UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

SOIL SCIENCE AND IRRIGATION ENGINEERING
COURSE CODE: CEC208

YEAR II- SE MESTER II THEORY
Version 1: December 2008

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WEEK 1.

1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

INTRODUCTION FORMATION OF SOIL CAUSES OF WEATHERING FUNCTIONS OF SOIL IMPORTANCE IN SOIL STUDIES BRANCHES OF SOIL SCIENCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOIL AND ROCK COMPONENTS OF SOIL TYPES OF PORE SPACES

WEEK 2.

2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES SOIL STRUCTURE SOIL CONSISTENCE SOIL CONSISTENCE TERMS SOIL COLOUR FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL COLOUR VOLUME AND MASS RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL

WEEK 3.

3.0

CONTITUENTS 3.1 SOIL WETNESS
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WEEK 4.

4.0

PERMEABILITY

4.1

INFILTRATION 4.2 FACTOR AFFECTING INFILTRATION SOURCES OF IRRIGATION WATER STANDARDS FOR IRRIGATION WATER PROBLEMS OF USING POOR QUALITY

WEEK 5.

5.0 5.1 5.2

IRRIGATION WATER 5.3 QUALITY OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION

WEEK 6. PLANT

6.0 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

INTERRELATION OF SOIL – MOISTURE AND MOVEMENT OF WATER IN SOILS MEASUREMENT OF SOIL MOISTURE CLASSES AND AVAILABLE OF SOIL WATER GRAVITATION WATER CAPILLARY WATER HYGROSCOPIC WATER CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS FUNCTION OF IRRIGATION WATER WATER REQUIREMENTS (WR) OF CROPS
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WEEK 7.

7.0 7.1 7.2

7.3

FIELD WATER BALANCE

7.4 7.5 WEEK 8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7

EFFECTIVE RAINFALL FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE RAINFALL IRRIGATION NECESSITY OF IRRIGATION BENEFITS OR ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION METHOD OF IRRIGATION BORDER IRRIGATION ADVANTAGES OF BORDER METHOD CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION THE COMPONENTS AND CONTROLS OF

CHECCK BASIN 8.8 8.9 ADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN DISADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN

8.10 FURROW IRRIGATION 8.11 COMPONENTS AND ONTROLS OF FURROWS

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5 9. 14.0 FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE CHOICE OF IRRIGATION METHOD WEEK 11.4 9. 11.0 IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES 11. 13.8.1 14. 9. 12.0 REMEDIAL MEASURES 13.0 WATER LOGGING 12.1 WORK EXAMPLES ON IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY WEEK 12.2 DRAINAGE BENEFITS OF DRAINAGE ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DRAIN 5 .6 SPRINKLER IRRIGATION ADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION DISADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLES IRRIGATION DRIP IRRIGATION ADVANTAGE OF DRIP IRRIGATION DISADVANTAGES OF DRIP IRRIGATION WEEK 10. 10.1 9.0 SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION 9.1 DESIGN OF DRAINAGE WEEK 14.0 14.2 9.1 CAUSES OF WATERLOGGING WEEK 13.12 ADVANTAGES OF FURROW IRRIGATION WEEK 9.3 9.

6 WEEK 15.3 CLASSIFICATION OF DRAINS 14.5 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FUNCTION SERVED 14.4 TYPES OF FLOOD CONTROL STRUCTURE FLOOD MITIGATION RESERVOIRS LEVEES AND FLOOD WALLS DISPOSAL METHODS OF DRAINAGE WATER FLOOD THE PROBLEMS OF FLOOD AND THE NEED 6 . 15.0 15.3 15.4 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO ONSTRUCTION 14.2 15.14.1 TO FIND SOLUTION 15.

a process called Erosion spreads the bite about. Rain pours down on rocks.1 FORMATION OF SOIL Most soil begins to form when big rocks break up. water and air formed from the underlying rocks plant and animal material by various physical. 1.Chemical weathering changes the materials that make up rocks. Freezing water makes a powerful force. chemical and Biological processes.2 CAUSES OF WEATHERING Most physical weathering is caused by ice. rivers flow over rocks. strong winds and growing tree roots can also break up rocks. Ice is frost water.0 INTRODUCTION Soils is that thin layer of the earth made up of a mixture of mineral and organic materials. and waves 7 .WEEK ONE 1. and water expands when it freezes. When water seeps into cracks in rocks and freezes. The breaking up of rocks is called weathering. Water causes most chemical Weathering . There are two types of weathering. After weathering breaks up rocks. physical and chemical weathering. it can split the rock apart. 1. Weathering makes pieces of rocks smaller and smaller.

The water takes certain minerals out of rocks. 1.4 IMPORTANCE IN SOIL STUDIES Soil physical properties Soil chemistry and nutrient availability Soil management – Management of irrigation drainage and conservation Soil pesticide interaction Weathering and soil formation Soil classification. 8 . 1. It acts as a store house of water and nutrients for plant growth.3 FUNCTIONS OF SOIL Soil provides anchorage to roots enabling plants to stand erect. Water.pound rocks along beaches. For example. wind and glaciers cause erosion. It provides space for air and aeration which create a healthy environment for the biological activity of soil organisms. Erosion can help break up rocks. It acts as an abode of flora and fauna which suitably transform nutrients for up take by plant roots. Erosion also makes soil. grains of sand form after water takes mineral called feldspar out of granite rock.

Soil genesis and classification (pedology) – deals with weathering of rocks and minerals factors and processes of formation of soils. Soil fertility – deals with the nutrient status or ability of soil to supply nutrients for plant growth under favourable condition. Soil physics – is that branch of soil science which deals with the mechanical behaviours of soil mass. the mapping of kinds of an area and also interpretation of soils according to adaptability to various 9 . e. c. d. g. (primary rock mineral and secondary minerals) present in soil and their contribution to the chemistry.1. Soil biology – deals with ecology the organism and their role in biological transformation in the soil.e. the physical properties of soils as well as the measurement and control of physical processes. b. Soil chemistry – deals with chemical opposition and properties of soil and describe the chemical processes taking place in the soil. their descriptions and classification. Soil survey – I the systematic examination of soil in the field and laboratories. Soil mineralogy – deals with the minerals.5 BRANCHES OF SOIL SCIENCE a. physics and biology and also fertility of soil in relation to the genesis of soil. i. f. and classification of soils in a recognized system.

soils are distributed in regular fashion over the earth’s surface in accord with the variations in climate. 1.6 DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOIL AND ROCK Although soils are mainly formed from rocks. The solid material fall into two main categories. soil are made up mostly of secondary minerals which are formed from the products of the weathering of primary rock minerals Unlike rocks. plants and their productivity under different management systems. plant roots and tiny plants and animals called micro-organisms. Solid materials and pore spaces. soils contain active organic matter in the form of humus. 1. the macro pores or large open space which are 10 . Unlike rocks. they differ from rocks in three main ways.7 COMPONENTS OF SOIL The soil body may be thought of as consisting of two main components. Soil technology – is an applied science and deal with the principles and practices of soil erosion and conservation and management of problem soil.h. that is mineral matter and organic matter. Unlike rocks. 1. i.8 TYPES OF PORE SPACES There are two types of pore space. rocks. vegetation and relief.

Thus the soil is made up of four main constituents (a) Mineral matter (b) Organic matter (c) Water and (d) Air K-soil phase Organic matter Mineral matter pore space Water The mineral matter consists of all solid in organic material in the soil and they include:- (i) Rock fragments which are un decomposed reminants of the original rock material from which the soil is formed. Sand Silt Clay These are differentiated on the basis of the sizes of the particles. 11 Air . ii. iv. iii.normally occupied by air and the micro pore or small spaces which normally contain water.

The soil texture:. Texture is designated by using the names of predominant size fraction and the word “loam” when ever all three major size fractions occur in sizable proportions.WEEK TWO 2. or the soil’s texture. Textured and day soils are fine textured. The pore space and filled with water and air. are loose and non cohesive. to gravel. The particles are arranged in a matrix that results in about 50% pore space. Texture is therefore the relative proportions of sand. A silty clay loam is similar to silty cl ay except that it contains sand in a sizable proportion sandy. to silt. and has a low water holding 12 . Thus the term “siltyclay describes a soil in which the day characteristics are outstanding and which also contains a substantial quantity of silt. and to very small day particles. soils are composed of mineral and organic particle of varying sizes.0 SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physically. porosity. The physical properties include: . to sand. density.texture. silt and clay in soil. The particle size distribution determines the soils coarseness or fineness. Soils are classified as coarse – textured.The physical and chemical weathering of rocks and minerals results in a wide range in size of particles from stones. The least complex textured group is sand which contains less than 15% silt and day sandy soils are relatively inert chemically. color etc. structure. loam soils are medium. consistence.

Example. The kind of day minerals present and kinds of iron associated with them. Similarly. The textural properties may be modified appreciably by organic matter content. colloid all effect of organic additions to coarse textured sandy soil give it some of the moisture and cation retention characteristic of a fine – textured soil. day and silt. Soil therefore can be describe by the following 13 . aggregation effects of organic matter tend to give a fine textured soil high in days some of the pore space properties of a coarser – textured soil.capacity. The figure below shows the textured triangle of the limited of sand. The textural classification has only on approximate relation ship to the behavior of a soil as a medium for plant growth.

Percentage silt Percentage clay Clay Silty Clay Sandy loam Clay loam Sandy clay loam Sandy Loam Loam Silt Loam Silty Clay Loam Silt 100% Silt 20 10 100% Sand Sand Loam sand 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 Percentage sand Problem: . day and silt when the 40 second and 8 hour by diameter reading are 30 and 12 respectively assume a 50 gram oil sample is used.calculate the percentage of sand. Sample weight – 40 second reading x 100 = % sand Sample weight 50g – 30g x 100 = 40% sand 50g 14 .

where as structure is used in reference to arrangement of the oil particles. 2. and silt and day particles are typically arranged into secondary particles called peds or aggregate. 2. the size and shape of the structural units and the proportion of the soil particles involved in the unit differ considerably among soils. and day particles. The structure modifies the influence of texture with regard to water and air relationships and the ease of root penetration.1 SOIL STRUCTURE Texture is used in reference to the size of soil particle. The macroscopic size of most peds results in the existence of interped pace that much larger than the spaces existing between adjacent sand. It is determined by 15 .8hr reading x 100 = % day Sample weight 12g x 100 = 24% day 50g 100 – (40 + 24%) = 36% silt. The shape and size of the peds determine the soil structure.2 SOIL CONSISTENCE Consistence is the resistance of the soil to deformation or rupture. silt. However. Grouping of particles into structural units occurs in all soils. the strength of the bond.

moist. friable. and dry. non plastic. A given soil may be sticky when wet. consistence deals with the strength and nature of the forces consistence is important for tillage and traffic considerations. hard Wet soil – non sticky .loose. and hard when dry. Two additional consistence terms for special situations are cemented and indurated. plastic Plastic soil is capable of being molded or deformed continuously and permanently. 2.4 SOIL COLOUR Colour is about the most obvious and easily determined soil property. 4. soft. 3. by relatively moderate pressure. 2. firm when moist. size and distinctiveness of natural soil aggregate. sticky.3 SOIL CONSISTENCE TERMS Consistence is described for three moisture levels wet. A partial list of term used to describe consistence include:1. into various shapes when wet. Friable soils readily break apart and are not sticky when moist.the cohesive and adhesive properties of the entire soil mass. 5. Moist soil. Soil colour is 16 . 2. firm Dry soil – Loose. Where as structure deals with the shape.

In the notation. elevation. Thus colour is used with other characteristics to make many important references regarding soil formation and land use.important because it is an indirect measure of other important characteristics such as water drainage. and distribution in the soil profile. value and chroma. 17 . Organic Matter. 10 year before.5 FACTORS AFFECTING SOIL COLOUR 1.refers to the relative purity of the dominant wave length of the light. Iron compounds. value and chroma. This colour system enables a person to communicate accurately the colour of a soil to any one in the world. 2. each having colour chip arranged systematically according to their hue. Value refers to the quantity of light and it increases from dark to light colours.The major colouring agents of most horizons are non compounds in various states of oxidation and hydration. 10 year the hue. Hue refers to wave length or colour of the light. depending on its nature. The books consist of pages. and the organic matter content. The three variables that combine to give colours. The three properties are always given in the order of hue. The soil colours are determined by matching the colour of a soil sample with colour chip in a munsells oil colour Brok. This colour is lightyellowish brown. 6 is the value and 4 is the chroma. Chroma. amount. 2.is a major clouring agent that affect soil colour.

Dry bulk density ρb is the ratio of the mass of dried particles to the total volume of solid (including particles and pores). Density of solids of soil is the ratio of mass of solid to it volume. Volume relative Mass relative Ma= Mass of air (negligible) Mw=Mass of water Ms=Mass of solid Mt=Total mass(Ma+Mw+Ms) Va=Volume of air Vw=volume of water Vs=Volume of solids Vf=Volume of pores Vt=Total volume (Vf+Vs) 4 va ma vw Air ma Vt mw m mw Water ms Solids mt vs ms The diagram above shows the presence of the three phases in relative proportion both in masses and volume. ρs =Ms Vsρw. The diagram below show the volume and mass relationships of the three soil phases. Soil density is the mass per unit volume of the soil particles. The ratio of mass of solid to its volume in which ρw= density of water @ 40c.0 VOLUME AND MASS RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL CONTITUENTS The constituent of the oil are the solids.WEEK THREE 3. 18 . liquids (water) and air.

Embankment etc. The term is commonly used in engineering works relating to the compaction of foundation.ρb = Mt Vt = Ms Vs + Vw + Va Total (wet) bulk density I the mass of moist soil per unit volume ρt = Mt Vt = M + Mw Vs + Vw + Va Porosity – is the ratio of the volume of pores (voids) to the total oil volume. n = Vf Vt = Va + Vw V a + Va + Vw Porosity is an index of the relative volume of pores. ρb = ρs (1 – n) 100 19 . The more finely divided are the individual soil particle. Void ratio. Total volume changes with volume change of voids. In the case of void ratio. where as in case of porosity the volume of pores may change without change in the volume of solids. It is influenced by the textural and structural characteristic of the oil. e = Vf = Vf Va + Vw Vs This index has certain advantages over porosity. The following relationships exit between porosity and volume ratio to apparent and true specific gravity.The quantity expressing the ratio of the volume of pores to the volume of solid is term the as void ratio or relative porosity. the greater is the porosity.

Calculate the total soil porosity. which is the ratio of the weight of water in the sample to weight of solids. Degree of saturation = Vw Vf = Vw V a + Vw. Weight of oven dry soil = 500m3 x 1. present in the total pore volume.1g/ cm3. Moisture content = m = Ww Ws Volume of wetness.Where ρs = ρb (1 + e) 3. Question 1:. The soil core is placed in a pan of water and becomes water saturated.is the relative water content of soil expressed on volume basis of water and soil volume of wetness in the ratio of the volume of water to the volume of total soil. The oven dry soil and water at saturation weight 825 grams.1 SOIL WETNESS Moisture content – Degree of saturation should not be confused with moisture content.1g/cm3 = 550g Weight of water in saturated core = 825 – 550g = 275g 20 20 . Vwt = Vw = Vt Vw Vs + Vf Degree of saturation: – refers to the volume of water..A 500 m3 oven dry core has a bulk density of 1.

4 = 27.008m3 21 .6kg had a volume of 0. Bulk density.2 = 0.5%.0183 (b) Dry density αd = Ws = 27.65x1000 VV = V-Vs = 0. The specific gravity of the solids was found to be 2.65.4 Moisture content = 3. Solution: .275m3 pore space x 100 = 55% 500m3 soil volume Questions 2: A sample of soil weighing 30. Determine the dry density. The Saturated density and the percentage of air voids.0183 = = 1672kg/m3 1486kg/m3 (c) Percentage of moisture content = Ww Ws But weight of water in sample = 30.0183m3. (d) Density of particles = αs = Ws Vs Vs = Ws = GsVw = GsVw 27.0103m3 2.6 – 27.2 = 3. when dried out in an oven its weight was reduced to 27.2kg.0183 – 0.2 0.0103 = 0.(a) Bulk density(α) = w = 30. percentage of moisture cont.2 V 0.6 V 0.125 Or percentage moisture content = 12.

32 102.64 OF The bulk density of the soil in the root zones was 1.95 115.008 x 1000 0.95 75-100 110.If soil is saturated then voids will be all water Saturated density = Ws + Vv αw V = 27.8/m depth.92 SOIL OVEN DRY wt SOILS 5M gm 126.50gm/c.82 127. The available moisture holding capacity of the oil was 17. (ii) Moisture content in the root zone at the time of irrigation. 22 .2 + 0.28 50-75 122.2 ASSIGNMENT The following data were obtained in determining the soil moisture content at successive depth in the root zone prior to applying irrigation water.0083 = 1923kg/m3 3. Determine (i) The moisture content at the different depth in the root zone. DEPTH OF SAMPLING Wt OF MOIT cm SAMPLES gm 0-25 134. (iv) Gross irrigation requirement at an estimated field irrigation Efficiency of 70%. (iii) Net depth of water to be applied to bring the moisture content to Field capacity.60 25-50 136.

liquids (water) and air. Volume relative Mass relative Ma= Mass of air (negligible) Mw=Mass of water Ms=Mass of solid Mt=Total mass(Ma+Mw+Ms) Va=Volume of air Vw=volume of water Vs=Volume of solids Vf=Volume of pores Vt=Total volume (Vf+Vs) 4 va ma vw Air ma Vt mw m mw Water ms Solids mt vs ms The diagram above shows the presence of the three phases in relative proportion both in masses and volume. The diagram below show the volume and mass relationships of the three soil phases.0 VOLUME AND MASS RELATIONSHIP OF SOIL CONTITUENTS The constituent of the oil are the solids. The ratio of mass of solid to its volume in which ρw= density of water @ 40c. Soil density is the mass per unit volume of the soil particles. ρb = Mt Vt = Ms Vs + Vw + Va 23 .WEEK THREE 3. ρs =Ms Vsρw. Density of solids of soil is the ratio of mass of solid to it volume. Dry bulk density ρb is the ratio of the mass of dried particles to the total volume of solid (including particles and pores).

Total (wet) bulk density I the mass of moist soil per unit volume ρt = Mt Vt = M + Mw Vs + Vw + Va Porosity – is the ratio of the volume of pores (voids) to the total oil volume. The term is commonly used in engineering works relating to the compaction of foundation. ρb = ρs (1 – n) 100 Where ρs = ρb (1 + e) 3. The more finely divided are the individual soil particle. where as in case of porosity the volume of pores may change without change in the volume of solids.The quantity expressing the ratio of the volume of pores to the volume of solid is term the as void ratio or relative porosity. The following relationships exit between porosity and volume ratio to apparent and true specific gravity. e = Vf = Vf Va + Vw Vs This index has certain advantages over porosity.1 SOIL WETNESS Moisture content – Degree of saturation should not be confused with moisture 24 . In the case of void ratio. Total volume changes with volume change of voids. Embankment etc. Void ratio. It is influenced by the textural and structural characteristic of the oil. n = Vf Vt = Va + Vw V a + Va + Vw Porosity is an index of the relative volume of pores. the greater is the porosity.

Weight of oven dry soil = 500m3 x 1. Degree of saturation = Vw Vf = Vw V a + Vw. The oven dry soil and water at saturation weight 825 grams. when 25 .content. Moisture content = m = Ww Ws Volume of wetness.0183m3. present in the total pore volume.1g/cm3 = 550g Weight of water in saturated core = 825 – 550g = 275g 275m3 pore space x 100 = 55% 500m3 soil volume Questions 2: A sample of soil weighing 30.. Calculate the total soil porosity.6kg had a volume of 0.1g/ cm3. Question 1:. The soil core is placed in a pan of water and becomes water saturated. Vwt = Vw = Vt Vw Vs + Vf Degree of saturation: – refers to the volume of water.A 500 m3 oven dry core has a bulk density of 1. which is the ratio of the weight of water in the sample to weight of solids.is the relative water content of soil expressed on volume basis of water and soil volume of wetness in the ratio of the volume of water to the volume of total soil.

5%.125 Or percentage moisture content = 12.0183 (b) Dry density αd = Ws = 27.2 = 3. (d) Density of particles = αs = Ws Vs Vs = Ws = GsVw = GsVw 27.2kg.6 V 0.65.(a) Bulk density(α) = w = 30. Solution: .2 0.6 – 27.65x1000 VV = V-Vs = 0. The Saturated density and the percentage of air voids.008m3 If soil is saturated then voids will be all water Saturated density = Ws + Vv αw V 26 . Determine the dry density.0183 = = 1672kg/m3 1486kg/m3 (c) Percentage of moisture content = Ww Ws But weight of water in sample = 30.0183 – 0.dried out in an oven its weight was reduced to 27. The specific gravity of the solids was found to be 2.2 V 0.2 = 0.4 = 27. percentage of moisture cont.4 Moisture content = 3.0103 = 0.0103m3 2. Bulk density.

92 SOIL OVEN DRY wt SOILS 5M gm 126. (ii) Moisture content in the root zone at the time of irrigation. Determine (i) The moisture content at the different depth in the root zone.95 75-100 110.28 50-75 122. 27 .= 27.95 115.2 + 0.60 25-50 136.82 127.2 ASSIGNMENT The following data were obtained in determining the soil moisture content at successive depth in the root zone prior to applying irrigation water. The available moisture holding capacity of the oil was 17.50gm/c.008 x 1000 0. (iv) Gross irrigation requirement at an estimated field irrigation Efficiency of 70%. (iii) Net depth of water to be applied to bring the moisture content to Field capacity. DEPTH OF SAMPLING Wt OF MOIT cm SAMPLES gm 0-25 134.64 OF The bulk density of the soil in the root zones was 1.0083 = 1923kg/m3 3.32 102.8/m depth.

canal. ions of some other elements such as lithium. However.0 SOURCES OF IRRIGATION WATER Most of sources of irrigation water are from surface water or ground water which can either be river. 28 . vi. Tank. v. sodium and sometimes potassium as cat ions and chloride. iv. silicon. bromide. soleplates. Rainfall Atmospheric water other than rainfall Flood water Ground water Snow Waste water The main soluble constituents in water are calcium. copper. The main source of irrigation water includes:i. nickel etc. iodine.WEEK FIVE 5. bicarbonate and sometimes carbonate as anions. open well or tube water well. ii. magnesium. iii. All the sources of water contain some soluble salt which always dissolved in them. and organic matters are present in minor quantities. These elements usually do not affect the quality of irrigation water as far as the total salt concentration is concerned.

the crop has difficulty in extracting enough water from the salty soil solution. i.1 STANDARDS FOR IRRIGATION WATER Irrigation water maybe said to be unsatisfactory for its intended use if it contain:Chemicals toxic to plants or the person using plant as food Chemicals which react with the soil to produce unsatisfactory moisture characteristics. 5. Permeability:.A salinity problem related to water quality occurs if the total quantity of salts in the irrigation water is high enough for the salts to accumulate in the crop root zone to the extent that fields are affected.2 PROBLEMS OF USING POOR QUALITY IRRIGATION WATER The following are the most common problems that result from using poor quality irrigation water. The poor soil permeability makes it more difficult to supply the crop with water and may greatly add to cropping difficulties through crushing of seed beds. water 29 .5.A permeability problem related water quality occur when the rate of water infiltration into and through the soil is reduced by the effect of specific salts or lack of salts in the water to such an extent that the crop is not adequately supplied with water and yield is reduced. ii. Salinity: . Bacteria injurious to persons or animal eating plant irrigated with the water. If excessive quantities of soluble salts accumulate in the root zone.

Toxicity: . chloride and sodium. embraces its combined physical. iv. The quality of water for irrigation is as important as nature of soil. salinity. iii.3 QUALITY OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION The term quality as applied to water. if water applied for irrigation is not of suitability quality soil deteriorate and crop yield decreases the suitability of water for irrigating a particular crop grown on a particular soil require consideration of 30 . chemical and biological characteristics.A toxicity problem occurs when certain constituent in the water are taken up by the crop and accumulate in amounts that result in reduced yield.Various other problem related to irrigation water quality occur with sufficient frequency and should be spastically this include excessive vegetative growth. white deposited on fruit or leaves due to sprinkle irrigation with high bicarbonate and abnormalities by an usual pH of the irrigation water. Miscellaneous:. weed. boron. oxygen and nutritional problems. logging of surface soil and accompanying disease. conversely. lodging and delayed crop maturity resulting from excessive nitrogen in the water quality. Good quality water improves the soil because of it calcium content. This is usually related to one or more specific ions in water.iii. namely. 5.

Based on the source of the irrigation water the chemical and salts content it can be classified as follows:1. Quality of the surface water for irrigation. However.5 0. Water in streams in humid areas is generally suitable for irrigation. iii.i. polluted with industrial waste rendering it unsuitable for irrigation. 1. canals. ground water. iv. Total Concentration of Solids- 31 . reservoirs. 0 – 192 192-480 Over 480 0142 142355 Over 355 0-0. Its pH Texture of soil and salts present in it.0 Over 2 Good to injurious Unfit. Irrigation water is generally obtained from rivers. Sensitivity of crop and drainage conditions of soil. Reservoirs yield better quality water than rivers because of beneficial effects of impoundment. Sodium and calcium salt dissolved in it ii. Class of total dissolved water Electrical salts (mg/L) conductivity Micro ohms/cm I 0-700 0 – 1000 II III 700 – 2000 Over 2000 1000-3000 Over 3000 Na2 S04 Cl Boron Suitability excellent to good. water quality characteristic depends on the source and storage. Streams in industrial locations are. and tanks. however.5-2.

type of ions present and concentration of various ions. It is a function of temperature. S/no 1. as under. magnesium. 3 4 Class Low Medium High Very high Range of electrical conductivity (EC) Below 1500 1500-3000 3000-6000 Above 6000 2. 2. Irrigation water within the zone of good or moderate is okay. 32 .Total dissolved solids in water are related to the specific conductance. The classification of irrigation water based on electrical conductivity is shown below: Type of water Classification Fresh water Low saline (G) Excellent Electrical conductance micro ohms/c at 25oc 0-100 100-250 Suitability for irrigation excellent to good Excellent to good All ropes and all soils except extremely low permeable soils. Salts of calcium. Electrical ConductivityElectrical conductance is the ability of water solutions to conduct an electric current and is measured is ohms. Is: 11624 – 1986 has specified classification on the basis of hazardous effects of total salt concentration into four groups. sodium and potassium present in irrigation water may prove detrimental to crops.

physical and biological characteristics. drainage is required. temperature. The irrigation water with PH value more than 8. Chemical analysis required determination of the concentrations of in organics constituents. Quality of ground water varies from place to place. Bad water for irrigation Unsuitable. taste. Bacterial analysis is done to determine the presence of coli form organisms. Quality of Ground water for Irrigation Suitability of ground water for irrigation depends upon the effect of mineral constituents of water on both plants and soils as also on the piping system of the tube well. Physical analysis requires determination of the colour.5 will cause sodium hazard. turbidity etc. odour. 3. There are several other standards of salts contents that have to be analysis and compare before selecting the required quality of irrigation water such as the sodium. 33 .Medium saline© Good 250-750 Saline (c3) Permissible 750-2000 Highly saline (c4) Doubtful 2000-3000 Over 3000 Very highly saline Unsuitable c5 Normal salt tolerant plants with moderate leaching Only high salt tolerant plants. from stratum to stratum and fro season to season. measurement of pH and specific electrical conductance. Boron etc. The suitability of ground water for irrigation is determined on the basis of chemical.

Percolation. In the films of surrounding soil particles (under unsaturated conditions. Water also diffuses as vapour through air-filled pore spaces along gradients of decreasing vapour pressure. Water in the liquid phase flows through the soil filled pore space under the influence of gravity.0 INTERRELATION OF SOIL – MOISTURE AND PLANT MOVEMENT OF WATER IN SOILS The movement of water in the soil controls not only the rate of infiltration but also the supply of moisture to plants roots and the rate of underground flow to springs and streams and recharge of ground water. the movement is along gradients of decreasing water potential. Water Intake The movement of irrigation water from the soil surface into and through the soil. In dealing with the movement of the water into the soils. the following terminologies are very important to be considered. Percolation is 34 .is the down ward movement of water through saturated or nearly saturated soil in response to the force of gravity. It is the expression of several factors including infiltration and percolation. 1. it moves under the influence of surface tension forces).WEEK SIX 6. In all cases.

Seepage – is the infiltration (vertically) down ward and lateral movement of water into soil or sub strata from a source of supply such as a reservoir or irrigation. 35 .Fc) e –ktConstant time. fo Infiltration rate mm/ hr f fc t Fo Fc Fo F K t = = = = = = Initial infiltration Infiltration capacity Time Depends on soil moisture content f + (Fo .synonymous with infiltration rate with the qualitative provision of saturated or nearly conditions. The water intake differs from the soil type and different soils absorb water at different rates. The soil intake is Ana logging to infiltration.

Measurement of changes in soil moisture storage with time is important in estimating evapo-transpiration. 6. The 36 . Seepage rate depends on the wetted perimeter of the reservoir or the canal and the capacity of the soil to conduct water both vertically and horizontally.Such water may reappear at the surface as wet spots or seeps or may percolate to join ground water or may join the sub surface flow to springs or streams.1 MEASUREMENT OF SOIL MOISTURE The importance of the moisture content in the soil in relation to plant growth has resulted in the development of many methods for measuring soil moisture. By the amount of water in a given amount of soil The stress of tension under which the water is held by the soil. Soil moisture measurements are important in the suitable scheduling of irrigation and estimating the amount of water to apply in each irrigation. The principal methods of expressing soil moisture are:a. There are many experimental situations where careful measurement and investigations on soil-plant water relationship are to be interpreted properly. b.

relationship between these two properties through out the entire moisture range gives a good deal of insight into the physical properties of a soil. = wt moist sample – wt of dry sample x 100 Wt of dry sample.This is the maximum moisture content of the soil at which roots of plants can no longer extract water from the soil and the plant “wilts” and may die if water is not added to the soil. Wilting point. Soil moisture on Soil moisture. available to plants. Expressing the amount of soil moisture. Expression of moisture content as a percentage of dry weight may not indicate the amount of water. Field capacity: This is the moisture content of an initially saturated soil after all the gravitational water has drain out.c. 37 . the amount of moisture that is held by a certain mass or volume of soil can be expressed as weight % or volume %. unless the moisture characteristics curve or field capacity and permanent wilting point are known. It is regarded as the storage capacity of the soil for irrigation purposes. weight basis is based on the dry weight of the sample. % by weight = wt of moist sample– wt of oven dry sample Wt of oven dry sample.

6.Available water = (Fc – wp) % . and it is also referred to as readily available moisture. because some moisture is not available to the plant. inflow fc AW WP Overflow Out flow Fc Wp Aw = = = field capacity wilting point Available water.2 CLASSES AND AVAILABLE OF SOIL WATER Water present in the soil may be classified under three heads.soil moisture between field capacity and permanent wilting point. Hygroscopic water Capillary water Gravitational water 38 . It is the moisture available for plant use.

The upper limit of gravitational water is when the soil is saturated. the amount of water held at saturation in one metre depth of this soil is 500mm. ii. Because of the relatively rapid disappearance of this drainable water. This process takes less than one day for coarse sandy and three to four days for a heavy clay soil. The saturation capacity is then equal to the porosity of the soil which may be expressed as P = 100(s-v) S Where P = Porosity % S = density of the soil grains (gm/cc) V = bulk density of the dry soil Mass (gm/cc) If the porosity of the soil is 50% by volume.i GRAVITATION WATER This occupies the larger pores of the soil and drains away under the influence of gravity. it is not normally included in the amount available to plants. Gravitational water drains from the root zone unless prevented by a barrier such as head – pan or a high water table. when the pores are completely filled with water. but some allowance in the calculation of an irrigation cycle should be allowed for the time taken for the soil to drain to the gravity limit. that is. The upper limit is when all the gravitational water has drained away: Soil in this 39 . In other words. CAPILLARY WATER Capillary water is that held by surface tension in the pores between the particles. then the saturated capacity can be expressed as 500mm of water per meter of soil.

and is held so firmly that it is unavailable to the plant except perhaps in extreme cases of drought. Gravitational water Capillary water Wilting coefficient Hygroscopic water. The figure below shows the schematic of classes of soil water. which is normally taken as the upper limit to the water available to the plant. 40 .state is said to be at field capacity. iii HYGROSCOPIC WATER This water is held as a very thin film round the soil particle.

The pattern of crop water use. Irrigation water. Knowledge of the rate of water use by crops and the water retention characteristic of soils is fundamental in the design of the water supply system and scheduling of the irrigation scheme. Water cools the soil and the atmosphere.0 7.1 CROP WATER REQUIREMENTS FUNCTION OF IRRIGATION WATER It acts as a solvent for the nutrients. It reduces the hazard of soil piping It softens the tillage pans. the next step is the determination of water requirement.2 WATER REQUIREMENTS (WR) OF CROPS Having established the suitability of an area for irrigation. Irrigation water supplies moisture which is essential for the chemical action within the plant leading to its growth.WEEK SEVEN 7. washes out or dilutes salts in the soil. Water forms the solution of the nutrients and this solution is absorbed by the roots. Some salts present in soil react to produce nourishing food products only in the presence of water. and thus makes more favourable environment for healthy plant growth. The irrigation water supplies moisture which is essential for the life of bacteria beneficial to the plant growth. with controlled supplies. 7. allowing 41 .

Water requirement includes the losses due to evapo-transpiration (ET) or consumptive use (CU) plus the losses during the application of irrigation of water (un avoidable losses) and quantity of water required for special operations such as land preparation. the losses associated with the delivery and application of the water. determines the canal. it may thus be formulated as follows: WR = ET or CU + application losses + special needs. Numerically. water requirement of a crop is given as WR = IR + ER +S. Water requirement is therefore a “demand” and the “supply” would consist of contributions from any of the sources of water. therefore refers to the water requirement of crops. The best source of information on over all water requirements is often the experience of a good irrigators operating under conditions similar to those of the project area. effective Rainfall (ER) and soil profile contributions (S) including that shallow water tables. therefore. The field irrigation requirement of a crop. pipeline. storage and pumping capacities of the system. and is given as IR = WR – (ER + s) 42 . leaching etc. transplanting. exclusive of effective rainfall and contribution from soil profile.for rainfall and operational losses. Such information must be selected with care since it is a common practice to use excessive amounts of water if abundant supply is available. The total water requirement consists of the water needed by the crop. the major source being the irrigation water (IR).

R is run off from the field. 7. 7. Ds the change in soil water content of the root zone and Dv the charge in plant water content. Accordingly the water balance equation may be stated as follows: Gains – Losses = change in Storage P + . losses and changes of storage of water occurring in a given field with in specified boundaries during a specified period of time.The farm irrigation requirement depends on the irrigation need of individual crops their area and the losses in the farm water distribution systems.(R + D + E + T) = DS +DV Where p is precipitation. The task of monitoring and controlling the field water balance is vital to the efficient management of water and soil.4 EFFECTIVE RAINFALL In the simplest sense. The useful portion of rainfall is stored and supplied to the user. E evaporation from the soil. effective rain fall means useful or utilizable rainfall. T transpiration by the crop canopy. mainly by the seepage. D is down ward drainage out of the root zone. An agriculturalist considers effective rainfall as that 43 . Knowledge of the water balance is necessary to evaluate the possible methods to minimize loss and maximize gain and utilization of water which is so often the limiting factor in crop production. I is irrigation. Rainfall is not necessarily useful or desirable at time rate or amount in which it is received.3 FIELD WATER BALANCE The water balance of a field is an itemed statement of all gains. the unwanted parts need to be conveyed or removed speedily.

Hence greater quantities as well as intensities of rain fall normally reduce the effective fraction. 44 .Rain Fall Characteristic: – a soil has a definite and limited infiltration and moisture holding capacity. The effective rain fall is directly proportional to the rate of water up take by the plant. rooting depth and stage of growth. Characteristics of the Soil: .The slope of the land has profound influence on the time available for the rain water to infiltrate into soil. Crop Characteristics: .portion of the total rainfall which directly satisfies crop water needs and also the surface run off which can be used for crop production on their farms by being pumped from ponds or wells. information.Crops with high water consumption create greater deficit of moisture in soil. increasing run off and lessening infiltration. Management Practices.The soil properties influencing infiltration..5 FACTORS INFLUENCING EFFECTIVE RAINFALL There are so any factors influencing the proportion of the effective rain fall but only very few will be mentioned here. Crop characteristics influencing the rate of water up take are the degree of ground cover.Any management practice which influences run off. 7. and moisture retention release and movement influence the degree of effective rainfall. Land Slope: . hydraulic conductivity or evaporation separation also influences the degree of effective rainfall.

canals and head works.By the construction of proper distribution system. 8.The rain fall in particular area may be sufficient to raise the usual crops.1 NECESSITY OF IRRIGATION Less Rainfall: .When the total rainfall is less than needed for crop. artificial supply is necessary. Commercial Crops with Additional Water:.0 IRRIGATION Irrigation may be defined as the artificially supplying water to soil for raising crops. but more water may be necessary for raising commercial and cash crops. 45 . It is the engineering of controlling and harnessing the various natural sources of water. During the early stage rain may be more. and finally distributing the water to the agricultural fields. Non – Uniform: . the yield of the crop maybe increased. and generation of hydro electric power. Irrigation engineering includes the study and design of works in connection with river control. Controlled Water Supply: . by the construction of dams and reservoirs. drainage of water logged areas. In this case irrigation work can be constructed at a place where over water is available and convey to less disadvantage area.The rainfall in a particular area may not be uniform one the crop period.WEEK EIGHT 8. but no water may be available at the end.

etc. and after the construction of such works. tobacco cotton.2 BENEFITS OR ADVANTAGES OF IRRIGATION Increase in food production Protection from famine. 46 . .Irrigation makes it possible to grow cash crops such as sugar cane. the value of land is increased. Domestic and industrial water supply: – They can be use for domestic and for industries that need water for their functions. employment is carried to the people and this relief famine. continuous water supply is maintained during drought. Cultivation of cash crops: . the growing of cash crops makes the formers to prosper and the living standard also improved. Generation of Hydro Electric Power.majesty of large river valley projects are usually planned to provide hydro – electric power together with irrigation. The increase in the yield of the crop. Addition to the wealth of the country: . .The water tax obtained from farmer. Also. falls on the irrigation channels can be vitalized to generate electricity which may help in industrializing the viral area.During the contraction of the irrigation works.8.Due to irrigation facility. the bumper crops produced due to irrigation makes country self – sufficient in food requirements and this serves the foreign exchange and therefore increases revenue. Increase in property of people: .

water may be distributed to the crops in border strips check basin or furrow. Two general requirements of prime importance to obtain high efficiency in surface methods of irrigation are properly constructed water 47 . schools. hospitable and other facilities are provided.Due to constant percolation and seepage of water. the ground water table is raised in the area where irrigation facilities are prevalent. General development of the country: – Due to the increased yield and value of the crop. Due to the living standards. The common methods of irrigation are indicated below.Inland navigation: – It can be use a means of transporting the people and agricultural products. 8. . Irrigation methods Surface sprinkles sub surface Drip Border check basin Furrow Rotating head perforated pipe In the surface methods of irrigation. water is applied directly to the soil surface from a channel located at the upper reach of the field. by applying it is not the soil surface. means of communication such as wad – ways. by spraying it under pressure or by applying it in crops. Improvement in the Ground water storage.3 METHOD OF IRRIGATION Irrigation water may be applied to crops by flooding it on the field surface. rail ways and post and telegraph facilities are introduced. of the people.

This method is especially suited to forage crops. This. ii. its advantage being that for a relatively low investment a system can be developed which can afford the highest irrigation efficiency and lowest labour requirement. The length of border strip depends upon how quickly it can be wetted over its entire length. water is turned from the supply ditch on to the head of the border. however. Infiltration rate of the soil Longitudinal slope of the land Size of irrigation stream available The following lengths are suggested for moderate conditions Types of soil i. 8. the farm is divided into a series of strips 10 to 20 meters wide and 100 to 300 meters long. depends upon: i. These strips are separated by low levees or border (low flat dillies) and run down the predominant or any other desired slope. The surface is essentially level between two borders so that the advancing sheet of water over the entire width of the strip. large area and be irrigated within a short time by border strip method.distribution systems to provide adequate control of water to the fields and proper land preparations to permit uniform distribution of water over the field. Water advances – confined and guided by two borders in a thin sheet towards the lower end of the strip. iii. Sandy soil or sandy loam Medium silt loam Length of border strip 60 to 90m 90 to 150m 48 . The length wise slope varies from 0.4 BORDER IRRIGATION In the border strip flooding method.5 to 1.5%. To irrigate. ii. With highly mechanized farming.

iii. Under-ground concrete pipes through risers: In this method. b. SUPPLY DITCH CONCRETE RISER PIPES 300m 8. 49 . The first 6 to 12m length of the strip should be made level to ensure uniform spreading of water. The figure below shows the border strip method. Earth or concrete ditches (canals): These run at a flat longitudinal grade. Water is diverted to the border strips from the following a. water is let into the trips by concrete risers. Clay loam or clay soil 150 to 300m. The water is discharge into the trip via border gates.5 ADVANTAGES OF BORDER METHOD Border ridges can be constructed economically with simple farm implements like a bullock-drawn Labour requirement in irrigation is greatly reduced as compared to the conventional check basin method. aluminum siphon or plastic piping.

6 CHECK BASIN IRRIGATION This is the simplest in principle of all methods of irrigation. Levelled Flot Check or levee BASIN Figure showing Check basin. Large irrigation streams is properly efficiently used Operation of the system is simple and easy Adequate surface drainage is provided if out lets are available.Uniform distribution and high water application efficiencies are possible if the system is properly designed. There are many variations in its use. but all involve dividing the field into smaller unit areas so that each has a nearly level surface as shown in the figure. 50 . 8.

The size of the ridge will depend on the depth of water to be impounded as well as on the stability of the oil when wet. 8.Bunds or ridges are constructed around the areas forming basins within which the irrigation water can be controlled. Water is conveyed to the field by channel supply. The ridges or bunds may be temporary for a single irrigation as in the pre-sowing irrigation of seasonal crops or semipermanent for repeated use as in the case of paddy fields. 51 .7 THE COMPONENTS AND CONTROLS OF CHECCK BASIN The distinguishing feature of the various uses of the check basin method of irrigation involve the size and shape of the basins and whether irrigation is accomplished by intermittent or continues ponding of water in the basins. the depth of water maybe maintained for considerable period of time by allowing water to continue to flow into the basins. The basins are filled to the desired depth and the water is retained until it infiltrates into the soil.

It is also suitable in very permeable soils which must be covered with water rapidly to prevent excessive deep percolation losses at the up stream end. the stream size must be increased or the size of the basins reduced in order to cover the area within a short period of time. The method enables the conservation of rainfall and reduction in soil erosion by retaining a large part of the rain in the basin to be infiltrated gradually with out loss due to surface run off. The method is especially adapted to very slowly and is required to stand for a relatively long time to ensure adequate irrigation. 8. Considerable land is occupied by ridges and lateral field channel and crop yields are substantially low on the ridge and in the lateral channels. 52 . 8.As the infiltration rate of the soil increases. Labour requirement in land preparation and irrigation is much higher compare to other methods.8 ADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN It is suited to smooth gentle and uniform land slope and for soils having moderate to slow infiltration rates Both row crops and close-growing crops are adapted to be used with basin as long as the crop is not affected by temporary inundation or is planted in beds so that it will remain above the water level. The method impedes surface drainage.9 DISADVANTAGES OF CHECK BASIN The ridges interfere with the movement of animal drawn or tractor-drawn implement for inter-culture or harvesting of crops.

The method is not suitable for irrigated crops which are sensitive to wet soil conditions around the stems of plant.10 FURROW IRRIGATION The furrow method of irrigation is used in the irrigation of row crops with furrows developed between the crop rows in the planting and cultivating process. Water I applied by running small streams in furrows between the crop rows. Water infiltrates into the soil and spreads laterally to irrigate the areas between the furrows a shown below. equipment used and spacing between crop rows. 53 . 8. The size and shape of the furrow depends on the crop grown. Row Furrow Schematic sketch illustrating furrow irrigation of a vegetable crop with one furrow for each two rows of the crop.

maize and cotton are planted 60 to 90cm apart and have furrows between all rows. j. Both large and small irrigation streams can be used by adjusting the number of furrows irrigated at any one time to suit the available furrow. Furrow spacing – Furrows can be spaced to fit the crops grown and the type of machines used for planting and cultivation.11 COMPONENTS AND ONTROLS OF FURROWS Efficient irrigation by the furrow method is obtained by selecting proper combination of spacing length and slope of furrows and suitable size of the irrigation stream and the duration of the water application. 8.The length of time the water is to blow in the furrows depends on the amount of the water required to replenish the root zone and the infiltration rate of the soil and the rate of lateral spread of water in the soil. The lateral movement of water depends on soil texture and depth. Furrows should be spaced close enough to ensure that water spreads to the sides into the ridge and root zone of the crop to replenish the soil moisture uniformly.g. The spacing depends on the type of crops e. 54 . potatoes.

steeper grades lead to higher water velocities and more erosion. Proper furrow length depends largely on the hydraulic conductivity of the soil. the largest stream of water that will not cause erosion is used in each furrow at the beginning of irrigation. wastage may occur at the end of the furrows. Its purpose is to wet the 55 . A minimum furrow grade of 0.5 litres per second. In general. With highly permeable soils.ii Furrow length – The optimum length of a furrow in usually the longest furrow that can be safely and efficiently irrigated. As the furrow grade increase. these factors may not be limiting.The size of the furrow stream is the one factor which can be varied after the furrow irrigation system has been installed. Furrows must be shorter on a porous sandy soil than on a tight day soil. the rate of infiltration slows down and the side spread of water into the crop ridge decrease. the ranges in slope recommended for borders apply to furrows also. so that. iv. Long furrows are an advantage in inter-cultivation. Furrows stream. If the length is too long. Short furrows require field supply channels to be spaced too close with consequent loss of land and increase in labour requirement. water soaks in too deep at the head of the furrow by the time the stream reaches the lower end. The size of the furrow usually varies from 0. However.05 percent is needed to ensure surface drainage. To obtain the most uniform irrigation. iii Furrow slope – The slope or grade of the furrow is important because it controls the speeds at which water flows down the furrow. This results in the over-irrigation at the upper end or under-irrigation at the lower end.5 to 2.

There is no wastage of land in field ditches. 56 .entire length of each furrow as quickly as possible.12 ADVANTAGES OF FURROW IRRIGATION Water in the furrows contacts only ½ to 1/5 of the land surface there by reducing pudding. 8. thus enabling the soil to absorb water evenly through the entire furrow length. It is especially suitable for those crops (like maze etc) that are injured by contact with water. Earlier cultivation is possible which a distinct advantage in heavy soils. After the water reached the lower end of a furrow. evaporation losses. Labour requirements in land preparation and irrigation are very much reduced. and crusting of the soil. the stream is reduced or cut back so that it will just keep the furrow wet through out its length with a minimum waste at the end.

A constant heck is kept on the water table at representative points in the irrigation area. The sub-surface irrigation is classified into two:The natural sub-surface irrigation and the artificial sub-surface irrigation. and a deep top soil of very high lateral permeability under laid at 2m to 7 depth by an impermeable stratum. there is also an upward movement of unwanted salts within the soil. it constitutes a convenient under ground reservoir which can be replenished by spreader ditchers and wells. i.0 SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION It is irrigated by water movement upward from a water table located some distance below the soil surface. If the area with this soil profile is sufficiently expansive. are replaced by supply. comprising consumptive use by vegetation and net seepage outflow. Since all water movement in the process of supply to the plant is upwards from the water table. The advantages are the avoidance of the evaporative losses of open water or wet soil surfaces and the elimination of the impedance caused to cultivation by pipes and ditches.Surface irrigation is so called because the conditions which make it possible are geological and topographical. Inherent advantages make controlled sub-irrigation an attractive proportion to the irrigate if he can device the means of execution. Natural sub.WEEK NINE 9. 57 . These are near level terrain. and losses.

there is a risk of a built-up of harmful salts close to or on the surface.In arid climates where there is no significant rainfall to countered this. and where the soil is a highly permeable sand or peat. There are expensive and liable to be managed by deep cultivation. In operation they require the maintenance of pressure by pumping or gravity form an elevated storage. Systems of this type require pipes at spacing as low as 450mm and depths in the region of 500mm. In times of excess rain water is removed by gravity or pumping and part is stored in reservoirs to be fed back to the field via the dither during the dry periods. Artificial sub-surface irrigation: – Involves the use of a system of buried perforated pipes through which water is passed at pressure to percolate into the soils. provision is made for periodic leaching of the soil by heavy application of water to the surface. water table control can be affected by parallel deep ditches. ii. In humid climate where supplemental irrigation is beneficial during spring and summer but drainage is needed during the winter. Should this be the case. This method will only function effectively if the soil has high horizontal and low vertical permeability. There must be drainage for the removal of the salts thus leached. Ditch Ditch Water Table 58 .

Slope are excessive Topography is irregular Soil is erosive Soil I excessively permeable or impermeable Depth of soil is shallow over gravel or sand.1 SPRINKLER IRRIGATION Figure showing sprinkler irrigation. the cost of land preparation and permanent water delivery system of channels or conduct is less. iv. In this system. iii. The sprinkler method consists of applying the water in the form of spray. vi. The land can not be prepared for surface methods. there is large initial investment in the purchase of the pumping and sprinkling equipment. some what as in ordinary rain. 59 . However. v. The greatest advantage of sprinkler irrigation is it adaptabilities to use under conditions where surface irrigation methods are not efficient. ii.Impermeable clay 9. as is done in the garden lawn sprinkling. This method is move useful where: i.

iii. portable sprinkler system was developed. pipes are permanently buried in such a way that they do not interfere with tillage operations.4kg/2) system.head perforated pipe installations were used. A pump usually lifts the water from the source. 9. Turbine and horizontal centrifugal pumps are usually used. Permanent system Semi-permanent system Portable system. ii. Sprinkler system usually is opposed of perforated pipes or revolving head sprinklers and may be high pressure (201/kg/c2) or low pressure (1.2 ADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLER IRRIGATION i. pushes it through the distribution system and through the sprinkler nozzle on the sprinkler heads mounted on rising pipes attached to the laterals. These systems are designed to be moved from around the farm from field to field. Generally. perforated pipe system operates on the low pressure where as the resolving head sprinklers operate in both ranges depending on the type of rotary head used. stationary over. In the permanent system.Sprinkler system can be classified under three heads:i. the main lines are buried while the laterals are portable. In the semi-permanent system. Erosion can be controlled. Uniform application for water is possible 60 . Earlier. Portable system has both portable main lines and laterals. However. with the introduction of light weight steel pipes and quick couplers. ii.

and is applied to the plant through drip nozzles. vi. ii.iii. Land preparation is not required. This technique is also known as “feeding bottle” technique where by the soil is maintained in the most congenital form by keeping the soil – water – air proportion in the optimum range. there by maximizing the saving. 9. labour cost is reduced more land is available for cropping and surface run off is eliminated. also known as trickle irrigation. light irrigation is possible for seedling and plants which are young. Wind may distort sprinkling system. equal to the field capacity. Drip irrigation limits the water supplied for consumptive use of the plant by maintaining minimum soil moisture.4 DRIP IRRIGATION In drip irrigation. water is applied in the form of drops directly near the base of the plant. Small streams of irrigation water can be use efficiently. Irrigation is better controlled. v. operating at low pressure. Power requirement is high. 61 . Heavy soil with poor intake can not be irrigated efficiently. Water is conveyed through a system of flexible pipe lines.3 DISADVANTAGE OF SPRINKLES IRRIGATION i. 9. Time and amount of fertilizers can be controlled for application. v. iv. iv. A constant water supply is needed for commercial use of equipment Water must be clean and free from stand. iii.

Water logging avoided Cultivation of cash crops No over irrigation Reduced labour cost Nutrients preservation Suitable for any topography 9.Figure above showing Drip irrigation. Along with irrigation water.5 ADVANTAGE OF DRIP IRRIGATION Less requirement of irrigation water. 9. 62 . especially for fruit trees. nutrients (fertilizer solutions) are also fed to the system.6 DISADVANTAGES OF DRIP IRRIGATION High initial cost Danger of Blockade of nozzles Shallow root depth of the crops. Water is first filtered so that the impurities may not clog the fine holes of the drippers. The method of drip irrigation was first introduced is Israel but is now practiced in many countries of the world. The system permits the fine control on the application of moisture and nutrients at stated frequencies.

PIPES) .V. Filter Unit Pressure Regulator.Pump. PIPES) TRICKLE LINES TRICKLE LINES N 63 (P. (P.V.C.C. Water source OVERHEAD TANK Fertilizer Tank.

Surface methods are generally the cheapest to install. steep slope probably preclude surface irrigation in favour of sprinkler or trickle irrigation. land grading is required. To accomplish this. slopes must be uniform with no high or low spots. Unless terracing is to be carried out. neither of which aid crop production. Variability of soil type: . For efficient irrigation by a surface method.WEEK TEN 10. and where conditions are suitable there is little point in considering other methods. Soils with a high infiltration rate tend to 64 . The uniformity of the land surface is also important.The soil types in the irrigation area also affect the choice of method. However. Land grading reduced top-soil. b. Soils with low available water require frequent light irrigation which is difficult with surface methods. it may be cheaper to install sprinkler irrigation at the out set. It should be noted that land grading may be an expensive operation. an expensive process. Land preparation – Surface irrigation requires uniform slope which are too steep. the extend of which depends on the natural topography. where high value cash crop is to be grown there may be economic justification for considering other types of irrigation.0 FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE CHOICE OF IRRIGATION METHOD The choice of irrigation methods is based on technical feasibility and economics. especially where conditions are not ideal for surface irrigation. a. and therefore in some cases.

Where sediment is in water and the water contains objectionable matter. Therefore in this type of condition sprinkler and trickle irrigation designs can easily be adapted to suit areas of variable soil type.g. Soil variability causes difficulties for engineers scheduling irrigation.The amount. then it must be used with the highest efficiency. by lowering the atmospheric water demand. If the total quantity of the water is small. c. can alleviate water stress in 65 . for example sewage. waste land because of the number of canals required and produce mechanization difficulties. at night. operation and management are of a high standard and distribution canal are lined. Sprinklers and trickle irrigation generally have a much higher efficiency than surface methods. although the effective flow can be increase by providing farm storage during periods when irrigation is not being practiced e.waste water because of percolation below the rooting range unless surface irrigation run are very short. but sprays. d. High efficiencies are not generally attained with surface methods unless design. quality and cost of the water supply also have some bearing on the irrigation method. then sprinkler and trickle irrigation can not be choused.Winds in excess of 15 to 20km/h generally make sprinkler unsuitable as the smaller droplet are blown away and the water application pattern is distorted resulting in low efficiencies. Water quantity and quality: . Where the flow of water is small. The short runs increase labour costs. surface irrigation is often uneconomic if possible at all. Climate. High temperatures and low humidity reduce sprinkling efficiencies. especially if over than one type of soil I present in one field.

the plant and increase growth. has relatively long irrigation cycles. and in extreme circumstance will cause the plants to lose more growth than they would under short interval sprinkler or trickle method. Surface irrigation. Heavy rain after irrigation by surface method can result in flooding. Tall crops are difficult to work in and thus the movement of pipes and sprinklers can be difficult. Crop: . by its nature.The type of crop being irrigated has little effect technically on the choice of a surface or sprinkler method. e. 66 .

The objective of efficiency concepts is to show when improvements can be made which will result in more efficient irrigation. not all the water applied during irrigation is shored in the roof zone. The following are the various types of irrigation efficiencies. iv. v. It is expressed as Ec = Wf x 100 Wd Where Ec = water conveyance efficiency % Wf = water delivered to the irrigated plot (at the field supply Channel). 67 . water courses and field channels. Water Conveyance Efficiency: . It is also applicable where the water is conveyed in channel from the well to the individual fields. vi. i. Water conveyance efficiency Water application efficiency Water use efficiency Water storage efficiency Water distribution efficiency Consumptive use efficiency 1.This term is used to measure the efficiency of water conveyance systems associated with the canal network.0 IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES Efficient use of irrigation water is an obligation of each user as well as of the planners. efficiency in the ratio of water out put to the water in put and is expressed as percentage. ii. Even under the best method of irrigation.WEEK ELEVEN 11. In general. iii.

2. Wf = water delivered to the field (at the field supply channel). and is determined from the following expression. Eu = Wu = 100 Wd Where Eu = water use efficiency Wu = water used beneficially or consumptively Wa = Water delivered 4. 3. inducing leaching water. % Ws = water stored in the root zone of the plants. Water application efficiencies decreases due to seepage.After the water reached the field supply channel. And it is defined as Ea = Ws x 100 Wf Where Ea = water application efficiency. to the quantity of water delivered. % Ws = water stored in the root zone during irrigation Wn = water needed in the root zone prior to irrigation 68 . Water use efficiency – It is the ratio of water beneficially use. it I measure of how efficiently this I done I the water application efficiency. percolation and run off losses at the tail and of borders and furrows. Water Application Efficiency: . Water surface efficiency – The concept of water storage efficiency gives an insight to completely the required water has been stored in the root zone during irrigation. Is is determined from the following expression: Es = ws x 100 Wn Where Es = water storage efficiency.

evaluates the loss of water by deep percolation and by excessive surface evaporation following irrigation. 1. therefore. The efficiency. Not only the application of the right amount of water to the field but also its uniform distribution over the field is important permissible lengths of irrigation runs are controlled to large extent by the uniformity of water distribution which is possible for given soil and irrigation management practice. % d = average depth of water stored along the run during the Irrigation y = average numerical deviation from d 6. 69 . It is also defined mathematically as Ed = (1 – y) x 100 d Where Ed = water distribution efficiency. Consumptive use efficiency (cue) It is given by cue = wcu x 100 Wd Where wcu or cu = normal consumptive use of water Wd = net amount of water depleted from not zone soil. Water distribution efficiency – This indicates the extent to which water is uniformly distributed along the run.Water storage efficiency becomes important when water supplies are limited or when excessive time is required to secure adequate penetration of water into the soil.

An area of 1.11.2m at the tail end. Water storage efficiency.8m at the head end of the field to 1. Ec = wt x 100 wd = 100 x 100 = 74% 135 ii.8m. Water application efficiency. Water application efficiency = 2448 x 100 = 85% 2880 iii. Available moisture holding capacity of the soil is 20cm per metre depth of soil. Ea = ws x 100 wf But water delivered to the plot = 100 x 60 x 8 = 2880m3 1000 Water stored in the root zone = 2880 – 432 = 2448m3 :. Water conveyance efficiency. Determine the water conveyance efficiency. Solution i. The run off lose in the field was 432m3. water application efficiency. Es = ws x 100 wn Water holding capacity of the zone = 20 x1. The depth of water penetration varied linearly from 1. water storage efficiency and water distribution efficiency.8 = 36cm 70 . irrigation was started at moisture extraction level of 50% of the available moisture.6 hectares was irrigated in eight hrs. The effective depth of root zone was 1. WORK EXAMPLES ON IRRIGATION EFFICIENCY A stream of 135 liters per second was delivered from a canal and 100 litr per second were delivered to the field.1 1.

3 2 Efficiency Ed = 100 (1 – 0. Peak rate of moisture use by the crops is 4mm (weighted average). Water distribution efficiency.5 = 0. Peak rate of moisture use by the corps is 4mm (weighted average).3 Average numerical deviation = 0.Moisture required in the root zone = 36 – 36 x 50 = 18cm 100 18/100 x 1. Losses in water conveyance are negligible. net depth of water application.2 = 1.000 = 2880m3 Water storage efficiency = 2448 x 100 = 85% 2880 1v.2 = 0. net depth of water application.5 – 1.8 + 1.8 – 1.3) 1. Water application efficiency is 70%. Irrigation is to be done when 50 percent of the available moisture in the root zone is depleted.3 At lower end = 1.6 x 10.3 = 0.5 = 80% 2. An area of 20 hectares is to be irrigated by a pump working for 12hrs a day. depth 71 .3 + 0. Determine the irrigation period. Determine the irrigation period.5m 2 Numerical deviation from depth of penetration: At uppers end = 1. Losses in water conveyance are negligible. The available moisture holding capacity of the soil is 16cm/m and the depth of root zone is 1m. depth of water application efficiency is 70%. Ed = 100 (1 – y) d d = 1.

4 Depth of water pumped per application = 8 = 11. Solution Net depth of water application = 16 x 50 = 8cm 100 Irrigation period =net irrigation required = 8 = 20 day Peak use rate 0. and the required capacity of the irrigation system in hectare cm/day and litres per second.000 x 1000 100 x 12 x 60 x 60 = 26.4 x 10.7 Required capacity of irrigation system = 11.4 litres/sec 72 .of water pumped per application.4cm x 20ha 20 days = 11.4cm 0.

1 EFFECTS OF WATERLOGGING The fertility of the soil when an area becomes waterlogged is usually due to the following reasons.2m 12. The normal height of the capillary fringe met within agricultural soils varies from 0. the land is said to be waterlogged decrease in available capillary water Plant life draws its substance from the soil–solution round the soil particles which is drawn in the plants by capillary action and osmosis.WEEK TWELVE 12. When the soil pores within the root zones of the crops normally grown so saturated as to effectively cut off the normal circulation of air.0 WATER LOGGING An agricultural land is said to be waterlogged when its productivity or fertility is affected by high water table.5m to 1. The dept of water table which adversely affects the growth of different crop is given below CROPS Wheat Cotton Rice Sugar cane Folder crop DEPT OF WATER TABLE 0. The adverse effects of high water table upon the yield of crops also depend upon the nature of crop grown.the land will therefore.9m to 1.60m.3m 1. Inhibiting activity of soil bacteria The liberation of plant food is independent upon the activity of soil bacteria which require adequate amount of oxygen in the air for proper functioning. At which it tends to make the soil waterlogged and harmful to the growth and subsistence of plants life. which is the height to which water will rise due to capillary action. If the water table is high the roots 73 . be waterlogged when the water table is within 1.5m below the ground surface.6m 0.5m to 1. Depends upon the height of capillary fringe.2m 1.8m 0.

with PH value 8.0 and 9.2 CAUSES OF WATERLOGGING Water logging in any particular area is normally the result of several contributory factors. The main factors causing water logging areas are giving below In adequate surface drainage When the surface drainage is not adequate the heavy precipitations in the area is not drained off quickly and the rain water remains stagnant over the area for considerable time. Inadequate capacity for arterial drainage 74 . Natural obstruction to the flow of ground water Sometimes subsoil does not permit free flow of sub soil water due to some natural obstruction.0. Fall in soil temperature A waterlogged soil warms up slowly and due to lower temperature. The alkaline deposits change the PH value of soil.0. This gives rise to heavy percolation and water table rises in the area. This may accentuate the process of raising the water table. the drainage becomes impossible and the Rise of salt The rate of water table also causes accumulation of alkali salt in the surface soil by the upward flow of water which is established in waterlogged lands. If the underlying layers contains alkali salt in solution. consequent flooding and water logging. Soils with PH value 7.5 gives normal yields. The soil becomes infertile. Construction of water reservoir Similar to the seepage from a canal. They are brought up with water which evaporates having the salt on the surface. The creation of a high false water table or parched water table also leads to water logging. Defective air circulation When the water table is high. Obliteration of natural drainage Sometimes the cultivator plough up and obliterates an existing natural drainage. the seepage from the reservoir augments the water table and may cause water logging. This results in stoppage of storm water flow. The yield decreases when PH value rises to 11.0 to 8.of the plants are confined to the top layers of the soil above the water table while if the water table is low. action of soil bacteria is sluggish and plant food available is less. 12. the roots of plants have more room for growth.

There will thus be flooding of land and consequent water logging. rail or road embankments. The flood water of local drains thus spreads over the country side for clays and heavy percolations into the sub soil causes alarming rise in water table. 75 . it will not be able to pass the rain water of catchments. As such the function of all the drains connected to the arterial drain is seriously hampered. Carbon dioxide liberated by the plant root can not be dissolved and taken away. Over irrigation of fields When the irrigation water applied to the field is in excess of the requirement of the crop. deep percolation takes place which is retained in the intermediate zone augmenting the ground water storage. Obstruction of natural drainage If a natural drainage is obstructed by irrigation channel. Adverse effect on community health The climate of a waterlogged area becomes damp. The climate does become extremely detrimental to the health of community.This arterial drainage or nadi may not have adequate capacity to pass the heaviest floods in the entire catchments. Formation of stagnant pools may become breeding places for mosquitoes.

He should also be encouraged to supplement his water requirement from open wells and tube wells.WEEK THIRTEEN 13. b. A suitable tile drain can hold the water table at a pre-determined level which will be most beneficent to the crops. enumerated in previous article should be correctly assessed and allow for. various remedial measures adopted for prevention of water logging are discussed below Efficient surface drainage An efficient drainage system which permits a quick flow of rain water in short period helps to reduce the water logging. 76 . Under-drained by tile drains The drainage of agricultural lands is done more satisfactorily by the drains. Adoption of sprinkler for irrigation This reduces the percolation losses from water causes as only predetermined amount of water is applied to the land. Restriction of irrigation a. Prevention of seepage from water reservoir Adequate and suitably designed toe filters are provided so that seepage ultimately fines its way into the natural stream.Area with critical water table may be allowed only for kharif irrigation and during Rabi the cultivators may irrigate from open wells and tube wells. Removing obstruction in natural drainage Drainage crossing with road. The cultivators should be educated for economic use of water and induce to divide his field into "Kiaries" to avoid wastage.0 REMEDIAL MEASURES In devising anti-water logging measures. railways and canals should be remodeled to make it more efficient. Change in crop pattern A change in crop pattern may minimize the damage to plant line. the nature and magnitude of various factors.

7=By +y² 5. Z=1. y=1 Area (A) =2x1+1²=3 Try B=2. Example: Design a trapezoidal canal to convey.25 Use B=2m (Z=1/m and m=1/2) 77 .5m over 3000m. 1) Design capacity Qm³/s 2) Slope [longitudinal] 3) Channel section type [rectangular /trapezium] We are required to obtain the actual size of the channel. 45°). y=1. y=2.015 Soln Assume Z. M=1 . Assuming side slope of 1:1 (i. we are normally given.1 DESIGN OF DRAINAGE For design. the depth is about half of the width (or top width for trapezoidal). Take marnings n=0.: Area =10/1.5+1.75m/s . 10m³/s of water across a land slopping at 3. =A=2x2+2²=8 B=2. A=2x1.13.7m² Normally for maximum efficiency.5²=5.5.75 =5. M and estimate B Maximum velocity =1.e.7=By +y² Try B=2.: A=By +y² 5.

78 .024 Maximum velocity is about 1. also deposition of salt or suspension solids should be avoided.995 10. If the result is less than the given capacity.840 0. until we get the correct size.e.015 0. MATERIAL Concrete Wood Earth Metal Corrugated metal N 0.Depth=y A=2y+y² P=2+2√2×Y R=A/P V=1/nR2/3 s½ Q=AV 1.983 1. If it is more.003 6.245 6.104 0.45 5. we decrease the depth.032 0.011 0.5 1.408 9. we increase the depth.012 0.75m/s for concrete Normally we get the size by trial. i.25 5.820 1. we use the manning equation : V=1/n R2/3 √S V=Velocity of flow m/s S=Longitudinal slope of channel R=Hydraulic radius =A/P A=Area of flow m² P=Welted perimeter m n=Manning constant Varies with the type of surface of the channel. To obtain velocity of flow. We then compute its capacity using manning equation. we assume a given section of certain depth.981 The capacity of the drainage is determined from the velocity of flow and sectional area of the canal and its bank/ sides are not eroded by the water.

Channel section Area of flow Welted perimeter By y B +2y ------.B------By +Zy 1 Z ---B---y 1 m OR By +y²/m B+Zy²√1+Z² OR B +y²√1+1/m² 79 .

Improvement in sanitary conditions of the area. More soil moisture is made available for crop growth due to extension of crop root zone into the soil. 80 .1 BENEFITS OF DRAINAGE The benefits of drainage are:Improvement of the soil structure and increase in productivity of the soil Lengthening of growing season Facilitates early ploughing and sowing of the crop. shallow surface drains.0 DRAINAGE The term drainage is applied to systems for dealing with excess water. there by ensuring vigorous plant growth. Our primary concern is the agricultural drainage so far we are dealing with irrigation engineering. Agricultural drainage is the removal of excess water from agricultural lands by means of open or covered drains. The three primary drainage tasks are urban storm drainage. 14. Harmful salts are leached off. bedding and land grading or smoothing are measures use to collect and remove surface water from fields.WEEK FOURTEEN 14. Maintains proper aeration of upper soil layers Maintains higher soil temperature. Reclamation of water logged lands. Maintenance of water table at a reasonable depth so that water cannot rise above the natural ground by capillary action. Malaria and weed control. Crop period is thus increased resulting in higher crop yield. The soil is kept warmer. land drainage (agriculture drainage) and high way drainage.

2 ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DRAIN The essential requirements to be satisfied by a drain are:Admit all the flood discharge from the catchments Quick and unobstructed flow towards the drain from the catchments Capacity to carry away the received water to the out fall Seepage and or low discharge does not spread thin over the entire section Low maintenance cost Low initial cost Stable section with non-silting tendency and capable of avoiding sloughing of side slopes. Sometimes taken across the valley to reduce length of the drain or to reduce length of the drain or to have proper out fall condition. 14. NATURAL DRAINS: .These are the lowest valley line between two ridges. OPEN DRAINS: 81 . 2. CLASSIFICATION OF DRAINS ________________|_________________ | According to construction _________|_________ | artificial open drains | closed drains | According to functions _________|_________ | Natural 14. ARTIFICIAL DRAINS: -These are the constructed drains generated aligned along drainage line.4 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO FUNCTION SERVED 1.14.3 CLASSIFICATION ACCORDING TO CONSTRUCTION 1.

I. Surface drains: - surface drains are normally used for removal of excess surface irrigation water or for the disposal of storm water. They remove water before it has entered the soil. II. Seepage: - Cater for the sub soil water. They are made deep enough to allow water table to drop in the drain and seepage water is carried away. They are of smaller section compared to surface drains. They help maintain aeration of root zone depths. III. Surface-cum-seepage drains: - They are the dual purpose of seepage and storm water drain. During rainy season they carry storm water and seepage water in non-monsoon months. 2. CLOSED DRAIN: - The sub-surface drains remove water which has entered the

soil. They are usually laid 1 to 1.5m below the ground surface and at a suitable spacing and grade to lower water table to greater depths.

14.5 DISPOSAL METHODS OF DRAINAGE WATER
Sub surface drainage water in arid region is likely to be saline and disposal should be considered with care. Return to the natural drainage channels can lead in time to serious river water salinity. Some irrigation areas are under laid by extensive highly permeable, volcanic deposits which if they have a suitable zone of discharge, can be used as a cheap and convenient medium for the disposal o drainage water. Another geological asset to drainage is a buried historical river bed. This may be a course of very permeable sands and gravels, sealed from the surface by over laying clay layers, which if penetrated forms an excellent and cheap drainage disposal channel. Depending on the extent and depth of the quiver, it can be reached by a system of small ‘down’ wells each draining its immediate vicinity, or by a small number of main wells into which the out flow from a system of surface and under drains can be discharged. While it is generally inadvisable for sub surface drainage water to be returned to the irrigation supply unless monitored for undesirable solutes, excess storm rain and surface irrigation run off are unlikely to be contaminated and can safely be re-used. Re-use of irrigation run off in particular is practiced widely where economically justified

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Figure shows down well.

Drainage channel

Impermeable stratum

Sand and gravel

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WEEK FIFTEEN 15.0 FLOOD
Flood is terms used to describe the inundation of an area by water for a certain period of time, leading to disruption of normal activities and possible lose of properties and life. The flood could be caused by any of the following: i. ii. iii. Excessive rainfall leading to extra ordinary run off. Poor drainage system and drains of inadequate capacity. Silting up of natural drains and river beds with sediments due to erosion in the catchments area. iv. v. vi. vii. Encroachment of flood plain by human settlement. Construction of structures on river banks and beds. Highly meandering streams. Sudden failure of water retaining structures.

15.1 THE PROBLEMS OF FLOOD AND THE NEED TO FIND SOLUTION
Civilization has always developed along rivers, whose presence guaranteed access to and from the sea coast, irrigation for crop water supplies for urban communities and latterly power development and industrial water supply. The many advantages have always been counter balanced by the dangers of floods and in the past levees or flood banks were built along many major rivers to prevent inundation in the flood season. Flood-damage mitigation was distinguished from drainage as embracing methods for combating the effects of excess water in streams. More commonly called flood control in the United States, the terminology flood-damage mitigation has been adopted in Australian practice to emphasize that absolute control over flood is verily feasible either physically or economically. What we seek to do is to reduce flood damage to a minimum consistent with the cost involved. The flood is the result of run off from rainfall in quantities too great to be confined in the low-water channels of streams. Man

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can do little to prevent a major flood, but he may be able to minimize damage to crops and properly with in the flood plains of the river. The commonly accepted measures for reducing flood damage are: Reduction of peak flow by reservoirs Confinement of the flow with in a pre-determined channel by levees, flood walls or a closed conduit Reduction of peak stage by increased velocities resulting from channel improvement. Diversion of flood water through by passes or flood ways to other channel or even another water shed. Reduction of flood run off by land management Temporary evaluation of flood threatened areas on the basis of flood warnings.

15.2 TYPES OF FLOOD CONTROL STRUCTURE
The types of flood control structures usually used are: 1. Flood mitigation reservoirs 2. Levees and flood walls. FLOOD MITIGATION RESERVOIRS: - This is a structure used to store a portion of the flood flow so as to minimize the flood peak at the point to be protected. The reservoir is situated immediately upstream from the protected area and is operated to cut off the flood peak. This is accomplished by discharging all reservoirs in flow until in flow drops below the safe channel capacity, and the stored water is reduced to recover storage capacity for the next flood. If there is some distance between the reservoir and the protected area but no local in flow between these points, the reservoir operation will be quite similar.

15.3 LEVEES AND FLOOD WALLS
One of the oldest most widely used methods of protecting land from flood water is to erect a barrier preventing over flow levees and flood walls are essentially longitudinal dams erected roughly parallel to a river rather than across its channel. A levee is an earth like, while a flood wall is usually of masonry construction. 85

86 .In general. The material should be placed in layers and compacted. levees and flood walls must satisfy the same structural criteria as regular dams. Levees are most frequently used for flood mitigation because they can be built at relatively low cost of materials available at the site. Levees are usually built of excavated material from borrow pits paralleling the levee line. with the least pervious material along the river side of the levee. Usually there is no suitable material for a core. and most levees are homogeneous embankments.

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