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SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY
MULTISERVICE PROCEDURES FOR SURVIVAL, EVASION, AND RECOVERY FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.3 AFTTP(I) 3-2.26
JUNE 1999 AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION CENTER
DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
MULTISERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES
QUICK REFERENCE CHECKLIST Decide to Survive!
S U R V I V A L Size up the situation, surroundings, physical condition, equipment. Use all your senses Remember where you are. Vanquish fear and panic. Improvise and improve. Value living. Act like the natives. Live by your wits.
1. Immediate Actions a. Assess immediate situation. THINK BEFORE YOU ACT! b. Take action to protect yourself from nuclear, biological, or chemical hazards (Chapter IX). c. Seek a concealed site. d. Assess medical condition; treat as necessary (Chapter V). e. Sanitize uniform of potentially compromising information. f. Sanitize area; hide equipment you are leaving. g. Apply personal camouflage. h. Move away from concealed site, zigzag pattern recommended. i. Use terrain to advantage, communication, and concealment. j. Find a hole-up site. 2. Hole-Up-Site (Chapter I) a. Reassess situation; treat injuries, then inventory equipment. b. Review plan of action; establish priorities (Chapter VI). c. Determine current location. d. Improve camouflage. e. Focus thoughts on task(s) at hand. f. Execute plan of action. Stay flexible!
Recommend inclusion of this manual in the aviator’s survival vest.
3. Concealment (Chapter I) a. Select a place of concealment providing (1) Adequate concealment, ground and air. (2) Safe distance from enemy positions and lines of communications (LOC). (3) Listening and observation points. (4) Multiple avenues of escape. (5) Protection from the environment. (6) Possible communications/signaling opportunities. b. Stay alert, maintain security. c. Drink water. 4. Movement (Chapters I and II) a. Travel slowly and deliberately. b. DO NOT leave evidence of travel; use noise and light discipline. c. Stay away from LOC. d. Stop, look, listen, and smell; take appropriate action(s). e. Move from one concealed area to another. f. Use evasion movement techniques (Chapter I). 5. Communications and Signaling (Chapter III) a. Communicate as directed in applicable plans/orders, particularly when considering transmitting in the blind. b. Be prepared to use communications and signaling devices on short notice. c. Use of communications and signaling devices may compromise position. 6. Recovery (Chapter IV) a. Select site(s) IAW criteria in theater recovery plans. b. Ensure site is free of hazards; secure personal gear. c. Select best area for communications and signaling devices. d. Observe site for proximity to enemy activity and LOC. e. Follow recovery force instructions.
..... I-3 Movement ....................................... TABLE OF CONTENTS Page CHAPTER I 1................ Army Training and Doctrine Command Fort Monroe................................................................ I-1 Shelters .............................................................. II-10 River Travel................FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50..... application. 6................. 2....... and Recovery Multiservice Procedures for Survival...................... Evasion..... EVASION Planning. II-11 Mountain Hazards ............. 5... and Recovery Note: This UNCLASSIFIED publication is designed to provide Service members quick-reference survival.................. and recovery information........................3 AFTTP(I) 3-2...... purpose........ II-12 iii .............................. I-3 CHAPTER II NAVIGATION Stay or Move Considerations .......... II-12 Summer Hazards .................................. Virginia Navy Warfare Development Command Newport................................. evasion..... 2............................ Virginia Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico......S............................................................ II-1 Travel Considerations................... I-1 Camouflage ...3 AFTTP(I) 3-2..................... II-1 Navigation and Position Determination ........... and user information.. 3................. Alabama 29 JUNE 1999 Survival........................... 8...........................................................26 U..........26 FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50.......... See Appendix B for the scope........... 1..................... II-12 Dry Climates.... Evasion................................ 4.................. 7....................................... II-10 Ice and Snow Travel ............... 4................. Rhode Island Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center Maxwell Air Force Base............ implementation plan...... 3.......
........................................................................................................................ 6........................ Food Procurement......... V-1 Common Injuries and Illnesses............................... 3.................................................................. III-2 Responsibilities........................................................................................ Water Requirements ..... Water Preparation and Storage...................... VII-7 CHAPTER VIII FOOD 1............................ V-9 Plant Medicine.................................. IX-7 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B THE WILL TO SURVIVE ................................ 3........ A-1 PUBLICATION INFORMATION .............. VI-2 Shelters ............ 4................ IV-1 Recovery Procedures ............................................. Food Preparation . Nuclear Conditions .............. Water Procurement .. B-2 iv I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX A B .... VIII-1 2.................................................................................................................... 2.......... IV-1 CHAPTER V MEDICAL Immediate First Aid Actions ............................................ 3................ III-1 2.................................. II-13 CHAPTER III CHAPTER IV 1.. 4.... 5......................................... IV-1 Site Selection. IX-6 3.......................................... VIII-9 3............................................................................................................................... 2................................ VII-1 2.. Chemical Conditions ...9... RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING RECOVERY 1................................ 1... VI-1 Care and Use of Clothing ...................................... VI-3 Fires ..................... 1.................................................................. 4. VIII-11 CHAPTER IX INDUCED CONDITIONS 1................................................... II-13 10................................. Radio Communications (Voice and Data).... Tropical Climates ............................................................................................................................................................................ Biological Conditions ............... VI-1 Other Protective Equipment.............................. V-18 CHAPTER VI PERSONAL PROTECTION Priorities ........................................................................................ IV-1 Site Preparation .............................. V-18 Rules for Avoiding Illness.......................... Open Seas ............................................................ V-15 Health and Hygiene ................................................ VII-1 3. Signaling ...... VI-8 CHAPTER VII WATER 1...... 2.................................................................................................................. IX-1 2............. Food Preservation .........................
(2) Using established procedures. Guidelines for successful evasion include(1) Keeping a positive attitude. Camouflage a. I-1 . (4) Gum and candy (smell is strong or sweet). b. 2. (4) Designated area for recovery. (6) Conserving strength for critical periods. (a) Temperate deciduous (leaf shedding) areas. (3) Insect repellent (camouflage stick is least scented). Where to go (initiate evasion plan of action): (1) Near a suitable area for recovery. (2) Slash pattern. (2) Shaving cream. (c) Snow (barren). (3) Following your evasion plan of action. Review the quick reference checklist on the inside cover. Camouflage patterns (Figure I-1): (1) Blotch pattern.Chapter I EVASION 1. (2) Selected area for evasion. (3) Neutral or friendly country or area. (8) Staying out of sight. Basic principles: (1) Disturb the area as little as possible. after-shave lotion. Planning a. (3) Apply personal camouflage. (4) Being patient. (a) Coniferous areas (broad slashes). (2) Avoid activity that reveals movement to the enemy. The following odors stand out and may give an evader away: (1) Scented soaps and shampoos. d. b. (b) Desert areas (barren). (7) Resting and sleeping as much as possible. c. (5) Tobacco (odor is unmistakable). or other cosmetics. (5) Drinking water (DO NOT eat food without water).
or mask if available. Give special attention to conceal with a scarf or mosquito head net. neck. d. (4) Light colored hair. (b) Change camouflage depending on the surroundings. Position and movement camouflage follows: (1) Avoid unnecessary movement. The insides and the backs should have 2 colors to break up outlines. BLOTCH SLASH Figure I-1. (2) Take advantage of natural concealment: (a) Cut foliage fades and wilts.(b) Jungle areas (broad slashes). (3) Combination. Use scarf. Camouflage Patterns c. (c) Grass (narrow slashes). dirt. netting. they shift with the sun. netting. Personal camouflage application follows: (1) Face. (2) Ears. (4) Remember when using shadows. Use a hat. I-2 . May use blotched and slash together. change regularly. (3) DO NOT over camouflage. and charcoal. (3) Head. and the under chin. collar. (d) Use stains from grasses. berries. hands. vegetation. Use dark colors on high spots and light colors on any remaining exposed areas. (c) DO NOT select vegetation from same source. or coloration methods.
Low silhouette I . Use camouflage and concealment. B . ditches.Secluded location (1) Choose an area (a) Least likely to be searched (drainages.pens). Movement a.Irregular shape S . or (6) (7) (8) (9) Ensure watch alarms and hourly chimes are turned off. (6) Ensure overhead concealment. I-3 . “V” of crotch/armpits. and rocks to keep from forming paths to site. (4) Conceal with minimal to no preparation. 4. Conduct observation from a prone and concealed position. etc. (2) Locate entrances and exits in brush and along ridges. rough terrain. (3) Restrict to periods of low light. Break up the outline of the body. bad weather.) and blends with the environment. Remove unit patches. A moving object is easy to spot. (5) Never expose shiny objects (like a watch. b. glasses. (b) With escape routes (DO NOT corner yourself).Small S . (3) Be wary of flash floods in ravines and canyons. Shelters a.Blend L . wind. (c) With observable approaches. (2) Use the military crest. If travel is necessary (1) Mask with natural cover (Figure I-2). (5) Take the direction finding threat into account before transmitting from shelter. etc. rank insignia. name tags. Locate carefullyeasy to remember acronym: BLISS. 3. or reduced enemy activity.
wire. etc. fires. (b) LOOK for signs of human or animal activity (smoke.). I-4 . (5) At irregular intervals (a) STOP at a point of concealment. tracks. troops. roads. vehicles. etc.Figure I-2. Ground Movement (4) Avoid silhouetting (Figure I-3). aircraft. (d) SMELL for vehicles. troops. animals. etc. buildings. aircraft. animals. weapons. (c) LISTEN for vehicles. troops. Peripheral vision is more effective for recognizing movement at night and twilight. Watch for trip wires or booby traps and avoid leaving evidence of travel.
Avoid Silhouetting (6) Employ noise discipline. (Cloth wrapped around feet helps muffle this. d. or grass. check clothing and equipment for items that could make noise during movement and secure them. Some techniques for concealing evidence of travel follows: (1) Avoid disturbing the vegetation above knee level. and sticks.Figure I-3.) (5) Pick firm footing (carefully place the foot lightly but squarely on the surface to avoid slipping). Break up the human shape or recognizable lines. rocks. (2) DO NOT break branches. b. (This may scuff the bark or create movement that is easily spotted.) (d) Mangle grass and bushes that normally spring back. (3) Use a walking stick to part vegetation and push it back to its original position. (4) DO NOT grab small trees or brush. (c) Make noise by breaking sticks. Route selection requires detailed planning and special techniques (irregular route/zigzag) to camouflage evidence of travel. In snow country. TRY NOT TO (a) Overturn ground cover. I-5 . this creates a path of snowless vegetation revealing your route. (b) Scuff bark on logs and sticks. leaves. c.
(c) Traveling during windy periods. If impractical. crossing at damaged areas. downed logs. align body parallel to tracks with face down. (7) Secure trash or loose equipmenthide or bury discarded items. Cross at points offering concealment such as bushes. shadows. (3) Penetrate rail fences. (4) Cross roads after observation from concealment to determine enemy activity. Go under fence if unavoidable. (2) Go around chain-link and wire fences. (Figure I-6). e. and snowdrifts.(6) Mask unavoidable tracks in soft footing by (a) Placing tracks in the shadows of vegetation. Repeat for the second track. etc. look for electrical insulators or security devices. (d) Taking advantage of solid surfaces (logs. Penetrate obstacles as follows: (1) Enter deep ditches feet first to avoid injury. (Figure I-5) (5) Use same method of observation for railroad tracks that was used for roads. Cross in a manner leaving your footprints parallel (cross step sideways) to the road. go over the top. bend in road. cross tracks using a semi-pushup motion.) leaving less evidence of travel. presenting as low a silhouette as possible (Figure I-4). (e) Patting out tracks lightly to speed their breakdown or make them look old. (Trash or lost equipment identifies who lost it. etc. Next. passing under or between lower rails.) (8) Concentrate on defeating the handler if pursued by dogs. I-6 . DO NOT touch fence. (b) Moving before and during precipitation allows tracks to fill in. rocks.
Rail Fences Figure I-5.Figure I-4. Road Crossing I-7 .
1 may be electrified.Figure I-6. Railroad Tracks WARNING: If 3 rails exist. I-8 .
(4) Supplies available. (a) Geographic checkpoints.Chapter II NAVIGATION Assess the threat and apply appropriate evasion principles. (2) Route of travel. (3) Personal condition. (2) Determine which direction to travel and why. (2) DO NOT soil the map by touching the destination. Navigation and Position Determination a. (4) Convinced rescue is not coming. b. and/or help. Stay or Move Considerations a. (3) Using information provided in the map legend. e. II -1 . shelter. (b) Man-made checkpoints. 1. (3) Can reach water. Leave only when (1) Dictated by the threat. (c) Previous knowledge of operational area. Consider the following if you decide to travel: (1) Follow the briefed evasion plan. (4) Using prominent landmarks. (2) Are certain of your location. Leave information at your starting point (in a non-combat environment) that includes (1) Destination. cache. (3) Decide what equipment to take. Stay with the vehicle/aircraft in a non-combat environment. Note: These actions may compromise information if captured. Consider the following for maps (in a combat environment): (1) DO NOT write on the map. (2) Using the Rate x Time = Distance formula. food. and have the ability to get there. d. have a known destination. Determine your general location by (1) Developing a working knowledge of the operational area. (3) DO NOT fold in a manner providing travel information. c. or destroy. 2.
South is halfway between the hour hand and 12 o’clock position. Point hour hand at the sun. south. Determine cardinal directions (north. b. II -2 . (a) Digital watches. (c) Southern Hemisphere. Point the 12 o’clock position on your watch at the sun. Visualize a clock face on the watch. North is halfway between the 12 o’clock position and the hour hand. CAUTION: The following methods are NOT highly accurate and give only general cardinal direction. (4) Using a wristwatch to determine general cardinal direction (Figure II-2).(5) Visualizing map to determine position. (2) Using stick and shadow method to determine a true north-south line (Figure II-1). Stick and Shadow Method (3) Remembering the sunrise/moonrise is in the east and sunset/moonset is in the west. (b) Northern Hemisphere. Figure II-1. east. and west) by (1) Using compass.
Note: The shortest line between base of shadow tip device and curved line is a north-south line. Direction Using a Watch (5) Using a pocket navigator (Figure II-3) (a) Gather the following necessary materials: •Flat writing material (such as an MRE box). end construction at sundown. nail. Do the following: •Attach shadow tip device in center of paper.Using A Watch . •Connect marks to form an arc. •Secure navigator on flat surface (DO NOT move during set up period). •1-2 inch shadow tip device (a twig. II -3 . or match). (b) Start construction at sunup. •Pen or pencil.To Determine North/South NORTHERN HEMISPHERE NORTH MID POINT SOUTH MID POINT HOUR HAND HOUR HAND SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE If on daylight saving time subtract one hour from actual time Figure II-2. •Mark tip of shadow every 30 minutes annotating the time. (c) Do the following during travel: •Hold navigator so the shadow aligns with mark of present time (drawn arrow now points to true north). •Indicate north with a drawn arrow.
1 week. Figure II-3. II -4 . Pocket Navigator (6) Using the stars (Figure II-4) the (a) North Star is used to locate true north-south line. (b) Southern Cross is used to locate true south-north line. (d) Remember the navigator is current for approximately CAUTION: The Pocket Navigator is NOT recommended if evading. Stars c. flat. level nonmetallic surface. Figure II-4. Orient the map by (1) Using a true north-south line (Figure II-5) (a) Unfold map and place on a firm.
Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° easterly magnetic variation with floating dial compass N N N Floating needle compass and map aligned to magnetic north 337 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating needle compass 22 1/2° Map is oriented to 22 1/2° westerly magnetic variation with floating dial compass Figure II-5. Orienting a Map Using a True North-South Line II -5 . (c) Rotate map and compass until stationary index line aligns with the magnetic variation indicated in marginal information. •Easterly (subtract variation from 360 degrees). •Westerly (add variation to 360 degrees).(b) Align the compass on a true north-south line.
(2) Using a compass rose (Figure II-6) (a) Place edge of the lensatic compass on magnetic north line of the compass rose closest to your location. 180 Figure II-6. Map Orientation with Compass Rose II -6 . Star indicates magnetic line on EVC Chart. (b) Rotate map and compass until compass reads 360 degrees.
(b) Use GPS to confirm your position ONLY. (3) Using point-to-point navigation. Route selection techniques follow: II -7 . e. (d) Conserve GPS battery life. (b) Positively identify a major land feature and determine a line of position (LOP). (a) DO NOT use GPS for primary navigation. (2) Triangulation (resection) with a compass (Figure II-7). Determine specific location. (c) Check map orientation each time compass is used. (e) Repeat steps (b) through (d) for other LOPs. (2) Aligning north-seeking arrow with luminous line and follow front of compass. Use the compass for night navigation by (1) Setting up compass for night navigation (Figure II-8). Triangulation (a) Try to use 3 or more azimuths. f. (1) Global Positioning System (GPS). (c) Select area providing maximum satellite reception.(3) If there is NO compass. (d) Plot the LOP using a thin stick or blade of grass (combat) or pencil line (non-combat). Figure II-7. orient map using cardinal direction obtained by the stick and shadow method or the celestial aids (stars) method. d.
Setting the Compass for Night Travel Luminous Line North Seeking Arrow Stationary Index 64 Bezel Ring Each click of the Bezel Ring equals 3 degrees. Heading of 300 degrees = 20 clicks right. (b) Measure distance by counting the number of paces in a given course and convert to map units. (3) Straight-line heading as follows: (a) Maintain heading until reaching destination. subtract heading from 360 then divide sum by 3. (c) Resume your route of travel. (2) Dogleg and 90 degree offset (Figure II-9). Heading between 180 and 360 degrees. Heading between 0 and 180 degrees is divided by 3. (b) Contour around obstacle to landmark. Compass Night Navigation Setup (1) Circumnavigation. Figure II-8. Sum is number of clicks to the left of stationary index line. II -8 . EXAMPLES Heading of 027 degrees = 9 clicks left. New sum is the number of clicks to the right from stationary index line. (a) Find a prominent landmark on the opposite side of the obstacle.
(c) Use pace count in conjunction with terrain evaluation and heading to determine location.N W E 90 0 180 0 90 0 S 1 80 360 0 90 0 original heading O bstacle original heading plus 45 to heading 0 90 0 m inus 45 0 from original heading Figure II-9. Adjust estimation of distance traveled against these factors to get relative accuracy when using a pace count. (a) Pick out landmarks on the heading and walk the trail of least resistance to a point. (b) Intentionally navigated to left or right of target so you know which way to turn at the linear feature. establish another landmark and continue. or injured/uninjured condition. or example in rough terrain. road or river). •Distances measured by paces are approximate (example in open terrain. (5) Point-to-point is same as straight line. 900 paces per kilometer [average]. (b) On reaching a point. (4) Deliberate offset is (a) Used when finding a point on a linear feature (that is. An individual’s pace varies because of factors such as steep terrain. day/night travel. Dogleg and 90 Degree Offset •One pace is the distance covered each time the same foot touches the ground. II -9 . 1200 paces per kilometer [average]).
Consider using a flotation device when crossing rivers or large/deep streams.). (2) Travel downstream to find people and slower water.3. h. d. Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with NO escape in the event of heavy rains. Travel on trails whenever possible (non-combat). Use flotation device (raft. take rest stops when needed. f. i. Go around obstacles. lakes. j. Use a pole to move the raft in shallow water. River Travel River travel may be faster and save energy when hypothermia is not a factor. (2) Sweepers (overhanging limbs and trees). (3) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water. Use an oar in deep water. g. and bogs if needed. Pack equipment to prevent loss. It may be a primary mode of travel and LOC in a tropical environment (use with caution if evading). and unfordable rivers: (1) Circumnavigate swamps. Keep near shore. b. e. c. and personal safety. d. c. Pick the easiest and safest route (non-combat). (3) Rapids (DO NOT attempt to shoot the rapids). 4. Consider the following for swamps. pack imbalance. Avoid overdressing and overheating. g. Maintain a realistic pace. bamboo. a. damage. Watch for the following DANGERS: (1) Snags. (5) Hazardous animals. f. e. etc. (4) Waterfalls. Take special care of feet (change socks regularly). log. Stay near inside edge of river bends (current speed is less). II -10 . not over or through them. k. Travel in forested areas if possible. Travel Considerations a. lakes. Consider food and water requirements. b.
DO NOT travel in (1) Blizzards. b. (2) Bitterly cold winds. Improvised Snowshoes (3) Avalanche prone areas to avoid: (a) Slopes 30-45 degrees or greater. (3) Poor visibility.5. (4) If caught in an avalanche. (b) Trees without uphill branches (identifies prior avalanches). make snowshoes [Figure II-10]). Obstacles to winter travel follow: (1) Reduced daylight hours (BE AWARE). a. (2) Deep soft snow (if movement is necessary. Figure II-10. II -11 . Travel is easier in early morning or late afternoon near dusk when snow is frozen or crusted. Ice and Snow Travel Travel should be limited to areas free of hazards. do the following: (a) Backstroke to decrease burial depth. (c) Heavy snow loading on ridge tops.
(2) Rough terrain. and bogs if needed. c. or using snowshoes. (2) Swamps. •Snow banks extend over the ice. In sand dune areas— (1) Follow hard valley floor between dunes. Flash floods. b. lakes. avoiding— (1) Deep sandy dune areas. d. Lightning. (b) Travel downstream to find people and slower water. 7. 8. •Water vapor rising indicates open or warm areas. c. paragraph 3. Travel at dawn or dusk on hot days. (c) When crossing frozen water. distribute your weight by laying flat. (b) Travel in forested areas if possible. II -12 . (c) Avoid creek bottoms and ravines with no escape in the event of heavy rains. Summer Hazards (see page II-10. Avoid ridge tops during thunderstorms. •Objects protrude through ice. Follow the easiest trail possible (non-combat). Avoid low areas. (c) Travel upstream to find narrower and shallow water.) (1) Dense brush. (5) Frozen water crossings. (a) Travel on trails when possible (non-combat). Dry Climates a. (a) Circumnavigate swamps. DO NOT travel unless certain of reaching the destination using the water supply available. (b) Air pockets form when a frozen river loses volume. b. items h through k.(b) Move hand around face to create air pocket as moving snow slows. Avoid areas prone to avalanches. and unfordable rivers. Glacier travel is hazardous and should be avoided. Travel Considerations. Avalanche. 6. •Rivers or streams come together. (a) Weak ice should be expected where— •Rivers are straight. belly crawling. lakes. c. Mountain Hazards a.
Using winds (1) Pull in sea anchor. (2) Sit low in the raft. the enemy uses the trails also.(2) Travel on the windward side of dune ridges. (2) Sit or lie down in direction of travel. (4) Exercise caution. DO NOT climb over logs if you can go around them. (3) DO NOT sleep on the trail. Find trails— (1) Where 2 streams meet. (6) Remain stationary until the storm is over. Sea anchor may be adjusted to make use of existing currents. (2) Inflate raft so it rides higher. Avoid grabbing vegetation. Part the vegetation to pass through. (3) Deflate the raft slightly so it rides lower in the water. 10. e. it may have spines or thorns (use gloves if possible). d. (2) Where a low pass goes over a range of hills. 9. While traveling trails (1) Watch for disturbed areas on game trails. (3) Sit up in raft so body catches the wind. Open Seas a. they may indicate a pitfall or trap. Travel only when it is light. (2) Use a walking stick to probe for pitfalls or traps. b. (3) Try to get to the downwind side of natural shelter. (5) Protect the eyes. e. c. If a sandstorm occurs (1) Mark your direction of travel. Avoid obstacles like thickets and swamps. f. Tropical Climates a.) II -13 . (Sail aids in making landfall. b. (4) Cover the mouth and nose with a piece of cloth. Using currents (1) Deploy sea anchor (Figure II-11). (4) Construct a shade cover/sail (Figure II-12).
Sea Anchor Deployment Figure II-12. (2) Greenish tint in the sky (in the tropics). Indications of land are (1) Fixed cumulus clouds in a clear sky or in a cloudy sky where all other clouds are moving. Making landfall. (3) Lighter colored reflection on clouds (open water causes dark gray reflections) (in the arctic).Figure II-11. Shade/Sail Construction c. II -14 .
Swimming ashore (1) Consider physical condition. (c) Parallel shoreline and attempt landfall at a point further down shore. (7) Try to make landfall during the lull between the sets of waves (waves are generally in sets of 7. (b) Make a shallow dive just before the wave breaks to end the ride. (5) Use the sidestroke or breaststroke to conserve strength if thrown from raft. (a) Avoid places where waves explode upon rocks. (b) When the seaward wave approaches. (3) Secure all gear to body before reaching landfall. (2) Use a flotation aid. d. (6) Directional flights of birds at dawn and at dusk. (9) In high surf. II -15 . (a) Swim forward on the back of a wave. (b) Assume a sitting position with feet 2 or 3 feet lower than head to absorb the shock of hitting submerged objects. (12) After selecting a landing site (a) Face shoreward. (11) Select a landing point. (6) Wear footgear and at least 1 layer of clothing.(4) Lighter colored water (indicates shallow water). (8) In moderate surf. (a) Odors from swamps and smoke. (b) Lie as close to the surface as possible. (b) Roar of surf/bird cries coming from one direction. (10) If caught in the undertow of a large wave— (a) Remain calm and swim to the surface. (5) The odors and sounds. from smallest to largest). (c) After it passes. (b) Find a place where waves smoothly rush onto the rocks. (4) Remain in raft as long as possible. work shoreward in the next trough. (a) Swim shoreward in the trough between waves. face it and submerge.
(1) Use paddles to avoid sharp edges. CAUTION: DO NOT deploy a sea anchor if traveling through coral. Icebergs. small flows. (3) Land on the lee (downwind) side of islands or point of land if possible. (b) Using paddles to maintain control. and disintegrating flows are dangerous (ice can cut a raft). f.e. II -16 . (4) Weight down/secure raft so it does not blow away. (c) Deploying a sea anchor for stability. (2) Use caution landing when the sun is low and straight in front of you causing poor visibility. (3) Keep raft inflated and ready for use. Rafting ashore (1) Select landing point carefully. (2) Store raft away from the ice edge. (4) Head for gaps in the surf line. (5) Penetrate surf by— (a) Taking down most shade/sails. Making sea ice landings on large stable ice flows.
If no immediate contact. Listening (use reception times in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces). Radio Communications (Voice and Data) a. then as directed in applicable plans/orders. Combat. etc. g. instructions of all 1. (2) Face recovery asset. Non-combat. Transmissions.Chapter III RADIO COMMUNICATIONS AND SIGNALING Inventory and review the operating communications and signaling equipment. Make initial contact as soon as possible or as directed in applicable plans/orders. (3) Keep antenna perpendicular to intended receiver (Figure III-1). (7) If transmitting in the blind. (6) Move after each transmission (ONLY in combat. b. space blanket. III-1 . f. (1) Turn off locator beacon. (1) Use concealment sites (combat) that optimize line of site (LOS). (8) Use terrain masking to hinder enemy direction finding. Use data burst if available. if possible). d. (5) Keep transmissions short (3-5 seconds maximum). (2) Keep it with you to supplement radio communications. c. Locate spare radio and batteries (keep warm and dry). e. (2) Follow standing plans for on/off operations to conserve battery use. (3) Follow plans/orders for on/off operations. ensure a clear LOS towards the equator. (1) Ensure locator beacon is operational. vegetation. (4) DO NOT ground antenna (that is finger on antenna or attaching bolt.).
(3) Extend over raft's edge before activating. Radio Transmission Characteristics 2. (2) Use as directed in applicable plans/orders or as directed by recovery forces. Signaling a. Pyrotechnic signals.100% 91% 91% 60% 31% 24% 41% 65% Signal Strength/ Operator Orientation 1% Top cone of silence 30-50% 900 30-50% 100% Main lobe Main lobe 100% 30-50% 90 0 30-50% Bottom cone of silence 1% Cut-away Sideview of Antenna Power Distribution Figure III-1. (1) Prepare early (weather permitting). III-2 .
Signal mirror (Figure III-2).b. Figure III-2. (2) If no radio. (3) Cover when not in use. stomped grass). d. III-3 . (2) Location. (3) Conserve battery life. Note: Produces one residual flash when turned off. branches. brush. (a) Maximize visibility from above. (3) Size (large as possible) and ratio (Figure III-3). signal paulin. (1) Prepare early. parachute). (b) Natural use materials that contrast the color and/or texture of the signaling area (rocks. Pattern signals (use as directed in applicable plans/orders). (1) Materials: (a) Manmade (space blanket. use only with confirmed friendly forces. consider filters and shields. (1) Use as directed by recovery forces. Sighting Techniques Note: Make a mirror from any shiny metal or glass. Strobe/IR lights. c. (2) Use as directed by recovery forces. (b) Provide concealment from ground observation.
Signal Key e. (2) Conserve unused dye by rewrapping. (6) Pattern signals (Figure III-4). Figure III-4. (5) Contrast (use color and shadows). (1) DO NOT waste in rough seas or fast moving water.Figure III-3. (3) May be used to color snow. Sea dye marker. Size and Ratio (4) Shape (maintain straight lines and sharp corners). III-4 .
(4) Use audio signals (that is. Non-combat considerations: (1) Use a fire at night. Figure III-5. (2) Use smoke for day (tires or petroleum products for dark smoke and green vegetation for light smoke). voice.f. (Figure III-5) (3) Use signal mirror to sweep horizon. whistle. and weapons fire). Smoke Generator III-5 .
Locate area for landing pick-up. boat. Assist recovery force in identifying your position. Maintain communication with recovery forces until recovered. Prepare signaling devices (use as directed or as briefed). size. e. free of obstructions. 2. (2) Recovery site characteristics (slope. d.). b. b. Recovery Procedures a. Site Preparation a. etc. Locate several concealment sites around area (in combat).Chapter IV RECOVERY 1. Site Selection a. obstacles. If no radio. b. Follow recovery force instructions. (3) DO NOT approach recovery vehicle until instructed. Plan several tactical entry and exit routes (in combat). (2) Secure weapons and avoid quick movement. For a landing/ground recovery— (1) Assume a non-threatening posture. ground. a ground-to-air signal may be your only means to effect recovery. (4) Signal devices available. 3. 4. Stay concealed until recovery is imminent (in combat). IV-1 . b. (3) Number in party/medical situation. Mentally review recovery methods (aircraft. Assess evidence of human activity at/near the site (in combat). flat and level). c. c. (4) Beware of rotors/propellers when approaching recovery vehicle. etc. c.). especially on sloping or uneven terrain. if practical (approximately 150 feet diameter. be prepared to report— (1) Enemy activity in the recovery area. Secure loose equipment that could be caught in rotors/propellers. Responsibilities a. Establish radio contact with recovery forces (if possible). Pack and secure all equipment. d. Be prepared to authenticate as directed in applicable plans/orders. c.
(2) Follow the procedures in "d" above. (10) DO NOT assist during hoist or when pulled into the rescue vehicle. (7) DO NOT become entangled in cable. For hoist recovery devices (Figures IV-1 and IV-2)— (1) Use eye protection.d. Follow crewmember instructions. Figure IV–1. Rescue Strap IV-2 . (6) Keep hands clear of all hardware and connectors. (9) Drag feet on the ground to decrease oscillation. or radio call to signal you are ready. vigorous cable shake. if available (glasses or helmet visor). (3) Sit or kneel for stability while donning device. For nonhoist recovery (rope or unfamiliar equipment)— (1) Create a “fixed loop” big enough to place under armpits (Figure IV-3). (5) Ensure cable is in front of you. e. (8) Use a thumbs up. (2) Allow metal on device to contact the surface before touching to avoid injury from static discharge. (4) Put safety strap under armpits.
Figure IV-2. Forest Penetrator IV-3 .
Fixed Loop IV-4 .Step 1 Step 2 Figure IV–3.
(2) If no response— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body.Chapter V MEDICAL WARNING: These emergency medical procedures are for survival situations. (d) Look. Immediate First Aid Actions Remember the ABCs of Emergency Care: Airway Breathing Circulation a. Figure V-1. Determine responsiveness as follows: (1) If unconscious. 1. (c) Open the airway by lifting the chin (Figure V-1). and feel for air exchange. (b) Roll victims onto their backs. Obtain professional medical treatment as soon as possible. Chin Lift V-1 . arouse by shaking gently and shouting. listen.
(g) Sweep with finger to clear mouth. try again. (f) If breaths still blocked. CAUTION: DO NOT remove an impaled object unless it interferes with the airway. remove any blockage. •Place a fist between breastbone and belly button. (d) Fill victim’s lungs with 2 slow breaths. (4) If victim is unconscious. (b) Cover victim's mouth with your own. b. Control bleeding as follows: (1) Apply a pressure dressing (Figure V-2). For travel. •Thrust upward to expel air from stomach. You may cause more tissue damage and increase bleeding. give 5 abdominal thrusts: •Straddle the victim. (b) Elevate the wounded area above the heart. Treat Chest Injuries. (5) If breathing difficulty is caused by chest trauma. •Check for chest rise each time.(3) If victim is not breathing— (a) Check for a clear airway. start mouth to mouth breathing: •Give 1 breath every 5 seconds. (c) Pinch victim’s nostrils closed. refer to page V-7. paragraph 1d. (b) Roll victim on side (drains the mouth and prevents the tongue from blocking airway). (e) If breaths are blocked. (2) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use direct pressure over the wound. V-2 . but breathing— (a) Keep head and neck aligned with body. you may shorten and secure the object. (i) If the airway is still blocked. (j) With open airway. (h) Try 2 slow breaths again. continue (c) through (f) until successful or exhausted. reposition airway.
Figure V-2. Application of a Pressure Dressing V-3 .
(3) If STILL bleeding— (a) Use a pressure point between the injury and the heart (Figure V-3). (b) Maintain pressure for 6 to 10 minutes before checking to see if bleeding has stopped.
Figure V-3. Pressure Points
(4) If a limb wound is STILL bleeding— CAUTION: Use of a tourniquet is a LAST RESORT measure. Use ONLY when severe, uncontrolled bleeding will cause loss of life. Recognize that long-term use of a tourniquet may cause loss of limb. (a) Apply tourniquet (TK) band just above bleeding site on limb. A band at least 3 inches (7.5 cm) or wider is best. (b) Follow steps illustrated in Figure V-4. (c) Use a stick at least 6 inches (15 cm) long. (d) Tighten only enough to stop arterial bleeding. (e) Mark a TK on the forehead with the time applied. (f) DO NOT cover the tourniquet. CAUTION: The following directions apply ONLY in survival situations where rescue is UNLIKELY and NO medical aid is available. (g) If rescue or medical aid is not available for over 2 hours, an attempt to SLOWLY loosen the tourniquet may be made 20 minutes after application. Before loosening— •Ensure pressure dressing is in place. •Ensure bleeding has stopped •Loosen tourniquet SLOWLY to restore circulation. •Leave loosened tourniquet in position in case bleeding resumes.
1. Wrap a wide band around the injured limb. Tie with a square knot.
2. Pass a stick, bayonet or scabbard through the tourniquet knot.
3. Tighten tourniquet by turning stick just enough to stop arterial bleeding.
4. Bind free end of the stick to keep tourniquet from unwinding.
Figure V-4. Application of a Tourniquet
c. (b) Tape airtight material over wound on 3 sides only (Figure V-5) to allow air to escape from the wound but not to enter. and sweaty skin. (c) Anxiety or mental confusion. (d) Lift untapped side of dressing as victim exhales to allow trapped air to escape. (4) Maintain normal body temperature. may cause sucking sound. (c) Monitor breathing and check dressing. Results from blunt trauma when 3 or more ribs are broken in 2 or more places. (6) Place very weak or unconscious victim on side. (1) Sucking chest wound. (3) Treat underlying injury. •DO NOT give fluids if they cause victim to gag.) (1) Identify by one or more of the following: (a) Pale. (d) Decreased urine output. (2) Flail chest. this will— (a) Allow mouth to drain. Treat chest injuries. (b) Give warm fluids. (d) Shelter from the elements. d. (a) Remove wet clothing. Treat shock. •DO NOT give fluids to an unconscious victim. (a) Immediately seal wound with hand or airtight material. cool. (b) Fast breathing and a weak. This occurs when chest wall is penetrated. It may be present with or without visible injury. (Shock is difficult to identify or treat under field conditions. may cause victim to gasp for breath. fast pulse. (c) Insulate from ground. (b) Prevent tongue from blocking airway. as necessary. The flail segment is the broken area that moves in a direction opposite to the rest of chest during breathing. may create bloody froth as air escapes the chest. V-7 . (5) Place conscious victim on back. (2) Maintain circulation.
Sucking Chest Wound Dressing (a) Stabilize the flail segment as follows: • Place rolled-up clothing or bulky pad over site. but necessary to prevent the possible development of pneumonia). (1) Control bleeding. (3) If fracture penetrates the skin— V-8 . • Tape pad to site • DO NOT wrap tape around chest. and constrictive clothing. (3) Fractured ribs. (c) Roll victim onto side of flail segment injury (as other injuries allow). (a) Encourage deep breathing (painful. (b) Have victim keep segment still with hand pressure. e. (b) DO NOT constrict breathing by taping ribs.Figure V-5. Treat fractures. jewelry. (2) Remove watches. and dislocations. sprains.
constrictive clothing. (5) Splint in position found (if unable to straighten limb). (b) Repeat 3 to 4 times per day. (e) Stabilization. (b) Apply dressing over wound. 2. (1) Cool the burned area with water. (2) Remove watches. (4) Position limb as normally as possible. Burns. (b) Avoid aggressive cooling with ice or frigid water. (a) DO NOT use continuous cold therapy. (7) Attach with strips of cloth. (a) Use immersion or cool compresses. NOT in straight position. (b) Ice. etc. arm-to-chest). (d) Elevation. (8) Keep the fractured bones from moving by immobilizing the joints on both sides of the fracture. (15) Loosen bandage or reapply splint if no pulse is felt or if swelling occurs because bandage is too tight. (a) Rest. Hand should look like it is grasping an apple. stiff materials from equipment. (11) Use 15 to 20 minute periods of cold application.(a) Clean wound by gentle irrigation with water. (13) Elevate injured area above heart level to reduce swelling. (12) Wrap with a compression bandage after cold therapy. (b) Body parts (for example. (6) Improvise a splint with available materials: (a) Sticks or straight. V-9 . jewelry. immobilize the bones on both sides of the joint. (c) Avoid cooling that can cause frostbite or hypothermia. (10) Apply cold to acute injuries. parachute cord. (c) Compression. (9) Use RICES treatment for 72 hours. (14) Check periodically for a pulse beyond the injury site. If fracture is in a joint. opposite leg. Common Injuries and Illnesses a. CAUTION: Splint fingers in a slightly flexed position.
(a) Prevent with improvised goggles. (a) Rest in shade. and cardiac arrest can occur. CAUTION: Handle heat stroke victim gently. (b) Drink water. patch eye for 24 hours and then reattempt removal using steps (a) and (b). (c) If foreign body is STILL not removed. cool skin). (b) If foreign body is not removed by irrigation.) (8) Change dressings when soaked or dirty. and possible reduction in vision caused by sun exposure). (3) Heat stroke (victim disoriented or unconscious. burning sensation. (a) Rest. Figure VI-2.) (b) Treat by patching affected eye(s). (1) Heat cramps (cramps in legs or abdomen). (6) Avoid moving or rubbing the burned part. (b) Drink water. Eye injuries. (Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt [if available] to each quart of water. •Check after 12 hours. (2) Foreign body in eye. skin is hot and flushed [sweating may or may not occur]. V-10 . (See Chapter VI. b. •Replace patch for another 12 hours if not healed. Moisten and wipe gently over the affected area. (4) Cover with sterile dressings. seizures. (7) Drink extra water to compensate for increased fluid loss from burns. (1) Sun/snow blindness (gritty. Add 1/4 teaspoon of salt per quart. c. sweating. charred material that will cause burned areas to bleed. (a) Irrigate with clean water from the inside to the outside corner of the eye. fast pulse). Shock. page VI-3.(3) DO NOT remove embedded. (2) Heat exhaustion (pale. (c) Use cool compresses to reduce pain. improvise a small swab. moist. Heat injury. (5) DO NOT use lotion or grease. (c) Protect from further heat exposure.
sleeping bags. d. respiratory and cardiac failure. •Areas will feel cold and may tingle leading to— • •Numbness that progresses to— • ••Waxy appearance with stiff skin that cannot glide freely over a joint. breathing. Remember to cool the groin and armpit areas. repeated freezing and thawing causes severe pain and increases damage to the tissue. (b) Protect victim from the environment as follows: •Remove wet clothing. V-11 . then frostbite is present.(a) Cool as rapidly as possible (saturate clothing with water and fan the victim). •Prevent further heat loss. (Avoid overcooling. puffy skin. difficulty speaking. and toes are affected first. or shelter.) (b) Maintain airway. (b) Frostnipped areas rewarm with body heat. (c) Frostbitten areas are deeply frozen and require medical treatment. •Ears. •Warm with blankets. Cold injuries: (1) Frostnip and frostbite— (a) Are progressive injuries. jerky movements go to— ••••Coma. DO NOT rub frozen tissue. CAUTION: In frostbite. (2) Hypothermia— (a) Is a progressive injury. and circulation. • •Cover top of head. If body heat WILL NOT rewarm area in 15 to 20 minutes. sluggish thinking go to— • ••Muscular rigidity with blue. fingers. • Intense shivering with impaired ability to perform complex tasks leads to— • •Violent shivering. • •Insulate from above and below. •Put on dry clothing (if available). nose. DO NOT thaw frozen tissue.
warm. (e) Keep area dry. CAUTION: This snakebite treatment recommendation is for situations where medical aid and specialized equipment are not available. Snakebite. cuffs. (f) DO NOT apply creams or ointments. Keep feet protected. •Warm central areas before extremities. (d) Loosen boots. (c) Use antiseptic (if available). DO NOT use your mouth to create suction. CAUTION: Handle hypothermia victim gently. Clean and bandage wound. to improve circulation. and around • •Avoid causing burns to skin. (c) DO NOT cut the bite site. (a) Avoid walking on affected feet. (d) DO NOT open or squeeze sores. (2) Poisonous. and open to air. e.neck. Skin becomes wrinkled as in dishpan hands. (a) Remove constricting items. etc. (2) Saltwater sores. (b) Minimize activity. cover with a dressing. Avoid overly rapid rewarming which may cause cardiac arrest. DO NOT rub. (1) Immersion injuries. Rewarming of victim with skin-to-skin contact by volunteer(s) inside of a sleeping bag is a survival technique but can cause internal temperatures of all to drop. • •Place heat packs in groin. Skin tissue will be sensitive. (b) Pat dry. V-12 . (b) Keep sores dry. f. (a) Change body positions frequently. Skin tissue damage. (d) Clean bite with soap and water. (1) Nonpoisonous.. armpits. (c) Dry socks and shoes.
artificial respiration may be required (page V-1. (2) Punctures. (3) Change bandages as needed. force fluids. The intent is to slow capillary and venous blood flow but not arterial flow. (g) Treat for shock (page V-7. (1) Wash with large amounts of water. (d) Apply a steroid cream (if available). (a) Flush wound with salt water (fresh water stimulates toxin release). g. Use soap (if available). Check for pulse below the overwrap. (a) Immerse affected part in hot water or apply hot compresses for 30-60 minutes (as hot as victim can tolerate). Skin irritants (includes poison oak and poison ivy). (g) DO NOT use urine to flush or treat wounds. (c) Remove tentacles and gently scrape or shave skin. paragraph 1c). (i) Construct shelter if necessary (let the victim rest). i. (1) Keep wound clean. (h) Position extremity below level of heart. (2) Keep covered to prevent scratching. (b) Remove jewelry and watches. (2) Use iodine tablet solution or diluted betadine to prevent or treat infection. Infection. paragraph 1a). Marine life. (f) Splint bitten extremity to prevent motion. (1) Stings. (f) Treat for shock. V-13 . (e) DO NOT rub area with sand. h.(e) Overwrap the bite site with a tight (elastic) bandage (Figure V-6). (j) For conscious victims. (c) Treat for shock as needed. (b) Cover with clean dressing.
Compression Bandage for Snake Bite V-14 .Figure V-6.
(2) Sources. diarrhea. (b) Diarrhea. (3) Preparation. dysentery. Constipation (can be expected in survival situations). V-15 . •Apply compress to burned area. (1) DO NOT take laxatives. (3) Eat charcoal. Tannin solution prevents infection and aids healing. •Pour cooled tea on burned areas to ease pain. acorns. (It may relieve symptoms by absorbing toxins. (2) Sources. (4) Treatments. sprains. Apply cool compresses or soak affected part to relieve itching and promote healing. or leaves in water. (2) Use a liquid diet. Willow and aspen trees (Figure V-7). (a) Burns. banana plants. strawberry leaves. Salicin/salicylic acid. Drink strong tea solution (may promote voiding of worms). Found in the outer bark of all trees. Make a paste by mixing fine charcoal particles with water.j. and parasites. •Replace depleted material with fresh bark/plants. (a) Place crushed outer bark. pain. and worms. dysentery. and blackberry stems. Aches. (1) Medical uses.) k. b. and sore throat (aspirin-like qualities). (2) Exercise. colds. •Moisten bandage with cooled tannin tea. fever. common plantain. (1) Drink extra water. skin problems. Dysentery and diarrhea. (c) Skin problems (dry rashes and fungal infections). (3) Drink extra water. Tannin. Burns. inflammation. (d) Lice and insect bites. (b) Leach out the tannin by soaking or boiling. 3. Wash affected areas with tea to ease itching. acorns. Plant Medicine a. (1) Medical uses. •Increase tannin content by longer soaking time.
(c) Use poultice to treat cuts. or cambium layer (soft. •Crush the plant or stems. vitamins. (3) Preparation. (b) Drink tea made from leaves for vitamin and minerals. (a) Make cuts in unripe fruit.(3) Preparation. (a) Use sap to tenderize tough meat. (c) Use warm. moist poultice for aches and sprains. •Make a pulpy mass. and dysentery. (2) Source. (a) Chew on twigs. burns. sores. Itching. (1) Medical uses. (b) Eat ripe fruit for food. and stings. (3) Preparation. moist layer between the outer bark and the wood) of willow or aspen. buds. There are over 200 plantain species with similar medicinal properties. (a) Drink tea made from seeds for diarrhea or dysentery. (b) Drink tea for colds and sore throat. (b) Prepare tea as described in paragraph 3a(3). Common plantain. buds. Digestive aid. Fruit of the papaya tree (Figure V-7). (4) Treatments. abrasions. (4) Treatments. d. •Apply pulpy mass over injury. The common plantain is shown in Figure V-7. and minerals. V-16 . (a) Gather twigs. (4) Treatments. (a) Brew tea from seeds. (1) Medical uses. diarrhea. and a food source. •Hold in place with a dressing. stings. (b) Brew tea from leaves. or cambium for symptom relief. (2) Source. (c) Avoid getting sap in eyes or wounds. (c) Make poultice. (c) Make poultice of leaves. meat tenderizer. wounds. c. (b) Gather milky white sap for its papain content. Papain.
boils. burns. inflammations. (c) Collect yellow pollen for flour substitute. Cattail ground level edible rootstalk D. and minerals. Typical Willow leaf 6-16 inches tall edible pollen B. Plantain Figure V-7. Papaya . sores. Cattail plant found in marshes (Figure V-7). Common Cattail. (d) Peel and eat tender shoots (raw or cooked). A. (1) Medical uses.e. and an excellent food source. (b) Cook and eat green bloom spikes. (a) Apply poultice to affected area. Wounds. Typical Aspen leaf edible young leaf shoot C. (a) Pound roots into a pulpy mass for a poultice. (b) Use plant for food. (4) Treatments. (2) Source. vitamins. (3) Preparation. Useful Plants V-17 E.
Rules for Avoiding Illness a. b. (a) Change and wash socks (b) Wash. g. Wash hands before preparing food or water. Locate latrines 200 feet from water and away from shelter. (d) Use adhesive tape/mole skin to prevent damage. (a) Use hardwood twig as toothbrush (fray it by chewing on one end then use as brush). Health and Hygiene a. sand. Try to get 7-8 hours sleep per day. dry. Stay clean (daily regimen). (1) Minimize infection by washing. (1) Check body for lice. d. 5. (c) Check frequently for blisters and red areas. Exercise daily. Prevent insect bites by using repellent. fleas. (3) Use smoke to fumigate clothing and equipment. h. Eat varied diet. (c) Use clean finger to stimulate gum tissues by rubbing. and clothing. (d) Gargle with salt water to help prevent sore throat and aid in cleaning teeth and gums. (2) Wash clothing and use repellents. or loamy soil as soap substitutes. Clean all eating utensils after each meal. ticks. (b) Use single strand of an inner core string from parachute cord for dental floss. (b) Pick off insects and eggs (DO NOT crush). bleach. (Use white ashes. Prevent and control parasites. (4) Clean and protect feet. f. c. e. V-18 . b.4. c. netting. (a) Check body regularly. and massage. Dry wet clothing as soon as possible.) (2) Comb and clean debris from hair. (3) Cleanse mouth and brush teeth. or boiling for 5 minutes. Purify all water obtained from natural sources by using iodine tablets. etc.
When fully clothed. If you fall into the water in the winter— (1) Build fire. d. First 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct survival shelter according to selection criteria. (1) Use salt water. Dampen clothing when on the ocean in hot weather. (1) Tight clothing restricts blood flow regulating body temperature. f. VI-1 . Priorities a. Keep clothing dry to maintain its insulation qualities (dry damp clothing in the sun or by a fire). Second 24 hours in order of situational needs— (1) Construct necessary tools and weapons. Evaluate available resources and situation. (2) Procure water. Never discard clothing. NOT drinking water. b. the majority of body heat escapes through the head and neck areas. b. Avoid overheating. Wear loose and layered clothing.Chapter VI PERSONAL PROTECTION 1. c. e. 2. (1) Remove layers of clothing before strenuous activities. (2) Use a hat to regulate body heat. then accomplish individual tasks accordingly. (4) Build Fire. g. (2) Procure food. Care and Use of Clothing a. (3) Establish multiple survival signals. (2) Dry clothing before dark to prevent hypothermia. c. (3) Wear a hat when in direct sunlight (in hot environment). (2) Layers create more dead air space. (3) Finish drying clothing by fire. (2) Remove wet clothing and rewarm by fire. Keep entire body covered to prevent sunburn and dehydration in hot climates.
Examine clothing frequently for damage. (2) Allow wet clothes to freeze. over the instep. one at a time. Sleeping bag. VI-2 . (2) Fold into a triangle. (b) Safety pins. (1) Cut 2 to 4 layers of cloth into a 30-inch square. especially at foot of bag. i. (2) Wash clothing whenever possible. (3) Break ice out of clothing. Other Protective Equipment a. (2) Air and dry daily to remove body moisture. vines. etc. Figure VI-1 Improvised Foot Wear (4) Fold front over the toes. (5) Fold side corners. or tuck into other layers of material. tape. Keep clothing clean (dirt reduces its insulation qualities). (1) DO NOT sit or lie directly on the ground. (c) Tape. Improvised foot protection (Figure VI-1). If no fire is available— (1) Remove clothing and get into sleeping bag (if available).h. (3) Center foot on triangle with toes toward corner. (6) Secure by rope. (3) Repair when necessary by using— (a) Needle and thread.. (1) Fluff before use. 3. j.
(1) Near signal and recovery site. Gaiters 4. Site selection. etc. snow. (1) Wear in bright sun or snow conditions. (2) Improvise by cutting small horizontal slits in webbing. (2) Available food and water. b. or similar materials. Sun and snow goggles (Figure VI-2). (3) Avoid natural hazards: VI-3 . and scratches (wrap material around lower leg and top of boots). Sun and Snow Goggles c. Gaiters (Figure VI-3). Figure VI-2. dry grass. Used to protect from sand.(3) Improvise with available material. Shelters Evasion considerations apply. a. insects. Figure VI-3. leaves. bark. dry moss.
(3) Thermal A Frame. Snow Cave. Find shelter needing minimal improvements (Figure VI-4). Immediate Shelters (2) General shelter. insulated shelter.(a) Dead standing trees. b. Note: As a general rule. (a) Snow is the most abundant insulating material. your snow shelter is too warm and should be cooled down to preclude melting and dripping. (1) Immediate shelters. Cold climates require an enclosed. Snow Trench. Temperate climates require any shelter that gives protection from wind and rain. (Figures VI-5 through VI-7). (4) Location large and level enough to lie down in. unless you can see your breath. Types. Figure VI-4. VI-4 . (b) Air vent is required to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning when using an open flame inside enclosed shelters. (b) Drainage and dry river beds except in combat areas. (c) Avalanche areas.
Thermal A Frame Figure VI-6.Figure VI-5. Snow Trench VI-5 .
Figure VI-7. White is the best color to reflect heat (inner most layer should be of darker material). Snow Cave (4) Shade shelter. (a) If natural materials are used. (5) Elevated platform shelter (Figure VI-9). a minimum of 2 layers of material suspended 12-18 inches above the head is required. Hot climates require a shade shelter to protect from ultraviolet rays (Figure VI-8). (b) For thermal protection. (2) Cover with available material. the shelter floor should be elevated or dug down (approximately 18 inches). (a) To reduce the surface temperature. c. elevated shelter for protection from dampness and insects. See Figure VI-10 for an example. Tropical/wet climates require enclosed. Shelter construction. VI-6 . (1) Have entrance 45-90 degrees from prevailing wind. arrange them in layers starting at the bottom with each layer overlapping the previous one.
Shingle Method VI-7 . Elevated Platform Shelter Figure VI-10. Poncho/Parachute Shade Shelter Figure VI-9.Figure VI-8.
(3) Blankets. • Use additional layers in heavy rain. e. (5) Bark peeled off dead trees. (e) Pyrotechnics. (6) Boughs. VI-8 . fuel.• Stretch as tight as possible • Use a 40–60 degree slope.— (b) If using porous material like parachute. Construct a bed to protect from cold. Bed construction. (2) Vehicle or aircraft parts. blankets. b. broad leaves. (2) Use fires at dusk. d. Fires CAUTION: Weigh hazards and risks of detection against the need for a fire. such as flares (last resort). damp. ground using— (1) Raft or foam rubber from vehicle seats. 5. or dry moss. (9) Sand and rocks. etc. (2) Boughs. Shelter construction materials: (1) Raft and raft parts. (b) Flint and steel (experiment with various rocks and metals until a good spark is produced). (8) Snow. (7) Grass and sod. (d) Concentrated sunlight (use magnifying glass or flashlight reflectors). (1) Heat sources: (a) Matches or lighter. poncho. dry moss. Evasion considerations: (1) Use trees or other sources to dissipate smoke. a. or during inclement weather. dawn. etc. or parachute material. (4) Sheet of plastic or plastic bag. Fire building. The 3 essential elements for starting a fire are heat. (c) Sparks from batteries. (3) Use fires at times when the local populace is cooking. and oxygen. leaves.
(f) Friction method (Figure VI-11). or knife. (2) Fuel is divided into 3 categories: tinder. saturate with Vaseline. • Foam rubber. • Candle (shred the wick. Friction Method Note: If possible. this method is difficult to master and requires a lot of time to build the device. Figure VI-11. VI-9 . (To get tinder to burn hotter and longer. kindling. carry a fire-starting device with you. insect repellant. and fuel. fork. not the wax). Chapstick. etc.) (a) Tinder. Without prior training. Tinder must be very finely shaved or shredded to provide a low combustion point and fluffed to allow oxygen to flow through. • Plastic spoon. aircraft fuel. (Gather large amounts of each category before igniting the fire.) Examples of tinder include— • Cotton.
•Pitch. Kindling must be small enough to ignite from the small flame of the tinder. (b) Kindling. etc. Use the tepee fire to produce a concentrated heat source for cooking. •Petroleum products. c. lighting. Examples of fuel include— • Dry hardwood (removing bark reduces smoke). Tepee Fire (2) Log cabin fire (Figure VI-13). and provide coals for cooking. Types. to dry out wet wood. • Bamboo (open chambers to prevent explosion). Gradually add larger kindling until arriving at the size of fuel to burn. Figure VI-12. • Dry dung.•Dry bark. •Gun powder. (c) Fuel. Fires are built to meet specific needs or uses. •Dry grasses. VI-10 . or signaling. (1) Tepee fire (Figure VI-12). Use the log cabin fire to produce large amounts of light and heat.
Figure VI-13. Build fires against rocks or logs. Log Cabin or Pyramid Fires (3) Sod fire and reflector (Figure VI-14). Sod Fire and Reflector VI-11 . CAUTION: DO NOT use porous rocks or riverbed rock—they may explode when heated. Use fire reflectors to get the most warmth from a fire. Figure VI-14.
Dakota Fire Hole (5) Improvised stoves (Figure VI-16). Use the Dakota fire hole for high winds or evasion situations. Improvised Stove VI-12 . Figure VI-16.(4) Dakota fire hole (Figure VI-15). Figure VI-15. These are very efficient.
sleet) (FigureVII-1). • Causes minor cold injury to lips and mouth. (4) Ground water (when no surface water is available) (Figure VII-2). (5) Snow or ice. or an illness increases water loss. (2) Precipitation (rain. lakes. Water Procurement a. b. and springs). Exertion. (b) Drainages and low-lying areas. 2. (4) Sea water. Minimum 2 quarts per day to maintain fluid level. VII-1 . DO NOT drink— (1) Urine. (3) Subsurface (wells and cisterns). (c) “V” intersecting game trails often point to water. injury. • Induces dehydration. (a) DO NOT eat ice or snow. snow. (e) Bird flight in the early morning or late afternoon might indicate the direction to water.Chapter VII Water 1. Water sources: (1) Surface water (streams. Water Requirements Drink extra water. • Lowers body temperature. dew. heat. (6) Melted water from new sea ice. (2) Fish juices. Note: Pale yellow urine indicates adequate hydration. (a) Abundance of lush green vegetation. (5) Alcohol. (3) Blood. (d) Presence of swarming insects indicates water is near.
Figure VII-1. Water Procurement Figure VII-2. Water Indicators VII-2 .
• Catch rain in spray shields and life raft covers. Table VII-1. • Collect dew off raft. (b) Precipitation. • Use waterproof container. (c) Melt with body heat. (c) Old sea ice or icebergs (Table VII-1). Water Generator (6) Open seas. Figure VII-3. • Drink as much as possible. Old Sea Ice or Icebergs OLD SEA ICE NEW SEA ICE Bluish or blackish Milky or grey Shatters easily Does not break easily Rounded corners Sharp edges Tastes relatively salt-free Tastes extremely salty VII-3 .(b) Melt with fire. • Place between layers of clothing. (d) Use a water generator (Figure VII-3). • Speed the process by adding hot rocks or water. (a) Water available in survival kits. • DO NOT place next to the skin. • Stir frequently to prevent damaging container.
(a) All open sources previously mentioned. cut off 6 inches of opposite end. • • Pour into hand to check smell. color.(7) Tropical areas. • • If juice is clear and water like. cut as large a piece of vine as possible (cut the top first). and taste to determine if drinkable. Figure VII-4. • • Tap before dark. • • When water flow stops. • • Produce most water at night. • • Cut bark (DO NOT use milky sap). water will flow again. • •Bore hole at bottom of section to obtain water. •Leaning Tree. • •Shake and listen for water. • • For evasion situations. •Water trees (avoid milky sap). • Vines (Figure VII-5A). Let sap stop running and harden during the daytime. Leaning Tree •Banana plants. • • DO NOT touch vine to lips. • Old bamboo. VII-4 . Cloth absorbs rain running down tree and drips into container (Figure VII-4). bore into the roots and collect water. (b) Vegetation. •Plants with hollow sections can collect moisture.
Figure VII-5 A and B. Beach Well VII-5 . Along the coast. obtain water by digging a beach well (Figure VII-6). •Beach well. Water Vines and Green Bamboo CAUTION: Liquid contained in green coconuts (ripe coconuts may cause diarrhea). • Green bamboo (Figure VII-5B). • •Filter and purify.• •Cut out entire section to carry with you. Figure VII-6.
(8) Dry areas. •Water bag must be clear. (a) Solar still (Figure VII-7). Figure VII-7. •Water will taste like the plant smells. Solar Still Figure VII-8. Vegetation Bag (c) Transpiration bag (Figure VII-9). VII-6 . (b) Vegetation bag (Figure VII-8).
Figure VII-9. b.(d) Seepage basin (Figure VII-10). Water Preparation and Storage a. Purification. Transpiration Bag Figure VII-10. Filtration. (1) Water from live plants requires no further treatment. VII-7 . CAUTION: DO NOT use poisonous/toxic plants in vegetation/ transpiration bags. (2) Purify all other water. Filter through porous material (sand/charcoal). Seepage Basin 3. (a) Boil at least 1 minute.
c. cold. use a clean. To prevent contamination. (1) Trash bag.(c) Water purification tablets. to aerate. (4) Flotation gear. (2) Put in clear container and expose to the sun’s ultraviolet rays to kill bacteria. clean. covered or sealed container. Potable Water. d. (2) Prophylactic. (1) If water cannot be purified. (3) Section of bamboo. Storage. obtain water from a clear. and fast running source (if possible). (b) Pour from one container to another to improve taste VII-8 . Follow instructions on package.
and slow moving streams. Procurement techniques. Sources and location. (b) Listening for bird noises (indication of nesting areas (3) Fish and other marine life locations (Figure VIII-1). watering. and roosting areas). (c) On ponds. VIII-1 . b. (b) At ant and termite mounds.Chapter VIII FOOD 1. (1) Mammals can be found where— (a) Trails lead to watering. feeding. Food Procurement a. (1) Snares— (a) Work while unattended. Fishing Locations (4) Reptiles and amphibians are found almost worldwide. (5) Insects are found— (a) In dead logs and stumps. (2) Birds can be found by— (a) Observing the direction of flight in the early morning and late afternoon (leads to feeding. lakes. (b) Droppings or tracks look fresh. Figure VIII-1. and bedding areas.
•Avoid disturbing the area.(b) Location: •Trails leading to water. (d) Placement of snares (set as many as possible). Snare Placement (c) Construction of simple loop snare. the wire locks in place. • To construct a squirrel pole (Figure VIII-4) use simple loop snares. fist-sized for rabbits). preventing reopening. • Make noose opening slightly larger than the animal's head (3-finger width for squirrels. •Use a figure 8 (locking loop) if wire is used (Figure VIII-3). •Use materials that will not break under the strain of holding an animal. •Mouth of dens (Figure VIII-2). feeding. Figure VIII-2. • •Once tightened. VIII-2 . and bedding areas. •Use funneling (natural or improvised) (Figure VIII-5). and the animal’s escape.
Figure VIII-3. Locking Loop Figure VIII-4. Squirrel Pole Figure VIII-5. Funneling VIII-3 .
(d) Be ready to kill the animal. (a) Insert forked stick into a den until something soft is (b) Twist the stick. line. and hook. (f) Trap. Figure VIII-6. (b) Spear. (c) Remove the animal from the den. (2) Noose stick (easier and safer to use than the hands). binding the animal's hide in the fork. (c) Slingshot. it may be dangerous. (3) Twist stick (Figure VIII-6). Procurement Devices (4) Hunting and fishing devices. (See Figure VIII-7 for fishing procurement methods. VIII-4 . (e) Net.met.) (a) Club or rock. (d) Pole.
•Flabby skin. (h) Avoid all crustaceans above the high tide mark. •Sunken eyes. (f) DO NOT eat fish with— •Spines. Procurement Methods (5) Precautions: (a) Wear shoes to protect the feet when wading in water. (b) Avoid reaching into dark holes. •Pale. VIII-5 . (i) Avoid cone-shaped shells (Figure VIII-8). (c) Kill animals before handling. slimy gills. (d) DO NOT secure fishing lines to yourself or the raft. •Flesh that remains dented when pressed.Figure VIII-7. •Unpleasant odor. (g) DO NOT eat fish eggs or liver (entrails). (e) Kill fish before bringing them into the raft. Animals in distress may attract the enemy.
•Mosquitoes. such as— •Flies. blindness and possible death in a few hours.Cone shell Warning! These snails can sting and cause acute pain. for example: •Centipedes. •Ticks. paralysis. Cone-Shaped Shells of Venomous Snails (j) Avoid hairy insects. •Scorpions. •Poisonous spiders. (k) Avoid poisonous insects. swelling. the hairs could cause irritation or infection. VIII-6 . Terebra shell Figure VIII-8. (l) Avoid disease carrying insects.
Bracken fern fiddleheads also violate this guideline. test all others before eating. (e) Bulbs (only onions smell like onions). bark. (i) Plants with shiny leaves. Each part of a plant (roots. or cramps. these guidelines may help determine edibility. (d) Umbrella shaped flowers (hemlock is eliminated). etc. and thorns (skin irritants/contact dermatitis). (a) Before testing for edibility. (2) Avoid plants with the following characteristics: Note: Using these guidelines in selecting plants for food may eliminate some edible plants.) (k) Almond scent in woody parts and leaves. nausea. VIII-7 . or black spurs. or seeds inside pods. fine hairs. Two good examples are green apples and wild onions. these guidelines will help prevent choosing potentially toxic plants. (c) Mushrooms and fungus. (1) Selection criteria. purplish. Even after testing food and finding it safe. bulbs. (g) Beans. Plant Foods. (h) Old or wilted leaves.) requires more than 24 hours to test. stems. eat in moderation. leaves. (Aggregate berries such as black and dewberries are always edible. (j) White and yellow berries. DO NOT waste time testing a plant that is not abundant. Prickly pear and thistles are exceptions. (b) Test only 1 part of 1 plant at a time. (b) Spines. (c) Remember that eating large portions of plant food on an empty stomach may cause diarrhea. (a) Milky sap (dandelion has milky sap but is safe to eat and easily recognizable).c. (f) Grain heads with pink. ensure there are enough plants to make testing worth your time and effort. however. Before using the following guide use your evasion chart to identify edible plants: Note: If you cannot positively identify an edible plant and choose to try an unknown plant.
(3) Smell the food for strong acid odors. buds. place the plant on your tongue and hold it for 15 minutes. NEVER ASSUME a part that proved edible when cooked is edible raw. If any ill effects occur. touch a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to test for burning or itching. thoroughly chew a pinch and hold it in your mouth for 15 minutes (DO NOT SWALLOW). induce vomiting and drink a water and charcoal mixture. eat ¼ cup of the same plant prepared the same way. (9) If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip. Test procedures. test the part raw before eating. (8) Before placing the prepared plant in your mouth. smell alone does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible. The same part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals. Remember. (1) Test only 1 part of a plant at a time. the plant part as prepared is safe for eating. (10) If there is no reaction. Wait another 8 hours. (11) If nothing abnormal occurs. (6) During testing. VIII-8 . test for contact poisoning by placing a piece of the plant on the inside of your elbow or wrist.d. (2) Separate the plant into its basic components (stems. If no ill effects occur. swallow the food and wait 8 hours. If any ill effects occur during this period. (5) During the 8 hours you abstain from eating. CAUTION: Test all parts of the plant for edibility. and flowers). (12) If no ill effects occur. (7) Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the way you plan to eat it. roots. Usually 15 minutes is enough time to allow for a reaction. The sap or juice should contact the skin. Some plants have both edible and inedible parts. take NOTHING by mouth EXCEPT purified water and the plant you are testing. rinse out your mouth with water. (4) DO NOT eat 8 hours before the test and drink only purified water.
(a) Remove the skin and save for other uses. During evasion. a. and above ground ripe vegetables not requiring significant preparation. you may not be able to cook. Butchering and skinning.CAUTION: 1. (d) Unused or inedible organs and entrails may be used as bait for other game. ripe fruits. (a) One cut skinning of small game (Figure VIII-9). (c) If preserving the meat. Concentrate your efforts on leafy green plants. is the best indicator of ripeness. 3. 2. •Remove the intestines. brain. Small Game Skinning VIII-9 . liver. (b) Wash when ready to use. Ripe tropical fruits should be peeled and eaten raw. Cook underground portions when possible to reduce bacterial contamination and ease digestion of their generally high starch content. Cook unripe fruits and discard seeds and skin. rather than color. 2. Figure VIII-9. Food Preparation Animal food gives the greatest food value per pound. remove it from the bones. tongue. •Open the abdominal cavity. Softness. (1) Mammals. and kidneys) and all meaty parts of the skull. •Avoid rupturing the intestines. •Save inner organs (heart. and eyes.
freshwater fish. berries. (b) Bury food in dirt under coals of fire. (a) Gut soon after killing. (d) Skin scavengers and sea birds. (a) Wrap in leaves or pack in mud. (b) Discard skin. (c) Remove entrails. and most nuts can be eaten raw. and scavenger birds. (b) Protect from flies. (2) Baking. crawfish. Saltwater fish may be eaten raw. (4) Birds. VIII-10 . (a) Skin. (5) Insects. (1) Boiling (most nutritious method of cooking—drink the (a) Make metal cooking containers from ration cans. b. (b) Drop heated rocks into containers to boil water or broth). clams. DO NOT save. thoroughly cook all wild game. (6) Fruits. (b) Insert knifepoint into anus of fish and cut open the belly.(2) Frogs and snakes. snails. (a) Scale (if necessary) and gut fish soon after it is caught. (3) Fish. and internal organs. head with 2 inches of body. mussels. Cooking. CAUTION: To kill parasites. (d) Remove gills to prevent spoilage. (c) Skin or pluck them. cook food. (The rest is edible. CAUTION: Dead insects spoil rapidly. (a) Remove all hard portions such as the legs of grasshoppers or crickets.) (b) Recommend cooking grasshopper-size insects.
(a) Food buried in snow maintains a temperature of approximately 32 degrees F. c. (2) Short term. (4) Roasting. Cold water should be tried first. (1) Use salt to improve flavor and promote drying. (a) Shake shelled nuts in a container with hot coals. (b) Earth below the surface. (a) Food wrapped in waterproof material and placed in a stream remains cool in summer months. Food Preservation b. (b) Second method: •Boil. •Discarding water. however. (c) Wrap food in absorbent material such as cotton and re-wet as the water evaporates. they produce soot giving the meat an undesirable taste. Keeping an animal alive.(3) Leaching. (4) DO NOT use pitch woods such as fir or pine. (2) Cut or pound meat into thin strips. (3) Remove fat. Drying and smoking removes moisture and preserves food. •If bitter. boiling water is sometimes best. (b) Roast thinly sliced meat and insects over a candle. Some nuts (acorns) must be leached to remove the bitter taste of tannin. 3. pour off water. VIII-11 . repeat process until palatable. (1) Long term. is cooler than the surface. (b) Frozen food will not decompose (freeze in meal-size portions). c. •Crushing and pouring water through. particularly in shady areas or along streams. Use one of the following leaching methods: (a) First method: •Soaking and pouring the water off. Refrigerating. and taste the plant.
(b) Cover during daylight hours to protect from insects. VIII-12 . (b) Place meat in fabric or clothing for insulation. (3) Packing meat on the trail. (a) Wrap before flies appear in the morning. and shrimp in wet seaweed. crabs. (a) Use clean material. (2) Hanging meat. it attracts unwanted animals. Soft material acts as insulation helping keep the meat cool. (b) Wrap pieces individually. (c) Ensure all corners of the wrapping are insect proof. DO NOT store food in the shelter. (d) Wrap soft fruits and berries in leaves or moss. Protecting meat from animals and insects.d. (1) Wrapping food. (c) Place meat inside the pack for carrying. (d) Carry shellfish. e. (a) Hang meat in the shade.
Immediate Action Shelter IX-1 . BIOLOGICAL. distance from the source. (a) Seek existing shelter that may be improved (Figure IX-1). and shielding. (3) Avoid detection and capture. Protection. Figure IX-1. a. (1) FIND PROTECTIVE SHELTER IMMEDIATELY! (2) Gather all equipment for survival (time permitting). Nuclear Conditions CAUTION: Radiation protection depends on time of exposure.Chapter IX INDUCED CONDITIONS (NUCLEAR. AND CHEMICAL CONSIDERATIONS) 1.
then enlarge for comfort (Figure IX-2).follows: (b) If no shelter is available. dig a trench or foxhole as •Dig trench deep enough for protection. •Cover with available material. Improvised Shelter IX-2 . Parachute or other suitable material Wind Enough room to work 3 Feet Minimum Figure IX-2.
No Water: Wipe all exposed skin surfaces with clean cloth or uncontaminated soil. •Water in pipes/containers in abandoned buildings. NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS: Fall flat.3 inches Ice 6. Additional thickness added to any amount of thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. Substance: (1) Water. Bad Weather: Shake strongly or beat with branches.8 inches Snow 20. DO NOT smoke! 4-6 3-7 8 DAILY RADIATION TIME TABLE for NO RATE METER 9-12 2-4 hours exposure per day Complete isolation 13 Normal movement. sleep. Allow no more than 30 minutes exposure on 3d day for water procurement.7 inches Cinder Block 5. (6) Foxhole 4 feet deep (remove topsoil (2) Storm/storage cellars within 2 feet radius of foxhole lip). IX-3 . Present minimal profile to direction of blast. wells. keep warm. Cover exposed body parts. SHELTER: Pick. give close attention to fingernails and hairy parts. 5 minutes unsheltered is maximum! (4) Basements. (6) Lie down.3 inches One thickness reduces received radiation dose by 1/2. (a) Water sources (in order of preference): •Springs. and rest. •Snow (6 or more inches below the surface during the fallout). as soon as possible. Brief exposure (30 minutes maximum) Brief exposure (1 hour maximum) Figure IX-3.0 inches 2. or underground sources are safest. Rinse and /or shake wet clothing. Good Weather: Bury contaminated clothing outside of shelter (recover later). Improvise goggles. DO NOT look at fireball! Remain prone until blast effects are over.8 inches 2. DO NOT wring out! PERSONAL HYGIENE: Wash entire body with soap and any water.2 inches Wood (Soft) 8. (3) Culverts. 3 or more feet of earth. Keep handkerchief/cloth over mouth and nose.3 inches 3. b. SHELTER SURVIVAL: Keep contaminated materials out of shelter.(4) Radiation shielding efficiencies (Figure IX-3). Priority: (1) Cave or tunnel covered with (5) Abandoned stone/mud buildings. RADIATION SHIELDING EFFICIENCIES Iron/Steel Brick Concrete Earth . Radiation Shielding Efficiencies (5) Leave contaminated equipment and clothing near shelter for retrieval after radioactive decay. Fallout/dusty conditions--keep entire body covered.
•Before cooking. •Water from below the surface (DO NOT stir up the IX-4 . leaving at least 1/8 inch of meat on the bone. or above ground plants that are not easily peeled or washed. (b) Water preparation (Figures IX-4 and IX-5). •Plants whose edible portions grow underground (for example. etc. water). •Aquatic food sources (use only in extreme emergencies because of high concentration of radiation). fruits. turnips. Wash and remove skin. •Milk from animals. •Filtering through earth removes 99 percent of radioactivity. carrots. wash and wipe containers before use. •Shells of all eggs (contents will be safe to eat). •Cook all meat until very well done. pools. •Avoid animals that appear to be sick or dying. •Skin carefully to avoid contaminating the meat. apples. (c) Avoid. (2) Food. •Smooth skinned vegetables. •Lakes. potatoes. (b) Animal foods.). etc. cut meat away from the bone. (a) Processed foods (canned or packaged) are preferred. (d) Plant foods (in order of preference).•Use a seep well.). •Edible portions growing above ground that can be washed and peeled or skinned (bananas. etc. •Discard all internal organs. ponds. •Purify all water sources. •Streams and rivers (filtered before drinking).
Figure IX-4. Filtration Systems, Filtering Water
Figure IX-5. Filtration Systems, Settling Water
c. Self-aid: (1) General rules: (a) Prevent exposure to contaminants. (b) Use personal hygiene practices and remove body waste from shelter. (c) Rest, avoid fatigue. (d) Drink liquids. (2) Wounds. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Use antibacterial ointment or cleaning solution. (c) Cover with clean dressing. (d) Watch for signs of infection. (3) Burns. (a) Clean affected area. (b) Cover with clean dressing. (4) Radiation sickness (nausea, weakness, fatigue, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of hair, radiation burns). (a) Time is required to overcome. (b) Rest. (c) Drink fluids. (d) Maintain food intake. (e) Prevent additional exposure. 2. Biological Conditions a. Clues which may alert you to a biological attack follow: (1) Enemy aircraft dropping objects or spraying. (2) Breakable containers or unusual bombs, particularly those bursting with little or no blast, and muffled explosions. (3) Smoke or mist of unknown origin. (4) Unusual substances on the ground or vegetation; sick looking plants or crops. b. Protection from biological agents follow: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Bathe as soon as the situation permits. (3) Wash hair and body thoroughly with soap and water. (4) Clean thoroughly under fingernails. (5) Clean teeth, gums, tongue, and roof of mouth frequently.
c. Survival tips for biological conditions follow: (1) Keep your body and living area clean. (2) Stay alert for clues of biological attack. (3) Keep nose, mouth, and skin covered. (4) Keep food and water protected. Bottled or canned foods are safe if sealed. If in doubt, boil food and water for 10 minutes. (5) Construct shelter in a clear area, away from vegetation, with entrance 90 degrees to the prevailing wind. (6) If traveling, travel crosswind or upwind (taking advantage of terrain to stay away from depressions). 3. Chemical Conditions a. Detecting. (1) Smell. Many agents have little or no odor. (2) Sight. Many agents are colorless: (a) Color. Yellow, orange, or red smoke or mist. (b) Liquid. Oily, dark patches on leaves, ground, etc. (c) Gas. Some agents appear as a mist immediately after shell burst. (d) Solid. Most solid state agents have some color. (3) Sound. Muffled explosions are possible indications of chemical agent bombs. (4) Feel. Irritation to the nose, eyes, or skin and/or moisture on the skin are danger signs. (5) Taste. Strange taste in food or water indicates contamination. (6) General indications. Tears, difficult breathing, choking, itching, coughing, dizziness. (7) Wildlife. Presence of sick or dying animals. b. Protection against chemical agents follows: (1) Use protective equipment. (2) Avoid contaminated areas. (a) Exit contaminated area by moving crosswind. (b) Select routes on high ground. (c) Avoid cellars, ditches, trenches, gullies, valleys, etc. (d) Avoid woods, tall grasses, and bushes as they tend to hold chemical agent vapors.
Self-aid in chemically contaminated areas. Burying. IX-8 . (2) If a chemical defense ensemble is not available— (a) Remove or tear away contaminated clothing. foreign odors. •Neutralizing. fabric.(e) Decontaminate body and equipment as soon as possible by— •Removing. •Destroying. handkerchief. etc. Warm water. (b) Rinse contaminated areas with water. (b) Follow antidote directions when needed. (4) DO NOT use plants for food or water in contaminated areas.). dead fish. d. Tips for the survivor: (1) DO NOT use wood from a contaminated area for fire. Pinch-blotting. c. (3) Keep food and water protected. (2) Look for signs of chemical agents around water sources before procurement (oil spots. (c) Improvise a breathing filter using materials available (T-shirt. (1) If a chemical defense ensemble is available— (a) Use all protective equipment. or animals).
Preparation— (1) Know your capabilities and limitations. and cohesiveness promote high morale: (a) Preventing panic. Group dynamics of survival include— (1) Leadership.Appendix A THE WILL TO SURVIVE ARTICLE VI CODE OF CONDUCT I will never forget that I am an American fighting for freedom. hunger. (3) Working as a team. (b) Creating strength and trust in one another. responsible for my actions. (d) Facilitating formulation of group goals. 1. illness. (2) Pledge of Allegiance. environment. isolation). good organization. (c) Identifying signals of distress created by stressors (indecision. (5) Combat psychological stress by— (a) Recognizing and anticipating existing stressors (injury. b. boredom. fatigue. (4) Anticipate fears. (3) Develop a realistic plan. anxiety. (c) Favoring persistency in overcoming failure. forgetfulness. c. carelessness. anger). death. and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. Psychology of Survival a. depression. Strengthen your will to survive with— (1) The Code of Conduct. I will trust in my God and in the United States of America. (5) Thoughts of return to family and friends. (4) Reassuring and encouraging each other. (4) Patriotic songs. and propensity to make mistakes). guilt. A-1 . withdrawal. (3) Faith in America. (2) Taking care of your buddy. (b) Attributing normal reactions to existing stressors (fear. (2) Keep a positive attitude.
Collect your thoughts and emotions. verses. 2. clergy. c. Identify your personal beliefs. Use self-control. (2) Those who have failed you. (4) Pray for each other. A-2 . repeat them to yourself and to your God. or others. Praise God and give thanks because— (1) God is bigger than your circumstances. (5) Try to have worship services. h. j. (3) Hope comes from a belief in heaven and/or an after-life. e. (2) Discuss what is important to you. or hymns. (3) Share scriptures and songs. Meditate. (4) Pray for protection and a positive outcome. l. With other survivors— (1) Identify or appoint a religious lay leader. Forgive— (1) Yourself for what you have done or said that was wrong. (4) Never give up. (1) Talk to your God. (b) Organizing according to individual capabilities. (2) God will see you through (no matter what happens). f. k. and rescue. i. Remember scripture. (2) Love for family and self. (1) Faith and trust in your God. Pray for your God’s help. Worship without aid of written scripture. (3) Ask for God’s help. b. (2) Give thanks that God is with you. strength.(5) Influencing factors are— (a) Enforcing the chain of command. g. wisdom. Trust. Spiritual Considerations a. d. (c) Accepting suggestions and criticism. (3) Never lose hope. Remember past inner sources to help you overcome adversity.
(6) Write down scriptures and songs that you remember. remember— (a) Your God loves you. A-3 . (b) Praise your God. (7) Encourage each other while waiting for rescue.
2. Application The target audience for this publication is any Service member requiring basic survival. validate the information. 3. Implementation Plan Participating Service command offices of primary responsibility (OPRs) will review this publication. and procedures publication is designed to assist Service members in a survival situation regardless of geographic location. Scope This UNCLASSIFIED multiservice tactics. weatherproof. US Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). and recovery information. Purpose This publication provides Service members a quick reference. and curricula as follows: Army. pocket-sized guide on basic survival. regulations. techniques. and recovery information. evasion. Distribution is in accordance with the Department of Army Form 12-99-R. 4.Appendix B Publication Information 1. B-1 . evasion. and reference and incorporate it in Service and command manuals. The Army will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Army training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commander.
The TRADOC-MCCDC-NWDC-AFDC Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center developed this publication with the joint participation of the approving Service commands. responsibilities. will likewise be incorporated in revisions to this document. facilities. Distribution is in accordance with Military Standard Requisitioning and Issue Procedures Desk Guide and Navy Standing Operating Procedures Publication 409. Changes in Service protocol. Distribution is in accordance with Air Force Instructions 33-360. This publication reflects current joint and Service doctrine. US Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC). b. appropriately reflected in joint and Service publications.Marine Corps. c. Navy. ALSA will review and update this publication as necessary. Send comments and recommendation directly to— B-2 . The Navy will incorporate these procedures in US Navy doctrinal and training publications as directed by the commander. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC). Air Force units will validate and incorporate appropriate procedures in accordance with applicable governing directives. and procedures. Key your comments to the specific page and paragraph and provide a rationale for each recommendation. 5. Air Force. Distribution is in accordance with Marine Corps Publication Distribution System. personnel. We encourage recommended changes for improving this publication. The Marine Corps will incorporate the procedures in this publication in US Marine Corps training and doctrinal publications as directed by the commanding general. User Information a. command and control (C2) organizations.
mil Air Force HQ Air Force Doctrine Center ATTN: DJ 216 Sweeney Boulevard Suite 109 Langley AFB VA 23665-2722 DSN 754-8091 COMM (757) 764-8091 E-mail Address: afdc.mil B-3 . VA 23665-2785 DSN 575-0902 COMM (757) 225-0902 E-mail: email@example.com.Army Commander US Army Training and Doctrine Command ATTN: ATDO-A Fort Monroe VA 23651-5000 DSN 680-3153 COMM (757) 727-3153 Marine Corps Commanding General US Marine Corps Combat Development Command ATTN: C42 3300 Russell Road Quantico VA 22134-5001 DSN 278-6234 COMM (703) 784-6234 Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command (Det Norfolk) ATTN: ALSA Liaison Officer 1530 Gilbert Street Norfolk VA 23511-2785 DSN 262-2782 COMM (757) 322-2782 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ALSA ALSA Center ATTN: Director 114 Andrews Street Langley AFB.af.navy.dj@langley.
USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center This publication is available on the Army Doctrinal and Training Digital Library (ADTDL) at http://155.58. . USN Commander Navy Warfare Development Command TIMOTHY A. J.217. E. USMC Commanding General Marine Corps Combat Development Command B. SMITH Rear Admiral.This publication has been prepared under our direction for use by our respective commands and other commands as appropriate. KINNAN Major General. ABRAMS General. USA Commander Training and Doctrine Command J. JOHN N.58. RHODES Lieutenant General.
S. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOEL B.FM 21-76-1 MCRP 3-02H NWP 3-50. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number 110906. USAF Commander Headquarters Air Force Doctrine Center *Supersedes: AFPAM 36-2246. Army National Guard. requirements for FM 21-76-1.26 29 JUNE 1999 By Order of the Secretary of the Army: ERIC K. and U. KINNAN Major General. . HUDSON Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army By Order of the Secretary of the Air Force: TIMOTHY A. SHINSEKI General. 1 March 1996 Air Force Distribution: F DISTRIBUTION: Active Army.3 *AFTTP(I) 3-2.
MARINE CORPS: PCN 14400006800 .
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