ARMY, MARINE CORPS, NAVY, AIR FORCE
SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
........ Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport.... and Recovery
Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival........ application.... and user information.................... I-3
Stay or Move Considerations ............ and Recovery
Multiservice Procedures for Survival..................... implementation plan.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50................ II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ......................... II-11 Mountain Hazards ............... Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe..................................................26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.......S...... 1.. and recovery information. 6....... evasion.................................................. II-1 Travel Considerations................. 3.......... II-12 Summer Hazards ..............................................................................26 U................... I-3 Movement ...................................... 4........... 2........................................
Planning............ 7................ Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base................................................................... See Appendix B for the scope........... II-12
29 JUNE 1999
Survival..............................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2....... purpose............................. 4................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2....... Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico........................................ II-10 River Travel................ II-1 Navigation and Position Determination ....................................... 5.... Evasion................... TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. I-1 Camouflage . Evasion..... 3..... 8................................ 2... II-12 Dry Climates.................................................................. I-1 Shelters ..
........................... Radio Communications (Voice and Data)....... 2...9........................................................... 4...................................... IV-1
Immediate First Aid Actions . B-2
I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B
.............................................................. IV-1 Site Preparation ........... 2.................................................................... Water Procurement ........................................... Chemical Conditions ........................................................ IX-7
APPENDIX A APPENDIX B
THE WILL TO SURVIVE ............................................ Open Seas .......................................
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY
1.......... VIII-9 3............................................................. Water Preparation and Storage................................... V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses....... V-15 Health and Hygiene .................... VI-3 Fires ........ 3............... Water Requirements ............................................................. VIII-11
1....................................... Food Procurement... III-2 Responsibilities......................................................................... VII-1 3............ IV-1 Recovery Procedures ........................................ Biological Conditions ............................. V-18
Priorities ... VI-1 Other Protective Equipment....................... A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION .......................................... 4...... 5........................................... VIII-1 2................................ Signaling ................................. III-1 2................ 2............... Food Preparation .................................. VII-7
CHAPTER VIII FOOD
1....................... Nuclear Conditions ...................... IX-6 3.......................................................................................................... Tropical Climates ............................... 4..................................... V-9 Plant Medicine.......................... II-13
CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV
1......... 3.......................................................................... IX-1 2....................... 1................................... VII-1 2................................. VI-8
1.................................................................................. Food Preservation .................. 6................ 3............. V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness.............. 1...................................................................................................................................................... VI-2 Shelters .............. IV-1 Site Selection............................................................... II-13 10... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing .........................
(3) Apply personal camouflage. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. or other cosmetics. (8) Staying out of sight. (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. b. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). (3) Following your evasion plan of action. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. d. after-shave lotion. (2) Slash pattern. (2) Shaving cream. (c) Snow (barren). (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water). The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. Planning a. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. 2. c. (b) Desert areas (barren). (2) Using established procedures. (2) Selected area for evasion.Chapter I
1. Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). b. Camouflage a. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. (4) Being patient. (4) Designated area for recovery. (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern.
(3) Head. and charcoal. Camouflage Patterns c. d. dirt. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts. (d) Use stains from grasses.
. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. Use scarf. neck. (4) Light colored hair. they shift with the sun. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. berries. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). or coloration methods. May use blotched and slash together. vegetation. netting. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). and the under chin.
Figure I-1. hands. (2) Ears. (3) Combination. (4) Remember when using shadows. change regularly. collar. or mask if available. netting. Use a hat. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement.
4. Movement a. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself). wind. or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. bad weather. ditches. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter. rank insignia.
3. (c) With observable approaches. or reduced enemy activity. “V” of crotch/armpits. b.Small S .Blend L .) and blends with the environment. (6) Ensure overhead concealment. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges.pens). B . (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. Break up the outline of the body.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages. rough terrain.
(5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. (3) Restrict to periods of low light. A moving object is easy to spot. Remove unit patches. etc. Use camouflage and concealment. (2) Use the military crest. etc.Irregular shape S . (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. name tags. Shelters a. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2).Low silhouette I . glasses. Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position.
troops.). animals. animals. (d) SMELL for vehicles.Figure I-2. vehicles. troops. troops. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke. wire. buildings. aircraft. roads. (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. tracks. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. aircraft. fires. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel. etc. etc.
. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). etc. weapons.
or grass. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. d.Figure I-3. In snow country. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. b. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted. and sticks. rocks. (2) DO NOT break branches. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. leaves. Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. c.
go over the top. etc.
. bend in road.) leaving less evidence of travel. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. DO NOT touch fence. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. align body parallel to tracks with face down. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. (c) Traveling during windy periods. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). Repeat for the second track. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. Next. and snowdrifts. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. If impractical. downed logs. (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. rocks. passing under or between lower rails.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. (Figure I-6). look for electrical insulators or security devices. shadows. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. crossing at damaged areas. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. (3) Penetrate rail fences. etc. e. Go under fence if unavoidable.
Figure I-5.Figure I-4. Road Crossing
. 1 may be electrified. Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist.
and have the ability to get there. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. shelter. Navigation and Position Determination a. (4) Using prominent landmarks. or destroy. Stay or Move Considerations a. (b) Man-made checkpoints. (2) Route of travel. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. (3) Decide what equipment to take. food.
Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. e. and/or help. (4) Supplies available. (2) Are certain of your location. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. c. 1. (3) Can reach water. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. (3) Personal condition. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. (a) Geographic checkpoints. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. cache. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. d.Chapter II
Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. have a known destination.
. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction.
Figure II-1. (c) Southern Hemisphere. east. Point hour hand at the sun. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. Determine cardinal directions (north.(5) Visualizing map to determine position. Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. south. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2). Visualize a clock face on the watch. South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. (b) Northern Hemisphere. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. and west) by (1) Using compass. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). b. (a) Digital watches.
NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH
HOUR HAND HOUR HAND
SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time
Figure II-2. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). •Pen or pencil. nail.
. •Connect marks to form an arc. •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. •Indicate north with a drawn arrow. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north).Using A Watch . (b) Start construction at sunup. Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. end construction at sundown. or match). Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper.
level nonmetallic surface. Stars c. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm.
Figure II-3. flat. Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line.
(d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately
CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading.1 week. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line.
•Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees).(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line
. (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass
Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north
337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5.
Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart.(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees. Map Orientation with Compass Rose
(1) Global Positioning System (GPS). Determine specific location. Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. d. (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7).
Figure II-7. Route selection techniques follow:
.(3) If there is NO compass. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). (3) Using point-to-point navigation. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. f. e.
New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9).
Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. (c) Resume your route of travel. Figure II-8.Setting the Compass for Night Travel
Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index
Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees.
Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line.
. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation.
•Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point.
. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. (c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location.N
90 0 180
S 1 80
360 0 90
plus 45 to heading
m inus 45 0 from original heading
Figure II-9. establish another landmark and continue. road or river). day/night travel. or example in rough terrain. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. 1200 paces per kilometer [average]). (b) On reaching a point. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. or injured/uninjured condition.
e. and bogs if needed. c. d. Keep near shore. damage. b. Travel Considerations a. b. Use an oar in deep water. Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams. Consider food and water requirements. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). Travel in forested areas if possible. not over or through them. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. e.
. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. bamboo. lakes. and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. f.3. (4) Waterfalls. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). h. Maintain a realistic pace. (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). g.). pack imbalance. 4. c. log. take rest stops when needed. (5) Hazardous animals. g. j. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). a. Pack equipment to prevent loss. i. Avoid overdressing and overheating. (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Go around obstacles. etc. d. f. Use flotation device (raft. lakes. k. (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). Consider the following for swamps. and personal safety.
b.5. (2) Bitterly cold winds. a. Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth.
. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops.
Figure II-10. (3) Poor visibility. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). (4) If caught in an avalanche.
Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). (2) Swamps.
. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. (5) Frozen water crossings. •Objects protrude through ice. Flash floods. or using snowshoes.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. lakes. (2) Rough terrain. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. c. (c) When crossing frozen water. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. Mountain Hazards a. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. •Snow banks extend over the ice. lakes. •Rivers or streams come together. and bogs if needed. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. c. paragraph 3. belly crawling. b. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. Avalanche. 7. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. items h through k. distribute your weight by laying flat. d. (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight.) (1) Dense brush. Avoid low areas. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. Lightning. 8. 6. Dry Climates a. b. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. Travel Considerations. c. and unfordable rivers.
(6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. (4) Exercise caution. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. Travel only when it is light. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. 10. Avoid grabbing vegetation. (5) Protect the eyes. (2) Sit low in the raft. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. c. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). f. Part the vegetation to pass through. (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12).)
. (Sail aids in making landfall. the enemy uses the trails also. b. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. Tropical Climates a. b. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. e. e. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. Open Seas a. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. d. 9.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher.
Figure II-11. (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics).
. Sea Anchor Deployment
Figure II-12. Shade/Sail Construction c. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic). Making landfall. Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving.
Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (5) The odors and sounds. face it and submerge. (11) Select a landing point. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (c) After it passes. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. from smallest to largest). (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (2) Use a flotation aid. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (8) In moderate surf. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. d. (9) In high surf.
. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. work shoreward in the next trough. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects.
(5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line. small flows. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. Icebergs. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. f. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft).e. (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility.
. (1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible.
Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. Use data burst if available.). space blanket. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. vegetation. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. instructions of all
. (7) If transmitting in the blind. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. (1) Turn off locator beacon. etc. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). then as directed in applicable plans/orders. (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. Non-combat. g. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). d. b. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat.Chapter III
RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING
Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. e. Combat. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. Transmissions. f. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). If no immediate contact. (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. if possible). (2) Face recovery asset. c.
Radio Transmission Characteristics 2.
. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting).100%
60% 31% 24% 41%
Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation
Top cone of silence
Bottom cone of silence
Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution
Figure III-1. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. Pyrotechnic signals. (3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. Signaling a.
(3) Conserve battery life. (1) Use as directed by recovery forces.
Figure III-2. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. signal paulin. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). (a) Maximize visibility from above. parachute). (2) If no radio. (2) Location. brush. Signal mirror (Figure III-2). d. c. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation. (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. Strobe/IR lights. use only with confirmed friendly forces. stomped grass).
. (1) Prepare early. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. consider filters and shields.b. (3) Cover when not in use. branches. (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). (2) Use as directed by recovery forces.
Sea dye marker. (3) May be used to color snow.
Figure III-4. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping.
.Figure III-3. (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water. (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Signal Key e.
Figure III-5. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. and weapons fire). (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). voice. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. Smoke Generator
. whistle. (4) Use audio signals (that is.f.
be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. 2. b. c. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). especially on sloping or uneven terrain.). b.Chapter IV
1. size. 3. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. e. d. b. Recovery Procedures a. Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. Responsibilities a. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). (3) Number in party/medical situation. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). c. Locate area for landing pick-up. (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. etc. Pack and secure all equipment.
. free of obstructions. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. If no radio. c. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. ground. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat). etc. 4.). if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. Follow recovery force instructions. (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). boat. d. Site Selection a. obstacles. Site Preparation a. b. c. flat and level). (4) Signal devices available. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers.
(5) Ensure cable is in front of you. (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. vigorous cable shake. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). (8) Use a thumbs up. (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. Rescue Strap
. (2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors.d. e. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation.
Figure IV–1. (4) Put safety strap under armpits. or radio call to signal you are ready. Follow crewmember instructions. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge.
Figure IV-2. Forest Penetrator
(b) Roll victims onto their backs. (d) Look. Chin Lift
. (2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body.
Figure V-1. and feel for air exchange.Chapter V
WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. listen. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. 1. arouse by shaking gently and shouting. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1). Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a.
•Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. (j) With open airway. •Check for chest rise each time. refer to page V-7. (f) If breaths still blocked. (e) If breaths are blocked. remove any blockage. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. try again. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. reposition airway. (g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. For travel.
. you may shorten and secure the object. paragraph 1d. (4) If victim is unconscious. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. Treat Chest Injuries. (i) If the airway is still blocked. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. b. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again.
Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing
(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
Figure V-3. Pressure Points
(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.
1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.
2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.
3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.
4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.
Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet
Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. (b) Give warm fluids. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. (1) Sucking chest wound. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest.
. (c) Insulate from ground.c. fast pulse. (b) Fast breathing and a weak. may cause victim to gasp for breath. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. and sweaty skin. (2) Maintain circulation. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. as necessary. Treat shock. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. Treat chest injuries. (2) Flail chest. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. may cause sucking sound. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. (3) Treat underlying injury. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. d. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. It may be present with or without visible injury. (d) Shelter from the elements. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. (5) Place conscious victim on back. cool. (d) Decreased urine output. (a) Remove wet clothing.
but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. e.Figure V-5. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin—
. (2) Remove watches. Treat fractures. sprains. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs. jewelry. (3) Fractured ribs. and dislocations. (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. and constrictive clothing. (1) Control bleeding. • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful.
(5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). (1) Cool the burned area with water. constrictive clothing. (a) Rest. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. Burns. parachute cord. (b) Ice. stiff materials from equipment. (c) Compression. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. (b) Apply dressing over wound. (2) Remove watches.
. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. If fracture is in a joint. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position. 2. arm-to-chest). Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. etc. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. jewelry. NOT in straight position. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. (b) Body parts (for example. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. (e) Stabilization. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. opposite leg. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. (d) Elevation.
(b) Drink water. •Check after 12 hours. (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). (See Chapter VI. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. burning sensation. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. Shock. c. and cardiac arrest can occur. (a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. improvise a small swab. patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). cool skin). (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. (a) Rest in shade. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area.(3) DO NOT remove embedded. Figure VI-2.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. Heat injury. moist. b. (a) Rest. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. Eye injuries. seizures. (2) Foreign body in eye.
. sweating. (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. fast pulse). •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. page VI-3. (c) Protect from further heat exposure. (b) Drink water.
•Warm with blankets.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. sleeping bags. respiratory and cardiac failure. breathing. •Put on dry clothing (if available). nose. Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. •Prevent further heat loss. d. and toes are affected first. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat.
. • •Cover top of head. or shelter. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. and circulation. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. CAUTION: In frostbite. •Ears. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. difficulty speaking. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. (Avoid overcooling. puffy skin. then frostbite is present. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. • •Insulate from above and below. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue.) (b) Maintain airway. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. fingers.
and open to air. cuffs. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. f.
. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. (1) Nonpoisonous. (2) Poisonous. (b) Pat dry.. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. Snakebite. to improve circulation. (a) Remove constricting items. (c) Dry socks and shoes. etc. Skin tissue will be sensitive. cover with a dressing. (2) Saltwater sores. (e) Keep area dry. DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. (1) Immersion injuries. Skin tissue damage. Clean and bandage wound.neck. (c) Use antiseptic (if available).
•Warm central areas before extremities. armpits. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. • •Place heat packs in groin. (a) Change body positions frequently. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. (d) Loosen boots. warm. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. Keep feet protected. (b) Keep sores dry. (b) Minimize activity. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin.
CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. e. DO NOT rub. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores.
(1) Stings. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. (2) Punctures. (f) Treat for shock. (c) Treat for shock as needed. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). (b) Remove jewelry and watches. (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). paragraph 1a). (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. artificial respiration may be required (page V-1. h. (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (1) Wash with large amounts of water. Marine life. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. paragraph 1c). Infection. i. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin.(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. force fluids. (j) For conscious victims. (3) Change bandages as needed. Check for pulse below the overwrap. Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (b) Cover with clean dressing. g. (h) Position extremity below level of heart. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7.
. (1) Keep wound clean. Use soap (if available).
Compression Bandage for Snake Bite
skin problems. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time. pain. and worms. (d) Lice and insect bites. (1) DO NOT take laxatives. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. or leaves in water. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). Found in the outer bark of all trees. Dysentery and diarrhea. colds. (4) Treatments. acorns. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. (2) Sources. (3) Eat charcoal. fever. (b) Diarrhea. (2) Use a liquid diet. banana plants. 3. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water. Salicin/salicylic acid. acorns. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. common plantain. (2) Exercise.j. •Apply compress to burned area. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins.) k. (3) Drink extra water. sprains. dysentery. dysentery. Aches. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7).
. (1) Drink extra water. (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). (1) Medical uses. b. strawberry leaves. inflammation. (a) Burns. diarrhea. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. Burns. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. and blackberry stems. and parasites. Plant Medicine a. (1) Medical uses. Tannin. (3) Preparation. (2) Sources. (a) Place crushed outer bark.
Common plantain. and a food source. d. meat tenderizer. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). and dysentery. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. abrasions. and stings. burns. moist poultice for aches and sprains. and minerals. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). (1) Medical uses. vitamins. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit. (4) Treatments. Itching. or cambium layer (soft. diarrhea. or cambium for symptom relief. (2) Source. (c) Make poultice. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. (1) Medical uses. (c) Use poultice to treat cuts. (b) Brew tea from leaves. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. buds. •Make a pulpy mass. (c) Use warm. •Crush the plant or stems. c. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. sores. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. wounds. (4) Treatments. (a) Brew tea from seeds. stings. (4) Treatments. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. (c) Make poultice of leaves. (3) Preparation. (3) Preparation.
.(3) Preparation. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. (2) Source. (a) Gather twigs. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. •Hold in place with a dressing. buds. Digestive aid. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. Papain. (a) Chew on twigs.
. (3) Preparation. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). Plantain
Figure V-7. Cattail
D. sores. and an excellent food source. (2) Source. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). Useful Plants
E. boils. (b) Use plant for food. Wounds. Common Cattail. (4) Treatments. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. Typical Aspen leaf
edible young leaf shoot
C. vitamins. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. and minerals. Typical Willow leaf
6-16 inches tall edible pollen
A. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. (1) Medical uses. inflammations. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice.
Dry wet clothing as soon as possible. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. Rules for Avoiding Illness a. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash.4. and massage. and clothing. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. etc. g. (a) Check body regularly. f. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). c. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. (1) Check body for lice. dry. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. bleach. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. or boiling for 5 minutes. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. 5. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. Exercise daily. sand. Wash hands before preparing food or water. (Use white ashes. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. b. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. c. h. (4) Clean and protect feet. Stay clean (daily regimen). Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. e. d. Prevent and control parasites.
. Eat varied diet. b. Health and Hygiene a. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). (1) Minimize infection by washing. netting. ticks. fleas.
(2) Procure food. c. b. c. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. Never discard clothing. Avoid overheating. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. Wear loose and layered clothing. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). When fully clothed. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. NOT drinking water. f. Care and Use of Clothing a.Chapter VI
1. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. (2) Procure water. e. Priorities a. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). 2. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. b. (2) Layers create more dead air space. (1) Use salt water. g. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. Evaluate available resources and situation. d.
. (4) Build Fire.
h. or tuck into other layers of material. (c) Tape.
Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. one at a time. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread. especially at foot of bag. Examine clothing frequently for damage.
. over the instep. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available). (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. (1) Fluff before use. i. (5) Fold side corners. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square.. j. Sleeping bag. etc. vines. Other Protective Equipment a. (6) Secure by rope. 3. (b) Safety pins. (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. (3) Break ice out of clothing. tape. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). (2) Fold into a triangle.
snow.(3) Improvise with available material. etc. leaves. (3) Avoid natural hazards:
. dry moss. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). or similar materials.
Figure VI-2. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. a. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). Sun and Snow Goggles c. b.
Figure VI-3. dry grass. Site selection. (1) Near signal and recovery site. Gaiters 4. (2) Available food and water. insects. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. Used to protect from sand. bark. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions.
Cold climates require an enclosed. Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. (3) Thermal A Frame. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. unless you can see your breath. (c) Avalanche areas.(a) Dead standing trees.
. Snow Cave. b. Types. (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (1) Immediate shelters. Snow Trench. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. insulated shelter. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7).
Note: As a general rule.
Thermal A Frame
Figure VI-6. Snow Trench
(a) If natural materials are used. arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one. (2) Cover with available material. Shelter construction. (a) To reduce the surface temperature. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. c. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). Tropical/wet climates require enclosed.Figure VI-7. See Figure VI-10 for an example. a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required.
. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. (b) For thermal protection.
Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter
Figure VI-9.Figure VI-8. Shingle Method
. Elevated Platform Shelter
Construct a bed to protect from cold. a. Bed construction. b. (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. (2) Use fires at dusk. Fire building. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. such as flares (last resort). etc. or dry moss. dawn. poncho. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts.—
(b) If using porous material like parachute. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. (e) Pyrotechnics. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced).
. (6) Boughs. fuel. e. and oxygen. damp. broad leaves.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope. dry moss. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. or parachute material. blankets. (8) Snow. (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). or during inclement weather. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. (9) Sand and rocks. (c) Sparks from batteries. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. leaves. (7) Grass and sod.
etc. d. (2) Boughs. 5. (3) Blankets. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat.
. this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. carry a fire-starting device with you.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire. Chapstick. or knife. Without prior training. • Foam rubber. etc. saturate with Vaseline. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder. fork. aircraft fuel. kindling. and fuel. not the wax).) (a) Tinder. insect repellant.
Figure VI-11.(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). Friction Method Note: If possible. (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. • Candle (shred the wick. • Plastic spoon. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through.
• Dry dung. or signaling. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12).
Figure VI-12. Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. and provide coals for cooking. Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat. lighting. •Dry grasses. Types. (b) Kindling.
.•Dry bark. to dry out wet wood. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. c. etc. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). •Petroleum products. •Gun powder. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. (c) Fuel. Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking. •Pitch. • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13).
Figure VI-14. Build fires against rocks or logs. Sod Fire and Reflector
. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire.Figure VI-13. CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated.
Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16).
Figure VI-15.(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). These are very efficient.
Figure VI-16. Improvised Stove
. Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations.
2. lakes. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. (2) Fish juices. Water Procurement a. snow. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). (3) Blood. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near. or an illness increases water loss. injury. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. heat. Exertion. DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. (4) Sea water. • Lowers body temperature. (2) Precipitation (rain. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. Water Requirements Drink extra water. • Induces dehydration. • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water.Chapter VII
1. (5) Snow or ice. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). b. and springs). (5) Alcohol. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. dew. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow.
. sleet) (FigureVII-1). (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water.
. Water Procurement
Figure VII-2.Figure VII-1.
(c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). (a) Water available in survival kits. • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. • Collect dew off raft. Table VII-1. Water Generator (6) Open seas. • Use waterproof container. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container. • Place between layers of clothing.(b) Melt with fire. (c) Melt with body heat. • DO NOT place next to the skin. (b) Precipitation. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty
. • Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3).
Figure VII-3. • Drink as much as possible.
Figure VII-4. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. • • Tap before dark. • • Pour into hand to check smell. • • If juice is clear and water like. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. (a) All open sources previously mentioned.
. • Vines (Figure VII-5A). • Old bamboo. water will flow again. color. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). bore into the roots and collect water. • •Shake and listen for water. Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. and taste to determine if drinkable. •Leaning Tree. Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. (b) Vegetation.(7) Tropical areas. • • When water flow stops. • • Produce most water at night. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). • • For evasion situations.
Figure VII-5 A and B.
Figure VII-6. Beach Well
. •Beach well.• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. Along the coast. obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). • •Filter and purify.
(8) Dry areas. •Water will taste like the plant smells. •Water bag must be clear. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8).
Figure VII-7. Solar Still
Figure VII-9. (2) Purify all other water. (a) Boil at least 1 minute. CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. b. Seepage Basin 3.
. Transpiration Bag
Figure VII-10. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. Water Preparation and Storage a.(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10).
Potable Water. (1) Trash bag. covered or sealed container. (1) If water cannot be purified. obtain water from a clear. (2) Prophylactic.
(b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste
. cold. (3) Section of bamboo.
to aerate. To prevent contamination. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria.(c) Water purification tablets. (4) Flotation gear. use a clean. c. Follow instructions on package. clean. d. and fast running source (if possible). Storage.
(b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. Food Procurement a. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). lakes. b. feeding. (c) On ponds. and slow moving streams. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. Procurement techniques.
Figure VIII-1. and bedding areas.
. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. Sources and location. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. (b) At ant and termite mounds. watering.Chapter VIII
1. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. and roosting areas).
Figure VIII-2. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. the wire locks in place. •Avoid disturbing the area.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. and the animal’s escape. Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. feeding. preventing reopening. and bedding areas. •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2).
. •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). • •Once tightened. fist-sized for rabbits). (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible).
. Locking Loop
Figure VIII-4.Figure VIII-3. Squirrel Pole
line. (c) Remove the animal from the den. (d) Pole.met. (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). (f) Trap. binding the animal's hide in the fork. it may be dangerous. (b) Spear. (c) Slingshot.
(2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). and hook. (d) Be ready to kill the animal. Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices.) (a) Club or rock.
. (e) Net.
. slimy gills. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. (c) Kill animals before handling. •Sunken eyes. •Unpleasant odor. (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. •Pale. (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). Animals in distress may attract the enemy. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. •Flesh that remains dented when pressed.Figure VIII-7. •Flabby skin.
(l) Avoid disease carrying insects.Cone shell
Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. for example: •Centipedes. swelling. •Poisonous spiders. •Scorpions. •Ticks. blindness and possible death in a few hours. •Mosquitoes. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects.
Figure VIII-8. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. such as— •Flies.
Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. test all others before eating. Plant Foods. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. etc. (g) Beans. or seeds inside pods. Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea.c. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible. (1) Selection criteria. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). these guidelines may help determine edibility. Each part of a plant (roots. (f) Grain heads with pink. or cramps. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time.
.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. however. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). (i) Plants with shiny leaves. purplish. (b) Spines. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable). DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). nausea.) requires more than 24 hours to test. (j) White and yellow berries. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. stems. or black spurs. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. bark. eat in moderation. fine hairs. Even after testing food and finding it safe. (a) Before testing for edibility. (h) Old or wilted leaves. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant. bulbs. leaves.
The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. Wait another 8 hours. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw.d. rinse out your mouth with water. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW).
. Test procedures. test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist. roots. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. and flowers). (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. test the part raw before eating. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water. The sap or juice should contact the skin. If any ill effects occur during this period. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. buds. (12) If no ill effects occur. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. (10) If there is no reaction. (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. If no ill effects occur. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. (3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. Remember. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. If any ill effects occur. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. (6) During testing.
rather than color. brain. Butchering and skinning. ripe fruits. (c) If preserving the meat. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. (1) Mammals. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. 2. (b) Wash when ready to use.
Figure VIII-9. you may not be able to cook. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. •Save inner organs (heart. During evasion. remove it from the bones. and eyes. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. (a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. liver. 2.CAUTION: 1. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). •Open the abdominal cavity. Softness. tongue. Small Game Skinning
. 3. is the best indicator of ripeness. a. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. •Remove the intestines. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants.
b. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. (4) Birds.(2) Frogs and snakes. mussels. (2) Baking. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or
broth). head with 2 inches of body.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects. and scavenger birds. (b) Protect from flies. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. (3) Fish. (6) Fruits. freshwater fish.
. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. (c) Remove entrails. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. thoroughly cook all wild game. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (c) Skin or pluck them. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire.
cook food. (b) Discard skin. clams. (a) Gut soon after killing. crawfish. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. and internal organs. (a) Skin. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. CAUTION: To kill parasites. (The rest is edible. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets. berries. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly. DO NOT save. snails. and most nuts can be eaten raw. Cooking. (5) Insects.
Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. Cold water should be tried first. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. •If bitter. c. (b) Earth below the surface. and taste the plant. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. (b) Second method: •Boil. Refrigerating. is cooler than the surface. (3) Remove fat. Food Preservation b. however.
. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. •Discarding water. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. particularly in shady areas or along streams. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). (4) Roasting.(3) Leaching. •Crushing and pouring water through. (2) Short term. boiling water is sometimes best. repeat process until palatable. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. (a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. (1) Long term. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. Keeping an animal alive. 3. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. c. pour off water.
(b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Protecting meat from animals and insects. DO NOT store food in the shelter. (2) Hanging meat. and shrimp in wet seaweed. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. it attracts unwanted animals. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. e. (d) Carry shellfish. (a) Use clean material.
. (b) Wrap pieces individually. (b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool.d. crabs. (a) Hang meat in the shade. (1) Wrapping food. (3) Packing meat on the trail.
(NUCLEAR. BIOLOGICAL. Protection. distance from the source. (3) Avoid detection and capture. Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure. Immediate Action Shelter
Figure IX-1. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). and shielding. a. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure
. then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2). •Cover with available material.
Parachute or other suitable material
Enough room to work
3 Feet Minimum
(b) If no shelter is available. dig a trench or foxhole as
•Dig trench deep enough for protection.
sleep. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs.3 inches Ice 6. Present minimal profile to direction of blast. SHELTER: Pick. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water. (6) Lie down.
. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). b. Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum)
Figure IX-3. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. and rest. 3 or more feet of earth.3 inches 3. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement. Substance: (1) Water. (3) Culverts.8 inches Snow 20. give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over.
SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter.
NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat.0 inches 2. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered. Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. Cover exposed body parts. No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose.(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). or underground sources are safest.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8.7 inches Cinder Block 5. as soon as possible. Improvise goggles. keep warm.8 inches 2. Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip).3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. wells. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing.
cut meat away from the bone. potatoes. •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed.). •Before cooking. leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. •Smooth skinned vegetables. pools. etc. (c) Avoid. carrots. wash and wipe containers before use. •Purify all water sources. (2) Food. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas.•Use a seep well.
•Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking). •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the
. Wash and remove skin. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). etc. (b) Animal foods.). •Cook all meat until very well done. •Discard all internal organs. apples. •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. fruits. •Milk from animals. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference). ponds. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. etc. •Lakes.
Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems, Filtering Water
Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems, Settling Water
c. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. (c) Rest, avoid fatigue. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (3) Burns. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, radiation burns). (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Rest. (c) Drink fluids. (d) Maintain food intake. (e) Prevent additional exposure. 2. Biological Conditions a. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs, particularly those bursting with little or no blast, and muffled explosions. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation; sick looking plants or crops. b. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (5) Clean teeth, gums, tongue, and roof of mouth frequently.
c. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (3) Keep nose, mouth, and skin covered. (4) Keep food and water protected. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. If in doubt, boil food and water for 10 minutes. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area, away from vegetation, with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (6) If traveling, travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). 3. Chemical Conditions a. Detecting. (1) Smell. Many agents have little or no odor. (2) Sight. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. Yellow, orange, or red smoke or mist. (b) Liquid. Oily, dark patches on leaves, ground, etc. (c) Gas. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. (d) Solid. Most solid state agents have some color. (3) Sound. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Irritation to the nose, eyes, or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (5) Taste. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. (6) General indications. Tears, difficult breathing, choking, itching, coughing, dizziness. (7) Wildlife. Presence of sick or dying animals. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars, ditches, trenches, gullies, valleys, etc. (d) Avoid woods, tall grasses, and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors.
Burying. or animals). (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. etc. fabric. Pinch-blotting. d. Warm water. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots.
. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. (3) Keep food and water protected. (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. dead fish. •Neutralizing. foreign odors. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. •Destroying.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire.). Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. handkerchief. c. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt.
(5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. illness. withdrawal. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. anxiety. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership. (4) Anticipate fears. death. and propensity to make mistakes). (3) Faith in America. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. (3) Working as a team.Appendix A
THE WILL TO SURVIVE
ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. Psychology of Survival a. hunger. 1. isolation). (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. (2) Taking care of your buddy. fatigue. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. (2) Keep a positive attitude. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. anger). (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. (4) Patriotic songs.
. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. boredom. forgetfulness. good organization. guilt. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. carelessness. c. depression. environment. (3) Develop a realistic plan. responsible for my actions. b.
(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. Collect your thoughts and emotions. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. g. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. or hymns. Pray for your God’s help. repeat them to yourself and to your God. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. h. (1) Talk to your God. Trust. Worship without aid of written scripture. l. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism.
. k. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). (4) Pray for each other. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. strength. f. or others. 2. b. d. (3) Ask for God’s help. (1) Faith and trust in your God. (2) Those who have failed you. Remember scripture. (3) Never lose hope. (3) Share scriptures and songs. (2) Love for family and self. Spiritual Considerations a. Identify your personal beliefs. (2) Discuss what is important to you. and rescue. (5) Try to have worship services. Meditate. (4) Never give up. e. verses. c. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. j. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. Use self-control. clergy. wisdom. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. i.
(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. (b) Praise your God.
. (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue. remember— (a) Your God loves you.
The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. 4. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). techniques. validate the information. and recovery information. pocket-sized guide on basic survival.
. 2. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication.Appendix B
1. evasion. and recovery information. regulations. weatherproof. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. and curricula as follows: Army. evasion. 3.
Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. personnel. Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. Send comments and recommendation directly to—
. command and control (C2) organizations. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. c. b. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). User Information a. Air Force. Navy. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. and procedures. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. responsibilities. facilities. 5.Marine Corps. The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. Changes in Service protocol. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications.
af. VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: email@example.com
ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.Army
Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153
Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234
Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.
. SMITH Rear Admiral. J.58.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate. KINNAN Major General. ABRAMS General. E.58. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command
B. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center
This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155. USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command
JOHN N. RHODES Lieutenant General. USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command
. Army National Guard.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 110906. United States Army Chief of Staff
JOEL B. HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army
By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force:
TIMOTHY A.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center
*Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. requirements for FM 21-76-1. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F
DISTRIBUTION: Active Army.S. and U. SHINSEKI General. KINNAN Major General.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800