to the Reserve In exchange for Tigoni In exchange for Kithirioni less 42 acres discounted in section 462 above of certain 1,000 1,417 105 21,042 42 ^1,000 ( i i i ) T h a t K i t h i r i o n i c e a s e t o b e a p a r t of t h e r e s e r v e and bee F o r e s t R e s e r v e , s u b j e c t t o the p a r t i c u l a r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s in s e c t i o n s 4 0 0 a n d 402 a b o v e ; ( i v ) t h a t T i g o n i c e a s e to be sut to n a t i v e r i g h t s a n d b e u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d at t h e dispos G o v e r n m e n t s u b j e c t t o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s m a d e in section a b o v e ; ( v ) t h a t a sunn o f ;t'2,000 s h o u l d b e p a i d t o t h e L o c a l Ni C o u n c i l s of K i a n i b u , F o r t H a l l a n d N y e r i , in such proportion G o v e r n m e n t a f t e r i n q u i r y m a y c o n s i d e r j u s t , t o b e used by t for c o m p e n s a t i n g K i k u y u n a t i v e s w h o a r e s t i l l l i v i n g outside: r e s e r v e u n d e r a v a l i d c l a i m of r i g h t u n d e r s e c t i o n 86 of the Ct L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 1 9 1 5 , o r u n d e r s e c t i o n s 30 a n d 3 1 of the C r L a n d s O r d i n a n c e , 1 9 0 2 , o r b y p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t ; ( v i ) T h a t in s i d e r a t i o n of t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n r e c o m m e n d e d a b o v e both in f o r m of l a n d a n d c a s h , all r i g h t s c l a i m e d b y t h e K i k n y u trib b y a n y c l a n , g r o u p , f a n i i t y o r i n d i v i d u a l of t h e t r i b e in res of l a n d o u t s i d e t h e K i k u y u N a t i v e R e s e r v e , a s it shall stand l a r g e d a s a r e s u l t of o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , shall b e extinguni e x c e p t f o r such r i g h t s , if a n y . a s m a y b e s e c u r e d upon title. 464. T o this recommendation, which deals only with 16,520 2,000 Item : General compensation for disturbance

hi it
or

to:

lit? 6

s e t t l e m e n t of e x i s t i n g r i g h t s a n d c l a i m s , w e s h a l l subsequently a n o t h e r , in w h i c h w e propjose a f u r t h e r r e s e r v a t i o n of land to tribe on -economic g r o u n d s . Report merit of Proposals for finding 21,000 Acres for addition to the Reserve. This will is o u r claims. will the be of advantage if we n b e a t a l a t e r stage i n finding r e g a r d i n g the n a f t e r e x a m i n i n g t h e e c o n o m i c r e q u i r e m e n t s of the p e e e x i s t i n g disputes and consider as t o not that it

B u t the above r e c o m m e n d a t i o n

465. W e some W e

suggestion ourselves

where

2 1 , 0 0 0 a c r e s a r e to be f m o them, but it should not h e

B u t w e d o riot w i s h t o p r e c l u d e t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of alternati shall examine g a r d e d as in a n y w a y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e g e n e r a l implenienl

IvIKLVU
I (JlIAl'TEH X I ] .

JMtOVlNCr.
SlMTLBMBNT OV T U B Cl.AI.MS OJ* ItlCIHT

,r R e p o r t i f G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d s e l e c t u r e a s o t h e r t h a n p r e y those w h i c h w e s h a l l p r o p o s e . W e h a v e o n l y t w o q u a l i f i c a s to m a k e : ( i ) w e r e c o m m e n d s t r o n g l y t h a t t h e a r e a s p r o p o s e d the T i g o n i e x c h a n g e s h o u l d b e a c c e p t e d , b e c a u s e a n y a l t e r n a w o u l d ' l e a d t o a r e - o p e n i n g of a d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h h a s a l r e a d y e x c e s s i v e l y p r o l o n g e d ; ( i i ) in s e v e r a l c a s e s the l a n d w h i c h ropose f o r a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e i s a l r e a d y t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e ee in t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f n a t i v e s w h o h a v e r i g h t s . I t e m s 9 , 1 5 , d 18 h e l o w are i n s t a n c e s . I f t h e s e l a n d s a r e n o t a m o n g t h e s e l e c t e d , t h e d i s t u r b a n c e of n a t i v e s w i l l b e t h e g r e a t e r , a n d figure of .-2,000 set d o w n as c o m p e n s a t i o n for d i s t u r b a n c e d need to b e a u g m e n t e d . 4li(). W e s u g g e s t t h a t t h e 2 1 , 0 0 0 a c r e s b e c o m p r i s e d of t h e 8 set d o w n i n t h e t a b l e b e l o w . T h e r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h e s e cular a r e a s w i l l b e g i v e n i n t h e s e c t i o n s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g

T A B L E S H O W I N G P R O P O S A L S F O R F I N D I N G 21,000 A C R E S T O BE A D D E D T O T H E N A T I V E RESERVE. District District Locality Locality Description of Boundary As surveyed Present Status of the land Forest Area in Acres 770 Total for each District

KIKUYU

Remarks

NYERI

Nyeri Hill In the Mount Kenya Forest Reserve : the tongue of for est near Chief Murigo's vil lage lage In the Mount Kenya Forest Reserve between Sagana and Kagati Plain In the Mount Kenya Forest Reserve : the Narkothi hill area In the Aberdares : the Gikira River area In the Aberdares : four areas in the Tusu Division Part of L.0.325/R Saba Saba Limited

See section 463.

See Appendix No. 5 ..

do.

do.

1,125 1,125

do.

do.

do.

500

do. do. do. See Appendix No. 5 ..

do. do. do.

do. do. do.

2,000 500 1,760 1,760 4,895

5
FORT H A L L 6

Alienated Crown land Unalienated Crown Unalienated Crown


lan d land

1,000

Exchange or Purchase recommended.

8
9

L.O. 1957 and L.O. 1958 near Saba Saba Station


I..C). 4961 formerly known as

As surveyed
.....

893
. i...

. i...

......

District

Locality

Description of Boundary

Present Status of the land Brought forward

Area in Acres

Total for each District 9,217

Remarks

o w

. KIAMBU

10

In the Aberdares the Bathi River area . . In the Muguga Forest Area. . In the Ngubi Forest Area . . In the Ngarariga A r e a : a corridor joining Ngarariga to the main reserve In the Dagoretti Forest Area Part of L.O. 185 and 186 the Church of Scotland Mission L.O. 295/2/R being part of the White Sisters' land The Eastern end of L.O. 134/4 being part of Njunu Estate Part of the B.E.A. Wattle Es tate in the Dagoretti area.. L.O. 1322 Dagoretti.. Shortage to be made up as may be convenient

11 12 13

See Appendix No. 5 do. do.

5 5 Forest Reserve do. do. do. do. 1,556 3,900 800


a

14 15

do. do. do.

do. do.

do. do.

200 670 2,000 Volunteered for sur render. * Purchase recom mended. do. do. 9,584 2,199 21,000 do. do.

w S
H ^
2

Alienated Crown land!

16

o
55
H

do.

do.

do.

80

17 18 19 UNALLOCATED 20

do. do. As surveyed

do.

do.

250 78 50

o
o

do. do. Township Reserve.

C5

CO

en
oo

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER XI]

PROVINCE SETTLEMENT OF T H E CLAIMS O(J

JJJeswipfcion Areas.
V e

0 l

"

4 6 7 . A d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e a b o v e a r e a s is g i v e n in suffie " d e t a i l i n A p p e n d i x N o . 5, b u t i n t h e c a s e of a r e a s recoimnet to b e t a k e n f r o m t h e F o r e s t E e s e r v e w e h a v e c o n t e n t e d ourse w i t h a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n a n d h a v e a t t e m p t e d n o p r e c i s e deliri . t i o n of b o u n d a r i e s , s i n c e s c o p e m u s t be a l l o w e d f o r t h e e ece xrf d i s c r e t i o n a t t h e t i m e of d e m a r c a t i n g . T h e m a p at p a g e 154 ait a g e n e r a l i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e p r o p o s a l s b u t , b e c a u s e w e arc not p o s i t i o n to g i v e e x a c t d e t a i l s a n d b e c a u s e t h e s c a l e of t h e map i f s m a l l t o s h o w t h e m in a n y c a s e , i t m u s t b e r e g a r d e d as a d rather than a m a p . B e f o r e f l a m i n g o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the di l i o n s t o b e m a d e b y the s u r r e n d e r o f c e r t a i n a r e a s ol F o E e s e r v e w e a p p r o a c h e d t h e C o n s e r v a t o r of F o r e s t s . . Consists w i t h h i s d u t i e s as C o n s e r v a t o r h e c o u l d n o t , of c o u r s e , recount t h e s u r r e n d e r of a n y a r e a , b u t h e s t a t e d t h a t , if t h e Commis r e g a r d e d i t as a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y in j u s t i c e t o t h e K i k u y n to a r e a s u p t o 2 1 , 0 0 0 a c r e s , h e w o u l d see w h a t c o u l d be done. . 1 e x a m i n i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n h e i n f o r m e d u s t h a t t h e a r e a s show t h e s c h e d u l e a b o v e r e p r e s e n t t h e l i m i t of s a c r i f i c e w h i c h lie s i d e r e d o u g h t t o b e r e q u i r e d f r o m t h e C r o w n f o r e s t s . I n the o f N y e r i H i l l be s t a t e d t h a t t h e s u r r e n d e r o u g h t not to bei t e m p l a t e d u n l e s s i t is m a d e a c o n d i t i o n of its a d d i t i o n to r e s e r v e t h a t it b e m a i n t a i n e d as a n a t i v e r e s e r v e forest r e s i n so f a r a s t h e a r e a n o w c o v e r e d w i t h t i m b e r i s c o n c e r n e d . V t h i s c o n d i t i o n w e a r e i n f i d l a g r e e m e n t , a n d w e r e c o m m e n d act i n g l y . I t is a c o n d i t i o n t o w h i c h t h e N y e r i L o c a l N a t i v e Cot had already agreed. 4 6 9 . I n r e g a r d t o I t e m 1 0 t h e C o n s e r v a t o r i n f o r m e d us t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of s o m e v a l u a b l e f o r e s t w o u l d b e e n t a i l e d , anil i t is o n l y t h e e x t r e m e i m p o r t a n c e of s e t t l i n g t h e T i g o n i que; w h i c h i n d u c e s h i m t o c o n t e m p l a t e t h e s u r r e n d e r as justifiab! 4 7 0 . I n r e g a r d to t h e r e m a i n i n g i t e m s h e i n f o r m s us i g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , h e h a s s e l e c t e d a r e a s w h i c h are scrub-eot r a t h e r t h a n f o r e s t c o v e r e d , b u t t h a t it h a s b e e n imj^ossible tot t o f i n d so g r e a t a n e x t e n t o f l a n d w i t h o u t a v e r y considei sacrifice of v a l u a b l e timber-planting a r e a s . H e considers t!:: w o u l d b e i m p o s s i b l e t o find a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e - f u r t h e r areast o u t a d i s j u - o j i o r t i o n a t e s a c r i f i c e o f t h e o o u n t r y ' s a s s e t s in ft Forests. 4 7 1 . W e a r e m o s t g r a t e f u l t o t h e C o n s e r v a t o r f o r his full f r a n k s t a t e m e n t of t h e p o s i t i o n . W e a g r e e w i t h t h e conelt t h a t t h e i t e m s s h o w n i n t h e s c h e d u l e s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d a; l i m i t of s a c r i f i c e w h i c h t h e f o r e s t s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d to st s a v i n g o n l y t h a t , if i n t h e c o u r s e o f d e m a r c a t i o n further; a r e a s c a n b e f o u n d f o r t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e d e f i c i t of 2,195:

wiuch fcave " determined our choice.


d 0

369
KIKUYU I-CHAPTER XI] PROVINCE SETTLEMENT OF T H E C L A I M S OP R I G H T

I t e m 20. w e should r e c o m m e n d farms. have n o hesitation in

that they should be in had t o the addition of

ed r a t h e r t h a n t h a t r e c o u r s e s h o u l d he ienated 172. W e

recommending

that

the t w o areas to

Item

8:
a n d

lienated p i e c e s of C r o w n l a n d n e a r S a b a - S a b a dded t o the r e s e r v e . heir a l i e n a t i o n They form an awkward

Statiou k n o w n s a l i e n t i n t o the, made : Item 9.

i.O. 1957 a n d 1958 b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o m p e n s a t o r y

ve as at p r e s e n t g a z e t t e d a n d n o a p p l i c a t i o n h a s b e e n as f a r m s .

473. T h e i n c l u s i o n of L . O . 4 9 6 1 , f o r m e r l y P a u l C l a r k e ' s f a r m , art of the compensatory matter addition needs may no be assumed to be a controversial which supporting argument,

facts a r e set out i n s e c t i o n s 434-437 474. The area of

above. to be added f r o m 570 acres those re a so the I t e m 14.

670 a c r e s r e c o m m e n d e d Reserve of comprises and the the

Dagoretti Forest bers of Karen ing one idor t o ch of the mbari

approximately others who of

a r e a t p r e s e n t in t e m p o r a r y p e r m i s s i v e o c c u p a t i o n b y Nyungu (see are for were Coffee connect Scotland Fstate the sections 408-413 a b o v e ) . purpose acres surrendered grazing

evicted The by area,

hundred

acres two Mission the

providing

thousand with

Ndeiya

ing t o c o n s o l i d a t e 475. W e rous offer cial have of

reserve. in section 428 We on above to that the Item 15.

recommended the of Church the of

Scotland

Mission the

surrender of the be

0 acres of L . O . 185 a n d 186 b e a c c e p t e d . attention of administration are te r i g h t s those natives w h o

c o m m e n d to the the area t o

protection

living

ndered or w d i o m a y b e in a n y w a y 470. U n d e r ction 407 Item above. 16 w e We have

affected. the as purchase to of Item iGj ^Q \ ^^^'


) C

recommended no opinion

cres of t h e W h i t e

Sisters' land. pronounce

T h e reason has been stated whether have would at t h e l e a s e On

area c o u l d p r o p e r l y b e h e l d t o b e e x c l u d e d f r o m round t h a t i t w a s i n n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n ed p r e s c r i p t i v e r i g h t s ise t o r e f r a i n ir v a l u e . 177. T h e r e i s a s m a l l p r o j e c t i n g t o n g u e of L . O . into t h e n a t i v e


rr

or that n a t i v e s

on i t , b u t w e

consider that it

from

r a i s i n g t h i s i s s u e a n d t o buy- t h e l a n d

134/4 j u t t i n g the ,
B

Item 17; l?^1 3

reserve ,. ., .

from .

the ,

main ,

block , , .

of

Limuru , , ,

4/4'

,.

. .

Njunu

Estate.

s. T h e h i s t o r y of it is g i v e n u n d e r mbari t p . 308 of t h e e v i d e n c e .

c l a i m N o . 67 s t a n d

I n the circumstances there revealed


;

nsider i t j u s t a n d e x p e d i e n t t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t i n g t o n g u e s h o u l d quired b y p u r c h a s e a n d a d d e d to t h e reserve.

K I K U Y U PART I-CHAPTER XI]

PROVINCE

47S. O u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t 78 a c r e s of t h e British 1 ; I t e m 18; British East A f r i c a W a t t l e E s t a t e l a n d f r o m D a g o r e t t i s h o u l d be b o u g h t Africa W a t t l e o n t h e s t a t e m e n t a n d p l a n in t h e p r e c i s ( E v i d e n c e , ppd3-! Estate. B u t , if G o v e r n m e n t d o e s n o t t h i n k it n e c e s s a r y to b u y the 78 ac t h e n w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t o n l y t h e 2 0 a c r e s b e b o u g h t which s u b j e c t to n a t i v e c l a i m s , a n d t h a t the b a l a n c e of 58 acres p r o v i d e d in w h a t e v e r w a y G o v e r n m e n t m a y p r e f e r . [tern 19; L.O. 1322, Oagoretti Township Reserve. T h e balance: 2.199 Acres. 4 7 9 . O u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t L . O . 1322 be included m c o m p e n s a t o r y l a n d t o b e a d d e d t o t h e r e s e r v e a n d t h e reason it h a v e b e e n g i v e n i n s e c t i o n s 4 4 4 and 4 4 5 a b o v e . 4 8 0 . T h e n i n e t e e n i t e m s w h i c h w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d to a d d e d c o m p r i s e 1 8 , 8 0 1 a c r e s . T h e a r e a s s e l e c t e d a r e converge: c l o s e t o p o p u l o u s p a r t s of t h e K i k u y u N a t i v e R e s e r v e , antl t h e r e f o r e a v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e set-off a g a i n s t t h e l a n d lost. Tl r e m a i n s a b a l a n c e of 2 , 1 9 9 a c r e s t o be f o u n d . I t w o u l d b e clearly- d e s i r a b l e , if it is p r a c t i c a b l e , t h a t in m i n g u p t h i s b a l a n c e l a n d s h o u l d b e s e l e c t e d w h i c h is equally c veniently situated. B u t t h e r e is a l i m i t to t h e a m o u n t of s i land a v a i l a b l e . W e s h a l l p r e s e n t l y r e c o m m e n d , w h e n w e a r e d e a l i n g with e c o n o m i c a s p e c t of t h e K i k u y u l a n d p r o b l e m , t h a t a v e r y extern a d d i t i o n b e m a d e t o t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e i n a n o t h e r , a n d somew r e m o t e r q u a r t e r , s i n c e n o b l o c k of l a n d of sufficient size is a b l e i n i m m e d i a t e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e i n h a b i t e d p a r t s of the pres r e s e r v e . I n all t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s w e r e c o m m e n d preferably (a) :

T h a t , i f t h e l a n d c a n b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e w i t h o u t difficul t h e b a l a n c e o f 2 , 1 9 9 a c r e s be s e l e c t e d a l o n g s i d e the m r e s e r v e i n t h e s a m e w a y as t h e o t h e r b l o c k s recommended b e a d d e d o n g r o u n d s of r i g h t , a n d t h a t this issue h s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e e c o n o m i c i s s u e a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n which shall r e c o m m e n d f o r t h a t c a u s e ; b u t , if t h a t is i m p r a c t i c a b l e , t h e n (b) :

T h a t t h e b a l a n c e of 2,199 a c r e s b e m e r g e d in the v much larger extension which we are recommending e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s , a n d t h a t n o s e p a r a t e a c c o u n t be taken i t . I n t h a t e v e n t w e d o n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e K i k u y u wo h a v e b e e n in a n y w a y u n g e n e r o u s l y t r e a t e d . Certain condi 4 8 1 . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p a r t of o u r K e p o r t w e h a v e been gun tions by which b y t h e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h w e e n u n c i a t e d in t h e first chapter, the above m a d e it q u i t e c l e a r t h e r e h o w w e r e g a r d the m a t t e r . The G Recommenda held to be ^ ^ a c t u a t e d b y t h e d e s i r e t o d e v e l o p the four,
U e r n i r i e r i t D t n e

qualified.

to

the

best

advantage,

embarked

on

plan

of

a l i e n a t i n g wi

K I K U Y U j CHAPTER X I ]

PROVINCE SETTLEMENT OF THE C L A I M S OF R I G H T

to b e d e v e l o p e d a s f a r m s , a n d t o o k w h a t i t c o n s i d e r e d t o b e nate steps to p r o t e c t t h e n a t i v e s f r o m l o s s or u n d u e d i s t u r b I t w a s i n e v i t a b l e in so y o u n g a c o u n t r y t h a t t h e i n f o r m a on w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t a c t e d s h o u l d be i m p e r f e c t , a n d t h e r e factors i n t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h w e r e not a p p r e c i a t e d . Not w a s the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n w a s s u p d but it h a d a c o n c e p t i o n of l a n d - t e n u r e in w h i c h g r o u p Is had a r e c o g n i z e d e x i s t e n c e , a n d the d i s p o s i t i o n s m a d e by r n m e n t c a u s e d in c o n s e q u e n c e a g r e a t e r d i s t u r b a n c e t h a n w a s erly c o v e r e d b y t h e c o m p e n s a t i o n w h i c h w a s p a i d . Little iaint w a s m a d e a t t h e t i m e , a n d v e r y l i t t l e a c t u a l l o s s w a s d to the g e n e r a t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f f e c t e d . But not only has British A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a l l e v i a t e d the f o r c e s w h i c h u s e d t o the g r o w t h o f p o p u l a t i o n in c h e c k , b u t the c r e a t i o n of a and m a r k e t a t N a i r o b i a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n o f a b l o c k of E u r o s e t t l e m e n t r o u n d i t h a v e a t t r a c t e d l a r g e n u m b e r s of n a t i v e s areas f u r t h e r n o r t h a n d c r e a t e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e m e a s u r e of congestion. 1482. O n ed n about 483. W e balance land. therefore concluded that, whilst w e could not of equivalent l a n d , they are in in t h e s i t u a t i o n equity regard to the hope of but economic it is advantage the Kikuyu have have

considerably,

undeniable

that

difficulties

viknyu as f u l l y e n t i t l e d a s of r i g h t t o f u l l r e d r e s s i n t h e s h a p e n addition entitled ve s y m p a t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n ulties i n h e r e n t a n d w e d e c i d e d , b e c a u s e of described a b o v e , in the

t t i r g an e n d t o a l l p a s t r a n c o u r s , to r e c o m m e n d a n e necessary l a n d should p r o v e "n sufficient for the detail in and Chapters Kithirioni t o be II available.

addition

nd e q u a l i n v a l u e t o t h a t w h i c h i n our o p i n i o n t h e y h a d l o s t , 484. A f t e r a f u l l a n d c a r e f u l e x a m i n a t i o n to V which has been of this R e p o r t , And we set we


r

ed t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d a c r e a g e w a s 21,000 a c r e s , i n c l u d i n g Tigoni exchanges.

the have with

sted c e r t a i n a r e a s w h e r e t h e r e q u i r e d l a n d c a n b e s t be f o u n d . 85. I t i s of t h e u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t ukuyu arces should should be definite again those for for and be of final and that, If when is in of e m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n c a r r i e d o u t , t h e m a t t e r of t h e i r never and reopened. many peaceful years will finally finality who ed, our l a b o u r s absolutely officers have these past not been vain, the our Unless

tig at t h e p r o b l e m essential

many the

have been put t o r e s t .

administration

yu t h a t t h e s e g r i e v a n c e s s h o u l d b e re sure t h a t this w i l l hires t o this Report.

be d o n e , w e shall r e g r e t h a v i n g set

KrKTJYTJ
PART ICHAPTER XI j

PROVINCE
SETTLEMENT OF THE CLAIMS o r l(
r

4 8 6 . W e w o u l d p o i n t o u t t h a t m e r e e n l a r g e m e n t and g a z e t t i n g of the boundaries w i l l n o t secure finality. T h e v iy g a z e t t e d i n 1 9 2 6 , b u t t h a t d i d n o t p r e v e n t t h e K i k u y u l a y i n g cla t o land outside t h e m , nor the A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l from holdin"t p o s s i b l y t h e c l a i m s m i g h t p r o v e t o b e g o o d . I n our v i e w tiott s h o r t of a n O r d e r i n C o u n c i l c a n s e c u r e finality. W h a t is wan is t h a t , in r e t u r n f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f l a n d t o t h e r e s e r v e equival t o t h e l a n d l o s t , a l l r i g h t s b y K i k u y u t o l a n d o u t s i d e t h e rese e x c e p t r i g h t s h e l d on t i t l e or r i g h t s h e l d u n d e r c u s t o m a r y tenure some other r e s e r v e , should be e x t i n g u i s h e d .

371

CHAPTER
0N0M1C NEEDS. OP 87 In A

XII.
STATEMENT

PEELIMINAEY ISSUES.

THE

the h i s t o r y of K i k u y u c l a i m s of r i g h t

w h i c h h a s just

The

Area

, . a j i i j j under Review c o m p l e t e d t h e q u e s t i o n of e c o n o m i c n e e d w a s n o t i n c l u d e d . hat w e f a i l e d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t e c o n o m i c n e e d m a y of i t s e l f Objects of the I t u t e a c l a i m of e q u a l v a l i d i t y t o a r i g h t b a s e d o n h i s t o r i c a l Survey, l i d s , e s p e c i a l l y i n a c o u n t r y w h e r e G o v e r n m e n t is e n j o i n e d "rder in Council to h a v e due r e g a r d to n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s . But e e m e d it best not to c o m p l i c a t e t h e i s s u e s , a n d w e h a v e fore h e l d o v e r t h a t a s p e c t of t h e m a t t e r f o r s e p a r a t e c o n ation, t o w h i c h w e shall n o w p r o c e e d .
a n d t h e

88. T h e o b j e c t dons : (1) T o what

is t o p r o v i d e extent

the a n s w e r s

to

three

principal of

the needs of

the tribe in respect

and c a n b e . m e t b y i n t e r n a l a d j u s t m e n t . (2) W h e t h e r f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n s of. t h e t r i b a l b o u n d a r i e s over a n d a b o v e t h e e x t e n s i o n s a l r e a d y r e c o m m e n d e d a r e l i k e l y to be r e q u i r e d w i t h i n t h e p e r i o d w h i c h w e o u g h t t o c o n t e m plate. (3) W h e t h e r a r r a n g e m e n t s e x t e r n a l to t h e r e s e r v e a r e -equired in o r d e r t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s o r g r o u p s m a y h a v e f a c i l i ies to use l a n d o u t s i d e t h e t r i b a l b o u n d a r i e s . 89. W h i l e all t h e s e q u e s t i o n s c l e a r l y f a l l w i t h i n t h e s c o p e of erms o f r e f e r e n c e , i n r e s p e c t to fix the l i m i t s of are der t h a t we expected of the to first all of the them details it is do of not not land of the ground be c o v e r e d . We

to g o i n t o

e and e c o n o m i c s , but t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of t h e h we ought Report : to c o v e r as b e i n g v i t a l to the g e n e r a l '

matter

objects

(ft) W e c a n n o t r e a c h a n y u s e f u l c o n c l u s i o n a s to t h e n e e d s of t h e p e o p l e i n r e s p e c t of l a n d , u n l e s s w e k n o w h o w t h e y use t h e l a n d w h i c h is a l r e a d y t h e i r s , a n d w h e t h e r , in f a c t , a s h o r t a g e of l a n d e x i s t s o r is t h r e a t e n e d . (6) A n a p p a r e n t s h o r t a g e of l a n d m a y o f t e n b e d u e t o a l a c k of skill in t h e use o f l a n d , a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s e t t i n g t h i s r i g h t h a v e t o b e e x p l o r e d b e f o r e i t is n e c e s s a r y to t u r n t h e e y e s o u t w a r d a n d l o o k f o r m o r e l a n d . I n so f a r a s w e t h i n k t h a t t h e l a n d is n o t b e i n g u s e d t o t h e best a d v a n t a g e w e o u g h t t o s a y s o .

K I K U Y U PART I C H A P T E R XII]

PROVINCE TEE ECONOMIC As

( c ) T h e l a c k of s k i l l m a y be d u e t o s o m e t h i n g m o r e tha lack of a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d p a s t o r a l a t t a i n m e n t . I t m a v due t o s o m e u n s u i t a b i l i t y in t h e l a n d s y s t e m wh p r e v e n t s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n to t h e 1 a d v a n t a g e . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r , in b r o a d a s p e c t s , t h e m e t h o d of t e n u r e , a duty w h i c h specifically e n j o i n e d o n us u n d e r t h e first term reference. 490. " W e s h a l l c o n t e n t o u r s e l v e s w i t h s u c h a s u m m a r y of e v i d e n c e as w i l l m a k e c l e a r t h e r e a s o n s f o r our recommendatio b u t y e s h a l l n o t c o m m i t o u r s e l v e s t o a n y c o m p r e h e n s i v e sur of the economic position. S u c h a c o u r s e w o u l d i n v o l v e us in a c c e p t a n c e or r e j e c t i o n of e s t i m a t e d figures w h i c h , a s t h e w i t n e j w h o g a v e t h e m a r e t h e first t o a d m i t , h a v e n o t b e e n s o f a s c e r t a i n e d as to be free f r o m c h a l l e n g e . 491. A t t h e s a m e t i m e w e d r a w a t t e n t i o n t o the m a s s r e l e v a n t e v i d e n c e w h i c h is p r i n t e d a l o n g w i t h t h i s R e p o r t , e x p r e s s t h e b e l i e f t h a t G o v e r n m e n t w i l l find i n it some v v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l , w h i c h s h o u l d b e of g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e t o it devising a policy and p r o g r a m m e for future advancement.

372

CHAPTER
SUMMARY OF T H E

XIII.
POSITION IN THE

ECONOMIC

KIKUYU

RESERVES. position Summary Position, of


111

492. T h e f o l l o w i n g s u m m a r y of t h e p r e s e n t e c o n o m i c is to us to be j u s t i f i e d (1) Skill.Judged ood f a r m e r , es. on the evidence : by European

standards, t h e K i k u y u is n o t

but h e is w e l l a b o v e t h e a v e r a g e of E a s t A f r i c a n

Economic '

H e h a s b e g u n t o r e s p o n d t o t h e t u i t i o n of t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l to have increased by twenty per cent in the last six

cers, a n d i n K i a m b u D i s t r i c t t h e y i e l d of m a i z e t o t h e a c r e is ted rs. (2) Monetary Resources.The tribe has enough m o n e y to according to the old standards, but not e n o u g h to enable it attain t o t h e n e w s t a n d a r d s b y w h i c h a l o n e a h e a l t h y p e o p l e , fu! to t h e C o l o n y as a w h o l e , c a n be m a i n t a i n e d . T h i s l a c k o f lev is m a i n l y t o b e a s c r i b e d t o a l a c k of a g r i c u l t u r a l s k i l l . B u t re a r e c e r t a i n a r e a s w h e r e t h e r e is a l o c a l c o n g e s t i o n and a sequent l a c k of l a n d . (3) Food Sup-ply.The v e g e t a b l e diet w h i c h the household ives f r o m i t s g a r d e n s m a y be r e g a r d e d a s s a t i s f a c t o r y , and is tainly v\ ell a h e a d of m o s t o t h e r t r i b e s a n d a g r e a t i m p r o v e m e n t a n y t h i n g t h e K i k u y u k n e w b e f o r e t h e c o m i n g of t h e w h i t e m a n . T h e l o c a l m e a t s u p p l y is p r o b a b l y i n a d e q u a t e . T h e p h y s i q u e the K i k u y u a n d t h e M a s a i h a v e b e e n c o m p a r e d i n a r e p o r t b y Gilks and D r . O r r , e n t i t l e d " S t u d i e s in N u t r i t i o n . The sique a n d H e a l t h of T w o A f r i c a n T r i b e s " ( S p e c i a l R e p o r t ies 1 5 5 , 1 9 3 1 ) . I n t h i s r e p o r t i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e K i k u y u a r e cient i n a n i m a l p r o t e i n . I f t h e K i k u y u w e r e s k i l l e d in s t a l l - f e e d i n g t h e y c o u l d k e e p e c a t t l e , a n d if t h e y h a d m o r e c a s h a n d m o r e m a r k e t s t h e y Id b u y m o r e m e a t . A n d i f t h e y c o u l d g e t o v e r t h e i r p r e j u d i c e inst g o a t s ' m i l k t h e y w o u l d h a v e m o r e m i l k . B u t t h i n g s b e i n g they a r e , t h e r e i s a d e f i c i e n c y i n t h e s e t h i n g s i n s p i t e of t h e s t o c k i n g of t h e r e s e r v e . T h i s i s pro (4) Stock tanto an indication t h a t t h e K i k u y u are l i v i n g at is perhaps a point of doubt w h e t h e r there is c e r t a i n l y Relief very could full stocking, by imprudent must overstocked. be found great a d e n s i t y f o r t h e i r p r e s e n t d e g r e e o f s k i l l a n d k n o w l e d g e . Conditions.It but re is. o v e r s t o c k i n g ,

le a r e a s a r e c e r t a i n l y ' this s t a g e t o a t t e m p t i reserve of g r o w n

ing off a p o r t i o n of t h e m a l e s t o c k , b u t i t w o u l d b e too drastic a r e d u c t i o n , cattle to augment the meat

since there supply.

KIICUYU PART ICHAPTER XIII]

PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC A S

( o ) Soil Conditions.The d e n s i t y at w h i c h t h e people l i v i n g h a s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t p r e v e n t e d t h e p r a c t i c e of shifting ei v a t i o n a n d f r e q u e n t f a l l o w i n g of l a r g e s t r e t c h e s of laud. \y t h i s w i l l u l t i m a t e l y lead t o a b e t t e r a n d m o r e e c o n o m i c us l a n d , t h e r e is g r a v e r i s k t h a t , u n t i l n a t i v e s h a v e a d a p t e d th s e l v e s to t h e n e w c o n d i t i o n s a n d r e a l i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y of A p l o u g h i n g a n d m a n u r i n g , t h e r e w i l l b e c o n s i d e r a b l e deteriora of t h e s o i l t h r o u g h e x h a u s t i o n , a n d d e f i n i t e s i g n s of this 1 already appeared. , (G) Social Conditions.The t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e Kit; has never been strong. T h e m a i n c l a n s a r e s c a t t e r e d in si units. E v e n t h e mbari o r f a m i l y g r o u p s a r e o f t e n sub-divit T h e p r o c e s s of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n is m o s t a d v a n c e d i n the Kian D i s t r i c t , w d i e r e it is g e n e r a l l y a l l o w e d b y c u s t o m t h a t a man r s e p a r a t e f r o m h i s c o u s i n s a n d d i v i d e t h e githaka, a n d instance p a r t i t i o n , e v e n b e t w e e n b r o t h e r s , a r e b e g i n n i n g t o a p p e a r . \Y t h e s e m o v e m e n t s in t h e d i r e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l i s m a r e perhan b e w e l c o m e d as a s i g n of p r o g r e s s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , s o m e embarr m e n t h a s b e e n c a u s e d by t h e r a p i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e old fast t i o n s a r e b r e a k i n g d o w n a n d g i v i n g p l a c e to a c i v i l i z a t i o n impede understood by the people. ( 7 ) Conclusion.Congestion d o e s n o t e x i s t as a g e n e r a l coi t i o n , b u t o n l y i n c e r t a i n a r e a s a n d in c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r s : (a) T h e r e a r e f a i r l y w i d e a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e population l i v i n g b e y o n d t h e o p t i m u m d e n s i t y i n t h e sense thai it h a d m o r e r o o m , t h e c u l t i v a t i o n p e r f a m i l y would g r e a t e r . L o c a l f o c i o f c o n g e s t i o n a l s o o c c u r in locati w h i c h are not c o n g e s t e d o v e r all.

( 6 ) T h e p e o p l e in s e v e r a l p a r t s a r e m o r e t h i c k on the 1 t h a n is s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r p r e s e n t d e g r e e of skill m e t h o d s of c o m b a t i n g soil e r o s i o n a n d exhaustion. ( c ) T h e p r e s e n t d e g r e e of skill d o e s n o t p e r m i t of the pec k e e p i n g sufficient s t o c k f o r its r e q u i r e m e n t s with o v e r s t o c k i n g a n d d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e l a n d . (d) S u c h c o n g e s t i o n a s e x i s t s is d u e r a t h e r to maidistribut of p o p u l a t i o n a n d l a c k of s k i l l t h a n t o l a c k of land, an i n c r e a s e of skill m a y b e e x p e c t e d for s o m e year; t o r e s u l t in a r a i s i n g of t h e s t a n d a r d of l i f e , even thoti t h e p o p u l a t i o n is i n c r e a s i n g .

Future Prospects.

a l K

4 9 3 . W e h a v e t o c o n s i d e r t h e p r o s p e c t i v e n e e d s of the natii p 2 m o t a v o i d m a k i n g s o m e e s t i m a t e of f u t u r e conditions. a S t a t i s t i c a l s e n s e o u r k n o w l e d g e e v e n of t h e p r e s e n t is very: p e r f e c t , a l t h o u g h t h e w e a l t h of m a t e r i a l i n f o r m a t i o n which! b e e n c o l l e c t e d i s r e m a r k a b l e f o r so y o u n g a c o u n t r y . W h i l e I f i g u r e s h a v e b e e n useful in p r o v i d i n g a f o c a l p o i n t to which)


c a

.K I K U Y U I-CHAVTBB X I I I ]

PROVINCE TUB ECONOMIC ASPECT

t i o n of w i t n e s s e s c o u l d b e d i r e c t e d , w e h a v e b e e n g u i d e d r b y t h e n a t u r e of o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d u p o n t h e m , e s p e c i a l l y dmmistrative and a g r i c u l t u r a l officers of experience, than by c o g e n c v in t h e f i g u r e s themselves.

494. T h e survey p r e p a r e d ' b y M r . K a z a n , D i s t r i c t C o m m i s e r , w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of M r . D e c i d e a n d M r . D a t e s , A g r i ral Officers, "The ion ears to of concludes of the a the land skill with next and will a be in the following years expression or so to may make the of be the in will from con is ion : future thirty i m a g i n e d a s a r a c e b e t w e e n t h e t e n d e n c y of a g r o w i n g p o p u l a congest the growing in the skill lead nine l a n d support period larger population. During earlier

and' result years

reater individual prosperity. ecline a n d low it s e e m s l i k e l y (unless remedial

B u t t h e r a t e of b e t t e r m e n t that about t w e n t y are taken) approaching

measures

?estion w i l l d e p r e s s t h e s t a n d a r d of l i f e as m u c h a s g r o w t h in kill w i l l r a i s e i t . h e best w e "Exports ut must A f t e r t h a t a Jong f l a t t o p t o t h e g r a p h There reserve if i s at l e a s t a p o s s i b i l i t y should a go on increasing can e x p e c t . from the that for

depression m a y t a k e p l a c e b e f o r e e q u i l i b r i u m is e s t a b l i s h e d . everal y e a r s after t h e s t a n d a r d of life h a s ceased t o i m p r o v e , ultimately decline general congestion takes and lace." 95. T h e s u r v e y w a s s e n t t o t h e D i r e c t o r of A g r i c u l t u r e ork of criticising it was entrusted to Mr. Blunt, Acting

ty D i r e c t o r , w h o s e r e p l y , w h i c h i s filed i n e v i d e n c e , i n d i c a t e s 1 agreement w i t h this opinion. 1 9G. M r . V i d a l , t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r o f P o r t Hall, ds t h e figures as s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e t o j u s t i f y c o n c l u s i o n s based u p o n t h e m , w h i l e M r . P e a s e , D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r eri, states : "My avoured ink general areas of than conclusion the is that congestion proper is in the more rather since and I the Kikuyu approaching certain

ore r a p i d l y

is e n v i s a g e d i n t h e m e m o r a n d u m , population reasonably

t h e i n c r e a s e in

crease i n y i e l d of f o o d c r o p s p e r a c r e d i s t i n c t l y 97. W e refill m e m o r a n d a in w h i c h t h e y a r e p r e s e n t e d .

problematic." Nobody pre

cannot but attach great w e i g h t to these opinions and

t h a t the. f a c t o r s i n t h e a c c o u n t a r e p r e c i s e l y p o n d e r a b l e or t h a t factors w i l l not a p p e a r , b u t w e c a n n o t i g n o r e w h a t istrative and agricultural officers of the Kikuyu appears districts, a w e l l - g r o u n d e d and a p p a r e n t l y u n a n i m o u s opinion by all the

KIKUYUPART ICHAPTER XIII]

PROVINCE
THE ECONOM K

A,

t h a t a s t a t e of g e n e r a l c o n g e s t i o n such a s w i l l r e s u l t in i s i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d of l i f e is t h r e a t e n e d w i t h i n t h i r t y years t h i s i s s o , i t is m o r e i m p e r a t i v e t h a t all p o s s i b l e r e m e d i a l meai should be adopted. 4 9 8 . T h e s u r v e y e x p r e s s l y e x c l u d e d f r o m i t s scope the l e m w h i c h m a y he c r e a t e d b y t h e r e t u r n of s q u a t t e r s front E u r o p e a n a r e a t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e i r c a t t l e . I t is represented t h e r e a r e a b o u t 110,000 K i k u y u n o w r e s i d e n t o u t s i d e t h e rese m o s t of w d i o m a r e s q u a t t e r s . A l t h o u g h t h i s figure has not s u b s t a n t i a t e d , w e c a n t a k e it a s a s u f f i c i e n t g e n e r a l indie (see n o t e a t t h e e n d of t h i s c h a p t e r ) . I t is s c a r c e l y to be sup] t h a t t h e E u r o p e a n a r e a w i l l a l w a y s a f f o r d a c c o m m o d a t i o n foi t h e s q u a t t e r s a n d t h e i r n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e or f o r t h e i r stock. \\ n o b o d y can foretell h o w m a n y e x t r a labourers expansion o c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y m a y be a b l e t o e m p l o y , t h e r e is at leas; i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e n u m b e r s h a v e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s been in e of r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d t h e r e h a s b e e n a s e t of t h e t i d e b a c k tov t h e r e s e r v e s . T h i s t e n d e n c y , a l t h o u g h it m a y b e o n l y a tempo! p h e n o m e n o n d u e to t h e c u r r e n t d e p r e s s i o n , h a s caused a pistil a p p r e h e n s i o n , a n d it is p o s s i b l e t h a t it m a y b e c o m e a pr-oblei t h e first m a g n i t u d e h o w a n d w h e r e a c c o m m o d a t i o n is t o f o r s q u a t t e r s w h o a r e s u r p l u s t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s of the Enroj H i g h l a n d s . E v e n a l a r g e e x p a n s i o n of i n d u s t r y w o u l d n o t sor s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m as g i v e it a n o t h e r c o m p l e x i o n , f o r while l a b o u r e r s w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d , t h e e n h a n c e d v a l u e of the w o u l d r e n d e r i t u n e c o n o m i c f o r e m p l o y e r s t o a l l o w l a r g e area, s q u a t t e r c a t t l e , and i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t l a b o u r e r s on contract yr b e g i n to r e p l a c e the squatters. N o t e on the number of Kikuyu resident out side the Reserve.

4 9 9 . O f f i c i a l figures g i v e n i n t h e A n n u a l K e p o r t of t h e DejJ m e r i t o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r 1932 s h o w 1 1 0 , 5 7 0 as t h e total " s q u a t t e r s " , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s , e m p l o y e d in agricultural p a s t o r a l h o l d i n g s i n t h e s e t t l e d a r e a , b u t d o n o t distinguish! t w e e n tribes. I t is w e l l k n o w n t h a t t h e K i k u y u preponder T h e r e is a l s o an official e s t i m a t e of l a b o u r e r s o t h e r t h a n squa T h i s w a s p r e p a r e d b y t h e N a t i v e R e g i s t r a t i o n Department s h o w s 4 0 , 6 8 5 K i k u y u n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s o u t s i d e t h e reserv N o v e m b e r , 1930, w h o a r e n o t c o u n t e d as s q u a t t e r s . The t a k e n i n t h e m e m o r a n d u m , w e b e l i e v e r i g h t l y , is t h a t man t h e m h a v e t h e i r f a m i l i e s w i t h t h e m . T h e r e a r e also considet n u m b e r s o f K i k u y u l i v i n g in t h e M a s a i R e s e r v e and at the C o W e s e e n o r e a s o n t o d o u b t t h e g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y of t h e state: t h a t t h e n u m b e r o f K i k u y u n o w r e s i d e n t o u t s i d e t h e reserve t h e g e r e r a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d of 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 , a n d s u p p o r t i n g calcuh a r e g i v e n in t h e m e m o r a n d u m , w h i c h h a s h e e n filed with o r i g i n a l r e c o r d of t h e e v i d e n c e .
T

374
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IS0DSS1ON OP MEANS BE BY

XIV.
W H I C H OE THE A BETTER USE

COULD

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LAND. Possibilities evWVDfetribu tiori o f ; ;'' Popuiati6A.-


J

500. I f t h e P r o v i n c e is c o n s i d e r e d as a w h o l e , i n c l u d i n g the bu and M e m D i s t r i c t s , t h e l a n d a p p e a r s t o b e s u f f i c i e n t f o r the le in t h e n e a r f u t u r e , a n d i t is i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r ore e v e n d i s t r i b u t i o n is p r a c t i c a b l e as a - m e a n s o f s o l v i n g t h e lem. E v e n in K i k u y u p r o p e r t h e o c c u r r e n c e of l o c a l c o n g e s would be r e l i e v e d i f m o r e use w e r e m a d e o f - t h e s p a r s e l y bited l a n d a l o n g t h e w e s t e r n b o r d e r a n d i n t h e M w e a a r e a , the d e s i r e d m o v e m e n t is a w a y f r o m N a i r o b i a n d t h e f a r m ers and e x a c t l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e p r e s e n t t e n d e n c y a n d the ction of e c o n o m i c p u l l . A n e a r l y c h a n g e of d i r e c t i o n is not able, and e v e n a n a d d i t i o n o f l a n d to t h e r e s e r v e : - w o u l d o n l y gate the s i t u a t i o n t o s o m e e x t e n t . T h e r e seems to be every pect t h a t , as a p e r m a n e n t c o n d i t i o n , t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n i n parts of t h e r e s e r v e w h i c h a r e n e a r e r t o N a i r o b i w i l l b e l i v i n g . degree of density w h i c h w i l l put a severe ' s t r a i n on the chare of n a t i v e s o c i e t y i n c l u d i n g t h e githaka system."" 501. W e inistrative need not concern ourselves with examining may partially the the al case

and a g r i c u l t u r a l

measures which But

te the p o s i t i o n , e x c e p t t o s a y t h a t s o m e v a l u a b l e been m a d e i n e v i d e n c e . e fall m o r e d i r e c t l y w i t h i n

suggestions

t h e r e are aspects of

h m a y c a l l for m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e s y s t e m o f l a n d t e n u r e , and our. p r o v i n c e . 502. W e h a v e b e e n a s k e d t o say w h e t h e r t h e s y s t e m of l a n d e for n a t i v e s s h o u l d b e o n t r i b a l o r i n d i v i d u a l lines-, a n d w e lso asked t o c o m m e n t u p o n t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e L a n d s T r u s t ance. A p o i n t w h i c h c a n n o t f a i l to i m p r e s s i t s e l f e v e n on ost casual i n q u i r e r is t h a t , i n t h e c o n d i t i o n s of d e n s i t y w h i c h hreatened, it i s a b s o l u t e l y i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e l a n d s h o u l d be to t h e b e s t a d v a n t a g e , a n d t h a t t h i s is n o t o n l y a p r o b l e m "ricultural u t i l i z a t i o n , b u t i s a l s o , a n d p e r h a p s e q u a l l y , a em of l a n d h o l d i n g . T h e r e m u s t b e n o d o u b t as t o w h o i s t h e nsible a u t h o r i t y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h i t , a n d i t is c l e a r t h a t w e of u s e f u l l y c r i t i c i s e t h e w o r k i n g of t h e O r d i n a n c e u n l e s s w e the n a t u r e of t h e s e p r o b l e m s a n d t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h ' t h e nsibility i s b e i n g d i s c h a r g e d . 03. T h e l a n d s y s t e m o f t h e K i k u y u is g e n e r a l l y k n o w n as The Githaka 'Githaka System." I t is f u l l y d e s c r i b e d in t h e r e p o r t on 3 ? * ' ive L a n d T e n u r e i n K i k u y u P r o v i n c e " b y t h e C o m m i t t e e '''' .' inted i n 1 9 2 9 , w h i c h w e a c c e p t i n g e n e r a l , as w e h a v e s t a t e d
s r e m :

IvIKUYTJ FAUT 1CHAPTEII X I V ]

PHOVTNCE THE ECONOMIC

e l s e w h e r e , as an a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t of t h e m a t t e r . I t is n o t . i\, f o r e , n e c e s s a r y to d e s c r i b e i t in d e t a i l , b u t f o r t h e sake o f e r e f e r e n c e , w e g i v e in A j m e n d i x N o . G a n u m b e r of extracts ft t h e r e p o r t , a r r a n g e d i n s u c h a w a y as t o g i v e a c o n c i s e acco; of t h e s y s t e m a n d e s p e c i a l l y of t h o s e a s p e c t s of it to w i n c h J s h a l l h a v e o c c a s i o n to a l l u d e . Recognition Sj-steiu.

the Githaka

of

5 0 4 . T h e e f f e c t of t h a t r e p o r t aud of t h e e v i d e n c e b e f o r e I is t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e githaka s y s t e m is e x t r e m e l y epliemeJ T h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e w h a t e v e r t o s h o w t h a t e v e n t h e githaka, w h i c h m e a n s b u s h , h a d a c q u i r e d a n y t e c h n i c a l s i g r i i f i c a j w h e n the P r o t e c t o r a t e w a s declared. I f the system h a s c o r r e c t l y d e f i n e d a s " t h e m e t h o d s of c l a n a n d p a t r i a r c h a l conrj e x p r e s s i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l a n d " , it does n o t ? e j to h a v e been v e r y r e c o g n i z a b l y established as a method o f h o l d i n g in an a g r a r i a n s e n s e e v e n w h e n s o m e of t h e witnesses\i h a v e a p p e a r e d b e f o r e us first c a m e t o t h i s c o u n t r y . T h e e x t e n t i t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n a p p e a r s t o h a v e b e e n r a t h e r i n t h e nature ol p o l i t i c a l s u z e r a i n t y o v e r r i d g e s . A n d y e t , a b a r e f o r t y years aft w a r d s , w e find t h a t , at l e a s t in so f a r a s t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t c o n c e r n e d , it is a l r e a d y i n i t s d e c a y . F o r t h e methods wh: h a v e c o m e i n t o use in t h a t d i s t r i c t a r e a l r e a d y a l o n g n r e m o v e d f r o m t h o s e of c l a n a n d p a t r i a r c h a l c o n t r o l . They m a r k an a d v a n c e , but t h e y are c e r t a i n l y a departure. 5 0 5 . W h a t t h e n i s m e a n t b y r e c o g n i z i n g t h e githaka systeJ D o e s i t m e a n t h a t t h e a u t h e n t i c s y s t e m m u s t b e ascertained J f o l l o w e d , a n d t h a t n o n e w d e p a r t u r e s or t r a n s i t i o n to a n o t h e r f c l a r e t o b e a l l o w e d ? T h i s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t w h a t is m e a n t . I t w c l p e r p e t u a t e a s y s t e m w h i c h is i n m a n y w a y s u n s u i t e d t o m o d i c o n d i t i o n s , a n d e r e c t a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t f u t u r e p r o g r e s s . Wei s a t i s f i e d f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e a n d m e m o r a n d a b e f o r e us t h a t t o p i n i o n o f all a d m i n i s t r a t i v e officers c o n c e r n e d is unanimous! t h e p o i n t of p r i n c i p l e . T h e p r i n c i p l e is t h a t i t is better t o t h e n a t i v e c u s t o m s as t h e y s t a n d a n d b u i l d f r o m t h e m a s a t h a n t o r e l y o n s o m e n o v e l but i m p o r t e d p a t t e r n w h i c h w o u l d I be u r d e r s t o c d . B u t t h e n e e d f o r p r o g r e s s i v e m o d e r a t i o n a n d c j t r o l is r e c o g n i z e d .

Certain Difficulties.

506. difficulties the

T h e B e p o r t m e n t i o n s c e r t a i n w a y s in w h i c h t h e in c o n n e x i o n use of townships.

gill

s y s t e m is i l l - a f a p t e d proper

t o m c d e r n d e v e l o p m e n t s , a n d c i t e s esreci: w i t h s m a l l h o l d i n g s : s e c u r i t y f o r terra permanent buildings, social sen pasture;

centres; Smallholdings and Sub division.

and

5 0 7 . I n r e s p e c t of s m a l l h o l d i n g s , i t w o u l d b e a completei u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p o s i t i o n t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e r e is any in t e n ! of s p l i t t i n g u p ithaka in o r d e r t o c r e a t e s m a l l h o l d i n g s . Tt d b e t r u e r t o s a y t h a t t h e r e v e r s e is t h e c a s e , a n d t h e probteij

K I K U Y U IOIIAPTKU XIV]

PROVINCE TUB ECONOMIC ASPECT

to p r e v e n t ithaka f r o m b e c o m i n g d i s i n t e g r a t e d , and being fed into s m a l l h o l d i n g s , w h i c h m a y a g a i n b e c o m e s u b - d i v i d e d they a r e u n e c o n o m i c . T h e d a n g e r is n o t so g r e a t in t h e - districts as i t is in K i a m b u , s i n c e i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t t h e ai r e m a i n i n t a c t a n d s o m e p o w e r o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n r e m a i n s the muramati. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d i v i s i o n of r i g h t - h o l d i n g s heritance b e t w e e n all the sons m a y easily c o n g e s t the h o l d i n g , the p r a c t i c a l s c o p e of t h e muramati t o adjust m a t t e r s is dy small a n d w i l l b e i n c r e a s i n g l y l i m i t e d as s h a r e s a r e m o r e ely denned. 08. B u t t h e w o r s t d i f f i c u l t y appears in K i a m b u , where in a l l o w s of t h e p a r t i t i o n of ithaka b e t w e e n c o u s i n s , a n d t h e r e uiny e x a m p l e s of s t i l l f u r t h e r p a r t i t i o n i n t o s m a l l f a m i l y rigs' of a f e w a c r e s in e x t e n t . W h e n they become over tied, superfluous r i g h t - h o l d e r s m a y a g r e e t o g o e l s e w h e r e , b u t will be l e s s w i l l i n g t o d o so as t h e d i f f i c u l t y of f i n d i n g o t h e r becomes m o r e p r o n o u n c e d . E v e n if t h e y g o , their r i g h t s in and d e s c e n d t o t h e i r h e i r s , t h o u g h a p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n tits t h e i r r e t u r n i n g t o t h e l a n d i f t h e r e i s n o t r o o m f o r t h e m , position is p a r t i c u l a r l y e m b a r r a s s i n g w h e n p e r m a n e n t c r o p s buildings a r e i n q u e s t i o n . T h e R e p o r t o n L a n d T e n u r e in yu, w h i l e r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o b l e m as a d i f f i c u l t y of t h e f u t u r e r than o f t h e p r e s e n t , a d m i t s t h e n e e d f o r r e g u l a t i o n , a n d rks t h a t " t h e p r o b l e m i s n o t r e m o t e , b u t v e r y n e a r " ( C h a p t e r ra. 2 8 ) . 09. I t m i g h t b e t h o u g h t t h a t c o n g e s t i o n of t h i s n a t u r e w o u l d to c o r r e c t i t s e l f under t h e s t r e s s of poverty. But a man is ecessarily p o o r b e c a u s e o f . t h e s m a l l s i z e of h i s h o l d i n g , ay k e e p as m a n y s t o c k . a s h e l i k e s o n t h e c o m m o n 10. A -loyal similar question on receives attention in India in the Commission Agriculture ( p . 130) : o f r i g h t h o l d e r s ' h o l d i n g s is a p t t o the right-holder described and as his of family in be a is become since of the

pasturage. Beport and

(1928)

-ing o p i n i o n "The oo small tandard 11. W h i l e

is stated

sub-division to m a i n t a i n of comfort

arried t o such an e x t e n t t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t h o l d i n g s vaguely

reasonable." sub-division attempts popula to

it is o b v i o u s t h a t

this practice

ated t o a g g r a v a t e t h e p r o b l e m s of l o c a l c o n g e s t i o n , -em it b y r u l e m i g h t r e s u l t in an u n d u e d i s l o c a t i o n of at a t i m e when other agricultural number of right-holdings the

a r e hard

nd t h e r e a r e r o d e r i v a t i v e i n d u s t r i e s in t h e r e s e r v e c a p a b l e o f bing a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e 12. N e v e r t h e l e s s , terms of holders on tenancy population. so s e r i o u s attractive, that, many as more the position can ithaka may may become

be rendered

overcrowded

prefer to go and live

K I K U Y U PART I C H A P T E R XIV]

PROVINCE THE ECONOIH

t e n a n t s on t h e ithaka of o t h e r s , a n d it i s p r o b a b l e t h a t an indir, a p p r o a c h t o t h e s o l u t i o n of t h e p r o b l e m m a y be f o u n d a l o i v tl. lines. 5 1 3 . W e i n v i t e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o r e m a r k s w h i c h stand e v i d e n c e o n t h e s u b j e c t of "dependent impartible holdb ( E v i d e n c e , p p . 1 0 9 6 - 1 0 9 8 ) . T h e s u g g e s t i o n s a r e w o r t h y of sut but i t i s c l e a r t h a t a n y a d v a n c e a l o n g t h o s e l i n e s w o u l d have to very cautiously made. Fragmenta
t l o n

514. A n heir w h o

i n h e r i t s b o t h f r o m h i s f a t h e r and his m

g e l s t w o h o l d i n g s . T h e p r o c e s s is c u m u l a t i v e a n d t h e r e are im h e i r s w h o h a v e s e v e r a l ( p e r h a p s a d o z e n ) f r a g m e n t e d lioldii w h i c h it" is i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e . T h e r e is n o doubt whate but t h a t m a n y of t h e s e f r a g m e n t s a r e v e r y s m a l l and in then g e n e r a t i o n w i l l b e u n e c o n o m i c . W h i l e an e x c u s e m i g h t pert be f o u n d f o r n o t t a c k l i n g t h e p r o b l e m of e x c e s s i v e sub-division t h e g r o u n d t h a t p o s s i b l y a l a n d l e s s c l a s s m i g h t he created pre: t u r e l y , t h e r e is n o s u c h a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e consolidation f r a g m e n t e d h o l d i n g s . T h e r e is n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r a g a i n s t ii est its d i f f i c u l t y . A g a i n , t h e R e p o r t of t h e R o y a l Commission A g r i c u l t u r e i n I n d i a g i v e s u s a f o r e w a r n i n g o f wdiat w e have e x p e c t , unless r e m e d i a l measures are taken : " W h e r e t h e soil is of u n i f o r m q u a l i t y or where d i f f e r e n c e s i n q u a l i t y a r e not g r e a t , f r a g m e n t a t i o n is an o f t h e first m a g n i t u d e . " O n e w i t n e s s s t a t e d : " T h e a g r i c u l t u r a l h o l d i n g s of B o m b a y P r e s i d e n c y h a v e to a l a r g e e x t e n t b e e n reduced t c o n d i t i o n i n w h i c h t h e i r e f f e c t i v e c u l t i v a t i o n is impossible. T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s c o n c l u d e d : " F r a g m e n t a t i o n of b i n g s i s i n m a n y p a r t s of I n d i a o n e of t h e m o s t import f a c t o r s t e n d i n g t o p r e v e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p r o v e m e n t s . Tl s e e m s t o b e c o m m o n a g r e e m e n t t h a t i t s e v i l effects are g r e a t t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s h o u l d n o t r e s t u n t i l a rent h a s b e e n f o u n d . . . T h e i n i t i a t i v e s h o u l d n o t b e left to s p o n t a n e o u s a c t i o n of t h e r i g h t - h o l d e r s . . . Difficulties shi n o t b e a l l o w e d t o b e c o m e a n e x c u s e f o r i n a c t i v i t y . " (pp.' 144.) 5 1 5 . T h e s e f a c t o r s a r e p r e s e n t i n K i k u y u i n a far less a: f o r m , a n d t h e r e is t i m e f o r m o r e d e t a i l e d s t u d y b e f o r e aetio t a k e n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n t o u s b y t h e Agrietilt O f f i c e r s i n c l i n e s u s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n is s e r i o u s , and some regulation will be necessary. T h e s u g g e s t i o n made ti a't o u r i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l Commissioner D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r s a t N y e r i w a s t h a t t h e r e m e d y could p a b l y he f o u n d b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o w e r s of t h e muramati to s o l i d a t e h o l d i n g s o n h i s githaka. S u c h a m e t h o d would h

K I K U Y U T-CHAPTER X I V 1

PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC ASPECT

o r m i t y w i t h t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c y of d e v e l o p i n g t h e n a t i v e s y s t e m meets the difficulty ble is t h a t 516. T h e the Sited o n s e v e r a l ibu D i s t r i c t , s own. 517. W e also find a r e of o p i n i o n t h a t m o r e s e c u r i t y m u s t b e f o u n d f o r compensation, on tenants it must in it necessary ithaka In to recommend of the that right-holders to r e f u s e the trust Tenancy, nts a n d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d n o t b e e v i c t e d w i t h o u t sely o c c u p i e d should n o t be a l l o w e d view t e r m s of to live has a r i g h t to place to a certain extent. holdings sale, to of B u t t h e r o o t of one man are in the fragmented ithaka. of outright help which check applies the in will probably fragmentation often

practice

d i s t r i c t , a l t h o u g h it m a y b e e x p e c t e d t o b r i n g o t h e r

difficulties

out g o o d c a u s e .

eld t h a t e v e r y K i k u y u ed as t o r e f u s e I 518. S a l e s o f

in t h e r e s e r v e

enable s e c u r i t y , and t h e githaka that right land take

s y s t e m m u s t n o t b e so i n t e r anyone. only in the Kiambu District, is ' . Sale,

le the p r a c t i c e i n the N y e r i a n d F o r t H a l l D i s t r i c t s is r e d e e m barter, w h i c h is the n o r m a l n a t i v e custom. Id be asked yu flred back to i m i t a t e the the other. Kiambu to rules degree Chief of individualism T h e draft T h e difference esult of c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d w e see n o r e a s o n w h y e i t h e r a r e a 519. I t w o u l d b e a r e t r o g r a d e s t e p t o t r y t o f o r c e t h e from considerable the late ch they h a v e a t t a i n e d in t h e i r t e n u r e of l a n d . by M r . Maxwell, Native

Commissioner, Provincial provide the an

been s h o w n to us, a n d w e n o t e t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n is to r e g u sales of l a n d b y r e q u i r i n g t h e p r i o r s a n c t i o n of t h e niissioner, uate 520. I t a precaution to us which from been spite appears to us t o that safeguard. is c l e a r the evidence Kiambu ' many years In to to u s e d , as it w e r e , of approaching for some as a sort of local time It is conges after an safe to

rict has for

rsion area i n t o w h i c h t h e F o r t P l a l l D i s t r i c t h a s p o u r e d s o m e s surplus p o p u l a t i o n . rds N a i r o b i a reasonable d, w i l l ibute itself is likely s, w h i c h are a l r e a d y t h r e a t e n e d , t h e f o r c e of t h e e c o n o m i c p u l l continue buy and arrassing d e g r e e of d e n s i t y h a s b e e n r e a c h e d . sell, under assist the fluidity and probable

facility

adequate

help to preserve to better

population

advantage. not already exist in the K i a m b u s h o u l d g o t h e l e n g t h of r e c o m does exist, and w e t h i n k that, be u s e f u l .

521. I f the p r a c t i c e o f s a l e d i d rict it is i m p r o b a b l e t h a t w e ding its i n t r o d u c t i o n . B u t it erly r e g u l a t e d , i t is l i k e l y t o

K I K U Y U PART I - C H A P T E R XIV]

PROVINCE THE EcbNoin

Tribal versus Individual Tenure.

522. A s f a r as w e can see f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e , the i D i s t r i c t is a l r e a d y l a u n c h e d o n a s y s t e m of t e n u r e q u i t e exei in t r i b a l i s m . I t is n o t y e t i n d i v i d u a l t e n u r e , s i n c e t h e n s e e m s t o b e t h a t c o u s i n s s e p a r a t e , but b r o t h e r s d o not, ; g r o u p i s t h e r e f o r e r a t h e r w i d e r than a s i n g l e family:. Ai n o t e y e d , in all r e s p e c t s , p r i v a t e t e n u r e , s i n c e a r i g h t o f commt p a s t u r a g e r e m a i n s . B u t t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e disappearing, i n d i v i d u a l t e n u r e is w e l l in s i g h t . 523. O n t h e issue of t r i b a l versus i n d i v i d u a l t e n u r e we say n o m o r e t h a n : (a) t h a t in a l l t h e K i k u y u D i s t r i c t s t h e tet i s c e r t a i n t y n o t t r i b a l , b u t is a s p e c i e s of g r o u p t e n u r e ; (6) i t h e g r o u p s a r e l i k e l y to b e c o m e s m a l l e r , a n d t h a t in the Kiai D i s t r i c t i n d i v i d u a l t e n u r e is w e l l in s i g h t ; ( c ) t h a t while d e v i s i n g of ah a d e q u a t e m e a n s of c o n t r o l m a y w e l l tax the g e n u i t y of t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , y e t t h e e m e r g e n c e of inch t e n u r e i n t h e K i a m b u D i s t r i c t m u s t b e e x p e c t e d at n o His; d a t e , a n d it is l i k e l y t h a t it w o u l d b e n e i t h e r w i s e n o r practio; t o t r y a n d p r e v e n t it.

Plot? for purposes of T r a d e or Social

524. A m o n g the g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h a r i s e under gUliaka s y s t e m is t h a t t h e r e is n o r e c o g n i z e d m e t h o d o f sen a s i d e a r e a s f o r p u b l i c p u r p o s e s , w h i c h c a n w e l l be copied. I t r u e t h a t t h e r e w e r e a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n of d a n c i n g g r o u n d s and f o r m a r k e t s , b u t t h e y d o n o t afford m help. T h e w h o l e m a t t e r is i n t r i c a t e , a n d w e r e s e r v e it for c u s s ion i n t h e t h i r d p a r t of o u r D e p o r t , in w h i c h w e s h a l l ( w i t h i t c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y in r e l a t i o n t o a l l t h e n a t i v e reset W h i l e t h e difficulties e n c o u n t e r e d in s e c u r i n g l a n d f o r purpose s o c i a l s e r v i c e a r e g r e a t e r in K i k u y u t h a n e l s e w h e r e , they are g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , so d i f f e r e n t in k i n d as t o d e m a n d sepa treatment. B u t t h e e x c e p t i o n a l c o m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h have at a b o u t s c h o o l a n d c h u r c h p l o t s in t h i s P r o v i n c e r e q u i r e spe attention. 525. W e h a v e h a d t h e a d v a n t a g e of h e a r i n g t h e evident t h e D i r e c t o r of E d u c a t i o n a n d a l s o of t h e K e n y a Missioi O p u n c i l a n d o t h e r w i t n e s s e s , a n d w e h a v e b e e n i n f o r m e d of vat r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p a s s e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e InL o c a l N a t i v e Councils and the K i a m b u School A r e a C o m i u and the L o c a l L a n d Board. W h i l e w e h a v e n o t ourselves t i m e to m a k e s o close a s t u d y o f t h e s u b j e c t as w o u l d justifj in d e a l i n g w i t h i t in t h e b o d y of our R e p o r t , we w i s h to record g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t w*ith t h e c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d b y M r . F a z a a r e v i e w of t h e s u b j e c t w h i c h h e h a s s u b m i t t e d in evidence, w h i c h w e h a v e i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x N o . 7 t o our R e p o r t .
;

School and Church Plots.

Grazing Commonages.

in

526. W h i l e w e r e a l i z e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s of c r e a t i n g private ri a r e a s such as N d e i y a a n d M w e a , w h e r e n o n e a r e at pre

377
KiKUYU
i-CHAPTER XiV]

PROVINCE
T H E E C O N O M I C ASPECT

n i z e d , yet, w e -sheiy

consider

that large areas should not since they lead

he

used ac

ns g r a z i n g

commonages,

to l a r g e

a t i c r s of l i \ e stock t a r a w a y f r o m t h e h o m e s o f t h e i r o w n e r s , e they a r e useless as a s o u r c e of m i l k s u p p l y ; w h i l e , so l o n g r i g h t of g r a z i n g r e m a i n s c o m m o n , n o a t t e m p t i s m a d e


e

to

the hind

or

the p a s t u r e , be

which

rapidly

deteriorates. a suitable

The

ciar.ce of r r i v a t e r i g h t s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n i n g i n t h e r e s t ie reserve be f o u n d . i-27. T h e common right of pasturage over would generally d e s i r a b l e if method also

githaka
to the

hind

- to c v e r - s t c c k i n g , . city of t h e l a n d .

since small

r e g a r d is h a d

carrying private to

W h i l e it w o u l d n o t be practicable to advise examples already exist, as a feature safeguards.

the p r a c t i c e b e s t e p p e d , w e r e g a r d t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f ocks, of w h i c h a f e w ncouraged under suitable

528. W e h a v e to f a c e t h e f a c t t h a t , u n l e s s r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s The rate at which Reform aLcn, a s t a t e of g e n e r a l c o n g e s t i o n is t h r e a t e n e d w i t h i n t h i r t y should proceed. s. T h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , a n u r g e n t n e e d f o r t h e b e s t a t t a i n a b l e ibution of t h e p o p u l a t i o n o n t h e l a n d , a n d it i s c l e a r t h a t a t a m o u n t of a g r a r i a n a d j u s t m e n t h a s to b e m a d e , a n d t h a t time is l i m i t e d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e w h o l e n a t u r e o f t h e lem calls f o r c a u t i o n , a n d it is q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e er s t e p s , w h i c h m u s t l a r g e l y d e p e n d f o r t h e i r success o n a r e f s h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e , c a n be u n d e r t a k e n in a*i sphere cf h u r r y . T h e r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y , t h e r e f o r e , h a s a delicate task in d e c i d i n g t h e r a t e a t w h i c h it is p r u d e n t t o eed. 529. I n the correction of faults The in an is of indigenous no reproach system if ic i n n o v a t i o n s repressive rres ovisation. adopted are u n w i s e . bear a path to be f o l l o w e d is impermanence that and Amelioration must be progressive, t h e but gradual.

amelioration,

and

there stamp

certain

T h e task of d i r e c t i n g a c o u r s e of e v o l u t i o n is n o t a necessarily quote from be t e n t a t i v e and a minute written nothing by Sir

le o n e , a n d s t e p s m u s t be i r r e v o c a b l e . "30. I t is a p p o s i t e to

las M u n r o o n t h e l a n d q u e s t i o n in M a d r a s i n 1884 : " I t is a d a n g e r o u s s y s t e m o f G o v e r n m e n t i n a c o u n t r y of -hich o u r k n o w l e d g e i s v e r y i m p e r f e c t , to b e c o n s t a n t l y u r g e d ry the d e s i r e o f s e t t l i n g e v e r y t h i n g p e r m a n e n t l y , t o d o e v e r y thing in a h u r r y , a n d i n c o n s e q u e n c e w r o n g , a n d i n o u r z e a l for p e r m a n e n c y to put t h e r e m e d y o u t of o u r r e a c h . " 531. I n
Kler

the third

part

of

this E e p o r t , have

when

we

are

the w o r k i n g o f t h e L a n d s T r u s t O r d i n a n c e , w e s h a l l h a v e t o various suggestions which been m a d e b y

d e a l i n g The Method of Executive Control. witnesses

K I K U Y U PABT 1CHAPTER X I V ]

PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC A
S

t o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of f u n c t i o n s a s b e t w e e n t h e L a n d s Board the P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r . I t m u s t b e o b v i o u s f r o m the siderations just a d v a n c e d that t h e L a n d s T r u s t Board c n a - p o s s i b l y h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y l o c a l k n o w l e d g e a n d t h a t t h e intet c o n t r o l of l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s b e t w e e n n a t i v e a n d n a t i v e she be a d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f G o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h i t w o u l d tlischa t h r o u g h t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r as t h e r e s p o n s i b l e head tire P r o v i n c e , a n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h r u l e s t o b e m a d e under Ordinance. S u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n s of d e t a i l t o w h i c h we & ' r e f e r in a n o t h e r p l a c e , o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i l l a c c o r d with principle. 5 3 2 . T h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r w o u l d t h e r e f o r e he r e s p o n s i b l e a u t h o r i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e c o u r s e of evolution of githaka s y s t e m , j u s t a s h e i s n o w t h e f i n a l C o u r t o f Appeal N a t i v e T r i b u n a l c a s e s w h i c h a r i s e in c o n n e x i o n w i t h it.

.' .' 0..


!

....

5 3 3 . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and judi r e s p o n s i b i l i t y in t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a d of t h e province is t a i n l y t o b e r e c o m m e n d e d a t t h i s e m b r y o n i c s t a g e i n t h e emerge of, p r i v a t e r i g h t s . T h e y h a v e n o t y e t r e a c h e d t h e s t a g e when C o u r t s of t h e C o l o n y c o u l d b e u s e f u l l y i n v o k e d t o p r o t e c t then:

Rules t o amakol System. *


h e w e

534. A f t e r a r e satisfied in c e r t a i n

hearing that

the evidence

and examining

the reco

t h e gitliaka

s y s t e m r e q u i r e s to" be regtil:

aspects.

535. A t t h i s s t a g e , w h e n i t is still n e c e s s a r y t o proceed 1 m e t h o d of t r i a l a n d e r r o r , w e q u e s t i o n t h e w i s d o m of regula so r i g i d a s t o p r e c l u d e s p e c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s f o r s p e c i a l cases. E . . . : [ ' ' ' of p r a c t i c e m a y i n m a n y w a y s b e p r e f e r a b l e to r u l e s of law, p r a c t i c e c a n o f t e n b e g u i d e d i n t o t h e r i g h t c h a n n e l s under a d v i c e a n d s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . W h e n n e w facil s u c h as p a d d o c k i n g , i n t r o d u c e d a t first b y t h e enterprise of d i v i d u a l s , a r e p r o v e d t o b e b e n e f i c i a l a n d to r e q u i r e proteci a n d r e g u l a t i o n , r u l e s c a n b e m a d e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , w e are satis t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e githaka s y s t e m w h i c h req to b e r e g u l a t e d w i t h o u t d e l a y , a n d w e i n v i t e p a r t i c u l a r atten to t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h h a s b e e n g i v e n t o u s o n t h e subject p p . 1051-1069 a n d 1 0 9 6 - 1 0 9 8 o f t h e p r i n t e d e v i d e n c e and pp.! 435 of V o l u m e 10 o f t h e O r i g i n a l B e c o r d ) . W e b e l i e v e thai t h i s P r o v i n c e t h e r e i s a d a n g e r t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f laisscr fairt t be c a r r i e d t o o f a r , a n d t h a t a n i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g r e s p e c t form c u s t o m w i l l r e s u l t i n u n e c o n o m i c f r a g m e n t a t i o n a n d conseqi d e p r e s s i o n of t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i f e .

'

CHAPTER
REQUIREMENTS E X T E R N A L

XV.
TO THE RESERVE.

536. T h e e f f e c t of t h e e c o n o m i c e v i d e n c e is t o s u g g e s t t h a t uiething in t h e n a t u r e of a g e n e r a l c o n g e s t i o n is t h r e a t e n e d in e K i k u y u D i s t r i c t w i t h i n t h i r t y y e a r s , u n l e s s v e r y g r e a t Lm ovements i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m e t h o d a n d t h e h o l d i n g of l a n d t a k e ce. I m p r o v e m e n t i n so h i g h a d e g r e e c a n n o t s a f e l y b e a s s u m e d , it is a p p a r e n t t h a t w e c a n n o t r e l y o n i n t e r n a l a d j u s t m e n t ne, but t h a t f a c i l i t i e s i n l a n d e x t e r n a l t o t h e r e s e r v e w i l l h a v e e found. 537. W e shall pass briefly i n r e v i e w t h e v a r i o u s f o r m s take.
BLOCK

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538. W e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d b l o c k a d d i t i o n s a m o u n t i n g t o ADDITION. 0(30 a c r e s t o b e m a d e p e r m a n e n t l y t o t h e r e s e r v e i n s e t t l e m e n t (1) The Com the c l a i m s o f r i g h t . T h i s a d d i t i o n h a s b e e n r e c o m m e n d e d f o r pensatory Blocks. r e m o v a l of g r i e v a n c e s , a n d n o t o n e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s . I t w i l l ve a c e r t a i n e c o n o m i c e f f e c t , i n t h a t i t w i l l h e l p t o k n i t t h e erve m o r e c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r b y t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e " i s l a n d s " T i g o n i a n d E i t h i r i o n i a n d b y j o i n i n g t h e e x i s t i n g " i s l a n d s " of and N g a r a r i g a b y c o r r i d o r s t o t h e m a i n r e s e r v e . I t is also t o hoped t h a t t h e b e t t e r s p i r i t w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o b e e n g e n d e r e d i n Kikuyu b y the settlement of their past grievances will make m more a m e n a b l e to the advice and instruction g i v e n t h e m by i n i s t r a t i v e a n d a g r i c u l t u r a l o f f i c e r s . B u t as a d i r e c t c o n t r i b u to t h e s o l u t i o n of a p r o b l e m o f i n c i p i e n t c o n g e s t i o n t h e a d d i of t h e s e c o m p e n s a t o r y b l o c k s is c l e a r l y i n a d e q u a t e , a n d n e e d s be s u p p l e m e n t e d b y t h e a d d i t i o n of f u r t h e r b l o c k s o n e c o n o m i c imds. 539. I t is c l e a r t h a t n o a d d i t i o n of t e r r i t o r y , h o w e v e r l a r g e , by itself s o l v e p r o b l e m s c a u s e d b y d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n , if t h e illation c o n t i n u e s t o i n c r e a s e . A l l t h a t i t c a n effect i s a c e r t a i n ng of t i m e , a n d t h e v a l u e o f t h e a d d i t i o n d e p e n d s o n t h e u s e e of t h e t i m e . 540. I f a p o p u l a t i o n is s h o w i n g s i g n s of b e c o m i n g e c o n o m i y m i n d e d ; if it has b e g u n t o s w e e p aside a g r a r i a n restrictions ch h a v e l o s t t h e i r u s e s a n d d e v i s e o t h e r s w h i c h e n s u r e t h e -pa t i o n of t h e l a n d t o b e t t e r a d v a n t a g e ; if i t h a s r e a l i z e d t h e lity of t r y i n g t o s e c u r e p a r t i c u l a r p i e c e s o f l a n d b y a sort of ail t o t h e s a m e f a m i l y f o r e v e r ; i f i t h a s b e g u n t o b u i l d u p vative i n d u s t r i e s o n t h e basis of a g r i c u l t u r e i n s t e a d of e x p e c t every f a m i l y t o b e s u p p o r t e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e g r o w i n g o f if i t is s h o w i n g a t e n d e n c y t o d e l a y t h e a g e o f m a r r i a g e (Block Addition. (2) A n A d d i tion recom mended on Economic Grounds.

KI K U Y U PART ICHAPTER XVj

PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC AS;

until t h e m e a n s o f s u p p o r t i n g a f a m i l y a r e a p p a r e n t , a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n - i n c r e a s e has b e g u n to dec!? if all t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t , t h e n a r e s p i t e of a f e w years mav v e r y useful so t h a t : ( i ) the e c o n o m i c lesson m a y be better lest (ii) t h e a g r a r i a n a d j u s t m e n t s m a y be e f f e c t e d , and (iii) con^js; m a y not occur u n t i l the r a t e of i n c r e a s e lias slackened aril simplified the problem.
:

5 4 1 . I t is t r u e t h a t , w h e t h e r s u c h a d d i t i o n is m a d e or i an e q u i l i b r i u m w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y b e r e a c h e d , but t h e danger ti the final e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l b e a l o w - g r a d e p o p u l a t i o n living oni p o v e r i s h e d soil is s o m e w h a t d i m i n i s h e d if the a d d i t i o n is rat a n d a r e s p i t e s e c u r e d . B u t it i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c adji i) e n t s f o r w h i c h the r e s p i t e is d e s i r e d w o u l d t a k e a very cony) able t i m e . 5 4 2 . A l t e r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e m a t t e r s a u d h a v i n g regard t h e a c t u a l a r e a s a v a i l a b l e , w e t h i n k t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n of ana; of s o m e 350 t o 4G0 s q u a r e m i l e s is w a r r a n t e d , a n d w o u l d bo ofv, s u b s t a n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e K i k u y u in a f f o r d i n g t h e m a resj d u r i n g w h i c h t h e y m u s t ; e a r n t o i m p r o v e t h e i r m e t h o d s of a. c u l t u r e a n d l a n d - h o l d i n g s o t h a t , w h e n the e x i s t i n g degree d e n s i t y is a g a i n r e a c h e d , t h e y w i l l be b e t t e r a b i e to lace; p o s i t i o n . "VYe r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h i s a r e a b e f o u n d o n the north V a t t a in t h e g e n e r a l p o s i t i o n s h o w n o n t h e m a p h e r e followi T h e e x t e n t of t h e a r e a as s h o w n o n t h e m a p i s 3 8 3 square iai! W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n b e m a d e to the K i k u y u Nat R e s e r v e as C l a s s B l (see s e c t i o n 23 a b o v e ) . I t w i l l b e o b s e r v e d f r o m t h e m a p t h a t L . O . 7048 form; s a l i e n t i n t o t h i s a r e a . T t i s 33 s q u a r e m i l e s in e x t e n t , and is l a f o r w h i c h M e s s r s . S w i f t a n d R u t h e r f o o r d a p p l i e d in o r d e r to urn! t a k e a l a r g e sisal g r o w i n g e n t e r p r i s e . B u t in 1931 the applicali w a s w i t h d r a w n , a l t h o u g h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y w a s e n v i s a g e d tint some future dale the application m i g h t be r e n e w e d . W e h a v e a g r e e d t o c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s a r e a s h o u l d be regart as a " D " area ( s e e s e c t i o n 25 a b o v e ) a n d t h a t i t s future dest: s h o u l d b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e c o u r s e of e v e n t s ; t h e C h a i r m a n woe h o w e v e r , h a v e p r e f e r r e d t h a t it s h o u l d h a v e f o r m e d part of: e x t e n s i o n t o t h e K i k u y u w i t h t h e p r o v i s o t h a t i t should b e regari as e s p e c i a l l y an a r e a in w h i c h n o n - n a t i v e s s h o u l d be encourai to t a k e u p l a n d a n d t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y it should n o t b e inclsii in t h e first b l o c k s for K i k u y u s e t t l e m e n t . t^'''Block Addition on the Ynttn.
0 f

54.-J. I t is e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e l a n d t o be a d d e d must be c i n s u c h a w a y as t o assist i n t h e l e a r n i n g of e c o n o m i c lessons, s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y n o t b e r e s e r v e d a s a c o m m o n a g e to the tti Such a course would people. be r e t r o g r e s s i v e and injurious both tot soil a n d t o t h e

DIAGRAM KIKUYU NOW

ILLUSTRATING NATIVE LANDS


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Report.)

RECOMMENDED

(IS/de Section 4 6 3 &

K I K U Y U -CHAPTER X V ]

PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC ASPECT

i essential p r e l i m i n a r y means o f i m p r o v i n g men t h a t h a s b e e n to m a r k ,1 p r e p a r e d off a scheme

t o n a t i v e s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e a r e a is a or supply. are of for opinion that the by next occupation Having natives think

s u r v e y b o t h of soils a n d of t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i r r i g a t i o n the water done, w e or cf l a n d blocks

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tier a t l e n g t h a n d h e a r d a r g u m e n t s o n b o t h sides, w e p c f u c r l e that sell!cn.ent*of :1 u n d e r c a r e f u l 4. W e hat o n iug o f ce, recommend that the

w o u l d be a m i s t a k e t o o p e n u p t h e w h o l e a r e a at o n c e , b u t the n a t i v e s o n the land should method The of control should be supervision, a block at a t i m e . lines. Provincial and the Commissioner committee Chiefs the full the a to a Senior as

the f o l l o w i n g the District he might

l a v e control but should be assisted by a special Commissioners consult We either

j r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s of t h e d i s t r i c t s o f whom collectively tree, o r b y d i s t r i c t s . t officers, i n tmcler the tij-j o i n t m e n t also recommend Settlement Provincial Officer that one of of the area

addition t o his ordinary as L a n d of the

duties, should h o l d Commissioner.

orders

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should, t h e r e f o r e ,

to t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h p r i v a t e r i g h t s m a y b e c r e a t e d i n e c o n s i d e r i t a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e i s y s t e m to b e a d o p t e d both of group and or also family of we tenure in on lines of related tenure system, holdings make on more individual in should to the "C". rent land how agree of lines,

e jrcrcsals

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respect

n a subsequent part of our R e p o r t vould b e g e n e r a l l y be charged nt for- t h e n o r m a l for homesteads, requirements by of

( P a r t I I I , sections 1880 But no mean If, which we

suitable t o this area also.

a household.

atives d e s i r e t o t a k e u p l a n d i n e x c e s s of such r e q u i r e m e n t s , i r r r c s e s of r a n c h i n g ea. t a later s t a g e , w h e n t h e r e is a sufficient r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , 1 Native Council could be f o r m e d , and the advisory corn to w h i c h w e h a v e r e f e r r e d , m i g h t n o l o n g e r b e r e q u i r e d . C Tt is m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e l a n d , b o t h i n t h e a l l o c a t e d and i n t h e b l o c k s a w a i t i n g a l l o c a t i o n , should be protected or s o m e s i m i l a r e n t e r p r i s e , w e rent s h o u l d b e c h a r g e d a n d a p p l i e d to the development

KIKUYU PART 1CHAPTER X V ]

PROVINCE T H E Eco-Ncn

a g a i n s t m i s u s e . T h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t e n u r e s h o u l d c o n t a i n adtl s a f e g u a r d s a g a i n s t o v e r - s t o c k i n g of t h e l a n d a n d again?! w a n t o n d e s t r u c t i o n of t i m b e r . A s m a l l , but p e r h a p s i m p o r t a n t , p o i n t is t h a t w e con si del t h e w o r d githaka s h o u l d n o t b e u s e d , s i n c e it appears a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e n a t i v e s s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e is a distil b e t w e e n this land and t h e r e s e r v e . 547. W e h o p e t h a t t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s m a y b e o f u s e ; we: a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e v i d e n c e g i v e n o n t h e s u b j e c t ( E v i d e n c e , pp. 1096) a n d w e a l s o r e c o m m e n d t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n b e s o u g h t cot i n g t h e w o r k of L a n d S e t t l e m e n t Officers i n I n d i a . N o r aw p o s s i b i l i t y b e n e g l e c t e d t h a t t h e K i k u y u L o c a l N a t i v e Cot m a y t h e m s e l v e s h a v e u s e f u l s u g g e s t i o n s to m a k e ; b u t we s i be m o r e h o p e f u l o f this i f s o m e b e t t e r use f o r t h e N d e i y a at 74 s q u a r e m i l e s h a d b e e n f o u n d t h a n t o k e e p it as a grazinj m o u a g e e v e r s i n c e i t w a s a d d e d t o t h e i r r e s e r v e some k y e a r s a g o . I t w o u l d b e a d i s a s t r o u s m i s u s e of l a n d if this mi; w e r e to b e r e p e a t e d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e Y a t t a . Necessity for getting the Uso
m 0

548. T h e p u r p o s e of t h e a d d i t i o n is to p r o v i d e an cxtetl area for the K i k u y u . I t is t h e r e f o r e n e i t h e r p r o b a b l e nor altoJ d e s i r a b l e t h a t l a r g e n u m b e r s of n a t i v e s w h o n o w h a v e lande[ r e s e r v e s h o u l d l e a v e t h e s e l a n d s a n d s e t t l e i n t h e extension! On t h e o t h e r h a n d it is of i m p o r t a n c e in t h e g e n e r a ! inkj of t h e c o u n t r y t h a t h i n d s h o u l d b e b r o u g h t i n t o u s e . It I of a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e K i k u y u i n s e t t l i n g t h e a r e a i f a few e n t e r p r i s e s m a n a g e d b y c o m p a n i e s of p r o v e d r e l i a b i l i t y tire and even encouraged to take up land o n favourable e s p e c i a l l y w h e r e t h e a d e q u a t e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e land K:i\ large capital e x p e n d i t u r e . Such enterprises w i l l provide a r o u n d w h i c h K i k u y u s e t t l e m e n t s m a y b e e x p e c t e d to sprinji a t t r a c t e d h o t h b y t h e p r o s p e c t of e m p l o y m e n t f o r t h e i r youngif and a l s o b y t h e p r e s e n c e of a r e a d y m a r k e t f o r t h e i r produce.! w i l l p r o b a b l y be f o u n d t h a t c o m p a n i e s of t h i s n a t u r e will w Lf h o l d t h e i r l a n d o n s o m e b e t t e r s e c u r i t y t h a n s h o r t term let] and w e c o n s i d e r t h a t , i f n e c e s s a r y , l e a s e s f o r n i n e t y - n i n e ; s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d . N o t h i n g i n t h e n a t u r e of r a n c h i n g proposit: should be entertained. 549. I n j u d g i n g w h e t h e r t h i s p r o v i s i o n is sufficient cJ : sufficient w e m u s t n o t n e g l e c t t o t a k e a c c o u n t of t h e fact that n u m b e r s of K i k u y u , e s t i m a t e d i n s e c t i o n 4 9 9 a b o v e at 1 1 0 , 0 0 0 , a r e l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e , f o r t h e most part s q u a t t e r s on E u r o p e a n f a r m s . T h e i r r a t e of n a t u r a l increas a t l e a s t a s h i g h a s i n t h e r e s e r v e , w h e r e i t i s computed l o 1.6 p e r c e n t p e r a n n u m . T h a t w o u l d m e a n t h a t as m a n y as I h u n d r e d a n d f i f t y f a m i l i e s of f i v e c o u l d r e t u r n to t h e reserveij

The Squatter Population.

30 1
KTKTJYU PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC ASPECT

I-OllAPTEK

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w i t h o u t a n y d i m i n u t i o n i n t h e t o t a l , s i n c e t h e loss w o u l d tiood b y n a t u r a l of vas c a l c u l a t e d o n in a n n u a l r e p o r t s , 1928 ( V o l u m e nee). increase. in the According hut to t h e survey in on population-increase Kikuyu has been which the stands

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T h e n u m b e r of s q u a t t e r s o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e s i s r e p r e

(1 as a l m o s t s t a t i c , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e r e t u r n i n g t o serves in n u m b e r s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r a t e of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . 50. Q u e s t i o n a b l e though the figures are admitted to be, the ': . al c o n c l u s i o n is e n d o r s e d b y t h e o p i n i o n s of t h e " Hirers w h o h a v e g i v e n on to t h e p r e v a i l i n g Although
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hief R e g i s t r a r of N a t i v e s , w h o , h o w e v e r , a s c r i b e s t h e p r e s e n t economic depression. may be due to economic un any other the present position

it seems t o us a p r u d e n t s t a n d p o i n t i n f a c i n g an

'n future t h a t w e s h o u l d n o t e x p e c t , o n a b a l a n c e s t r u c k o v e r iher o f y e a r s , t h a t t h e s e t t l e d a r e a w i l l b e a b l e t o afford ems m o r e probable, t h a t the general flow will be the initial r e l i e f i n a b s o r b i n g t h e s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e r e s e r v e , and t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of f a m i l i e s d i s ed a n n u a l l y f r o m t h e s e t t l e d a r e a , f o r w h o m lave t o b e f o u n d . 52. T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e s e r v e , t o r with the e x t e n s i o n wdiich w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d , should be ient t o p r o v i d e f o r i t s o w n n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e of p o p u l a t i o n , i t not b e s u f f i c i e n t ters. be f o u n d , dnes. 53. I n Part III of the Report we shall r e c o m m e n d certain External Facilities on to be m a d e a v a i l a b l e i n w h i c h r e t u r n i n g s q u a t t e r s o r n a t i v e s wish t o l e a v e t h e i r r e s e r v e s m a y liable t e r m s . be a b l e t o t a k e u p l a n d o n would than be a family As T h e c l a s s of p e r s o n s m o s t l i k e l y t o a p p l y it to provide both for follow, them and for our opinion returning facilities it is not on W h i l e it f o l l o w s , i f t h a t b e t h e c a s e , t h a t o t h e r does n o t and in accommodation --:

hie, t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e f o u n d b y a s t i l l f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n

pamiilf^ines

ose w h o h a v e a c q u i r e d a h i g h e r d e g r e e of i n d i v i d u a l i s m (1 by a p r o v i s i o n o f l a n d w h i c h t h e y c o u l d t a k e u p a s than b y a l a r g e b l o c k t o b e m a n a g e d ped tiards. itageous. together, Some and there of seems on t r i b a l l i n e s . need for

e n e r a l i t y of n a t i v e s , a n d i t i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d

p r o c e s s t h e h o l d i n g s of f a m i l i e s o f o n e t r i b e w o u l d t e n d t o to be n o special be degree intermingling would probably

381
[-CHAPTER .... XV J KTKUYTJ PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC

ASPECT

without any d i m i n u t i o n good b y natural was c a l c u l a t e d on of p o p u l a t i o n - i n c r e a s e in a n n u a l r e p o r t s , euce).

in t h e t o t a l , s i n c e t h e l o s s w o u l d b e According to the survey s t a n d s in on the in Kikuyu which the evidence avail of the to the ''. position

increase.

t h e basis of

hut c o u n t s a n d r e c o r d s approximate

that has been

1928 ( V o l u m e 1 0 , p p . 18-132 o f t h e O r i g i n a l R e c o r d

T h e n u m b e r of s q u a t t e r s o u t s i d e t h e r e s e r v e s i s r e p r e

'd as inlmost s t a t i c , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e r e t u r n i n g 550. Q u e s t i o n a b l e though the figures are admitted e v i d e n c e on to b e ,

eserves i n n u m b e r s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e r a t e of n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . nil conclusion, is e n d o r s e d b y t h e o p i n i o n s of t h e A d m i n i s t r a Othcers w h o h a v e g i v e n this p o i n t , and also b y Chief R e g i s t r a r of N a t i v e s , w h o , h o w e v e r , a s c r i b e s t h e p r e s e n t ion to t h e p r e v a i l i n g e c o n o m i c 551. A l t h o u g h the p r e s e n t essiom, it s e e m s t o us a p r u d e n t depression. may be due to economic an im any other - standpoint in facing position

iin future t h a t w e s h o u l d n o t e x p e c t , o n a b a l a n c e s t r u c k o v e r tniber of y e a r s , t h a t t h e s e t t l e d a r e a w i l l b e a b l e t o afford fonts m o r e probable that the general flow will be t h e itantial r e l i e f in a b s o r b i n g t h e s u r p l u s p o p u l a t i o n of t h e r e s e r v e , - and t h a t t h e r e w i l l b e a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of f a m i l i e s d i s rged a n n u a l l y f r o m t h e s e t t l e d a r e a , f o r w h o m have t o be f o u n d . 552. T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e s e r v e , t o her w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n w h i c h w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d , s h o u l d b e icient to p r o v i d e f o r i t s o w n n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e of p o p u l a t i o n , i t y not b e sufficient utters. to provide both f o r them and for follow, and in returning is not on External Facilities on pamifr^ines W h i l e it f o l l o w s , if t h a t b e t h e c a s e , t h a t o t h e r f a c i l i t i e s our opinion i t accommodation

st be f o u n d , i t d o e s n o t ial lines. 553. I n

irable, t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e f o u n d b y a s t i l l f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n P a r t 111 o f t h e R e p o r t we shall r e c o m m e n d

certain

as to be m a d e a v a i l a b l e i n w h i c h r e t u r n i n g s q u a t t e r s o r n a t i v e s o wish t o l e a v e t h e i r r e s e r v e s m a y b e a b l e t o t a k e u p l a n d o n sonable t e r m s . T h e c l a s s of p e r s o n s m o s t l i k e l y t o a p p l y w o u l d than be those w h o h a v e a c q u i r e d a h i g h e r d e g r e e of i n d i v i d u a l i s m

generality of n a t i v e s , a n d i t i s m o r e l i k e l y t h a t t h e y w o u l d its than b y a l a r g e b l o c k t o be m a n a g e d rouped t o g e t h e r , eguards. Some antageous. and there seems of on tribal l i n e s .

ted b y a p r o v i s i o n of l a n d w h i c h t h e y c o u l d t a k e up a s f a m i l y As a special be fund process t h e h o l d i n g s of f a m i l i e s of o n e t r i b e w o u l d t e n d t o to be n o need f o r would degree intermingling probably

KENYA

LAND

COMMISSION

REPORT

KIKUYU PART I C H A I T E I I X V ]

PROVINCE T H E ECONOMIC AspJ

Certain un used Land in tlio Masai Iteservo.

5 5 4 . T h e r e a r e e x t e n s i v e a r e a s o f g o o d a g r i c u l t u r a l land M a s a i K e s e r v e i n p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s o u t h e r n b o r d e r of K i k u \ . M a s a i m a k e n o a d e q u a t e use of t h e m , a n d it m i g h t be c o n ; t h a t a l e a s e t o t h e K i k u y u should b e a r r a n g e d . B u t i t i s u nlike t h a t t h e M a s a i w o u l d a g r e e , a n d a n y a t t e m p t t o f o r c e their ban b e s i d e s b e i n g i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f t h e a g r e e m e n t o f 11)11 w Inch s p e c i a l l y p r e s e r v e d i n s e c t i o n 8 o f t h e L a n d s T r u s t Ore! nanck w o u l d p r o b a b l y l e a d t o i l l - f e e l i n g w h i c h m i g h t t e n d t o previ uit t ] very considerable p e n e t r a t i o n by K i k u y u i n t o Masailand w il i c h ! p r e s e n t t a k e s p l a c e b y a n a t u r a l p r o c e s s w h i c h is t o the adv a n t a j of b o t h t r i b e s . 5 5 5 . N o t o n l y d o l a r g e n u m b e r s o f K i k u y u w o m e n g e t marriel t o M a s a i a n d K a m b a h u s b a n d s , b u t t h e y o f t e n i n v i t e t h e i r relj t i o n s t o f o l l o w t h e m , a n d i n a g e n e r a l w a y , so l o n g as the p a c e ! not forced, both tribes are agreeable to this arrangement. T o ] less e x t e n t t h e r e is a p e n e t r a t i o n b y K i k u y u i n t o U k a n l b a . Thej m o v e m e n t s d o n o t o c c u r t o a n e x t e n t w h i c h c o u l d in any wJ t h r e a t e n t h e g e n e r a l s e c u r i t y of t h e t r i b e i n t o w h o s e l a n d the p e n ! t r a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . O n t h e c o n t r a r y it p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e s sectirirl by c r e a t i n g b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the tribes concerned.

Penetration into other ltoaorves.

55G. T h e d e n s i t y at w h i c h t h e K i k u y u a r e l i v i n g i s a l t o g e t h General Com raent on tlio e x c e p t i o n a l f o r A f r i c a , a n d it is n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t land p r o b l e m ] Solution of the of g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y s h o u l d h a v e a r i s e n . W e h a v e not t h e r e f o r ] Kikuyu Problem. t h o u g h t it d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o d e v o t e a t h i r d p a r t o f o u r r e p o r t ! t h e i r s o l u t i o n . W e f i r s t a d d r e s s e d o u r s e l v e s t o t h e task of f i n d i n l a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t f o r e x i s t i n g g r i e v a n c e s a n d t h e n turned t o th q u e s t i o n of e c o n o m i c n e e d s . I n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e s e need w e h a v e m a d e p r o p o s a l s p a r t l y o n t r i b a l a n d p a r t l y on n o n - t r i t e lines. F o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e K i k u y u t h e s h e l t e r of t h e triha system w i l l be necessary for many years and probably g e n e r a t i o n ! to c o m e , and w e h a v e , therefore, r e c o m m e n d e d a s u b s t a n t i a l e s j tension of the tribal territory. T h i s will enable them t o e x p i u n t i l t h e y h a v e h a d t i m e t o l e a r n m o r e s k i l l in t h e u s e o f h i n d a n ! m a k e t h e l a n d c a p a b l e of c a r r y i n g a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n w i t h o u t hrfl p a i r m e n t . F o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r w h o w i l l in c o u r s e o f t i m f d e s i r e t o l e a v e t h e t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y a n d g o to areas w h e r e t h e y ma h o l d l a n d on m o r e i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s , w e s h a l l m a k e p r o p o s a l s i P a r t I I I o f I b i s B e p o r t t h a t e x t e n s i v e a r e a s be s e t a s i d e i n w h i c n a t i v e s s h a l l h a v e p r i o r r i g h t s of t a k i n g u p l a n d on l e a s e . Finallii w e s h a l l r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e r e s e r v a t i o n of l a n d t o p a r t i c t r i b e s s h a l l n o t b e so r i g i d l y i n t e r p r e t e d as t o p r e v e n t a s a f e e x t e n j of p e a c e f u l i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , in so f a r as t h e o c c u p a n t t r i b e d o e s pel o l v e c t a n d in s o far a s t h e c u s t o m s of l a n d - h o l d i n e p e r m i t , w i l l g i v e g r e a t e r f l u i d i t y , a n d t o s o m e e x t e n t a l l e v i a t e t h e difncml t i e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e p r e s e n t m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n o n th la n d .

1QKUYU
CHAPTER X V ]

PROVINCE
I HE ECONOMIC ASPECT

557. W e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e r e m e d i e s , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , ible the K i k u y u to f a c e t h e f u t u r e w i t h e v e r y p r o s p e c t , i t i their o p p o r t u n i t i e s , of b e c o m i n g a p r o s p e r o u s t r i b e .

will they

558. W e w i s h to i n v i t e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t , w h i l e o n lance of v a l u e f o r v a l u e t h e P r o f i t a n d L o s s A c c o u n t h a s r e v e a l e d to the K i k u y u a m o u n t i n g t o 21,000 acres, w h i c h w e mad l o v r e c o m m e n d to be m a d e g o o d , y e t , if t h e b a l a n c e be s t r u c k iply on e x t e n t of l a n d , the t e r r i t o r y w h i c h t h e K i k u y u n o w upy is m u c h g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h t h e y o c c u p i e d before vernnient c a m e . A c t i o n s t a k e n b y G o v e r n m e n t a t a t i m e w h e n orniation w a s v e r y i m p e r f e c t m a y s o m e t i m e s h a v e r e s u l t e d i n dship t o t h e K i k u y u , o w i n g t o m i s c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e n u m b e r s (lie p o p u l a t i o n and t h e i r s y s t e m of l a n d t e n u r e . B u t the r e s u l t our e x a m i n a t i o n h a s b e e n t o c o n v i n c e u s t h a t t h e h a r d s h i p s 1'ered b y t h e t r i b e h a v e b e e n v a s t l y e x a g g e r a t e d , a n d t h a t t h e sent e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m , w h i c h is o n e of p o p u l a t i o n - d e n s i t y , i s
s s

d i r e c t l y due t o G o v e r n m e n t a c t i o n i n c o n s t r i c t i n g t h e b o u n d es, for t h e y h a v e i n r e a l i t y b e e n e x p a n d e d . B u t t h e e c o n o m i c ansion o f t h e c o u n t r y h a s i n e v i t a b l y d r a w n p o p u l a t i o n t o w a r d s main c e n t r e s of t r a d e a n d e m p l o y m e n t , w h i l e t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f line a n d t r i b a l w a r s a n d t h e b e t t e r c o n t r o l o f e p i d e m i c s h a s loved t h e p r i n c i p a l c h e c k s o n p o p u l a t i o n - i n c r e a s e .

CHAPTER
L A N D Contrast of the Meru and Embu Prob lems with those of Kikuyu Proper. PROBLEMS OP T H E

XVI.
MEBU AND EMB1

DISTRICTS. 559. I n the fifteen chapters just completed, we have o&

w i t h t h e p r o b l e m s of t h e t h r e e d i s t r i c t s of K i k u y u p r o p e r , an at o f 1,931 s q u a r e m i l e s , i n c l u s i v e of t h e M w e a a r e a , w i t h a p o n u ! tion of approximately 489,156 p e r s o n s l i v i n g at a density o f a square m i l e proximately 253 t o t h e

(vide

section

67

above)

contrast to them the M e r u and E m b u

t r i b e s , w h o a r e also o f t S i n c e t h e Protector; disturbance

s a m e P r o v i n c e a r e a p o p u l a t i o n o n l y a b o u t h a l f as numerous, h a b i t i n g an a r e a m o r e t h a n t w i c e a s l a r g e . was declared they have been singularly free from

a n y k i n d a n d t h e y h a v e n o v e r y s e r i o u s o r difficult l a n d problen T h e r e a r e . h o w e v e r , a f e w m a t t e r s w h i c h r e q u i r e t o be mention shortly .


7

The Boundary 560. T h e p r o p o s e d b o u n d a r i e s of t h e M e r u N a t i v e Iteser of the Meru w e r e p u b l i s h e d f o r g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n 1 9 2 5 , b u t subsequent Native a m o d i f i e d b o u n d a r y w a s a p p r o v e d , w h i c h h a d t h e effect of exclt Reserve. i n g t h e T h a r a k a s e t t l e m e n t s a t M u t e j w a , K i k i n g o a n d M a t h a frc the M e r u N a t i v e Reserve. excluded areas were very I t w a s s u p p o s e d at t h e t i m e that sparsely occupied land in which Subsequent

M e r u could n o t be said t o h a v e a n y l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m . representations were made which

c a u s e d a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t

m a t t e r , a n d a r e v e r s i o n t o t h e b o u n d a r i e s as p r o v i s i o n a l l y gazett in 1925 w a s a p p r o v e d b y t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l i n M a r c h , 19: 561. T h e recommend with them. formal natives were informed of this decision and b o u n d a r i e s t h e n r e c o m m e n d e d a r e b e i n g o b s e r v e d i n practice, t h a t t h e g a z e t t e d b o u n d a r i e s be a m e n d e d t o confo: We understand in the that it is only because that be of cerfe this st Lands Trust Ordinance

difficulties

h a s n o t a l r e a d y b e e n t a k e n , a n d a t a l a t e r s t a g e i n o u r report shall m a k e proposals w h e r e b y area affected this obstacle m a y removed. 562. T h e Land claimed between the Luguthu and Morania Rivers. i n t h i s c a s e i s 626 s q u a r e m i l e s .

563. T h e r e is a p i e c e o f l a n d w h i c h t h e M e r u c l a i m to t w e s t w a r d of t h e i r r e s e r v e . I t is a s t r i p b e t w e e n t w o r i v e r s , b e of w h i c h a r e o f t e n c a l l e d t h e M o r a n i a , a l t h o u g h it is correct c a l l t h e w e s t e r n r i v e r t h e M o r a n i a a n d t h e e a s t e r n t h e Lugntl T h e L u g u t h u is t h e b o u n d a r y o f t h e r e s e r v e as g a z e t t e d in 19: b u t t h e M e r u c l a i m t h e l a n d as f a r as t h e M o r a n i a . 564. I n 1 9 1 1 , w h e n i t w a s t h o u g h t w i t h a p p a r e n t l y gc r e a s o n t h a t t h e l a n d b e t w e e n t h e s e t w o r i v e r s w a s M e r u land i

K I K U Y U itr [-CHAPTER XVI]

PROVINCE EMBU AND MERU DISTRICTS

onltl be i n c l u d e d in t h e M e r u N a t i v e R e s e r v e , t h e D i s t r i c t C o m issiouer d i v e r t e d t h e L u g u t h u b y a f u r r o w so t h a t it r a n f u r t h e r st through the g r a z i n g l a n d of t h e I m e n d i s e c t i o n o f t h e M e r u . 565. I n 3913 t h e l a n d b e t w e e n t h e L u g u t h u a n d t h e M o r a n i a advertised f o r s a l e a n d o n e of t h e a t t r a c t i o n s w a s s a i d t o b e It it was w a t e r e d b y t h e L u g u t h u . S u b s e q u e n t l y the g e n t l e m a n B i o had taken u p o n e of t h e f a r m s ( L . O . 4634) p r o t e s t e d t h a t h e id been m i s l e d b y G o v e r n m e n t i n a s m u c h as t h e L u g u t h u h a d en diverted a w a y f r o m h i s f a r m a n d n o l o n g e r w a t e r e d i t . 5G6. P e r s i s t e n t a t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y G o v e r n m e n t t o tisfy both i n t e r e s t s b y r e t u r n i n g t h e r i v e r t o i t s f o r m e r c o u r s e id conducting a s u p p l y f r o m a n o t h e r source i n t o t h e f u r r o w d u g the n a t i v e s . T h e s e efforts h a v e m e t w i t h v e r y indifferent scess until t h e j i r e s e n t y e a r . B u t t h e E x e c u t i v e E n g i n e e r h a s w been successful i n c o n d u c t i n g a g o o d s u p p l y of w a t e r t o t h e tives' f u r r o w b y m e a n s of a f u r r o w t a k e n f r o m a t r i b u t a r y of ? Eazita River. 567. T h i s f u r r o w h a s b e e n m a d e at G o v e r n m e n t e x p e n s e iu her r e s p e c t s , b u t t h e M e r u h a v e s u p p l i e d l a b o u r f r e e of c h a r g e , respect of t h e u p k e e p w e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t it i s p r o p o s e d t h a t cost should b e s h a r e d b e t w e e n G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e L o c a l itive Council. 568. I f the q u e s t i o n of t h e f u r r o w is r e g a r d e d in i s o l a t i o n an ual s h a r i n g o f t h e c o s t w o u l d b e f a i r , s i n c e i t c a n h a r d l y b e limed t h a t t h e M e r u , b y t h e m e r e a c t i o n of d i g g i n g a f u r r o w , d established a r i g h t t o d i v e r t t h e M o r a n i a R i v e r o r t o r e c e i v e mpensation in t h e f o r m of an a l t e r n a t i v e s u p p l y of w a t e r f r e e all cost, if t h e G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d see fit t o r e t u r n t h e r i v e r t o original c h a n n e l . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e f u r r o w h a d b e e n d u g the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , a n d t h a t m a y f a i r l y taken as e s t a b l i s h i n g a r i g h t t o s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 569. B u t w h i l e a s o l u t i o n o n t h e a b o v e l i n e s is e q u i t a b l e i f e m a t t e r of t h e w a t e r - f u r r o w b e c o n s i d e r e d i n i s o l a t i o n , i t c e a s e s be so if c o n s i d e r e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e q u e s t i o n of l o s s of nd. W e a r e n o t i m p r e s s e d b y t h e c l a i m of t h e M e r u t h a t t h e nd b e t w e e n t h e t w o M o r a n i a s w a s t h e i r s in t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y ade full a n d c o n t i n u o u s u s e o f i t . I t is p r o b a b l e , h o w e v e r , t h a t ey m a d e i n t e r m i t t e n t u s e o f it f o r g r a z i n g p u r p o s e s . Therefore, though w e c a n n o t a d m i t t h e i r c l a i m t o t h e l a n d , w e a g r e e t h a t ey o u g h t not t o b e d e p r i v e d of t h e u s e w h i c h t h e y h a d of i t itliout s o m e c o m p e n s a t i o n . W e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h i s c o m p e n s a t i o n ould be f o u n d b y G o v e r n m e n t m e e t i n g t h e f u l l c h a r g e s o f t h e p p l y - f u r r o w , b o t h i n r e s p e c t of i n i t i a l c o s t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e , t h e e m , of c o u r s e , c o n t i n u i n g t o b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r all c h a r g e s i n nnexion w i t h t h e i r o w n f u r r o w .

K.1KOYCJ PART ICHAPTER X V I ]

PROVINCE KAIRU AND AIERU DISTIH

5 7 0 . T h i s c l a i m is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e plan o p p o s i t e page 5 t h e e v i d e n c e . W h i l e w e t h i n k t h a t t h e a b o v e s o l u t i o n is equita w e a r e i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e . M e r u set c o n s i d e r a b l e store on a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e l a n d n o w c o m p r i s e d in the f a r m ( L . O . 4631) r a t h e r t h a t p a r t of it w h i c h is s i t u a t e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o rive a n d i t is s t a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d to m a k e an offer i t . I n t h e s p e c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e c a s e , w e see n o reason w s u c h o i l e r s h o u l d n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d if the lessee is prepared e n t e r t a i n i t , a n d i f a c c r e d i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e Europ H i g h l a n d s a g r e e . B u t t h e f a r m f o r m s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t of a hi w h i c h w a s s u r v e y e d in 1913 t o be a l i e n a t e d t o E u r o p e a n s , and find n o r e a s o n f o r e x c l u d i n g it f r o m the a r e a w h i c h w e si d e f i n e as " H i g h l a n d s " u n d e r t h e s i x t h t e r m o f r e f e r e n c e . Claim in respect of Isiolo Government Station. 5 7 1 . I s i o l o , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h e a d q u a r t e r s of the North F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e , i s a c t u a l l y s i t u a t e d in the M e r u N a t i v e Eeser T h e District Commissioner remarks : " T h e M e r u L o c a l C o u n c i l g e t t h e r e n t s for t r a d i n g p i n I s i o l o a n d h a v e n o p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i o n to Governai o c c u p y i n g t h e l a n d . E v e r s i n c e t h e start of I s i o l o boma, ho e v e r , t h e r e h a s b e e n a t e n d e n c y f o r S o m a l i s to accumul and reside there w i t h their stock. W h a t is m o s t serioi t h e r e h a s s p r u n g u p a l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t of a l i e n S o m a l i s acr t h e t o w n s h i p b o u n d a r y a n d w i t h i n the M e r u D i s t r i c t . I s t o c k of t h e s e a n d o t h e r S o m a l i s , b e i n g w i t h i n the Isi T o w n s h i p a r e a , c o n s e q u e n t l y e n c r o a c h u p o n t h e grazing t h i s d i s t r i c t a n d t h e M e r u a r e n a t u r a l l y v e r y i n d i g n a n t ab t h i s m a t t e r , w h i c h is b o u n d t o l e a d to s e r i o u s t r o u b l e soo or l a t e r . " 572. W e entirely a g r e e w i t h the District Commissioner, a a r e o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e s e S o m a l i s s h o u l d be m o v e d f r o m the a i n w h i c h t h e y n o w r e s i d e . W e m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s for tl d i s p o s a l i n s e c t i o n 815 b e l o w . Meru N a t i v e Forest Reserve 5 7 3 . W e a r e s a t i s f i e d , o n e v i d e n c e g i v e n t o us b y Adminisi o f f i c e r s as w e l l as b y t h e M e r u t h e m s e l v e s , t h a t , when N a t i v e F o r e s t D e s e r v e w a s d e m a r c a t e d , e x t e n s i v e a r e a s of pastti l a n d w e r e i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e f o r e s t b o u n d a r y . T h e natives a l l o w e d t o use t h e g r a z i n g on o b t a i n i n g a p e r m i t f r o m the For D e p a r t m e n t , b u t t h i s is n o t t h e s a m e t h i n g as f r e e use of t l a n d , a n d t h e y c l a i m t h a t t h e s e g r a s s l a n d s o u g h t not to have included in the forest at all. W e are inclined to sympathize w t h e M e r u in t h e m a t t e r a n d r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n of forest boundary be reconsidered. T h e District Commissioner t h e C o n s e r v a t o r o f F o r e s t s b e l i e v e t h a t a n e w f o r e s t bound s a t i s f a c t o r y t o all p a r t i e s c o u l d be f o u n d w h i c h w o u l d have e f f e c t of e x c l u d i n g s u b s t a n t i a l a r e a s of p a s t u r e l a n d from Forest Reserve.

fo

ve

KIKUYU
I I-CHAPTER T XVI]

PROVINCE
E M B U AND M E R U DISTRICTS

574. A n area o f s o m e 1 3 1 a c r e s i n t h e M e r u N a t i v e E e s e r v e for s e v e r a l y e a r s p a s t b e e n i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e K i n g ' s lican R i f l e s . A t first i t w a s u s e d t o a c c o m m o d a t e a d e t a c h m e n t lone c o m p a n y , b u t it h a s n o w b e c o m e t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s o f t h e B a t t a l i o n a n d of t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e M i l i t a r y [chanical S u p p l y a n d T r a n s p o r t C o r p s . I t appears that the In h a v e n e v e r c o n s e n t e d t o t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a n d a r e a v e r s e it. T h e y r e p r e s e n t : (1) T h a t t h e a r e a o c c u p i e d b y t h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s is situated in t h e m o s t t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d p a r t o f t h e d i s t r i c t and i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l and r e s i d e n t i a l v a l u e . (2) T h a t t h e p e o p l e oE t h e l o c a t i o n c o n c e r n e d h a v e a l r e a d y given l a n d f o r t h e U n i t e d M e t h o d i s t C h u r c h M i s s i o n a n d f o r the G o v e r n m e n t s t a t i o n a n d c a n ill-afford t o l o s e a n y m o r e . (3) T h a t t h e p r e s e n c e of l a r g e n u m b e r s of u n m a r r i e d troops leads t o t h e s p r e a d of p r o s t i t u t i o n a n d v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e amongst the M e r u . 575. The. D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r adds t h a t t h e b r e w i n g a n d at;- of n a t i v e i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s h a s p r o v e d m o s t difficult t o trol in the v i c i n i t y of t h e m i l i t a r y c a m p . T h e s e reasons jsess a c e r t a i n v a l i d i t y , b u t w o u l d , b y t h e m s e l v e s , c o n s t i t u t e a -sided p r e s e n t m e n t of t h e c a s e . I t is b e y o n d q u e s t i o n t h a t o n e he chief e c o n o m i c n e e d s of t h e M e r u is a l o c a l m a r k e t f o r t h e i r (luce, and t h e p r e s e n c e of so l a r g e a b o d y of the K i n g ' s A f r i c a n es should b e o f g r e a t m o n e t a r y a d v a n t a g e t o t h e m i n t h i s pect. T h e M e r u a r e a l s o a b l e t o e a r n w a g e s as p o r t e r s f o r t h e ply a n d T r a n s p o r t C o r p s . 576. W h e t h e r t h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s r e m a i n i n Meru trict or g o e l s e w h e r e is a m a t t e r w h i c h m u s t b e s e t t l e d b y itary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , w i t h w h i c h w e a r e n o t c o n c e r n e d . Our om m e n da t i o n i s t h a t , f o r so l o n g a t i m e a s t h e y r e m a i n , t h e y lit t o pay r e n t . T h e p l o t s h o u l d b e set a p a r t a n d l e a s e d . T h e genea-al p r o c e d u r e g o v e r n i n g such l e a s e s i s a m a t t e r w i t h f e l l w e deal in t h e t h i r d p a r t of o u r R e p o r t ( s e c t i o n s 1 5 2 5 - 1 5 4 1 ) . 577. T h e E m b u n a t i v e s c l a i m t h a t t h e p r e s e n t b o u n d a r y of Forest E e s e r v e w a s d e m a r c a t e d without reference to the r i g h t s feting under t h e s y s t e m of l a n d t e n u r e of t h e t r i b e s c o n c e r n e d g e E m b u , C h u k a , M u t h a m b i and M w i m b i ) and also in disregard tribal r e q u i r e m e n t s in t h e u s e o f s a l t - l i c k s . 578. T h e nments : District Commissioner makes the following

The Question of the Removal of the K i n g ' s African Rifles from M e r u .

Embu Claim to P a r t of Mount K e n y a Forest.

" I t has f r e q u e n t l y been stated b y responsible persons that, at t h e t i m e t h e b o u n d a r y l i n e w a s c l e a r e d , local n a t i v e s were i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e c l e a r i n g w a s i n t e n d e d as a road to

K I K U Y U PART I C H A P T E R X V I ]

PROVINCE E M B U AND MEKU DISTIJ

M e r u a n d t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t i n f o r m e d t h a t access to t l f o r e s t a b o v e t h e l i n e w o u l d b e d e n i e d t o t h e m . T h e resiil i t i s c l a i m e d , i s t h a t n u m e r o u s f a m i l i e s h a v e b e e n dispossess! of t h e i r b e s t l a n d . S u c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s as I h a v e been M t o m a k e of t h i s c l a i m s h o w s t h a t t h e l a n d w a s actually o w n ! i n t h e u s u a l n a t i v e s e n s e ) w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t boundary tol v a r y i n g depth u p to about t w o miles. T h e actual nr/nJ o w n e r s c a n b e t r a c e d a n d t h e o r i g i n a l inter-githaka bonndarl pointed o u t . "

5 7 9 . H e a d d s t h a t f o r e s t c u l t i v a t i o n a m o n g s t the n a t i v e s ! his district is c o n s i d e r a b l y less d e s t r u c t i v e t h a n amongst j K i k u y u , i n a s m u c h as l a r g e t r e e s a r e n o t c u t or d e s t r o y e d by fil b e i n g r e g a r d e d as t h e p r o p e r t y of t h e t r i b e a n d consequently Jj to b e t o u c h e d b y i n d i v i d u a l l a n d o w n e r s .

5 8 0 . W e h a v e n o e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e r e w a s a n y considerall n a t i v e c u l t i v a t i o n a b o v e t h e f o r e s t l i n e o.r t h a t t h e E m b u m I a use of t h e l a n d t o a n y e x t e n t , a n d w e d o n o t r e c o m m e n d a l a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e b o u n d a r y a s it w o u l d b e c e r t a i n to lead to 11 d e s t r u c t i o n o f s o m e of t h e b e s t f o r e s t i n t h e C o l o n y .

5 8 1 . T h e n a t i v e s a p p e a r e d t o b e m o r e c o n c e r n e d with t l q u e s t i o n of u s e o f t h e s a l t - l i c k s t h a n t h a t of t h e l a n d , and 2 r e c o m m e n d t h a t a r r a n g e m e n t s b e m a d e w i t h t h e Conservator I E o r e s t s f o r t h e m t o b e g r a n t e d a c c e s s t o c e r t a i n of t h e salt-lie! under suitable safeguards.

385

CHAPTER
jjllTAIN LAND PROBLEMS TOWNSHIP

XVII.
CONNECTED A N D W I T H T H E

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r w i s e o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r n a t i v e s i n N a i r o b i , it w i l l b e 1 to offer s o m e o b s e r v a t i o n s o n t h e g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s w h e t h e r e x i s t e n c e of s p e c i a l q u a r t e r s , w h e r e o n l y n a t i v e s m a y r e s i d e where n a t i v e s m u s t r e s i d e , is n e c e s s a r y o r a d v i s a b l e . 5S3. H a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t s t a n d a r d s o f l i v i n g convinced that considerations areas for of h e a l t h are as w e l l in as o f which social they crved b y n a t i v e s i n N a i r o b i as c o m p a r e d w i t h o t h e r r a c e s , w e W e a r e , t h e r e f o r e , satisfied t h a t needed exempted. a shop in Native domestic area

cnities d e m a n d s e p a r a t e a r e a s . to reside who

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vants a r e g e n e r a l l y e x e m p t e d a n d r e s i d e o n t h e p r e m i s e s of t h e i r native the business add n a t u r a l l y b e a l l o w e d t o l i v e i n i t , p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e b u i l d i n g forms w i t h t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s n e c e s s a r y t o q u a l i f y i t t o be u s e d residential purposes. ght b e n e c e s s a r y f o r e to live near t h e i r T h e r e a r e other cases w h e r e work. exemption i n s t a n c e , t h e c a s e of n i g h t w o r k e r s , w h o

584. I t is s o m e t h i n g of a m o o t p o i n t w h e t h e r s p e c i a l e x e m p fln should b e g r a n t e d t o m o r e a d v a n c e d n a t i v e s o n t h e g r o u n d s at them h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f l i f e q u a l i f i e s t h e m t o l i v e in a n y idential p a r t of N a i r o b i w h i c h t h e y m a y p r e f e r o r c a n a f f o r d , e a r g u m e n t i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s v i e w is t h a t t h e n a t i v e q u a r t e r likely t o b e a p o o r q u a r t e r a n d t h e l a y - o u t p l a n m a d e b y t h e iuiicipality i s l i k e l y t o b e c o n c e i v e d a c c o r d i n g l y , so t h a t i t m i g h t ifficult f o r a m o r e w e l l - t o - d o n a t i v e t o o b t a i n a p l o t s u i t a b l e his r e q u i r e m e n t s . B u t t h e r e is n o r e a s o n w h y t h e n a t i v e q u a r t e r wild b e c o n c e i v e d as b e i n g o n e a n d i n d i v i s i b l e , a n d w h e n o c c a in arises i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o s e t a s i d e a s p e c i a l a r e a o r burb as a r e s i d e n t i a l q u a r t e r f o r t h e m o r e a d v a n c e d n a t i v e s . I n dition t o t h i s w e c o n s i d e r t h a t i t s h o u l d b e p o s s i b l e t o g r a n t eruptions t o s u i t a b l e n a t i v e a p p l i c a n t s e n a b l i n g t h e m t o r e s i d e side t h e n a t i v e a r e a , if g o o d g r o u n d s e x i s t w h y t h e y s h o u l d b e lowed t o d o s o . W e u n d e r s t a n d f r o m t h e M u n i c i p a l A u t h o r i t i e s [at this is a l r e a d y p o s s i b l e . 585. T h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i n N a i r o b i is t h a t t h e r e (1) A n a t i v e location at P a n g a n i , extent a spontaneous g r o w t h . which is t o are : a large The Present

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER XVII]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMOSJ

( 2 ) A p l a n n e d l o c a t i o n at P u m w a n i , w h i c h t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y is r e s p o n s i b l e .

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( 3 ) A M u n i c i p a l H o u s i n g S c h e m e , in w h i c h the A f J c i p a l i t y b u i l d s a n d o w n s t h e h o u s e s a n d l e t s r o o m s to nativi ( 4 ) A G o v e r n m e n t H o u s i n g S c h e m e a n d o t h e r provisio m a d e by G o v e r n m e n t a n d b y t h e H a i l w a y f o r t h e housing then African employees. (5) A r e s e r v e at I v i b i r a King's African Hides. (1) Pangani. for Sudanese ex-soldiers of t

586. W h e n t h e r a i l w a y h a d r e a c h e d N a i r o b i and a t o w n be: t o s p r i n g u p , n a t i v e s g r a d u a l l y g r a v i t a t e d t o this centre s s e v e r a l c o l l e c t i o n s of n a t i v e h u t s a p p e a r e d . A s t i m e w e n t on i smaller settlements were removed and P a n g a n i became i r e c o g n i z e d n a t i v e q u a r t e r . I t n o w o c c u p i e s s o m e t h i r t y acres (t t o t a l r e s e r v a t i o n b e i n g 45 a c r e s of w h i c h 15 a c r e s are taken the road r e s e r v e ) . 587. W h i l e t h e r e is n o r e c o r d t h a t it w a s e v e r set as: e x p r e s s l y f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , i t h a s i n f a c t b e e n used as a nat quarter ever since. T h e s i t e h a s n o t p r o v e d to b e particula s u i t a b l e a n d t h e h a p h a z a r d w a y in w h i c h t h e n a t i v e houses k b e e n b u i l t , w i t h v e r y l i t t l e r e g a r d f o r a l i g n m e n t a n d still : f o r s a n i t a t i o n , h a d a l r e a d y d e t e r m i n e d G o v e r n m e n t b y 1922 c l o s e t h e v i l l a g e a n d m o v e t h e i n h a b i t a n t s t o P u m w a n i . Vark o b s t a c l e s c o n n e c t e d w i t h c o m p e n s a t i o n arose t o p r e v e n t the pro; b e i n g carried into effect. I n D e c e m b e r , 1 9 2 2 , the D i s t r i c t Co m i s s i o n e r , N a i r o b i , m a d e c o m p r e h e n s i v e p r o p o s a l s b o t h for co p e n s a t i o n of p l o t h o l d e r s a n d f o r e n a b l i n g t h e m , b y m e a n s o: l o a n , to build houses in P u m w a n i . 588. T h e m a j o r (a) details of the scheme are : T h a t c o m p e n s a t i o n o n h o u s e s s h o u l d b e p a i d ad valon t h e e s t i m a t e d a v e r a g e r a t e p e r h o u s e b e i n g 5, and: t o t a l n u m b e r of h o u s e s b e i n g 3 1 2 , m a k i n g a total e: m a t e d outlay of ^ 1 , 5 6 0 . ( b ) T h a t t h e a m o u n t i n v o l v e d i n t h i s c o m p e n s a t i o n , ,1,5: or t h e r e a b o u t s , b e a d v a n c e d f r o m t h e m u n i c i p a l nat b r e w e r y f u n d , a n d b e r e p a i d b y G o v e r n m e n t from ; p r o c e e d s of t h e s a l e o f t h e l a n d t o be evacuated Pangani. (c) T h a t a n y b a l a n c e f r o m t h e s a l e of l a n d at P a n g a n i a! r e p a y m e n t of t h e a m o u n t o w i n g t o t h e m u n i c i p a l nati b r e w e r y f u n d b e c r e d i t e d t o a m u n i c i p a l n a t i v e trust. (d) T h a t e v e r y h o u s e h o l d e r , b e s i d e s b e i n g compensated t h e m a n n e r a f o r e s a i d f o r t h e loss o f h i s h o u s e , slw r e c e i v e a l o a n o f a n a m o u n t s u f f i c i e n t , w h e n added t h e a m o u n t of c o m p e n s a t i o n p a i d t o h i m , to make

.. '

KENYA

LAND

COMMISSION

REPORT

167

386

K I K U Y U

PROVINCE NAIROBI TOWNSHIP AND COMMONAGE

ART ICHAPTER X V I I ]

t h e s u m o f ;t'35, t o b e e m p l o y e d b y h i m in b u i l d i n g a house a t P u m w a n i o n a p l o t to be a s s i g n e d b y t h e Municipality. (Note.The sum w a s c a l c u l a t e d t o be sufficient t o e n a b l e h i m t o b u i l d a f o u r - r o o m e d h o u s e of w a t t l e a n d daub on a s u i t a b l e p l i n t h , a n d w i t h a c o r r u g a t e d i r o n roof.) (c) T h a t t h e l o a n m a d e to t h e h o u s e h o l d e r be m a d e f r o m t h e municipal n a t i v e b r e w e r y fund and bear interest at 4 p e r c e n t ; t h a t r e d e m p t i o n be s p r e a d o v e r five y e a r s ; a n d t h a t t h e s t a n d p e r m i t f e e of S h . 5 b e n o t c h a r g e d d u r i n g this p e r i o d .

T h a t a n y householder w h o h a s m o r e t h a n one house should b e c o m p e n s a t e d i n r e s p e c t o f all of t h e m , b u t s h o u l d o n l y r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e b y l o a n f o r t h e b u i l d i n g of o n e . I (g) T h a t a n y h o u s e h o l d e r w h o d o e s n o t w i s h t o b u i l d at P u m w a n i s h o u l d be a t l i b e r t y to t a k e his c o m p e n s a t i o n in c a s h a n d l e a v e t h e t o w n . 589. W e o b s e r v e f r o m a p e r u s a l of t h e G o v e r n m e n t files t h a t B e matter has b e e n h e l d o v e r u n t i l our C o m m i s s i o n h a s r e p o r t e d , id t h e r e f o r e it a p p e a r s t h a t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n s o m e d e t a i l a r e squired of us. T h e p r o p o s a l s of t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , b e i n g -pressed in d e t a i l , a r e a s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c r i t i c i s m , [though i t is c l e a r f r o m t h e files t h a t t h e y d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y (present t h e v i e w s of G o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h s t i l l h a s t h e p r o j e c t rider c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W e h a v e v i s i t e d P a n g a n i a n d P u m w a n i in Dmpany w i t h t h e M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s O f f i c e r , t h e T o w n C l e r k a n d he M e d i c a l Officer of H e a l t h , a n d h a v e t a k e n t h e i r e v i d e n c e a n d hat o f o t h e r o f f i c e r s , a s w e l l as t h e e v i d e n c e of t h e n a t i v e s c o n erned. W e h a v e a l s o h a d a c c e s s t o t h e S e c r e t a r i a t files on t h e abject and h a v e h e a r d t h e v i e w s of t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r of D a n d s . Bur c o n c l u s i o n is as f o l l o w s : 590. T h e l o c a t i o n a t P a n g a n i a p p e a r s t o u s t o b e d e l e t e r i o u s oth t o t h e h e a l t h a n d m o r a l s of t h e n a t i v e s . I t is b a d l y o v e r rowded a n d h a s a n o t a b l e p r e p o n d e r a n c e of u n d e s i r a b l e s . The unitary c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t such as o u g h t t o be p e r m i t t e d in iairobi a n d a r e a m e n a c e to t h e t o w n . N o s u b s t a n t i a l a m e l i o r a ion could be e f f e c t e d w i t h o u t a c o n d e m n a t i o n of a l a r g e p r o p o r on o f t h e h o u s e s , a c o u r s e w h i c h w o u l d i n f l i c t m o r e h a r d s h i p t h a n he g e n e r a l m o v e w h i c h is p r o p o s e d . 5 9 1 . W e r e g a r d t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r s p r o p o s a l s as s u i t ble in s o m e w a y s , b u t n o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s : ( 1 ) W e a r e s u r p r i s e d t h a t t h e v a l u a t i o n of a h o u s e at P a n g a n i ttould h a v e b e e n set so l o w as 5, e s p e c i a l l y as it is e s t i m a t e d t h a t i w o u l d c o s t as m u c h as 35 t o b u i l d a f o u r - r o o m e d h o u s e o f

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KIKVUYU l*AitT I C H A P T E R XVII]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMONS

vyattle a n d d a u b a t P u m w a n i . T h e s e f i g u r e s a p p e a r to need re i-on si d e r a t i o n . I n t h i s c o n n e x i o n tire e v i d e n c e g i v e n to us b y th! S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of t h e L o c a t i o n i s i n t e r e s t i n g . P i e stated : " Y o u c a n b u i l d a m u d a n d w a t t l e h u t w i t h second-hair c o r r u g a t e d i r o n f o r S h . 300 t o S h . 4 0 0 , b u t n o t w i t h a coneret f l o o r , but I s h o u l d n o t p a s s t h a t . T o p u t u p a house that s h o u l d a l l o w w o u l d cost S h . SOO t o S h . 1 , 0 0 0 . " I f t h e s e f i g u r e s a r e a c c e p t e d it w o u l d s e e m t h a t the estimate o 5 as s u i t a b l e c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e h o u s e s a t P a n g a n i is far toi l o w , a n d t h a t t h e e s t i m a t e of 35 as t h e cost of b u i l d i n g a liousi a t P u m w a n i is a l s o t o o l o w . P r o b a b l y 1 5 as an a v e r a g e assess m e n t f o r a h o u s e at P a n g a n i w o u l d be n e a r e r the m a r k , but s e p a r a t e v a l u a t i o n w o u l d h a v e t o be m a d e in e a c h case. ( 2 ) I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e w e n o t e t h a t n o t h i n g h a s been allowe by way of compensation for disturbance and loss of amenities points w h i c h o u g h t to be taken into account. unless t h e y We are allowed that to k e e p lodgings which in I n the case of loci" their new be d r a w n quarter? betwee irregula

i n g h o u s e k e e p e r s t h e l o s s b y d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l b e v e r y considerable think, however, a distinction should

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l a t t e r c a s e it s h o u l d ( 3 ) I n r e s p e c t of therefore notice with

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b e c a u s e i t is C r o w n l a n d f o r w h i c h t h e p l o t - h o l d e r s pay r e n t . A Y ( c ) a b o v e , w h i c h i s i n effect t h a t , if t h e a m o u n t p a i d in compensa tion to natives for trust. W e their houses is l e s s t h a n t h e p r o c e e d s of th sale of t h e l a n d , t h e b a l a n c e s h o u l d b e p a i d t o a m u n i c i p a l nativ d o n o t a p p r e c i a t e t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s , b u t t h i n k that i contingency o f a n y p r o f i t b e i n g r e a l i z e d on tlit to it. Government is e n t i t l e d the v e r y unlikely

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d o n o t c o n c e i v e t h a t G o v e r n m e n t is u n d e r a n y obliga

t i o n t o g r a n t a l o a n f o r the p u r p o s e o f s e t t l i n g all the dispossessei n a t i v e s i n P u m w a n i , b u t t h e r e i s an o b l i g a t i o n t o find accommoda tion for, them somewhere either to and the in deny
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t h e c l a i m s of s o m e of tin of of Government such a loan in tin as i

long-established residents to v e r y porters early tion. days. We recommend

S 3 m p a t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n , see servants granting

p r o p o s e d to a p p r o v e d a p p l i c a n t s , b u t t h e r e is n e e d for discrimina I t w o u l d b e c l e a r l y u n w i s e t o assist u n d e s i r a b l e s t o establisl Pumwani. themselves in

K I K U Y U

PROVINCE NAIROBI TOWNSHIP AND COMMONAGE

ICHAPTER X V I I ]

(5) W e n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n s o m e d e b a t e whether atives w h o m o v e f r o m P a n g a n i i n t o P u m w a n i s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d keep l o d g i n g h o u s e s . W e c o n s i d e r t h a t if t h e y are r e p u t a b l e rsons and k e e p r e s p e c t a b l e l o d g i n g s in P a n g a n i , t h e y s h o u l d b e lowed t o k e e p t h e m i n P u m w a n i o r a l t e r n a t i v e l y t h a t t h e c o m -nsatipn g i v e n to t h e m s h o u l d b e t h e g r e a t e r b e c a u s e of t h e loss business w h i c h t h e d i s t u r b a n c e w i l l c a u s e . ( 0 ) T h e closing oi P a n g a n i will cause disturbance to l o d g e r s , ecially t o t h e u n d e s i r a b l e s . I n m o s t c a s e s t h e y h a v e r e s e r v e s t o ich t h e y c o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o g o , but f o r s o m e o f t h e m a c c o m odation in t h e r e s e r v e s w o u l d b e difficult. On t h i s p r o b l e m , ich i s not c o n f i n e d t o P a n g a n i , w e s h a l l m a k e c o m p r e h e n s i v e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b e l o w ( s e c t i o n s 6 2 3 , 624 a n d 1 8 7 0 - 1 8 7 8 ) . (7) W e a r e i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k t h a t t h e c l o s i n g o f P a n g a n i w i l l t p r o v e to b e so c h e a p or so s i m p l e a m a t t e r as t h e D i s t r i c t m m i s s i o n e r ' s m e m o r a n d u m i m p l i e s , a n d if t h e w h o l e v i l l a g e is o\ed at o n e t i m e it s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e h a r d s h i p m a y suit. B y f a r t h e g r e a t e r n u m b e r o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s a r e l o d g e r s ose a c c o m m o d a t i o n elsewhere will be a matter of great iculty, w h e t h e r t h e y l e a v e t h e t o w n or r e m a i n . W e , t h e r e f o r e , c o m m e n d t h a t t h e c l o s i n g of t h e v i l l a g e b e a c c o m p l i s h e d b y ctions. 592. P u m w a n i N a t i v e L o c a t i o n w a s d e c l a r e d o p e n i n J a n u a r y , (2) Pumwani Native 22, and n o w c o n t a i n s 317 h o u s e s a l l b u i l t b y t h e n a t i v e s t h e m Location. lves, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of t e n o w n e d b y t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y . The lives h a v e p l o t s a s s i g n e d t o t h e m o n w h i c h t o b u i l d , a n d a and p e r m i t f e e o f S h . 5 i s c h a r g e d . T h e y a r e a l l o w e d t o o p e n ops subject t o t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f a t r a d i n g l i c e n c e a n d t h e emises b e i n g passed as s u i t a b l e , a n d t h e n u m b e r of s u c h s h o p s present e x c e e d s fifty. T h e y are not a l l o w e d t o k e e p licensed dging h o u s e s , but a p p a r e n t l y t h e y a r e a l l o w e d t o s u b - l e t r o o m s , maternity h o m e , a clinic, public workhouses, a m e m o r i a l hall d a s p o r t s g r o u n d , a n d v a r i o u s e t h e r social s e r v i c e s a n d a m e n i es h a v e b e e n p r o v i d e d , i n c l u d i n g t h e m u n i c i p a l n a t i v e b r e w e r y , om w h i c h m o s t of t h e f u n d s a r e f o u n d . 593. I t is t h e i n t e n t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t t h a t t h i s a r e a , i n ^junction w i t h t h e l a n d o c c u p i e d b y t h e m u n i c i p a l housing herre and G o v e r n m e n t h o u s i n g s c h e m e f o r A f r i c a n e m p l o y e e s , ould b e c o m e t h e p r i n c i p a l n a t i v e q u a r t e r of N a i r o b i . T h e t h r e e reas a r e all s i t u a t e d at P u m w a n i a n d a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y n e a r t o ether t o b e regai-ded as o n e n a t i v e q u a r t e r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e is tervening l a n d w h i c h h a s b e e n a l i e n a t e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . T h e resent a r e a of t h e n a t i v e l o c a t i o n is 130 a c r e s , of t h e m u n i c i p a l erasing s c h e m e 4 1 a c r e s a n d of t h e G o v e r n m e n t h o u s i n g s c h e m e 5 acres. T w o a d d i t i o n a l a r e a s t o t a l l i n g 194 a c r e s h a v e b e e n

KIKUYU PART I - C H A P T E R XVJT]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMOJUO

e a r m a r k e d for extension purposes. T h e r e should therefore b e n difficulty in a c c o m m o d a t i n g t h e 2 9 3 h o u s e h o l d e r s from Paimai or as m a n y of t h e m as choose t o g o t h e r e r a t h e r than leave N a i r o b i w h e n P a n g a n i V i l l a g e is c l o s e d . W e r e g a r d the a r e a , togethe w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n s , as b e i n g sufficient f o r p r e s e n t and n e a r futur r e q u i r e m e n t s , s a v i n g t h e s u g g e s t i o n w h i c h w e h a v e already m a d as to t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y of a s p e c i a l r e s i d e n t i a l quarter f o r r u o r well-to-do natives. 594. W e n o t e t h a t in t h e plan p r e p a r e d b y t h e N a i r o b i T o w P l a n n i n g A u t h o r i t y b e f o r e i t h a n d e d o v e r to t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y j w a s c o n t e m p l a t e d t h a t P u m w a n i w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be extende s o u t h w a r d s o v e r t h e V e t e r i n a r y Q u a r a n t i n e a r e a as far a s th N g o n g r i v e r or e v e n b e y o n d i t , a n d w e u n d e r s t a n d t h a t this in t e n t i o n s t i l l s t a n d s . W e c o n s i d e r t h e p r o v i s i o n a l reservation o t h i s a r e a f o r f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n to b e a p r u d e n t s t e p . (3) The Muni .cipal Housing Scheme for Natives. 5 9 5 . T h e m u n i c i p a l h o u s i n g s c h e m e c o n s i s t s of a n u m b e r o b l o c k s of b u i l d i n g s c o n t a i n i n g s i t t i n g r o o m s , d o r m i t o r i e s an c u b i c l e s , w h i l e k i t c h e n s a r e p r o v i d e d in w h i c h n a t i v e s m a y coo t h e i r o w n f o o d . A m o n t h l y c h a r g e of S h . 4 is m a d e f o r a bed w h i l e S h . 7 is c h a r g e d f o r a c u b i c l e c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e beds. A p r e s e n t o n l y a b o u t a t h i r d o f t h e b e d s a r e o c c u p i e d a state o affairs s a i d t o be d u e t o t h e p r e s e n t d e p r e s s i o n . 59C. who (-1) The (joc ernment Housing Scheme for A frican Employees. find We are advised that the principal use made o f tbi s c h e m e is b y f l i c l a r g e r f i r m s e m p l o y i n g n a t i v e l a b o u r in N a i r o b i it c o n v e n i e n t t o h i r e b l o c k s of r o o m s f o r their Africa! employees. 597. A s e p a r a t e s c h e m e e x i s t s f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f th A f r i c a n e m p l o y e e s o f G o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h a t p r e s e n t is confine t o p r o v i d i n g h o u s e s f o r i n t e r p r e t e r s a n d office b o y s . I t is entirel m a n a g e d a n d financed b y G o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e t o t a l area o f th p l o t s e t a s i d e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e is 33 a c r e s . T h i s is n o t , of course t h e w h o l e of t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s m a d e b y G o v e r n m e n t for th h o u s i n g of i t s e m p l o y e e s , a n d t h e r e a r e m a n y o t h e r areas to w h i c n o d e t a i l e d a l l u s i o n is r e q u i r e d f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e m i l i t a r y lines t h e police lines, the warders' lines and the R a i l w a y landis. 598. T h e a r e a g e n e r a l l y k n o w n as K i b i r a is L . O . 1702, w h i c w a s s u r v e y e d in 1917 as a m i l i t a r y r e s e r v e a n d w a s gazetted a such in 1 9 1 8 . I t c o m p r i s e s 4 1 9 7 - 9 a c r e s , a n d is s i t u a t e d south o o u t s i d e the N a i r o b t h e N g o n g E o a d , p a r t l y inside and partly municipal area.
7

(5) The He-serve Kibira.

at

5 9 9 . I t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s a r e a w a s o r i g i n a l l y assigned to th K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s in 1 9 0 4 , a l t h o u g h n o t g a z e t t e d until m a n y e a r s l a t e r . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g in t h e g a z e t t e m e n t t o show for wha r e a s o n so l a r g e an a r e a w a s r e q u i r e d , b u t it is c o m m o n knowledg

K I K U Y U I CHAPTER X V I I ]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMONAGE

iat one of t h e o b j e c t s w a s t o p r o v i d e a h o m e f o r S u d a n e s e e x jkaris. I t c a n n o t b e said t h a t these f a c i l i t i e s w e r e p r o v i d e d for t h e udanese in lieu of p e n s i o n , s i n c e t h e y r e c e i v e d a g r a t u i t y on r e t i r e lent. B u t no d o u b t it w a s f e l t t h a t t h e r e w a s a m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n ither to r e p a t r i a t e t h e m or to find t h e m h o m e s i n t h e c o u n t r y , and was also h o p e d t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of a m i l i t a r y c a n t o n m e n t o f is kind w o u l d f o r m a useful r e c r u i t i n g g r o u n d w h e n t h e sons of ese ex-askaris s h o u l d g r o w u p . P r e s u m a b l y it w a s t h o u g h t t h a t e s e t t l e m e n t w o u l d i n c r e a s e , since t h e i r sons in turn w o u l d r e t i r e B i d beget f a m i l i e s , a n d t h e r e f o r e so l a r g e a r e s e r v a t i o n w a s m a d e . GOO. B u t i t w a s c e r t a i n l y n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e w h o l e a r e a lould be d e v o t e d t o t h e m i l i t a r y c a n t o n m e n t . T h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n ifi.es' lines t h e m s e l v e s a r e i n s i d e i t , a n d so a r e t h e g o l f l i n k s , a n d icre is n o t h i n g w h a t e v e r t o s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n of t h e S u d a n e s e lat the w h o l e area w a s g i v e n to t h e m a s a r e s e r v e f o r e v e r . They ere m e r e l y g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o l i v e t h e r e . G01. T h e l e g a l p o s i t i o n of t h e o c c u p a n t s of K i b i r a a p p e a r s t o 3 that t h e y a r e t e n a n t s a t w i l l of t h e C r o w n , a n d t h e t e n a n c y i s [able to t e r m i n a t i o n b y t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r of L a n d s at a n y t i m e , n the o t h e r h a n d w e c a n n o t a g r e e t h a t t h e y h a v e n o r i g h t s i n guity. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t G o v e r n m e n t h a d a c l e a r d u t y to t h e s e askaris e i t h e r t o r e p a t r i a t e t h e m or t o find a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r hem. T h e y w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e y m i g h t m a k e t h e i r h o m e s at K i b i r a nd in our j u d g m e n t t h e y o u g h t n o t to b e m o v e d w i t h o u t r e c e i v i n g jitable l a n d e l s e w h e r e a n d c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r d i s t u r b a n c e , a n d e consider t h a t a s i m i l a r o b l i g a t i o n e x i s t s i n r e s p e c t of t h e i r idows, or sons w h o a r e a l r e a d y h o u s e h o l d e r s a t K i b i r a . 602. B u t mainder me. are figures g i v e n said to t o us i n d i c a t e t h a t to into o u t of 571 h o u s e s The of to

nly 251 b e l o n g t o S u d a n e s e e x - a s k a r i s or t h e i r d e p e n d a n t s . belong a heterogeneous the settlement miscellany from We time ersons ^ h o [' w h o m the have penetrated are is of

M o r e t h a n h a l f of t h e s e h o u s e h o l d e r s a r e said t o b e w o m e n , majority if Kibira from undesirable but character. are would on a

ofc deny e v e n t o t h e s e l a t e r c o m e r s s o m e c l a i m i n e q u i t y to r e c e i v e ompensation ifferent closed, they certainly footing the Sudanese. satisfied of t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r Their moving the Gov it to is the the shall should

603. W h i l e w e a r e f u l l y ecessity f o r rnment iresently moving them the to

he u n a u t h o r i z e d r e s i d e n t s of K i b i r a , w e a r e n o t c o n v i n c e d of Sudanese. past services to and We be entitle show sympathetic for thinking consideration, that it would

ertain t h a t t h e y w o u l d grounds

prefer to stay where they are.

d v a n l a g e b o t h of t h e m s e l v e s a n d of G o v e r n m e n t t h a t t h e y allowed t o d o s o . But first,

since G o v e r n m e n t c l e a r l y has

KIKUYU
PART ICHAPTER XVII]

PROVINCE
N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMM.O

r i g h t t o m o v e t h e m , i f i t w i s h e s , u p o n p a y m e n t of compensation a n d h a s e x p r e s s e d t h e i n t e n t i o n of d o i n g s o , w e shall state th t e r m s upon w h i c h w e c o n s i d e r that it could fairly be done. ( 1 ) T h e r e s h o u l d b e p a y a b l e in r e s p e c t of e v e r y household ( i . e . , the household of a Sudanese ex-askari w i d o w o r of h i s s o n o r s o n s ) : (a) (6) Compensation in full for the house. Sudanes or of hi

C o m p e n s a t i o n i n t h e f o r m of e q u a l f a c i l i t i e s for eultiva t i o n a n d g r a z i n g t o b e g r a n t e d i n a n o t h e r settletnen w i t h i n e a s y r e a c h o f N a i r o b i . P r o v i d e d t h a t the grazin n e c e s s a r y s h o u l d b e c o m p u t e d at f o u r a c r e s in respee of e a c h g r o w n h e a d of c a t t l e o w n e d b y t h e househol u p t o t h e m a x i m u m of t w e n t y - f o u r a c r e s p e r household ( c ) C o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a n y c r o p s d a m a g e d or d e s t r o y e d n m c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r d i s t u r b a n c e e s t i m a t e d at 15 per cen of t h e v a l u e o f ( f t ) . Note 1 . T h e l i m i t a t i o n t o 24 a c r e s ( r . e . , p r o v i s i o n for si h e a d of c a t t l e ) a p p e a r s t o us t o b e j u s t i f i e d , b e c a u s e the purpos f o r w h i c h t h e s e t t l e m e n t w a s m a d e s h o w s t h a t it w a s clearly no i n t e n d e d t h a t s i n g l e h o u s e h o l d s s h o u l d use it as a r a n c h i n g pre p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e y w o u l d b e e n t i t l e d t o k e e p s t o c k sufficien for their reasonable requirements. Note 2 . T h e s i t e s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y b e n e a r e n o u g h t o Nairoi t o a l l o w t h e p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h h a s u r b a n p r o c l i v i t i e s , to h a v e ens; a c c e s s , a n d f a r e n o u g h a w a y t o b e safe f r o m e a r l y disturbance c a c c o u n t of t h e e x p a n s i o n of t h e t o w n . Note 3 . S i n c e t h e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h t h e S u d a n e s e e n j o y in th p r e s e n t s e t t l e m e n t w e r e n o t g i v e n t o t h e m a n d t h e i r heirs ii p e r p e t u i t y , but w e r e m o r e in t h e n a t u r e of p r o v i s i o n granted k t h e i r l i f e t i m e , w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e n e w s e t t l e m e n t should be o s i m i l a r t e r m s . W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t i t s h o u l d b e r e n t free in ft c a s e of e a c h h o u s e h o l d d u r i n g t h e l i f e t i m e of t h e p r e s e n t house h o l d e r s or t h e i r w i d o w s , b u t a f t e r t h a t a r e n t s h o u l d be charged. 4 . I f a n y S u d a n e s e d o e s n o t w i s h t o g o t o the nev Note s e t t l e m e n t , b u t p r e f e r s t o g o t o P u m w a n i o r e l s e w h e r e , he shod h e a l l o w e d to t a k e c o m p e n s a t i o n i n c a s h , t o b e a s s e s s e d accordir. t o t h e v a l u e of t h e a b o v e f a c i l i t i e s . (2) T h e r e s h o u l d b e p a y a b l e t o a l l h o u s e h o l d e r s , o t h e r tha t h e S u d a n e s e , t h e b a r e c o s t o f t h e i r h o u s e s a n d s t a n d i n g crop a n d t h e y should be r e q u i r e d t o t a k e u p p l o t s i n P u m w a n i r e t u r n t o t h e i r o w n r e s e r v e s . T h o s e of u n c e r t a i n o r i g i n should s e n t t o t h e r e s e r v e s w i t h w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r t o h a v e m o s t affini! o r , if t h e y c a n a f f o r d t o d o s o , should t a k e u p p l o t s in Pumwan o r l e a s e l a n d in " C " o r " D " a r e a s .

K I K U Y U
M

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMONAGE

CHAPTER X V I I ]

jVotc. I t m a y w e l l b e a r g u e d t h a t t h e s e p e r s o n s h a v e built, o n io\vn l a n d w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y , a n d d e s e r v e n o c o m p e n s a t i o n . B u t oioo of t h e m h a v e b e e n t h e r e f o r m a n y y e a r s a n d G o v e r n m e n t h a s flowed t h e m to r e m a i n . Others have followed, observing that Government t o o k n o a c t i o n . T h e n a t i v e s , as b e i n g a p e o p l e u n d e r ilehme, are e n t i t l e d t o e x p e c t t h a t G o v e r n m e n t w i l l d i r e c t a n d ntrol. W h e r e G o v e r n m e n t r e l a x e s t h a t c o n t r o l i t m u s t , in o u r inion, share t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o c c u r , a n d n a t i v e s ( f n n o t b e g r e a t l y b l a m e d if t h e y t a k e G o v e r n m e n t s i n a c t i o n as presenting a c q u i e s c e n c e . G04. O n e of the r e a s o n s f o r w i s h i n g t o a b o l i s h t h e n a t i v e General Com e t t l e m e n t at K i b i r a is t h e d e s i r e t o b e r i d of a s o m e w h a t d i s p^St^? a t " rderly l o c a t i o n , and t o e f f e c t a d i s t r i b u t i o n s o t h a t t h o s e n a t i v e s K i W r a . fho can j u s t i f y t h e i r p r e s e n c e i n t h e t o w n s h o u l d g o t o P u m w a n i ; ndesirables s h o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e i r r e s e r v e s ; a n d t h e r e s i d u e of udanese s h o u l d be m o v e d i n t o a g a r d e n s u b u r b o r v i l l a g e s e t t l e nent w i t h i n r e a c h of N a i r o b i , w h e r e t h e y m i g h t c u l t i v a t e i n "ourity. T h e o t h e r r e a s o n , w h i c h h a s p r o b a b l y h a d e q u a l w e i g h t , to set f r e e a n area f o r t o w n - p l a n n i n g f o r r e s i d e n t i a l p u r p o s e s , /bile w e t h i n k t h a t t h e d i s p o s a l s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e n a t i v e e l e m e n t i be e m i n e n t l y d e s i r a b l e , w e a r e n o t c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e S u d a n e s e ill be a s w e l l s u i t e d b y a s e t t l e m e n t a t a d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e t o w n ; they a r e b y t h e i r p r e s e n t l o c a t i o n . 60-5. T h e u r g e n t p a r t of t h e p r o b l e m is t o d e a l w i t h t h e n a t i v e s ho h a v e e n t e r e d t h e l o c a t i o n w i t h o u t a u t h o r i t y a n d a r e , f o r t h e lost p a r t , l e a d i n g d i s o r d e r l y l i v e s . T h a t is u r g e n t l y r e q u i r e d i n ic i n t e r e s t of g e n e r a l d i s c i p l i n e . B u t i n r e s p e c t of t h e p r o p o s a l ) m o v e t h e S u d a n e s e t h e r e is p e r h a p s less n e e d f o r h a s t e . While o have recommended that all existing Sudanese householders have r i g h t t o b e c o m p e n s a t e d , w e d o n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e r e is a n y bligation to a l l o w any further houses to be built. A s a r e c r u i t i n g ound f o r t h e K i n g ' s A f r i c a n R i f l e s t h e s e t t l e m e n t h a s b e e n practically u s e l e s s , a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t a l l r e a s o n a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s discharged t o the Sudanese if t h e e x i s t i n g houses are a l l o w e d to ontinue. T h e y s h o u l d n o t b e t r a n s f e r a b l e , b u t s h o u l d b e des royed o n t h e d e a t h o f t h e h o u s e h o l d e r or h i s w i d o w o r w i d o w s . H T l i e sons s h o u l d m o v e i n t o P u m w a n i o r l e a v e t h e t o w n , a n d it is r e c o m m e n d e d that a s m a l l ex gratia p a y m e n t b e m a d e to e n a b l e hem t o do s o .
7

606. A s n u m b e r s d e c r e a s e a n d t h e a r e a of t h e r e s e r v a t i o n is estricted a c c o r d i n g l y , i t m a y b e c o m e d e s i r a b l e t o c o n f i n e i t t o a antonment in one corner of t h e present area. I f f o r that purpose b e c o m e s n e c e s s a r y t o m o v e a n y h o u s e , it c o u l d b e d o n e o n p a y aent of t h e a c t u a l c o s t o f d e m o l i t i o n a n d r e b u i l d i n g , a n d s u c h case lould n a t u r a l l y f o r m a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e p r o v i s i o n t h a t n o h o u s e hould b e b u i l t .

KIKUYU PAET ICHAPTEH X V I I ]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMJIONAOJ

G07. O u r r e a s o n f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e S u d a n e s e shoul r e m a i n a t K i b i r a f o r t h e p r e s e n t is n o t o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e like! t o d e c r e a s e i n n u m b e r s a n d c o u l d p r o b a b l y be m o v e d at le; e x p e n s e l a t e r o n . N o r is it s o l e l y b e c a u s e t h e y w o u l d prefer in l e f t a l o n e as l o n g a s p o s s i b l e . A f u r t h e r a n d p e r h a p s a bette] r e a s o n is t h a t w e h a v e g r a v e d o u b t s o f t h e success of n a t i v e garde: s u b u r b s o r v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s at a d i s t a n c e f r o m N a i r o b i an c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t , i f m a d e a t a l l , should be made c o m p r e h e n s i v e l i n e s a f t e r a full s t u d y of t h e issues i n v o l v e d , an: such a s c h e m e s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y n o t c o m e i n t o b e i n g s i m p l y as a: e x p e d i e n t l o r m o v i n g a f e w S u d a n e s e f r o m a s o m e w h a t valua! residential site. 60S. H a v i n g r e g a r d t o t h e p u r p o s e s f o r w h i c h the land v set a s i d e w e c o n s i d e r t h a t it is j u s t i f i a b l e to limit tj originally r u l e t h e n u m b e r of l i v e s t o c k w h i c h a n y h o u s e h o l d e r may kei t h e r e . A g r a z i n g a r e a c o u l d t h e n b e d e l i m i t e d in accordance wit t h e s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d a l s o be m a d e for tl d e n ' a r e a t i c n of a r a b l e l a n d s . I n t h i s w a y a m o r e o r d e r l y arrant; ment could b e secured.
7

Native Garden 609. B e f o r e m a k i n g o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n o n t h e question i Suburbs or n a t i v e g a r d e n s u b u r b s , it w i l l b e w e l l t o set o u t s o m e e x t r a c t s froj Village Settlements. t h e e v i d e n c e w h i c h w e h a v e r e c o r d e d o n t h e subject : "I location reach of think you have got in your town that town. Your to h a v e t w o s c h e m e s y o u r nt 3'our town extramural location village withij should really de] and

w i t h p e o p l e w h o h a v e to l i v e or can afford t o l i v e in the tow I f y o u h a v e g o t t o deal w i t h t h e r e s i d u e of d e t r i b a l i z e d native w h o s i m p l y h a v e b e e n d e r u r a l i z e d r a t h e r t h a n d e t r i b a l i z e d yo may of a be f o r c e d t o m a k e s o m e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e m w i t h i n rent town "The from the houses, modated . . town ." village to It ought with allow is the to be the far to enough enjoy awnl certa not to interfere The municipal should lodttit extramural near

but in

enough

natives mainly

a m e n i t i e s of

a town.

workers

be accot

the location.

people who

h a v e a Hit!

b i t of p r o d u c e t o sell a n d w h o w a n t t o e n j o y u r b a n amenitie; s u c h as f o o t b a l l extramural "No one. There m a t c h e s a n d p i c t u r e s , w h o m i g h t l i v e in il village." are a large n u m b e r o f safari boys who work f:l they hatj why towntlx] ."

v i l l a g e w o u l d b e a s u c c e s s u n l e s s i t w a s a volur for possibly t h r e e m o n t h s of t h e y e a r ; b u t t h e r e is n o reason nine months in t h e . . 15 m i l e s o u t the remaining well

high wages should

g o t to b e in r e a c h of a safari, spend could live perfectly

10 t o

K.IKUYU I
T

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMONAGE

j-

CHAPTER X V I I ]

" I w o u l d lay the v i l l a g e out a n d h a v e a l l o t m e n t s w i t h a c o m m o n f e n c e r o u n d o u t s i d e . " (See t h e success of In may the E v i d e n c e , pp. as an the 1150-1155.) enterprise is in in 610. A n e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e a b o v e e v i d e n c e d o e s n o t h o l d o u t the settlement paragraph to o p e n unlikely gardening. first position for taken order of of

uch h o p e of

larket

iat G o v e r n m e n t ) provide f o r iis k i n d .

be forced

the settlement recruits

deruralized

natives,

work

T h e second paragraph shows that the inhabitants would for pictures use and for football the matches. as a The place third where while the

it be w o r k e r s in t h e t o w n , b u t r e q u i r e t o b e n e a r it b e c a u s e eir p r e d i l e c t i o n iragraph iey are in shows another village

fari p o r t e r s c o u l d l i v e d u r i n g t h e n i n e m o n t h s of t h e y e a r unemployed. an in the Apparently sense, too as On the that the the conception it will which

itiiess has of t h e s e t t l e m e n t is not so m u c h t h a t it p r o m i s e s m u c h iccess agricultural their Officer native accommodate life with hand African Colonel Rifles, service itives w h o h a v e b e c o m e luinimity hdkinson, takes "deruralized" to support other King's

reserves.

Commanding life without the

ates t h a t t h e t y p i c a l a s k a r i , a f t e r c o m p l e t i n g his t o u r of up h i s least trouble" 1157). 611. W e now turn to big the evidence is of Mr. too C. F.

(Evidence,

Adams, to start by

istrict C o m m i s s i o n e r , "Land of round

Nairobi. towns them. could Natives in do their not with much etc., want valuable than if The be d e m a n d for small is m o r e increased They articles met or sufficient keep claim places de The and

native farms adjoining existing demand slock from merely natives supplies arose and

produce, vegetables, potatoes, . . . remain they who

vastly reserves.

to cultivate

should

cannot

Government because of this

l a n d e l s e w h e r e in t h e m o s t v a l u a b l e like the their reserves. of

Most

t r i b a l i z e d n a t i v e s in t o w n do n o t w a n t to c u l t i v a t e . . . country exception Nubians

Swahilis and a f e w others have g o o d reserves, and there should always be a h o m e under natural and reasonable conditions for them there." (Evidence, pp. 1145-1149.)

612. T h e e v i d e n c e of M r . H . A . C a r r , t h e p r e s e n t M u n i c i p a l flairs Officer, is s i m i l a r in effect. I n a n s w e r t o a q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r here is a n y d e m a n d f o r n a t i v e q u a r t e r s o n g a r d e n c i t y l i n e s , h e fated : "That a necessity. is a- q u e s t i o n Personally I that has been discussed for a long the t i m e , a n d m a n y p e o p l e s e e m t o t a k e i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t i t is do n o t t h i n k i t is at a l l q u i t e

K I K U Y U PAIIT I - C H A P T E R X V I I ]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND Co:

contrary. I t s e e m s t o m e t h a t if y o u s t a r t a l l o w i n g th s u b u r b s t o s p r i n g u p y o u w i l l g e t t h e s a m e b a d conditions t h e m as y o u h a v e i n P a n g a n i . " 613. T h e e v i d e n c e of D r . A . Ft. P a t e r s o n , A c t i n g Director favoura M e d i c a l and Sanitary Services, appears to be generally

t o n a t i v e ' g a r d e n s u b u r b s n e a r t o w n s , but d o e s n o t g o i n t o deti A t t e m p t s h a v e b e e n m a d e t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e a r e a f o r such a venti somewhere prepared by on tire Nairobi.commonage. of A soil and survey h a s b,
x

the D e p a r t m e n t is d e c i d e d l y of

Agriculture choice

is printed w i that " t h e in search

the evidence under survey

( p . 1131) a n d s t a t e s c o m p r e h e n s i v e l y a second

when

land for arable c u l t i v a t i o n . "

I n t h e a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c u l a r area.;

s h o w s t h a t t h e r e a r e e x t e n s i v e a r e a s w h i c h m i g h t be expected r e p a y - d e e p and skilful c u l t i v a t i o n , but, e v e n so, the crops w o u l d l i a b l e t o suffer s e v e r e l y i n t i m e of Concision on 614. A f t e r considering this drought. evidence we have formed :

o p i n i o n t h a t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a v i l l a g e g a r d e n s e t t l e m e n t o side N a i r o b i is f r a u g h t w i t h m a n y d i f f i c u l t i e s a n d , u n l e s s conceit o n b r o a d e r l i n e s t h a n t h e p r e s e n t p r o p o s a l , is f o r e d o o m e d to i' ure. The most obvious difficulty with which it is f a c e d is t
1

t h e l a n d a v a i l a b l e w o u l d o n l y r e p a y c u l t i v a t i o n b y skilful

meth

a n d d e e p d i g g i n g , a n d t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h it i s p r o p o s e d to set t h e r e has b e e n d e s c r i b e d as n o t so m u c h d e t r i b a l i z e d as deruralizIn fact, they are about and deep d i g g i n g the last people f r o m are t o be expected. life whom skilful at culture 615. elderly in it

O n t h e o t h e r h a n d i t m a y be c o n t e n d e d t h e r e a r e perhi married natives to live who near have him. on retired While their an from they a useful in the t o w n , and have n o w solely dependent if they p e r h a p s a s o n at \vt are simply i if tl a gan: sons' earnings in

wage-earning and mouths or keep and

wish

r e m a i n i n t h e t o w n , t h e y m i g h t c o n t r i v e t o g r o w a f e w vegetal) a few for chickens their may, years have allotment daily settlement, able that home for bicycle. a n d m i g h t a t t h e s a m e t i m e p r o v i d e a m o r e comfoi son, w h o in fact, could g o be t o h i s w o r k on it is possit useful in t adjuncts such p e r s o n s , a n d might prove

There a few

the settlement

r e s p e c t i n t h e s a m e w a y a s g a r d e n s u b u r b s a r e useful towns in European countries.

616. B u t t h e r e is o n e p o i n t of p a r a m o u n t i m p o r t a n c e whi v i t i a t e s a n y a t t e m p t t o d r a w a p a r a l l e l . I n a E u r o p e a n count a f a m i l y m i g h t find an a g r i c u l t u r a l a l l o t m e n t i n a suburb a c o v e n i e n t m e a n s of s u p p l e m e n t i n g w a g e s e a r n e d i n t h e town, b w h e n i t s m e m b e r s c e a s e t o h a v e e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e t o w n it wot

KIKTJYTJ j CHAPTER, X V I I ]

-PROVINCE NAIROBI TOWNSHIT AND COMMONAGE

lerally b e u n a b l e t o s u p p o r t itself a n d w o u l d g o e l s e w h e r e , w h e r e jn-f is c h e a p e r . no e a r n e r s .


C

I t s place w o u l d

be taken b y another family

of

617. B u t , a m o n g K e n y a n a t i v e s a t this s t a g e t h e r e is n o such ility of r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e m o s t g e n u i n e l y d e t r i b a l i z e d n a t i v e s , w h o m i n p a r t i c u l a r i t is n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e , a r e t h e v e r y sons w h o - w o u l d find m o s t d i f f i c u l t y i n m o v i n g e l s e w h e r e , and s p r o b a b l e t h a t i n a v e r y f e w y e a r s o n e w o u l d find a v i l l a g e ubited b y p a u p e r n a t i v e s w h o h a v e c e a s e d t o h a v e any- c o n ion w i t h t h e t o w n a n d a r e s e e k i n g t o . s u p p o r t themselves curiously o n s e c o n d - r a t e s o i l i n a v i l l a g e o f g a r d e n a l l o t m e n t s liout a n y c o u n t r y s i d e . . O n e c a n n o t b e c a l l o u s e n o u g h t o r e c o m nd t h e i n s t i t u t i o n of a g a r d e n s u b u r b s i m p l y f o r t h e s a k e of riding a c o n v e n i e n t oubliette f o r p a u p e r n a t i v e s a n d so r e l i e v the t o w u of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e a l i n g w i t h t h e m . W e a g r e e principle w i t h t h e o p i n i o n e x p r e s s e d b y t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s ler, t h a t t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e s a r e t h e p r o p e r p l a c e for n a t i v e s ose p r e s e n c e in t h e t o w u i s n o l o n g e r r e q u i r e d . 618. B u t w h i l e t h i s i s o u r g e n e r a l v i e w , t h e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n a l es. T h e r e are s o m e n a t i v e s w h o h a v e b e c o m e no d e t r i b a l i z e d or o h a v e so l i t t l e affinity; w i t h a n y t r i b e f o r w h i c h a r e s e r v e h a s In set a s i d e t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t f a i r l y b e r e q u i r e d t o l i v e i n a n y ticular n a t i v e r e s e r v e . T h e r e are others perhaps w h o h a v e a i t i m a t e d e s i r e to take u p l a n d o n l e a s e a n d d e v e l o p i t as a fate f a r m on m o r e i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s t h a n w o u l d a t present, be ssible in a r e s e r v e . S u c h p e r s o n s s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d to t a k e u p id in " C " a r e a s . 619. S u c h a s o l u t i o n m a y b e t h o u g h t to be o p e n t o t h e s a m e jections as t h e v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s c h e m e , b u t t h e b r o a d e r basis i which it is c o n c e i v e d g i v e s i t m o r e c h a n c e of s u c c e s s . I n s t e a d a f e w score of m o r e o r less u n i f o r m s m a l l h o l d i n g s surrounding village, it is a p l a n n e d l a y - o u t of a c o u n t r y s i d e t o b e d i v i d e d i n t o ruis of d i f f e r e n t s i z e s , s o m e h e l d i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d s o m e o n a ecies of g r o u p or f a m i l y t e n u r e , t h e w h o l e i d e a b e i n g t o suit e d i f f e r e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s of p e r s o n s in d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s of dlizaticn a n d t o a v o i d e x c e s s i v e u n i f o r m i t y . A v i l l a g e s c h e m e of lall h o l d i n g s , , u n l e s s c o m b i n e d w i t h s o m e l a r g e r f a r m s o r e n t e r ises o r s u p p o r t e d b y a n e l a b o r a t e m a c h i n e r y o f c o - o p e r a t i o n , i s 't to p r o d u c e a d e a d l e v e l o f p o v e r t y a n d a n e x c e s s i v e u n i f o r m i t y c u l t i v a t i o n , so t h a t w h e n t h e m a i n . c r o p f a i l s a l l suffer a l i k e a n d ere a r e n o r i c h e r or l a r g e r f a r m s w h i c h m i g h t a f f o r d t e m p o r a r y pport. B u t a s c h e m e d e v i s e d o n b r o a d e r l i n e s w o u l d a l l o w f o r e e x i s t e n c e of s o m e l a r g e r f a r m s a n d , so f a r as p o s s i b l e , p r e s e r v e i e l e m e n t of t r i b a l c o n t r o l in t h e l a r g e r g r o u p s . U r b a n n a t i v e s om t h e ' t o w n s w o u l d o n l y b e a m a l l e l e m e n t i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n ,
c

K I K U Y U PART I - - C H A P T E R XVII]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMMON

w h i c h in t h e c a s e o f " C " a r e a s n e a r e s t t o N a i r o b i w o u l d mail b e p r o v i d e d b y K i k u y u s q u a t t e r s r e t u r n e d f r o m f a r m s or sectic o f mbari w h i c h h a v e n o t sufficient l a n d f o r t h e i r requirements the reserve. Leasin Land ' * ' ' n a t i v e s m i g h t h a v e a b e t t e r char t o "be" e s t a b l i s h t h e m s e l v e s , i t w o u l d b e w e l l t h a t o n e of the "( developed as a u r e a s s h o u l d b e c o n v e n i e n t l y n e a r t o N a i r o b i . A s o i l s u r v e y of t near Nairobi N a i r o b i C o m m o n a g e s h o w s t h a t a r e a t o b e n o t v e r y suitable a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e m e n t s e x c e p t i n p a t c h e s , b u t t h e r e is land t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e K i s e r i a n a n d A l b a g a t h i r i v e r s in i M a s a i R e s e r v e w h i c h w o u l d be s u i t a b l e f o r m i x e d f a r m i n g if i M a s a i a r e p r e p a r e d to l e a s e i t , a n d in a l a t e r p a s s a g e , when a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e A l a s a i P r o v i n c e , w e m a k e a p r o p o s a l to t effect t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y - s i x t y - n i n e s q u a r e m i l e s of this land t h e p o s i t i o n m a r k e d E o n t h e m a p f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n 69S shun if p o s s i b l e , b e l e a s e d f r o m t h e M a s a i f o r 99 y e a r s a n d be develop a n a l o g o u s l y t o a " C " a r e a (see s e c t i o n s 706 a n d 709 ( 3 ) below).
P O J 6 2 0 n 0 ! d e r t n a t m b a n 18 a n t 0

T h i s l a n d is o n l y u s e d n o w a d a y s b y t h e A l a s a i of the At P l a i n s d u r i n g t i m e s of s e v e r e d r o u g h t a n d t h e n o n l y for v e b r i e f p e r i o d s . I t i s w e l l - w a t e r e d a n d c o n s i d e r a b l e areas in t valleys could be cultivated. I t a d j o i n s t h e N a i r o b i common:; a n d t h e p o i n t at t h e r i v e r j u n c t i o n is a b o u t s e v e n m i l e s from tl c e n t r e of t h e t o w n . I t s t r e t c h e s in a g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n south-vu b y w e s t t o t h e s l o p e s of t h e N g o n g H i l l s , a n d a t its weste: e x t r e m i t y it is a b o u t six m i l e s f r o m t h e n e a r e s t p o i n t of t: Kikuyu Native Reserve. It is, therefore, most convenient s i t u a t e d t o b e u s e d as a " C " a r e a . I t is n e a r e n o u g h to Nairc t o a d m i t of n a t i v e i m m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e l o c a t i o n s k e e p i n g a footi: t h e r e u n t i l t h e y h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s , a n d n e a r enough t h e K i k u y u R e s e r v e t o a d m i t o f K i k u y u n a t i v e s t a k i n g up lai there without severing their h o m e connexions. Eventually, : d o u b t , t h e s e t w o c l a s s e s of i m m i g r a n t s w o u l d f o r m a commnnr a n d i n t e r m a r r y , a n d t h e a r e a w o u l d h e l p t o b r i d g e t h e g a p betwe: t h e t o w n a n d t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s e r v e s a n d p r o d u c e a great fluidity of distribution. E o r , w h i l e it w o u l d b e unreasonable e x p e c t t h e K i k u y u or M a s a i or a n y o t h e r n a t i v e r e s e r v e to reeer a l i e n n a t i v e s f r o m N a i r o b i , s u c h as S u d a n e s e a n d f o r e i g n nativ a n d p e r s o n s of m i x e d o r u n c e r t a i n o r i g i n , t h e " C " area will te: t o f u s e t h e v a r i o u s e l e m e n t s a n d it w i l l p r o b a b l y n o t be diffici f o r a n a t i v e b o r n i n s u c h an a r e a t o o b t a i n a f o o t i n g , at least a t e n a n t , in e i t h e r of t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g n a t i v e r e s e r v e s , should desire to do so.
1

621. N o t e v e r y b o d y w o u l d w e l c o m e such a solution, a r p e n e t r a t i o n of t h i s k i n d w i l l c e r t a i n l y a d d t o t h e difficulties a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e r e s e r v e s . B u t , t h e m a t t e r b e i n g v i e w e d pare.

K I K U Y U I CHAPTER X V I I ]

PROVINCE NAIROBI TOWNSHIP AND COMMONAGE

i a land p r o b l e m , it c a n n o t b e d e n i e d t h a t t h e r i g i d i t y of n a t i v e serve boundaries a n d t h e a b s e n c e of a n y t h i n g r e s e m b l i n g a f r e e arket i n l a n d r e n d e r s p r o b l e m s of d i s t r i b u t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . It umot p e r m a n e n t l y b e f o r t h e g o o d of t h e c o u n t r y t h a t w e s h o u l d ve p r o b l e m s of l o c a l c o n g e s t i o n i n K i k u y u , p r o b l e m s of u n d e r opulation in M a s a i , a n d p r o b l e m s o f u n e m p l o y e d , l a n d l e s s , " i r i b a l i z e d n a t i v e s i n N a i r o b i a l l o f t h e m d u e t o a l a c k of i d i t y in t h e m e a n s of d i s t r i b u t i o n . (i-2-' lirobi T h e sum of our c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g n is as f o l l o w s :
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(a) W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t P a n g a n i should b e m o v e d b y s e c t i o n s on the t e r m s w h i c h w e h a v e s u g g e s t e d , a n d t h a t a p proved applicants h e admitted into P u m w a n i . (b) W e c o n s i d e r t h a t P u m w a n i s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d as t h e m a i n n a t i v e q u a r t e r o f N a i r o b i . T h e s i z e of t h e r e s e r v a tion a f t e r t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e t w o e x t e n s i o n s i n i m e d i a t e l y p r o p o s e d , i s sufficient f o r p r e s e n t a n d n e a r future r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h i l e w e n o t e t h a t f u r t h e r e x t e n sions c o u l d lie e f f e c t e d b y t a k i n g i n p a r t s of t h e V e t e r i n ary Q u a r a n t i n e area, as occasion m a y arise.

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( c ) W e r e c o m m e n d that an area he set a s i d e as a r e s i d e n t i a l q u a r t e r for m o r e w e l l - t o - d o n a t i v e s , b u t t h a t , i n s p e c i a l cases, it s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o g r a n t p e r m i t s t o a p p r o v e d n a t i v e a p p l i c a n t s e n a b l i n g t h e m t o l i v e in o t h e r r e s i d e n tial a r e a s o f t h e t o w n . (d) We have made recommendations r e g a r d i n g the com p e n s a t i c n w h i c h w e s h o u l d c o n s i d e r e q u i t a b l e if it is desired to m o v e the S u d a n e s e s e t t l e m e n t at K i b i r a . B u t if G o v e r n m e n t d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r t h e m o v e t o b e an urgent n e c e s s i t y , w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t only the un authorized n a t i v e i m m i g r a n t s be m o v e d at o n c e , c o m p e n s a t i o n b e i n g p a i d as r e c o m m e n d e d , b u t t h a t t h e Sudanese be a l l o w e d to remain on the conditions w h i c h we have proposed.

(e) I f t h e S u d a n e s e a r e m o v e d , w e c o n s i d e r i t p r e f e r a b l e t h a t they should either m o v e into P u m w a n i o r into a "0" area. I f i t is f o u n d p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h a " C " a r e a in the l o c a l i t y w h i c h w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d b e t w e e n the K i s e r i a n a n d M b a g a t h i E i v e r s b y l e a s i n g it f r o m t h e M a s a i , t h e y m i g h t p e r h a p s be g i v e n accommodation there, but w e record our opinion that a garden allot ment suburb c o n c e i v e d in isolation w o u l d b e foredoomed to failure. (f) W e agree that t h e g e n e r a l m e t h o d of d e a l i n g w i t h natives w h o a r e n o t w a n t e d in N a i r o b i a n d h a v e n o m e a n s of

KIICUYU PABT ICHAPTEB X V I I ]

PROVINCE N A I H O H I T O W N S H I P AND COJLM

s u p p o r t i n g t l i e u i s e l v e s h o n e s t l y s h o u l d be to r e t u r n thei t o t h e i r r e s e r v e s . I f t h e y p r e f e r t o t a k e u p l a n d on lea: in a " C " area the D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , Nairob - s h o u l d h e l p t h e m to d o s o , i f t h e i r r e s e r v e s a r e reniot j B u t if t h e i r r e s e r v e s a r e n e a r ( i . e . , K i k u y u , Ukamlf and M a s a i ) it w o u l d probably be m o r e convenient t V n e g o t i a t i o n s t o be m a d e t h r o u g h t h e i r o w n Distv Commissioner.

6 2 3 . I t i s p e r h a p s o u t s i d e t h e s c o p e of our d u t i e s t o mat] r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s as t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h i t should l a w f u l t o r e q u i r e a n a t i v e t o l e a v e N a i r o b i . B u t it is a corollary: t h e p o w e r to m o v e a n a t i v e f r o m a t o w n t h a t t h e r e m u s t be aceorj modation for him somewhere. I t is t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y tha] w h e n he i s r e t u r n e d t o h i s o w n r e s e r v e , t h e r u l e s of land tctutrj in t h a t r e s e r v e m u s t n o t b e s u c h as t o p r e c l u d e h i m f r o m obtaiuitl a c c o m m o d a t i o n a t l e a s t a s a t e n a n t , a n d r e c e i v i n g a sufficiencyi l a n d to c u l t i v a t e . T h i s a p p l i e s t o t h e r e t u r n e d s q u a t t e r from I f a r m as w e l l as to n a t i v e s f r o m t o w n s , a n d i t is i m p o r t a n t thJ D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r s s h o u l d h a v e t h e n e c e s s a r y p o w e r s , mq d i f f i c u l t i e s in t h i s c o n n e x i o n h a v e a l r e a d y a r i s e n . 624. I n r e s p e c t of n a t i v e s o f u n c e r t a i n o r i g i n , w h o may o r d e r e d t o l e a v e N a i r o b i as " v a g r a n t s " a n d p r o t e s t t h a t they hai n o w h e r e to g o . w e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t Commissione: N a i r o b i , o r such o t h e r a u t h o r i t y as may b e a p p o i n t e d , should hat t h e p o w e r t o d e t e r m i n e , a f t e r d u e i n q u i r y , t h e t r i b e and reset" to w h i c h such n a t i v e p r o p e r l y b e l o n g s o r w i t h w h i c h h e h a s mo a f f i n i t y , a n d t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b e a p o w e r t o s e n d h i m to sti: r e s e r v e , a n d t h a t t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r of such r e s e r v e shoti be b o u n d to r e c e i v e h i m and. f i n d a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r h i m .
7

Nairobi Commonage.

625.. I t w i l l b e c o n v e n i e n t to a l l u d e in t h i s p ! a c e to t h e pro! lem created by Somali cattle on Nairobi chapter. thirty years ago Somali their cattle on Nairobi coil commonage, althougl S o m a l i s "not b e i n g n a t i v e s of t h e C o l o n y , i t is p e r h a p s n o t stridj p a r t of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r of t h i s - 626. I t were given monage. how
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' i 6 2 7 . T h e first effort t o p l a c e t h e i r t e n a n c y o n a r e g u l a r footiil s e e m s t o h a v e b e e n m a d e in 1 9 2 9 , w h e n t h e y w e r e o r d e r e d to jtj t w o s h i l l i n g s a y e a r f o r a t e m p o r a r y o c c u p a t i o n , l i c e n c e on c o m m o n a n d t w e n t y - f o u r s h i l l i n g s a y e a r as refit f o r a boma p! A n a r e a of t h i r t y a c r e s w a s s u r v e y e d , e v i d e n t l y w i t h the intentij t h a t t h e s e S o m a l i bomas or s m a l l v i l l a g e s e t t l e m e n t s should;

K I K U Y U B'AiiT I - C H A P T E R XVII]

PROVINCE NAIROBI TOWNSHIP AND COMMONAGE

noved t o i t , b u t i n f a c t he c o m m o n . 028. T h e hree bo-mas temporary which pay.

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029. T h e S o m a l i s d o n o t s e e m t o h a v e e n t e r e d a n y p r o t e s t a t he t i m e a g a i n s t t h e p a y m e n t o f r e n t , b u t i n 1 9 3 1 a p r o p o s a l w a s aade t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o p a y a g r a z i n g f e e of 50 ents f o r e a c h h e a d of c a t t l e a n d t e n c e n t s f o r e a c h s h e e p o r g o a t , nd at t h i s p o i n t t h e y e n t e r e d a p r o t e s t . O n 1st M a r c h , 1 9 3 2 , hey a d d r e s s e d a p e t i t i o n t h r o u g h H i s E x c e l l e n c y t h e ' G o v e r n o r o the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n w h i c h i t is s t a t e d t h a t : " t o w a r d s t h e :lose o f Q u e e n " V i e t o r i a ' s r e i g n t h e y , a t t h e s u g g e s t i o n of t h e TOviEcial C o m m i s s i o n e r , left various scattered g r a z i n g areas rliich t h e y o c c u p i e d i n a n d a r o u n d N a i r o b i , a n d c o l l e c t e d a t t h i s ipot, b e i n g i n f o r m e d t h a t i t h a d b e e n g i v e n t o t h e m as a g i f t f r o m he Q u e e n . " G30. T h e files t o w h i c h w e h a v e h a d a c c e s s r e v e a l n o t h i n g t o aipport t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e w a s a g i f t of a n y k i n d . The jomalis h a v e b e e n c a l l e d i n e v i d e n c e a n d c a n n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e i t . W e are satisfied t h a t in t h i s c a s e , as i n so m a n y o t h e r s w h i c h lave b e e n b r o u g h t b e f o r e u s , a l l t h a t r e a l l y h a p p e n e d i s t h a t lerinission w a s g r a n t e d t o o c c u p y a c e r t a i n a r e a d u r i n g the Jeasure of G o v e r n m e n t . G31. T h e files d o n o t r e v e a l f o r w h a t p u r p o s e t h e N a i r o b i :onimonage w a s o r i g i n a l l y i n s t i t u t e d , b u t i t is r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p pose t h a t it w a s t o p r o v i d e g r a z i n g f o r t r a d e c a t t l e i n t r a n s i t , f o r transport o x e n a n d f o r s l a u g h t e r o x e n . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o s h o w that it w a s e v e r i n t e n d e d , a n d it is i n h e r e n t l y u n l i k e l y t h a t it w a s intended, t o b e used as a c o m m u n a l f a r m w h e r e e i t h e r S o m a l i s or any o t h e r . r e s i d e n t s o f t h e t o w n s h i p m i g h t r e a r c a t t l e . The Nairobi C o m m o n a g e i s 4 3 s q u a r e m i l e s i n e x t e n t , w h i c h is f a r ; more t h a n c a n p o s s i b l y b e r e q u i r e d f o r s e r v i c e s p r o p e r t o T h e township. O u r first r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , is t h a t a n a r e a be m a r k e d off sufficient t o p r o v i d e a c c o m m o d a t i o n f o r s u c h of t h e Somalis w h o a r e r e s i d i n g t h e r e n o w as w e r e i n t h e U g a n d a E i f l e s (subject t o s i m i l a r r e s t r i c t i o n s t o t h o s e w h i c h w e h a v e r e c o m mended f o r t h e S u d a n e s e asharis a t K i b i r a ) a n d t o p r o v i d e g r a z i n g lor s l a u g h t e r o x e n , t r a n s p o r t o x e n a n d t r a d e c a t t l e in t r a n s i t , a n d be h a n d e d o v e r t o t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y t o b e a d m i n i s t e r e d as an integral p a r t of t h e t o w n s h i p , a n d b e m a d e s u b j e c t t o w h a t e v e r ;onditions t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y s e e s fit t o e n f o r c e . T h e S o m a f i s , in so far as t h e y a r e c a t t l e t r a d e r s , c a n m a k e u s e o f i t o n t h e s a m e terms as o t h e r s i n r e s p e c t of a n y bona fide t r a d e s t o c k i n t r a n s i t .

K I K U Y U PART ICHAPTER XVII]

PROVINCE N A I R O B I T O W N S H I P AND COMIIOXJ

6 3 2 . T h e r e t h e n r e m a i n s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of w h a t is h a p p e n to the rest of the area. P r a c t i c a l l y t h e w h o l e of it j g a z e t t e d G a m e B e s e r v e , a n d t h e G a m e W a r d e n is a n x i o u s that] s h o u l d b e c o n s t i t u t e d a N a t i o n a l P a r k , a p r o p o s a l w h i c h appeal t o h a v e w i d e s u p p o r t . A l t h o u g h i t is n o t a m a t t e r s t r i c t l y withi o u r t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e , w e w i s h to s t a t e t h a t such a sblutio a p p e a r s t o us t o be i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of t h e C o l o n y , and v , r e c o r d o u r very d e f i n i t e finding t h a t n o n a t i v e r i g h t s would infringed.
7

6 3 3 . I f , h o w e v e r , t h e a r e a i s n o t d e v e l o p e d as a N a t i o n ! P a r k , a n d c e a s e s t o b e G a m e B e s e r v e , its s t a t u s w o u l d be that I u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d i n t h e H i g h l a n d s , i n r e s p e c t of whkj E u r o p e a n s h a v e a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n . F a c i l i t i e s f o r stock-raisinf i n i t s h o u l d n o t b e g r a n t e d t o n o n - E u r o p e a n s u n l e s s v e r y stron g r o u n d s e x i s t . I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e w e c a n n o t s e e t h a t t h e Somali ( a p a r t f r o m askaris of t h e U g a n d a B i n e s ) h a v e a n y s p e c i a l claii s u c h a s w o u l d justify a n e x c e p t i o n b e i n g m a d e . W e , therefor; r e c o m m e n d t h a t S o m a l i c a t t l e s h o u l d n o t b e a l l o w e d to graz t h e r e . I f a S o m a l i w i s h e s t o c o n t i n u e t r a d i n g i n c a t t l e he won! b e f r e e t o m o v e i n t o N a i r o b i a n d k e e p h i s t r a d e s t o c k i n transit o slaughter stcck in t h e area specially r e s e r v e d f o r that purpose, k h e w o u l d h a v e t o g i v e u p r a n c h i n g . I f t h a t c o u r s e d o e s n o t appej t o h i m h e c a n t a k e u p l a n d i n a " D " a r e a , w h e r e n o speck p r i v i l e g e o f r a c e e x i s t s , or in a " C " a r e a , s i n c e w e shall recort m e n d t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h e t e r m " n a t i v e " in r e s p e c t of sue! a r e a s b e w i d e n e d t o i n c l u d e a S o m a l i . N u b i a n or a S u d a n e s e . Ml r e c o m m e n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e p r e s e n t p e r m i s s i v e t e n u r e be esl tended for o n e y e a r w h i l e a r r a n g e m e n t s are b e i n g m a d e .
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634. W e u n d e r s t a n d n a t i v e s in P u m w a n i v i l l a g e a l s o mas use of N a i r o b i c o m m o n a g e f o r g r a z i n g p u r p o s e s . W e conside t h a t o n l y v e r y r e s t r i c t e d f a c i l i t i e s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n should k g r a n t e d . N a t i v e s w h o l i v e in t o w n s c a n n o t e x p e c t to k e e p cattle B u t if t h e r e i s r o o m f o r a f e w c o w s in m i l k t o be k e p t on tl: p a r t o f t h e c o m m o n a g e t o b e t a k e n o v e r by t h e Municipalitj t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n w h y p e r m i t s s h o u l d n o t b e g r a n t e d o n paymen o f a small fee. B u t strict supervision would be necessary.
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(535. It. is n e c e s s a r y t o r e f e r b r i e f l y t o t h e e a r l y h i s t o r y o f t h e Early iisai, a n d t o t h e e v e n t s w h i c h l e d to t h e d e c l i n e of t h e i r p o w e r . n account of the t r i b e h a s b e e n g i v e n b y s e v e r a l w r i t e r s of w h o m He late S i r C h a r l e s E l i o t w a s p r o b a b l y o n e of t h e best i n f o r m e d , c writes :


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M a s a 1

" P r o m a t l e a s t 1850 t o t h e e a r l y e i g h t i e s t h e M a s a i w e r e a f o r m i d a b l e p o w e r in E a s t A f r i c a . T h e y successfully a s s e r t e d themselves against the A r a b slave-traders, took tribute from all w h o passed t h r o u g h t h e i r c o u n t r y , a n d t r e a t e d o t h e r r a c e s , w h e t h e r A f r i c a n or n o t , w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t a r r o g a n c e . " 036. T h e M a s a i h a d a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a n d w e l l - o r g a n i z e d Hilary s y s t e m e s p e c i a l l y a d a p t e d f o r r a i d i n g p u r p o s e s , a n d a n :count of s o m e of t h e m a n y r a i d s t h e y p e r p e t r a t e d w i l l b e found H M r . S a n d f o r d ' s " A d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d -Political H i s t o r y of t h e lasai R e s e r v e . " I t is n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e s e r a i d s s e l d o m e x t e n d e d Pi a w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n , w h e r e t h e L u m b w a a n d N a n d i w e r e p r o b ibly at l e a s t a m a t c h f o r t h e m a n d w h e r e e v e n t h e less w a r l i k e L u o Jeem to h a v e h a d l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n h o l d i n g t h e m i n c h e c k . Tribal Organization.

637. T h e p o w e r of t h e M a s a i b e g a n s e r i o u s l y t o d e c l i n e t h r o u g h w a n e of the irious c a u s e s , of w h i c h t h e c h i e f w a s a succession of i n t e r n a l w a r s . Masai Power, pertain d i v i s i o n s , n o t a b l y t h e U a s i n G i s h u a n d L a i k i p i a k , w e r e lmost a n n i h i l a t e d a n d s c a t t e r e d t o t h e f o u r w i n d s b y a c o m b i n a t i o n i other g r o u p s , but t h e v i c t o r i e s w e r e of a P y r r h i c c h a r a c t e r . f 638. A b o u t t h e y e a r 1 8 8 3 , a s e r i o u s e p i d e m i c , w h i c h w a s b e ieved b y J o s e p h T h o m s o n t o h a v e b e e n r i n d e r p e s t b u t w a s m o r e robably p l e u r o - p n e u m o n i a , a t t a c k e d t h e i r c a t t l e a n d r e s u l t e d i n eavy losses. T h i s w a s f o l l o w e d a f e w y e a r s l a t e r , circa 1 8 S 9 , b y he g r e a t c a t t l e p l a g u e k n o w n as r i n d e r p e s t , a n d t h e i r v a s t h e r d s e to a l a r g e e x t e n t d e s t r o y e d .
-

Cattle Plagues.

639. A y e a r o r . t w o l a t e r i n t e r n a l w a r f a r e r e c o m m e n c e d , o w i n g Feud between o a feud b e t w e e n L e n a n a a n d S e n d e y u , t h e t w o sons of t h e p o w e r - Lemma and evu. id L a i b o n , M b a t i a n . A t first S e n d e y u w a s successful, a n d c e r t a i n ' ections w h i c h supported Lenana, notably the Kaputiei and ilatapatu, w e r e h e a v i l y d e f e a t e d a n d w e r e f o r c e d to s e e k r e f u g e I t h e ' K i k u y u . L a t e r t h e P u r k o , t h e n , as n o w , t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l
S e n

livision of t h e M a s a i , t h r e w in t h e i r w e i g h t o n t h e side of L e n a n a , lefeated S e n d e y u i n a s e r i e s o f b a t t l e s , a n d d r o v e h i m and h i s followers in a s o u t h - w e s t e r l y d i r e c t i o n . T h e L o i t a , S e n d e y u ' s m o s t

MASAI PART IICHAPTER I]

PROVINCE THE MASAI AGREE

1
p o w e r f u l s u p p o r t e r s , suffered h e a v y l o s s e s , a n d the w e a k e r divisii t h e D a m a t , L a i t o y o k and S i r i a , w e r e a l m o s t a n n i h i l a t e d . and most of the got Loita into sought trouble of the refuge with across the where fled to they the for the German Sende bor German authorities a w h e r e th eventually returned to British territory. outskirts several after many southern region. s e r i e s of formidable disasters the M a s a i we power, and Sir Char remained Position after the Masai Power had waned. years, eventually the a b o v e to b e a T h e r e m n a n t s of the Si Luo country, r e t u r n i n g t o the area th

n o w o c c u p y i n the T r a n s - M a r a 640. E v e n considered "I by

E l i o t s t a t e d in t h e c o u r s e of a r e p o r t in J u n e , 1901 : r e g a r d t h e M a s a i as t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t and dangero


1

of t h e t r i b e s w i t h w h o m w e h a v e to d e a l in E a s t A f r i c a , am f o r c e in t h e d i s t r i c t s w h i c h t h e y In a later : "I agree with those wdio d o not think report, in April, 1903, wrote inhabit." qualified t h i s opinion a

t h i n k it w i l l be l o n g n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n an a d e q u a t e militai he

t h e M a s a i are

formidable

element

in E a s t

Africa."

H o w e v e r g r e a t a f o r c e the A l a s a i w e r e at o n e t i m e , it is certain th a b o u t 1895 t h e i r p o w e r h a d s e r i o u s l y w a n e d , and a l t h o u g h spontc r a i d s a g a i n s t t h e less w a r l i k e t r i b e s w e r e n o t i n f r e q u e n t , the latt w e r e h o l d i n g t h e i r o w n a n d i n s o m e cases r e t a l i a t i n g . are ance other they the inclined and to the opinion that, but for British In fact protection, t occupied interventio About 11 8i m o r e tin

M a s a i w o u l d h a v e b e c o m e a f a c t o r of c o m p a r a t i v e l y m i n o r impoi their country might have gradually been tribes; the feud between would numbers again h a v e been of Masai in L e n a n a a n d S e n d e y u , after a bri throats. were little

r e c o n c i l i a t i o n , w a s r e n e w e d a n d , b u t for G o v e r n m e n t at each others' territory British

4 0 , 0 0 0 , a n d w i t h t h e i r i n t e r n a l d i s s e n s i o n s t h e y c e r t a i n l y could n o have maintained their position against a concerted t r i b e s such as t h e Early days of European Settlement. 641. W i t h enabled accumulating w as t h e
r

attack by othe

Lumbwa. of of settled their Government power They the M a s a i vt e

the a d v e n t a little

to r e g a i n

former

a n d w e r e agai Tin

large flocks and h e r d s . 1903, w h e n

w a n d e r e d at will ove settlement had begin

a l a r g e p a r t of K e n y a , a n d p e r p e t r a t e d s e v e r a l m i n o r raids. p o s i t i o n in European

6 4 2 . D u r i n g 1 9 0 3 a p p l i c a t i o n s w e r e r e c e i v e d f r o m European Masai Grazing Rights. f o r l a n d in t h e B i l l V a l l e y a n d e l s e w h e r e i n p l a c e s w h e r e the M a s g r a z e d t h e i r flocks a n d h e r d s , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n a r o s e as to how fa such applications could be granted without encroaching on tli

MASAI
II-CHAPTER 1]

PROVINCE
THE MASAI AGREEMENTS

i "razing rights. f c h he stated [ t o have b e e n :

C o n s i d e r a b l e discussion

took

place, and

in in

member ol t h a t y e a r Sh- C h a r l e s E l i o t w r o t e a m e m o r a n d u m

" I n the discussion o n t h i s q u e s t i o n t w o t h i n g s s e e m to m e confused: particular districts; districts, and (1) T h e r i g h t s of the M a s a i t o inhabit (2) T h e i r right to monopolize keep e v e r y b o d y else out. T h e first r i g h t is u n d o u b t e d , b u t t h e s e c o n d a p p e a r s to m e most q u e s t i o n a b l e . I cannot admit As a matter of e x p e d i e n c y ' tribes h a v e large tracts a it m a y right to some keep land ^Agreement times be best to m a k e r e s e r v e s , b u t , a s a m a t t e r "of p r i n c i p l e , that wandering out of other and superior races merely because

particular

they h a v e a c q u i r e d t h e h a b i t of s t r a g g l i n g o v e r f a r m o r e than they c a n utilize."

643. T h e l a t e S i r D o n a l d S t e w a r t , w h o s u c c e e d e d S i r C h a r l e s t as G o v e r n o r , discussed t h e M a s a i q u e s t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r arrival and c a m e to t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e r e m o v a l of. t h e li from the R i f t V a l l e y i n t o t w o r e s e r v e s w a s t h e b e s t s o l u t i o n , northern of the t w o p r o p o s e d r e s e r v e s w a s L a i k i p i a , a n d t h e lern an area ot s o m e 4,350 s q u a r e m i l e s s o u t h of the r a i l w a y he position s h o w n i n t h e s k e t c h m a p f o l l o w i n g A p p e n d i x N o . 8 . J644. T h e p o s i t i o n w a s e x p l a i n e d to t h e M a s a i c h i e f s and esentatives a t a m e e t i n g h e l d at N a i v a s h a o n t h e 9th A u g u s t , I, and on t h e f o l l o w i n g d a y a n a g r e e m e n t w a s s i g n e d b y t h e lernor o n the o n e p a r t , a n d a n u m b e r o f M a s a i r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e K i n g clans a n d s e c t i o n s of t h e t r i b e on t h e o t h e r . 645. T h e text, of t h i s a g r e e m e n t , k n o w n a s t h e " A l a s a i A g r e e It of 1 9 0 4 " , w i l l b e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x N o . 8 .

. . . . .

[646. T h e A l a s a i f a i l e d i n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i c u l a r s t o c a n y o u t The position part of t h e 1904 A g r e e m e n t . S e c t i o n s n a m e d i n t h e t e x t o f A g r e e m e n t as t h e E l b u r g o , G a k u n u k i , L o i t a , D a m a t and Jutok did n o t m o v e a b s o l u t e l y to L a i k i p i a (the Northern erve), but m a n y of t h e m , i n c l u d i n g t h e w h o l e of t h e L o i t a a n d lat sections a n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of t h e E l b u r g o ( P u r k o ) J Gakunuki ( K a k o u y u k e ) r e m a i n e d in t h e s o u t h a n d s c a t t e r e d l i g h o u t w h a t is n o w t h e M a s a i R e s e r v e a n d f a r b e y o n d t h e Tines of the S o u t h e r n R e s e r v e as i t w a s t h e n constituted br the A g r e e m e n t . I t is n o t k n o w n w h a t s e c t i o n of the ai is m e a n t b y t h e " L a i t u t o k " ; t h e r e a r e t w o d i v i s i o n s k n o w n ectively as t h e L o i t o k i t o k (a b r a n c h of t h e S i g h i r a r i ) a n d t h e ayok, the f o r m e r i n h a b i t i n g a n area t o t h e n o r t h of K i l i m a n j a r o the latter l i v i n g w i t h t h e L o i t a i n t h e L o i t a h i l l s . N e i t h e r o f sections m o v e d t o L a i k i p i a .
a f t e r 1 9 0 4

MASAI-PROVINCE PART IICHAPTER I] THE MASAI AOIU:

647. T h e r e i s n o r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e of t h e n u m b e r s of the il s t o c k i n 1 9 0 4 , b u t it is c e r t a i n t h a t t h e y i n c r e a s e d v e r y largely i n t h e n o r t h a n d s o u t h b e t w e e n t h a t t i m e a n d 1 9 1 1 . I n 1907 l a t e M r . C o l l y e r , t h e n D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , B u m u r u t i , estint t h e n u m b e r o f c a t t l e i n t h e N o r t h e r n B e s e r v e at 70,000 and s h e e p a n d g o a t s at 1,710,000. 648. beyond south been the taken The the Northern had Beserve as defined spread the all had in over been the the considerably Agreement, country A few Diver extet II

boundaries Masai

and in from and farms

Kilimanjaro Lemek

to t h e K i s i i a n d K a v i r o n d o b o r d e r s . up a l o n g southern G-uaso Nyiro

Valley.

Considerations 649. W h e n i t b e c a m e c l e a r on t h e o n e h a n d to Cover::;, which led to the Agreement t h a t t h e M a s a i w e r e n o b r e s p e c t i n g t h e i r n e w b o u n d a r i e s , am of 1911. L e u a n a , t h e P a r a m o u n t C h i e f , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h a t the sei t i o n of t h e t r i b e i n t o t w o a r e a s h a d caused a g r e a t e r disunity in tribal o r g a n i z a t i o n than h e had anticipated and a weakening own full authority, proposals Southern for the concentration of t h e who! Whi i n an extended B e s e r v e began t o be discussed.

and c o m p l e t e statement

o f t h e o b j e c t s a n d r e a s o n s of the o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e N o r t h e r n Pea of t h e t r i b e a n d t h e repi-esenta: Masai agreed to t h e move namely of their!:

posal would require mention

w a s t o b e v a c a t e d p a r t l y f o r E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t , i t has also tc stated that the p a r a m o u n t chief chiefs they The Agreomenb of 1911. and were elders of the that Northern

t h e r e a s o n set o u t i n t h e p r e a m b l e t o t h e A g r e e m e n t , "satisfied it i s t o t h e b e s t one area." an Agreement interests that the Masai 650. On should inhabit the 4th April,

1911,

was

reacl

between the Governor It be

( t h e l a t e S i r P e r c y G i r o u a r d ) a n d the l\\

r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t h e t e x t o f w h i c h w i l l b e f o u n d in A p p e n d i x M p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e M a s a i s h o u l d l e a v e t h e N o r t h e r n Beserve J united in in one The area, area the of was Southern the Beserve being extended! provision extension for which

this purpose. made

the A g r e e m e n t

approximately

5,So0 square mile extensions

t h e p o s i t i o n s h o w n o n t h e m a p f o l l o w i n g A p p e n d i x N o . 8 to wtj allusion, has already b e e n m a d e . Subsequent further a l s o s h o w n i n t h i s m a p w i t h t h e d a t e s at w h i c h t h e y w e r e made! The Masai Move. 6 5 1 . T h e m o v e b e g a n i n J u n e , 1 9 1 1 , a n d p r o c e e d e d through] J u l y a n d A u g u s t of t h a t y e a r b y f o u r d i f f e r e n t r o u t e s converging the Mau in the neighbourhood owing of the "Promised Land." a hitch occurred suffered the t o n u m b e r s of M a s a i w i t h t h e i r stock ( T h e r e w a s g r e a t c o n g e s t i o n a n d the M cattle. The They consequently returned to affected E l m e n t e i t a and for at. had, however,

g r e g a t i n g in that area. s o m e losses i n was

E u r o p e a n farm areas b e t w e e n N j o r o a i i d move suspended. check

MASAI
II-CHAPTKB I]

PROVINCE
THE M A S A I AGREEMENTS

of ilishu e

the and

Masai some

and of

there the

was

an The

agitation, elders move

supported and

by in The " M a s a i Case."

more

influential

moran,

e a l l o w e d to r e t u r n

to L a i k i p i a .

recommenced March. the

1912, and w a s c o m p l e t e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g the d e c i s i o n A. of Government to return to

652. A f t e r Tune e and M r .

to c o n t i n u e Laikipia

move more and Mr. been May, with for

1912, the

agitation of

became

A l o r r i s o n , a local l a w y e r , w a s a p p r o a c h e d the M a s a i . On the 28th J u n e against was the

up the case o n b e h a l f -acted b y L e g a l i s h u against (he to

rison addressed t h e C o l o n i a l Office i n t i m a t i n g t h a t h e had take proceedings which i, on behalf of t h e A l a s a i , a n d a n a c t i o n w a s b r o u g h t in Attorney General, dismissed of Appeal s by the C h i e f Justice. A n a p p e a l to t h e C o u r t

Govern

tern A f r i c a in D e c e m b e r w a s . a l s o d i s m i s s e d , i t b e i n g h e l d : (1) T h e E a s t A f r i c a n P r o t e c t o r a t e is in r e l a t i o n to t h e a foreign which (2) T h e is country in which in the Crown has exercisable though of the with accordance in the with the Crown Foreign the into jurisdiction thereunder. under

Jurisdiction A c t , 1900, and Orders-in-Council Alasai, living Crown, the Protectorate capable and of such protection were

entering

Agreements

Governor,

Agreements

w e r e in f a c t T r e a t i e s a n d , a s s u c h , c l a i m s t h e r e u n d e r a r e not c o g n i z a b l e i n t h e P r o t e c t o r a t e Courts. ol 653. T h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e M a s a i E e s e r v e as d e f i n e d i n t h e Further Extensions reement of 1911 w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y a m e n d e d v e r y g r e a t l y t o t h e the Masai Reserve. -antage of t h e M a s a i . 54. T h e first a d d i t i o n w a s t o t h e w e s t of t h e M a r a area w h e r e te 920 square m i l e s p. rthern M a s a i ml it already moved w e r e added in the from by Laikipia the into position the shown on area had T h e principal reason for this extension w a s t h a t , w h e n extension who (1) In the t h e Trans Mara A rea. the of
7

Southern K e s e r v e w h i c h h a d b e e n p r o v i d e d f o r t h e i r u s e , they occupied Southern Masai

en Mara the K.

ached into it w i t h t h e i r f l o c k s a n d h e r d s , so t h a t t h e a c c o m m o d a n p r o v e d insufficient f o r t h e m a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n across t h e granted. Reports on this T r a n s - M a r a region submitted by

-ector of A g r i c u l t u r e , t h e D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c W o r k s , M r . J . . M a n a g e r of t h e G o v e r n m e n t F a r m , a n d M r . C . 0 ' N . zing land in the Protectorate, exceedingly re to the effect t h a t i t c o n s i s t e d of o n e m i l l i o n a c r e s o f t h e well-watered :e.rior to t h e f o r m e r N o r t h e r n E e s e r v e . Dement. I t w a s sparsely

Chaplin finest and

occupied

the r e m n a n t s of t h e S i r i a s e c t i o n , w h o a r e n o t m e n t i o n e d in t h e

MASAI PART IICHAPTER I]

PROVINCE THE MASAI ACH

6 5 5 . T h e G o v e r n o r , i n v i e w of t h e e m i n e n t desirability of e l u d i n g a l l t h e M a s a i i n o n e r e s e r v e , felt c o m p e l l e d to recounrn t h a t t h i s f u r t h e r a r e a b e a l l o t t e d t o t h e M a s a i , a n d it w a s accof i n g l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s as d e f i n e d b y P r o c l a m a t i o n dat t h e 2 3 r d of J u l y . 1 9 1 2 . T h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e e x t e n d e d area d e s c r i b e d in t h e P r o c l a m a t i o n w e r e of a p r o v i s i o n a l character. ; w e r e subsequently slightly modified. (2) In the Kilimanjaro Area. 6 5 6 . A f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s e r v e w a s m a d e later so as i n c l u d e t h e M a s a i of t h e L a i t o k i t o k , w h o h a d f o r m a n y years h a b i t e d t h e a r e a o n t h e n o r t h e r n slopes of M o u n t Kilimanjaro t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e R o m b o R i v e r . T h e s e M a s a i w e r e forme i n c l u d e d in t h e S e y i d i e ( n o w C o a s t ) P r o v i n c e a n d h a d been m i n i s t e r e d f r o m T a v e t a . T h i s e x t e n s i o n a d d e d 3,730 square mi 6 5 7 . F u r t h e r s m a l l e r , b u t n o t i n c o n s i d e r a b l e , additions to r e s e r v e w e r e m a d e on t h e M a u i n v i e w of t h e special request of i M a s a i b e f o r e s i g n i n g t h e 1 9 1 1 A g r e e m e n t , t h a t as m u c h as possil of t h e a r e a k n o w n as t h e " P r o m i s e d L a n d " , f o r w h i c h applicati h a d b e e n m a d e b y M r . P o w y s C o b b , s h o u l d b e g i v e n to t h e m . Th, m i n o r e x t e n s i o n s c o m p r i s e d 327 s q u a r e m i l e s . Note.The is, therefore, The miles for Population and Stock. t o t a l of t h e s e areas is 1 5 , 1 7 7 s q u a r e m i l e s . T h T h e balari 11,797 square m i l e s , w h i c h gazetted. exchange mentioned in secti circumcision has not is the t o t a l area of i h a v e b e e n e x c l u s i o n s a m o u n t i n g t o 380 s q u a r e m i l e s . M a s a i R e s e r v e as at p r e s e n t Kinangop the Masai, present figure the That

(3) Extensions in the M a u Area.

696 b e l o w , w h i c h p r o v i d e d , o n b a l a n c e , a f u r t h e r a r e a of 110 squ been of t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t , since tl completed by the Masai only gazettement. according three to i to i J B e x c h a n g e has n o t y e t b e e n f o r m a l l y 658. T h e l a t e s t official in extent square mile. and population is say is -18,381. density is to

T h e r e s e r v e is 14,797 square mi! therefore that the about average Masai housek

of five p e r s o n s h a s an a l l o w a n c e of o v e r o n e a n d a h a l f square mil of c o u n t r y to i t s e l f . for Veterinary numbers The official e s t i m a t e of t h e n u m b e r of car i n d i c a t e s that t and are probal 1930 is 7 2 0 , 0 0 0 , b u t a m o r e r e c e n t a c t u a l c o u n t m a d e by t Department much in in t h e K a j i a d o excess of that District estimate are

more than a million.

T h e n u m b e r of s h e e p a n d g o a t s is given five, b a s e d o n t h e official estimafc goats and 18 d o n k e y s , but

id'

t h e 1930 e s t i m a t e as 8 2 0 , 4 5 0 a n d t h e n u m b e r of d o n k e y s as 171.8C T h e a l l o w a n c e p e r h o u s e h o l d of is t h e r e f o r e 74 c a t t l e , 85 s h e e p or

Met 6 5 9 . T h e fact t h a t t h e M a s a i h a v e b e e n a b l e t o accumulate a' th m a i n t a i n such v a s t f l o c k s a n d h e r d s in t h e i r r e s e r v e speaks for itse iron.

in all p r o b a b i l i t y c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e .

398
MASAI 11CHAPTER I] PROVINCE THE MASAI AGREEMENTS

660. I t is i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o m p a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s in r e s p e c t o f julation d e n s i t y w i t h t h o s e o b t a i n i n g i n K i k u y u a n d K a v i r o n d o . rile in M a s a i a n a r e a of 14,797 s q u a r e m i l e s s u p p o r t s a p o p u l a n of 48,381 a t a d e n s i t y of a b o u t t h r e e to t h e s q u a r e m i l e , t h e ee districts of K i k u y u p r o p e r c o m p r i s e 1,726 s q u a r e m i l e s ( a s etted) s u p p o r t i n g a p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l a t e s t cial figures n u m b e r s 4 S 9 , 1 5 6 , a t a d e n s i t y o f 283 t o t h e s q u a r e and the t h r e e K a v i r o n d o n a t i v e r e s e r v e s h a v e a n a r e a o f 14 square m i l e s , w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n o f f i c i a l l y stated to be 29,422, and a d e n s i t y of 143 to t h e s q u a r e m i l e ; i t m u s t b e embered, h o w e v e r , that the M a s a i a r e a pastoral t r i b e , w h i l e K i k u y u and K a v i r o n d o a r e m a i n l y a g r i c u l t u r a l . T h e basis o f c a l c u l a t i o n f o r t h e K i k u y u figures g i v e n a b o v e s in N o t e 4 t o s e c t i o n 67. 661. Such g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c i e s c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d s i m p l y b y difference in t h e q u a l i t y of t h e l a n d . A l t h o u g h t h e r e are c e r t a i n d and w a t e r l e s s t r a c t s i n t h e A l a s a i c o u n t r y , as is b o u n d t o b e case in so l a r g e a n a r e a , a n d p a r t s a r e f l y - i n f e s t e d , t h e g r e a t e r t of the r e s e r v e i n c l u d e s s o m e of t h e finest a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d toral land i n K e n y a ' , a n d t h e M a s a i a r e p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t althy tribe in A f r i c a , b o t h in t h e m a t t e r of l a n d a n d t h e s t o c k ich they are a b l e t o k e e p o n i t . T h e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d c o m p a r e s u n f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t in t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g K i k u y u s u b - d i s t r i c t Dagoretti, w h i c h is densely i n h a b i t e d . G62. T h e M a s a i m a k e l i t t l e or n o u s e of t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , e K i k u y u a r e desirous of c u l t i v a t i n g i t a n d a r e in f a c t c u l t i v a t on a small scale o n t h e N g c n g h i l l s a n d o t h e r j d a c e s , b u t o n 'ery p r e c a r i o u s f o r m of t e n u r e .

Comparison with the Population Density in Kikuyu and Kavirondo.

Comparison with Kikuyu in respect of the Quality of tlio Land.

663. I n v i e w of t h e fact t h a t t h e A l a s a i w e r e a d e c a y i n g a n d Cenerous adent race w h e n B r i t i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w a s e s t a b l i s h e d a n d Treatment of the Masai. t the p r o t e c t i o n g i v e n t h e m , in all p r o b a b i l i t y , s a v e d t h e m f r o m aster, it s e e m s c l e a r t h a t t h e y h a v e b e e n t r e a t e d in an u n d u l y erous m a n n e r as r e g a r d s l a n d . A c o m p a r i s o n of t h e s p a r s i t y in ich their r e s e r v e i s i n h a b i t e d w i t h t h e d e n s i t y o b t a i n i n g a m o n g "labouring t r i b e s s h o w s h o w n o t a b l e a d e g r e e of m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n sts, a n d , if it is n o t f a i r to d e s c r i b e t h i s s t a t e of t h i n g s e n t i r e l y the A g r e e m e n t , i t is at l e a s t t r u e t h a t t h e A g r e e m e n t is t h e acipal o b s t a c l e i n t h e w a y of a m e l i o r a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n . The ole m a t t e r is an e x c e l l e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e h a r m w h i c h m a y b e e by t h e l o c k i n g u p and p e r m a n e n t e n t a i l of l a n d , a n d b y t o o at a zeal f o r s e c u r i t y at t h e e x p e n s e of f l u i d i t y . 064. U n d e r our first t e r m of r e f e r e n c e w e a r e r e q u i r e d to c o n Effect of the er the needs of t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n , p r e s e n t a n d p r o s p e c t i v e , Agreements. h respect to l a n d , a n d t h e q u e s t i o n s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n t e r p e n e t r a and fluidity a r e e x t r e m e l y p e r t i n e n t . B u t i n r e s p e c t of a l l

MASAI PART II--CHAPTER, I]

PROVINCE THE MASAI AOKKUI

t h a t p a r t o f t h e M a s a i R e s e r v e to w h i c h the A g r e e m e n t of Kjfl a p p l i e s , t h a t is t o s a y , t h e a r e a s m a r k e d A a n d B on the m l f o l l o w i n g A p p e n d i x N o . 8 , t h e l a n d is d e c l a r e d t o be r e s e r v e d ! t h e e x c l u s i v e use and b e n e f i t of t h e M a s a i t r i b e , and G o v e r n m ! has a g r e e d n o t t o c o n v e y a n y l a n d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s , as in t h e A g r e e m e n t , b y l e a s e or g r a n t to a n y p e r s o n w i t h o u t the e l e sent of t h e p a r a m o u n t c h i e f a n d the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the trill e x c e p t i n g o n l y in the case of l a u d r e q u i r e d for p u b l i c purposes or I m i n i n g . F r o m this it is c l e a r t h a t not o n l y E u r o p e a n s , but e l n a t i v e s of o t h e r t r i b e s a r e p r e c l u d e d f r o n t o b t a i n i n g land in I M a s a i R e s e r v e o n any- r e a s o n a b l e s e c u r i t y , u n l e s s the M a s a i t i n ! s e l v e s a g r e e . T h i s t h e y arc u n l i k e l y to d o . 6 0 5 . A s t r i c t i n s i s t e n c e on t h e l e t t e r of t h e s e clauses would t l o n l y be an i m p e d i m e n t in p r o g r e s s . t o l e a s e s but w o u l d a l s o p r e v e n t the

d fr eiB

--I

s i d e r a b l e a m o u n t of p e a c e f u l p e n e t r a t i o n b y K i k u y u w h i c h is a I n . ! m e m b e r s of t h e i r f a m i l y a l o n g w i t h t h e m , a n d t h e M a s a i hushal as a r e l a t i o n - i n - l a w , s e l d o m or n e v e r o b j e c t s . in n e e d . In

M a n y M a s a i m a r r y K i k u y u w i v e s w h o f r e q u e n t l y bril

this w a y an aJj

cultural settlement b e g i n s and the M a s a i tribe gains a reinforcem! of w h i c h it is g r e a t l y h e l d to i n f r i n g e used f o r t h e exclusive fooling between

B u t t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s might I

t h e clause w h i c h r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e l a n d should 1 use a n d b e n e f i t o f the M a s a i t r i b e , and i: were ( o he r e f e r r e d would which object it n o w to the eh: a n d the it possesses
4

p r o b a b l e t h a t , if t h e s e c a s e s , i n s t e a d of b e i n g s e t t l e d on a frier relatidns-indaw, of the of the few and representatives w o u l d lose e v e n tribe, they

agriculturists their very for

g e t her w i t h t h e f o r c e 660. A g a i n , that land It not leased. Native the it

example. w e l l be or t o t h e a d v a n t a g e of a t :
r

may for

required would of the tribe

present

near

future

use should the trii

is b e t t e r

l a n d t o be u s e d t h a n t o lie i d l e , and: the rents. therefore defined The it e l d e r s of may limits be and

Council

receive tribe, that,

h a v i n g n o e x p e r i e n c e i n such m a t t e r s , m a y o b j e c t unreasonably, detriment of and in the k subject interests the within

appropriate

safeguards, there

should be

a power

to over-ride si

o b j e c t i o n s in t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t of t h e t r i b e . p r i n c i p l e of t h e L a n d s be to the

T h i s is an accept

T r u s t O r d i n a n c e in r e s p e c t of other trib: of the Masai to be excluded from

I f it is a r i g h t p r i n c i p l e , as w e a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t it i s , it can o: disadvantage operation. 667. F r o m an adherence these considerations w e to t h e terms of


4

are satisfied that too ri is n o t in the 1

the ..

Agreement

i n t e r e s t s of t h e M a s a i .

399
MASAI
IICHAPTER I]

PROVINCE
THE MASAI AGREEMENTS

068. W h e n

w e turn

from

t h e i n t e r e s t s of t h e M a s a i a n d

con

.r the i n t e r e s t s o f

o t h e r t r i b e s , i t is c l e a r t h a t t h e

permanent makes able

[tuil of a vast area of l a n d f o r the b e n e f i t of a t r i b e w h i c h

iittle use of it a n d , left to i t s e l f , w o u l d c e r t a i n l y n o t be

keep it, m u s t a p p e a r u n j u s t ; e s p e c i a l l y w h e n o n e , at l e a s t , o f t h e l a b o u r i n g tribes is l i v i n g in a s t a t e w h i c h b o r d e r s on c o n g e s t i o n , ibody w i s h e s to d e p r i v e the M a s a i of t h e i r l a n d , but her., or t o i n d i v i d u a l , n a t i v e s . 669. B e s i d e s t h e leasing of land which they do not require, might re are s e v e r a l a d v a n t a g e o u s e x c h a n g e s which the Masai justification ,'iit arise for r e q u i r i n g t h e m to l e a s e u n u s e d p o r t i o n s of it t o o t h e r

ango w i t h g r e a t p r o f i t to t h e m s e l v e s a n d to t h e C o l o n y a t l a r g e , 1 w e shall r e f e r t o s o m e of t h e m in s e c t i o n s 693-711 b e l o w . Effect of the Kenya Annexation Order-inCouncil.

670. I t m a y p e r h a p s be a r g u a b l e t h a t t h e K e n y a A n n e x a t i o n liler-in-Gouncii d a t e d 11th J u n e , 1 9 2 0 , h a d t h e effect o f r e n d e r i n g i Masai A g r e e m e n t n u l l a n d v o i d . B u t w e a r e n o t so m u c h c o n ned w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n in l a w as w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n in e q u i t y , a n d are fully p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e M a s a i are in e q u i t y e n t i t l e d to a l l : benefits of the A g r e e m e n t just as i f it w e r e s t i l l in f o r c e . But at does n o t m e a n t h a t t h e A g r e e m e n t c a n n o t be a m e n d e d b y t h e ruination or m o d i f i c a t i o n of c l a u s e s w h i c h are n o t in r e a l i t y b e n e il to t h e 671. W e Masai. h o l d t h a t o u r o b l i g a t i o n t o w a r d s t h e M a s a i is exactly to

same as it is t o w a r d s all t h e o t h e r t r i b e s of K e n y a , n a m e l y , feguards as w i l l e n s u r e t h a t ail t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e s a r e used

Jopose such a m e n d m e n t s of t h e L/ands T r u s t O r d i n a n c e a n d such and veioped to t h e b e s t a d v a n t a g e of the o c c u p a n t t r i b e s , s u b j e c t o n l y tire acquisition o f l a n d f o r p u b l i c p u r p o s e s o r p u r p o s e s e s s e n t i a l to s w e l f a r e of the C o i o n v . we consider ences in the that Masai of I n so f a r as w e a r e successful in relating should be discontinued. be considered doing or is and to t h e special c l a u s e s n o w Keserve to l e a s e s There just

nettling i n v i d i o u s a n d a trifle a b s u r d in t h e p o s i t i o n ular m e t h o d lease or l i c e n c e should for nil-able for o t h e r t r i b e s , but n o t the M a s a i .

that a par

O u r d u t y is

vise a m e t h o d w h i c h is just to a l l o f t h e m , a n d w e shall selves to t h a t task i n t h e apter H I , passim). t h i r d p a r t of our R e p o r t

address

(Bart 111,

672. T h e M a s a i c a n o n l y s t a n d t o g a i n b y t h e e l i m i n a t i o n of guards w h i c h a r e of n o p r a c t i c a l use o r v a l u e to t h e m a n d c a n ly hinder t h e i r p r o g r e s s . I f t h e y r e m a i n in isolation in t h e i r erve, as t h e y w i l l h a v e to do i f it is to be d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e i r dusive use and b e n e f i t , t h e y a r e l i k e l y to s t a g n a t e a n d f u r t h e r wnerate, a n d l a r g e a r e a s o f v a l u a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , e i t h e r iirely unused o n a c c o u n t o f fly o r E a s t C o a s t F e v e r or used o n l y

MASAI PART IICHAPTER 1]

PROVINCE THE "MASAI AOHKESII

l o r d e p a s t u r i n g u n e c o n o m i c l i v e stock w i l l r e m a i n e m p t y and, developed. W e h a v e h a d r e l i a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e fly areas r a p i d l y e x t e n d i n g , a n d t h a t t h e M a s a i b y t h e m s e l v e s c a n n o t hop d e a l w i t h this p r o b l e m , b u t a n i n d u s t r i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l tribe such t h e K i k u y u w o u l d q u i c k l y c l e a r t h e b u s h h a r b o u r i n g the fly; replace it b y cultivation. 6 7 3 . I t is i m p o r t a n t t h a t , if t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s are c e p t e d b y G o v e r n m e n t a n d if t h e y a r e h e l d , i n h o w e v e r sligh d e g r e e , t o a f f e c t the p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h t h e M a s a i n o w enjoy u n t h e A g r e e m e n t o f 1 9 1 1 , t h e y should b e a p p r i s e d of t h e change; of the reasons for it. 6 7 4 . W e h a v e b e e n m o v e d to w r i t e t h i s c h a p t e r by the nec s i t y o f c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o the m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t i v e populatt w h i c h w o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e a m e l i o r a t e d i f a l e s s e x c l u s i v e policy * a d o p t e d in the M a s a i R e s e r v e ; t h e o n l y p o i n t to w h i c h we L d i r e c t e d o u r a t t e n t i o n is t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r s e c u r i n g a b e t t e r distrii t i o n of t h n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n a n d a m o r e e c o n o m i c use of the lai
o

400

CHAPTER
IE MASAI PROVINCE :

II.
SPECIFIC THE L A N D

CERTAIN TRIBE.

PROBLEMS

CONNECTED MASAI

W I T H

675. W e n o w t u r n to an e x a m i n a t i o n o f c e r t a i n specific c l a i m s sh have a c e r t a i n local i m p o r t a n c e but a r e , b y c o m p a r i s o n w i t h more c o m p r e h e n s i v e considerations which character. we have just been ussing, e n t i r e l y of a m i n o r

Certain Claims?

676. T h e Ahisai c l a i m t h e area o n e m i l e in w i d t h o n the s o u t h Claims to "Mile of the r a i l w a y l i n e f r o m A t h i R i v e r T o w n s h i p t o S u l t a n H a m u d o h v i t l n * ' tion, and the t r i a n g l e b e t w e e n C h y u l u , t h e K i b o k o R i v e r a n d Triangle, tan H a m u d . T h e s e a r e a s are k n o w n a s t h e M i l e Z o n e a n d t h e ulu T r i a n g l e a n d it is c o n v e n i e n t t o discuss t h e m b o t h t o g e t h e r . 677. T w o facts e m e r g e c l e a r l y f r o m our e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e ence : t h e l a n d c l a i m e d is not i n c l u d e d in the Agreement ndaries of 1911 or in a n y o t h e r a g r e e m e n t w i t h the M a s a i ; a n d Masai k n o w t h a t it w a s not i n c l u d e d . W e h a v e t h e r e f o r e c o n led that t h e M a s a i c a n n o t c l a i m i t as of r i g h t . 678. W h e n t h e A g r e e m e n t w a s s i g n e d , it w a s c e r t i f i e d that t h e timent w a s e x p l a i n e d to the c h i e f s a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the and Pro sai, w h o e n t e r e d i n t o t h e A g r e e m e n t o f t h e i r o w n f r e e w i l l h full k n o w l e d g e of its c o n t e n t s . Grown Advocate, the Secretary to the for Native Affairs, of W. four

T h i s c e r t i f i c a t e w a s s i g n e d InProtectorate. Executive Hemsted, that, Alasai well that began R.

cial C o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d t h e T r e a s u r e r o f t h e 679. E v i d e n c e was given into tncil, w h i c h w e n t the m a t t e r , b y Air.

sub-committee

cer in C h a r g e of t h e A l a s a i f o r m a n y tough in t h e a b s e n c e of w precisely We where the boundary

y e a r s , t o the e f f e c t they knew quite

demarcation, neither lie nor the was,

had b e e n told m a n y t i m e s that it did n o t e x t e n d u p to t h e r a i l y line. h a v e a l s o h a d e v i d e n c e ( p . 1262) t o t h e effect B r o w n e , w h e n District Commissioner, N g o u g , Zone. the It of It jor E . D .

erect beacons t o d e m a r c a t e t h e M i l e 680. I t sai h a v e

has b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d t o us i n s o m e q u a r t e r s t h a t a good claim to t h e area on economic grounds.

tains sources o f w a t e r s u p p l y of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e t o t h e m , ich they h a v e h a d t h e u n i m p e d e d use f o r a n u m b e r o f y e a r s . se areas, p e n d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n of a n a d e q u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e we r e c o m m e n d the adoption of one of the following

1 entail s o m e h a r d s h i p o n the t r i b e if i t is d e p r i v e d o f t h e u s e of supply, courses

400
CHAPTER II.
MASAI PROVINCE : CERTAIN TRIBE. c l a i m s Certain Specific w i t h Claims. just been SPECIFIC T H E LAND PROBLEMS CONNECTED MASAI t7&! W e W I T H

n o w turn to an e x a m i n a t i o n of c e r t a i n specific considerations which we have

have a c e r t a i n local i m p o r t a n c e but a r e , b y c o m p a r i s o n lore c o m p r e h e n s i v e Ising, entirely of a m i n o r character.

R7G. T h e M a s a i c l a i m t h e area o n e m i l e in w i d t h o n t h e s o u t h Claims to Mile. If the r a i l w a y line f r o m A t h i R i v e r T o w n s h i p t o S u l t a n H a i n u d Zone and Oliyulu In, and t h e t r i a n g l e b e t w e e n C h y u l u , t h e K i b o k o R i v e r a n d Triangle. In H a m u d . T h e s e a r e a s a r e k n o w n a s t h e M i l e Z o n e a n d the Elu T r i a n g l e a n d it is c o n v e n i e n t t o discuss t h e m b o t h t o g e t h e r . 577. T w o facts e m e r g e c l e a r l y f r o m our e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e ice : t h e l a n d c l a i m e d is not i n c l u d e d in t h e Agreement laries of 1911 or in a n y o t h e r a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e M a s a i ; a n d lasai k n o w t h a t it w a s not i n c l u d e d . W e h a v e t h e r e f o r e c o n Id that t h e M a s a i c a n n o t c l a i m it as of r i g h t . 578. W h e n t h e A g r e e m e n t w a s s i g n e d , it w a s c e r t i f i e d that t h e hient was explained to the chiefs and representatives of the and by Pro ii, wdio e n t e r e d i n t o t h e A g r e e m e n t o f t h e i r o w n f r e e w i l l I full k n o w l e d g e of its c o n t e n t s . prown A d v o c a t e , 579. E v i d e n c e Icil, w h i c h the Secretary to the T h i s certificate w a s signed for Native Affairs, of W. four Protectorate. Executive Hemsted. that, Masai well that began R.

li C o m m i s s i o n e r s a n d t h e T r e a s u r e r o f t h e was given the went into matter, by Mr.

sub-committee

\r in C h a r g e of t h e A l a s a i f o r m a n y precisely line. We where the boundary

years, to the effect they knew quite

lgh in t h e a b s e n c e of d e m a r c a t i o n , n e i t h e r h e n o r t h e was,

tad b e e n t o l d m a n y t i m e s t h a t i t d i d n o t e x t e n d u p t o t h e r a i l h a v e a l s o had e v i d e n c e ( p . 1262) t o t h e e f f e c t Zone. the It It E. D. B i 'o\vne, w h e n D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , N g o u g ' ,

bet b e a c o n s t o d e m a r c a t e t h e M i l e pSO. I t h a s b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d li h a v e a good claim to the

to us i n s o m e q u a r t e r s t h a t area on economic grounds.

Sins sources o f w a t e r s u p p l y of c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e t o t h e m , of J they h a v e had t h e u n i m p e d e d u s e f o r a n u m b e r of y e a r s . h lentail s o m e h a r d s h i p o n t h e t r i b e if i t is d e p r i v e d of t h e use of i areas, p e n d i n g t h e p r o v i s i o n of a n a d e q u a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s u p p l y , jwe r e c o m m e n d the adoption of one of the following courses

MASAI PART 11CHAPTER II]

PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND RECOMMEI

w h i c h f o l l o w in the. m a i n t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h e Lands B o a r d a n d of E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , b o t h of w h i c h bodies made c inquiries into the position. 6 8 1 . F i r s t l y , if t h e M a s a i so d e s i r e , t h e y should he "iv o p p o r t u n i t y o f t a k i n g o u t a n n u a l leases a t a r e a s o n a b l e rent l e a s e s to be r e n e w a b l e u n t i l such t i m e as equivalent v,a f a c i l i t i e s be m a d e a v a i l a b l e in t h e a d j o i n i n g parts of the R e s e r v e e i t h e r b y b o r i n g or o t h e r w i s e . 6 8 2 . S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a r e w i t h i n t h e c o n f i n e s of the R e s e r v e c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a s of e x c e l l e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l land, r e m a i n l a r g e l y u n u s e d o w i n g t o t h e p r e v a l e n c e of fly and East f e v e r a n d t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e a d h e r e n c e of the M a s a i to a s: p a s t o r a l m o d e of l i f e . W i t h o u t d o u b t , t h i s l a n d w o u l d be of v a l u e t o o t h e r t r i b e s o r c o m m u n i t i e s w h o m a y r e q u i r e seoi e x p a n s i o n or a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t . W e c o n s i d e r that ii b e of a d v a n t a g e t o the M a s a i , s h o u l d t h e y be w i l l i n g , to cede o f t h i s l a n d in e x c h a n g e for t h e C h y u l u T r i a n g l e , o r any othe w h i c h t h e y m a y d e s i r e a n d w h i c h m a y be a v a i l a b l e . Sue c h a n g e s , could t h e y b e a r r a n g e d , w o u l d b e of u n d o u b t e d vahii o n l y to t h e M a s a i as a t r i b e , but a l s o to t h e C o l o n y as a v . B u t t h e r e s u l t o f p r e l i m i n a r y i n q u i r i e s m a d e by the oflieei m i n i s t e r i n g t h e t r i b e does n o t e n c o u r a g e us to b e l i e v e thn M a s a i a r e at p r e s e n t w i l l i n g to e n t e r t a i n any such suggestic
7

Masai Claim to Quarter Mile Zone.

6 8 3 . U n d e r t h e b o u n d a r y g a z e t t e m e n t o f 1926. the J! R a i l w a y , t o g e t h e r w i t h all l a n d e x t e n d i n g a ciuarter of a mile t h e c e n t r e l i n e t h e r e o f on b o t h s i d e s , w a s e x c l u d e d from the Reserve. 6 4.


Q

T h i s a r e a w a s i n c l u d e d in t h e A g r e e m e n t in as Council native in 1930, a n d We The merely area nwnits

boundariei E ce!!enc
v

i t s r e - i n c l u s i o n in the r e s e r v e w a s a p p r o v e d b v H i s Governor necessary gazetted Masai Rights over Certain Farms near Ngong. legal machinery. reserve. recommend involved that is

provision t the an apprbxin

38 s q u a r e m i l e s . 685. O n e follows : of the clauses of the 1904 Agreement rer

" I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f o r e g o i n g , L e n a n a as Chief I a n d his successors to b e a l l o w e d to o c c u p y the land lyi b e t w e e n t h e M b a g a t h i a n d K i s s e r i a n S t r e a m s , from 1 L a m u y u to t h e p o i n t w h e r e t h e s t r e a m s m e e t , with t c e p t i o n of l a n d a l r e a d y o c c u p i e d b y M r . O u l t o n , M r . Met and M r . P a t e r s o n . "
1 7

A c t u a l l y t h e r e w e r e s i x f a r m s p a r t l v c o n t a i n e d in the block of t h e M b a g a t h i L i v e r , and t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h has to be settl w h a t is t h e s t a t u s of t h e o t h e r t h r e e .

MASAI
-CHAPTER II]

PROVINCE
PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

i. U n d e r

the

1911 A g r e e m e n t , t h e N o r t h e r n in the Proclamation Gazelle,

Masai 18th

agreed Masai June, :

2 to the land " b o u n d e d on the east b y the Southern R e s e r v e as defined 7. dated and p u b l i s h e d i n t h e Official '0n ection them es." B y a further clause in t h e 1911 A g r e e m e n t r e s e r v e f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e u s e of t h e M a s a i the the n o r t h o f 1st J u l y , by the

1906." Mbagathi in a

T h e d e s c r i p t i o n in this n o t i c e r u n s , in p a r t , as f o l l o w s t h i s r e s e r v e is b o u n d e d of D o n y o the point Nyuki where . . . thence in a the

r e a m and b y t h e A t h i R i v e r to t h e p e a k direction to

north-easterly River

( S u s w a ) ; thence Mbagathi

Governor

tribe t h e . a r e a on the as the they

e south side o f the U g a n d a R a i l w a y as d e f i n e d a b o v e , a n d a s own on the attached m a p , w h i c h area is coadunate w i t h buthern M a s a i therefore quite Native clear Reserve that . . ." Masai Reserve the. Southern

in t h e 1906 G a z e t t e n o t i c e is s e c u r e d t o t h e M a s a i b y Agreement. 9. T w o points are thus proved : conclusively although ot b e e n r a i s e d b y t h e M a s a i T h e land b e t w e e n Masai named Reserve above. Lenana area. secured

the M b a g a t h i and Kisserian by the A g r e e m e n t

streams is the ex

with

c e p t i o n of t h e l a n d o w n e d i n 1904 b y t h e t h r e e l a n d l o r d s ) T h a t the L a i b o n and h i s successors h a v e r i g h t s of which it was and

occupation in this

0. I t w a s c l e a r l y t h e i n t e n t i o n o f G o v e r n m e n t , w i t h asai a g r e e d , t h a t a l l a l i e n a t e d f a r m s should be excluded from the Masai not. s o u t h of the Reserve, and

Mbagathi

b y an o v e r s i g h t t h a t t h r e e of t h e f a r m s w e r e e x c l u d e d er t h r e e , or p a r t s of t h e m , w e r e 1. S o far as c a n b e a s c e r t a i n e d , p a r t s of t h e f o l l o w i n g e considered as b e i n g w i t h i n the M a s a i R e s e r v e (1) F a r m (2) F a r m (3) F a r m and C h y u l u No. No. No. 193 : 643 acres, 196 : 540 acres, 1 9 7 : 106 a c r e s , freehold. freehold. freehold. to t h e :

farms

2. I n our d i s c u s s i o n of t h e c l a i m b y t h e M a s a i Triangle, we adhered to the

Mile the the

s t r i c t l e t t e r of

ents and i t i s o n l y just t h a t w e s h o u l d a d h e r e t o it

equally

case o f t h e s e f a r m s , w h i c h , a s w e h a v e s e e n , a r e p a r t o f

MASAI PART IICHAPTER II]

PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND BECOMME:

area of w h i c h the M a s a i h a v e , b y A g r e e m e n t , been granted e l u s i v e u s e , a l t h o u g h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s are a p p a r e n t l y unavvat t h e fact. W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e L o c a l N a t i v e Council si. r e c e i v e t h e a m o u n t w h i c h w a s p a i d to the G o v e r n m e n t let p u r c h a s e of t h e l a n d ; t h e q u e s t i o n as to w h e t h e r the Laib( e n t i t l e d to s h a r e in it c o u l d t h e n b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . "The Man Forest Exchange Proposal. 693. T h e proposal k n o w n as the M a n F o r e s t Exeliann which full details will he f o u n d in the S e c r e t a r y ' s Pi emanated from the C o n s e r v a t o r of. F o r e s t s , w h o s e sugge was that the Masai should give u p an area of fores! t h e F o r e s t D e p a r t m e n t in e x c h a n g e f o r an area of g r a z i n g o n s o u t h e r n e x t r e m i t y of the E a s t e r n M a t t F o r e s t R e s e r v e . H e t sen ted t h a t t h e g r a z i n g w o u l d ho of b e n e f i t to the M a s a i , while forest land w o u l d he of value, to h i s d e p a r t m e n t . B u t the are g r a s s l a n d w e r e not sufficient to c o m p e n s a t e for the loss of theft, and tin' Conservator of Forests favoured a suggestion P o w y s l a n d , L i m i t e d , that t h e y s h o u l d g i v e up an adjacent of g r a s s l a n d to be t h r o w n i n t o t h e e x c h a n g e , r e c e i v i n g in iv s o m e u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d a d j a c e n t to t h e i r K e r i n g e t Esta 694. T h i s subsidiary e x c h a n g e has n o w b e e n effected so t h e p r o p o s a l is n o w that t h e M a s a i s h o u l d r e c e i v e an area of 1 2 a c r e s o f F o r e s t R e s e r v e a n d u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d , which is-t a b l e g r a z i n g l a n d , in e x c h a n g e f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13,245 acre f o r e s t , w h i c h is v a l u e l e s s t o t h e M a s a i . T h e C h i e f N a t i v e Com s i o n e r , the C o m m i s s i o n e r for L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t , L a n d s and S c m e n t , t h e C o n s e r v a t o r o f F o r e s t s , t h e P r o v i n c i a l Gommissio M a s a i , and the P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , R i f t V a l l e y , have p r e s s e d c o n c u r r e n c e . T h e M a s a i h a v e a g r e e d , provided that a; t o n g u e of forest l a n d of a b o u t 1 , 2 0 0 ' a c r e s , lying b e t w e e n twoa of g r a s s l a n d , c a n be t h r o w n i n t o t h e e x c h a n g e . 6 9 5 . A f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the C o n s e r v a t o r of Forests, r e c o m m e n d t h a t this t o n g u e of l a n d b e i n c l u d e d and the exch i m p l e m e n t e d , m a k i n g t h e t o t a l w h i c h t h e M a s a i w i l l receive 1 1 a c r e s . T h e t o n g u e , w h i c h c o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e c e d a r , should be s e r v e d as N a t i v e R e s e r v e F o r e s t R e s e r v e , a n d a road of acres stock should be provided. "The Kinango] Circumcision Area Exchange. 6 9 6 . L a n d h a d b e e n r e s e r v e d in t h e K i n a n g o p under the A g r e e m e n t , in o r d e r that the M a s a i m i g h t p e r f o r m certain cus a r y c i r c u m c i s i o n c e r e m o n i e s in t h a t a r e a . A s this area, conipri a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n s q u a r e m i l e s , w a s isolated a n d a consider d i s t a n c e f r o m the r e s e r v e , it w a s p r o p o s e d that the Masai sit b e g i v e n l a n d in the K e d o n g V a l l e y , a m o u n t i n g to 118 square i n in e x c h a n g e therefor. T h e A l a s a i L o c a l N a t i v e Council expre f u l l a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p r o p o s a l a n d t h e e x c h a n g e is in a o p e r a t i o n a t p r e s e n t , w i t h t h e g e n e r a l c o n s e n t of all parties, r e c o m m e n d t h a t it be r e g u l a r i s e d .

MAP ILLUSTRATING POSSIBLE EXCHANGES IN THE NGONG, KEDCNG AND MAU AREAS REFERRING TO SECTIONS 698-7 li OF THE REPORT,

MAP ILLUSTRATING POSSIBLE EXCHANGES IN THE NGONG. KEDONG AND MAU AREAS REFERRING TO SECTIONS 698-71 i OF THE REPORT,

MASAI JICHAPTER HJ

PROVINCE PROBLEMS A N D

RECOMMENDATIONS

697. T h e proposal k n o w n as t h e " C o l v i l e E x c h a n g e " i s t h a t should g i v e up a p o r t i o n of the angle between Masai 1382/2 a n d 4 1 0 / 1 a t N a i v a s h a f o r an e q u i v a l e n t a r e a of F a r m I. B o t h M r , C o l v i l e and t h e l o c a l M a s a i r e s i d e n t s h a v e a s k e d his e x c h a n g e , t o g i v e the M a s a i m o r e c o n v e n i e n t a c c e s s t o t h e M a r n i o n e t , w h i c h flows a l o n g t h e b o u n d a r y of F a r m 1 3 8 2 / 2 . a T e e w i t h the proposal a n d r e c o m m e n d that it b e i m p l e m e n t e d , ureas to be g i v e n a n d taken a r e b e l i e v e d t o b e a b o u t 230 a c r e s acli side. 698. T h e m a p h e r e f o l l o w i n g s h o w s t h r e e a r e a s A , B a n d C , ^1 w i t h v e r t i c a l l i n e s , a n d t h r e e a r e a s D , E a n d F , s h a d e d horizontal lines. T h e f o r m e r s h o w l a n d w h i c h the M a s a i Id be g l a d to h a v e , a n d t h e l a t t e r s h o w l a n d w h i c h t h e y m i g h t ibly b e p r e p a r e d to g i v e u p in e x c h a n g e . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e ollows : 699. A r e a A c o n s i s t s of t w o f a r m s ( N o s . 373 and 375) a b u t t i n g he M a s a i b o u n d a r y a n d c o m p r i s i n g a b o u t 12.]- s q u a r e m i l e s a n d nling a m i l e s t r e t c h of t h e K e d o n g R i v e r . These two farms, a l i e n a t e d , h a v e been u n o c c u p i e d for s e v e r a l y e a r s . There : l i t t l e dotibt that it is difficult f o r a E u r o p e a n t o m a k e a g on such land as t h i s . T h e M a s a i , in o r d e r t o g e t an e x t r a of t h e r i v e r , r e c e n t l y offered t o p u r c h a s e t h e s e t w o f a r m s , but ice s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h p a r t i e s c o u l d not he r e a c h e d a n d n e g o t i a s were dropped. 700. A r e a B is a part of t h e u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d a d j o i n i n g ' f a r m s a n d a b u t t i n g on t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n d a r y of t h e M a s a i erve, w h i c h the M a s a i w o u l d find useful f o r g r a z i n g p u r p o s e s , w h i c h is of l i t t l e use t o t h e E u r o p e a n area i n w h i c h it i s raphically situated. A s s h o w n o n t h e m a p i t is a b o u t 69 s q u a r e

l"\irm 110/1, the "Colvile Exchange."

Possibility of Exchanges or Leases in the Ngong, Kedong and Man Areas.

701. A r e a C is a b o u t .10 s q u a r e m i l e s in e x t e n t a n d is s i t u a t e d s o u t h - w e s t c o r n e r of N d e i y a i n t h e K i k u y u N a t i v e lasiti a l r e a d y have the use of it as a r e s u l t of a Beserve. temporary Masai to

ange w i t h the K i k u y u , as e x p l a i n e d i n s e c t i o n 4 4 8 a b o v e . 702. T h e total of t h e s e a r e a s , w h i c h . i t is s u g g e s t e d t h e be g l a d to a c q u i r e , is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 91-]- s q u a r e m i l e s . 703. I t has been suggested that they F. might be prepared i t ] ) in e x c h a n g e the a r e a s D , E and

7 o l . A r e a s 1) a n d E w e r e v a c a t e d s o m e t w e n t y y e a r s a g o b y Masai on a c c o u n t of the p r e v a l e n c e o f E a s t C o a s t F e v e r , a n d y c a r r y o n l y a sparse p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s e d f o r t h e m o s t p a r t et-ribalrzed M a s a i , w h o h a v e i n m a n y c a s e s m a r r i e d K i k u y u en and a l s o of a c e r t a i n n u m b e r of p u r e K i k u y u . T h e land een 1.) a n d E a l t h o u g h o f t h e s a m e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r , h a s n o t i n c l u d e d in t h e p r o p o s e d e x c h a n g e b e c a u s e t h e M a s a i are in e f f e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n and t h e p o p u l a t i o n is e x p e c t e d to i n c r e a s e .

MASAI P A R T 11CHAPTER II]

PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND RECOMMEND

7 0 5 . A r e a D is a b o u t 1 6 1 s q u a r e m i l e s a n d is contiguous t K i k u y u E e s e r v e . P a r t of it is a l r e a d y on lease to the Kiktn r e t u r n for A r e a G ; o f t h e t o t a l a r e a about s i x square miles art c l a s s g r a z i n g and f a i r a g r i c u l t u r a l land ; its v a l u e is stated i a b o u t half t h a t of first c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l land in t h e neighba K i k u y u R e s e r v e . ' T h e r e m a i n i n g 101- s q u a r e m i l e s a r e good ;t, l a n d b u t of s m a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l v a l u e , and its g e n e r a l value is pa n o t m o r e t h a n o n e - e i g h t h o f first class a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d . No in t h i s area is m o r e t h a n six m i l e s from p e r m a n e n t w a t e r art f o r m a t i o n of t h e soil is f a v o u r a b l e to dam c o n s t r u c t i o n . 7 0 6 . A r e a E h a s a l s o b e e n v a c a t e d , b y t h e M a s a i . I t lies of t h e M b a g a t h i E i v e r b e t w e e n A l b a g a t h i T o w n s h i p Eeserve i p o i n t a l i t t l e t o t h e east of t h e K a p i o E i v e r . A s s h o w n on the it is 6 9 s q u a r e m i l e s . I t is w e l l w a t e r e d . 7 0 7 . A r e a .F, a b o u t e i g h t s q u a r e m i l e s , is a stretch of f a g r i c u l t u r a l land o n the s l o p e s o f the M a n n e a r t h e source W e i k e i E i v e r . T h i s l a n d w a s f o r s o m e y e a r s o c c u p i e d by K t e n a n t s of t h e K a k o n y u k e A l a s a i wdto w e r e c u l t i v a t i n g about a c r e s of first c l a s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d a n d r a i s i n g l a r g e c r o p s of a n d p o t a t o e s . T h o u g h n o r m a l l y e n g a g e d as w a g e labourers to y a t e f o r t h e M a s a i , t h e s e t e n a n t s w e r e in actual fact payin f o r t h e r i g h t t o o c c u p y . T h e area w h i c h is c o v e r e d w i t h fore b u s h is n o t o c c u p i e d b y t h e A l a s a i , w h o s e use o f it is restrict a c a t t l e t r a c k l e a d i n g f r o m t h e i r g r a z i n g g r o u n d s o n t h e lower o f t h e M a n , to the h e a d - w a t e r s of the W e i k e i E i v e r . T h e pre K i k u y u t e n a n t s w e r e e v i c t e d a b o u t t h r e e y e a r s a g o for admin t i v e reasons. 7 0 8 . T h e t o t a l of t h e s e t h r e e areas ( D , E a n d F ) , as estin i s a b o u t 9-.U s q u a r e m i l e s , a n d t h e total of t h e a r e a s for which b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t the M a s a i w o u l d b e p r e p a r e d to exchange i s 9 1 J square m i l e " , i f t h e r e is a d i f f e r e n c e in v a l u e on eithet i t s h o u l d b e c a p a b l e o f a d j u s t m e n t , and i f t h e r e is a bahir f a v o u r of t h e A f a s a i it c o u l d p e r h a p s be m a d e g o o d to the t h r o w i n g p a r t of t h e C h y u l u T r i a n g l e i n t o the e x c h a n g e . 709. N e v e r t h e l e s s , w e t h i n k it u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e Masai a g r e e to a full e x c h a n g e , a n d in v i e w of t h e difficulties involve r e c o m m e n d t h a t a s e t t l e m e n t be a t t e m p t e d o n t h e f o l l o w i n g Iin (1) T h a t Alasai on a the area C should that be l e a s e d by the Kikuvti

for 99 y e a r s , a n d fair e c o n o m i c

t h e area D

should

be leased

M a s a i t o t h e K i k u y u f o r 9 9 y e a r s , r e n t b e i n g assessed in ea basis. Note.If b o t h t r i b e s p r e f e r i t , the p r e s e n t f r i e n d l y a n m e n t could b e c o n t i n u e d w i t h o u t the n e c e s s i t y of a formal b u t t h e p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s , in o u r e y e s , is that the


1

MASAI XICHAPTER II]

PROVINCE PROBLEMS A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S

(retting

more

and better

land

than

they

are g i v i n g

up, and

er or l a t e r t h e p o s i t i o n m u s t b e r e g u l a r i s e d . (2) T h a t t h e areas E a n d P b e set a p a r t f o r l e a s i n g t o n a t i v e s onus. w h i c h would include clauses for conservation and de leases; m e n t , area E b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l -cuts t o b e p a y a b l e to t h e M a s a i L o c a l N a t i v e Council.

( 3 ) T h a t w h e n t h e a r e a s h a v e b e e n so s e t a p a r t , a r e a E be leased as a w h o l e t o G o v e r n m e n t w h i c h s h o u l d t h e n blister i t in t h e s a m e w a y as i s r e c o m m e n d e d f o r " N a t i v e l e a s e [ a r e a s a s d e s c r i b e d in P a r t I I I o f t h e R e p o r t ; b u t t h e a r e a E Id be leased p i e c e m e a l i n t h e m a n n e r in w h i c h t h e P r o v i n c i a l the M a s a i L o c a l Land Jnissioner, a f t e r c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h Id, shall d e c i d e , subject t o v a r i o u s s a f e g u a r d s r e c o m m e n d e d in J I M ( s e c t i o n s 1526 a n d 1 5 4 1 b e l o w ) . Id) T h a t , if t h e M a s a i a g r e e t o t h e f o r e g o i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s Ithey a r e c a r r i e d o u t , t h e n G o v e r n m e n t s h o u l d t a k e s t e p s t o Ire area A f r o m t h e p r e s e n t l e s s e e s , a n d s h o u l d t h e n g r a n t t o l l a s a i a l e a s e of areas A a n d B f o r a p e r i o d o f 99 y e a r s ; p r o that, i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e a r e a s a r e in t h e E u r o p e a n llands, t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s s h o u l d n o t b e p u t i n t r a i n , u n t i l a n rtunity h a s b e e n a f f o r d e d t o a c c r e d i t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e [perm H i g h l a n d s t o e n t e r o b j e c t i o n s (as p r o v i d e d in s e c t i o n

i V u / e . W e d o n o t w i s h this r e c o m m e n d a t i o n claim.

t o b e r e a d in t h e

i that t h e M a s a i h a v e a n y t h i n g i n t h e n a t u r e of a n o p t i o n or [1.0. T h e a b o v e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e , t o s o m e e x t e n t , irtter ldent, a n d a r e b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e M a s a i w i l l . I f , o n the other h a n d , t h e M a s a i do n o t a g r e e , a position rise d e m a n d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n b y G o v e r n m e n t . T h e first of t h e oing p r o p o s a l s w o u l d c o m e u n d e r t h e h e a d o f an i n t e r - t r i b a l , for w h i c h w e r e c o m m e n d a p r o c e d u r e i n s e c t i o n 14S6 of II!. T h e second w o u l d i n v o l v e setting apart a n d leasing, ts w h i c h w e c o v e r in s e c t i o n s 1 5 2 6 , 1 5 3 1 a n d 1 5 4 1 . I t w i l l sserved t h a t i n t h e first c a s e , t h e final v o i c e i s w i t h t h e tary of S t a t e , w h i l e i n t h e l a t t e r t h e L a n d s T r u s t B o a r d h a s ) a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e r e is n o r e c o u r s e , e x c e p t w h e n t h e p u r p o s e liich t h e , l a n d is r e q u i r e d i s h e l d t o b e a p u b l i c p u r p o s e , i n i case t h e L a n d A c q u i s i t i o n A c t m a y b e a p p l i e d . Eor t h e a stated in the previous chapter (sections 664 to 671 a b o v e ) s ive n o t t h o u g h t it n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a n e x c e p t i o n a l p r o i in t h e c a s e of t h e M a s a i t r i b e . II. W e a r e s t r o n g l y o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t e v e r y s t e p s h o u l d b e Tto p r o m o t e e x c h a n g e a n d o t h e r a c c o m m o d a t i o n s w h i c h a r e

MASAI PART I I - C H A P T E R II]

PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND RECOMMEI

c a l c u l a t e d to b r i n g v a c a n t or s p a r s e l y o c c u p i e d land in tin' M R e s e r v e i n t o e f f e c t i v e u s e . M r . S . F . D e c k , P r o v i n c i a l Conn s i o n e r , h a s p u t t h e p o s i t i o n , w i t h g r e a t c l e a r n e s s , in t h e follov p a s s a g e w h i c h w e q u o t e f r o m h i s e v i d e n c e . ( E v i d e n c e , p. 1261 " I t c a n n o t b e t o t h e a d v a n t a g e of the communin g e n e r a l t h a t v a c a n t l a n d s r e s e r v e d for specified t r i b e s shouli left u n p o p u l a t e d w h e n a d j o i n i n g r e s e r v e s are seriously o c r o w d e d . I t is p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e M a s a i w i l l v a c a t e additi a r e a s in t h e n e a r f u t u r e b e t w e e n t h e K i s s e r i a n River K a j i a d o ; a n d it is a d v i s a b l e t h a t G o v e r n m e n t should visn t h i s p o s i t i o n a n d t a k e p o w e r s t o deal w i t h i t . " " 1 c a n n o t see h o w G o v e r n m e n t w i t h o u t the p o w e r ol pulsory acquisition can p o s s i b l y e n s u r e t h a t l a n d , the re a s s e t t h e c o u n t r y p o s s e s s e s , is u t i l i z e d to the b e s t lor native occupation is u n a s s a i l a b l e . But the

advanta

" T h e p r i n c i p l e of r e s e r v i n g c e r t a i n areas for certain t grant a r e a s in p e r p e t u a l be in a p o s i t i o n n u m i t i e s in We pulsory Masai freehold to a community w h i c h may i

to utilize beneficially

t h e land so granted

to m y m i n d , d e f i n i t e l y c o n t r a r y t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f nativ general." but we do recommend other that land which d o n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e r e is a n y o c c a s i o n f o r r e c o m m e n d i n g acquisition, do not require and w h i c h areas communities are prei

t o d e v e l o p s h o u l d , w h e n a c l e a r n e e d a r i s e s , b e set a p a r t and lea Other possible Leases or Accommoda tions. 712. Other the T r a n s - M a r a possible which the Masai m i g h t arrangi l e a s e o r e x c h a n g e f o r a sufficient c o n s i d e r a t i o n are t h e fly area:

a n d on the T s a v o R i v e r ; also the l o w e r reaches boundary, River it is u

t h e M a r a R i v e r and t h e l o w e r r e a c h e s of t h e S o u t h e r n Uaso Ny O n l y t h e last t w o of t h e s e a r e a s a r e i n t h e A g r e e m e n t sequently. coveted they by would The the be Crown Masai prepared of the land for south of the R o m b o o t h e r t w o b e i n g in p a r t s of t h e r e s e r v e w h i c h h a v e b e e n added: grazing p u r p o s e s , and is likely fly-infe

to c e d e s u b s t a n t i a l on the upper

areas o f waters

but g o o d arable land instead of it. eastern corner reserve

O n e such area lies in the so of the T

R i v e r , t h e u s e o f w h i c h c e r t a i n K a m b a h a v e e n d e a v o u r e d to obi Possible Leas of certain land to the Lumbwa. 7 1 3 . I n t h e n o r t h - w e s t c o r n e r o f t h e M a s a i R e s e r v e then area o f dense forest, Rivers. w h i c h p r o t e c t s t h e h e a d - w a t e r s of the ) This forest, of n e a r l y 200 square mile: which the M a s a i are tin and Kipsonoi acreage of

p r o b a b l y m o r e t h a n is r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , and a consider g o o d agricultural l a n d , of it. to m a k e a n y u s e , c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y b e set a s i d e a n d leased to ol w h o a r e prepared t o m a k e u s e of

MASAI
-CHAPTER 11]

PROVINCE
P R O B L E M S AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A he was

f u r t h e r p o i n t w h i c h h a s t o b e c o n s i d e r e d in c o n n e x i o n a gazetted is e v i d e n t Game that Reserve at of the time of the of 1904 game to the

The Gam
R l

the A l a s a i c l a i m s of r i g h t is t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e i r tement and still r e m a i n s f 15. I t rushes t h e try, w h i c h available so. the presence and large be herds might prejudicial

'

s p r v e

pasture

lopinent of t h e A l a s a t R e s e r v e as an e f f i c i e n t l y m a n a g e d p a s t o r a l w e h o p e it w i l l u l t i m a t e l y down become. available which steps 7 1 G . T h e g a m e w o u l d n o t o n l y c o n s u m e m u c h of t h e ng, b u t w o i d d also b r e a k fences, and any

be t a k e n t o w a r d s t h e e r a d i c a t i o n of t i c k s w o u l d he n u l l i f i e d .

717. B u t , w i t h m a t t e r s a s e near f u t u r e , the a b o l i t i o n would in o u r o p i n i o n b e tt e v e n b e d e t r i m e n t a l t o

they a r e , and are likely to r e m a i n of t h e G a m e R e s e r v e at t h e p r e s e n t of n o a d v a n t a g e to t h e A l a s a i a n d them.

718. I f t h e a b o l i t i o n of t h e G a m e R e s e r v e w e r e d e c i d e d u p o n probable t h a t E u r o p e a n s w o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e m a i n l y o n l i o n ing, w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e n u m b e r of h e r b i v o r o u s g a m e m i g h t pcreased r a t h e r t h a n d i m i n i s h e d . I f , h o w e v e r , t h e M a s a i in e show a d i s p o s i t i o n t o w a r d s i m p r o v e d p a s t o r a l o r a g r i c u l t u r a l iods, a n y o b s t a c l e s w h i c h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a G a m e R e s e r v e ented s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o s t a n d in t h e w a y of useful Ilopment a n d t h e G a m e R e s e r v e s h o u l d be l i m i t e d or a b o l i s h e d livcumstances d i c t a t e . M o r e o v e r , w e feel that if our r e c o m dations f o r t h e c o m p u l s o r y r e d u c t i o n of M a s a i stock a r e p u t

force, a s s i s t a n c e s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o t h e A l a s a i in r e d u c i n g t h e ber of g a m e in t h e i r r e s e r v e .

CHAPTER
THE A short tho Eronomic
SC f a n c l

III.
ECONOMIC SUKYE

KAMBA

TB1BE ; A

SHORT

7 1 9 . S i n c e t h e c l a i m s of t h e K a m b a rest p a r t l y on an econ P
a r t l

historical

b a s i s , it

will

be

well

to g i v e a ;

Position

of

a c c o u n t o f the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n i n g a m o n g the tribe bi proceeding


a l u

the K a m b a . The Density of Population.

to a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r c l a i m s .

7 2 0 . T h e K a m b a P r o v i n c e c o n s i s t s of t w o d i s t r i c t s , Maeli ] K i t u i , and t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s h o w s t h e a r e a , population, d e n s i t y of t h e t w o r e s e r v e s . Area Reserve. Machakos ... Square 2,166 5,911 8,077 1.The figures for 1932, and the official ' .. figures figures in Miles. ' Population. 238,910 152,759 391,669 Densityi Square il

no
26 4S

Kitui Province Note official Native figures

g i v e n f o r a r e a a r e t h e S u r v e y o r Genet f o r p o p u l a t i o n are the Qj for 1932.

Commissioners

2 . O f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t h e M a c h a k o s Distr Note 1 0 , 1 6 5 a r e s t a t e d t o be r e s i d e n t o n E u r o p e a n f a r m s in the disi as s q u a t t e r s . I f a l l o w a n c e is m a d e f o r t h i s f a c t , t h e density in r e s e r v e is r e d u c e d t o 1 0 6 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e . I t is also estimi t h a t a t l e a s t 2 , 0 0 0 M a c h a k o s K a m b a a n d 6,000 K i t u i Kamba r e s i d e n t o u t s i d e t h e P r o v i n c e , p a r t l y in N y e r i , F o r t Hali E m b u D i s t r i c t s a n d p a r t l y as s q u a t t e r s o n a l i e n a t e d farms in T h i k a s u b - d i s t r i c t ; t h e s e are n o t i n c l u d e d in the census fa given above. 721. very is The Rate of PopiiHtion
a s a

These

figures of in

of

population that, Beserve, owing

density for

are

subject

to reasu

important

qualification the K i t u i

topographical

the distribution this t h e case during 722. P r o m ^


e

the population is far f r o m u n i f o r m . where season to l a c k of

Especc

l a r g e areas are water.

inhabited

the dry figures

s u p p l i e d b y the D i s t r i c t Officers, it app

i n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e K a m b a a r e r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g in numl
11

a f a c t w h i c h w e shall b e a r in m i n d w h e n w e c o m e to it cons suit t i o n of t h e v a r i o u s p r o p o s a l s e m a n a t i n g f r o m The Position 'v^nltur and Live Stock.


0 0

the province.

723. W e stock. As

shall n o w

review

briefly

t h e p r e s e n t position in considerably, it

-reserves with regard to agriculture conditions in the t w o c o n v e n i e n t to d i s c u s s t h e m

p r o p e r a n d w i t h r e g a r d to

districts v a r y

separately

TJKAMBA Eg 1 ClIAVTER 1 III]

PROVINCE
ECONOMIC SURVEY

24. I t

should

be mentioned of

at h i s j u n c t u r e

that t h e

Kamba As in or as

t present

p a r t l y a pastoral

t r i b e , and

partly agricultural. stationed figures

licer of t h e D e p a r t m e n t

A g r i c u l t u r e has been

,i'ovince o f r e c e n t y e a r s , u n t i l a b o u t a y e a r a g o , no jof a g r i c u l t u r e in e a c h d i s t r i c t , e m b o d y i n g nplied b y the evidence and m e m o r a n d a ie a t t e m p t e d .

Is of p r o d u c t i o n a r e a v a i l a b l e , and a g e n e r a l n o t e on the c o n d i such i n f o r m a t i o n u s , i s all before that

-25. T e s t s h a v e b e e n m a d e i n t h e M a c h a k o s D i s t r i c t f r o m w h i c h Is been estimated that the average areas cultivated are as

Agrirultun Machakos District.

Ss:

Cultivated man and areas If 2J-2i into use in

per loife.

! productive barren being

acres acres by h a n d .

Cultivated per old native women, n ... f acre ... numbers till \\ in an acres is of the ap certain area to

areas

. figures r e f e r o n l y brought it 0:1s, and area of

to c u l t i v a t i o n that

T h e ox-plough

considerable

is e s t i m a t e d

plough-owners cultivation

; four a c r e s e a c h . inately 1 4 0 , 0 0 0

I t has b e e n c a l c u l a t e d on this b a s i s t h a t actual an amounts acres with additional 70,000

the reserve under acres,

lying area

1726. T h u s , in r e s p e c t o f e a c h f a m i l y i lie f a l l o w . in the

of f i v e , t h e a v e r a g e

c u l t i v a t i o n is a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e a c r e s , w h i l e o n e and a h a l f W i t h o u t d o u b t t h e r e is c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e District than is generally cultiva and, Machakos realized,

ermore, i t a p p e a r s t o b e of a c o m p a r a t i v e l y h i g h

standard.

r27. T h e e v i d e n c e b e f o r e u s s h o w s t h a t it is g e n e r a l l y c o n ed b y t h o s e w h o a r e in the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o k n o w , t h a t t h e a r e a le present N a t i v e R e s e r v e is sufficient f o r t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l r e I n e n t s o f t h e p e o p l e a t t h e m o m e n t a n d in t h e i m m e d i a t e le; but it h a s b e e n u r g e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r t h a t jnore d i s t a n t f u t u r e n e e d s of t h e d i s t r i c t in this c o n n e x i o n fire c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . W e r e a l i z e t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e c o n Ible a r e a s of a r a b l e l a n d , w h i c h , o w i n g t o the h i l l y n a t u r e o f linn t r y , d o n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s r e a d i l y t o c u l t i v a t i o n b y p l o u g h rhich a r e w e l l a d a p t e d to t h e o r d i n a r y h a n d h o e , b u t t h e r e is doubt t h a t l a r g e a r e a s c a n b e t i l l e d b y o x - p l o u g h s . 28. I t may be argued that as the area of the reserve-is and fallow ex with

.240 a c r e s a n d t h e e s t i m a t e d a r e a u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n

: 210.000 a c r e s , t h e r e is g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l )11. This argument has c o n s i d e r a b l e f o r c e a n d We a g r e e necessary. erally, b u t q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s

U K A M I? A PART IICHAPTER 111]

PROVINCE ECONO

7 2 9 . I n m a n y p l a c e s t h e n a t u r e of t h e soil d o e s not lemii to e f f e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l use u n d e r p r e s e n t n a t i v e m e t h o d s of J t i o n , but w i t h a n i n c r e a s e d k n o w l e d g e of the principles o f a r m i n g it w i l l b e p o s s i b l e to d e v e l o p c o n s i d e r a b l e areas hi deemed uncuitivable. I m p r o v e d m e t h o d s of c u l t i v a t i o n also; e n a b l e h i g h e r y i e l d s t o b e p r o d u c e d f r o m a r e a s n o w tilled.' 780. A n o t h e r item w h i c h m u s t b e t a k e n i n t o aecoul visualizing future agricultural development in the \j;J d i s t r i c t is t h a t a l a r g e area a m o u n t i n g to t w o or three t h o u s a n d a c r e s is at p r e s e n t u n i n h a b i t e d o w i n g t o tsetse fly] l i k e l y t h a t t h i s a r e a m a y possess c o n s i d e r a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l potel t i e s , if t h e l a n d is c l e a r e d of fly a n d i f s u i t a b l e methods f a r m i n g are a p p l i e d . But in m a n y parts t h e r e a r e steep hill w h i c h m a y be s u i t a b l e for p l a n t i n g t i m b e r , but d o not peril cultivation.
U

7 3 1 . F u r t h e r , t h e r e h a s b e e n a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e anioiil e r o s i o n d u e to o v e r s t o c k i n g , r e c k l e s s c u t t i n g of t i m b e r , and I c a u s e s , t h o u g h w e a r e g l a d to l e a r n that p u b l i c o p i n i o n is b e c o m i n g o p p o s e d to w a n t o n d e s t r u c t i o n of t i m b e r , hut t!]J n a t i v e s a r e p l a n t i n g u p c o n s i d e r a b l e a r e a s . F o r t h i s , both the t h e officers c o n c e r n e d d e s e r v e c r e d i t . O u r g e n e r a l impressioni t o u r t h r o u g h t h e d i s t r i c t w a s t h a t e r o s i o n , t h o u g h serious, s c a r c e l y so g r e a t a s is c o m m o n l y b e l i e v e d . R e c o n d i t i o n i n g sdj s h o u l d p r o v e b o t h p r a c t i c a b l e a n d p r o f i t a b l e in t h e locations! a r e at p r e s e n t e r o d e d .
;

7 3 2 . N o s t a t i s t i c s r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r a l production Agriculture in Kitui District. K i t u i D i s t r i c t a r e a v a i l a b l e . T h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r rei that in p o i n t of a r e a t h e r e is a d e q u a t e l a n d f o r future ajfrici) d e v e l o p m e n t , but t h e d i f f i c u l t y is l a r g e l y o n e of water M o r e and better w a t e r facilities are necessary Stock owned by Macliakos Kamba. 7 3 3 . W e shall n o w turn t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Kami s t o c k o w n e r s , a n d o u r a n a l y s i s w i l l s h o w t h a t t h e p r o b l e m is seta T h e o v e r s t o c k i n g o f t h e M a e h a k o s N a t i v e R e s e r v e in particular b e e n c o m m o n k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e C o l o n y for some I p a s t , a n d w e f e e l t h a t it is d e s i r a b l e t h a t a full statement ol facts s h o u l d be m a d e . 7 3 4 . I t h a s b e e n e s t i m a t e d t h a t the s t o c k o w n e d by the K in t h e M a e h a k o s D i s t r i c t , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e on f a r m s , ainoun 2 4 8 , 8 0 5 h e a d of c a t t l e a n d 3 1 0 , 3 8 8 s h e e p and g o a t s . In ad; t h e r e a r e s o m e 2 0 , 0 0 0 c a t t l e o w n e d b y s q u a t t e r s on farms oi t h e d i s t r i c t ( e v i d e n c e of t h e P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , Mr. B u t l e r , p . 1 3 1 9 ) . W e s h a l l e x a m i n e t h e s e f i g u r e s from two p i of v i e w , first, a s t o w h e t h e r t h e n u m b e r o f s t o c k is proportiij to t h e n e e d s of t h e p e o p l e , a n d s e c o n d l y , as to w h e t h e r the a b l e g r a z i n g l a n d is sufficient to c a r r y t h e s t o c k .

407
UKAMiiA illCHAPTER 111] PROVINCE ECONOMIC SURVEY

:io. T h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f s t o c k o w n e d b y a f a m i l y o f five i r o x i m a t e l y five h e a d of c a t t l e a n d six a n d a h a l f s h e e n a n d I t is t h u s a p p a r e n t t h a t if, a s w e t h i n k w e m a y f a i r i y d o , c e p t six head of c a t t l e as a r e a s o n a b l e q u o t a for a f a m i l y in li-agricultural t r i b e l i k e t h e K a m b a , t h e n t h e p e o p l e m i g h t have m o r e stock w i t h o u t the n u m b e r o w n e d b y t h e ' a v e r a g e b e i n g u n d u l y h i g h . I t is t h e r e f o r e e r r o n e o u s to a s s u m e t h a t [aohakos K a m b a a r e a n e x c e e d i n g l y w e a l t h y t r i b e as r e g a r d s t h e Sttk a n d t h e M a s a i are v e r y m u c h b e t t e r oil' in t h i s -t, but these bitter arc;, of c o u r s e , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y p a s t o r a l . 6. it should be n o t e d t h a i in a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r c a t t l e , t h e lit possess c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r s o f s h e e p a n d g o a t s . At J i t . h o w e v e r , t h e s e s h e e p a n d g o a t s c a n o n l y b e c o n s i d e r e d in M of m e a t and n o t of m i l k , b e c a u s e t h e p r a c t i c e of d r i n k i n g m i l k is u n c o m m o n . !7. I t c a n n o t be q u e s t i o n e d that a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n if t h e " b e Typo of Cattle in a c a t t l e are of an u n e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r . T h e r e are m a n y ^ achakos s bulls a n d b a r r e n c o w s w h i c h a r e m e r e l y p a r a s i t e s a n d c o u l d D i s t r i c t . ie s l a u g h t e r e d , a n d t h e g r a z i n g , t h e r e b y r e n d e r e d a v a i l a b l e , to s u p p o r t m i l c h c o w s a n d t h e i r c a l v e s . A n i m p r o v e m e n t in uality of t h e s t o c k , e v e n if a c c o m j j a n i e d b y a d i m i n u t i o n in uantity, would r e n d e r m o r e m i l k a v a i l a b l e and i m p r o v e the nd c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e p h y s i q u e of t h e p e o p l e . aa. T h e a c r e a g e a v a i l a b l e in the n a t i v e r e s e r v e f o r e v e r y Grazing (tondi ions of c a t t l e o w n e d b y t h e M a c h a k o s K a m b a a p p e a r s t o b e in t h e "' ncliakos bourhood of f o u r a c r e s . W e r e a c h t h i s figure b y t a k i n g t h e District. area of t h e M a c h a k o s n a t i v e r e s e r v e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1,385,000 d e d u c t i n g 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s for f l y - i n f e s t e d areas a n d 1 4 0 . 0 0 0 for l a n d in c u l t i v a t i o n a n d d i v i d i n g t h e r e s u l t b y t h e t o t a l er of c a t t l e o w n e d b y t h e M a c h a k o s K a m b a a s g i v e n in u 734 a b o v e , v i z . a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 6 9 , 0 0 0 . B u t it m u s t b e ibered t h a t t h e r e s e r v e b y i t s e l f is n o t c a l l e d u p o n t o c a r r y u m b e r , but that v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l i e f is a f f o r d e d b y t h e otiring settled area i n . w h i c h t h e s q u a t t e r s ' c a t t l e a r e k e p t , 1 as b y the p e r m i s s i v e u s e o f t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u . 1
1

9. A f t e r e v e r y a l l o w a n c e f o r such e x t e r n a l a s s i s t a n c e h a s m a d e , it a p p e a r s to b e t h e c a s e t h a t e a c h h u n d r e d a c r e s in s e r v e , w h i c h is n e i t h e r u n d e r c u l t i v a t i o n n o r f l y - b e l t , h a s to i t stock w h i c h c a n n o t b e f a r s h o r t of t w e n t y c a t t l e a n d t h i r t y and goats. Stock are, h o w e v e r , usually driven i n t o the as after h a r v e s t , w h e r e t h e y o b t a i n a c e r t a i n a m o u n t of a nee. 40. T h e V e t e r i n a r y Officer expressed the opinion in his ce t h a t , at p r e s e n t , in t h e b e s t l o c a t i o n s , o n e h e a d of c a t t l e es about four a c r e s , w h e r e a s in s o m e of t h e w o r s t l o c a t i o n s

I
TJKAMI3A PART IICHAPTER 111] PROVINCE ECONOMIC SHI

a s m u c h as a h u n d r e d a c r e s m a y be n e c e s s a r y . H e consider.-. I i t is r e a s o n a b l e to a s s u m e t h a t at present the a v e r a g e earn c a p a c i t y o f t h e l a n d t h r o u g h o u t the r e s e r v e is o n e head of e: t o t h i r t y a c r e s , a p a r t f r o m t h e s h e e p a n d g o a t s . W e thin!; h i s v i e w s are s o m e w h a t p e s s i m i s t i c ; b u t . in a n y c a s e , it is c-vidj t h a t t h e r e s e r v e is c a r r y i n g s e v e r a l t i m e s the n u m b e r of stock \vf it- can support in its p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n . 741. Machakos require The economic problem : those which t h e y h a v e are of a use W e thj which presents itself

District

is b r i e f l y many of

T h i s s e m i - p a s t o r a l p e o p l e possess n o m o r e l i v e slock than t (although t y p e ) , b u t , n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h i s , they o w n several times m o r e l t h e i r c o u n t r y in i t s p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n c a n w e l l s u p p o r t . make of recommendations solve the in the next Such chapter. an extension would quic f o r e c o n s i d e r t h a t m o r e g r a z i n g should b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e , and si 7 4 2 . B u t a n i n c r e a s e o f l a n d , g r a n t e d u n c o n d i t i o n a l l y , will itself problem. b e c o m e filled w i t h the n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e of t h e present stock, anc its turn be destroyed by overstocking, alleviated. the K a m b a , of any increase of land wrl of inferior stoek : have b\ the by case of and so t h e situation wo be a g g r a v a t e d rather than 743. In may first by instance b e m a d e on

e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s should b e a c c o m p a n i e d in a reduction the n u m b e r for reconditioning areas w h i c h

a concerted

scheme

destroyed. Stock Owned bv K i t u i Kamba. 7 4 4 . T h e s t o c k in t h e K i t u i D i s t r i c t h a v e n e v e r been count! T h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r e s t i m a t e s t h a t t h e total n u m b e r is sol where between 220,000 and 240,000 cattle and between 400,1 a n d 500,000 s h e e p and g o a t s . 745. ff these that than the K a m b a figures of Kitui T h i s , b e i n g p u r e l y a g u e s s , lnustl

accepted with the utmost reserve. a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y c o r r e c t , it would aprl D i s t r i c t h a v e at least adequate nunill

of s t o c k f o r t h e i r e c o n o m i c n e e d s , a n d are b e t t e r off in this respj their M a c h a k o s more stock brethren. i n f o r m s us that the reservj s u p p o r t , although destroyed through there overstcl than it can well He 743. T h e District Commissioner carrying n o t so m a n y fact that s i g n s of of t h e t h e hind b e i n g

i n g , as in t h e M a c h a k o s D i s t r i c t . some s e a s o n , penetrate, w i t h the native reserve of wnfpr.

a t t r i b u t e s this partly to a n d , d u r i n g the ni o w i n g to ij

n a t i v e s are n o m a d i c are normally

t h e i r stock i n t o parts of the district outs uninhabited

which

ft 8

408
UKAMBA
1T

PROVINCE
ECONOMIC SURVEY

uCHAPTER

III]

747
eI1

V memorandum to will us by It

on L a n d Mr. on R.

T e n u r e among the K a m b a T. Lambert, District the

has

Land Tenure
P

submitted

Officer. printed

"

achakos. idence.

be found

p p . 1 2 9 1 t o 1297 o f

748.' M r . L a m b e r t s t a l e s that e a c h s t o c k - o w n i n g f a m i l y h a s own p a r t i c u l a r g r a z i n g a r e a , v a r y i n g i n s i z e a c c o r d i n g to t h e ulth a n d n u m b e r of the f a m i l y . W e do not t a k e t h i s t o d e n o t e it there is n o l a n d o v e r w h i c h c o m m o n r i g h t s of p a s t u r a g e e x i s t , I rather t h a t special r e s e r v a t i o n s a r e p e r m i t t e d . Such reserva ns are k n o w n as Ific.se ( s i n g . , Kisese), and they seem to be the nature of t e m p o r a r y g r a z i n g a r e a s , r i g h t s in w h i c h l a p s e if i family m o v e s to a n o t h e r p a r t of t h e d i s t r i c t . 749. M r . L a m b e r t s t a t e s t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t of t h e item a p p e a r s t o be to s u p p l y t h e f a m i l y g r o u p s w i t h a r e s e r v e orazihg, a n d that Kisese r i g h t s are jealously g u a r d e d and imdaries s t r i c t l y r e s p e c t e d . 750. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e s y s t e m m i g h t w i t h a d v a n t a g e b e reloped, f o r t h e r e is no d o u b t that? c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y e x i s t s controlling the use of p a s t u r e w h e r e a s y s t e m o f c o m m u n a l tzing o b t a i n s . T h i s difficulty is c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d i n t h e R e p o r t ' the N a t i v e E c o n o m i c C o m m i s s i o n ( U n i o n of S o u t h A f r i c a ) , 2, para. 1 0 5 , w h e r e it is s t a t e d : " I t is n o t p o s s i b l e b y t h e v o l u n t a r y act of i n d i v i d u a l o w n e r s t o b r i n g a b o u t a n y n e c e s s a r y l i m i t a t i o n of t h e n u m b e r s of c a t t l e g r a z i n g on t h e c o m m o n a g e . I f one o w n e r reduces the n u m b e r of h i s c a t t l e a n y o t h e r o w n e r is f r e e c o r r e s p o n d ingly to i n c r e a s e his n u m b e r . "

CHAPTEE
LAND PEOBLEMS OF T H E THEIR has of

IV.
KAMBA. TEIBE AXE

PROPOSALS The Rights and Needs of the Kamba. 751. T h e examine claim The Claim to the Yatta Plateau. the foregoing rights Yatta. and W e

FOR

SETTLEMENT. placed us in and a to position make

survey needs

the

Kamba,

recommendations. to the 752. T h e by the Thika

shall b e g i n w i t h t h e e x a m i n a t i o n of t is a p p l i e d g e n e r a l l y on the south-west to a n area of s t and south hv

t e r m A atta
r

9 4 6 s q u a r e m i l e s of u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d , b o u n d e d o n the settled area, AJachakos N a t i v e R e s e r v e , a n d o n t h e n o r t h b y t h e M w e a ex T h e p a r t o f t h i s a r e a which I t is a flat t a b l e l a n d beh

s i o n of t h e K i k u y u N a t i v e R e s e r v e . w e shall r e f e r as t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u . the The extent of Kamba occupation oi the Yatta before the Protectorate was declared two rivers. 753. O n t h e e v i d e n c e before made ment. of t h e Y a t t a Air. " I C. R. by W. : District Lane,

b e t w e e n t h e A t h i R i v e r a n d t h e A l w i t a S i a n o is t h e l a n d to V

us, i t a p p e a r s t h a t l i t t l e usi p r i o r t o t h e a d v e n t of Gov Provincial Kitui, in Commissio 1S97, h the cou

the K a m b a

formerly

s t a t e d in e v i d e n c e was

Commissioner,

station I opened up. P l a i n s for became Air. C. settled."

T h e n a t i v e s , t h o u g h n o t u s i n g the I

t h e i r c a t t l e at t h a t t i m e , d i d so w h e n

W . H o b l e y stated : " T h e r e w a s n o sign of

native occupation

(on

the I

(1894)."
Colonel Stordy : " F r o m Machakos to Donyo Sabuk and n o r t h [sic

Kitui, the K a m b a Colonel

g r a z e d their flocks a n d was track uninhabited to Kitui

herds." until near a

John Ainsworth : " T h e Y a t t a , which by the : native

indicated Lord

(1892)."

Cranworth "It and entirely Traill(

w a s at t h a t t i m e unoccupied.''

( 1 9 0 5 ) a v e r y g o o d hunting g

Air.

F.

formerly

Provincial

Commissioner)

" I n t h o s e d a y s ( 1 8 9 9 ) t h e K a m b a , b o t h of Machako K i t u i , w o u l d h a v e l a u g h e d at t h e i d e a of t h e i r using the e i t h e r f o r g r a z i n g or a g r i c u l t u r e . "

409
TJKAMBA IICHAPTER IV] PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

754. I t w o u l d s e e m t h a t , i n p r e - G o v e r n m e n t d a y s , t h e g r a z i n g nds o n t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u p r o v e d a c o n s t a n t b o n e of c o n t e n t i o n veen t h e t r i b e s w h i c h l i v e d i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . Several 3 names c o m m e m o r a t e the struggles w h i c h took place b e t w e e n K a m b a and Masai, e.g. M w a k i n i Plill ( f r o m M w a k i , fire), ;h is t h e n a m e of a h i l l of c o m m a n d i n g e m i n e n c e w h e r e K a m b a on fires used to b e l i g h t e d in o r d e r to w a r n t h e t r i b e of the ouch of t h e M a s a i m a r a u d e r s , a n d M w i t a S i a n o , w h i c h m e a n s tmpty o u t t h e a r r o w s " ( i . e . f r o m t h e q u i v e r ) i n p r e p a r a t i o n [engagement. B o t h these n a m e s are K i k a m b a . for

755. W e h a v e u n f o r t u n a t e l y n o f u r t h e r m a t e r i a l e v i d e n c e c o n ning e a r l y c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u . O n e t h i n g is tain, t h a t the K a m b a h a d n o t t h e p e r m a n e n t a n d e x c l u s i v e use the a r e a , a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e y h a v e n o t a c o m p l e t e c l a i m o f r i g h t on g r o u n d s of a n c i e n t o c c u p a t i o n , t h o u g h t h e y h a v e a n e b u l o u s im in r e s p e c t o f i n t e r m i t t e n t g r a z i n g o v e r a n i n d e t e r m i n a t e a r e a . Extent to which' the i g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n to g r a z e t h e i r c a t t l e o n t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u Kamba havo [licence. T h i s p e r m i s s i o n h a s n o t b e e n w i t h h e l d s i n c e 1924, been allowed to use the has s o m e t i m e s b e e n g r a n t e d o n p a y m e n t of g r a z i n g f e e s and Yatta in later lietimes f r e e o f c h a r g e . B u t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d it h a s a l w a y s vears. 756. E v e r s i n c e 1913 t h e n a t i v e s h j i v e o n n u m e r o u s occasions Jn r e p r e s e n t e d to t h e K a m b a that the land is n o t t h e i r s as of The extent to which the use of the Yatta is necessary tc the Kamba.

757. T h e e c o n o m i c s u r v e y w h i c h w e m a d e i n t h e last c h a p t e r l-.vs t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e a v e r a g e h o u s e h o l d h a s n o t m o r e c a t t l e are n e c e s s a r y f o r its r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e r e s e r v e is a l r e a d y o v e r ed, a n d w e are of o p i n i o n t h a t i t c a n n o t b e r e c o n d i t i o n e d tout t h e p r o v i s i o n of m o r e l a n d , a n d a n y s c h e m e f o r i m p r o v e w o u l d be h e a v i l y h a n d i c a p p e d if l a n d of w h i c h t h e K a m b a ady h a v e t h e p e r m i s s i v e use w e r e t o be t a k e n a w a y . T h e last ion o n w h i c h p e r m i s s i o n t o u s e t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u w a s w i t h n w a s i n 1 9 2 4 , a n d h e a v y m o r t a l i t y of s t o c k e n s u e d , p a r t l y account of s t o c k d i s e a s e s a n d p a r t l y t h r o u g h s t a r v a t i o n . We efore c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u s h o u l d b e a d d e d t o t h e ha N a t i v e B e s e r v e o n e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s . This will remove a p p r e h e n s i o n o n t h e s c o r e t h a t t h e use of i t m a y a g a i n be ed t o t h e t r i b e . 75S. W e s h a l l n o t p r o p o s e t h a t t h e K a m b a s h o u l d h a v e t h e inder o f t h e Y a t t a as w e d o n o t c o n s i d e r t h a t i t is r e q u i r e d b y on e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s ; m o r e o v e r i t i s , in o u r o p i n i o n , r e q u i r e d tisfy t h e f u t u r e n e e d s of o t h e r n a t i v e s . W e h a v e a l r e a d y p r o il t h a t t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f i t b e a d d e d t o t h e K i k u y u N a t i v e rve as a n e x t e n s i o n ( C l a s s B . 1 ) o n e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s , a n d w e deal w i t h t h e e a s t e r n p a r t b e y o n d t h e M w i t a S i a n o at a l a t e r in o u r R e p o r t .

UKAMBA
PAUT IICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE
PROBLEMS AND RECOMMEND,,

Recommenaa the" Ytma^"1^ Plateau.

7 5 9 . \A/e r e c o m m e n d

t h a t t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u , a n area of

3 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s b e t w e e n t h e A t h i a n d M w i C a S i a n o R i v e r s irj p o s i t i o n s h o w n o n t h e s k e t c h p l a n at t h e e n d o f this eliai b e a d d e d t o t h e K a m b a N a t i v e R e s e r v e as an extension (( B . 1) m a d e on e c o n o m i c grounds. 760. W e d o n o t d e n y t h a t t h e K a m b a h a d c e r t a i n claim, h i s t o r i c a l g r o u n d s to a n e x t e n t t h a t t h e y m a d e intermittent p a r t i a l u s e of t h e l a n d , a n d t h i s m i g h t g i v e c o l o u r t o a claim ;j p r o p o r t i o n of t h e l a n d , p e r h a p s a q u a r t e r , should b e added t o t t e r r i t o r y as C l a s s A . W h e n w e d e a l , in t h e t h i r d p a n of R e p o r t , w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i v e s a f e g u a r d s to be p r o v i d e d for " A " " B . 1 " a r e a s , it w i l l b e a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n is not v i t a l , a n d in e i t h e r case an a d e q u a t e security is c o n f e r r e d . Bin c l a i m , n e v e r t h e l e s s , is w o r t h s o m e t h i n g , a n d w e p r o p o s e to sat i t . W h i l e t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u , in o u r s u b m i s s i o n , s h o u l d be gn: as C l a s s B . 1, w e shall r e c o m m e n d t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n for the i of r i g h t s h o u l d be f o u n d b y a g r a n t of a f u r t h e r area as Ola; T h e p o s i t i o n of t h i s area w i l l b e s h o w n b e l o w ( s e c t i o n s 783 to7 7 6 1 . W e r e c o m m e n d a s an a b s o l u t e l y essential conditioi t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u t o t h e K a m b a N a t i v e Res t h a t t h e g r a n t b e a c c o m p a n i e d b y strict c o n d i t i o n s of conserva! a n d t h a t a s c h e m e of u t i l i z a t i o n be f o r m u l a t e d , wdiich should; as it p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t t h e r e c o n d i t i o n i n g of t h e r e s e r v e . 7 6 2 . I t w i l l b e n o t i c e d that w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d the I P l a t e a u to b e a d d e d to t h e " K a m b a N a t i v e R e s e r v e " and s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e M a c h a k o s ( U l u ) R e s e r v e o r to t h e K i t u i l\e? T h i s i s b e c a u s e i n t h e t h i r d p a r t of our R e p o r t w e shall re m e n d t h a t , f o r a l l p u r p o s e s of t h e L a n d s T r u s t Ordinance, K a m b a R e s e r v e s s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d as o n e . ( S c h e d u l e folio section 1510.)

Claim in respect of the Western Boundary between Maehakos and Sultan Hamud.

763. T h e

natives

state

that

since

the

1906

boundary of

r e s e r v e w a s p r o c l a i m e d , a s t r i p of l a n d of v a r y i n g w i d t h has lost to t h e m on their western boundary. although in some places small A s t u d y of t h e maps^ been excised from t h a t t h e n e w b o u n d a r y h a s b e e n of a g i v e - a n d - t a k e character, areas have r e s e r v e , in o t h e r s t h e y h a v e b e e n a d d e d , a n d it w o u l d appear t h e m a p t h a t a n y g a i n or loss o n b a l a n c e is s m a l l . 7 6 4 . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , w e a r e a d v i s e d b y t h e Survey De m e n t t h a t o w i n g to t h e l o o s e w o r d i n g of t h e 1 9 0 6 definition, i p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e a c c u r a t e l y t o d e l i n e a t e t h e b o u n d a r y on a a n d t h e r e f o r e a n y figures b a s e d o n an a t t e m p t to put it on , must be accepted w i t h the utmost reserve. B u t , owing t g i v e - a n d - t a k e n a t u r e of t h e b o u n d a r y , w e a r e satisfied tha t r i b e as a w h o l e h a s n o g r o u n d for c o m p l a i n t , though po

UKAMBA jjCHAI"TEK IV]

PROVINCE P R O B L E M S AND RECOMMENDATIONS

!-e m a y h a v e been cases of i n d i v i d u a l h a r d s h i p . A s t h e n a t i v e s feared to be dissatisfied w i t h t h e p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n , w e r e q u e s t e d Provincial C o m m i s s i o n e r t o a r r a n g e f o r d e t a i l e d s t a t e m e n t s t o w o r d e d f r o m a n y n a t i v e s w h o felt t h a t t h e y h a d suffered d e f i n i t e by the a l t e r e d - b o u n d a r y . 187 s t a t e m e n t s w e r e r e c o r d e d b y t h e [rict Officers a t M a c h a k o s , a n d a p r e c i s of t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s als in e v i d e n c e ( p p . 1396 to 1 4 1 9 ) . 765. T h e P r o v i n c i a l Its c o m m e n t e d Delusions : (a) T h a t t h e r e w a s m o r e t h a n a d e q u a t e l a n d i n t h e r e s e r v e t o a c c o m m o d a t e the n a t i v e s e v i c t e d b y t h e a l t e r a t i o n of t h e boundaries. (b) T h a t the o c c u p a t i o n of l a n d b e t w e e n the 1906 b o u n d a r y and the present" b o u n d a r y o c c u r r e d i n t h e e a r l y p a r t of this c e n t u r y .
t f

Commissioner,

in f o r w a r d i n g

these

state-

: following

" A f t e r c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , I h a v e a r r i v e d at the

(c) T h a t m o s t of the e v i c t e d o c c u p a n t s h a v i n g b e e n b o r n w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e p r e s e n t r e s e r v e , as then s t a t e m e n t s s h o w , r e t u r n e d o n e v i c t i o n to t h e p l a c e of their b i r t h . (d) T h a t , t h o u g h s o m e losses of c a t t l e d i d o c c u r as a r e s u l t o f a change from one climate to another, they were nothing like as e x t e n s i v e as a l l e g e d . (e) T h a t t h e a l t e r a t i o n of t h e b o u n d a r y b e i n g o n a g i v e - a n d take basis, e x c e p t for t h e area in t h e v i c i n i t y of A l a c h a k o s , n o i n j u s t i c e w a s suffered b y t h e K a m b a - a s t h e r e s u l t of t h a t a l t e r a t i o n . (/) T h a t , e x c e p t f o r t h e c o u n t r y i n t h e v i c i n i t y of M a c h a k o s , the e v i c t i o n s a l o n g t h e b o u n d a r y e f f e c t e d b y M r . D u n d a s a n d o t h e r s w e r e in t h e n a t u r e of s t e p s t o p r e v e n t t h e encroachment by Kamba across the established boundary. ((/) I t is clear t h a t t h e K a m b a i n t h e v i c i n i t y of A l a c h a k o s suffered s o m e h a r d s h i p t h r o u g h loss of g r a z i n g b y t h e a l t e r a t i o n of t h e 1906 b o u n d a r y . T h e land excluded, a b o u t 3,600 a c r e s is k n o w n as L . O . 1491 a n d w a s c e r t a i n l y used e x t e n s i v e l y f o r g r a z i n g b y t h e K a m b a a f t e r the 1906 b o u n d a r y w a s p r o c l a i m e d .

T h e e v i c t i o n s d e t a i l e d in the s t a t e m e n t s r e l a t e t o a p e r i o d erity y e a r s a g o or m o r e ; a n d it is a w e l l - k n o w n f a c t t h a t t h e istrict C o m m i s s i o n e r s c o n c e r n e d a t t h e t i m e w e r e s t r o n g in t h e pport of n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s a n d w o u l d n o t h a v e s t o o d b y if t h e

TJKAMBA
PART IICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE
PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDS

n a t i v e s had had to e n d u r e t h e serious losses of stock they allege. H a v i n g w o r k e d in t h e M a c h a k o s D i s t r i c t as Asst D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r d u r i n g 1 9 1 1 , I s p e a k w i t h some s k n o w l e d g e of t h e s e f a c t s . T h a t s o m e h a r d s h i p a n d inconveni o c c u r r e d t h e r e is n o d o u b t , but t h a t h e a v y losses w e r e suffer extremely improbable." 766. W e are in g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e Provincial ( missioner's conclusions. W e c o n s i d e r t h a t w h a t e v e r hardshi a n y , i n d i v i d u a l s m a y h a v e suffered t h r o u g h t h e a l t e r a t i o n o! boundary w i l l be a m p l y c o m p e n s a t e d b y t h e recommends w h i c h w e shall m a k e . Claim to the Area
P a r m i n

7 6 7 . B y a f o r m e r g a z e t t e m e n t of the N a t i v e R e s e r v e boun 1 9 0 0 , the M u a H i l l s a r e s h o w n as part of t h e N a t i v e lies W e . a r e satisfied t h a t t h e l a n d w a s e x t r e m e l y s p a r s e l y occupied t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n of the M a t u n g u l u H i l l s in t h e N a t i v e lie: w a s g e n e r a l l y u n d e r s t o o d t o b e an e x c h a n g e f o r i t . T h e evid of C o l o n e l A i n s v v o r t h a n d t h e R e v e r e n d C . P . J o h n s t o n leave d o u b t in our m i n d s . 7 6 8 . C o l o n e l A i n s w o r t h w a s t h e I . B . E . A . C o m p a n y ' s Sup t e n d e n t at M a c h a k o s f r o m 1 8 9 2 t o 1S95, a n d subsequently M a j e s t y ' s S u b - C o m m i s s i o n e r in c h a r g e of the U k a m b a Prov a n d in t h a t c a p a c i t y he c o n t i n u e d at M a c h a k o s u n t i l 1899. s t a t e s in h i s m e m o r a n d u m t h a t in t h o s e e a r l y d a y s the n b o u n d a r y w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y n o r t h f r o m the s t a t i o n (Mach; t h r o u g h K a s i n g a t o t h e s l o p e s in t h e b e n d in t h e hills for: t h e j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e I v e t i a n d t h e M u a h i l l s , then fa short d i s t a n c e o n t h e e a s t e r n s l o p e of Mua, t o a p o i n t where] s t r e a m b e d r u n s out to K a s i n g a ; t h a t with, t h e e x c e p t i o n oft!] s m a l l a r e a t h e M u a h i l l s w e r e n o t in a n y w a y occupied by i K a m b a b e f o r e 1 S 9 5 , in wdiich y e a r , o w i n g t o an outbreak r i n d e r p e s t i n t h e c o u n t r y e a s t of t h e I v e t i m o u n t a i n s , he n p e r m i s s i o n t o t h e I v e t i n a t i v e s t o m o v e t h e i r c a t t l e to that ar a n d t h e r e w a s a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t , w h e n t h e r i n d e r p e s t epides w a s o v e r , the cattle should be m o v e d back. 7 6 9 . T h e R e v . C . P . J o h n s t o n , t h e o l d e s t non-official reside i n K a m b a c o u n t r y , w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e d a t e s f r o m 1 8 9 9 , states t! t h e M u a h i l l s w e r e n o t o c c u p i e d b y t h e K a m b a b e f o r e the staiii at M a c h a k o s w a s b u i l t . " T h e t o p o f t h e I v e t i h i l l s used to b e t h e l i m i t . T ( t h e K a m b a ) c a m e t o l o o k o v e r a n d h a d t h e i r outposts waic] i n g t h e M a s a i a n d w h e n e v e r t h e y h a d t h e opportunity : d r o v e t h e i r c a t t l e d o w n o n t o t h e p l a i n s . I t w a s not until boma w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e y r e a l l y c a m e d o w n on t ' w e s t e r n side . . . w i t h t h e i r kraals a n d t h e i r gardens a i cultivation . . .

U K A M B A l CHAPTER I V ]

PROVINCE P R O B L E M S AND RECOMMENDATIONS

'' T h e y had begun to g o i n t o the M u a hills shortly a f t e r the famine. T h e n during Sir J a m e s H a y e s - S a d l e r ' s t i m e they were m o v e d o u t of t h e M u a h i l l s a n d t h a t w a s t h r o w n o p e n to E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t a n d t h e y w e r e g i v e n t h e t e r r i t o r y i n the n o r t h in p l a c e of t h e M u a h i l l s . " respect of the land given in exchange, Le. the Matungulu

. .

,. ''.

tion, he s t a t e s in his m e m o r a n d u m 'rny first eighteen months in the Mwisuni S t a t i o n in t h e E a n g u n d u

: country were spent at a our line slice Location. Drawing

east and w e s t t h r o u g h t h a t s t a t i o n w o u l d cut off a l a r g e w h a t e v e r at t h a t t i m e (1899).. of a r o u n d night. 20,000. in they In 1900 out to p a s t u r e When this area were

from t h e p r e s e n t r e s e r v e , a n d in t h a t a r e a t h e r e w e r e n o p e o p l e T h i s area has n o w a p o p u l a t i o n they but began they to drive their for cattle at Masai :.' . were brought home

convinced

t h a t all d a n g e r

was past they b u i l t c a t t l e kraals

out t h e r e (1900-01) and shortly

whole v i l l a g e s w e r e m o v e d o u t . " ( E v i d e n c e , p p . 1436-1444'). 770. W e a r e satisfied t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n of t h e M a t u n g u l u loca to t h e N a t i v e E e s e r v e w a s a f u l l set-off f o r a n y s m a l l loss of kts w h i c h m a y h a v e o c c u r r e d on t h e M u a h i l l s , a n d it is n o t e [thy that a r e s o l u t i o n b y t h e M a c h a k o s L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l on 27th J u n e , 1 9 3 2 , i n o r d e r t o d e b a t e m a t t e r s f o r s u b m i s to t h e C o m m i s s i o n c o n t a i n s t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a u s e : " F r o m D o n y o S a b u k t o c r o s s i n g of Machakos-Nairobi R o a d , M u g o n g o n i ( M u v o n g o n i ) E i v e r : t h e r e is n o c o m p l a i n t r e g a r d i n g this s e c t i o n of t h e b o u n d a r y . " 771. O u r r e a s o n f o r i n c l u d i n g t h e m a t t e r i n o u r s u r v e y is t h e lability o f r e m o v i n g a n y m i s a p p r e h e n s i o n . I t is t o b e n o t e d Mr. Johnston considers that t h e K a m b a have been generously Ited w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a r e a g a z e t t e d as r e s e r v e , t h o u g h h e Iks t h a t t h e y r e q u i r e m o r e g r a z i n g a n d t h a t t h e Y a t t a P l a t e a u lid b e a d e q u a t e i n t h i s r e s p e c t . 772. N g a l e n i F a r m i s a n a r e a o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 a c r e s in a

. .

'.

S? "? *
2 1

[nil p a r t of t h e r e s e r v e . T h e K a m b a a l l e g e t h a t w h e n t h e f r e e - .0* 4 9 6 9 K " " grant w a s o r i g i n a l l y applied for by M r . Stuart W a t t , no Iction w a s r a i s e d b y t h e n a t i v e s , b e c a u s e t h e y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t [land w o u l d b e used f o r m i s s i o n p u r p o s e s , a n d t h a t i t w a s in used f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s f o r a n u m b e r of y e a r s . I t i s n o w a farm. 773. T h e K a m b a c l a i m t o t h e l a n d i s n o t d i s p u t e d , b u t t h e nsive a d d i t i o n s w h i c h w e shall p r o p o s e t o b e m a d e t o t h e N a t i v e ' ' ' ';'/'. 3rve in a n o t h e r q u a r t e r ( s e c t i o n 7 9 1 , b e l o w ) w i l l p r o v i d e a d e e compensation to the tribe, and w e have no evidence that any "' ' [ Triduals h a v e b e e n a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d or h a v e special c l a i m s . At
!

XJKAMBA
PAST IICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE
PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATI

t h e s a m e t i m e w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t , s h o u l d t h i s f a r m e v e r cornel t h e m a r k e t , t h e M a c h a k o s L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l o r a n y indiviij K a m b a o r b o d y o f K a m b a b e a l l o w e d t o bid f o r it equally Europeans. The Momandu Fa nil Exchange. 7 7 4 . D e t a i l s o f t h e M o m a n d u F a r m e x c h a n g e proposal wj w e r e c o m m e n d w i l l b e f o u n d i n the S e c r e t a r y ' s p r e c i s (EviderJ p p . 1 2 8 1 - 1 2 8 2 ) . T h e s u g g e s t i o n is t h a t s o m e 20 a c r e s of L . O . 1.740 be e x c h a n g e d f o r a c o r r e s p o n d i n g area of an out-span, I N o . 3 0 4 , in o r d e r t o p e r m i t of t h e K a m b a d r i v i n g t h e i r stock al a c e r t a i n road w i t h o u t b r e a c h of q u a r a n t i n e r e g u l a t i o n s . A l l pan h a v e a g r e e d t o t h e p r o p o s a l w h i c h a w a i t s p r o v i s i o n of t h e necess l e g a l m a c h i n e r y " , a n d w e r e c o m m e n d that it b e i m p l e m e n t e d . 7 7 5 . T h e b o u n d a r y b e t w e e n the M a c h a k o s D e s e r v e and aii a t e d f a r m s passes o v e r t h e c r e s t of M w a n i H i l l , h a l f of which in t h e D e s e r v e a n d h a l f in L . O . N o . 1758, w h i c h has reverted t h e C r o w n . T h e n a t i v e s ask that t h e b o u n d a r y m a y be adjust) so t h a t t h e w h o l e of t h e lull m a y be i n c l u d e d in t h e reserve, r e a s o n a d d u c e d is t h a t t h e h i l l is sacred t o t h e m a c c o r d i n g to custi a n d is used f o r r e l i g i o u s p u r p o s e s . 77G. T h e c l a i m h a s t h e s u p p o r t of the P r o v i n c i a l Counul s i o n e r a n d , the a d j a c e n t f a r m h a v i n g n o w r e v e r t e d t o the Crotl no p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s c o u l d b e a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d . F o r these reasol w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e c l a i m b e g r a n t e d , a n d in v i e w of its s i z e t h a t it be a Class A extension.. S o m e 700 a c r e s a r e involved.! Access to Emali Station. 7 7 7 . T h e M a c h a k o s L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l h a s asked that j e x t e n s i o n of t h e N a t i v e D e s e r v e should b e m a d e to include Em T r a d i n g C e n t r e a n d R a i l w a y S t a t i o n w i t h i n t h e M a c h a k o s Katt R e s e r v e . T h e s u g g e s t e d e x t e n s i o n c o n s i s t s of a c o r r i d o r t w o mi! w i d e m e e t i n g t h e r a i l w a y a t p o i n t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e mile w a n d o n e m i l e e a s t of E m a l i S t a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y .

Ciaim to M w a n f Hill.

7 7 8 . T h e K a m b a h a v e at p r e s e n t a c c e s s to t h e railway m e a n s of p u b l i c r o a d s , a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e s e r v e h a s n o actual po'j of c o n t a c t . I t is a r g u e d t h a t it w o u l d be a d v a n t a g e o u s for i f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t o f E m a l i T r a d i n g C e n t r e t h a t it should I i n c l u d e d in t h e N a t i v e R e s e r v e a n d thus c o m e u n d e r the author] of t h e M a c h a k o s L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l . 7 7 9 . W e a r e in s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e s e a r g u m e n t s and recoj m e n d an ex gratia e x t e n s i o n ( C l a s s A ) of t h e n a t i v e reserve f i n d i c a t e d a b o v e and e m b r a c i n g E m a l i T r a d i n g C e n t r e . T h e tol a r e a so a d d e d w i l l a m o u n t t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e square miles.1 7 8 0 . T h e area o f C r o w n L a n d l y i n g b e t w e e n t h e U l u Purl
, l n t l i s i u o u r v i e w

Crown Land

RaiUvay Emali s u i t a b l e f o r w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t and sliof : between Sultan be e a r m a r k e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . N o n a t i v e c l a i m s h a v e been m s p e c t of t h i s a r e a , t h e a l t i t u d e of w h i c h v a r i e s f r o m 3,791 fi Hamud and Email. , , to 4 , 0 2 5 f e e t .
m r e

412
U K A M B A I [ CHAPTER IV] PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

781. A l t h o u g h t h i s l a n d is b e l o w t h e a l t i t u d e w h i c h w e s h o u l d disposed, in g e n e r a l , t o c o u n t as " H i g h l a n d s " f o r t h e p u r p o s e s the s i x t h t e r m of r e f e r e n c e , w e f e e l t h a t in t h i s c a s e a n e x c e p n is justified, p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s are s u c h as ivive w a r r a n t to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; p a r t l y b e c a u s e , if it is n o t duded in t h e H i g h l a n d s it b e c o m e s a s m a l l d e t a c h e d area b e t w e e n e N a t i v e R e s e r v e at E m a i l a n d t h e E u r o p e a n H i g h l a n d s at iltan H a m u d ; and p a r t l y b e c a u s e o u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s i n o t h e r -ections. if a c c e p t e d , w i l l r e q u i r e c e r t a i n sacrifices o f t h e E u r o an H i g h l a n d s a g a i n s t w h i c h t h i s a d d i t i o n w i l l b e a p a r t i a l , oiigh i n a d e q u a t e , off-set. 782. W e r e c o m m e n d that a n area of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 s q u a r e ties ( t h e e x a c t st of Emali boundaries remain to at we be determined disposal have by of survey) the to the Tn of should the Crown. possibility in Land to East,
o f E m a 1

'

iking this r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , inba as a site

in m i n d t h e fertilizer

for a b l o o d a n d b o n e If,

factory,

which

ent w e c o n s i d e r t h i s a r e a w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d as a g r a z i n g a r e a in imexion w i t h t h e f a c t o r y . h o w e v e r , it is n o t r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s area i r r e s p e c t i v e of north of in the the map race. railway wdiich should the area there the the DisThe remainde rpose if s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e a s a p 783. T h e some 5T2 remainder of square The the Crown

land

miles, situated

as s h o w n

Lan^Nort^o the Railway,

lows this c h a p t e r . made N a t i v e

Provincial

Commissioner

and

ct C o m m i s s i o n e r . M a c h a k o s , h a v e p r o p o s e d that t h i s area kumbtiliu N a t i v e R e s e r v e s h o u l d r e v e r t to t h e C r o w n . uld b e a net gain of approximately 123 square

R e s e r v e , and t h a t t h e C h y u l u s u b - l o c a t i o n of The to

this s u b - l o c a t i o n is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 389 s q u a r e m i l e s so t h a t miles [inba. if t h e p r o p o s a l w e r e implemented.

784. T h e p o p u l a t i o n of t h e C h y u l u s u b - l o c a t i o n is a p p r o x i tely 3 , 1 9 4 , a n d it is e s t i m a t e d t h a t at l e a s t 70 p e r c e n t a r e ident outside t h e r e s e r v e o n t h e C r o w n l a n d b e t w e e n t h e r e s e r v e il the r a i l w a y . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s is t h a t t h e w a t e r s u p p l y in yulu is i n a d e q u a t e , a n d the n a t i v e s a r e l a r g e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e of t h e r a i l w a y p i p e l i n e . T h i s t h e y a p p a r e n t l y e n j o y a t p r e s e n t means of an unofficial a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h t h e R a i l w a y A d m i n i s tion. T h e i r p o s i t i o n is t h e r e f o r e i r r e g u l a r , a n d t h e i r c o u n t r y ospitable, wdiile t h e C h y a l e s u b - l o c a t i o n and t h e C r o w n l a n d , future o f w h i c h w e a r e c o n s i d e r i n g , a r e r e p r e s e n t e d as m u c h ter c o u n t r y . T h e Cln^ale s u b - l o c a t i o n in p a r t i c u l a r is said t o excellent l a n d a n d s p a r s e l y i n h a b i t e d . Therefore, according to A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Officers it w o u l d b e g r e a t l y to t h e b e n e f i t of Chyulu natives t o be m o v e d . 785. A s e c o n d a r g u m e n t i s t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l w o u l d h a v e t h e ft of c o n c e n t r a t i n g a l l t h e K a m b a n o r t h of t h e r a i l w a y l i n e .

U K A M B A PART IICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE P R O B L E M S AND RECOMMEND.UK

t h u s c o n s o l i d a t i n g t h e M a c h a k o s R e s e r v e a n d f a c i l i t a t i n g the; m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e t r i b e a n d t h e p r o v i s i o n of r o a d s and sot service centres. 786. T h e move, travel admit for n a t i v e s t h e m s e l v e s , w h i l e n o t at p r e s e n t that the great distances, which they are a serious p r o b l e m , full agreement : with and that the the desiring now removal have

water,

t h e i r h o n e y b o x e s f r o m C h y u l u w o u l d n o t p r o v e a g r e a t hardship, 787. W e a r e in P r o v i n c i a l Coinu. sioner, and r e c o m m e n d

( 1 ) T h a t t h e O h y u l u n a t i v e s b e m o v e d n o r t h of t h e raihvai (2) T h a t (3 T h a t 788.- W e eminent move. to the the Chyulu sub-location miles of revert Crown to the land, Crown. which A. by ; natii we;

512 s q u a r e

c o n s i d e r i n g , b e m a d e N a t i v e R e s e r v e , Class compensate the individuals feel for that disturbance any of the

do not c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e r e is a n y o b l i g a t i o n on Gi caused 3,194 Kamba

Should

c o n c e r n e d suffer provision for

u n d u e h a r d s h i p , t h e L o c a l N a t i v e C o u n c i l , in c c compensation. that Government Mission, should o] who own ; of Scotland

s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n to t h e t r i b a l l a n d , should m a the necessary further with the land, with or 789. W e negotiations intervening between block, by recommend Church a view

to o b t a i n i n g

access f o r the Kami

what will exchange

b e t h e m a i n n a t i v e r e s e r v e a n d t h e Mbwinz otherwise.

790. T h e l a n d t o w h i c h t h e C h y u l u n a t i v e s w o u l d be requir to m o v e is s u b s t a n t i a l l y b e t t e r t h a n t h a t w h i c h t h e y w o u l d vacai and they, in company the with the rest of of the the tribe, and would ga the clos We i materially not than from consolidation that reserve obligation

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d b e t t e r s e r v i c e s t o b e e x p e c t e d f r o m it. therefore consider the land vacated. there is a n y

to the Chyc

n a t i v e s t h a t the l a n d g i v e n in e x c h a n g e s h o u l d b e g r e a t e r in exte

7 9 1 . B u t in f a c t t h e l a n d to b e a d d e d is g r e a t e r b y 123 squa m i l e s t h a n t h e l a n d t o b e c e d e d , a n d as f a r as a s e t t l e m e n t with t t r i b e is c o n c e r n e d w e r e g a r d t h i s a s a f a i r set-off against the s m losses of r i g h t s w h i c h w e h a v e h a d o c c a s i o n to n o t i c e i n other p a of t h e r e s e r v e . A s f a r as i n d i v i d u a l s a r e c o n c e r n e d w e consid t h a t t h e s e t t l e m e n t is a l s o j u s t , f o r t h e losses of w h i c h coniplai is m a d e a l l r e l a t e t o g r a z i n g l a n d , a n d , a l t h o u g h certain priva r e s e r v a t i o n s of g r a z i n g a r e p o s s i b l e u n d e r t h e Kisese system, it s t i l l , in g e n e r a l , t r u e t o s a y t h a t g r a z i n g i s a c o m m o n rather th a private right. I n a n y case w e do n o t t h i n k that a more j

DIAGRAM THE.

ILLUSTRATING NATIVE

THE.

RECOMMENDATIONS KAMBA

REGARDING RESERVE!

U K A M B A XICHAPTER IV]

PROVINCE PROBLEMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

ifufion can be f o u n d f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t of p r i v a t e g r i e v a n c e s aris from such d i s t u r b a n c e as m a y h a v e b e e n caused by t h e a l i e n a 3P of certain l a n d s a g e n e r a t i o n a g o .

^Kuld be divided

792. W e do n o t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e 512 s q u a r e m i l e s to be added i n t o d i s t i n c t a r e a s , of w h i c h 889 s q u a r e m i l e s f l u i d g o to the C h y u l u n a t i v e s a n d 123 s q u a r e m i l e s b e d i r e c t e d Bother purposes i n c o n n e x i o n w i t h g e n e r a l c o m p e n s a t i o n t o t h e %c. T h e r e w o u l d be n o a d v a n t a g e in such a c o u r s e . W e r e c o i n fiul that the land be a s i m p l e a d d i t i o n to t h e t r i b a l t e r r i t o r y , and It the C h y u l u n a t i v e s s h o u l d b e a c c o m m o d a t e d i n i t o r m o v e t o er homes in the r e s e r v e a s m a y s e e m t o t h e m b e s t o r as t h e i r tern of land t e n u r e m a y a l l o w . W e d o n o t d o u b t b u t t h a t p r i v a t e ts in the land w i l l g r o w u p in c o u r s e of t i m e , as t h e m e t h o d of d tenure b e c o m e s m o r e i n d i v i d u a l , and we do n o t a n t i c i p a t e t any special difficulties w i l l a r i s e . 793. T h e r e has been a m i s t a k e in g a z e t t i n g the w e s t e r n g a ^ t t i n g the ndary of t h e K i t u i N a t i v e R e s e r v e . T h e i n t e n d e d b o u n d a r y , Kitui Reserve eved t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m s o f t h e n a t i v e s , Boundary, owed t h e M a n z i E t u m o E i v e r . B u t t h i s r i v e r w a s w r o n g l y vvn .,in t h e s u r v e y o r s m a p a s b e i n g irf t h e p o s i t i o n p r o p e r l y upied b y t h e M i w o n g o n i E i v e r . T h i s m i s t a k e c o u l d e a s i l y h a v e n rectified w i t h o u t d e t r i m e n t to t h e t r i b e , e x c e p t f o r t h e fact t the s u r v e y o r s m a p h a d b e c o m e t h e " D e p o s i t e d P l a n . " 794. T h e description in Government Notice No. 394 of ober, 1826, w h i c h p r o c l a i m e d t h e r e s e r v e s , m a d e r e f e r e n c e t o deposited plan, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h i s m i s t a k e n p l a n n o w c o n tttes an a u t h o r i t y w h i c h c a n n o t e a s i l y be set a s i d e , as t h e L a n d s tst O r d i n a n c e n o w s t a n d s . 795. A c c o r d i n g to a m a p d r a w n b y M r . A . M . Champion, vincial C o m m i s s i o n e r , t h e a r e a i n v o l v e d is s i x t y s q u a r e m i l e s , r e c o m m e n d t h a t it b e a d d e d t o t h e K i t u i N a t i v e E e s e r v e . 796. W e h a v e n o w c o m p l e t e d o u r r e v i e w of t h e v a r i o u s p r o b General s peculiar to U k a m b a P r o v i n c e . A s all t h e r e s e r v e s t h e r e i n a r e Recommend a tions. bited b y t h e o n e t r i b e , w e a r e o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e u t m o s t f r e e of m o v e m e n t s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d , a n d to t h i s e n d w e r e c o m d t h a t o n e r e s e r v e o n l y s h o u l d be g a z e t t e d . T h i s w o u l d i n c l u d e main M a c h a k o s E e s e r v e , ( h e A l b w i n z a o b l o c k o f t h e p r e s e n t intbuliu E e s e r v e and t h e K i t u i R e s e r v e .

C H A P T E R T H E N O R T H E R N VINCES M A N N E R RATION Extent of the Country and Sparsity of Population. 797. 116,959 over one we The square : IN FRONTIER W H I C H BE in the T H E

V. AND LAND AND T U R K AN A REGARDING IN NATIVE p T OC

RECOMMENDATIONS H E L D

SHOULD total laud of

SAFEGUARDS and West Tint Sul;

the area

Northern inhabited

Frontier by the

Provinces, the W e s t itself, be said

exclusive

miles, a n d the mile. the

total native population, If we w e r e to consider to be nearly two

exclusiv Turk and

S u k , is 1 2 0 , 0 3 8 , so t h a t the d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n is to the s q u a r e should find density

T h o s e n a t i v e s c l e a r l y h a v e r i g h t s in the l a n d , but t h e y can . to have e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s . 70S. The population consists sections, of tribes,

Absence of Tribal Boundaries.

of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t noiul w h i c h cannot be said at present o b s e r v e a n y fixed b o u n d a r i e s ; in t h e ighl of o u r p r e s e n t k n o w l we are e x t r e m e l y d o u b t f u l of the w i s d o m of e s t a b l i s h i n g b o u n d a r i e s , s i n c e t h e y m a y h a v e the resu t of d e n y i n g to a a c c e s s to g r a z i n g lands w h i c h a r e v i t a l to i; . and t o w h i c h il This y i o u s l y r e s o r t e d by a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h its n e i g h b o u r s . ;erious o b s t a c l e in sideration by itself w o u l d constitute on o t h e r grounds p r o c l a m a t i o n of n a t i v e r e s e r v e s , e v e n tribes and appeared desirable. : ) . W h i l e it is c l e a r l y o u r duty to p r o p o s e m e a n s for p r o t e c t i o n of t h e n a t i v e s in t h e secure o c c u p a t i o n of t h e hi nil. a r e a v e r s e f r o m r e c o m m e n d i n g t h a t a n y n a t i v e r e s e r v e s shout this t u n e be d e c l a r e d in e i t h e r t h e T u r k u n a or N o r t h e r n Frop P r o v i n c e s , e x c e p t i n g o n llv in t h e case of W e s t Suk and excepting on y ,t . oLvomo, w i t h w h i c h w o s h a l l d e a l l a t e r . 800. their the In the first place t h e a r e a s are so vast in to an a great a pr lornoi populations that it occupant use be it tribes. can wrong of be to It would.amount is true than that to unjustifiable exclusiv proportion home in may posses: for nom

Inadvisability iof proclaiming the lane! as Native Reserve.

u p of l a n d , if i t w e r e d e v o t e d in p e r p e t u i t y t o t h e country better it

is so arid a n d i n h o s p i t a b l e t h a t it is difficult t o see to put put afford R u t t h e r e m a y b e u n d i s c o v e r e d sources of wealth, unnecessary as obstacles the land such possibilities

pastoralists. would development

minerals or otherwise. propose Trust for the

W h i l e it is c l e a r l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t the n a of Native Reserves under the ami

r i g h t s m u s t lie s a f e g u a r d e d , t h e e l a b o r a t e s a f e g u a r d s w h i c h wi protection would Ordinance be u n w o r k a b l e in such a r e g i o n

inappropriate.

NORTHERN FRONTIER CHAPTER V ]

A N D

TURKANA PROVINCES PROTECTION or N A T I V E

RIGHTS

801. T h e w h o l e of T u r k a n a live described, that but the enerally of character,

is a d e s o l a t e r e g i o n Frontier

of the of

nature while These give the or for quite by

Northern

Province, areas

has a l s o e x t e n s i v e

valuable

sture-land, parts of w h i c h are also s u i t a b l e fur a g r i c u l t u r e . is are w o r t h y of m u c h b e t t e r use than in.


note Hieing

nomadic

tribes can

At

present any

a t t e m p t s to c u l t i v a t e

are frustrated

ie w h i c h the

d e s t r o y s m o s t of t h e c r o p s , a n d t h e n a t i v e s a r e land.

to c o p e w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n e i t h e r b y d e s t r o y i n g the g a m e do not feed b o u n d to r e s e r v e such land e x c l u s i v e l y joossession either on be the that historical be l e a s e d capital it to or to

802. W e M to

n a t i v e s , since w e do not c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e y h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d a exclusive economic of and insist are non-native to mils, a n d w e Colony dividuals or b e l i e v e t h a t it m i g h t who have in t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s improve if t h e y

that considerable areas should companies, We do not consider

velop t h e m .

is necessary

at. in e v e r y c a s e , such l e a s e s shorfld o n l y be g r a n t e d ectly b e n e f i c i a l to the natives.

-Dt). T h e e m p l o y m e n t offered on a n y f a r m s w h i c h m a y be sed s h o u l d e n a b l e t h e n a t i v e s in t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d to l i v e a t a sity c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than t h e i r p r e s e n t a v e r a g e of o n e to square m i l e , a n d it is a l s o to be e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e n a t i v e s iployed o n the f a r m s w i l l l e a r n lessons in p a s t o r a l m e t h o d s w h i c h , lien t h e y r e t u r n to t h e i r h o m e s , t h e y w i l l be a b l e t o turn to g o o d mint. S04. T h i s a r g u m e n t m u s t n o t b e c a r r i e d t o o f a r , a n d it airly be u n j u s t inferior land of to a l i e n a t e t h e b e s t l a n d t o E u r o p e a n s a n d to natives. Although land for the their natives needs, cannot and we to b e p r o t e c t e d would leave claim in have

idiisive r i g h t s , t h e y h a v e a r i g h t occupation sufficient after careful tilled o u r s e l v e s oiild be k e p t 805. O u r

and secured

inquiry that their proper for their use a n d in regard benefit. to the

protection

;es in fact d e m a n d t h a t t h e w h o l e a r e a , g o o d l a n d as w e l l as b a d , predominantly general recommendation Turkarm exceptions not be pre General Reeoniraenda tions concerri ins the land i tlie Turkana and
j

N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e s t h e r e f o r e is t h a t , w i t h ted at s e c t i o n s 8 0 8 a n d 8 1 6 b e l o w , t h e l a n d s h o u l d

tilted N a t i v e R e s e r v e n o r be r e g a r d e d as w h o l l y d e v o t e d t o n a t i v e p o s e s ; b u t t h a t i t s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d as l a n d in w h i c h n a t i v e s ve a p r i o r i n t e r e s t , a n d l e a s e s to n o n - n a t i v e s s h o u l d not be iwed to such an e x t e n t as to j u s t i f y t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t t h e ives m i g h t n o t h a v e sufficient l a n d r e m a i n i n g f o r t h e i r use. We ther r e c o m m e n d t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e l a n d s h o u l d not b e N a t i v e serve, t h e p r i o r i t y of n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s should b e s a f e g u a r d e d b y a eial s e c t i o n u n d e r t h e L a n d s T r u s t O r d i n a n c e .

Northern

x rovhiees.

NORTHERN PAHT IICHAPTER V]

FRONTIER

A N D

TURKANA

PROVINCES

PROTECTION

OV
the

NATIVK.

KirC

806. to and the set

This

special should for

section be social

should

deal

with and

quesi Commissio cento

leases : P o w e r aside and. subject

allowed

to the P r o v i n c i a l centres

land

service

trading

t o t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e G o v e r n o r , f o r residential s L e a s e s w h i c h are n o t of t h i s character she with the decision of the Board,

for t o w n s h i p s . Governor of In

be s u b j e c t t o t h e a p p r o v a l of t h e L a n d s T r u s t B o a r d ; save that disagrees State should


:

Secretary The Leroki Plateau. 807. devoted elusion apply the

decide. P l a t e a u t h e r e a r e special, into account, and we h The o

the case of which have

the L e r o k i to be taken

cumstances

a chapter which

(Chapter

V I ) to their consideration.

w e reach Frontier

is t h a t

t h e a b o v e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n she Provinces, at least for i

generally

to the L e r o k i P l a t e a u a s w e l l as to other par and Turkana

Northern

y e a r s to c o m e , b u t t h a t l e a s e s of l a r g e areas t o n o n - n a t i v e s oi L e r o k i P l a t e a u s h o u l d n o t b e a l l o w e d e x c e p t f o r purposes dir beneficial necessary The West Suk. Suk 808. to natives. to We deal. r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e r e s e r v e p r o c l a i m e d for t h e M This is a n will exception to o u r g e n e r a l reo propos T h e reasons for the The ultimate destination of this land t h e l a p s e of m a n y y e a r s is a m a t t e r w i t h w h i c h w e do n o t fun

should r e m a i n .

m e n d a t i o n i n s e c t i o n 799 a b o v e . the boundaries r e c o m m e n d e d

be f u l l y s t a t e d in Chapter V

809. T h e r e a r e t h r e e s m a l l sections of D o r o b o i n h a b u The Mukogodo, the Ndigiri, C r o w n l a n d in t h e N o r t h N y e r i D i s t r i c t t h e Mukogodo. the Ilimwesi N d i g i r i , a n d t h e I l i m w - e s i . A l l t h e s e s e c t i o n s c l a i m to be D o n and the Mumonyot a n d it w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e N d i g i r i a n d I l i m w e s i h a v e aflini Masai. w i t h t h e A l a s a i , w h i l e it has b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t the M u k o g i who All speak a distinct l a n g u a g e , m a y h a v e affinity these sections used to range but, the after forests w i t h t h e G; at that t aliena which

c o v e r e d m u c h of t h e l a n d w h i c h h a s s i n c e b e e n a l i e n a t e d as in t h e hills. North To Nyeri District the farms were gradually m o v e d into the general this place c a m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of t h e M u k o s a sub-clan of

also the M u m o n y o t ,

L a i k i p i a k A f a s a i , w h o w e r e d r i v e n out o f L a i k i p i a b y t h e P u r k i The t o t a l s t r e n g t h of taken these f o u r s e c t i o n s w h i c h w e shal i

t o as t h e M u k o g o d o cattle and 810. 1,695

t o g e t h e r w a s f o u n d , i n a census ta goats e l d e r s , g i v i n g e v i d e n c e before as

in 1 9 3 1 , t o b e 110 m e n , 103 w o m e n , a n d 182 c h i l d r e n ; w i t h sheep and

Their representative

N y e r i , s t a t e d t h e i r d e s i r e t o i n h a b i t o n e r e s e r v e t o g e t h e r , provi t h a t G o v e r n m e n t -should find t h e m a r e s e r v e w h i c h is large enoii

41
NORTHERN j [ CHAPTER V] FRONTIER A N D TTTRKANA PROVINCES RIGHTS PROTECTION OF N A T I V E

We

recommend

(1) T h a t t h e M u k o g o d o a r e a be d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e K i k u y u P r o v i n c e and added to the N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e for the purposes of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Note.The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e e x a c t b o u n d a r i e s c a n safely b e l e f t to G o v e r n m e n t , b u t w e t h i n k t h a t t h e N o r t h N y e r i D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l o u g h t t o be c o n s u l t e d as w e l l as t h e natives c o n c e r n e d . (2) T h a t i n so f a r as the l a n d a d d e d m a y n o t b e sufficient for the n a t i v e s c o n c e r n e d , e i t h e r i n r e s p e c t of a r e a or in respect of w a t e r f a c i l i t i e s , the P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r of t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e s h o u l d m a k e t h e n e c e s s a r y ar r a n g e m e n t s to set a p a r t a sufficient a r e a f o r t h e i r use a n d occupation, witfi particular regard to w a t e r facilities. Note.The q u e s t i o n of a n a d e q u a t e w a t e r s u p p l y is s o m e vvhat difficult a n d a t t e n t i o n is s p e c i a l l y i n v i t e d t o t h e e v i d e n c e of M r . L i n d s a y a n d M r . P u g h ( E v i d e n c e , p p . 1578 t o 1 5 8 8 ) . (3) T h a t w h e n t h e M u k o g o d o c o u n t r y to b e c e d e d b y t h e North N y e r i D i s t r i c t has been added to the N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e it s h o u l d b e c o m e s u b j e c t t o t h e s a m e c o n d i t i o n s as o t h e r l a n d in t h a t p r o v i n c e , t h a t is t o ' s a y , it s h o u l d b e r e c o g n i z e d as a n a r e a in w h i c h n a t i v e s h a v e p r i o r , b u t n o t exclusive r i g h t s . Note.These D o r o b o . as h a s b e e n s t a t e d i n e v i d e n c e , h a v e b e e n " d r i v e n l i k e chaff b e f o r e a w i n d o f p r o g r e s s i o n " , and it m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d t h a t w e s h o u l d n o w r e c o m m e n d a definite r e s e r v e f o r t h e m . B u t they are too small a c o m rnunity to b e t r e a t e d in i s o l a t i o n a n d w e a r e s a t i s f i e d t h a t it is a b e t t e r s o l u t i o n t o c o m b i n e t h e m i n o n e area w i t h t h e Northern Frontier P r o v i n c e in the manner suggested. The safeguards r e c o m m e n d e d f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t i v e r i g h t s should suffice t o g i v e t h e m all r e a s o n a b l e s e c u r i t y . 811. T h e r e a r e a f e w s c a t t e r e d D o r o b o i n t h e L a i k i p i a D i s t r i c t , The Uaso ibly t h e N y a m b i r e D o r o b o l o c a t e d at t h e source of t h e A i n a n g a Nyan^bire r a n d a n o t h e r g r o u p o n t h e T J a s o - N a r o k . W e r e c o m m e n d t h a t Dorobo. be m o v e d i n t o t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e , w h e r e s u i t a b l e mmodation should be found for t h e m .

812. A p a r t f r o m t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r S o m a l i t r i b e s m e n , The Somalia, e a r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r of a l i e n o r i m m i g r a n t S o m a l i s f r o m a and S o m a l i l a n d , w h o are principally e n g a g e d i n cattle t r a d i n g , se l a t t e r use I s i o l o a n d t h e N a i r o b i C o m m o n a g e as t h e i r m a i n res w h e r e t h e y k e e p l a r g e h e r d s of c a t t l e , a n d a r e i n f a c t hing on C r o w n l a n d . T h e r e a r e a l s o s e v e r a l of t h e m at K i t a l e , 1 and other places.

PART

NORTHERN IICHAPTER V ]

FRONTIER

A N D

TURK ANA PROVINCES PROTECTION OF N A T I V E

K,

8 1 3 . T h e q u e s t i o n of a r e s e r v e tor these S o m a l i s liars b m o o t e d . b u t t h e y a r e n o t n a t i v e s o f t h e C o l o n y ; t h e y a r e forei"r p a y i n g n o n - n a t i v e poll t a x . W h i l e w e c o n s i d e r t h a t they hay, r i g h t t o b e a l l o w e d to b u y l a n d in suitable p l a c e s , w e cannot that they h a v e any claim t o a N a t i v e R e s e r v e . 814. O n this subject w e are impressed by t h e comment m b y t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , I s i o l o , a t a D i s t r i c t Commission m e e t i n g of t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e in A u g u s t , 1929. w a s s p e a k i n g of t h e p r o b a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s of g a z e t t i n g a Son R e s e r v e , a n d the m i n u t e r e a d s a s f o l l o w s : " H e p o i n t e d out that K e n y a is r e g a r d e d by the North S o m a l i as an El D o r a d o , a n d t h a t there could he a hat i n f i l t r a t i o n f r o m N o r t h e r n S o m a l i l a n d , and that w i t h i n ten fifteen y e a r s tiie p r o b l e m w o u l d h a v e r e a p p e a r e d in a Lira f o r m ; the area set a p a r t f o r the S o m a l i s w o u l d have pro i n s u f f i c i e n t , a n d t h e S o m a l i s , h a v i n g o b t a i n e d political rin a n d p o w e r , w o u l d t h e n a g a i n d e m a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t: claims." 8 1 5 . W i t h t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s w e e n t i r e l y a g r e e . W e eoiisi t h a t all l e g i t i m a t e c l a i m s of t h e S o m a l i w i l l he m e t . if i; provided : ( a ) T h a t a n y S o m a l i m a y a p p l y , on e q u a l t e r m s with ol r a c e s , f o r a l e a s e of l a n d i n a n y a r e a w h e r e no spe p r i v i l e g e of r a c e e x i s t s , i . e . a " D " area. T h i s fair a l r e a d y e x i s t s , b u t t h e S o m a l i s h a v e m a d e l i t t l e or n o of i t . " (b) T h a t in r e s p e c t natives would, p r i o r r i g h t s of have the same o f " C " a r e a s , w h i c h are a r e a s in w a c c o r d i n g t o our r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . 1 t a k i n g u p l a n d on l e a s e , S o m a h s sli p r i v i l e g e s as n a t i v e s .

(c) T h a t , e x c e p t as n o t e d b e l o w , t h e area m a r k e d 2 and t h e m a p f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n S84 b e c o n s t i t u t e d a " C " a Areas excepted from this recommendation are ( i ) such p a r t of a r e a 2 as m a y b e w a n t e d for Alukogodo above); (see recommendation in section

-ii) such p a r t o f a r e a 2 as m a y be r e q u i r e d for veteri p u r p o s e s , a n d p o s s i b l y for a f e r t i l i z e r factory : a (.iii) t h e e a s t e r n e n d of a r e a 4 , as r o u g h l y indicate t h e m a p , such l a n d b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d unsuitabl a " C " area. Note.The b a l a n c e r e m a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e for the a r e a is s o m e 7 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s , and w e c o n s i d e r that p a r t i c u l a r " C " a r e a wdll p r o v e e x c e p t i o n a l l y suitab S o m a l i s , a n d t h e y s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d to avail t s e l v e s of i t .

NORTHERN 11 CHAPTER, V ]

FRONTIER

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES OP NATIVE RIGHTS

PROTECTION

816. E i g h t y - s i x s q u a r e m i l e s of t h e N o r t h P o k o m o N a t i v e The North serve are s i t u a t e d in t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e , a n d m u s t j j ^ ? " lurally be e x c e p t e d , a l o n g w i t h t h e W e s t S u k D i s t r i c t , f r o m t h e Reserve. )e of our g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t h a t t h e r e be n o N a t i v e


0

Province. 817. T h e Game Warden has submitted a m e m o r a n d u m Proposal for a National which he r e c o m m e n d s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a N a t i o n a l G a m e Came Park. ik in part of t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e i n t h e n e i g h b o u r id of M o u n t M a r s a b i t , t h e M a t t h e w s a n d N d o t o R a n g e s , M o u n t iro. and t h e P l o r r V a l l e y . W e . see n o o b j e c t i o n to t h e p r o p o s a l , does n o t e n v i s a g e that the f e w n a t i v e s w h o i n h a b i t ( h o nirv will b e d i s p l a c e d , b u t n a t u r a l l y il must he s u b j e c t to eguards, w h i c h m u s t p r o v i d e t h a t t h e n u m b e r of a n i m a l s m u s t kept d o w n to a p o i n t a t w h i c h t h e r e is n o d a n g e r of t h e i r s i n " i m p a i r m e n t t o t h e l a n d . T h e r e is h a r d l y a n y c u l t i v a t i o n this c o u n t r y , b u t such as t h e r e i s . n e a r M o u n t M a r s a b i t a n d die e a s t e r n s l o p e s of t h e M a t t h e w s R a n g e , m u s t b e p r o t e c t e d ii d a n g e r . 818. T h e G a m e W a r d e n p o i n t s o u t , w e t h i n k r i g h t l y , t h a t t h e ives w i l l b e b e t t e r oil' in t h e s e r e s p e c t s than if n o G a m e P a r k "eelared. A t j w e s e n t , if e l e p h a n t s o r o t h e r d a n g e r o u s g a m e i n 'ise t o the p o i n t of b e c o m i n g a m e n a c e , t h e r e i s n o b o d y t o deal h t h e m , b u t , if a N a t i o n a l P a r k is d e c l a r e d , a E u r o p e a n w o u l d put i n c h a r g e of i t , a n d i t w o u l d b e p a r t of his d u t y t o d e a l w i t h h matters. 819. T h e G a m e W a r d e n f u r t h e r p o i n t s o u t t h a t such D o r o b o nhabit t h i s l a n d w i l l n e v e r a d v a n c e f r o m t h e i r p r i m i t i v e c o n d i s until t h e y a r e b r o u g h t i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w h i t e m a n . We w h i m t o t h e e x t e n t of b e l i e v i n g t h a t c o n g e n i a l w o r k i n c o n ion w i t h t h e p a r k c o u l d p o s s i b l y b e f o u n d f o r s o m e o f t h e s e olio, and t h a t t h e y w o u l d b e l i k e l y t o d e r i v e b e n e f i t f r o m such oject and undertaking. s20. T h e v a l u e of a G a m e P a r k as an asset t o t h e C o l o n y ot b e d o u b t e d a n d , p r o v i d e d t h a t n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s are a d e q u a t e l y narded, w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t i t b e p r o c l a i m e d . 821. I n t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o c h a p t e r s w e shall d e a l w i t h t h e A Note on eular q u e s t i o n s of t h e D e r o k i P l a t e a u a n d t h e W e s t S u k the Economic ve R e s e r v e . B u t b e f o r e c o n c l u d i n g t h i s m o r e g e n e r a l s u r v e y ' dsh to a d d a n o t e o n t h e e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n . W e r e g a r d it as rtant t h a t s o m e t h i n g s h o u l d b e d o n e t o h e l p t h e n a t i v e s of Northern F r o n t i e r a n d T u r k a n a P r o v i n c e s t o m a k e e c o n o m i c of t h e i r l i v e s t o c k . I t is n o t a l t o g e t h e r f a i r t o be c o n s t a n t l y ing t h e m f o r p e r s i s t e n t o v e r s t o c k i n g of t h e i r l a n d a n d f o r ng e v e r y t h i n g in t e r m s of q u a n t i t y r a t h e r t h a n q u a l i t y , if ng i s d o n e t o h e l p t h e m b y t h e p r o v i s i o n of s t o c k r o u t e s and ets.
l o a , t l o n

:erves in t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r

CHAPTER
T H E SAMBUEU QUESTION LEEOKI The Areas occup ed by the sambiiru. IN

VI.
EELATION TO THl

PLATEAU.

8 2 2 . N o S a m b i i r u N a t i v e E e s e r v e h a s b e e n d e c l a r e d , "bat S a m b u r u h a v e f o r s o m e t w e n t y y e a r s p a s t been inhabiting p l a t e a u k n o w n a s L e r o k i i n the n o r t h e r n part of L a i k i p i a , in a t i o n t o the v e r y m u c h l a r g e r area ( o v e r 4 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 a c r e s ) to the m a n d e a s t t h e r e o f w h i c h t h e y h a v e o c c u p i e d f o r a m u c h l o n g e r per T h e w h o l e o f t h e area is in the N o r t h e r n E r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e , at m a p i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e r e g i o n s a t p r e s e n t o c c u p i e d b y the trib appended t o this chapter. 8 2 3 . T h e c l a i m of t h e S a m b u r u t o L e r o k i m a y b e consid b o t h f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t a n d f r o m t h e p o i n t of v i e w o f t present a n d prospective needs as regards g r a z i n g . 8 2 4 . I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e a b o v e it is n e c e s s a r y to give s account of (b) the f o l l o w i n g relevant questions : the Samburu are. (a) W h o

Claims of the Sa.rn.buru.

Questions affecting the Samburu Claims.

H o w t h e y c a m e t o be i n t h e a r e a s t h e y a r e n o w occupy T h e i r p o p u l a t i o n a n d t h e n u m b e r s o f t h e i r l i v e stock. T h e e x t e n t a n d c h a r a c t e r of t h e l a n d t h e y a r e occtipyi: and the degree of its adequacy and suitability to tli requirements. T h e c l a i m s a n d o b j e c t i o n s of o t h e r i n t e r e s t s a n d point; issue.

Ce)
(d)

The Samburu Tribe.

.825. I n t h e first p l a c e w e w o u l d r e f e r to a n a b l e and inter; i n g m e m o r a n d u m p r e p a r e d b y A i r . H . E . B a d e r , w h o was Disti Officer in C h a r g e of t h e S a m b u r u b e t w e e n J u n e , 1 9 2 8 , and Jiinur 1 9 3 1 , a n d w h o b y his c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the t r i b e a n d his cat s t u d y of t h e i r h i s t o r y is w e l l q u a l i f i e d t o s p e a k . 8 2 6 . A i r . B a d e r is o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e S a m b u r u c o m e of s a m e s t o c k a s t h e A l a s a i , b u t A i r . C o l v i l e , w h o k n o w s the la t r i b e v e r y w e l l , is n o t in e n t i r e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h i s opinion, l a t t e r g e n t l e m a n c o n s i d e r s t h e t w o t r i b e s a r e o n l y d i s t a n t l y rela if a t a l l , a n d q u o t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e in t h e clan n a m e s in stippor his v i e w s ; . b u t , in c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l l t h e e v i d e n c e , w e can c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e S a m b u r u a n d M a s a i a r e c l o s e l y related-on t h e c l a n n a m e s at l e a s t is t h e s a m e , t h e i r p h y s i c a l character!' a n d l a n g u a g e s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r , a n d t h e i r h a b i t s and customs p r o x i m a t e v e r y n e a r l y . M r . E a y m o n d H o o k in h i s memoram s a y s t h a t t h e S a m b u r u and M a s a i a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , and tli t h e o p i n i o n a l s o of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e r s w h o k n o w both tn B u t t h e c l e a v a g e b e t w e e n t h e m o c c u r r e d m a n y y e a r s ago:

NORTHERN II CnAiiKR VI]

FRONTIER,

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES TUB LEROKI PLATEAU

since been w i d e l y s e p a r a t e d , a n d t h e S a m b u r u h a v e p r o b a b l y ie [ u s e d w i t h D o r o b o a n d o t h e r t r i b e s . I n t h e l i g h t of t h e s e M r . Colvile's v i e w s are not very divergent. 827. T h e history of the S a m b u r u as r e l a t e d b y L e n a n a , l a t e m o u n t C h i e f of t h e M a s a i , a n d r e c o r d e d b y M r . T a t e , a f o r m e r inoial C o m m i s s i o n e r , is o f i n t e r e s t a n d is as f o l l o w s : " M a n y y e a r s a g o i n t h e t i m e of M b a t i a n , f a t h e r of L e n a n a , the L a i k i p i a k M a s a i p a s t u r e d t h e i r h e r d s a l l o v e r t h e rass c o u n t r y to t h e w e s t a n d n o r t h - w e s t of K e n y a . A t i m e of d r o u g h t c a m e a n d the b u r n t - u p p l a i n s b e c a m e i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r pasturing so m a n y c a t t l e a n d g o a t s , a n d a m i g r a t i o n w a s d e cided u p o n . T h e L a i k i p i a k migrated farther west over the country w h i c h is still k n o w n b y that n a m e ( L a i k i p i a ) , s o m e of them e v e n r e a c h i n g the B a r i n g o c o u n t r y a n d t h e n c e to the Eldama D a v i n e and G u a s o N g i s h u country, w h e r e they have to a g r e a t e x t e n t lost the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of t h e i r t r i b e a n d b e c o m e m o r e or less m e r g e d w i t h t h e n a t i v e s of t h a t c o u n t r y . T h e E l B u r g o ( P u r k o M a s a i ) , the m o s t p o w e r f u l t r i b e , t o o k N g a t a b u s a n d t h e c o u n t r y s o u t h - e a s t of i t , w h i l e t h e S a m b u r u m a r c h e d n o r t h to the U a s o N y i r o , w h e r e t h e y s t a y e d f o r m a n y years u n t i l r e p e a t e d r a i d s d r o v e t h e m n o r t h . T h e s e people w e r e o r i g i n a l l y L a i k i p i a k , a n d w e r e so c a l l e d f r o m t h e M a s a i word " S a m b u r u b u r " , m e a n i n g a b u t t e r f l y . " i is n o r e a s o n t o s u p p o s e t h a t this story is not s u b s t a n t i a l l y ect as t h e p r o b l e m of t h e S a m b u r u h a d n o t at t h a t t i m e arisen ; E u r o p e a n s h a d e v e n h e a r d of t h e t r i b e , a n d L e n a n a c o u l d h a v e no p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t r y i n g t o m i s l e a d M r . T a t e . 828. P r o m t h e e v i d e n c e of t h e S a m b u r u E l d e r s , it s e e m s t h a t S a m b u r u and L a i k i p i a k M a s a i at o n e t i m e l i v e d t o g e t h e r o n ci, b u t as t h e r e s u l t of a q u a r r e l t h e L a i k i p i a k a t t a c k e d t h e burn and the l a t t e r w e r e d r i v e n to E l B a r t a a n d N y i r o . One ess, a m a n of the a p p a r e n t a g e of a b o u t 6 0 , s a y s t h i s h a p p e n e d re he w a s b o r n . W h e n , s o m e y e a r s l a t e r , t h e L a i k i p i a k w e r e bilated b y t h e P u r k o M a s a i , it is to be b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e buru had not r e t u r n e d t o L e r o k i , as t h e y t o o k no p a r t in t h a t F r o m all t h e e v i d e n c e a n d i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e u s , it is c l e a r the S a m b u r u a n d L a i k i p i a k M a s a i w e r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , in L e n a n a ' s statement tends to show they w e r e actually a part same p e o p l e . F r o m M r . B a d e r ' s a c c o u n t a n d o t h e r e v i d e n c e , also a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e N j e m p s , w h o i n h a b i t t h e c o u n t r y to t h e and east of L a k e B a r i n g o . a r e of t h e s a m e s t o c k . 329. H o w the S a m b u r u c a m e to be in t h e c o u n t r y t h e y a r e a t Reasons why nt o c c u p y i n g is p a r t l y a n s w e r e d a b o v e . A f t e r t h e y had b e e n Sambnrn ted b y t h e L a i k i p i n k M a s a i , t h e y r e m a i n e d in t h e d i s t a n t the present" in t h e v i c i n i t y of M o u n t N y i r o , M a r s a b i t , a n d E l B a r t a , a n d Areas.
t h e

NORTHERN PART II-CHAPTER VI]

FRONTIER

A N D

TURK ANA

PROVINCES

s o e s c a p e d t h e i n t e r n e c i n e w a r s b e t w e e n the v a r i o u s section Masai, but later they were again forced or d r i v e n the Turkana (the and other tribes pressing from reserve 1902 did near not the north. Mr. until

$ sec

southward Neun in
:

in 1897 f o u n d t h e m south of t h e U a s o N y i r o R i v e r n e a r present quarantine to R e n d i l e in Esiolo), b u t meet them journey

h1

T a t e ii he re:

R e t i , much farther b y the M a s a i and 880. T h e y Nyiro. foothills Messrs. them and In

n o r t h , w h e r e t h e y had n o n e a f t e r being r others.


m

a p p e a r t o h a v e turned s o u t h a g a i n in 1901, Captain of the finding of Stigand Leroki some found them

L909 t h e i r v i l l a g e s w e r e f o u n d a t E n g a r e N d a r e south of the the s a m e y e a r north and Archer, alon" hi \ immediately Hope Escarpment,

of t h e m them they

across the [ t o a recogn; b e g a n cros

N y i r o a n d in t h e p r o c e s s of p e n e t r a t i n g f u r t h e r back with the intention confining In 1915 naturally 831. I n determined the frontier. the

s o u t h w a r d s , rut

t h e r i v e r a g a i n , a n d for s o m e t i m e the m o v e m e n t e s c a p e d notio meantime Turkana had established tk s e l v e s a l o n g t h e n o r t h b a n k of t h e U a s o N y i r o , w h i c h t h e Saml h a d p r e v i o u s l y o c c u p i e d , a n d it w a s not until t h e f o r m e r had I removed i n 1 9 2 1 t h a t it w a s p o s s i b l e t o push b a c k t h e latter. fixed b y t h e n a t u r a l l i n e of the IT In the same year (1921) demarcate This' Frori
i

i s

8 3 2 . F r o m t h a t t i m e t h e e a s t e r n p a r t of t h e s o u t h e r n bound of t h e t r i b e w a s r e g a r d e d as west of that natural submitted one of b u t it r e m a i n e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e f r o n t i e r by d e l i m i t i n g a line to boundary. a proposal Kittermaster gazetted as to t h a t e n d , a n d of the

b o u n d a r y k n o w n t h e r e a f t e r as t h e " K i t t e r m a s t e r L i n e . " the boundaries Northern

P r o v i n c e i n 1 9 2 4 , and t h e S a m b u r u h a v e since r e m a i n e d in occr t i o n of t h e r e g i o n to t h e n o r t h and east of i t , i n c l u d i n g the Lei Plateau. 833. T h e officer in c h a r g e of the N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r Provi
1

h a d in t h e m e a n t i m e a d v o c a t e d a f u r t h e r e x t e n s i o n of t h e Samb c o u n t r y t o t h e s o u t h f o r t h e p u r p o s e of i n c l u d i n g S u g o t a Banya a n d t h e B a l a g a l a n i R i v e r , b u t t h e C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , t o whom matter was referred, intimated in r e p l y that ample acconmn t i o n for t h e S a m b u r u h a d b e e n p r o v i d e d b y t h e t h e n e x i s t i n g hot a r y a g r e e d u p o n b y M e s s r s K i t t e r m a s t e r , C a s t l e - S m i t h and H o i i.e. the "Kittermaster above Line", arid w i t h h e l d are more A his fully approval. reported

834. T h e precis end

movements

(Evidence,

p. 1447 t o 1 4 6 2 ) , i n

which

a l s o a chronoloj

a c c o u n t of t h e a c t i o n t a k e n i s g i v e n . of t h i s chapter.

m a p w i l l b e found at

NORTHERN II CHAPTER VI]

FRONTIER

A N D

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35. T h e d a t e of t h e r e - o c c u p a t i o n of t h e L e r o k i P l a t e a u b y uniburn is n o t c e r t a i n l y k n o w n . A c c o r d i n g to s o m e a c c o u n t s , ction of t h e m o c c u p i e d t h e a r e a j o i n t l y w i t h t h e M a s a i b e f o r e itter w e r e m o v e d t o the p r e s e n t M a s a i . R e s e r v e i n 1 9 1 1 / 1 2 , I is on record t h a t M r . C h a m i e r , a f o r m e r D i s t r i c t C o m m i s er, t o o k tribute of 5 , 0 0 0 h e a d of c a t t l e f r o n t t h e E l M a s u l a ton of t h e S a m b u r u on L e r o k i in 1 9 1 1 , but t h e M a s a i m o v e m a y begun by t h a t t i m e . I t is p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e P u r k o M a s a i m a y a l l o w e d the S a m b u r u c e r t a i n g r a z i n g f a c i l i t i e s o n L e r o k i , but annot b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y g a v e t h e m p e r m i s s i o n t o o c c u p y t h e is a m a t t e r of r i g h t , o r t h a t t h e r e w a s a n y c o n s i d e r a b l e o c c u p a w h i l e t h e M a s a i w e r e t h e r e . I t is u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e t w o t r i b e s on v e r y f r i e n d l y t e r m s , a n d t h e A l a s a i , w h o n o d o u b t r e g a r d e d Samburu w i t h s u p r e m e c o n t e m p t , as t h e y d o to this d a y , w o u l d inly n o t h a v e a l l o w e d t h e m t h e use o f a n y g r a z i n g w h i c h t h e y ed for t h e i r o w n f l o c k s a n d h e r d s . 36. W e must conclude, therefore, Plateau that after the Samburu move only had the on with In

to re-occupy the L e r o k i tescence of 837. T h e Government sole claim of of

the M a s a i

menced in 1 9 1 1 , but i t is c l e a r t h a t t h e y t h e n d i d so w i t h officers. the the in Samburu Laikipiak view of to Masai all the the Plateau it the fact that t h e y occupied

ical g r o u n d s rests u p o n ears a g o as a s e c t i o n and we cannot

some

or j o i n t l y

concede,

circumstances, Leroki sub

such a c l a i m can be h e l d to be e i t h e r v a l i d o r c o n c l u s i v e . days m i g h t was r i g h t , t h e S a m b u r u w e r e driven f r o m te L a i k i p i a k ntly Alasai. and were quite incapable of iost t e r r i t o r y f r o m occupied the them area. or f r o m

recovering

the P u r k o A l a s a i , w h o

38. A census of t h e p e o p l e a n d s t o c k o n L e r o k i i n 1928 w a s by M r . B a d e r and h i s f i g u r e s a r e a s f o l l o w s : Samburu. owners n ... ten ... Stock. 1,027 763 1,681 1,563 1.5.10 0,574 Tattle S h e e p and Donkeys Camels goats 62,314 49,126 3,318 1S9

Iota.

Total

114,947

39. T h e p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s a r e n o t i n d i s p u t e a n d of t h e w e n e e d o n l y c o n c e r n o u r s e l v e s w i t h t h e c a t t l e . A t the t i m e census, it w a s e s t i m a t e d that a p p r o x i m a t e l y half the cattle (1 b y the t r i b e w e r e o n L e r o k i , a n d a s s u m i n g t h i s t o b e

N O R T H E R N PART IICHAPTER VI]

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PROVINCES THE LEUOKI p,


u

c o r r e c t , it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e S a m b u r u a l t o g e t h e r t h e n possessed 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 h e a d . D e t a i l s of o t h e r c o u n t s a n d e s t i m a t e s w i l l be fo i n the precis, and tend to confirm M r . B a d e r ' s figures. 8 4 0 . A r e c e n t c o u n t a n d e s t i m a t e h a s f u r t h e r b e e n made the Veterinary Department. T h e r e s u l t is g i v e n b v the f V e t e r i n a r y O f f i c e r in h i s V / l / 1 6 9 of 2 9 t h A p r i l , 1 9 3 3 , as follow;. SAMBURU Section Males Central Southern Northern 13,560 12,720 9,694 35,994 Females 22,517 21,130 22,069 65,716 Calves 5,212 6,06 6,035 21,000 23,333 20,503 64,836 15.0C0 11,265 22,709 43,994 STOCK CENSUS, 1933. Goats Donfey. 3C 0 .C 2,469 4.267 9,736

Cattle Sheep

17,333

Total Cattle .. . . 119,043 ,, Sheep and Goats. . 113,830 ,, Donkeys . . .. 9,736 Grand Total, Live Stock 242.609

8 4 1 . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e a b o v e it is e s t i m a t e d t h e r e were ?uj 1 0 , 0 0 0 h e a d of c a t t l e in t h e a r e a to t h e east of t h e M a t t h e w s Ban: w h e r e no c e n s u s w a s m a d e , a n d this w o u l d b r i n g t h e total nuinl of c a t t l e i n t h e d i s t r i c t t o 1 2 9 , 0 4 3 . 8 4 2 . A l l t h e a b o v e figures i n c l u d e t h e T u r k a n a cattle on B a r t a , w h i c h a r e e s t i m a t e d a t a b o u t 10,000 h e a d , so the nural o f c a t t l e o w n e d b y t h e S a m b u r u is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 119,000. 8 4 3 . T h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , Kiiimire a n d of E u r o p e a n f a r m e r s t e n d s t o s h o w t h a t t h e Samburu m a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e u s e of t h e D e r o k i P l a t e a u f o r their catt p a r t i c u l a r l y of t h e h i g h e r p a r t s , a n d t h a t t h e c e n s u s of M r . Bai i n 192S i s u n r e l i a b l e . S 4 4 . M r . B a m b e r d o u b t s if t h e r e w e r e 6 , 0 0 0 h e a d on Leroki 1 9 3 0 , a n d M a j o r D u x f o r d a n d t w o o t h e r g e n t l e m e n w h o made r e c e n t i n d e p e n d e n t c o u n t , c o u l d o n l y find a b o u t 2S.000 head thej 8 4 5 . W h i l e i t m u s t be a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e official figure; n a t i v e - o w n e d c a t t l e a r e n o t a l w a y s v e r y r e l i a b l e , and that i c o u n t i n g of t h e m , o w i n g to seasonal a n d o t h e r m o v e m e n t s , i i difficult m a t t e r , w e m u s t c o n c l u d e t h a t M r . B a d e r ' s census i 11 n a n d t h a t of t h e V e t e r i n a r y D e p a r t m e n t in 1 9 3 2 / 3 3 , are npprol m a t e l y a c c u r a t e , a n d i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h the Sambif m a k e use of L e r o k t as a g r a z i n g a r e a . T h a t t h e y also use h i g h e r r e g i o n i n t h e n o r t h of t h e p l a t e a u i s a p p a r e n t from

420
NORTHERN II-CHAPTER VI] FRONTIER A N D T U R K A N A PROVINCES THE LEROKI PLATEAU

H l e n c e of M r . S t o n e , P r o v i n c i a l C o m m i s s i o n e r , N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r v i n c e , a n d of M r . C o r n e l l , D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r i n c h a r g e of I S a m b u r u D i s t r i c t . T h e f o r m e r s t a t e s t h a t in J u n e o f last y e a r ) he w e n t a l m o s t to t h e n o r t h e r n e x t r e m i t y of L e r o k i , a n d s a w -e herds of c a t t l e g r a z i n g t h e r e . W e o u r s e l v e s t r a v e l l e d e x t e n gely in L e r o k i a n d o b s e r v e d l i t t l e or n o superfluous g r a z i n g in t h e l a generally, though g a m e a n d locusts m a y to a g r e a t extent %e accounted f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n ; w e s a w f e w c a t t l e i n t h e h i g h f lades, but c o n s i d e r a b l e n u m b e r s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d of L a k e l i m a . W e n o t i c e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of d e s t r u c t i o n w a s ftin- caused to the f o r e s t b y fire and c o n s i d e r t h a t s t e p s s h o u l d be fen to p r e s e r v e i t . 846. I t has b e e n c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e S a m b u r u , f r o m t h e n a m e letimes a p p l i e d to t h e m " L o i b o r K e n e j i e " (of the White l a t s ) , c o r r u p t e d b y t h e e a r l y t r a v e l l e r s i n t o " P u r k e n e j i e " or tirkenejie"were not originally a cattle-owning tribe, but Jioagh G o v e r n m e n t p r o t e c t i o n h a s d o u b t l e s s e n a b l e d t h e m l a r g e l y increase t h e i r h e r d s of r e c e n t y e a r s , it is c l e a r f r o m V o n H o h n e l ' s k that they possessed l a r g e n u m b e r s of c a t t l e as far b a c k as 17, w h e n C o u n t T e l e k i m e t t h e m on h i s j o u r n e y to L a k e idolf. T h e n a m e s of t w o of t h e m a i n c l a n s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t ly h a v e a l w a y s b e e n c a t t l e o w n e r s . 847. T h e p l a t e a u m a y b e s a i d to c o m p r i s e r o u g h l y all t h e h i g h Character of id b e t w e e n t h e s o - c a l l e d K i t t e r m a s t e r and C o r y n d o n l i n e s . T h e the Leroki iitiota of this l a t t e r is u n c e r t a i n , b u t a p p e a r s to f o l l o w t h e f o o t ; of t h e e s c a r p m e n t to the n o r t h . T h e s u r v e y figures of the a g i v e it as 870 s q u a r e m i l e s , of w h i c h only- 300 s q u a r e m i l e s are to be suitable f o r E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t , a n d 130 s q u a r e m i l e s forest. W e h a v e n o t b e e n a b l e to o b t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e aining area of 440 s q u a r e m i l e s , b u t it is b e l i e v e d to c o n s i s t jely of b a r r e n , p r e c i p i t o u s , l a v a h i l l s of l i t t l e v a l u e for stock or jiculture. A m o r e d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e [teau w i l l be f o u n d i n the p r e c i s .
1 , I a t o a u

84S. E u r o p e a n s c o n s i d e r t h e L e r o k i P l a t e a u or p a r t of i t , to [suitable for c a t t l e a n d m i x e d f a r m i n g , b u t m o r e p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r Sep. I f it b e c a m e a v a i l a b l e f o r s e t t l e m e n t , f a r m s of f r o m 1 0 , 0 0 0 is to 20,000 acres a r e e n v i s a g e d a t first as e c o n o m i c u n i t s , a n d [this basis f r o m 10 to 20 f a r m s w o u l d be a l l o t t e d , of w h i c h s o m e [lit be w i t h o u t w a t e r . 849. A very comprehensive description o L t h e land north and Character of Nor-h'"' ! East o f ' t h e Coryndon
1 T j i n e

t of t h e C o r y n d o n L i n e w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e p r e c i s , b u t w e sidered t h e r e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s s t o c k tying c a p a c i t y a n d of its p o t e n t i a l i t i e s in t h a t r e s p e c t b y i m p r o v jthe w a t e r s u p p l y a n d o t h e r m e t h o d s . W i t h t h e o b j e c t o f o b t a i n I such i n f o r m a t i o n t h e s e r v i c e s of A i r . H o d g e , a n e x p e r i e n c e d

N O R T H E R N PART IICHAPTER VI]

FRONTIER

A N D

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PROVINCES THE LEROKI 1 ,,


W

D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , M r . L a n g r i d g e , a R e c o n d i t i o n i n g O f f i c e r , and j M c C o n n e l , a H y d r a u l i c E n g i n e e r of t h e P u b l i c W o r k s Dept m e n t , were obtained. T h e a b o v e officers m a d e e x t e n s i v e tours t h e area a n d t h e i r r e p o r t s w i l l be f o u n d in t h e e v i d e n c e ; they t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e c o u n t r y is insufficient t o c a r r y t h e stock wh u s e it a n d t h a t , i n f a c t , i t is so s e r i o u s l y o v e r s t o c k e d that signs d e n u d a t i o n a n d soil e r o s i o n h a v e a l r e a d y a p p e a r e d . T h e ai g e n e r a l l y is d e s c r i b e d a s b a r r e n in t h e e x t r e m e , m u c h of it is f i n f e s t e d a n d its s t o c k - c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y v e r y l o w . M r . McCon: w a s of o p i n i o n t h a t t h e p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l . w a t e r supplies wa b e of l i t t l e v a l u e , a n d w o u l d , in f a c t , t e n d t o a c c e n t u a t e the ov s t o c k i n g e v i l . M r . H o d g e a n d M r . L a n g r i d g e c o n s i d e r e d the o s t r u c t i o n of t h r e e or f o u r d a m s w o u l d b e b e n e f i c i a l , but would m a t e r i a l l y add t o the a v a i l a b l e g r a z i n g . 8 5 0 . I n s p i t e of t h e e v i d e n c e of c e r t a i n E u r o p e a n s who in s o m e k n o w l e d g e of t h e c o u n t r y , to t h e effect t h a t it w o u l d , or co b e m a d e , w i t h o u t m u c h e x p e n s e , to c a r r y all t h e Samburu st i n c l u d i n g t h o s e w h i c h a r e o n L e r o k i , w e f e e l w e c a n n o t disres t h e v i e w s a n d o p i n i o n s of t h e a b o v e o f f i c e r s , a n d t h e y are, mo: o v e r , c o n f i m e d b y M r . B a d e r a n d o t h e r officers w h o h a v e been c h a r g e of t h e d i s t r i c t . M r . G l e n d a y , in c o m m e n t i n g on the hi e x t e n t of t h e a r e a , p o i n t e d out t h a t it w a s futile to discuss it t e r m s of a c r e s . Suggested Alternative Areas for the Saniburu. 8 5 1 . I n v i e w of t h e c o g e n t a n d i n s i s t e n t c l a i m s of Europe? t o L e r o k i , a n d the. f a c t t h a t it m i g h t w e l l b e r e g a r d e d as \Yh H i g h l a n d s t h o u g h n o t r e c o m m e n d e d a s such b y t h e sub-Cominiti o f E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l s i t t i n g in 1929, G o v e r n m e n t h a s endeavoti. t o find s o m e a l t e r n a t i v e a r e a s , in w h i c h the S a m b u r u and the eat w h i c h a r e n o w o n t h e p l a t e a u could be a c c o m m o d a t e d without NIT' h a r d s h i p t o t h e t r i b e . W e shall r e v i e w t h e v a r i o u s reconmien tions which h a v e been m a d e . 8 5 2 . A t a r o u n d t a b l e c o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n 1928 details of W I L w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e p r e c i s , a r e s o l u t i o n w a s passed to the ell t h a t an a r e a i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t of t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r Provi w a s c a p a b l e of m a i n t a i n i n g t h e s t o c k w h i c h n o w m a k e s use of r e g i o n b e t w e e n the K i t t e r m a s t e r a n d C o r y n d o n l i n e s . I n reg t o t h e e x t e n s i o n of s e t t l e m e n t a r e a s in t h e n o r t h , it was fart a g r e e d at the c o n f e r e n c e t h a t G o v e r n m e n t b e u r g e d to seel a p p r o v a l of t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e t o t h e p r o p o s a l to renmr p a r t of t h e S a m b u r u t r i b e as e a r l y a s p o s s i b l e , presumably im i n g t h e r e b y t h a t the S a m b u r u be r e m o v e d f r o m t h e L e r o k i Plate

( I ) Round Table Conference.

8 5 3 . S i r E d w a r d G r i g g , w h i l s t in L o n d o n in July (2) Sir Edward Grigg's f o l l o w i n g y e a r , f o r w a r d e d a r e p o r t of the m e e t i n g to the Secret Reeommenda o f S t a t e , w i t h c e r t a i n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s to the effect that tions of 1929. S a m b u r u s h o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e i r a r e a on t h e U a s o N v i r o , but

NORTHERN

FRONTIER

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES THE LEROKI PLATEAU

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in r e p l y i n t i m a t e d t h a t f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w a s r e q u i r e d llor (fore h e w o u l d d e c i d e w h e t h e r or n o t t h e p r o p o s a l s should be [itner p u r s u e d ; he a s s u m e d t h a t t h e u n a l i e n a t e d C r o w n l a n d l y i n g it her the south of t h e Q u a r a n t i n e R e s e r v e w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d in t h e Samburu area. discussions took place and the Provincial Com (3) Suggestion F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e , suggested that : land situated by a in t h e few North inhabited hundred in a d d i t i o n Provincial Commissioner, $5.4- F u r t h e r

ssioner, N o r t h e r n

[the I s i o l o q u a r a n t i n e a r e a of s o m e 450 s q u a r e m i l e s , t h e f o l l o w areas b e a l l o t t e d t o t h e S a m b u r u (a) A considerable Nyeri District area at of Crown present

D o r o b o p o s s e s s i n g up to 5,000 h e a d o f (/;) F o u r f a r m s in the N o r t h N y e r i les and 60 s q u a r e m i l e s 355. T h e various respectively. for extensions District,

stock.

le. D i r e c t o r of S u r v e y s g a v e t h e a r e a s of t h e a b o v e a s 540 s q u a r e proposals of land for the ' The 1930


e

biburu in s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e L e r o k i P l a t e a u w e r e e x a m i n e d b y Committee c o n s i s t i n g of : (1) M r . C. O . G i l b e r t , A c t i n g Surveyor General. Department. (2) M r . L . E . W h i t e h o u s e of t h e E d u c a t i o n Mulligan, a Veterinary Officer. 1930. and a s u i n Their ultimate or were Leroki more no refer that any the precis. of

'

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; C o m m i t t e e r e p o r t e d on elusion w a s t h a t of the icient teau. s56. H i s her a c t i o n Excellency was taken, areas to they

the 22nd F e b r u a r y . unable number

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limitative C o m m i t t e e s h o u l d r e v i e w t h e w h o l e s i t u a t i o n , b u t decided whole q u e s t i o n t o this Commission.

857. T h e c a s e f o r t h o s e w h o c l a i m t h a t L e r o k i is E u r o p e a n The Claims of lilands a n d s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e f o r a l i e n a t i o n t o E u r o p e a n s m a y Other Interests I , . , .. and the Points [ v he s t a t e d as f o l l o w s : issue
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T l i a t t h e S a m b u r u are m e r e l y e n c u m b e r e r s of the a n d a r e u n l i k e l y t o use it to e c o n o m i c a d v a n t a g e , v, E u r o p e a n s w o u l d d e v e l o p it and m a k e it an econo; asset. T h a t the S a m b u r u make little use of Leroki, t t i c u l a r l y of the h i g h e r p a r t s , for g r a z i n g , and that i c o u n t s a n d e s t i m a t e s of c a t t l e w h i c h d o u s e it are itit i n e x c e s s of t h e a c t u a l n u m b e r s . ( e ) T h a t t h e S a m b u r u , a p a r t f r o m L e r o k i , h a v e ample 1; f o r t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h i c h could b e m a d e , w i t h cert i m p r o v e m e n t s in t h e w a t e r s u p p l y , t o c a r r y many ox s t o c k t h a n it n o w d o e s , a n d do not n e e d t h e plateau e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s ; a l s o t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t original c a t t l e - o w n i n g t r i b e , u i d h a v e o n l y b u i l t u p their he; of r e c e n t years. examine the arguments in the order nan shall

Examination of Arguments. (a) The Ques tion whether an Under standing existed.

858. W e above :

( a ) T h e r e s e e m s to us to be s o m e force in t h e contention tit G o v e r n m e n t i n t e n d e d t h e area t o be a v a i l a b l e f o r w h i t e settleiiie: a f t e r t h e r e m o v a l of the M a s a i . M r . A l e x a n d e r A r m s t r o n g sta in h i s e v i d e n c e that t h e L a n d Office i n f o r m e d h i m i n 1910 that t M a s a i w e r e b e i n g r e m o v e d f r o m L a i k i p i a in o r d e r to make roc f o r w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t , a n d w e t h i n k t h e r e is l i t t l e d o u b t that Eis peans generally w e r e under that impression. S 5 9 . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n w a s p r o b a b l y r e i n f o r c e d b y a letter tvb w a s s e n t out f r o m t h e L a n d Office in J u n e , 1909 ( L . O . File It? p a r t 3) i n v i t i n g E u r o p e a n s w h o had land or c l a i m s to land in S o u t h e r n U a s o N y i r o a r e a to s u r r e n d e r such l a n d r i g h t s in exchan for a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d " w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t N o r t h e r n M a s a i or i t s v i c i n i t y . " 8 0 0 . I n r e p l y to a q u e s t i o n in P a r l i a m e n t by Sir Eob; Hamilton in 1 9 2 0 . t h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e i n t i m a t e d tha G o v e r n o r h a d r e p r e s e n t e d t h a t t h e area c o n c e r n e d had net p r o p e r l y b e e n S a m b u r u c o u n t r y , b u t had b e e n i n t e n d e d for Et p e a n s e t t l e m e n t b y the M a s a i u n d e r the 1 9 1 1 A g r e e m e n t . S 6 1 . O n 1st N o v e m b e r , 1 9 2 7 , H i s E x c e l l e n c y the Govern r e c e i v e d a d e p u t a t i o n of t h e e l e c t e d m e m b e r s of L e g i s l a t i v e Count T h e l a t e L o r d D e l a m e r e said t h a t , h a v i n g k n o w n Sir DOE S t e w a r t v e r y w e l l i n d e e d a n d h a v i n g h a d m a n y conversations wi h i m on this a n d o t h e r s u b j e c t s , t h e r e h a d n e v e r been any doi w h a t e v e r in h i s m i n d , n o r h a d a n y t h i n g o c c u r r e d to create sucl d o u b t , a s t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a n d w a s d e f i n i t e l y vacated for I p u r p o s e of E u r o p e a n s e t t l e m e n t . M r . 0 ' S h e a corroborated t v i e w , h a v i n g t a k e n p a r t in t h e t r a n s a c t i o n r e l a t i n g to the sun-en of s o m e of t h e f a r m s ( i . e . t h o s e s u r r e n d e r e d w h e n the South Masai Reserve was enlarged).

422
NORTHERN IICHAPTER VI] FRONTIER A N D T U R K A N A PROVINCES THE LEROKI PLATEAU

862. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d t h e m o t i v e w h i c h a c t u a t e d t h e M a s a i o n s e n t i n g to m o v e is r e c o r d e d i n t h e p r e a m b l e to t h e A g r e e m e n t 911 to h a v e b e e n " T h a t it is i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r t r i b e the M a s a i should i n h a b i t o n e a r e a . " I n c o n t r a s t to t h e nnble t o the 1 .)04 A g r e e m e n t , n o a l l u s i o n w a s m a d e t o w h i t e lenient.
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863. T h e S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , in a d e s p a t c h d a t e d t h e 3 0 t h 1925, a n d a g a i n in a d e s p a t c h i n J u l y , 1 9 2 9 , r e p u d i a t e d a n y gestion t h a t t h e r e h a d e v e r b e e n a n y u n d e r s t a n d i n g or u n d e r ni'- that L e r o k i w o u l d b e m a d e a v a i l a b l e f o r E u r o p e a n s e t t l e t. 864. A l t h o u g h t h e S a m b u r u w e r e in o c c u p a t i o n of L e r o k i in or soon a f t e r , t h e q u e s t i o n of E u r o p e a n c l a i m s t o it w o u l d appear to h a v e b e e n p r e s s e d u n t i l 13 y e a r s l a t e r , w h e n t h e l a t e B e r k e l y C o l e , in a l e t t e r d a t e d t h e 1 7 t h A l a y , 1 9 2 4 , a d d r e s s e d he C o l o n i a l S e c r e t a r y , c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e A l a s a i w o u l d not h a v e ed as p e a c e a b l y as t h e y did if t h e y had t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e ing the l a n d to t h e S a m b u r u i n s t e a d o f m a k i n g i t a v a i l a b l e f o r te s e t t l e m e n t . Northern Alasai Eeserve as (b) The Area a r e e x t r e m e l y v a g u e a n d i l l i", c h the Understanding . . . ned; t h e y are g i v e n as t h e L o r o g h i ( L e r o k i ) m o u n t a i n s on t h e referred. Hi, and L a k e K i s i m a o n t h e e a s t , a n d so w o u l d a p p e a r t o e x c l u d e 865. T h e boundaries of the ribed in t h e 1904 A g r e e m e n t
0 u l u J 0

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first l i n e of the e s c a r p m e n t t o t h e s o u t h , a p p r o x i m a t e l y Line is, was intended. of the Leroki the g r e a t e r part Plateau is

h e is c o r r e c t ' in excluded the would was

the r e s e r v e i n t e n d e d in t h e A g r e e m e n t , b u t o t h e r s t h i n k e of m o u n t a i n s in t h e n o r t h e r n e x t r e m i t y of t h e P l a t e a u gree w i t h them. By proclamation in 1906 that

e accurately d e s c r i b e t h e L e r o k i A l o u n t a i n s , a n d w e a r e i n c l i n e d reserve nded t o t h e n o r t h a n d e a s t b y p u r e l y g e o g r a p h i c a l l i n e s object of this l a r g e e x t e n s i o n clear, and it is p r o b a b l e nal c h a r a c t e r o n l y . by 1 9 0 9 , w h e n e escarpment. pean settlement which is

hown o n the m a p as t h e b o u n d a r i e s of t h e o l d A l a s a i E e s e r v e . to t h e a g r e e m e n t b o u n d a r i e s intended t h a t it w a s t o b e of a p r o occupation foothills for old the

T h e A l a s a i m a d e n o use of it t o t h e n o r t h , Stigand found grounds that well them it w a s on the part of as

r as is k n o w n , a n d t h e S a m b u r u w e r e c e r t a i n l y in Captain on the

T h i s a r e a is a l s o c l a i m e d as b e i n g a v a i l a b l e it c o u l d n o t be d e s c r i b e d

ai R e s e r v e , t h o u g h lands."

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Note.The b o u n d a r i e s of n a t i v e r e s e r v e s a t t h a t time to h a v e b e e n f i x e d in a s o m e w h a t h a p h a z a r d a n d i n d e f i n i t e m, e . g . t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f the K i k u y u R e s e r v e as d e f i n e d by proi tion d a t e d 1st J u l y , 1 9 0 6 , e x t e n d e d to t h e U a s o N y i r o and ini s o m e 7,000 s q u a r e m i l e s of c o u n t r y w h i c h i s not K i k u y u teni 8 6 6 . I t d o e s not s e e m p r o b a b l e t h a t G o v e r n m e n t could r e g a r d e d t h e d r y c o u n t r y a n d b a r r e n w a s t e s to t h e n o r t h as si for w h i t e o c c u p a t i o n , or e v e r i n t e n d e d it for t h a t purpose M a s a i d i d n o t m a k e use of it a n d it w a s i n h a b i t e d b y other U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e b o u n d a r i e s of the M a s a i R e s e r v e are so a n d i l l - d e f i n e d in t h e A g r e e m e n t that it is i m p o s s i b l e to say a r e a t h e y c o m p r i s e d . I t is p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e area included of t h e L e r o k i P l a t e a u , but w e c o n s i d e r G o v e r n m e n t , in lixin " K i t t e r m a s t e r L i n e " as t h e l i m i t of n a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n and a h a r y of the N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e , e f f e c t e d a fair and a b l e c o m p r o m i s e ; it left a v a i l a b l e f o r a l i e n a t i o n all but i p o r t i o n of wdiat c o u l d h a v e b e e n M a s a i c o u n t r y u n d e r the tei the A g r e e m e n t w h i c h w a s suitable for E u r o p e a n s . (c) The Argument 8 6 7 . T h e q u e s t i o n of t h e S a m b u r u c l a i m to L e r o k i has d i s c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n s 823-837 a b o v e , a n d w e a g r e e t h a t on his about g r o u n d s t h e i r c l a i m is not a v e r y s t r o n g o n e . W h a t e v e r claim Samburu Encroachment. m a y h a v e h a d d a t e s back b e f o r e t h e t i m e of E u r o p e a n adini t i o n . H o w e v e r l o g i c a l it m i g h t s e e m to s a y to t h e S a m b u r u , d i d n o t o c c u p y t h i s l a n d w h e n w e c a m e , b u t y o u d i d occupy 1 b i t , a n d t h e r e f o r e y o u m u s t g o b a c k t h e r e , " such a course wo i m p o s s i b l e , b e c a u s e t h a t a r e a is n o w o c c u p i e d b y o t h e r tribe n o G o v e r n m e n t w o u l d c o n t e m p l a t e t h e c o n t i n u a l m o v i n g of f o r such r e a s o n s .

(d) The Economic Argument.

8 6 8 . O n e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s , w e a g r e e g e n e r a l l y that Euro] w o u l d be a b l e t o u s e the l a n d to b e t t e r a d v a n t a g e than the I i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e o f d e v e l o p m e n t , but L e r o k i is son: r e m o t e f o r m i x e d f a r m i n g , a n d if s u r v e y e d for sheep far s e e m s to b e c o n t e m p l a t e d , t h e area w o u l d i n t h e early di s e t t l e m e n t suffice o n l y f o r 20 f a r m s at t h e m o s t . Under o c c u p a t i o n it c a n a n d d o e s s u p p o r t s o m e 6,000 A f r i c a n s witli flocks a n d h e r d s , a n d t h e S a m b u r u do sell c o n s i d e r a b l e numl s h e e p ; t h e D i s t r i c t has b e e n l o n g in q u a r a n t i n e f o r cattle.
7

8 6 9 . W e do n o t f e e l w e can support an a r g u m e n t that b o n e c o m m u n i t y is a b l e t o m a k e b e t t e r use of l a n d than an t h e f o r m e r m u s t necessarily- h a v e i t , h o w e v e r essential it it for the latter. 870. M a j o r Tyndall has supplied information r s u r v e y e d u n a l i e n a t e d f a r m s in L a i k i p i a a n d t h e r e is a further a r e a s o u t h of t h e K i t t e r m a s t e r L i n e w h i c h u n d e r our reconim t i o n w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e f o r E u r o p e a n s ; t h e a d d i t i o n thereft

423
NORTHERN II-CHAPTER FRONTIER A N D TURK A N A PROVINCES Tun LEROKI PLATEAU VI]

I 21)0,000 a c r e s on L e r o k i omic situation.

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to affect t h e

$71. T h e q u e s t i o n of t h e u s e m a d e of L e r o k i f o r g r a z i n g p u r s by t h e S a m b u r u has b e e n discussed u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g of llation and s t o c k , a n d t h e r e i s l i t t l e to a d d . W e m u s t a s s u m e at least 50,000 h e a d of c a t t l e a r e g e n e r a l l y g r a z i n g o n L e r o k i ddition to l a r g e n u m b e r s o f s h e e p , g o a t s a n d d o n k e y s , a n d from forest a n d t h e p r e c i p i t o u s lava c o u n t r y to t h e n o r t h a n d the area a v a i l a b l e f o r g r a z i n g is l i m i t e d to a b o u t 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 w h i c h is a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r a c r e s t o a b e a s t . I t cannot, lore, be said t o b e u n d e r s t o c k e d . s72. T h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e l a n d o c c u p i e d b y t h e S a m b u r u , a p a r t (e) That the Sainburu have L e r o k i , h a s b e e n e x a m i n e d a b o v e . A s t h e v i e w s e x p r e s s e d so Hieient been so w i d e l y divergent regarding the s u i t a b i l i t y a n d land without Leroki. uacy o f t h e area f o r t h e w h o l e o f t h e S a i n b u r u t r i b e , w e c o n vd t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e d v e r y c a r e f u l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d o i m n e n d a study of t h e r e p o r t s a n d e v i d e n c e of M e s s r s H o d g e . gridge and M c C o n n e l . w h o w e r e especially detailed t o m a k e iiiplete an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y as p o s s i b l e . T h e i r v i e w s in t h e m a i n s u p p o r t e d b y all a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d m i l i t a r y i s w h o h a v e b e e n in c h a r g e o f t h e S a m b u r u or N o r t h e r n tier P r o v i n c e , w h o , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , c o n s i d e r e d t h a t L e r o k i essential t o t h e n e e d s o f t h e S a m b u r u : s o m e o f t h e m , i n f a c t , lgly a d v o c a t e d ermaster Line. must a further addition of land t o t h e south of t h e

873. W e c o n s i d e r t h e o p i n i o n s a n d v i e w s of t h e s e officers

nil o v e r t h o s e of t r a v e l l e r s , s p o r t s m e n a n d o t h e r s , w h o m e r e l y L'(1 t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y a n d w h o s e k n o w l e d g e of it was s l i g h t , who possibly s a w it under of unusually growth will favourable n o t support conditions, rain it for a for any ough t h e r e I period, m a y be a g o o d of g r a s s a f t e r

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h of t i m e and i t soon w i t h e r s and dies. S74. G o v e r n m e n t h a s v e r y f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d the p o s s i b i l i t y of Conclusion regarding "g a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d f o r L e r o k i , a n d in v i e w o f t h e e v i d e n c e Alternative reports w h i c h w e have r e c e i v e d w e a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e r e Areas. o a l t e r n a t i v e a r e a s w h i c h w o u l d p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e or suit e x c h a n g e . I n a n y case it s h o u l d b e m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e w h o l e e I s i o l o q u a r a n t i n e w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a v a i l a b l e , a n d it is able t h a t s o m e of t h e l a n d s u g g e s t e d w i l l in t h e n e a r f u t u r e b e eel f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . 375. T h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t a n d p r o s p e c t i v e n e e d s o f t h e Other aspects niru a s r e g a r d s g r a z i n g h a s b e e n discussed f r o m s e v e r a l p o i n t s of the Samburu Question. iw i n t h e f o r e g o i n g p a r t s o f this c h a p t e r , but t h e r e a r e s o m e T aspects that require e x a m i n a t i o n .

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o c c u p y p a r t of w h a t is r e c o g n i z e d as S a m b u r u c o u n t r y , hav r i g h t or r e a s o n t o be t h e r e , a n d s h o u l d be r e m o v e d . T h e histon t h e s e T u r k a n a is briefly as f o l l o w s : 8 7 7 . D u r i n g the p e r i o d of t h e w a r t h e y p e n e t r a t e d to the n c b a n k of t h e U a s o N y i r o a n d f o r c e d t h e S a m b u r u to the soutli t h a t r i v e r . I n J u l y , 1 9 1 9 , S i r E d w a r d N o r t h e y d i r e c t e d as foiloi " S t e p s m u s t b e t a k e n to w a r n the S a m b u r u at o n c e that they n o t be a l l o w e d to k e e p t h e i r s t o c k south of the U a s o N y i r o o n no a c c o u n t m u s t t h e y be a l l o w e d to b u i l d v i l l a g e s . A s soon w e h a v e d r i v e n , as w e m u s t d o , t h e T u r k a n a i n v a d e r s bad t h e i r o w n c o u n t r y , t e l l t h e S a n i b u r u t h a t the last n a m e d will f o r c i b l y e j e c t e d f r o m t h e s o u t h of t h e r i v e r . L i m i t s must be o n the n o m a d i c t r i b e s . " 8 7 8 . A n a c c o u n t of t h e a c t i o n s t a k e n a n d of t h e reason.; a l l o w i n g t h e m t o r e t u r n a n d o c c u p y t h a t part o f t h e Samburu p i n g g r o u n d s k n o w n as E l B a r t a w i l l be f o u n d in t h e precis. T h a v e r e m a i n e d in t h e S a m b u r u D i s t r i c t e v e r s i n c e , and appear have e n c r o a c h e d b e y o n d the E l B a r t a P l a i n s . 8 7 9 . T h e r e is r e a s o n to b e l i e v e the T u r k a n a h a v e a claim t h e a r e a k n o w n as t h e E l B a r t a P l a i n s , f o r C a p t a i n Stigand for t h e m t h e r e 2 1 y e a r s a g o , a n d it w o u l d e n t a i l c o n s i d e r a b l e hard o n t h e m to m o v e t h e m i n t o the S u g o t a v a l l e y or the Turk c o u n t r y . W e h a v e , in o t h e r p a r t s of o u r R e p o r t , visualized in p e n e t r a t i o n b y t r i b e s as b e i n g g e n e r a l l y d e s i r a b l e as a remedy m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n , a n d w e r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e T u r k a n a be al!o t o r e m a i n in t h e d i s t r i c t , b u t w e c o n s i d e r t h e i r m o v e m e n t s b e m o r e s t r i c t l y c o n t r o l l e d t h a n is a p p a r e n t l y the case at presen ( 6 ) Tsetse F l y . 8 8 0 . T h e r e is n o d o u b t f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e t h a t large area t h e S a m b u r u c o u n t r y a r e " f l y " i n f e s t e d , b u t it has been st; t h a t t h e c a t t l e of t h e t r i b e a r e , t o s o m e e x t e n t at least, ininiun "fly". W e w o u l d h e s i t a t e t o e x p r e s s a n y o p i n i o n on this la p o i n t , a n d it s e e m s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r e a r e different varietie "fly" w i t h d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s of v i r u l e n c e . W e h a v e it on a u t h o r i t y of A i r . B a d e r t h a t d u r i n g t i m e s of d r o u g h t the Sam a r e f o r c e d to g r a z e p a r t of t h e i r s t o c k in fly-infested a r e a s , and t h e i r losses f r o m t r y p a n o s o m i a s i s a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e . W e eons fly-infestation is a s e r i o u s f a c t o r i n d i m i n i s h i n g t h e g r a z i n g vain the Saniburu country. (c) Game. 881. The w h o l e of t h e S a m b u r u c o u n t r y , i n c l u d i n g Lerok

'

" G a m e R e s e r v e " , b u t w e u n d e r s t a n d it is p r o p o s e d to exclude l a t t e r a r e a . T h e e f f e c t of g a m e on t h e g r a z i n g and water sn is p r o b a b l y n o t v e r v s e r i o u s , and t h a t is t h e o p i n i o n of the 0 W a r d e n , Captain Ritchie. G a m e p r e s e r v a t i o n and stock w o u l d , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r to b e s o m e w h a t i n c o m p a t i b l e , and alth

NORTHERN
I R

FRONTIER

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES RIGHTS

CHAI-TEB

VI]

PROTECTION ot- N A T I V E

have n o d e s i r e t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h C a p t . E i t c h i e ' s d e s i r e for a ational P a r k " in t h a t a r e a , w e c o n s i d e r the S a m b u r u a r e i t l e d to s o m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n in r e s p e c t of i t . 882. W e c o n s i d e r t h e figure of 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 r e p r e s e n t s a p p r o x i On Wealth of the Samburu. tely the n u m b e r of c a t t l e o w n e d by t h e S a m b u r u , a n d t h e y h a v e o i a r " e n u m b e r s ot s h e e p a n d g o a t s . O n t h e basis t h a t t h e p o p u ion is 12,000 it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e y h a v e 10 h e a d of c a t t l e p e r ividual and t h e y m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d t o be a w e a l t h y t r i b e in t h i s jpect. I t has b e e n a r g u e d t h a t t h e y do n o t n e e d so l a r g e an ount of stock for t h e i r s u p p o r t , a n d t h a t t h e n u m b e r s m i g h t b e siderably r e d u c e d w i t h a d v a n t a g e to t h e m s e l v e s , a n d t h e c o u n t r y y o c c u p y . W e a g r e e w i t h the v i e w t h a t t h e S a m b u r u w o u l d be ter off, a n d t h a t t h e i r c o u n t r y w o u l d b e n e f i t if l a r g e n u m b e r s of ir u n e c o n o m i c beasts w e r e d i s p o s e d o f , b u t e v e n if t h e i r c a t t l e e reduced b y 30 p e r c e n t or 4 0 p e r c e n t , L e r o k i or s o m e o t h e r zin ' area w o u l d still be n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e m on e c o n o m i c g r o u n d s ; y could n o t a l l be p a s t u r e d in t h e a r e a , a p a r t f r o m L e r o k i , w i t h seriously i n c r e a s i n g t h e o v e r s t o c k i n g p o s i t i o n w h i c h a l r e a d y ts. I n M r . B a d e r ' s o p i n i o n t h e S a m b u r u in 1930 h a d n o m o r e k than w a s n e c e s s a r y for t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s u n d e r p r e s e n t c o n ons and t h e r e is n o e v i d e n c e t o s h o w t h a t t h e y h a v e m a t e r i a l l y eased, if at a l l , s i n c e t h a t t i m e , b u t he a g r e e s t h a t t h e y w o u l d better off w i t h f e w e r a n d b e t t e r c a t t l e ; a n d w e c o n s i d e r t h a t sures to r e d u c e the numbers of uneconomic beasts are essary.
n

8S3. T h e w h o l e p o s i t i o n a n d fly s u m m a r i z e d a s u n d e r : Historical Claims.

our

recommendations

may

be

Summary

(1) T h e c l a i m of t h e S a m b u r u to L e r o k i o n h i s t o r i c a l g r o u n d s s upon the fact t h a t t h e y o c c u p i e d the a r e a as a p a r t of or thy w i t h t h e L a i k i p i a k M a s a i s o m e GO o r m o r e y e a r s a g o , a n d rned t h e r e t o w i t h t h e t a c i t c o n s e n t of t h e G o v e r n m e n t a b o u t year 1 9 1 1 . (2) T h a t t h e i r f o r m e r g r a z i n g g r o u n d s in t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d larsabit m o u n t a i n , t o w h i c h t h e y w e n t a f t e r t h e i r d e f e a t b y Laikipiak, are n o l o n g e r available for t h e m . T h e y h a v e , in o u r o p i n i o n , o n l y a s l i g h t c l a i m t o L e r o k i o n above g r o u n d s , a n d if t h i s w e r e t h e o n l y r e a s o n f o r g r a n t i n g them w e s h o u l d n o t c o n s i d e r it s u f f i c i e n t . Claims of Europeans.

(1) W h i l e w e a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e w a s a g e n e r a l ensus of o p i n i o n a m o n g E u r o p e a n s t h a t t h e M a s a i w e r e r e d f r o m L a i k i p i a in o r d e r to p r o v i d e l a n d f o r E u r o p e a n s e t t l e t in t h a t a r e a , a n d w e t h i n k t h a t t h a t w a s a l s o i n t e n d e d b y

NORTHERN PART IICHAPTER VI]

FRONTIER

AND

TURKANA PROVINCES PROTECTION OF NATIVE

KI

IIE

G o v e r n m e n t a t t h e t i m e , w e c a n n o t a c c e p t t h e c o n t e n t i o n thai i w h o l e o f t h e old M a s a i R e s e r v e a s d e f i n e d in the A g r e e m e n t o r P r o c l a m a t i o n . . . w a s d e f i n i t e l y set a s i d e for t h a t purpose. ( 2 ) W e a r e u n a b l e to r e c o m m e n d that the S a m b u r u should r e m o v e d f r o m L e r o k i a n d t h e l a n d b e leased to European.- sol, b e c a u s e t h e l a t t e r m i g h t be a b l e to use it to better econoti a d v a n t a g e in the f u t u r e . (3) W e for grazing, there. (4) W e c o n s i d e r t h a t the S a m b u m c o u n t r y as apart n, L e r o k i is i n c a p a b l e o f s u p p o r t i n g m o r e c a t t l e than now make t. of it, a n d is, in f a c t , a l r e a d y s e r i o u s l y o v e r s t o c k e d . ( 5 ) W e a g r e e w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e 1930 c o m m i t t e e tl t h e s u g g e s t e d a l t e r n a t i v e a r e a s a r e insufficient to accommodate S a m b u r u s t o c k w h i c h is g r a z e d o n L e r o k i . Recommendations. 884. O u r final recommendations a r e as f o l l o w s : find and that that Leroki they is e x t e n s i v e l y keep used b y about half the San their eat normally

( a ) T h a t t h e " K i t t e r m a s t e r L i n e " be k e p t as one of t b o u n d a r i e s of t h e N o r t h e r n F r o n t i e r P r o v i n c e subject a n y m i n o r a d j u s t m e n t s w h i c h G o v e r n m e n t m a y const! n e c e s s a r y , a n d t h a t all t h e l a n d t o t h e north and east i t , i n c l u d i n g t h e L e r o k i P l a t e a u , b e r e s e r v e d for nati use a n d o c c u p a t i o n f o r such a t i m e as m a y b e necessa W e d o n o t at p r e s e n t r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e area d e c l a r e d n a t i v e r e s e r v e f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h w e state Chapter V o u t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e N o r t h e r n Front Province generally. (b) T h a t t h e b o u n d a r y be d e m a r c a t e d in such a manner t! there can b e n o mistake as to its whereabouts.

( c ) T h a t t h e f o r e s t a r e a o n L e r o k i b e d e m a r c a t e d and decla. to be G o v e r n m e n t F o r e s t E e s e r v e . ( d ) T h a t n o l e a s e s t o n o n - n a t i v e s s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d on Let e x c e p t f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s as a r e of d i r e c t benefit to i n a t i v e s (e.g. a c r e a m e r y w i t h a r e a s o n a b l e amount l a n d f o r g r a z i n g p u r p o s e s ) , p r o v i d e d t h a t p l o t s for p poses of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t r a d i n g , o r social service slio be a l l o w e d , a n d also s m a l l p l o t s for r e s i d e n t i a l purpo uot e x c e e d i n g fifty a c r e s . ( e ) T h a t s u c h a r e a t o t h e n o r t h and east of t h e Coryndon L as G o v e r n m e n t c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y , s h o u l d , subject a d e q u a t e p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t i v e r i g h t s a n d interests, be a s i d e as a " N a t i o n a l P a r k " u n d e r t h e supervision of Game Department.

MAP
(a)

/LLU5TRATING
line features of

The Killermasfer and Coryndon and other topographical mentioned in Pari IT Chapter.ET the Report Theproposed"C"area L easehold Area) Sec 3/5 (c) and the Report. mentioned Sec/879

(b)

(Native in (a) of

426

CHAPTER V I I .
THE LAND PROBLEM (TURKANA OF TH K WEST SUK. .

PROVINCE).

85. T h e l a n d p r o b l e m o f t h e W e s t S u k i s t h e s a m e w h i c h The Nature of s w i t h m o n o t o n o u s f r e q u e n c y a m o n g a l m o s t all t h e p a s t o r a l Problem. T h e l o v e of a c c u m u l a t i n g l i v e s t o c k f o r its o w n s a k e wifch " a r d to q u a l i t y or m a r k e t value, h a s p r o d u c e d a s t a t e of t h i n g s by the c o u n t r y is h e a v i l y o v e r s t o c k e d a n d is d e t e r i o r a t i n g , t t e m p t to find a r e m e d y b y a n a d d i t i o n of f u r t h e r l a n d w o u l d nit-less unless it is a c c o m p a n i e d b y o t h e r r e m e d i a l m e a s u r e s i w i l l g o to the r o o t of t h e e v i l a n d e d u c a t e or f o r c e t h e e to have more respect for their land and t o r e g u l a t e the ers and i m p r o v e t h e q u a l i t y o f c a t t l e w h i c h t h e y k e e p o n i t .
t l l e

36. I t two ion

is c l e a r , lines; first, permit, allow short

therefore, better an

that of

solution methods, belter

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be

sought if the be will

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secondly, can

nstances and t or 887. A

addition

pasture-land

to r e l i e v e

a respite

those of

methods

enforced. preliminary the e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n

rate t h e s e p o i n t s , a n d w e c a n t h e n p r o c e e d t o o u r r e c o m m e n d n

'88. T h e sis of

area

of t h e

district

is in t h e s h a p e o f by a central range

a pestle and of the hills. It Hills;

The Area and ^nsvty^of

two

plains

separated

es i t s e l f n a t u r a l l y i n t o f o u r p a r t s , v i z . (a)

the Northern

IC S o u t h e r n H i l l s ; ( c ) t h e E a s t e r n P l a i n , a n d (d) w h o l e , and er d e t a i l . n interesting d by Mr. economic M. survey of shall subsequently consider the four

Western in

W e shall b e g i n w i t h s o m e g e n e r a l r e m a r k s a b o u t t h e d i s t r i c t sections

the d i s t r i c t h a s b e e n District

sub

E.

Hyde

Clarke,

Commissioner Suk and as

ence, p p . 1736 to 1 7 5 5 ) . ave r e l i e d p r i n c i p a l l y are, If. however, Clarke two has on

I n the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs in w h i c h the figures which between : of his district a r e 1,812 square extent of is area figures he has supplied.

er a short account o f t h e e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n of t h e W e s t discrepancies estimated B u t the 1,315 his figures

1 figures w h i c h it is n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n Hyde the square m i l e s ; t h e S u r v e y o r G e n e r a l ' s for t h e n a t i v e r e s e r v e . warn river,

figures square

are to a large miles in

filed b y t h e f a c t t h a t c e r t a i n l a n d t o t h e n o r t h a n d w e s t approximately extent,

PART

NORTHERN FRONTIER IICHAPTER V I I ]

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES XHK \y

c o u n t e d o f f i c i a l l y as p a r t of t h e W e s t gazetted as n a t i v e reserve, a point has c o v e r e d i n a f o o t n o t e . .

Suk D i s t r i c t , thou- , j
1 ;0

which

the

S u r v e y o r Ge,

M r . H y d e C l a r k e h a s e s t i m a t e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n at 24,000 official figure f o r 1 9 3 1 is 2 4 , 7 8 8 . I n t h e c o u r s e of 1932 some t h o u s a n d of t h e p o p u l a t i o n m i g r a t e d t o U g a n d a , hut it does n a p p e a r w h e t h e r t h e m o v e i s p e r m a n e n t o r n o t , a n d for the pi of a p p r a i s i n g t h e e c o n o m i c s i t u a t i o n it is s a f e r to w o r k on the' of t h e 1931 f i g u r e s . T h e s e points b e i n g noted, w e 889. T h e f o l l o w i n g the population : find M r . Hyde Clarke's ii the densi;

to b e s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e t o alford a b r o a d s u r v e y of the positii table shows approximately

Sectio n Section Northern Hills. . Southern Hills. . Eastern Plain . . Western Plain . .

Area Square Miles 1,400 400 600 900 3,300

Population 5,400 9,100 1,100 8,400 24,000

Density per Square Mile 4 23 2 9 7

S 9 0 . T h e e x p o r t s of s t o c k a m o u n t e d in 1931 to some c a t t l e , 8,000 s h e e p a n d g o a t s a n d 50 d o n k e y s o f a total val a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 5 7 5 . S i n c e t h e w o r l d d e p r e s s i o n set in. tra g h e e a n d h i d e s h a s p r a c t i c a l l y c e a s e d o w i n g t o the fall in p T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r , a c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a d e in tobacco wlii b a r t e r e d w i t h t h e T u r k a n a for s h e e p a n d g o a t s . Conditions in the Northern 8 9 1 . T h e N o r t h e r n S u k h i l l s c o m p r i s e t h e Cheineiongi S e k e r r r a n g e s n o r t h of t h e M a r i c h P a s s . T h e p e o p l e are n P l i l l S u k p r o p e r , b u t a r e n a t i v e s w h o h a v e b e e n driven the p r e s s u r e of t h e i r f o r m e r e n e m i e s , t h e K a r a m o j o n g on the we: t h e T u r k a n a o n t h e e a s t , a n d h a v e s i n c e b e e n k e p t there b Administration. T h e y l i v e on t h e e d g e of t h e area for the p a r t a n d g r a z e t h e i r s t o c k , n o t o n t h e h i l l s w h i c h are tinsti b u t o n t h e n o r t h e r n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e e a s t e r n a n d western T h e hills t h e m s e l v e s a r e d e s c r i b e d b y t h e D i s t r i c t Commissip " a r i d , r o c k y , b a r r e n a n d p r e c i p i t o u s a n d c o v e r e d o n l y with valueless alike for g r a z i n g and a g r i c u l t u r e . " H e does not t h a t a n y s c h e m e f o r c o n d i t i o n i n g w o u l d s u c c e e d , n o r does h s i d e r t h a t a n y t e r r i t o r i a l e x p a n s i o n is piossible, as the surro' a r e a s a r e also i n h a b i t e d b y p a s t o r a l n a t i v e s w h o s e gnu inadequate.

NORTHERN I-CHAMEB

FRONTIER

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES THE WEST SUK

VII]

2. T h e t o t a l l i v e s t o c k in t h e N o r t h e r n H i l l s is e s t i m a t e d b y istrict C o m m i s s i o n e r a t 7 4 , 0 0 0 c a t t l e , 9 5 , 0 0 0 s h e e p a n d g o a t s 500 d o n k e y s . T h i s g i v e s a n a v e r a g e of 68 c a t t l e , 8 8 s h e e p ats a n d 5 d o n k e y s f o r e a c h h o u s e h o l d of five p e r s o n s . T h i s is btedly a g r e a t m a n y m o r e t h a n a r e necessary f o r t h e s u p p o r t n a t i v e s as p a s t o r a l i s t s .


7

3. T h e S o u t h e r n H i l l s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s in Conditions in tho Southern c o m p r i s e t h e S o n d a n g e a n d p a r t of t h e C h e r a n g a n i r a n g e s . Hills. 4. I t is t h e m o s t t h i c k l y p o p u l a t e d area of t h e S u k R e s e r v e , sing s o m e 6,000 a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , as w e l l as 3 , 1 0 0 p a s t o r a l i s t s , nsity b e i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 3 t o t h e s q u a r e m i l e . N o in ion is a v a i l a b l e as t o t h e e x t e n t of a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t t h e D i s t r i c t issioner e s t i m a t e s t h e s t o c k as f o l l o w s : 3 0 , 0 0 0 c a t t l e , 6 0 , 0 0 0 and g o a t s a n d 700 d o n k e y s . T h e r e a r e o p e n s p a c e s of g r a s s a l t e r n a t i n g w i t h d e n s e f o r e s t o r b u s h , wdrile t h e r a i n f a l l is constant i n t h e r e g i o n of 4 0 i n c h e s p e r a n n u m . 5. I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r , t h i s area be m a d e m u c h m o r e u s e f u l b y t h e p r o v i s i o n of v e t e r i n a r y s w h i c h s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d t o d e s t o c k i n g a n d i m p r o v i n g t h e of t h e stock a n d t o t h e p r o p e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e p a s t u r e , ilture s h o u l d b e s t r o n g l y e n c o u r a g e d i n this p a r t of t h e t. 6. T h e n u m b e r of s t o c k o w n e d b y t h e p a s t o r a l i s t s p e r h o u s e 3 approximately eir e c o n o m i c 48 h e a d of cattle and 96 sheep and goats, j a i n m u s t be r e g a r d e d a s c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e t h a n requirements. necessary

7. T h e E a s t e r n P l a i n c o n s i s t s of s o m e 600 s q u a r e m i l e s . T h e The Eastern Plain. is r o c k y , b a r r e n a n d t h i c k l y c o v e r e d w i t h t h o r n b u s h , w h i l e user v e g e t a t i o n n e a r the r i v e r s is h e a v i l y i n f e s t e d w i t h t s e t s e f t h e 600 square m i l e s it i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t s o m e 400 a r e sted, a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e m a i n i n g 2 0 0 s q u a r e m i l e s a r e o v e r - g r a z e d , r e s u l t i n g i n c o n s i d e r a b l e m o r t a l i t y of stock t a r v a t i o n , a n d also f r o m t r i p a n o s o m i a s i s i n t h e case of stock enter t h e f l y - b e l t i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r p a s t u r e . 8. T h e l i v e stock o n t h e E a s t e r n P l a i n i s e s t i m a t e d at S,000 22,000 s h e e p a n d g o a t s a n d 700 d o n k e y s , g i v i n g a n a v e r a g e ead of c a t t l e a n d 1 0 0 s h e e p a n d g o a t s t o a h o u s e h o l d . This ur o p i n i o n , in e x c e s s of t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s . 9. I n t h e D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r s v i e w s o m e i m p r o v e m e n t ible b y m e a n s of i r r i g a t i o n s c h e m e s a n d t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of W e h a v e n o i n f o r m a t i o n as t o w h a t i n t h i s r e s p e c t c a n b e lor w h a t w o u l d b e t h e p r o b a b l e c o s t , b u t t h e m a t t e r should stigated. N o expansion a p p e a r s possible, nor d o w e consider able.

N O R T H E R N PAHT-II-CHAPTER

FRONTIER

A N D TURKANA

PROVINCES T H E WB

V I I ]

BIT

-The, Western * '


a l n

' -

9 0 0 . " T h e W e s t e r n P l a i n c o m p r i s e s 9 0 0 s q u a r e miles. r a p i d l y b e c o m i n g c o v e r e d w i t h d e n s e t h o r n s c r u b , w h i c h ha (tor t h e g r a s s t o such an e x t e n t t h a t , e x c e p t f o r a s h o r t t i m e afte ;u c r a i n s , g r a z i n g is n o w a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t . I t w a s apparent Ibis o n e t i m e a v a l u a b l e g r a z i n g ' g r o u n d , b u t t h e f a t a l overstockb n o w r e n d e r e d i t a l m o s t w o r t h l e s s , a l t h o u g h i t is still capal ,st .en / being reconditioned. 901. T h e live
a

stock

is estimated

at 106.000

cattle, 1 3

s h e e p a n d g o a t s a n d 4,000 d o n k e y s , g i v i n g a u a v e r a g e o f 83 o f c a t t l e a n d 101 s h e e p a n d g o a t s to a h o u s e h o l d of f i v e perso: Tiie Cattle in 'tt!"7*tira.


t(l

9 0 2 . I f w e t a k e a s a basis t h a t t h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r of-: necessary f o r the support o f a pastoral family is t w e n t y .


fl

a l t h o u g h o p i n i o n s differ, i s a h i g h f i g u r e , it f o l l o w s t h a t in all d i v i s i o n s o f S u k t h e n a t i v e s o w n s e v e r a l t i m e s m o r e stock thai essential f o r their needs. W e w i l l n o w t u r n t o considerationc a v a i l a b l e g r a z i n g i n o r d e r t h a t w e m a y d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r the p s

is sufficient to c a r r y t h e s t o c k . 9 0 3 . " L e a v i n g sheep) a n d g o a t s o u t of c o n s i d e r a t i o n io 't m o m e n t , w e find t h e n u m b e r o f a c r e s a v a i l a b l e p e r head off is as f o l l o w s : itAcreage per head Northern Southern Pastern Western Hills Hills Plains Plains ... ... ... ... ... ... oj Si 16 5-J,, ,, Plain Cattle 12 a p p r o x i m a t e l y

til

( T h e fly-infested 400 square miles on the Eastern not been taken into account.)

9 0 4 . W h e n w e t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e f a c t s : (1) that of t h e s t o c k b e l o n g i n g t o t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e Northern g r a z e o n t h e E a s t e r n a n d W e s t e r n P l a i n s ; ( 2 ) t h a t large are) t h e c o u n t r y a r e u n s u i t a b l e f o r g r a z i n g a t a l l , a n d ( 3 ) that i g o a t s a n d d o n k e y s i n v e r y l a r g e n u m b e r s a l s o use t h e pasture, c a n n o t a v o i d t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e d i s t r i c t i s g r o s s l y overstoci n o t o n l y f a r b e y o n d t h e c a r r y i n g c a p a c i t y of t h e l a n d , but als b e y o n d t h e essential needs o f the people. pp evidence o f D i s t r i c t C o m m i s s i o n e r a n d o u r o w n o b s e r v a t i o n s during our through t h e district s h o w t h a t t h e c o u n t r y i s rapidly 1 d e s t r o y e d , a n d d e n s e t h o r n scrub i s r e p l a c i n g g r a s s y plains.
r e

9 0 5 . T h i s o v e r s t o c k i n g h a s a l r e a d y h a d o n e v e r y serious sequence. S h o r t a g e of g r a z i n g i n t h e r e s e r v e has driven the o v e r t h e U g a n d a b o r d e r , a n d c a u s e d s e r i o u s friction witli Ivaramojonjr.

NORTHERN

FRONTIER

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES

KH-CHAVTER V I I ]

THE WEST SUK

Hffinous n u m b e r s of s t o c k w h i c h t h e S u k h a v e b e e n a l l o w e d t o BBnulate, and t h e p r o b l e m t h e r e b y c r e a t e d is e x t r e m e l y s e r i o u s .


;

H9O6.

We

find

it

difficult

to

speak

with

moderation

of

the

people

who

were

previously

agricultural are

becoming

more recom-

oral e v e r y y e a r . Hgl [(rt) A n

U r g e n t measures are r e q u i r e d and w e s h o u l d b e m a d e a s to and action should This how the on

action on t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : investigation pasture whatever well land can best b e r e c o n d i t i o n e d a n d t h e u s e of t h e g r a z i n g be controlled, lines appear be taken practicable. investigation might

be c o n d u c t e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l the area infested area. with tsetse

Commissioner. fly ,
7

b) Such action as m a y b e p o s s i b l e s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o r e d u c e and so increase the grazing

c) E f f o r t s should b e m a d e t o r e a w a k e n t h e m o r i b u n d t e n d e n c y of t h e S u k t o p r a c t i s e a g r i c u l t u r e . \d) I m m e d i a t e s t e p s s h o u l d b e t a k e n t o r e d u c e t h e n u m b e r stock. i d t e 1 . T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e a d i n c o n j u n c t i o n t h e m o r e g e n e r a l s u r v e y on


r

of

t h e s u b j e c t of o v e r s t o c k i n g w h i c h the W e s t 1029

iffer in C h a p t e r X of t h e t h i r d p a r t of o u r E e p o r t . \ ote 2 . W e h a v e a l s o r e c o m m e n d e d t h e i n c l u s i o n of
in o n e r e s e r v e w i t h o t h e r t r i b e s (see

sections 1028 and

The Question of adding Sine w h e t h e r t h e r e is any l a n d w h i c h i t w o u l d b e p r a c t i c a b l e Land to the hseful t o add to t h e W e s t S u k N a t i v e E e s e r v e . T w o p r o p o s a l s West Suk Reserve. been m a d e . (1) From ttnalienated 60S. T h e first p r o p o s a l i s t h a t 10,770 a c r e s b e a d d e d t o t h e Crown Land. pe, n a m e l y , six u n a l i e n a t e d f a r m s n u m b e r e d r e s p e c t i v e l y L . O . &07. W e n o w turn t o t h e o t h e r side of t h e p r o b l e m , a n d m u s t
7

2035. 2*037, 2 , 0 3 9 , t w o p a r t s of L . O . j 2,038.

2,033 and a part

of

T h e r e i s n o s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e S u k h a v e a n y c l a i m of le land, small and the of proposal land, is advanced as


7

right

simply it does

on to

economic less than

ads.

R e g a r d i n g i t i n t h a t l i g h t w e c a n n o t see t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a piece amounting

' cent of the t o t a l a r e a of t h e r e s e r v e , c o u l d m a k e a n y a p p r e c i idiffeience to the situation. jhave seen for ourselves M o r e o v e r , w e h a v e it in that contiguous land evidence has Suk the which

i t l y b e e n added t o t h e r e s e r v e h a s n o t b e e n u s e d b y t h e [to t h e fact that this land is higher and colder than

By appreciable e x t e n t , o w i n g t o t h e i n c i d e n c e of s t o c k d i s e a s e ,

NORTHERN RAM II-CHAX-TER V I I ]

FRONTIER

A N D

T U R K A N A

PROVINCES T H E \\
E:

adjacent parts of t h e reserve. that a n y g o o d object w o u l d extension. Possible Alteration of the S u k Karamoja Boundary.
r

F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s w e d o not: b e s e r v e d b y recommendino

9 0 9 . A p r o p o s a l p u t f o r w a r d f o r o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n is the an adjustment of t h e i n t e r - c o l o n i a l b o u n d a r y , t h e distria T u r k a n a a n d W e s t S u k i n K e n y a a n d K a r a m o j a i n Uganda & he included under o n e administration. 9 1 0 . T w o r e a s o n s h a v e b e e n u r g e d in f a v o u r of the propos ( a ) A s d i v i d e d b y t h e official b o u n d a r y , K e n y a has more i t s s h a r e of p e r m a n e n t w a t e r , w h i l e U g a n d a has - I s u p e r f l u o u s g r a z i n g . A m a l g a m a t i o n u n d e r o n e adit t r a t i o n w o u l d e n s u r e u n i t y a n d s y m p a t h y of control (6) B y i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n a n d i n t e r - m a r r i a g e t h e Suk are r a b e c o m i n g absorbed by t h e K a r a m o j o n g .

9 1 1 . B y a r e c e n t a g r e e m e n t of a t e m p o r a r y character 1,315 s q u a r e m i l e s of t h e W e s t S u k D i s t r i c t w h i c h is north w e s t of t h e S w a m r i v e r ( m e n t i o n e d i n s e c t i o n 8SS above) i a d m i n i s t e r e d f r o m K a r a m o j a . T h i s a g r e e m e n t w a s reached bet of c o n s t a n t t r e s p a s s b y t h e S u k o v e r t h e official boundary consequent friction w i t h the K a r a m o j o n g . 9 1 2 . I n o u r o p i n i o n t h i s p r o p o s a l , as i n v o l v i n g an alterati a c o l o n i a l b o u n d a r y , is o u t s i d e o u r t e r m s of r e f e r e n c e and we n o r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , b e y o n d r e m a r k i n g t h a t , i n t h e circtunsta it a p p e a r s t o