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Argentina

Argentina

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Argentina

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Contents
Articles
Introduction
Argentina History of Argentina Buenos Aires Demographics of Argentina Languages of Argentina 1 1 34 54 84 92 96 96 101 106 106 113 130 148 148 159 164 169 178 181 181 190 193 194

Geography
Geography of Argentina Climate of Argentina

Sports
Sport in Argentina Argentina national football team Diego Maradona

Economy
Economy of Argentina Agriculture in Argentina Communications in Argentina Tourism in Argentina Public holidays in Argentina

Culture
Culture of Argentina Architecture of Argentina Argentine cuisine Music of Argentina

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 202 207

Article Licenses

License

215

1

Introduction
Argentina
For alternative meanings, see Argentina (disambiguation) and Argentine (disambiguation).

Argentine Republic[1] República Argentina (Spanish)

Motto: "En unión y libertad"  (Spanish) "In Unity and Freedom" Anthem: "Himno Nacional Argentino"  (Spanish) "Argentine National Anthem"

The Argentine claims in Antarctica (overlapping the Chilean and British Antarctic claims) along with the Falkland Islands, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands (administered by the United Kingdom) shown in light green.
Capital (and largest city) Official language(s) Ethnic groups (2005
[2] [3]

Buenos Aires 34°36′S 58°23′W Spanish (de facto) 86.4% European 8.5% Mestizo 3.3% Arab 1.6% Amerindian 0.4% Asian and others Demonym Government Argentine, Argentinian, Argentinean Federal representative presidential republic

)

Argentina

2
President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

 -   -   - 

Vice President and President of the Senate Julio Cobos Supreme Court President Legislature Ricardo Lorenzetti Congress Senate Chamber of Deputies from Spain 25 May 1810  9 July 1816  1 May 1853 

 -   - 

Upper House Lower House Independence

 -   -   - 

May Revolution Declared Current constitution Area

 - 

Total

2766890 km  (8th) 1068302 sq mi  1.1 Population

2

 - 

Water (%)

 -   - 

2010 census Density

40,117,096
2

[4]

 (32nd)

14.49/km  (207th) 37.53/sq mi 2011 estimate

GDP (PPP)  -   -  GDP (nominal)  -   -  Gini (2009) HDI (2011) Currency Time zone Date formats Drives on the ISO 3166 code Internet TLD Calling code Total Per capita Total Per capita

$710.7 billion $17,376
[5]

[5]

 (22nd)

 (51st)

2011 estimate $435.2 billion $10,639 45.8
[6] [5] [5]

 (27th)

 (62nd)

 (high) 
[7]

0.797

 (very high) (45th)

Peso ($) (ARS) ART (UTC−3) dd.mm.yyyy (CE) right (trains ride on the left) AR .ar +54

i Argentina /ˌɑrdʒənˈtiːnə/, officially the Argentine Republic (Spanish: República Argentina, pronounced: [re̞ˈpuβlika arxe̞nˈtina]), is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. It is the eighth-largest country in the world by land area and the largest among Spanish-speaking nations.

Argentina Argentina's continental area is between the Andes mountain range in the west and the Atlantic Ocean in the east. It borders Paraguay and Bolivia to the north, Brazil and Uruguay to the northeast, and Chile to the west and south. Argentine claims over Antarctica, as well as overlapping claims made by Chile and the United Kingdom, are suspended by the Antarctic Treaty of 1961. Argentina also claims the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as British Overseas Territories. A recognised middle power,[8] Argentina is Latin America's third-largest economy,[9] with a "very high" rating on the Human development index.[7] Within Latin America, Argentina has the fifth highest nominal GDP per capita and the highest in purchasing power terms.[10] Analysts[11] have argued that the country has a "foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods", and it is classed by investors as an emerging economy. Argentina is a founding member of the United Nations, Mercosur, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the World Bank Group and the World Trade Organization, and is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies.

3

Etymology
Argentina is derived from the poetic Spanish argento ("silver"). The first use of Argentina can be traced to the 1602 poem La Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata (Argentina and the conquest of the silver river) by Martín del Barco Centenera. Although this name for the La Plata Basin was already in common usage by the 18th century, the area was formally called Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776. The autonomous governments that emerged from the 1810 May Revolution replaced "Viceroyalty" with "United Provinces". One of the first prominent uses of the demonym "Argentine" was in the 1812 first Argentine National Anthem, which made reference to the ongoing Argentine War of Independence. The first formal use of the name was in the 1826 constitution, which used both the terms "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Nation".[12] The Constitution was repealed, and the territories were instead known as the "Argentine Confederation". This name was used in the 1853 Constitution, being changed to that of the "Argentine Nation" in 1859, and to the "Argentine Republic" per an 1860 decree, when the country achieved its current organization. Nevertheless, the names of the "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" are acknowledged as legitimate names of the country.[1]

History
Early history
The earliest evidence of humans in Argentina dates from 11,000 BC and was found in Patagonia (Piedra Museo, Santa Cruz). These finds were of the Diaguitas, Huarpes, and Sanavirones indigenous peoples, among others. The Inca Empire, under Sapa-Inca Pachacutec, invaded and conquered present-day north-western Argentina in 1480, a feat usually attributed to Túpac Inca Yupanqui. The tribes of Omaguacas, Atacamas, Huarpes and Diaguitas were defeated and integrated into a region called Collasuyu. Others, such as the Sanavirones, Lule-Tonocoté, and Comechingones, resisted the Incas and remained independent from them. The Guaraní developed a culture based on yuca, sweet potato, and yerba mate. The central and southern areas (Pampas and Patagonia) were dominated by nomadic cultures, the most

Cueva de las Manos, over 10,000 years old, is among the oldest evidence of indigenous culture in the Americas.

Argentina populous among them being the Mapuches.[13] The Atacaman settlement of Tastil in the north had an estimated population of 2,000 people, the highest populated area in pre-Columbian Argentina. The most advanced indigenous populations were the Charrúas and Guaraníes, who developed some basic agriculture and the use of pottery. Most of their population were located at other sites of South America however, and their presence at the territory of modern Argentina was scarce by comparison.[14]

4

Colonial Period
European explorers arrived in 1516. Spain established the Viceroyalty of Peru in 1542, encompassing all its holdings in South America. Their first settlement in modern Argentina was the Fort of Sancti Spiritu established in 1527 next to the Paraná River. Buenos Aires, a permanent colony, was established in 1536 but was destroyed by natives. The city was established again in 1580 as part of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata. The area which encompassed much of the territory that would later become Argentina was largely a territory of Spanish immigrants and their descendants (known as criollos), mestizos, native cultures, and descendants of African slaves. A third of Colonial-era settlers gathered in Buenos Aires and other cities, others lived on the pampas, as gauchos for example. Indigenous peoples inhabited much of the remainder and most of Patagonia and Gran Chaco remained under indigenous control. Buenos Aires became the capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776, which was created over some former territories of the Viceroyalty of Peru. The Río de la Plata area was forced to import goods overland via Lima after 1595, and a reliance on contraband emerged. After 1776, however, Buenos Aires flourished as a commercial hub. In 1806 and 1807 the city was the site of two ill-fated British invasions. The resistance was headed both times by the French Santiago de Liniers, who would become viceroy through popular support. The news of the overthrow of the Spanish King Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern in the Viceroyalty. The May Revolution of 1810 took place in Buenos Aires, removing Viceroy Cisneros from government and replacing him by the Primera Junta.
William Carr Beresford surrenders to Santiago de Liniers at the end of the first of the British invasions of the Río de la Plata.

Building of a nation-state
During the following decade a war for independence ensued in the former Viceroyalty, its regions divided between patriots and royalists. While the cities of present-day Argentina would align with the independents after 1811, the other regions would follow differing paths: Paraguay seceded, declaring its independence from Spain 1811 and from Argentina in 1842. Upper Peru was disputed with the royalists from Peru until it declared independence as Bolivia in 1824. The eastern bank of the Uruguay river was invaded by the Brazilian-Portuguese Empire in 1817 and declared independence as Uruguay in 1828 after the Argentina-Brazil War. Internal conflicts would cause political instability within the patriots. In just four years the Primera Junta was replaced by the Junta Grande, the first and second José de San Martín, Liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru triumvirates, and the first Supreme Director. In 1813 an Assembly convened to declare independence but it could not do so due to political disputes. A Civil War ensued between the provinces joined into the Federal League and the Supreme Directorship.

Argentina By 1816 the United Provinces of South America were under severe internal and external threats. In July a new Congress declared independence and named Juan Martín de Pueyrredón as the Supreme Director. The military campaign became the responsibility of José de San Martín, who led an army across the Andes in 1817 and defeated the Chilean royalists. With the Chilean navy at his disposal he then took the fight to the royalist stronghold of Lima. San Martín's military campaigns complemented those of Simón Bolívar in Gran Colombia and led to the independent's victory in the Spanish American wars of independence. The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the centralized national authority and created a power vacuum. A new constitution was enacted in 1826, during the War with Brazil, when Bernardino Rivadavia was elected the first President of Argentina. This constitution was soon rejected by the provinces, due to its Centralist bias, and Rivadavia resigned shortly after. The provinces then reorganized themselves as the Argentine Confederation, a loose confederation of provinces that lacked a common head of state. They would instead delegate some important powers to the governor of Buenos Aires Province, such as debt payment or the management of international relations. Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas ruled from 1829 to 1832, and from 1835 to 1852. During his first term he convened the Pacto Federal and defeated the Unitarian League. After 1835 he was given the "Sum of public power". He faced unitarian resistance and a constant state of war, including a French blockade from 1838 to 1840, the War of the Confederation in the north, an Anglo-French blockade from 1845 to 1850, and the Corrientes Province revolt. Rosas remained undefeated during this series of conflicts and prevented further loss of national territory. His refusal to enact a national constitution, pursuant to the Pacto Federal, led to Entre Ríos Province Governor Justo José de Urquiza's reclaiming provincial sovereignty. He defeated Rosas at the Battle of Caseros, forcing him into exile. The San Nicolás Agreement followed and in 1853 the Constitution of Argentina was promulgated. Following the secession of the State of Buenos Aires from the Confederation, and its later return, Bartolomé Mitre was elected the first president of the unified country in 1862. National unity was further advanced by the War of the Triple Alliance,[15] which left over 300,000 dead and devastated Paraguay.[16] After 1875 a wave of foreign investment and immigration from Europe led to the strengthening of a cohesive state, the development of modern agriculture and to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy. The rule of law was consolidated, in large measure, by Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield whose 1860 Commercial Code and 1869 Civil Code laid the foundation for Argentina's statutory laws. General Julio Argentino Roca's military campaign in the 1870s established Argentine dominance over the southern Pampas and Patagonia, subdued the remaining native peoples, and left 1,300 indigenous dead.[17] [18] Waged to suppress Malón raids, some contemporary sources indicate that the "Conquest of the Desert" was a campaign of genocide by the Argentine government.[19]

5

Argentina

6

Modern history
Argentina increased in prosperity and prominence between 1880 and 1929 and emerged as one of the ten richest countries in the world, benefiting from an agricultural export-led economy as well as British and French investment. Driven by immigration and decreasing mortality the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold.[20] Conservative élites dominated Argentine politics through nominally democratic means until 1912, when President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal male suffrage and the secret ballot. This allowed their traditional rivals, the centrist Radical Civic Union, to win the country's first free elections in 1916. President Hipólito Yrigoyen enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small business. Yrigoyen was overthrown by a coup in 1930, however, which led to another decade of Conservative rule. The Concordance regime strengthened ties with the British Empire and their electoral policy was one of "patriotic fraud". The country was neutral during World War I and most of World War II, becoming an important source of foodstuffs for the Allied Nations.[20]

Juan Perón and his influential wife, Eva.

In 1946, General Juan Perón was elected president, creating a populist movement referred to as "Peronism". His wife Eva was popular and played a central political role until her death in 1952, mostly through the Eva Perón Foundation and the Female Peronist Party,[21] as women's suffrage was granted in 1947. During Perón's tenure, wages and working conditions improved appreciably, unionization was fostered, strategic industries and services were nationalized, as well as import substitution industrialization and urban development being prioritized in the agrarian sector.[22] Formerly stable prices and exchange rates were disrupted however: the peso lost around 70% of its value from 1948 to 1950, and inflation reached 50% in 1951.[23] Foreign policy became more isolationist, straining US-Argentine relations. Perón intensified censorship as well as repression: 110 publications were shuttered,[24] and numerous opposition figures were imprisoned and tortured.[25] Advancing a personality cult, Perón rid himself of many important and capable advisers while promoting patronage. A bombing of Plaza de Mayo was followed some months later by a violent coup which deposed him in 1955. He fled into exile, eventually residing in Spain.

Argentina

7 Following an attempt to purge the Peronist influence and the banning of Peronists from political life, elections in 1958 brought Arturo Frondizi to office. Frondizi enjoyed some support from Perón's followers, and his policies encouraged investment to make the country self-sufficient in energy and industry, helping reverse a chronic trade deficit for Argentina. The military frequently interfered on behalf of conservative, agrarian interests however, and the results were mixed.[20] Frondizi was forced to resign in 1962. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and enacted expansionist policies but, despite prosperity, his attempts to include Peronists in the political process resulted in the armed forces retaking power in a quiet 1966 coup.

Though repressive, this new regime continued to encourage domestic development and invested record amounts into public works. The economy grew strongly and income poverty declined to 7% by 1975. Partly because of their repressiveness, however, political violence began to escalate and Perón, still in exile, skilfully co-opted student and labor protests which eventually resulted in the military regime's call for free elections in 1973, and Perón's return from Spain.[13]
Arturo Frondizi (right) and his chief economic adviser, Rogelio Frigerio, whose policies promoted greater self-sufficiency in energy and industry.

Taking office that year, Perón died in July 1974 leaving his third wife Isabel, the Vice President, to succeed him in office. Mrs. Perón had been chosen as a compromise among feuding Peronist factions who could agree on no other running mate; secretly though, she was beholden to Perón's most fascist advisers. The resulting conflict, between left and right-wing extremists, led to mayhem, financial chaos and a coup d'état in March 1976 which removed her from office. The self-styled National Reorganization Process the disappeared intensified measures against armed groups on the far left, such as People's Revolutionary Army and the Montoneros who had kidnapped and murdered people almost weekly since 1970.[26] Repression was quickly extended to the opposition in general and, during the "Dirty War", thousands of dissidents "disappeared". These abuses were aided and abetted by the CIA in Operation Condor, with many of the military leaders that took part in abuses trained in the School of the Americas.[27] The new dictatorship brought some stability at first, and built numerous important public works, but frequent wage freezes and deregulation of finance led to a sharp fall in living standards and record foreign debt.[20] Deindustrialization, the peso's collapse, and crushing real interest rates, as well as unprecedented corruption, public revulsion over the Dirty War, and finally the 1982 defeat by the British in the Falklands War, discredited the military regime and led to free elections in 1983.
Poster from the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO, with photos of

Argentina

8

Contemporary history
Raúl Alfonsín's government took steps to account for the disappeared, established civilian control of the armed forces, and consolidated democratic institutions. The members of the three military juntas were prosecuted and sentenced to life terms. The previous regime's foreign debt, however, left the Argentine economy saddled by the conditions imposed on it by both its private creditors and the International Monetary Fund, and priority was given to servicing the foreign debt at the expense of public works and domestic credit. Alfonsín's failure to resolve worsening economic problems caused him to lose public confidence. Following a 1989 currency crisis that resulted in a sudden and ruinous 15-fold jump in prices, he left office five months early.[28] Newly elected President Carlos Menem began pursuing privatizations and, after a second bout of hyperinflation in 1990, reached out to economist Domingo Cavallo, who imposed a peso-US$ fixed exchange rate in 1991 and adopted far-reaching market-based policies, dismantling protectionist barriers and business regulations, while accelerating Carlos Menem receives the Presidential sash privatizations. These reforms contributed to significant increases in from Raúl Alfonsín in 1989. This was the first investment and growth with stable prices through most of the 1990s; but democratic transfer of power between opposing political parties in Argentina since 1916. the peso's fixed value could only be maintained by flooding the market with dollars, resulting in a renewed increase in the foreign debt. Towards 1998, moreover, a series of international financial crises and overvaluation of the pegged peso caused a gradual slide into economic crisis. The sense of stability and well being which had prevailed during the 1990s eroded quickly, and by the end of his term in 1999, these accumulating problems and reports of corruption had made Menem unpopular.[29] President Fernando de la Rúa inherited diminished competitiveness in exports, as well as chronic fiscal deficits. The governing coalition developed rifts, and his returning Cavallo to the Economy Ministry was interpreted as a crisis move by speculators. The decision backfired and Cavallo was eventually forced to take measures to halt a wave of capital flight and to stem the imminent debt crisis (culminating in the freezing of bank accounts). A climate of popular discontent ensued, and on 20 December 2001, Argentina dove into its worst institutional and economic crisis since the 1890 Barings financial debacle. There were violent street protests, which clashed with police and resulted in several fatalities. The increasingly chaotic climate, amid riots accompanied by cries that "they should all go", finally resulted in the resignation of President de la Rúa.[30] Three presidents followed in quick succession over two weeks, culminating in the appointment of interim President Eduardo Duhalde by the Legislative Assembly on 2 January 2002. Argentina defaulted on its international debt, and the peso's 11 year-old tie to the U.S. dollar was rescinded, causing a major depreciation of the peso and a spike in inflation. Duhalde, a Peronist with a centre-left economic position, had to cope with a financial and socio-economic crisis, with unemployment as high as 25% by mid 2002, and the lowest real wages in sixty years. The crisis accentuated the people's mistrust in politicians and institutions. Following a year racked by
Néstor Kirchner with his wife and successor, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, upon her inaugural in 2007.

Argentina protest, the economy began to stabilize in late 2002, and restrictions on bank withdrawals were lifted in December.[31] Benefiting from a devalued exchange rate the government implemented new policies based on re-industrialization, import substitution and increased exports and began seeing consistent fiscal and trade surpluses. Governor Néstor Kirchner, a left-wing Peronist, was elected president in May 2003. During his administration, Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with a steep discount (about 66%) on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund, renegotiated contracts with utilities and nationalized some previously privatized enterprises. Kirchner and his economists, notably Roberto Lavagna, also pursued a vigorous incomes policy and public works investment.[32] Argentina has since been enjoying economic growth, though with high inflation. Néstor Kirchner forfeited the 2007 campaign, in favor of his wife Senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who became the first woman to be elected President of Argentina. She saw controversial plans for higher agricultural export taxes defeated by Vice President Julio Cobos' surprise tie-breaking vote against them in July 2008, following massive agrarian protests and lockouts from March to July. The global financial crisis has since prompted Mrs. Kirchner to step up her husband's policy of state intervention in troubled sectors of the economy.[33] On 15 July 2010, Argentina became the first country in Latin America and the second country in the Southern Hemisphere to legalize same-sex marriage.[34] [35]

9

Politics
The Argentine Constitution of 1853 mandates a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches at the national and provincial level. The political framework is a federal representative democratic republic, in which the President is both head of state and head of government, complemented by a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power resides in the President and the Cabinet. The President and Vice President are directly elected to four-year terms and are limited to two terms. Cabinet ministers are appointed by the President and are not subject to legislative ratification. The current President is Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, with Julio Cobos as Vice President. Legislative power is vested in the bicameral National Congress, comprising a 72-member Senate and a 257-member Chamber of Deputies. Senators serve six-year terms, with one-third standing for re-election every two years. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected to four-year terms by a proportional representation system, with half of the members standing for re-election every two years. A third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President in consultation with the Senate. The judges of all the other courts are appointed by the Council of Magistrates of the Nation, a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, the Congress and the executive. Though declared the capital in 1853, Buenos Aires did not become the official Capital until 1880. The 1994 amendment of the Argentine Constitution included a limited form of devolution to Buenos Aires. The national government reserved control of the Argentine Federal Police (the federally administered city force), the Port of Buenos Aires, and other faculties, however.[36] Argentina is divided into twenty-three provinces (provincias; singular provincia) and one Autonomous City. Buenos Aires Province is divided into 134 partidos, while the remaining Provinces are divided into 376 departments (departamentos). Departments and Partidos are further subdivided into municipalities or districts. With the exception of Buenos Aires Province, the nation's provinces have chosen in recent years to enter into treaties with other provinces, forming four federated regions aimed at fostering economic integration and development: Center Region, Patagonic Region, New Cuyo Region, and the Argentine Greater North Region.

Argentina

10

Argentine National Congress

The Supreme Court

Casa Rosada (Executive branch)

Foreign policy
Argentina is a full member of the Mercosur block together with Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela; and five associate members: Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. From 2003 Argentina has emphasized Mercosur, which has some supranational legislative functions, as its first international priority; by contrast, during the 1990s, it relied more heavily on its relationship with the United States. Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member of the Antarctic Treaty System and the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is based in Buenos Aires.[37]

Argentina has long claimed sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom as British Overseas Territories, as well as almost 1000000 square kilometres ( sq mi) in Antarctica, between 25°W and 74°W and south of 60°S. The Antarctic claim overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all claims to Antarctica fall under the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty. Since 1904, a scientific post has been maintained in Antarctica by mutual agreement. While Argentina has employed threats and force to pursue its claims against Chile in the Beagle channel, against Britain in Antarctica[38] and the Falklands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, as well as against illegal trawlers, this is the exception rather than the rule in Argentine international relations.

The President of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, in a press conference with President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner.

Argentina

11

Argentina was the only Latin American country to participate in the 1991 Gulf War under the United Nations mandate, and played an important role in Operation Uphold Democracy, in Haiti.[39] Argentina has contributed worldwide to peacekeeping operations, including those in El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala, the Ecuador-Peru dispute, Western Sahara, Angola, Kuwait, Cyprus, Croatia, Kosovo, Bosnia and Timor Leste. In recognition of its contributions to international security, U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally in January 1998. It was last elected as a member of the UN Security Council in 2005. The United Nations White Helmets, a bulwark of peacekeeping and humanitarian aid efforts, were first deployed in 1994 following an Argentine initiative.[40]

Libertador Building (Ministry of Defense and Army Headquarters) and the museum ship ARA Sarmiento, a sail frigate.

Military
The armed forces of Argentina comprise an army, navy and air force, and number about 70,000 active duty personnel, one third fewer than levels before the return to democracy in 1983.[41] The President is commander-in-chief of the armed forces, with the Defense Ministry exercising day-to-day control. There are also two other forces; the Naval Prefecture (which patrols Argentine territorial waters) and the National Gendarmerie (which patrols the border regions); both arms are controlled by the Interior Ministry but maintain liaison with the Defense Ministry. The minimum age for enlistment in the armed forces is 18 years and there is no obligatory military service. Historically, Argentina's military has been one of the best equipped in the region (for example, developing its own jet fighters as early as the 1950s);[42] but recently it has faced sharper expenditure cutbacks than most other Latin American armed forces. Real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and though there have been recent increases, the defense budget is now around US$3 billion.[43] The armed forces are currently participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti and Cyprus.

Provinces
Argentina is composed of twenty-three provinces (Spanish: provincias, singular provincia) and one autonomous city (Ciudad autónoma de Buenos Aires). The city and the provinces have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. The administrative divisions of the Provinces are the departments (Spanish: departamentos, singular departamento), and the municipalities (Spanish: municipios or intendencias), except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes.

Argentina

12

Buenos Aires La Rioja San Juan Catamarca Chaco Formosa Corrientes Misiones Córdoba San Luis Mendoza Neuquén Río Negro Chubut La Pampa Entre Rios Santa Fe Salta Jujuy Santa Cruz Tierra del Fuego

Argentina Sgo del Estero T BA • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
a

13

 Autonomous City of Buenos Aires  Buenos Aires Province  Catamarca  Chaco  Chubut  Córdoba  Corrientes  Entre Ríos  Formosa  Jujuy  La Pampa  La Rioja  Mendoza  Misiones  Neuquén  Río Negro

a

 Salta  San Juan  San Luis  Santa Cruz  Santa Fe  Santiago del Estero  Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Surb  Tucumán
Not a Province. Autonomous City and seat of National Government.
b

Tierra del Fuego Province includes the Argentine claims over Antarctica, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

Argentina

14

Geography
The total surface area (excluding the Antarctic claim) is 2766891.2 km2 ( sq mi), of which 30200 km2 (11700 sq mi) (1.1%) is water. Argentina is about 3900 km (2400 mi) long from north to south, and 1400 km (870 mi) from east to west (maximum values). There are four major regions: the fertile central plains of the Pampas, source of Argentina's agricultural wealth; the flat to rolling, oil-rich southern plateau of Patagonia including Tierra del Fuego; the subtropical northern flats of the Gran Chaco, and the rugged Andes mountain range along the western border with Chile. The highest point above sea level is in Mendoza province at Cerro Aconcagua (6962 m (22841 ft)), also the highest point in the Southern[44] and Western Hemisphere.[45] The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in Santa Cruz province, −105 m (−344 ft) below sea level.[46] This is also the lowest point in South America. The geographic center of the country is in south-central La Pampa Topographic map of Argentina (including some province. The easternmost continental point is northeast of Bernardo territorial claims) de Irigoyen, Misiones,(26°15′S 53°38′W) the westernmost in the Mariano Moreno Range in Santa Cruz province.(49°33′S 73°35′W) The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province,(21°46′S 66°13′W) and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego. (55°03′S 66°31′W)[47] The major rivers are the Paraná (the largest), the Pilcomayo, Paraguay, Bermejo, Colorado, Río Negro, Salado and the Uruguay. The Paraná and the Uruguay join to form the Río de la Plata estuary, before reaching the Atlantic. Regionally important rivers are the Atuel and Mendoza in the homonymous province, the Chubut in Patagonia, the Río Grande in Jujuy and the San Francisco River in Salta. There are several large lakes including Argentino and Viedma in Santa Cruz, Nahuel Huapi between Río Negro and Neuquén, Fagnano in Tierra del Fuego, and Colhué Huapi and Musters in Chubut. Lake Buenos Aires and O'Higgins/San Martín Lake are shared with Chile. Mar Chiquita, Córdoba, is the largest salt water lake in the country. There are numerous reservoirs created by dams. Argentina features various hot springs, such as Termas de Río Hondo with temperatures between 65 °C (149 °F) and 89 °C (192 °F).[48]

The largest oil spill in fresh water was caused by a Shell Petroleum tanker in the Río de la Plata, off Magdalena, on 15 January 1999, polluting the environment, drinking water, and local wildlife.[49] The 4665 km (2899 mi) long Atlantic coast[50] has been a popular local vacation area for over a century, and varies between areas of sand dunes and cliffs. The continental platform is unusually wide; this shallow area of the Atlantic is called the Argentine Sea. The waters are rich in fisheries and possibly hold important hydrocarbon energy resources. The two major ocean currents affecting the coast are the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falkland Current. Because of the unevenness of the coastal landmass, the two currents alternate in their influence on climate and do not allow temperatures to fall evenly with higher latitude. The southern coast of Tierra del Fuego forms the north shore of the Drake Passage.

Mount Aconcagua, the highest outside the Himalayas.

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Climate

Snowy Cerro Catedral in Bariloche, Río Negro (South) and desert area in Talampaya, La Rioja (Northeast).

The generally temperate climate ranges from subtropical in the north to subpolar in the far south. The north is characterized by very hot, humid summers with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts. Central Argentina has hot summers with thunderstorms (western Argentina produces some of the world's largest hail), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions. The hottest and coldest temperature extremes recorded in South America have occurred in Argentina. A record high temperature of 49.1 °C (120.4 °F), was recorded at Villa María, Córdoba, on 2 January 1920. The lowest temperature recorded was −39 °C (−38.2 °F) at Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan, on 17 July 1972.[51] Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions. The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects west-central Argentina. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6000 m (19685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; when the Zonda blows (June–November), snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations. The Sudestada ("southeasterlies") could be considered similar to the Nor'easter, though snowfall is rare but not unprecedented. Both are associated with a deep winter low pressure system. The sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary. The southern regions, particularly the far south, experience long periods of daylight from November to February (up to nineteen hours) and extended nights from May to August.

Biodiversity

Emperor Penguins (Antarctic Region) and a coati (Mesopotamic Region).

Subtropical plants dominate the Gran Chaco in the north, with the Dalbergia genus of trees well represented by Brazilian Rosewood and the quebracho tree; also predominant are white and black algarrobo trees (prosopis alba and prosopis nigra). Savannah-like areas exist in the drier regions nearer the Andes. Aquatic plants thrive in the wetlands of Argentina. In central Argentina the humid pampas are a true tallgrass prairie ecosystem. The original pampa had virtually no trees; some imported species like the American sycamore or eucalyptus are present along roads or in towns and country estates (estancias). The only tree-like plant native to the pampa is the evergreen Ombú. The surface soils of the pampa are a deep black color, primarily mollisols, known commonly as humus. This makes the region one of the most agriculturally productive on Earth; however, this is also responsible for decimating much of the original ecosystem, to make way for commercial agriculture. The western pampas receive less rainfall, this dry pampa is a plain of short grasses or steppe.[52] The national government maintains 29 national parks.[53]

Argentina Most of Patagonia lies within the rain shadow of the Andes, so the flora, shrubby bushes and plants, is suited to dry conditions. The soil is hard and rocky, making large-scale farming impossible except along river valleys. Coniferous forests in far western Patagonia and on the island of Tierra del Fuego, include alerce, ciprés de la cordillera, ciprés de las guaitecas, huililahuán, lleuque, mañío hembra and pehuén, while broadleaf trees include several species of Nothofagus such as coihue, lenga and ñire. Other introduced trees present in forestry plantations include spruce, cypress and pine. Common plants are the copihue and colihue.[54] In Cuyo, semiarid thorny bushes and other xerophile plants abound. Along the many rivers grasses and trees grow in significant numbers. The area presents optimal conditions for the large scale growth of grape vines. In northwest Argentina there are many species of cactus. No vegetation grows in the highest elevations (above 4000 m (13000 ft)) because of the extreme altitude.

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A Puma (Northwest) and a Southern right whale (Patagonia).

Many species live in the subtropical north. Prominent animals include big cats like the jaguar, puma, and ocelot; primates (howler monkey); large reptiles (crocodiles), the Argentine Black and White Tegu and a species of caiman. Other animals include the tapir, peccary, capybara, bush dog, and various species of turtle and tortoise. There are a wide variety of birds, notably hummingbirds, flamingos, toucans, and swallows. The central grasslands are populated by the giant anteater, armadillo, pampas cat, maned wolf, mara, cavias, and the rhea (ñandú), a large flightless bird. Hawks, falcons, herons, and tinamous (perdiz, Argentine "false partridges") inhabit the region. There are also pampas deer and pampas foxes. Some of these species extend into Patagonia. The western mountains are home to different animals. These include the llama, guanaco, vicuña, among the most recognizable species of South America. Also in this region are the fox, viscacha, Andean Mountain Cat, kodkod, and the largest flying bird in the New World, the Andean Condor. Southern Argentina is home to the cougar, huemul, pudú (the world's smallest deer), and introduced, non-native wild boar.[54] The coast of Patagonia is rich in animal life: elephant seals, fur seals, sea lions and species of penguin. The far south is populated by cormorants. The territorial waters of Argentina have abundant ocean life; mammals such as dolphins, orcas, and whales like the southern right whale, a major tourist draw for naturalists. Sea fish include sardines, Argentine hakes, dolphinfish, salmon, and sharks; also present are squid and King crab (centolla) in Tierra del Fuego. Rivers and streams in Argentina have many species of trout and the South American golden dorado fish. Well known snake species inhabiting Argentina include boa constrictors and a very venomous pit viper named the yarará. The Hornero was elected the National Bird after a survey in 1928.[55]

Economy
Argentina has a market-oriented economy with abundant natural resources, a well-educated population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a relatively diversified industrial base. The nation's services sector accounts for around 59% of the economy and 72% of employment, manufacturing is 21% of GDP and 13% of employment, and agriculture is 9% of GDP, with 7% of employment; construction, mining, and public utilities divide the rest.[56] [57] Agriculture, including processed goods, provided 54% of export earnings in 2010, however, while industrial manufactures accounted for 35% (energy staples and metal ores were most of the remainder).[58]

Argentina High inflation has been a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades.[59] Officially hovering around 9% since 2006, inflation has been privately estimated at over 20%,[60] becoming a contentious issue again. The urban income poverty rate has dropped to 18% as of mid-2008, a third of the peak level observed in 2002, though still above the level prior to 1976.[61] [62] Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is still considerably unequal.[63] [64] Argentina ranks 105th out of 178 countries in the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index for 2010.[65] Reported problems include both government and private-sector corruption, the latter of which include money laundering, trafficking in narcotics and contraband, and tax evasion.[66] The Kirchner administration responded to the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009 with a record public-works program, new tax cuts and subsidies,[67] [68] and the transfer of private pensions to the social security system. Private pension plans, which required growing subsidies to cover, were nationalized to shed a budgetary drain as well as to finance high government spending and debt obligations.[69] [70] Argentina has, after its neighbour Chile, the second-highest Human Development Index, and the highest GDP per capita in purchasing power terms in Latin America. Argentina is one of the G-20 major economies, with the world's 27th largest nominal GDP, and the 22nd largest by purchasing power. The country is classified as upper-middle income or a secondary emerging market by the World Bank.

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History
Argentina's economy developed from 1875 onwards with a surge of agricultural exports, as well European investment and immigration. This boom ended in 1930, after which the economy began to slowly lose ground.[71] Domestic instability and global trends, however, contributed to Argentina's decline from its noteworthy position as the world's 10th wealthiest nation per capita in 1913[72] to 62nd by 2010 (though it remains above the world average in purchasing power parity terms).[5] Though no consensus exists explaining this, systemic problems include burdensome debt, monetary uncertainty, excessive regulation, barriers to free trade, and a weak rule of law with corruption and a large bureaucracy.[72]

The British-financed docks and railway system created a dynamic agro-export sector that remains as an economic pillar.

Even during the long decline from 1930 to 1980 the Argentine economy created Latin America's largest middle class as a proportion of the population.[20] A crisis period of two decades followed José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz's financial liberalization policies of the late 1970s, leading to an increased debt burden and interrupted industrial development and upward social mobility.[73] Expansionary policies and commodity exports triggered a rebound in GDP beginning in 2003. This trend has been largely maintained, creating millions of jobs and encouraging internal consumption. The socio-economic situation improved steadily, and the economy grew around 9% annually for five consecutive years until 2007, with another 7% in 2008.[56] The global recession of 2007–10 hit the country hard in 2009 with GDP growth slowing to 0.8%.[74] Argentine debt restructuring offers in 2005 and 2010 resumed payments on the majority of its almost $100 billion in defaulted bonds from 2001. The economic minister Amado Boudou said that with the offer, the Argentine government hoped "to end the shame of 2001 once and for all."[75] High GDP growth resumed in 2010, and the economy expanded by 8.5%.[76]

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Science and technology

Dr. Luis Agote (second from right) overseeing the first safe and effective blood transfusion (1914); and Dr. Luis Federico Leloir (left) and his staff toast his 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Argentina has contributed many distinguished doctors, scientists and inventors to the world, including three Nobel Prize laureates in sciences. Argentines have been responsible for major breakthroughs in world medicine; their research has led to significant advances in wound-healing therapies and in the treatment of heart disease and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery, and Francisco de Pedro invented a more reliable artificial cardiac pacemaker. Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American awarded with a Nobel Prize in the Sciences, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals; César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies; Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. A team led by Alberto Taquini and Eduardo Braun-Menéndez discovered angiotensin in 1939, and was the first to describe the enzymatic nature of the renin-angiotensin system and its role in hypertension.[77] The Leloir Institute of biotechnology is among the most prestigious in its field in Latin America and in the world.[78]

SAC-D satellite

Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe method of blood transfusion, Enrique Finochietto designed operating table tools such as the surgical scissors that bear his name ("Finochietto scissors") and a surgical rib-spreader.[79] They have likewise contributed to bioscience in efforts like the Human Genome Project, where Argentine scientists have successfully mapped the genome of a living being, a world first.[80] [81] Argentina's nuclear program is highly advanced, having resulted in a research reactor in 1957 and Latin America's first on-line commercial reactor in 1974. Argentina developed its nuclear program without being overly dependent on foreign technology. Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.[82] As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts[83] and is highly committed to global nuclear security.[84] In other areas, Juan Vucetich, a Croatian immigrant, was the father of modern fingerprinting (dactiloscopy).[85] Raúl Pateras Pescara demonstrated the world's first flight of a helicopter, Hungarian-Argentine László Bíró mass-produced the first modern ball point pens and Eduardo Taurozzi developed the pendular combustion engine.[86] Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007),[87] and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series.[88] The Pierre Auger Observatory near Malargüe, Mendoza, is the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory.[89]

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Demographics
Historical populations
Year 1869 1895 1914 1947 1960 1970 1980 1991 2001 2010 Pop. 1877490 ±% —

4044911 +115.4% 7903662 +95.4%

15893811 +101.1% 20013793 23364431 27947446 32615528 36260130 40091359 +25.9% +16.7% +19.6% +16.7% +11.2% +10.6%

In the 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130, and preliminary results from the 2010 census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants.[90] [91] Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The net migration rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants.[92] The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, somewhat below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates, recently about 1% a year, as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is still nearly twice as high as that in Spain or Italy, compared here as they have similar religious practices and proportions.[93] [94] The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 76.7 years.[92]
A crowd in Rosario reflects the importance of European immigration to Argentine ethnography and culture.

Ethnography
As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia, and the United States, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.[95] Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers, and 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe.[2] Argentina was second only to the US in the numbers of European immigrants received and, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.[96] 86.4% of Argentina's population self-identify as being of European descent. An estimated 8% of the population is Mestizo and 4% of Argentines are of Arab or Asian heritage.

Built in 1906 to welcome hundreds of newcomers daily, the Hotel de Inmigrantes is now a national museum.

Argentina Recent Illegal immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia and Paraguay, with smaller numbers from Peru, Ecuador and Romania.[97] The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland")[98] to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas——so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.[99]

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Religion
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion but also requires the government to support Roman Catholicism economically.[100] Until 1994 the President and Vice President had to be Roman Catholic, though there were no such restrictions on other government officials; although since 1945 members of other religious groups have held prominent posts. Catholic policy remains influential in government though, and still helps shape a variety of legislation. In a study assessing world-wide levels of religious regulation and persecution, with scores ranging from 0–10 where 0 represented low levels of regulation or persecution, Argentina received a score of 1.4 on Government Regulation of Religion, 6.0 on Social Regulation of Religion, 6.9 on Government Favoritism of Religion and 6 on Religious Persecution.[101] According to the World Christian Database Argentines are: 92.1% Christian, 3.1% agnostic, 1.9% Muslim, 1.3% Jewish, Cathedral of La Plata 0.9% atheist, and 0.9% Buddhist and others.[102] Argentine Christians are mostly Roman Catholic with estimates for the number of Catholics varying from 70%[103] to 90% of the population[104] (though perhaps only 20% attend services regularly).[92] Evangelical churches have been gaining a foothold since the 1980s with approximately 9% of the total population,[105] Pentecostal churches and traditional Protestant denominations are present in most communities and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims 330,000 followers in Argentina (their seventh-largest congregation in the world).[106] Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America.[107] A recent study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious (which includes those who believe in God but do not follow a religion), 4% are agnostics and 5% are atheist. Overall 24% attended religious services regularly. Protestants were the only group with a majority of followers who regularly attended services.[105]

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Language
The de facto official language of Argentina is Spanish, usually called castellano (Castilian) by Argentines. Argentina is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo (the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú (you), which occasions the use of alternate verb forms as well). The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are primarily located in the Río de la Plata basin. Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Río de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well. A phonetic study "Voseo" in a Buenos Aires billboard conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the accent of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires (known as porteños) is closer to the Neapolitan language, spoken in Southern Italy, than any other spoken language.[108] According to Ethnologue there are around 1.5 million Italian speakers (making it the second most spoken language in the country) and 1 million speakers of the North Levantine dialect of Arabic (spoken in Syria, Lebanon and Cyprus).[109] Standard German is spoken by 400,000—500,000 Argentines of German ancestry,[109] making it the fourth most spoken language. Some indigenous communities have retained their original languages. Guaraní is spoken by some in the north east, especially in Corrientes (where it enjoys official status) and Misiones. Quechua is spoken by some in the north west and has a local variant in Santiago del Estero. Aymara is spoken by members of the Bolivian immigrant community. In Patagonia there are Welsh-speaking communities with around 25,000 using it as their second-language.[109] Recent immigrants have brought Chinese and Korean (mostly to Buenos Aires). English, Brazilian Portuguese and French are also spoken. English is commonly taught at schools as a second language with Portuguese and French to a lesser extent.

Urbanization
Argentina is highly urbanized.[110] The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires City and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.[111] The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each[111] and Mendoza, Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe[111] [112] have at least half a million people each. The population is unequally distributed amongst the provinces: about 60% live in the Pampa region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires Province; Córdoba Province Santa Fe Province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Tucumán is the most densely populated with 60 inhabitants/km², the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average, while the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1 inhabitant/km². Most European immigrants settled in the cities, and the many small towns founded along the expanding railway system. From the 1930s rural migration into the nation's larger cities accounted for much of their population growth.[13] Argentine cities were originally built in a colonial Spanish grid style and many still retain this general layout, which is known as a damero (checkerboard). Most of the larger cities also feature boulevards and diagonal avenues inspired by Haussmann's renovation of Paris. The city of La Plata, designed at the end of the 19th century by Pedro Benoit, combines the checkerboard layout with added diagonal avenues at fixed intervals——it was also the first in South America to have electric street lights.[113]

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A panorama of the highly urbanized city of Buenos Aires, the country's largest city.

Largest cities

Culture
Argentine culture has significant European influences. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture.[115] The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance. Finally, indigenous American traditions (like yerba mate infusions) have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu.

Literature
Argentina has a rich literary history, as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Argentine writers have figured prominently in Latin American literature since becoming a fully united entity in the 1850s. The struggle between the Federalists (who favored a loose confederation of provinces based on rural conservatism) and the Unitarians (pro-liberalism and advocates of a strong central government that would encourage European immigration), set the tone for Argentine literature of the time.[116] The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, and Facundo[117] by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example. Hernández, a federalist, was opposed to the centralizing, modernizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences and therefore a more prosperous society.[118]
Jorge Luis Borges Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist. It was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late 19th century, and this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works in short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph.

Some of the nation's notable writers, poets and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni and María Elena Walsh.

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Visual arts
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscapes and, in recent decades, those around the world. Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulĉiĉ left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Rationalist architecture. Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally and César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities, worldwide. Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s, in particular, made him one of the world's most prestigious architects.

Font of the Nereids (1903) by Lola Mora, a student of Auguste Rodin's

One of the most influential Argentine figures in fine arts was Xul Solar, whose surrealist work used watercolors as readily as unorthodox painting media; he also "invented" two imaginary languages. The works of Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (in Naïve art style), Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (realism), Fernando Fader (impressionism), Pío Collivadino and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (post-impressionist), Emilio Pettoruti (cubist), Antonio Berni (neo-figurative), Gyula Košice (constructivism), Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art), Guillermo Kuitca (abstract), and Roberto Aizenberg (Surrealism) are a few of the best-known Argentine painters. Others include Benito Quinquela Martín, a quintessential 'port' painter for whom the working class and immigrant-bound La Boca neighborhood, in particular, was excellently suited. A similar environment inspired Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s. Evocative monuments ny Realist sculptors Erminio Blotta, Lola Mora and Rogelio Yrurtia became the part of the national landscape and today, Lucio Fontana and León Ferrari are acclaimed sculptors and conceptual artists. Ciruelo is a world-famous fantasy artist and sculptor, and Marta Minujín is an innovative Conceptual artist.

Film and theatre
The Argentine film industry creates around 80 full-length motion pictures annually.[115] [119] The per capita number of screens is one of the highest in Latin America, and viewing per capita is the highest in the region.[116] The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.[120] Since the 1980s, Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition, such as The Official Story (Best foreign film oscar in 1986), Man Facing Southeast, A Place in the World, Nine Queens, Son of the Bride, The Motorcycle Diaries, Blessed by Fire, and The Secret in Their Eyes, winner of the 2009 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. A new generation of Argentine directors has caught the attention of critics worldwide.[121] Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score nods. Lalo Schifrin has received numerous Grammys and is best known for the Theme from Mission: Impossible. Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater.[116] The Teatro Colón is a national landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered the best in the world.[115] With its theatre scene of national and international caliber, Corrientes Avenue is synonymous with the art. It is thought of as 'the street that never sleeps' and sometimes referred to as the Broadway of Buenos Aires.[122] The Teatro General San Martín is one of the most prestigious along Corrientes Avenue and the Teatro Nacional Cervantes functions as the national stage theater of Argentina. The Teatro Argentino de La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza and Libertador in Córdoba are also prominent. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the more prominent Argentine playwrights. Julio Bocca, Jorge Donn, José Neglia and Norma Fontenla are some of the great ballet dancers of the modern era.

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Music
Tango, the music and lyrics (often sung in a form of slang called lunfardo), is Argentina's musical symbol. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral groups too, like the bands of Osvaldo Pugliese, Anibal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan D'Arienzo. Incorporating acoustic music and later, synthesizers into the genre after 1955, bandoneon virtuoso Ástor Piazzolla popularized "new tango" creating a more subtle, intellectual and listener-oriented trend. Today tango enjoys worldwide popularity; ever-evolving, neo-tango is a global phenomenon with renown groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and the Gotan Project.

A Tango show in Buenos Aires

Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of several garage groups and aspiring musicians. Today it is widely considered the most prolific and successful form of Rock en Español. Bands such as Soda Stereo or Sumo, and composers like Charly García, Luis Alberto Spinetta, and Fito Páez are referents of national culture. Seru Giran bridged the gap into the 1980s, when Argentine bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere. Current popular bands include: Babasonicos, Rata Blanca, Horcas, Attaque 77, Bersuit, Los Piojos, Intoxicados, Catupecu Machu, Carajo and Miranda!. European classical music is well represented in Argentina. Buenos Aires is home to the world-renowned Colón Theater. Classical musicians, such as Martha Argerich, Eduardo Alonso-Crespo, Daniel Barenboim, Eduardo Delgado and Alberto Lysy, and classical composers such as Juan José Castro and Alberto Ginastera are internationally acclaimed. Some cities have annual events and important classical music festivals like Semana Musical Llao Llao in San Carlos de Bariloche and the multitudinous Amadeus in Buenos Aires. Beyond dozens of regional dances, a national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s. Perón's Argentina would give rise to Nueva Canción, as artists began expressing in their music objections to political themes. The style went on to influence the entirety of Latin American music.[123] Today, Chango Spasiuk and Soledad Pastorutti have brought folk back to younger generations. Leon Gieco's folk-rock bridged the gap between Argentine folklore and Argentine rock, introducing both styles to millions overseas in successive tours.

Media
The print media industry is highly developed and independent of the government, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national newspapers are from Buenos Aires, including the centrist Clarín, the best-selling daily in Latin America and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world.[124] Other nationally circulated papers are La Nación (center-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (left-wing), Ámbito Financiero (business conservative), Olé (sports) and Crónica (populist). The most circulated newsmagazine is Noticias.[125] Radio broadcasting in Argentina is predated only by radio in the United States, and began on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was broadcast by a team of medical students led Enrique Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo.[126] There are currently 260 AM broadcasting and 1150 FM broadcasting radio stations in Argentina.[127] The Argentine television industry is large and diverse, widely viewed in Latin America, and its productions seen around the world. Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, similar to percentages in North America.[128] Argentine comic artists have contributed prominently to national culture, including Alberto Breccia, Dante Quinterno, Oski, Francisco Solano López, Horacio Altuna, Guillermo Mordillo, Roberto Fontanarrosa, whose grotesque characters captured life's absurdities with quick-witted commentary, and Quino, known for the soup-hating Mafalda and her comic strip gang of childhood friends.

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Sports
Further information: Sport in Argentina The official national sport of Argentina is pato,[129] played with a six-handle ball on horseback, but the most popular sport is association football.[130] The national football team has won 25 major international titles[131] including two FIFA World Cups, two Olympic gold medals and fourteen Copa Américas.[132] Over one thousand Argentine players play abroad, the majority of them in European football leagues.[133] There are 331,811 registered football players,[134] with increasing numbers of girls and women, who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American champions in 2006. The Argentine Football Association (AFA) was formed in 1893 and is the eighth oldest national football association in the world. The AFA today counts 3,377 From a Superclásico derby between football clubs,[134] including 20 in the Premier Division. Since the AFA went Boca Juniors and River Plate professional in 1931, fifteen teams have won national tournament titles, (August 25, 1974) including River Plate with 33 and Boca Juniors with 24.[135] Over the last twenty years, futsal and beach soccer have become increasingly popular. The Argentine beach football team was one of four competitors in the first international championship for the sport, in Miami, in 1993.[136] Basketball is the second most popular sport; a number of basketball players play in the U.S. National Basketball Association and European leagues including Manu Ginóbili, Andrés Nocioni, Carlos Delfino, Luis Scola and Fabricio Oberto. The men's national basketball team won Olympic gold in the 2004 Olympics and the bronze medal in 2008. Argentina is currently ranked first by the International Basketball Federation. Argentina has an important rugby union football team, "Los Pumas", with many of its players playing in Europe. Argentina beat host nation France twice in the 2007 Rugby World Cup, placing them third in the competition. The Pumas are currently eighth in the official world rankings.[137] Other popular sports include field hockey (particularly amongst women), tennis, auto racing, boxing, volleyball, polo and golf. The Vamos vamos Argentina chant is a trademark of Argentine fans during sporting events.

Cuisine
Dishes & drinks from Argentina

Mate.

Asado.

Humita.

Milanesa.

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26

Empanadas.

Locro.

Dulce de Leche.

Alfajores.

Wine.

Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, which include empanadas (a stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humitas and yerba mate, all originally indigenous Amerindian staples, the latter considered Argentina's national beverage. Other popular items include chorizo (a spicy sausage), facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and Dulce de leche, a sort of milk caramel jam. The Argentine barbecue, asado as well as a parrillada, includes various types of meats, among them chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and morcilla (blood sausage). Thin sandwiches, sandwiches de miga, are also popular. Argentines have the highest consumption of red meat in the world.[138] The Argentine wine industry, long among the largest outside Europe, has benefited from growing investment since 1992; in 2007, 60% of foreign investment worldwide in viticulture was destined to Argentina.[139] The country is the fifth most important wine producer in the world,[140] with the annual per capita consumption of wine among the highest. Malbec grape, a discardable varietal in France (country of origin), has found in the Province of Mendoza an ideal environment to successfully develop and turn itself into the world's best Malbec.[139] Mendoza accounts for 70% of the country's total wine production. "Wine tourism" is important in Mendoza province, with the impressive landscape of the Cordillera de Los Andes and the highest peak in the Americas, Mount Aconcagua, 6952 m (22808 ft) high, providing a very desirable destination for international tourism.

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National emblems
Argentina has a number of national symbols, some of which are extensively defined by law.[141] The National Flag consists of three, equal in width, horizontal stripes, colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the centre of the middle, white stripe. The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol 20 July 1816. The Coat of Arms of Argentina, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as a seal for official documents. The Argentine National Anthem, adopted in 1813, was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera. It has been subsequently shortened to only three paragraphs, after omitting the lyrics' attacks against former occupant Spain. The Cockade of Argentina was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later. The Hornero, habitating practically across all the national territory, was unanimously designated as Argentina's national animal in 1927. The ceibo is the country's designated national flower and tree,[141] while the horseback game of pato is its national sport.[142] . Asado is the designated national dish, the Rhodochrosite the national stone, and wine the national liquor.[143] The Virgin of Lujan is Argentina's patron saint.

Education
After independence Argentina built a national public education system in comparison to other nations, placing the country high in the global rankings of literacy. Today Argentina has a literacy rate of 97%, and three in eight adults over age 20 have completed secondary school studies or higher.[61] School attendance is compulsory between the ages of 5 and 17. The Argentine school system consists of an elementary or lower school level lasting six or seven years, and a secondary or high school level lasting between five to six years. In the 1990s, the system was split into different types of high school instruction, called Educacion Secundaria and the Polimodal. Some provinces adopted the Polimodal while others did not. A project in the executive branch to repeal this measure and return to a more traditional secondary level system was approved in 2006.[144] President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is credited with pushing for and implementing a free and modern education system in Argentina. The 1918 university reform shaped the current tripartite representation of most public universities.

The ubiquitous white uniform of Argentine school children is a national symbol of learning

Education is funded by tax payers at all levels except for the majority of graduate studies. There are many private school institutions in the primary, secondary and university levels. Around 11.4 million people were enrolled in formal education of some kind in 2006, including 1.5 million in the nation's 85 universities.[61] Public education in Argentina is tuition-free from the elementary to the university levels. Though literacy was nearly universal as early as 1947,[61] the majority of Argentine youth had little access to education beyond the compulsory seven years of grade school during the first half of the 20th century; since then, when the tuition-free system was extended to the secondary and university levels, demand for these facilities has often outstripped budgets (particularly since the 1970s).[145] Consequently, public education is now widely found wanting and in decline; this has helped private education flourish, though it has also caused a marked inequity between those who can afford it (usually the middle and upper classes) and the rest of society, as private schools often have no scholarship systems in place. Roughly one in four primary and secondary students and one in six university students attend private institutions.[61] [145]

Argentina There are thirty-eight public universities across the country,[146] as well as numerous private ones. The University of Buenos Aires, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, and the National Technological University are among the most important. Public universities faced cutbacks in spending during the 1980s and 1990s, which led to a decline in overall quality.

28

Health care
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Government efforts to improve public health can be traced to Spanish Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz's first Medical Tribunal of 1780.[148] Following independence, medical schools were established at the University of Buenos Aires (1822) and the National University of Córdoba (1877). The training of doctors and nurses at these and other schools enabled the rapid development of health care cooperatives, which during the presidency of Juan Perón became publicly subsidized Obras Sociales. Today, these number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.[149]

Health care costs amount to almost 10% of GDP and have been growing in pace with the proportion of Argentines over 65 (7% in 1970). Public and private spending have historically split this about evenly: public funds are mainly spent through Obras, which in turn, refer patients needing hospitalization to private and public clinics; private funds are spent evenly between private insurers' coverage and out-of-pocket expenses.[150] [151] There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).[152] [153] The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.[152] [154] The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948[155] to 12.1 in 2009[152] and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76.[155] Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.[153]

The University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, alma mater to many of the country's 3,000 medical [147] graduates, annually.

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29

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[88] "‘Argentine satellite SAC-D’ will be presented in Bariloche" (http:/ / momento24. com/ en/ 2010/ 03/ 20/ argentine-satellite-sac-d-will-be-presented-in-bariloche/ ). Momento 24. . Retrieved 2010-10-29. [89] "Pierre Auger Observatory" (http:/ / www. auger. org/ news/ releases/ inauguration_release. html). Auger.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [90] "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001–2015" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 2/ proyecciones_provinciales_vol31. pdf) (in español) (PDF). Gustavo Pérez. INDEC. p. 16. . Retrieved 2008-06-24. [91] "Censo 2010: Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas" (http:/ / www. censo2010. indec. gov. ar/ ) (in Spanish). Censo2010.indec.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2011-06-19. [92] "Argentina" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ ar. html). The World Factbook. CIA. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [93] "PRB" (http:/ / www. prb. org/ pdf09/ 09wpds_eng. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [94] UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007. [95] "About Argentina" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ paginas. dhtml?pagina=1669). Government of Argentina. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [96] CELS – Informe 1998 (http:/ / www. cels. org. ar/ Site_cels/ publicaciones/ informes_pdf/ 1998. Capitulo7. pdf) [97] "El varieté de la calle Florida" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2007/ 03/ 04/ sociedad/ s-01373795. htm) (Editorial) – Clarín (Spanish) [98] "Patria Grande" (http:/ / www. patriagrande. gov. ar). Patriagrande.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [99] "Alientan la mudanza de extranjeros hacia el interior – Sociedad –" (http:/ / www. perfil. com/ contenidos/ 2007/ 07/ 21/ noticia_0035. html). Perfil.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [100] "Constitution of the Argentine Nation" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ documentos/ constitucion_ingles. pdf). Government of Argentina. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. See Article I, Chapter I, sections 2 and 14. As of 2010 the state pays the bishops' salary which is calculated as 80% of a judge's salary. [101] Argentina: Religious Freedom Profile at the Association of Religion Data Archives (http:/ / www. thearda. com/ internationalData/ countries/ Country_11_3. asp) Brian J Grim and Roger Finke. "International Religion Indexes: Government Regulation, Government Favoritism, and Social Regulation of Religion." Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 2 (2006) Article 1:www.religjournal.com [102] Argentina: Adherents Profile at the Association of Religion Data Archives (http:/ / www. thearda. com/ internationalData/ countries/ Country_11_2. asp) World Christian Database [103] Marita Carballo. Valores culturales al cambio del milenio ISBN 9507940642. Cited (http:/ / www. lanacion. com. ar/ 702434) in La Nación, 8 May 2005 [104] "Argentina" (http:/ / www. state. gov/ g/ drl/ rls/ irf/ 2006/ 71446. htm). International Religious Freedom Report. U.S. Department of State. 2006. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [105] "Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2008/ 08/ 27/ um/ encuesta1. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [106] "Number of Mormons in Argentina" (http:/ / www. lds. org. ar/ noticias2005/ noti_ene2005/ info_noti_ene2005_05. htm). Lds.org.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25.

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[107] Weiner, Rebecca. "The Virtual Jewish History Tour – Argentina" (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ vjw/ Argentina. html). . Retrieved 2008-01-09. [108] "Napolitanos y porteños, unidos por el acento" (http:/ / www. conicet. gov. ar/ diarios/ 2005/ diciembre/ 010. php) (in Spanish). CONICET. 6 December 2005. . Retrieved 16 October 2010. [109] Lewis, M. Paul, ed (2009). "Languages of Argentina" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=AR). Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas: SIL International. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [110] "Field listing – Urbanization" (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2212. html?countryName=Argentina& countryCode=ar& regionCode=sa& #ar). The World Factbook. CIA. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. [111] "Major Cities" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ paginas. dhtml?pagina=1484). Government of Argentina. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. [112] "Ubicacion" (http:/ / turismo. municipalidad-salta. gov. ar:8081/ ubicacion. aspx). Directorate-General of Tourism, Municipality of the City of Salta. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. (Spanish) [113] "EDELAP – 120 años de alumbrado público" (http:/ / www. edelap. com. ar/ 120/ llego. htm). Edelap.com.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [114] "3218.0 - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Argentina, 2006-07" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. gov. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 4/ EPHcont_1trim08. pdf). INDEC. 2008-03-31. . Retrieved 2008-06-06. [115] Luongo, Michael. Frommer's Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007. [116] Wilson, Jason. Cultural Guide to the City of Buenos Aires'. Oxford, England: Signal Books, 1999. [117] e-libro.net. Free digital books. Facundo (http:/ / www. e-libro. net/ E-libro-viejo/ gratis/ facundo. pdf)PDF (638 KB) [118] Levene, Ricardo. A history of Argentina. University of Noerth Carolina Press, 1937. [119] "Cine Nacional" (http:/ / www. cinenacional. com/ ). Cine Nacional. 2006-12-18. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [120] "Giannalberto Bendazzi: Quirino Cristiani, The Untold Story of Argentina's Pioneer Animator" (http:/ / www. awn. com/ mag/ issue1. 4/ articles/ bendazzi1. 4. html). Awn.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [121] Gavin Esler (2006-04-03). "About Gavin Esler's Argentina diary" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/ newsnight/ 4862388. stm). BBC News. . Retrieved 2011-06-20. [122] Adams, Fiona. (2001). Culture Shock Argentina. Portland, OR: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55868-529-4. [123] Music: 'El Derecho de vivir en paz' (http:/ / www. myfavouritemusic. info/ tovar42303030303938594c50. html) from http:/ / www. msu. edu/ ~chapmanb/ jara/ enueva. html [124] "News" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. pl?ACCT=109& STORY=/ www/ story/ 08-11-2008/ 0004865228& EDATE=PRN). Prnewswire.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [125] "Editorial Perfíl" (http:/ / www. perfil. com/ ). Perfil.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [126] "Clarín: La historia de la radio en la Argentina" (http:/ / edant. clarin. com/ diario/ 2005/ 08/ 26/ sociedad/ s-04202. htm) (in Spanish). Edant.clarin.com. 2005-08-26. . Retrieved 2011-06-19. [127] Mi Buenos Aires Querido. "Mi Buenos Aires Querido" (http:/ / www. mibuenosairesquerido. com/ xArgentina6. htm). Mi Buenos Aires Querido. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [128] Homes with Cable TV in Latin America (http:/ / lanic. utexas. edu/ project/ tilan/ statistics/ cable_table. html) Trends in Latin American networking [129] "Pato, Argentina's national sport" (http:/ / www. en. argentina. ar/ _en/ sports/ C480-pato-argentinas-national-sport. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [130] "Argentine sport" (http:/ / www. en. argentina. ar/ _en/ sports/ C777-argentine-sport. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [131] "Argentina" (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ associations/ association=arg/ ranking/ gender=m/ index. html). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [132] "Brazil is the Champion of America" (http:/ / www. conmebol. com/ articulos_ver. jsp?id=61156& slangab=E). South American Football Confederation. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [133] "Argentine soccer players exported abroad" (http:/ / www. en. argentina. ar/ _en/ sports/ C1069-argentine-soccer-players-exported-abroad. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [134] "Argentina: country information" (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ associations/ association=arg/ countryInfo. html). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [135] "Primera División – Campeones" (http:/ / www. afa. org. ar/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=1599:primera-division-campeones& catid=110:torneos-superiores& Itemid=78). Argentine Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [136] "History (of beach soccer)" (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ beachsoccerworldcup/ destination/ history/ index. html). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. Argentina earned the right to play in the 2010 World Cup in South Africa for which it joined Nigeria, Korea Republic and Greece for qualifying in group B. It was knocked-out in the quarterfinals by Germany. [137] "World Rankings" (http:/ / www. irb. com/ rankings/ full. html). irb.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [138] "Choices Article – Modern Beef Production in Brazil and Argentina" (http:/ / www. choicesmagazine. org/ 2006-2/ tilling/ 2006-2-12. htm). Choicesmagazine.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [139] "AWPro" (http:/ / awpro. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 06/ 11/ piano-piano/ ). Awpro.wordpress.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [140] Encyclopedia Britannica, Book of the Year (various issues): statistical appendix. [141] "Datos generales de Argentina" (http:/ / www. folkloredelnorte. com. ar/ tucuman/ argdatos. htm#simbolos). Folkloredelnorte.com.ar. . Retrieved 2011-06-19.

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[142] "Decree 17468 of September 16, 1953 decrees that the national sport or game shall be the one known as "El Pato"" (http:/ / www. glin. gov/ view. action?glinID=111271). Global Legal Information Network -Glin.gov. . Retrieved 2011-06-20. [143] "Declaran al vino bebida nacional" (http:/ / www. argentina. ar/ _es/ pais/ C5585-declaran-al-vino-bebida-nacional. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2011-06-19. [144] La Iglesia salió a defender la ley de Educación que el Gobierno quiere modificar (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2006/ 07/ 20/ sociedad/ s-03901. htm) Clarin.com 20 July 2006 (Spanish) [145] "Illiteracy" (http:/ / www. monografias. com/ trabajos10/ analfa/ analfa. shtml). Monografias.com. 2007-05-07. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [146] "Argentine Higher Education Official Site" (http:/ / spuweb. siu. edu. ar/ studyinargentina/ StudyinArgentina. htm). Spuweb.siu.edu.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [147] "AMA" (http:/ / www. ama-med. org. ar/ ). Ama-med.org.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [148] "UBA School of Medicine" (http:/ / www. fmed. uba. ar/ ). Fmed.uba.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [149] "IADB" (http:/ / www. iadb. org/ sds/ doc/ Desregulacion. pdf). IADB. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [150] Argentina: From Insolvency to Growth. World Bank Press, 1993. [151] Situación de la Salud (http:/ / www. apes. cocinfar. com/ Portals/ 0/ Sistema de Salud de%Argentina. pdf) [152] http:/ / www. deis. gov. ar/ Publicaciones/ Archivos/ Serie5Nro52. pdf [153] UNData (http:/ / undata. un. org/ ) [154] UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957. [155] UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997.

33

Sources
• Abad de Santillán, Diego (in Spanish). Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: TEA (Tipográfica Editora Argentina).

External links
• • • • • • • • OpenStreetMap has geographic data related to Argentina (http://www.openstreetmap.org/browse/relation/ 286393) Official website of Argentina (http://www.en.argentina.ar/) Argentina (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html) entry at The World Factbook Argentina (http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/argentina.htm) at UCB Libraries GovPubs LANIC Argentina page (http://lanic.utexas.edu/la/argentina/) Argentina (http://www.dmoz.org/Regional/South_America/Argentina/) at the Open Directory Project Wikimedia Atlas of Argentina Argentina travel guide from Wikitravel

History of Argentina

34

History of Argentina
The history of Argentina is divided by historians into four main parts: the pre-Columbian time, or early history (up to the sixteenth century), the colonial period (roughly 1516 to 1810), the independence wars and the early post-colonial period of the nation (1810 to 1880) and the history of modern Argentina (from around 1880). The beginning of prehistory in the present territory of Argentina began with the first human settlements on the southern tip of Patagonia around 13,000 years ago. The written history began with the arrival of Spanish chroniclers with the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís in 1516 to Río de la Plata river, which marks the beginning of Spanish domination in this region. In 1776 the Spanish Crown established the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, an umbrella of territories from which, with the Revolution of May 1810, began a process of gradual formation of several independent states, including one called the United Provinces of Río de la Plata. With the declaration of independence on July 9, 1816 and the military defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, a federal state was formed in 1853-1861, known today as the Republic of Argentina.

Pre-Columbian era
The area now known as Argentina was relatively sparsely populated until the period of European colonization. The earliest traces of human life are dated from the Paleolithic, and there are further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic.[1] However, large areas of the interior and piedmont were apparently depopulated during an extensive dry period between 4000 and 2000 B.C.[2] The Uruguayan archaeologist Raúl Campá Soler divided the indigenous peoples in Argentina into three main groups: basic hunters and food gatherers, without development of pottery, advanced gatherers and hunters, and basic farmers with pottery.[3] The second group could be found in the Pampa and south of Patagonia, and the third one included the Charrúas and the Guaraníes. Some of the different groups included the Onas at Tierra del Fuego, the Yámana at the archipelago between the Beagle Channel and Cape Horn, Tehuelches in the Patagonia, many peoples at the litoral, guaycurúes and matacos at Chaco. The Guaraníes had expanded across large areas of South America, but settled at few places within Argentina.

Spanish colonial era
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís visited the territory which is now Argentina in 1516. In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza established a small settlement at the modern location of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541. A second one was established 1580 by Juan de Garay, and Córdoba in 1573 by Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera. Those regions were part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, whose capital was Lima, and settlers arrived from that city. Unlike the other regions of South America, the colonization of the Río de la Plata estuary was not influenced by any gold rush, lacking any precious metals to mine.[4] The natural ports on the Río de la Plata estuary could not be used because all ships were meant to be made through the port of Callao near Lima, a condition that led to contraband becoming the normal means of commerce in cities such as Asunción, Buenos Aires, and Montevideo.[5] The Spanish raised the status of this region by establishing the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776. This viceroyalty consisted of today's Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia. Buenos Aires, now holding the customs of the new political subdivision, became a flourishing port, as the revenues from the Potosí, the increasing maritime activity in terms of goods rather than precious metals, the production of cattle for the export of leather and other products, and other political reasons, made it gradually become one of the most important commercial centers of the region. The viceroyalty was, however, short-lived due to lack of internal cohesion among the many regions of which it was constituted and to lack of Spanish support. Ships from Spain became scarce again after the Spanish defeat at the

History of Argentina battle of Trafalgar, that gave the British maritime supremacy. The British tried to invade Buenos Aires and Montevideo in 1806 and 1807, but were defeated both times by Santiago de Liniers. Those victories, achieved without help from mainland Spain, boosted the confidence of the city.[6] The beginning of the Peninsular War in Spain and the capture of the Spanish king Ferdinand VII created great concern all around the viceroyalty. It was considered that, without a King, the peoples in America should rule themselves. This idea led to multiple attempts to remove the local authorities at Chuquisaca, La Paz, Montevideo and Buenos Aires, all of which were short-lived. A new successful attempt, the May Revolution, took place when it was reported that all of Spain had been conquered, with the only exception of Cádiz an León.

35

War of independence
The May Revolution ousted the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros and replaced him with a junta, the Primera Junta. The change was not limited to the head of government, and started a process of transition from the absolute monarchy to the Republic, in line with the current ideas of the Age of Enlightenment, although other variants like a constitutional monarchy or a Regency were briefly considered. The viceroyalty was also renamed, removing the "Viceroyalty" word from it, and it nominally became the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata. However, the status of the different territories that used to belong to the viceroyalty changed many times during the development of the war, as some regions would remain loyal to former organization, others were captured or recaptured, and later they would divide into several countries. The first military campaigns against the royalists were waged by Manuel Belgrano and Juan José Castelli. The Junta, after expanding Portrait of José de San Martín. itself into the Junta Grande, was replaced by the First Triumvirate. A Second Triumvirate would replace it years later, calling for the Assembly of year XIII that was meant to declare independence and write a constitution. However, it did not do either thing, and replaced the triumvirates with an unipersonal head of state office, the Supreme Director. By this time José de San Martín arrived to Buenos Aires with other generals of the Peninsular War. They gave new strength to the Revolutionary war, which was compromised by the defeats of Belgrano and Castelli and the royalist resistance at the Banda Oriental. Alvear took Montevideo, and San Martín started a military campaign that would span across an important part of the Spanish territories in America. He created the Army of the Andes in Mendoza and, with help of Bernardo O'Higgins and other Chileans he made the Crossing of the Andes and liberated Chile. With the Chilean navy at his disposal, he moved to Peru, liberating that country as well. San Martín met Simón Bolívar at Guayaquil, and retired from action. A new assembly, the Congress of Tucumán, was called while San Martín was preparing the crossing of the Andes. It finally declared independence from Spain or any other foreign power. Bolivia declared itself independent in 1825, and Uruguay was created in 1828 as a result of the Argentina-Brazil War. The United Kingdom officially recognized Argentine independence in 1825, with the signing of a Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation on February 2; the British chargé d'affaires in Buenos Aires, Woodbine Parish, signed on behalf of his country. Spanish recognition of Argentine independence would take more decades to take place.

History of Argentina

36

Argentine Civil War
The defeat of the Spanish was followed by a long civil war between unitarians and federalists, about the organization of the country and the role of Buenos Aires in it. Unitarians thought that Buenos Aires should lead the less-developed provinces, as the head of a strong centralized government. Federalists thought instead that the country should be a federation of autonomous provinces, like the successful States of the United States. During this period the Argentine Confederation lacked a head of state, since the unitarian defeat at the Battle of Cepeda had ended the authority of the Supreme Directors and the 1819 Constitution. There was a new attempt in 1826 to write a constitution, leading to the designation of Bernardino Rivadavia as President of Argentina, but it was rejected by the provinces. Rivadavia resigned due to the poor management at the Argentina-Brazil War, and the 1826 constitution was repealed.
Governor Juan Manuel de Rosas. During this time, the Governors of Buenos Aires Province received the power to manage the international relations of the confederation, including war and debt payment. The dominant figure of this period was the federalist Juan Manuel de Rosas, who is portrayed from different angles by the diverse historiographic flows in Argentina: the liberal history usually considers him a dictator, while revisionists support him on the grounds of his defense of national sovereignty.[7] He ruled the province of Buenos Aires from 1829 to 1852, facing military threats from secession attempts, neighbour countries, and even European countries. Although Rosas was a Federalist, he kept the customs receipts of Buenos Aires under the exclusive control of the city, whereas the other provinces expected to have a part of the revenue. Rosas considered that this was a fair measure because only Buenos Aires was paying the external debt generated by the Baring Brothers loan to Rivadavia, the war of independence and the war against Brazil. He developed a paramilitary force of his own, the Popular Restorer Society, commonly known as "Mazorca" ("Corncob").

Rosas' reluctance to call for a new assembly to write a Constitution led General Justo José de Urquiza from Entre Ríos to turn against him. Urquiza defeated Rosas during the battle of Caseros and called for such an assembly. The Argentine Constitution of 1853 is, with amendments, still in force to this day. The Constitution was not immediately accepted by Buenos Aires, which seceded from the Confederation; it rejoined a few years later. Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country.

History of Argentina

37

The Liberal Governments (1862-1880)
The presidency of Bartolomé Mitre saw an economic improvement in Argentina, with agricultural modernization, foreign investment, new railroads and ports and an immigration wave from Europe. Mitre also stablized the political system by commanding federal interventions that defeated the personal armies of caudillos Chacho Peñaloza and Juan Sáa. Argentina joined Uruguay and Brazil against Paraguay in the War of the Triple Alliance, which ended during Sarmiento's rule with the defeat of Paraguayan and the annexation of part of its territory by Argentina. One of the major hallmarks of Mitre's presidency was the "Law of Compromise", in which Buenos Aires joined the Argentine Republic and allowed the government to use the City of Buenos Aires as the center of government, but without federalizing the city and by reserving the province of Buenos Aires the right to secede from the nation if conflict arose. In 1868 Mitre was succeeded by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, who promoted public education, culture and telegraphs. Sarmiento managed to defeat the last known caudillos and also dealt with the fallout of the President Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. Triple Alliance War, which included a decrease in national production due to the death of tons of soldiers who were formerly workers and an outburst of diseases brought by soldiers from the battlefield, such as cholera and yellow fever. In 1874 Nicolás Avellaneda became president and ran into trouble when he had to deal with the economic depression left by the Panic of 1873. Most of these economic issues were solved when new land was opened for work after the expansion of national territory through the Conquest of the Desert, led by his war minister Julio Argentino Roca. This military campaign took most of the territories under control of natives, and reduced their population. In 1880 a trade conflict caused turmoil in Buenos Aires, which led governor Carlos Tejedor to declare secession from the republic. Avellaneda denied them this right, breaking the Law of Compromise, and proceeded to send army troops led by Roca to take over the province. Tejedor's secession efforts were defeated and Buenos Aires definitely joined the republic, federalizing the city of Buenos Aires and handing it over to the government as the nation's capital city.

History of Argentina

38

The National Autonomist Hegemony (1880-1916)
After his surge in popularity due to his successful desert campaign, Julio Roca was elected president in 1880 as the candidate for the National Autonomist Party, a party that would remain in power until 1916. During his presidency, Roca created a net of political alliances and installed several measures that helped him retain almost absolute control of the Argentine political scene throughout the 1880s. This sharp ability with political strategy earned him his infamous nickname of "The Fox". The country's economy was benefited by a change from extensive farming to industrial agriculture, but there wasn't yet a strong move towards industrialisation. At that time, Argentina received some of the highest levels of foreign investment in Latin America. In the midst of this economic expansion, the Law 1420 of Common Education of 1884 guaranteed universal, free, non-religious education to all children. In the late 19th century and early 20th Argentina temporarily resolved its border disputes with Chile with the Puna de Atacama Lawsuit of 1899, the Boundary treaty of 1881 between Chile and Argentina and the 1902 General Treaty of Arbitration. Roca's government and those that followed were aligned with the Argentine oligarchy, especially the great land owners.

President Julio Argentino Roca, the central political figure of the PAN Hegemony years.

In 1888, Miguel Juárez Celman became president after Roca was constitutionally unable to be re-elected; Celman attempted to reduce Roca's control over the political scene, which earned him his predecessor's opposition. Roca leda great opposition movement against Celman, which coupled with the devastating effects that the Long Depression had on the Argentine economy allowed the Civic Union opposition party to start a coup d'etat which would e later known as the Revolution of the Park. The Revolution was led by the three main leaders of the Civic Union, Leandro Alem, former president Bartolomé Mitre and moderate socialist Juan B. Justo. Though it failed in its main goals, the revolution forced Juárez Celman's resignation and marked the decline of the Generation of '80. In 1891 Roca conducted one of his most infamous political plots. He proposed that the Civic Union elect somebody to be vice-president to his own presidency the next time elections came around. One group led by Mitre decided to take the deal, while another more intransigent group led by Alem went against that. This eventually led to the split of the Civic Union into the National Civic Union, led by Mitre, and the Radical Civic Union, led by Alem. After this division occurred, Roca withdrew his offer, having completed his plan to divide the Civic Union and decrease their power. Alem would eventually commit suicide in 1896; control of the Radical Civic Union went to his nephew and protegé, Hipólito Yrigoyen. After Celman's downfall, his vice-president Carlos Pellegrini took over and proceeded to resolve the economic crisis which afflicted the country, earning him the monicker of "The Storm Sailor". Fearing another wave of opposition from Roca like the one imposed on Celman, Pellegrini remained moderate in his presidency ending his predecessor's efforts to distance "The Fox" from political control. The following governments up until 1898 took similar measures and sided with Roca to avoid being politically chastised. In 1898, Roca became president again in a politically unstable situation, with a large amount of social conflicts that included massive strikes and anarchist subversion attempts. Roca handled most of these conflicts by having the police or the army crack down on protestors, rebels and suspected rebels. After the end of his second presidency, Roca fell ill and his role in political affairs began to gradually decrease until his death in late 1914.

History of Argentina In 1904, Alfredo Palacios, a member of Juan B. Justo's Socialist Party (founded in 1896), became the first Socialist deputy in Argentina, as a representative for the working class neighborhood of La Boca in Buenos Aires. He helped create many laws including the Ley Palacios against sexual exploitation, and others regulating child and woman labor, working hours and Sunday rest. The hegemony of the PAN ended in 1910 with the election of Roque Sáenz Peña to the presidency. Peña was a progressive member of the PAN who disliked the fraudulent elective system the PAN employed and thus passed the Ley Sáenza Peña, which made the political vote mandatory, secret and universal among males aged eighteen or more. Under this law the first non-PAN president since 1880 was elected in 1916, Hipólito Yrigoyen of the Radical Civic Union.

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The Radical Governments (1916-1930)
Conservative forces dominated Argentine politics until 1916, when the Radicals, led by Hipólito Yrigoyen, won control of the government through the first national elections under male universal suffrage. 745,000 citizens were allowed to vote, of a total population of 7.5 million (immigrants, who represented much of the population, were not allowed to vote); of these, 400,000 abstained themselves.[8] Yrigoyen, however, only obtained 45% of the votes, which did not allow him a majority in Parliament, where the conservatives remained the leading force. Thus, of 80 draft laws proposed by the executive, only 26 were voted through by the conservative majority.[9] A moderate agricultural reform proposal was rejected by Parliament, as was an income tax on interest, and the creation of a Bank of the Republic (which was to have the missions of the current Central Bank).[9] Despite this conservative opposition, the Radical Civic Union (UCR), with their emphasis on fair elections and democratic institutions, President Hipólito Yrigoyen. opened their doors to Argentina's expanding middle class as well as to social groups previously excluded from power. Yrigoyen's policy was to "fix" the system, by enacting necessary reforms which would enable the agroindustrial export model to preserve itself.[10] It alterned moderate social reforms with repression of the social movements. In 1918, an estudiantine movement started at the University of Córdoba, which eventually led to the University Reform, which quickly spread to the rest of Latin America. In May '68, French students recalled the Córdoba movement.[11] The Tragic Week of January 1919, during which the Argentine Regional Workers' Federation (FORA, founded in 1901) had called for a general strike after a police shooting, ended up in 700 killed and 4,000 injured.[12] General Luis Dellepiane marched on Buenos Aires to re-establish civil order. Despite being called on by some to initiate a coup against Yrigoyen, he remained loyal to the President, at the sole condition that the latter would allow him a free hand on the repression of the demonstrations. Social movements thereafter continued in the Forestal British company, and in Patagonia, where Hector Varela headed the military repression, assisted by the Argentine Patriotic League, killing 1,500.[13] On the other hand, Yrigoyen's administration enacted the Labor Code establishing the right to strike in 1921, implemented minimum wages laws and collective contracts. It also initiated the creation of the Dirección General de Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF), the oil state company, in June 1922. Radicalism rejected class struggle and advocated social conciliation.[14] Meanwhile, the Radicals continued Argentina's neutrality policy during World War I, despite the United States' urge to push them into declaring war against the Central Powers. Neutrality enabled Argentina to export goods to Europe,

History of Argentina in particular to Great Britain, as well as to issue credit to the belligerent powers. Germany sank two Argentine civilian ships, Monte Protegido on April 4, 1917 and the Toro, but the diplomatic incident only ended with the expulsion of the German ambassador, Karl von Luxburg. Yrigoyen organized a Conference of Neutral Powers in Buenos Aires, to oppose the United States' attempt to bring American states in the European war, and also supported Sandino's resistance in Nicaragua.[15] In September 1922, Yrigoyen's administration refused to follow the cordon sanitaire policy enacted against the Soviet Union, and, basing itself on the assistance given to Austria after the war, decided to send to the USSR 5 million pesos in assistance.[16] The same year, Yrigoyen was replaced by his rival inside the UCR, Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear, an aristocrat, who defeated Norberto Piñero's Concentración Nacional (conservatives) with 458,457 votes against 200,080. Alvear brought to his cabinet personalities belonging to the traditional ruling classes, such as José Nicolás Matienzo at the Interior Ministry, Ángel Gallardo at Foreign Relations, Agustín P. Justo at the War Ministry, Manuel Domecq García at the Marine and Rafael Herrera Vegas at the Haciendas. Alvera's supporters founded the Unión Cívica Radical Antipersonalista, opposed to Yrigoyen's party. During the early 1920s, the rise of the anarchist movement, fueled by the arrival of recent emigres and deportees from Europe, spawned a new generation of left-wing activism in Argentina. The new left, mostly anarchists and anarcho-communists, rejected the incremental progressivism of the old Radical and Socialist elements in Argentina in favor of immediate action. The extremists, such as Severino Di Giovanni, openly espoused violence and 'propaganda by the deed'. A wave of bombings and shootouts with police culminated in an attempt to assassinate U.S. President Herbert Hoover on his visit to Argentina in 1928 and a nearly successful attempt to assassinate Yrigoyen in 1929 after he was re-elected to the presidency. In 1921, the counter-revolutionary Logia General San Martín was founded, and diffused nationalist ideas in the military until its dissolution in 1926. Three years later, the Liga Republicana (Republican League) was founded by Roberto de Laferrere, on the model of Benito Mussolini's Black shirts in Italy. The Argentine Right found its major influences in the 19th century Spanish writer Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo and in the French royalist Charles Maurras.[17] Also in 1922, the poet Leopoldo Lugones, who had turned towards fascism, made a famous speech in Lima, known as "the time of the sword", in the presence of the War Minister and future dictator Agustín P. Justo, which called for a military coup and the establishment of a military dictatorship. In 1928, Yrigoyen was re-elected as president and began a series of reforms to increase workers' rights. This harshened the conservative opposition against Yrigoyen, which grew even stronger after Argentina was devastated by the beginning of the Great Depression after the Wall Street Crash. On Septemnber the 6th of 1930, a military coup led by the pro-fascist general José Félix Uriburu overthrew Yrigoyen's government and began a period in Argentine history known as the Infamous Decade.

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History of Argentina

41

The Infamous Decade (1930-1943)
In 1929, Argentina had the world's fourth highest per capita GDP. These years of prosperity ended with the Crash of 1929 and the ensuing worldwide Great Depression. In 1930, a military coup, supported by the Argentine Patriotic League, forced Hipólito Yrigoyen from power, and replaced him by José Félix Uriburu. Support for the coup was bolstered by the sagging Argentine economy, as well as a string of bomb attacks and shootings involving radical anarchists, which alienated moderate elements of Argentine society and angered the conservative right, which had long been agitating for decisive action by the military forces.

The Flagship Sarmiento and the Ministry of Defense, Buenos Aires.

The military coup initiated the period known as the "Infamous Decade", characterised by electoral fraud, persecution of the political opposition (mainly against the UCR) and pervasive government corruption, against the background of the global depression. After becoming president through the coup, Uriburu attempted to create a constitutional reform that would include corporatism in the Argentine Constitution. This move toward fascism was viewed negatively by the conservative backers of the coup and they turned their support to the more moderate conservative general Agustín P. Justo, who won the presidency in a 1932 election that was heavily fraudulent. Justo began a policy of liberal economic moves that benefitted mostly the nation's upper classes and permitted great political and industrial corruption at the expense of national growth. One of the msot infamous decisions of Justo's government was the creation of the Roca-Runciman Treaty between Argentina and the United Kingdom, which benefitted the British economy and the rich beef producers of Argentina at the expense of national interest. In 1935, progressive democrat Senator Lisandro de la Torre began an investigation into several corruption allegations within the Argentine beef production industry, during which he attempted to charge Justo's Minister of Agriculture, Luis Duhau, and the Minister of Finnance, Federico Pinedo, with political corruption and fraud charges. During the exposition of the investigation in the National Congress Duhau started a fight among the Senators, during which his bodyguard, Ramón Valdez-Cora, tried to kill De La Torre but accidentally ended up shooting De La Torre's friend and political partner Enzo Bordabehere. The meat investigation was dropped soon afterwards, but not before De La Torre managed to achieve the incarcerration of the head of the Anglo meat company for corruption charges. The collapse of international trade led to industrial growth focused on import substitution, leading to a stronger economic independence. Political conflict increased, marked by confrontation between right-wing fascists and leftist radicals, while military-oriented conservatives controlled the government. Though many claimed the polls to be fraudulent, Roberto Ortiz was elected president in 1937 and took office the next year, but due to his fragile health he was succeeded by his vice-president, Ramón Castillo. Castillo effectively took power in 1940; he formally assumed leadership in 1942.

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The Revolution of '43 (1943-1946)
The civilian government appeared to be close to joining the allies, but many officers of the Argentine armed forces (and ordinary Argentine citizens) objected due to fear of the spread of communism. There was a wide support to stay neutral in the conflict, as during WWI. The government was also questioned by domestic policy reasons, namely, the electoral fraud, the poor labour rights and the selection of Patrón Costas to run for the presidency. On June 4, 1943, the G.O.U. (Grupo de Oficiales Unidos), which was a secret alliance between military leaders led by Pedro Pablo Ramírez, Arturo Rawson, Edelmiro Farrell and Farrell's protegé Juan Domingo Perón marched to the Casa Rosada and demanded the resignation of president Castillo. After hours of threats their goal was achieved and the president resigned. This event is considered by historians as the official end of the Infamous Decade. After the coup, Ramírez took power. Although he did not declare war, he broke relations with the axis powers. Argentina's largest neighbor, Brazil, had already entered the war on the allied side in 1942. In 1944 Ramirez was replaced by Farrell, an army officer of Irish-Argentine origin who had spent two years attached to Mussolini's army in the twenties. Initially his government continued to maintain a neutral policy. Towards the end of the war, Farrell decided it was in the interests of Argentina to be attached to the winning side. Like several Latin American states, Argentina made a late declaration of war against Germany with no intention of providing any military forces. Juan Domingo Perón managed the relations with labourers and unions, and become highly popular. He was deposed and detained at the Martín García island, but a massive demonstration on October 17, 1945, forced the government to free Perón and restore him to office. Perón would win the elections shortly afterwards by a landslide. The US ambassador, Spruille Braden, took direct action in Argentine politics supporting the antiperonist parties.

The Peronist Years (1946-1955)
In 1946 General Juan Perón became president; his populist ideology became known as peronism. His popular wife Eva Perón played a leading political role until her death in 1952.[18] Perón established censorship by closing down 110 publications between 1943 and 1946.[19] During Juan Perón's rule, the number of unionized workers and government programs increased.[20] His government followed an isolationist foreign policy and attempted to reduce the political and economic influence of other nations. Perón expanded government spending. His policies led to ruinous inflation. The peso lost about 70% of its value President Juan Perón (1946) from early 1948 to early 1950; inflation reached 50% in 1951.[21] Opposition members were imprisoned and some of them tortured.[22] He dismissed many important and capable advisers, while promoting officials largely on the basis of personal loyalty. A coup (Revolución Libertadora) led by Eduardo Lonardi, and supported by the Catholic Church, deposed him in 1955. He went into exile, eventually settling in Francoist Spain.

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The Revolución Libertadora (1955-1958)
Further information: Revolución Libertadora In Argentina, the 1950s and 1960s were marked by frequent coups d'état, low economic growth in the 1950s and high growth rates in the 1960s. Argentina faced problems of continued social and labor demands. Argentine painter Antonio Berni's works reflected the social tragedies of these times, painting in particular life in the villas miseria (shanty towns). Following the Revolución Libertadora military coup, Eduardo Lonardi held power only briefly and was succeeded by Pedro Aramburu, president from November 13, 1955 to May 1, 1958. In June 1956, two Peronist generals, Juan José Valle and Raul Tanco, attempted a coup against Aramburu, criticizing an important purge in the army, the abrogation of social reforms and persecution against trade-union leaders. They also demanded liberation of all political and labor activists and the return to the constitutional order. The uprising was quickly crushed: General Valle and other members of the military were executed, and twenty civilians were arrested at their homes and their bodies thrown in the León Suarez dumping ground. Along with the June 1955 Casa Rosada bombing on the Plaza de Mayo, the León Suarez massacre is one of the important events that started a cycle of violence. Pedro Aramburu was later kidnapped and executed for this massacre, in 1970, by Fernando Abal Medina, Emilio Angel Maza, Mario Firmenich and others, who would later form the Montoneros movement.[23] In 1956, special elections were held to reform the constitution. The Radical Party under Ricardo Balbín won a majority, although 25% of all ballots were turned in blank as a protest by the banned Peronist party. Also in support of Peronism, the left wing of the Radical Party, led by Arturo Frondizi, left the Constitutional Assembly. The Assembly was severely damaged by that defection and was only able to restore the Constitution of 1853 with the sole addition of the Article 14 bis, which enumerated some social rights.

The Fragile Radical Administrations (1958-1966)
Ban on Peronism expression and representation continued during the fragile civilian governments of the period 1958-1966. Frondizi, UCRI's candidate, won the presidential elections of 1958, obtaining approximately 4,000,000 votes against 2,500,000 for Ricardo Balbín (with 800,000 neutral votes). From Caracas, Perón supported Frondizi and called upon his supporters to vote for him, as a means toward the end of prohibition of the Peronist movement and the re-establishment of the workers' social legislation voted during Perón's leadership. On one hand, Frondizi appointed Álvaro Alsogaray as Minister of Economy to placate powerful agrarian interests and other conservatives. A member of the powerful military dynasty Alsogaray, Álvaro, who had already been Minister of Industry under Aramburu's military rule, devalued the peso and imposed

President Arturo Frondizi.

credit control. On the other hand, Frondizi followed a laicist program, which raised concerns among the Catholic nationalist forces, leading to the organization, between 1960 and 1962, of the far-right Tacuara Nationalist Movement. The Tacuara, the "first urban guerrilla group in Argentina",[24] engaged in several anti-semitic bombings, in particular following Adolf Eichmann's kidnapping by the MOSSAD in 1960. During the visit of Dwight Eisenhower to Argentina, in February 1962 (Eisenhower had been until 1961 President of the United States), the Tacuara headed

History of Argentina nationalist demonstrations against him, leading to the imprisonment of several of their leaders, among whom Joe Baxter.[25] However, Frondizi's government ended in 1962 with intervention yet again by the military, after a series of local elections were won by the Peronist candidates. José María Guido, chairman of the senate, claimed the presidency on constitutional grounds before the deeply divided Armed Forces were able to agree on a name. In new elections in 1963, neither Peronists nor Communists were allowed to participate. Arturo Illia of the Radical People's Party won these elections; regional elections and by-elections over the next few years favored Peronists. On the other hand, the Tacuara were outlawed by Illia in 1965, some of its members ultimately turning to the Peronist Left (such as Joe Baxter) while other remained on their far-right positions (such as Alberto Ezcurra Uriburu, who would work with the Triple A). Despite the fact that the country grew and developed economically during Illia's tenure as president, he was eventually ousted in a military coup in 1966.

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The ousting of President Arturo Illia was initially broadly supported but later deeply regretted by the Argentine population.

Revolución Argentina (1966-1973)
Amidst growing workers' and students' unrest, another coup took place in June 1966, self-designated Revolución Argentina (Argentiene Revolution), which established General Juan Carlos Onganía as de facto president, supported by several leaders of the General Confederation of Labour (CGT), among whom the general secretary Augusto Vandor. This led to a series of military-appointed presidents. While preceding military coups were aimed at establishing temporary, transitional juntas, the Revolución Argentina headed by Onganía aimed at establishing a new political and social order, opposed both to liberal democracy and Communism, which gave to the Armed Forces of Argentina a leading, political role in the economic rationalization of the country. The political scientist Guillermo O'Donnell named this type of regime "authoritarian-bureaucratic state",[26] in reference both to the Revolución Argentina, the Brazilian military regime (1964–1985), Augusto Pinochet's regime (starting in 1973) and Juan María Bordaberry's regime in Uruguay. Onganía's Minister of Economy, Adalbert Krieger Vasena, decreed a freeze of wages' increase and a 40% devaluation, which strongly affected the state of the Argentine economy, in particular of the agricultural sector, favoring foreign capital. Vasena suspended collective labour conventions, reformed the hydrocarburs law which had established a partial monopoly of the Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) state enterprise, as well as passing a law facilitating expulsions in case of fault of payment of rent. Finally, the right to strike was suspended (Law 16,936) and several other laws reversed progress made concerning labor laws through-out the preceding years. The workers' movement divided itself between Vandoristas, who supported a "Peronism without Peron" line (Vandor declared that "to save Perón, one has to be against Perón") and advocated negotiation with the junta, and Peronists, themselves divided. In July 1966, Onganía ordered the forcible clearing of five facilities of the Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA) in Argentina on July 29, 1966 by the Federal Police, an event known as La Noche de los Bastones Largos ("The Night of the Long Police Sticks"). These facilities had been occupied by students, professors and graduates (members of the autonomous government of the university) who opposed the military government's intervention in the universities and revocation of the 1918 university reform. The university repression led to the exile of 301 university

History of Argentina professors, including Manuel Sadosky, Tulio Halperín Donghi, Sergio Bagú and Risieri Frondizi.[27] In late May 1968, General Julio Alsogaray dissented from Onganía, and rumors spread about a possible coup d'état, Algosaray leading the conservative opposition to Onganía. Finally, at the end of the month, Onganía dismissed the leaders of the Armed Forces: Alejandro Lanusse replaced Julio Alsogaray, Pedro Gnavi replaced Benigno Varela, and Jorge Martínez Zuviría replaced Adolfo Alvarez. On 19 September 1968, two important events affected Revolutionary Peronism. On one hand, John William Cooke, former personal delegate of Perón and ideologist of the Peronist Left, as well as a friend of Fidel Castro, died from natural causes. On the other hand, a small group (13 men and one woman) who aimed at establishing a foco in Tucuman Province, in order to head the resistance against the junta, was captured.[28] Among them was Envar El Kadre, then a leader of the Peronist Youth.[28] In 1969, the CGT de los Argentinos (CGTA, headed by the graphist Raimundo Ongaro) headed social movements, in particular the Cordobazo, as well as other movements in Tucuman and Santa Fe. While Perón managed a reconciliation with Augusto Vandor, head of the CGT Azopardo, he followed, in particular through the voice of his delegate Jorge Paladino, a cautious line of opposition to the military junta, criticizing with moderation the neoliberal policies of the junta but waiting for discontent inside the government ("hay que desencillar hasta que aclare", said Perón, advocating patience). Thus, Onganía had an interview with 46 CGT delegates, among whom Vandor, who agreed on "participationism" with the military junta, thus uniting themselves with the Nueva Corriente de Opinión headed by José Alonso and Rogelio Coria. In December 1969, more than 20 priests, members of the Movimiento de Sacerdotes para el Tercer Mundo (MSTM, Movement of Priests for the Third World), marched on the Casa Rosada to present to Onganía a petition pleading him to abandon the eradication plan of villas miserias (shanty towns).[29] Meanwhile, Onganía implemented corporatism policies, experimenting in particular in Córdoba, underneath Carlos Caballero's governance. The same year, the Movement of Priests for the Third World issued a declaration supporting Socialist revolutionary movements, which lead to the Catholic hierarchy, by the voice of Juan Carlos Aramburu, coadjutor archbishop of Buenos Aires, to proscribe priests from making political or social declarations.[30]

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Growing instability (1969-1976)
During the de facto government of the Revolución Argentina the left began to regain power through underground movements. This was mainly through violent guerilla groups. Later, the return of Peronism to power was expected to calm down the heated waters but did exactly the opposite, creating a violent breach between right-wing peronism and left-wing peronism, leading to years of violence and political instability that culminated with the coup d'état of 1976.

The Subversive Years (1969-1973)
Various armed actions, headed by the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación (FAL), composed by former members of the Revolutionary Communist Party, occurred in April 1969, leading to several arrests among FAL members. These were the first left-wing urban guerrilla actions in Argentina. Beside these isolated actions, the Cordobazo uprising of 1969, called forth by the CGT de los Argentinos, and its Cordobese leader, Agustín Tosco, prompted demonstrations in the entire country. The same year, the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP) was formed as the military branch of the Trotskyist Workers' Revolutionary Party, kidnapping and killing Argentines.[31] [32] The last of the military presidents de facto, Alejandro Lanusse, was appointed in 1971 and attempted to re-establish democracy amidst an atmosphere of continuing Peronist worker protests.

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Cámpora's Tenure (1973)
On March 11, 1973, Argentina held general elections for the first time in ten years. Perón was prevented from running, but voters elected his stand-in, Dr. Hector Cámpora, as President. Cámpora defeated his Radical Civic Union opponent. Campora won 49.5 percent of the votes in the presidential election following a campaign based on a platform of national reconstruction. Riding a wave of mass support, Campora was inaugurated on May 25. Cámpora acceded to his functions on May 25, which was saluted by a massive popular gathering of the Peronist Youth movement, Montoneros, FAR and FAP (Fuerzas Armadas Peronistas) in the Plaza de Mayo. Cámpora assumed a strong stance against right-wing Peronists, declaring during his first speech: La sangre derramada no será negociada ("Spilled blood will not be negotiated"). Cuban president Osvaldo Dorticós and Chilean president Salvador Allende were present at his inauguration, while William P. Rogers, U.S. Secretary of State, and Uruguayan president Juan Bordaberry, could not attend, blocked in their car by demonstrators. Political prisoners were liberated on the same day, under the pressure of the demonstrators. Cámpora's government included progressive figures such as Interior Minister Esteban Righi and Education Minister Jorge Taiana, but also included members of the labor and political right-wing Peronist factions, such as José López Rega, Perón's personal secretary and Minister of Social Welfare, and a member of the P2 Masonic lodge.[33] Perón's followers also commanded strong majorities in both houses of Congress. Hector Cámpora's government followed a traditional Peronist economic policy, supporting the national market and redistributing wealth. One of José Ber Gelbard's first measures as minister of economics was to augment workers' wages. However, the 1973 oil crisis seriously affected Argentina's oil-dependent economy. Almost 600 social conflicts, strikes or occupations occurred in Cámpora's first month. The military conceded Campora's victory, but strikes, as well as government-backed violence, continued unabated. The slogan "Campora in government, Perón in power" expressed the real source of popular joy, however.

The Return of Perón (1973-1974)
Amidst escalating terror from right and left alike, Perón decided to return and assume the presidency. On June 20, 1973, two million people waited for him at Ezeiza airport. From Perón's speaking platform, camouflaged far-right gunmen fired on the masses, shooting at the Peronist Youth movement and the Montoneros, killing at least thirteen and injuring more than three hundred (this became known as the Ezeiza massacre).[34] Cámpora and vice-president Solano Lima resigned on July 13. Deputy Raúl Alberto Lastiri, José López Rega's son-in-law and also a P2 member, was then promoted to the Presidency to organize elections. Cámpora's followers such as Chancellor Juan Carlos Puig and Interior Minister Esteban Righi were immediately replaced by Alberto J. Vignes and Benito Llambi, and the Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo' (ERP - People's Revolutionary Army) declared a "dissolved terrorist organization". On September 23, Perón won the elections with 61.85% of the votes, with his third wife, María Estela Isabel Martínez de Perón, as vice-president.

Juan Perón greets a crowd in Plaza de Mayo shortly before his death.

Peronist right-wing factions won a decisive victory and Perón assumed the Presidency in October 1973, a month after Pinochet's coup in Chile. Violent acts, including by the Triple A, continued to threaten public order. On September 25, 1973, José Ignacio Rucci, CGT trade-union's Secretary General and Perón's friend, was assassinated by the Montoneros. The government resorted to a number of emergency decrees, including the implementation of special executive authority to deal with violence. This allowed the government to imprison persons indefinitely

History of Argentina without charge. Perón won 61.9 percent of the vote and, with his wife Maria Estela (Isabel) Martinez de Perón as vice president, was inaugurated on October 12. In his second period in office, Perón was committed to achieving political peace through a new alliance of business and labor to promote national reconstruction. Peron's charisma and his past record with respect to labor helped him maintain his working-class support. Isabel de Perón was inexperienced in politics and only carried Peron's name; Lopez Rega was described as a man with numerous occult interests, including astrology, and a supporter of dissident Catholic groups. Economic policies were directed at restructuring wages and currency devaluations in order to attract foreign investment capital to Argentina. Lopez Rega was ousted as Isabel de Peron's adviser in June 1975; General Numa Laplane, the commander in chief of the army who had supported the administration through the Lopez Rega period, was replaced by General Jorge Rafael Videla in August 1975.[35]

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Isabel's Government (1974-1976)
Perón died on July 1, 1974. His wife succeeded him in office, but her administration was undermined by economic downfall (inflation was skyrocketing and GDP contracted), Peronist intra-party struggles, and growing acts of terrorism by insurgents such as the ERP and paramilitary movements. Montoneros, led by Mario Firmenich, cautiously decided to go underground after Peron's death. Isabel Perón was removed from office by the military coup on March 24, 1976. This gave way to the last and arguably most violent de facto government in Argentina, the National Reorganization Process.

The National Reorganization Process (1976-1983)
Following the coup against Isabel Perón, the armed forces formally exercised power through a junta led consecutively by Videla, Viola, Galtieri and Bignone until December 10, 1983. These de facto leaders termed their government programme "National Reorganization Process". In the late 1960s and the early 1970s, Marxist-Leninist militias such as People's Revolutionary Army utilized aggressive tactics that sometimes resulted in violence.[31] Later the military government used these acts as justification for their even more brutal measures. The "ideological war" doctrine of the Argentine military focused on eliminating the social base of insurgency. In practice that meant assassinating many middle class students, intellectuals and labor organizers, most of whom had few ties to the guerrillas.

General Jorge Videla, de facto president from 1976 to 1981.

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The costs of what the armed forces called the "Dirty War" were high in terms of lives lost and basic human rights violated. Thousands of deaths may be attributed to various guerrilla attacks and assassinations. The 1984 Commission on the Disappeared documented the disappearance and probable death at the hands of the military regime of about 11,000 people, relatively few of whom were likely Montonero or ERP cadres. Human rights groups estimate that over 30,000 persons were "disappeared" (e.g. arrested, tortured, and secretly executed without trial) during the 1976–1983 period; many more went into exile. The People's Revolutionary Army alone admitted it lost 5,000 militants.[36]

Monument to the Falklands War Fallen, Neuquen.

Serious economic problems, mounting charges of corruption, public discontent and, finally, the country's 1982 defeat by the United Kingdom in the Falklands War following Argentina's unsuccessful attempt to seize the Falkland Islands all combined to discredit the Argentine military regime. Under strong public pressure, the junta lifted bans on political parties and gradually restored basic political liberties.

Beagle conflict
The Beagle conflict began to brew in the 1960s, when Argentina began to claim that the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands in the Beagle Channel were rightfully hers. In 1971, Chile and Argentina signed an agreement formally submitting the Beagle Channel issue to binding Beagle Channel Arbitration. On May 2, 1977 the court ruled that the islands and all adjacent formations belonged to Chile. See the Report and decision of the Court of Arbitration [37]. On 25 January 1978 the Argentina military junta led by General Jorge Videla declared the award fundamentally null and intensified their claim over the islands. On 22 December 1978, Argentina started[38] the Operation Soberania over the disputed islands, but the invasion was halted due to: (The newspaper Clarín explained some years later that such caution was based,) in part, on military concerns. In order to achieve a victory, certain objectives had to be reached before the seventh day after the attack. Some military leaders considered this not enough time due to the difficulty involved in transportation through the passes over the Andean Mountains.[39] and in cite 46: According to Clarín, two consequences were feared. First, those who were dubious feared a possible regionalization of the conflict. Second, as a consequence, the conflict could acquire great power proportions. In the first case decisionmakers speculated that Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Brazil might intervene. Then the great powers could take sides. In this case, the resolution of the conflict would depend not on the combatants, but on the countries that supplied the weapons. In December that year, moments before Videla signed a declaration of war against Chile, Pope John Paul II agreed to mediate between the two nations. The Pope's envoy, Antonio Samoré, successfully averted war and proposed a new definitive boundary in which the three disputed islands would remain Chilean. Argentina and Chile both agreed to Samoré's proposal and signed the Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina, ending that dispute.

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The New Democracy (1983-Present)
On October 30, 1983, Argentines went to the polls to choose a president; vice-president; and national, provincial, and local officials in elections found by international observers to be fair and honest. The country returned to constitutional rule after Raúl Alfonsín, candidate of the Radical Civic Union (Unión Cívica Radical, UCR), received 52% of the popular vote for president. He began a 6-year term of office on December 10, 1983.

The Alfonsín Era (1983-1989)
Five days later, he created the National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons (CONADEP), led by Argentine writer Ernesto Sábato. However, it was also under Alfonsín's presidency that the December 24, 1986 Ley de Punto Final ("Full Stop Law") was voted, granting amnesty to all acts committed before December 10, 1983, amid pressure from the military. It would not be until June 2005's Supreme Court decision to overturn all amnesty laws that investigations could be started again.[40]

1983 ad for Raúl Alfonsín.

During the Alfonsín administration, a Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina with Chile was signed and the roots of the Mercosur trade bloc were established. In 1985 and 1987, large turnouts for mid-term elections demonstrated continued public support for a strong and vigorous democratic system. The UCR-led government took steps to resolve some of the nation's most pressing problems, including accounting for those who disappeared during military rule, establishing civilian control of the armed forces, and consolidating democratic institutions. One of the biggest achievements of the Alfonsín administration was the reduction of corruption in public offices, which was reduced by half during his administration. However, constant friction with the military, failure to resolve several economic problems inherited from the military dictatorship and great opposition from the labor unions undermined the effectiveness of the Alfonsín government, which left office six months early after Peronist candidate Carlos Saúl Menem won the 1989 presidential elections.

History of Argentina

50

The Menemist Decade (1989-1999)
As President, Carlos Menem launched a major overhaul of Argentine domestic policy. Large-scale structural reforms dramatically reversed the role of the state in Argentine economic life. Ironically, the Peronist Menem oversaw the privatization of many of the industries Perón had nationalized. A decisive leader pressing a controversial agenda, Menem was not reluctant to use the presidency's powers to issue "emergency" decrees (formally necessity and urgency decrees) when the Congress was unable to reach consensus on his proposed reforms. Those powers were curtailed somewhat when the constitution was reformed in 1994 as a result of the so-called Olivos Pact with the opposition Radical Party. That arrangement opened the way for Menem to seek and win reelection with 50% of the vote in the three-way 1995 presidential race. Piquetero movement rose. The 1995 election saw the emergence of the moderate-left FrePaSo political alliance. This alternative to the two traditional political parties in Argentina was particularly strong in Buenos Aires but lacked the national infrastructure of the Peronists and Radicals. In an important development in Argentina's political life, all three major parties in the 1999 race espoused free market

Carlos Menem, President throughout the 1990's.

economic policies.

The New Millenium Crisis (1999-2003)
De La Rúa Presidency (1999-2001) In October 1999, the UCR–FrePaSo Alianza's presidential candidate, Fernando de la Rúa, defeated Peronist candidate Eduardo Duhalde. Having taken office in December 1999, De la Rúa followed an IMF-sponsored program of government spending cuts, revenue increases, and provincial revenue-sharing reforms to get the federal fiscal deficit under control, and pursued labor market flexibilization and business-promotion measures aimed at stimulating foreign investment, so as to avoid defaulting the public debt. Towards the end of 2001, Argentina faced grave economic problems. The IMF pressed Argentina to service its external debt, effectively forcing Argentina to devalue the Argentine peso, which had been pegged to the U.S. dollar, or alternatively fully dollarize its economy. Deep budget cuts, including a 13% reduction in pay for the nation's 2 million public sector employees, failed to curb the rapidly increasing country risk on almost U$100 billion in Argentine bonds, increasing debt service costs and further limiting access to international credit, despite a moderately successful debt swap arranged by Cavallo with most bondholders. Voters reacted to the rapidly worsening economy in the October 2001 midterm elections by both depriving the Alliance of its majority in the Lower House, and by casting a record 25% of spoiled ballots.[41] The Corralito (2001) On November 1, 2001, as people's fears that the peso would be devalued caused massive withdrawal of bank deposits and capital flight, de la Rúa's Minister of Economy Domingo Cavallo passed regulations severely limiting withdrawals, effectively freezing the peso-denominated assets of the Argentine middle class, while the dollar-denominated foreign accounts of the wealthy were shielded from devaluation. (The freezing of the bank accounts was informally named corralito.)... The overall economy declined drastically during December 2001. The resulting riots led to dozens of deaths. The Minister of Economy Domingo Cavallo resigned, but that did not prevent the collapse of De la Rúa's administration. On December 20 de la Rúa also resigned, but the political crisis was extremely serious, as a result of the previous

History of Argentina resignation of the vice-president Carlos Chacho Álvarez in 2000. The president of the Senate became interim president until the National Congress elected, two days later, Adolfo Rodríguez Saá to finish De la Rúa's term. But Rodríguez Saá resigned a week later on December 31, leaving the power to the president of the Chamber of Deputies (as the Senate was undergoing their annual renovation of its president) as interim. Finally, on January 2, 2002, the National Congress elected the Peronist Eduardo Duhalde, a losing candidate in the most recent presidential election, as president. The peso was first devalued by 29%, and then the dollar peg was abandoned; by July 2002, the national currency had depreciated to one-quarter of its former value. The Recovery (2002-2003) President Duhalde faced a country in turmoil. His administration had to deal with a wave of protests (middle-class cacerolazos and unemployed piqueteros), and did so with a relatively tolerant policy, intending to minimize violence. As inflation became a serious issue and the effects of the crisis became apparent in the form of increased unemployment and poverty, Duhalde chose a moderate, low-profile economist, Roberto Lavagna, as his Minister of Economy. The economic measures implemented brought inflation under control. After a year, Duhalde deemed his tasks fulfilled and, pressured by certain political factors, called for elections, which in April 2003 brought Néstor Kirchner, the left-of-centre Peronist governor of Santa Cruz, to power.

51

Kirchners' Governments (2003-Present)
President Kirchner took office on May 25, 2003. He reshuffled the leadership of the Armed Forces, overturned controversial amnesty laws that protected members of the 1976-1983 dictatorship from prosecution, and kept Lavagna on as economy minister for most of his presidency. Kirchner's administration saw a strong economic rebound, and foreign debt reestructuring. The 2007 general election took place in ten provinces in September and Kirchner's Front for Victory won in six provinces. Hermes Binner Néstor Kirchner hands the presidential mandate was elected governor of Santa Fe, becoming the first Socialist governor to his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. in Argentina's history and the first non-Justicialist to rule the rather wealthy Santa Fe province, and Center-left Fabiana Ríos (ARI) became the first woman to be elected governor of Tierra del Fuego, while the right-wing Mauricio Macri was elected Chief of Government of Buenos Aires City in June 2007.[42] On December 10, 2007, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner took over the presidency from her husband, after winning elections with 44% of the vote. Néstor Kirchner remained a highly influential politician during the term of Cristina Fernández de Kirchner. The press developed the term "presidential marriage" to make reference to both of them at once.[43] Some political analysts compared this type of government with a diarchy.[44] After proposing a new taxation system for agricultural exports, the Cristina Fernández's Government had to face a severe lock out of the sector. The protest, which spread over 129 days, was quickly politicized and marked a inflection point in her administration. The system was finally rejected in the Senate by the opposite vote of the Vice president Julio Cobos. The political style of the government changed with the Death and state funeral of Néstor Kirchner. Cristina slowly distanced from the traditional structure of the Justicialist Party and favored instead The Campora, a group of young supporters led by her son Máximo Kirchner.

History of Argentina

52

References
[1] Santillán, p. 17 [2] A Gil, M Zárate & G Neme (2005), Mid-Holocene paleoenvironments and the archeological record of southern Mendoza, Argentina. Quat. Intern. 132: 81-94. [3] Santillán, p. 18-19 [4] Mitre, p. 8-9 [5] Abad de Santillán, p. 391 Spanish: Los ingleses tuvieron en las colonias españolas, a pesar del monopolio comercial metropolitano, fuertes intereses: el comercio ilícito se aproximaba en su monto casi al valor del autorizado por España; el contrabando se convirtió en un medio importante de vida para los propios colonos y también para los gobernantes encargados de reprimirlo. English: The British had in the Spanish colonies, despite the metropolitan monopoly on commerce, strong interests: legal commerce had amounts near the value of that authorized by Spain; smuggling became an important way to survive for colonials themselves and also for the governors in charge of stopping it. [6] Luna, Independencia..., p. 28 [7] Devoto, Fernando; Pagano, Nora not as a pre after (2009). Historia de la Historiografía Argentina. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana. p. 202. ISBN 978-950-07-3076-1. [8] Felipe Pigna, Los Mitos de la Historia Argentina, 3, 2006, ed. Planeta, p.38 [9] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.42 [10] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.39 [11] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.51 [12] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.88 [13] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.100 [14] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.44 [15] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.58 [16] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.59 [17] Felipe Pigna, 2006, p.125-128 [18] Barnes, John. Evita, First Lady: A Biography of Eva Perón. New York: Grove Press, 1978. [19] Foster; et al. (1998). Culture and Customs of Argentina (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=iZ-rJyz2pSsC& pg=PA62). Greenwood. p. 62. ISBN 9780313303197. . [20] Todo Argentina: Perón (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. todo-argentina. net/ historia/ peronista/ peron1/ index. html)]] [21] INDEC (precios) (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 10/ ipc-var-dde1943. xls) [22] Feitlowitz, Marguerite. A Lexicon of Terror: Argentina and the Legacies of Torture. Oxford University Press, 2002. [23] Julio A. Troxler, a "revolutionary Peronist", was one of the few men who escaped the massacre. All the others were dumped in León Suarez, in Buenos Aires Province. Rodolfo Walsh noted Troxler's testimony in Operation Massacre. In 1973, under Cámpora's government, Troxler became Buenos Aires police chief, but was assassinated by the Triple A during Isabel Perón's government. Rodolfo Walsh was murdered after Videla's 1976 coup. [24] Daniel Gutman, Tacuara, historia de la primera guerrilla urbana argentina [25] Baxter, José Luis (http:/ / www. irlandeses. org/ dilab_baxterj. htm) entry at the Dictionary of Irish Latin American Biography (English) [26] Guillermo O'Donnell, El Estado Burocrático Autoritario, (1982) [27] Marta Slemenson et al., Emigración de científicos argentinos. Organización de un éxodo a América Latina (?, Buenos Aires, 1970:118) [28] Oscar R. Anzorena, Tiempo de violencia y utopía (1966-1976), Editorial Contrapunto, 1987, p.48 (Spanish) [29] Oscar Anzorena, 1987, p.49 [30] Oscar Anzorena, 1987, p.53 [31] Nancy Scheper-Hughes. Child Survival: Anthropological Perspectives on the Treatment and Maltreatment of Children. [32] Paul H. Lewis. Guerrillas and generals. p. 125. [33] Miguel Bonasso, El Presidente que no fue. Los archivos occultos del peronismo ("The President who wasn't; the hidden archives of Peronism"), Planeta, Buenos Aires, 1997. [34] Horacio Verbitsky, Ezeiza, Contrapunto, Buenos Aires, 1985. [35] de, Lima-Dantas Elizabeth "Argentina: History, Part 28 -- The Peronist Restoration, 1973-1976. [full text (http:/ / myeducationresearch. org/ databases/ cgi-bin/ kwq. asp?qu=@recnumber EBK32011029& FreeText=& sc=/ pierianp/ ebk/ )"]. myeducationresearch.org, The Pierian Press, 1 Aug 1985. Online. Internet.. 18 May 1743. . Retrieved [5 Dec 2010]. [36] A 32 años de la caída en combate de Mario Roberto Santucho y la Dirección Histórica del PRT-ERP (http:/ / www. cedema. org/ ver. php?id=2713) [37] http:/ / untreaty. un. org/ cod/ riaa/ cases/ vol_XXI/ 53-264. pdf [38] See Argentine newspaper Clarín (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ suplementos/ zona/ 1998/ 12/ 20/ i-00401e. htm) of Buenos Aires, 20 December 1998 [39] See Alejandro Luis Corbacho "Predicting the probability of war during brinkmanship crisis: The Beagle and the Malvinas conflicts" http:/ / papers. ssrn. com/ sol3/ papers. cfm?abstract_id=1016843 (p.45)

History of Argentina
[40] "Argentine amnesty laws scrapped" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 4093018. stm). BBC News. June 15, 2005. . [41] BBC news (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 1598855. stm) [42] Pour la première fois, un socialiste est élu gouverneur d'une province argentine (http:/ / www. lemonde. fr/ web/ article/ 0,1-0@2-3222,36-951026@51-946547,0. html), Le Monde, 4 September 2007 (French) [43] Mendelevich, p. 279 [44] Mendelevich, p. 280

53

Further Reading
• • • • • • •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents (https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/index.html) of the CIA World Factbook.  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ ei/bgn/index.htm) of the United States Department of State (Background Notes). Adelman, J. (1992). "Socialism and Democracy in Argentina in the Age of the Second International". The Hispanic American Historical Review 72 (2): 211–238. doi:10.2307/2515555. JSTOR 2515555. Abad de Santillán, Diego (in Spanish). Historia Argentina. Buenos Aires: TEA (Tipográfica Editora Argentina). Anzorena, Oscar R. Tiempo de violencia y utopía (1966–1976), Editorial Contrapunto, 1987, p. 48 (Spanish) Braudel, Fernand, 1984. The Perspective of the World, vol. III of Civilization and Capitalism (1979) Carlos A.Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6

• Harvey, Robert. "Liberators: Latin America`s Struggle For Independence, 1810-1830". John Murray, London (2000). ISBN 0-7195-5566-3 • Tomas Eloy Martinez has written a number of books from the point-of-view of an Argentine journalist and intellectual affected by the entire Peron/Military period. A few have been translated into English (Santa Evita, The Peron Novel). • Mitre, Bartolomé (2008) (in Spanish). Historia de Belgrano y de la Independencia Argentina. Buenos Aires: Belgranian National Institute. ISBN 978-987-506-142-2. • Pigna, Felipe, Los Mitos de la Historia Argentina, 3', 2006, ed. Planeta (Spanish) • Luna, Félix (2003) (in Spanish). La independencia argentina y americana. Buenos Aires: Planeta. ISBN 950-49-1110-2.

External links
• History of Argentina - World History Database (http://www.badley.org/history/Argentina.index.html) • U.S. State Department Background Note: Argentina (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/26516.htm) • History World: History of Argentina (http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories. asp?historyid=ac09) • British Settlers in Argentina and Uruguay—studies in 19th and 20th century emigration (http://www.argbrit. org/)

Buenos Aires

54

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
—  Autonomous City  — Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires Autonomous City of Buenos Aires

Clockwise from top: skyline of the city at dusk, the National Congress, the Woman's Bridge, tango dancers in San Telmo, the Pink House, the Metropolitan Cathedral, Cabildo, the Obelisk, Colón Theatre, the Recoleta Cemetery, the Tres de Febrero Park with the Planetarium, and Caminito in La Boca.

Flag Coat of arms [1]

Nickname(s): The Queen of El Plata, The South American Paris, The Capital of Tango, The city of books, The Paris of the Pampas, [2] Capital of Latin America

The Cultural

Buenos Aires Location within Argentina Coordinates: 34°36′12″S 58°22′54″W Country Argentina

Buenos Aires

55
1536, 1580

Established Government  • Type  • Chief of Government  • Senators Area  • Autonomous City  • Land  • Metro Population (2010 census.)  • Autonomous City • Density • Metro • Metro density Demonym Time zone Area code(s) HDI (2011) Website [3]

Autonomous city Mauricio Macri María Eugenia Estenssoro, Samuel Cabanchik, Daniel Filmus

203 km2 (78.5 sq mi) 203 km2 (78.5 sq mi) 4758 km2 (1837 sq mi)

2,891,082 unknown operator: u'strong'/km2 (unknown operator: u','/sq mi) 12,801,364 unknown operator: u'strong'/km2 (unknown operator: u','/sq mi) porteño (m), porteña (f) ART (UTC−3) 011 0.953 – very high [4] [5]  (Spanish) bue.gov.ar [6]

buenosaires.gov.ar

(English)

Buenos Aires (  /ˈbweɪnəsˈɛəriːz/ or /ˈaɪrɪs/,[7] Spanish: [ˈbwenos ˈaiɾes]) is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo.[8] It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent. Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the third-largest conurbation in Latin America, with a population of around thirteen million.[3] The city of Buenos Aires is not a part of Buenos Aires Province, nor is it the Province's capital, but an autonomous district. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalised and removed from Buenos Aires Province. The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores (both are currently neighborhoods of the city). The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Autonomous City of Buenos Aires). Its citizens first elected a Chief of Government (i.e. Mayor) in 1996; before, the Mayor was directly appointed by the President of the Republic. Buenos Aires is considered an Alpha World City as listed by the Loughborough University group's (GaWC) 2008 inventory.[9] People from Buenos Aires are referred to as porteños (people of the port).[10] Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination,[11] and is known for its European style architecture and rich cultural life.[12] [13]

Etymology
When the Aragonese conquered Cagliari, Sardinia from the Pisans in 1324, they established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Buen Ayre (or "Bonaria" in the local language), as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city (the Castle area), which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Aragonese built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a

Buenos Aires story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea. The statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville. In the first foundation, Pedro de Mendoza called the city Santa María del Buen Aire ("Holy Mary of the Fair Winds"), a name chosen by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition, a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre. Mendoza’s settlement soon came under attack by indigenous peoples, and was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882, after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives would ultimately conclude that the name was closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds"). The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century.

56

History
Colonial times
Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516. His expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre[14] (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") after Our Lady of Bonaria (Patroness Saint of Sardinia) on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza . The settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city center.

Depiction of Juan de Garay and the second founding of Buenos Aires, 1580

More attacks by the indigenous peoples forced the settlers away, and in 1541 the site was abandoned. A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires." From its earliest days, Buenos Aires depended primarily on trade. During most of the 17th and 18th centuries, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America, cross the land, from there to Lima, Peru and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty. Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive. This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires, and a thriving contraband industry developed. This also instilled a deep resentment in porteños towards the Spanish authorities.[14] Sensing these feelings, Charles III of Spain progressively eased the trade restrictions and finally declared Buenos Aires an open port in the late 18th century. The capture of Porto Bello by British forces also fueled the need to foster commerce via the Atlantic route, to the detriment of Lima-based trade. One of his rulings was to split a region from the Viceroyalty of Perú and create instead the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with Buenos Aires as the capital.

Buenos Aires However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the porteños, some of them versed in the ideology of the French Revolution, became even more convinced of the need for Independence from Spain.

57

War of independence
During the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, British forces attacked Buenos Aires twice. In 1806 the British successfully invaded Buenos Aires, but an army from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers defeated them. In the brief period of British rule, the viceroy Rafael Sobremonte managed to escape to Córdoba and designated this city as capital. Buenos Aires became again the capital after its liberation, but Sobremonte could not resume as viceroy. Santiago de Liniers, chosen as new viceroy, armed the city to be prepared against a The May Revolution was a turning point in the possible new British attack, defeating the invasion attempt of 1807. politics of Buenos Aires. The militarization generated in society changed the balance of power favorably for the criollo peoples, as well as the development of the Peninsular War in Spain. An attempt by the peninsular merchant Martín de Álzaga to remove Liniers and replace him with a Junta was defeated by the criollo armies. However, by 1810 it would be those same armies who would support a new revolutionary attempt, successfully removing the new viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. This is known as the May Revolution, which is in present day celebrated as a national holiday. This event started the Argentine War of Independence, and many armies left Buenos Aires to fight the diverse strongholds of royalist resistance, with varying levels of success. The government was held first by two Juntas of many members, then by two triumvirates of only three members, and finally by an unipersonal office, the Supreme Director. Formal independence from Spain was declared in 1816, in the Congress of Tucumán. Buenos Aires managed to endure the whole Spanish American wars of independence without falling again into royalist rule. Historically, Buenos Aires has been Argentina's main venue for liberal and free-trade ideas, while many of the provinces, especially to the northwest, advocated a more conservative Catholic approach to political and social issues. Much of the internal tension in Argentina's history, starting with the centralist-federalist conflicts of the 19th century, can be traced back to these contrasting views. In the months immediately following the 25 May Revolution, Buenos Aires sent a number of military envoys to the provinces with the intention of obtaining their approval. Many of these missions ended in violent clashes, and the enterprise fueled the tensions between the capital and the provinces. In the 19th century the city was blockaded twice by naval forces: by the French from 1838 to 1840, and later by a joint Anglo-French expedition from 1845 to 1848. Both blockades failed to force the city into submission, and the foreign powers eventually desisted from their demands.

Buenos Aires

58

1854: Enactment of the Buenos Aires Constitution. 1920: Bustling Florida Street

1920: Leandro Alem business district

1924:Standard Bank's local headquarters (formerly BankBoston's)

Modern history
During most of the 19th century, the political status of the city remained a sensitive subject. It was already capital of Buenos Aires Province, and between 1853 and 1860 it was the capital of the seceded State of Buenos Aires. The issue was fought out more than once on the battlefield, until the matter was finally settled in 1880 when the city was federalized and became the seat of government, with its Mayor appointed by the President. The Casa Rosada became the seat of the President. In addition to the wealth generated by the Buenos Aires Customs and the fertile pampas, railroad development in the second half of the 19th century increased the economic power of Buenos Aires as raw materials flowed into its factories. A leading destination for immigrants from Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, from 1880 to 1930 Buenos Aires became a multicultural city that ranked itself with the major European capitals. The Colón Theater became one of the world's top opera venues, and the city became the regional capital of radio, television, cinema, and theatre. The city's main avenues were built during those years, and the dawn of the 20th century saw the construction of South America's then-tallest buildings and the first underground system. A second construction boom from 1945 to 1980 reshaped downtown and much of the city.

1900: Eduardo Madero's new docklands

An aerial view of the city's northside; two out of three Porteños live in apartment buildings.

Buenos Aires also attracted migrants from Argentina's provinces and neighboring countries. Shanty towns (villas miseria) started growing around the city's industrial areas during the 1930s, leading to pervasive social problems and social contrasts with the largely upwardly mobile Buenos Aires population. These laborers became the political base of Peronism, which emerged in Buenos Aires during the pivotal demonstration of 17 October 1945, at the Plaza de

Buenos Aires Mayo.[15] Industrial workers of the Greater Buenos Aires industrial belt have been Peronism's main support base ever since, and Plaza de Mayo became the site for demonstrations and many of the country's political events; on 16 June 1955, however, a splinter faction of the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo area, killing 364 civilians (see Bombing of Plaza de Mayo). This was the only time the city was attacked from the air, and the event was followed by a military uprising which deposed President Perón, three months later (see Revolución Libertadora). In the 1970s the city suffered from the fighting between left-wing revolutionary movements (Montoneros, E.R.P. and F.A.R.) and the right-wing paramilitary group Triple A, supported by Isabel Perón, who became president of Argentina in 1974 after Juan Perón's death. The March 1976 coup, led by General Jorge Videla, only escalated this conflict; the "Dirty War" resulted in 30,000 desaparecidos (people kidnapped and killed by the military during the years of the junta).[16] The silent marches of their mothers (Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo) are a well-known image of Argentines suffering during those times. The dictatorship's appointed mayor, Osvaldo Cacciatore, also drew up plans for a network of freeways intended to relieve the city's acute traffic gridlock. The plan, however, called for a seemingly indiscriminate razing of residential areas and, though only three of the eight planned were put up at the time, they were mostly obtrusive raised freeways that continue to blight a number of formerly comfortable neighborhoods to this day. The city was visited by Pope John Paul II twice: in 1982, because of the outbreak of the Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur), and a second visit in 1987, which gathered some of the largest crowds in the city's history. The return of democracy in 1983 coincided with a cultural revival, and the 1990s saw an economic revival, particularly in the construction and financial sectors. On 17 March 1992 a bomb exploded in the Israeli Embassy, killing 29 and injuring 242. Another explosion, on 18 July 1994 destroyed a building housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many more, these incidents marked the beginning of Islamic terrorism in South America. Following a 1993 agreement, the Argentine Constitution was amended to give Buenos Aires autonomy and rescinding, among other things, the president's right to appoint the city's mayor (as had been the case since 1880). On 30 June 1996, voters in Buenos Aires chose their first elected mayor (Chief of Government). On 30 December 2004 a fire at the República Cromagnon nightclub killed almost 200 people, one of the greatest non-natural tragedies in Argentine history.

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Panoramic view of Puerto Madero at sunset, a section developed over former docklands over the past decade

Buenos Aires

60

Galerías Pacífico is one of numerous city landmarks restored since 1990 Corrientes Avenue, reflective of a second construction boom between 1945 and 1980 Line H of the Subte. It has historically been characterized by murals and other artistic works in its stations

Government and politics
Government structure
The Executive is held by the Chief of Government (Spanish: Jefe de Gobierno), elected for a four-year term together with a Deputy Chief of Government, who presides over the 60-member Buenos Aires City Legislature. Each member of the Legislature is elected for a four-year term; half of the legislature is renewed every two years. Elections use the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. The Judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Superior de Justicia), the Magistrate's Council (Consejo de la Magistratura), the Public Ministry, and other City Courts. The Article 61 of the 1996 Constitution of the City of Buenos Aires states that "Suffrage is free, equal, secret, universal, compulsory and non-accumulative. Resident aliens enjoy this same right, with its corresponding obligations, on equal terms with Argentine citizens registered in the district, under the terms established by law."[17] Legally, the city enjoys less autonomy than the Provinces. In June 1996, shortly before the City's first Executive elections were held, the Argentine National Congress issued the National Law 24.588 (known as Ley Cafiero, after the Senator who advanced the project) by which the authority over the 25,000-strong Argentine Federal Police and the responsibility over the federal institutions residing at the City (e.g., National Supreme Court of Justice buildings) would not be transferred from the National Government to the Autonomous City Government until a new consensus could be reached at the National Congress. Furthermore, it declared that the Port of Buenos Aires, along with some other places, would remain under constituted federal authorities.[18] As of 2011, the deployment of the Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires is ongoing.[19] Beginning in 2007, the city has embarked on a new decentralization scheme, creating new Communes (comunas) which are to be managed by elected committees of seven members each.

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Recent political history
In 1996, following the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution, the city held its first mayoral elections under the new statutes, with the mayor's title formally changed to "Head of Government". The winner was Fernando de la Rúa, who would later become President of Argentina from 1999 to 2001. De la Rúa's successor, Aníbal Ibarra, won two popular elections, but was impeached (and ultimately deposed on 6 March 2006) as a result of the fire at the República Cromagnon nightclub. Jorge Telerman, who had been the acting mayor, was invested with the office. In the 2007 elections, Mauricio Macri won the second-round of voting over Daniel Filmus, taking office on 9 December 2007.

National representation
Buenos Aires is represented in the Argentine Senate by three senators (as of 2011, María Eugenia Estenssoro, Samuel Cabanchik and Daniel Filmus).[20] The people of Buenos Aires also elect 25 national deputies to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies.

City Hall

The Municipal Legislature

The Palace of Justice

Argentine Congress

Demographics
Census data
In the census of 2001 there were 2,891,082 people residing in the city.[21] The population density in Buenos Aires proper was 13,680 inhabitants per square kilometer (34,800 per mi2), but only about 2,400 per km2 (6,100 per mi2) in the suburbs. The racial makeup of the city is 88.9% White, 7% Mestizo, 2% Asian and 1% Black.[22] The population of Buenos Aires proper has hovered around 3 million since 1947, due to Population growth since 1740 low birth rates and a slow migration to the suburbs. The surrounding districts have, however, expanded over fivefold (to around 10 million) since then.[21] The 2001 census showed a relatively aged population: with 17% under the age of fifteen and 22% over sixty, the people of Buenos Aires have an age structure similar to those in most European cities. They are older than Argentines as a whole (of whom 28% were under 15, and 14% over 60).[23] Two-thirds of the city's residents live in apartment buildings and 30% in single-family homes; 4% live in sub-standard housing.[24] Measured in terms of income, the city's poverty rate was 8.4% in 2007 and, including the metro area, 20.6%.[25] Other studies estimate that 4 million people in the metropolitan Buenos Aires area live in

Buenos Aires poverty.[26] The city's resident labor force of 1.2 million in 2001 was mostly employed in the services sector, particularly social services (25%), commerce and tourism (20%) and business and financial services (17%); despite the city's role as Argentina's capital, public administration employed only 6%. Manufacturing still employed 10%.[24]

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Districts
The city is divided into 48 barrios or, districts, for administrative purposes.[27] The division was originally based on Catholic parroquias (parishes), but has undergone a series of changes since the 1940s. A newer scheme has divided the city into 15 comunas (communes).[28]

Palermo: the city's most populous area

Recoleta: the 2nd-most populous area Caballito: the 3rd-most populous area

Population origin
The majority of porteños have European origins, with Italian and Spanish descent being the most common, from the Calabrian, Ligurian, Piedmont, Lombardy, Sicily and Campania regions of Italy and from the Galician, Asturian, and Basque regions of Spain.[29] [30] Other European origins include German, Swedish, Dutch, Greek, The Immigrants' Hotel, constructed in 1906, received Irish, Norwegian, Portuguese, French, Russian, Croatian, English and assisted the thousands of immigrants arriving to the city. The hotel is now a National Museum. and Welsh. In the 1990s there was a small wave of immigration [31] from Romania and Ukraine. There is a minority of old criollo stock, dating back to the Spanish colonial days. The Criollo and Spanish-aboriginal (mestizo) population in the city has increased mostly as a result of immigration, from countries such as Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay, since the second half of the 20th century. Important Syrian-Lebanese and Armenian communities have had a significant presence in commerce and civic life since the beginning of the 20th century. The Jewish community in Greater Buenos Aires numbers around 250,000, and is the largest in Latin America. Most are of Northern and Eastern European Ashkenazi origin, primarily Russian, German and Polish Jews, with a significant Sephardic minority, mostly made up of Syrian Jews.[32]

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63

The first major East Asian community in Buenos Aires was the Japanese, mainly from Okinawa. Traditionally, Japanese-Argentines were noted as flower growers; in the city proper, there was a Japanese near-monopoly in dry cleaning. Later generations have branched out into all fields of economic activity. Starting in the 1970s there has been an important influx of immigration from China and Korea.

Religion
Most inhabitants are Roman Catholic, though studies in recent King Fahd Islamic Cultural Center, a Mosque and center for decades found that fewer than 20% are practicing.[33] Buenos Islamic culture located in Palermo Aires is the seat of a Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishop (the Catholic primate of Argentina), currently Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio. There are Protestant, Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Mormon minorities.

Geography

Aerial view of the city

Satellite view of the city and its metropolitan area

The limits of Buenos Aires proper are determined in the eastern part and north-east by the Rio de la Plata, in the southern part and southeast by the Riachuelo and to the northwest, west and Southwest by Avenida General Paz, a 24 km (15 mi) long highway that separates the province of Buenos Aires from the 203 km2 that form the city. The city of Buenos Aires lies in the pampa region, except for some zones like the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve, the Boca Juniors (football) Club "sports city", Jorge Newbery Airport, the Puerto Madero neighborhood and the main port itself; these were all built on reclaimed land along the coasts of the Rio de la Plata (the world's widest river).[34] The region was formerly crossed by different creeks and lagoons, some of which were refilled and others tubed. Among the most important creeks are Maldonado, Vega, Medrano, Cildañez and White. In 1908 many creeks were channelled and rectified, as floods were damaging the city's infrastructure. Starting in 1919, most creeks were enclosed. Notably, the Maldonado was tubed in 1954, and currently runs below Juan B. Justo Avenue.

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Climate
Further information: Climate of Argentina Buenos Aires has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with four distinct seasons and an annual mean temperature of 17.7 °C (63.9 °F). The warmest month is January, with a daily average of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F). Most days see temperatures in the 28 to 31 °C (82 to 88 °F) with nights between 16 to 21 °C (61 to 70 °F). Heat waves from Brazil can push temperatures above 35 °C (95 °F), yet the city is subject to cold fronts that bring short periods of pleasant weather and crisp nights. Relative humidity is moderately high (64–70%) in the summer, so the heat index is higher than the true air temperature. The highest temperature ever recorded was 43.3 °C (110 °F) on 29 January 1957.[35] Spring (September to November) and autumn (March to May) are generally mild and volatile, with averages temperatures of around 17 °C (63 °F) and frequent thunderstorms, especially during the spring. Winters are temperate, though suburban areas often experience frost from May to September, as opposed to downtown Buenos Aires, which experiences the phenomenon only several times per season. Relative humidity averages in the upper 70s%, which means the city is noted for its moderate to heavy fogs during autumn and winter.[36] July is the coolest month, with an average temperature of 10.9 °C (51.6 °F). Cold spells originating from Antarctica occur almost every year, and combined with the high wintertime humidity, conditions in winter may feel much cooler than the measured temperature. Most days peak reach 12 to 17 °C (54 to 63 °F) and drop to 3 to 8 °C (37 to 46 °F) at night. Southerly winds may keep temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F) for a few days, whereas northerly winds may bring temperatures above 20 °C (68 °F) for a few days; these variations are normal. The lowest temperature ever recorded in central Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Central Observatory) was on 9 July 1918.[37] The last snowfall occurred on 9 July 2007 when, during the coldest winter in Argentina in almost thirty years, severe snowfalls and blizzards hit the country. It was the first major snowfall in the city in 89 years[38] [39] ). On 17 July 2010, in the midst of another cold winter, snowfalls struck the southern reaches of Buenos Aires, but not the central parts as occurred in 2007 or 1918. Spring is very windy and variable: there may be heat waves with temperatures of 35 °C (95 °F) even in early October, as well as periods of much colder weather with highs close to 10 °C (50 °F). Frost has been recorded as late as early November, although this is unusual. Severe thunderstorms are likely between September and December. The city receives 1242.6 mm (49 in) of rainfall per year.[40] Rain can be expected at any time of year and hailstorms are not unusual.
Climate data for Buenos Aires (1981–1990) Month Record high °C (°F) Average high °C (°F) Daily mean °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Record low °C (°F) Jan Feb Mar Apr
36.0 (96.8) 22.7 (72.9) 17.7 (63.9) 13.7 (56.7) −2.3

May
31.6 (88.9) 19.0 (66.2) 14.3 (57.7) 10.3 (50.5) −4.0

Jun
28.5 (83.3) 15.6 (60.1) 11.2 (52.2) 7.6 (45.7) −5.3

Jul
30.2 (86.4) 13.9 (57.0) 10.9 (51.6) 7.4 (45.3) −5.4

Aug
34.4 (93.9) 17.3 (63.1) 12.7 (54.9) 8.9 (48.0) −4.0

Sep
34 (93) 18.9 (66.0) 14.2 (57.6) 9.9 (49.8) −2.4

Oct
34 (93) 22.5 (72.5) 17.7 (63.9) 13.0 (55.4) −2.0

Nov
36.8 (98.2) 25.3 (77.5) 20.6 (69.1) 15.9 (60.6) 1.6 (34.9)

Dec
40.5 (104.9) 28.1 (82.6) 23.2 (73.8) 18.4 (65.1) 3.7 (38.7)

Year
43.3 (109.9) 21.5 (70.7) 17.73 (63.91) 12.9 (55.2) −5.4

43.3 38.7 37.9 (109.9) (101.7) (100.2) 30.4 (86.7) 25.1 (77.2) 20.4 (68.7) 5.9 (42.6) 28.7 (83.7) 23.7 (74.7) 19.4 (66.9) 4.2 (39.6) 26.4 (79.5) 21.4 (70.5) 17.0 (62.6) 2.8 (37.0)

92.1 50.0 52.9 63.2 77.7 139.3 131.2 103.2 1214.6 Precipitation 121.6 122.6 153.9 106.9 mm (inches) (4.787) (4.827) (6.059) (4.209) (3.626) (1.969) (2.083) (2.488) (3.059) (5.484) (5.165) (4.063) (47.819)

% humidity

65

70

72

77

76

79

79

74

71

69

68

64

72.0

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9 9 9 9 8 6 7 8 7 10 10 9 101

Avg. precipitation days

Source: Servicio Meteorológico Nacional

[41]

Economy
Construction in Buenos Aires Year Construction permits (m²) Percent residential 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
1

2,228,085 1,157,746 1,266,305 2,154,130 2,236,126 1,736,821 1,636,295 1,027,069 297,867 1,284,977 1,382,557 2,160,872 3,103,450 3,088,901 2,713,597 Source: City statistics
[42]

70.8 57.3 66.5 65.0 66.7 69.0 72.2 59.2 71.8 86.8 84.3 83.1 86.0 80.1 67.7

Buenos Aires is the political, financial, industrial, commercial, and cultural hub of Argentina. Its port is one of the busiest in South America; navigable rivers by way of the Rio de la Plata connect the port to north-east Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. As a result it serves as the distribution hub for a vast area of the south-eastern region of the continent. Tax collection related to the port has caused many political problems in the past. The economy in the city proper alone, measured by Gross Geographic Product (adjusted for purchasing power), totalled US$ 84.7 billion Buenos Aires Stock Exchange (US$ 28,200 per capita) in 2006[43] and amounts to nearly a quarter of [44] Argentina's as a whole. Metro Buenos Aires, according to one well-quoted study, constitutes the 13th largest economy among the world's cities.[45] The Buenos Aires Human Development Index (0.923 in 1998) is likewise high by international standards.[46]

Buenos Aires

66 The city's services sector is diversified and well-developed by international standards, and accounts for 76% of its economy (compared to 59% for all of Argentina's).[42] Advertising, in particular, plays a prominent role in the export of services at home and abroad. The financial and real-estate services sector is the largest, however, and contributes to 31% of the city's economy. Finance (about a third of this) in Buenos Aires is especially important to Argentina's banking system, accounting for nearly half the nation's bank deposits and lending.[42] Nearly 300 hotels and another 300 hostels and bed & breakfasts are licensed for Tourism in Buenos Aires, and nearly half the rooms available were in four-star establishments or higher.[47]

Partial view of the Central Business District

Manufacturing is, nevertheless, still prominent in the city's economy (16%) and, concentrated mainly in the southside, it benefits as much from high local purchasing power and a large local supply of skilled labor as it does from its relationship to massive agriculture and industry just outside the city limits themselves. Construction activity in Buenos Aires has historically been among the most dramatic indicators of national economic fortunes (see table at right), and since 2006 around 3 million m² (32 million ft²) of construction has been authorized annually.[42] The Port of Buenos Aires handles over 11 million revenue tons annually,[48] and Dock Sud, just south of the city proper, handles another 17 million metric tons.[49] To the west of Buenos Aires is the Pampa Húmeda, the most productive agricultural region of Argentina produces wheat, soybeans and corn (as opposed to the dry southern Pampa, mostly used for cattle farming and more recently production of premium Buenos Aires wines). Meat, dairy, grain, tobacco, wool and leather products are processed or manufactured in the Buenos Aires metro area. Other leading industries are automobile manufacturing, oil refining, metalworking, machine building and the production of textiles, chemicals, clothing and beverages. The city's budget, per Mayor Macri's 2011 proposal, will include US$5.9 billion in revenues and US$6.3 billion in expenditures. The city relies on local income and capital gains taxes for 61% of its revenues, while federal revenue sharing will contribute 11%, property taxes, 9%, and vehicle taxes, 6%. Other revenues include user fees, fines and gambling duties. The city devotes 26% of its budget to education, 22% for health, 17% for public services and infrastructure, 16% for social welfare and culture, 12% in administrative costs and 4% for law enforcement. Buenos Aires maintains low debt levels and its service requires less than 3% of the budget.[50]

Culture
Strongly influenced by European culture, Buenos Aires is sometimes referred to as the "Paris of South America".[14] [51] The city has the busiest legitimate industry in Latin America, with scores of theaters and productions.[52] Buenos Aires is the site of the Teatro Colón, an internationally rated opera house.[53] There are several symphony orchestras and choral societies. The city has numerous museums related to history, fine arts, modern arts, decorative arts, popular arts, sacred art, arts and crafts, theatre and popular music, as well as the preserved homes of noted art collectors, writers, composers and artists. The city is home to hundreds of bookstores, public libraries and cultural associations (it is sometimes called "the city of books"), as well as the largest concentration of active theatres in Latin America. It has a world-famous zoo and Botanical Garden, a large number of landscaped parks and squares, as well as churches and places of worship of many denominations, many of which are architecturally noteworthy.[53] Every April in the city is celebrated the Buenos Aires International Book Fair, it is one of the top-five book fairs in the world, oriented to the literary community as well as to the general public. "La Noche de los Museos"[54] (Night of Museums) also takes place every November. This day most of the museums of the city are opened all night long. Buenos Aires is also very active in street art, presenting major murals everywhere in the city.

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Regina Theatre, at Avenida Santa Fe.

Teatro Colón (Columbus Theatre)

The National Symphony Orchestra performs at the University of Buenos Aires Law School

Language
Known as Rioplatense Spanish, Buenos Aires' Spanish (as that of other cities like Rosario and Montevideo, Uruguay) is characterised by voseo, yeísmo and aspiration of s in various contexts. It is heavily influenced by the dialects of Spanish spoken in Andalusia and Murcia. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the prosody of porteño is closer to the Neapolitan language of Italy than to any other spoken language. In the early 20th century, Argentina absorbed millions of immigrants, many of them Italians, who spoke mostly in their local dialects (mainly Neapolitan, Sicilian and Genoan). Their adoption of Spanish was gradual, creating a pidgin of Italian dialects and Spanish that was called cocoliche. Its usage declined around the 1950s. Many Spanish immigrants were from Galicia, and Spaniards are still generically referred to in Argentina as gallegos (Galicians). Galician language, cuisine and culture had a major presence in the city for most of the 20th century. In Milonga Music Group playing at Buenos Aires recent years, descendants of Galician immigrants have led a mini-boom in Celtic music (which also highlighted the Welsh traditions of Patagonia). Yiddish was commonly heard in Buenos Aires, especially in the Balvanera garment district and in Villa Crespo until the 1960s. Most of the newer immigrants learn Spanish quickly and assimilate into city life. The Lunfardo argot originated within the prison population, and in time spread to all porteños. Lunfardo uses words from Italian dialects, from Brazilian Portuguese, from African and Caribbean languages and even from English. Lunfardo employs humorous tricks such as inverting the syllables within a word (vesre). Today, Lunfardo is mostly heard in tango lyrics;[55] the slang of the younger generations has been evolving away from it.

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Tango
Tango music's birthplace is in Argentina. Its sensual dance moves were not seen as respectable until adopted by the Parisian high society in the 1920s, and then all over the world. In Buenos Aires, tango-dancing schools (known as academias) were usually men-only establishments. On 30 September 2009, UNESCO's Intergovernmental Committee of Intangible Heritage declared tango part of the world's cultural heritage, making Argentina eligible to receive financial assistance in safeguarding this cultural treasure for future generations.[56]

Tango dancers

Cinema
The cinema first appeared in Buenos Aires in 1896. The city has been the centre of the Argentine cinema industry in Argentina for over 100 years since French camera operator Eugene Py directed the pioneering film La Bandera Argentina in 1897. Since then, over 2000 films have been directed and produced within the city, many of them referring to the city in their titles, such as I Was Born in Buenos Aires (1959), Buenas noches, Buenos Aires (1964), and Buenos Aires a la vista (1950). The culture of tango music has been incorporated into many films produced in the city, especially since the 1930s. Many films have starred tango performers such as Hugo del Carril, Tita Merello, Carlos Gardel and Edmundo Rivero.

Fashion
Buenos Aires hosts many fashion events. The most important is the Buenos Aires Fashion Week that is held twice a year. It's been held since 2001 and is often a good chance for national designers to display their collections.[57] Other major events are the Argentina Fashion Week [58] and Buenos Aires Moda [59]. Buenos Aires Runway [60], a fashion event organised by the city's government, it's been held since 2011 to showcase both local styles and the most representative designers of the current scene.[61] On 2005, Buenos Aires was appointed as the first UNESCO City of Design.[62] The city received this title once again on 2007.[63]

Cityscape

Skyline of Buenos Aires Port taken from Vicente López, Buenos Aires Province. From left to right, Puerto Madero, Retiro, Recoleta, Palermo, Belgrano and Nuñez.

Panorama of downtown. On the left you can see the National Congress and the river and skyscrapers far in the back of the panorama.

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Architecture

Architectural styles converge at Diagonal Norte

The Barolo tower, arguably Argentina's best-known Art Nouveau building and César Pelli's Repsol-YPF tower, a clear example of the postmodern style of buildings in Puerto Madero.

Buenos Aires architecture is characterized by its eclectic nature, with elements resembling Barcelona, Paris and Madrid. There is a mix, due to immigration, of Colonial, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, Neo-Gothic and French Bourbon styles.[64] Italian and French influences increased after the declaration of independence at the beginning of the 19th century, though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century. Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, when European influences penetrated into the country, reflected by several buildings of Buenos Aires such as the Iglesia Santa Felicitas by Ernesto Bunge; the Palace of Justice, the National Congress, and the Teatro Colón, all of them by Vittorio Meano. The simplicity of the Rioplatense baroque style can be clearly seen in Buenos Aires through the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella, in the churches of San Ignacio, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, the Cathedral and the Cabildo. In 1912 the Basilica del Santisimo Sacramento was opened to the public. Totally built by the generous donation of Mrs. Mercedes Castellanos de Anchonera, Argentina's most prominent family, the church is an excellent example of French neo-classicism. With extremely high-grade decorations in its interior, the magnificent Mutin-Cavaillé coll organ (the biggest ever installed in an Argentine church with more than four-thousand tubes and four manuals) presided the nave. The altar is full of marble, and was the biggest ever built in South America at that time.[65] In 1919 the construction of Palacio Barolo began. This was South America's tallest building at the time, and was the first Argentine skyscraper built with concrete (1919–1923).[66] The building was equipped with 9 elevators, plus a 20-metre high lobby hall with paintings in the ceiling and Latin phrases embossed in golden bronze letters. A 300,000-candela beacon was installed at the top (110 m), making the building visible even from Uruguay. In 2009 the Barolo Palace went under an exhausive restoration, and the beacon was made operational again. In 1936 the Kavanagh building was inaugurated, with 120 metres height, 12 elevators (provided by Otis) and the world's first central air-conditioning system (provided by north-American company "Carrier"), is still an architectural landmark in Buenos Aires.[67]

Buenos Aires The architecture of the second half of the 20th century continued to reproduce French neoclassic models, such as the headquarters of the Banco de la Nación Argentina built by Alejandro Bustillo, and the Museo Hispanoamericano de Buenos Aires of Martín Noel. However, since the 1930s the influence of Le Corbusier and European rationalism consolidated in a group of young architects from the University of Tucumán, among whom Amancio Williams stands out. The construction of skyscrapers proliferated in Buenos Aires until the 1950s. Newer modern high-technology buildings by Argentine architects in the last years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st include the Le Parc Tower by Mario Álvarez, the Torre Fortabat by Sánchez Elía and the Repsol-YPF tower by César Pelli.

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Education
Primary education
Primary education comprises the first two EGB cycles (grades 1–6). Because of the system that was in place until 1995 (7 years of primary school plus 5 or 6 of secondary school), primary schools used to offer grades 1–7. Although most schools have already converted to teach the 8th and 9th grades, others chose to eliminate 7th grade altogether, forcing the students to complete the 3rd cycle in another institution. Nevertheless, most primary schools in the city still adhere to the traditional 7 years primary school. EGB was never put in practice in Buenos Aires.

The ubiquitous white smock of children at public schools is a national symbol of learning.

Secondary education
Secondary education in Argentina is called Polimodal ("polymodal", that is, having multiple modes), since it allows the student to choose his/her orientation. Polimodal is not yet obligatory but its completion is a requirement to enter colleges across the nation. Polimodal is usually 3 years of schooling, although some schools have a fourth year. Before entering the first year of polimodal, students choose an orientation, among these five: Humanities and Social Sciences, Economics and Management of Organizations, Art and Design, Health and Sport and Biology and Natural Sciences. Conversely to what happened on primary schools, most secondary schools in Argentina contained grades 8th and 9th, plus Polimodal (old secondary), but then started converting to accept 7th grade students as well, thus allowing them to keep the same classmates for the whole EGB III cycle. In December 2006 the Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Congress passed a new National Education Law restoring the old system of primary followed by secondary education, making secondary education obligatory and a right, and increasing the length of compulsory education to 13 years. The government vowed to put the law in effect gradually, starting in 2007.[68]

College education
There are many public universities in Argentina, as well as a number of private universities. The University of Buenos Aires, one of the top learning institutions in South America, has produced five Nobel Prize winners and provides taxpayer-funded education for students from all around the globe.[69] Buenos Aires is a major center for psychoanalysis, particularly the Lacanian school. Buenos Aires is home to several private universities of different quality, such as: Buenos Aires Institute of Technology, CEMA University, Favaloro University, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, University of Belgrano, University of Palermo, University of Salvador, and Torcuato di Tella University.

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Panorama of the University of Buenos Aires' Law School in Recoleta.

Tourism
According to the World Travel & Tourism Council,[72] tourism has been growing in the Argentine capital since 2002. In a survey by the travel and tourism publication Travel + Leisure Magazine in 2008, travelers voted Buenos Aires the second most desirable city to visit after Florence, Italy.[73] In 2008, an estimated 2.5 million visitors visited the city.[74] Visitors have many options such as going a tango show, an estancia in the Province of Buenos Aires, or enjoy the traditional asado. [70] New tourist circuits have recently evolved, Buenos Aires Bus , the city's touristic bus service. The official estimate is that the bus carries between 700 and 800 passengers per day, and has carried half a devoted to famous Argentines such as [71] million passengers since its opening. Carlos Gardel, Eva Perón or Jorge Luis Borges. Due to the favorable exchange rate, its shopping centres such as Alto Palermo, Paseo Alcorta, Patio Bullrich, Abasto de Buenos Aires and Galerías Pacífico are frequently visited by tourists. The city also plays host to musical festivals, some of the largest of which are Quilmes Rock, Creamfields BA and the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival.

Notable streets
• Avenida Alvear passes through the upscale Recoleta area, and is the address for five-star hotels and embassies, many of them former mansions. • Caminito, colorfully restored by local artist Benito Quinquela Martín • Avenida Corrientes, a principal thoroughfare in Buenos Aires, and intimately tied to the Tango and Porteño culture • Avenida del Libertador connects downtown to upscale areas in the northwest, passing by many of the city's best-known museums, gardens and cultural points of interest • Avenida de Mayo is often compared with those of Madrid, Barcelona and Paris for its sophisticated buildings of Art Nouveau, Neoclassic and eclectic styles • Florida Street, a downtown pedestrian street • Avenida 9 de Julio, one of the widest avenues in the world; its name honors Argentina's Independence Day

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Pastel hues in Caminito South of the Florida Street

Looking east on Corrientes Avenue

Neighborhoods
• • • • • Belgrano (tipa-lined residential streets, Tudor architecture and numerous museums) La Boca (the old port district still maintains its 19th-century ambience) Palermo (a trendy neighborhood filled with restaurants, shops and clubs called boliches) Parque Patricios (technology district) Puerto Madero (these 1880-era docklands are now the city's newest neighborhood with a modern skyline and upscale restaurants) • Recoleta (the traditionally upscale district combines Parisian architecture with trendy highrises and a variety of cultural venues) • Retiro (Art Nouveau cafés and restaurants among Art Deco office architecture) • San Telmo (one of the oldest neighborhoods of Buenos Aires, this area is characterized by well-preserved 19th century architecture)

Bohemian San Telmo

High-rise condominium towers along Dock 3 in Puerto Madero

Santa Fe Avenue in Retiro

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Parks
• • • • Parque Tres de Febrero (this park, one of the city's largest, is home to a rose garden and paddleboat lake) Botanical Gardens (among the oldest in Latin America and an easy walk to other Palermo-area sights) Buenos Aires Japanese Gardens (the largest of its type in the World, outside Japan)[75] Plaza de Mayo (surrounded by national and city government offices, this square has been central to many of Argentina's historical events) • Plaza San Martín (central to the Retiro area, the leafy park is surrounded by architectural landmarks) • Recoleta Cemetery (includes graves of many of Argentina's historical figures, including several presidents and scientists, as well many among Argentina's influential families) • Buenos Aires Zoo (renowned for its collection and the Hindu Revival elephant house)

View of the carp lake in the Japanese Gardens La Recoleta Cemetery Tres de Febrero Park with the Planetarium

Landmarks
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Cabildo (seat of government house during colonial times) Caminito (renowned for Benito Quinquela Martín's pastel hues and wall reliefs) Casa Rosada (the official seat of the executive branch of the Argentine government) Central Post Office (soon to be reopened as the Bicentennial Cultural Center) City Legislature (the monumental neoclassical building also houses two libraries and a museum) Kavanagh building (the Art Deco residential building was the first true skyscraper in Buenos Aires) Metropolitan Cathedral (mother church of the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires) National Congress (Argentine Parliament) National Library (the largest library in Argentina and one of the most important in the Americas) National Museum of History (original documents, former presidents' belongings and recreated historical rooms) The Obelisk (one of the city's iconic landmarks and a venue for various cultural activities and other events) Teatro Colón (an internationally renowned opera house opened in 1908) The Water Company Palace (perhaps the world's most ornate water pumping station)

Buenos Aires

74

The Cabildo of Buenos Aires.

The Water Company Palace

The Buenos Aires Central Post Office

Transport
Local roads and personal transport
Buenos Aires is based on a square, rectangular grid pattern, save for natural barriers or the relatively rare developments explicitly designed otherwise (notably, the neighbourhood of Parque Chas). The rectangular grid provides for square blocks named manzanas, with a length of roughly 110 meters. Pedestrian zones in the city centre, like Florida Street are partially car-free and always bustling, access provided by bus and the Metro (subte) Line C. Buenos Aires, for the most part, is a very walkable city and the majority of residents in Buenos Aires use public transport. Two diagonal avenues in the city centre alleviate traffic and provide better access to Plaza de Mayo. Most avenues running into and out of the city centre are one-way and feature six or more lanes, with computer-controlled green waves to speed up traffic outside of peak times.

Avenida General Paz

The city's principal avenues include the 140-metre (459 ft)-wide Avenida 9 de Julio, the over-35 km (22 mi)-long Avenida Rivadavia,[76] and Avenida Corrientes, the main thoroughfare of culture and entertainment. In the 1940s and 1950s the Avenida General Paz beltway that surrounds the city along its border with Buenos Aires Province and freeways leading to the new international airport and to the northern suburbs heralded a new era in Buenos Aires traffic. Encouraged by pro-automaker policies pursued towards the end of the Perón (1955) and Frondizi administrations (1958–62) in particular, auto sales nationally grew from an average of 30,000 during the 1920–57 era to around 250,000 in the 1970s and over 600,000 in 2008.[77] Today, over 1.8 million vehicles (nearly one-fifth of Argentina's total) are registered in Buenos Aires.[78] Toll motorways opened in the late 1970s by then-mayor Osvaldo Cacciatore provided fast access to the city centre and are today used by over a million vehicles daily.[79] Cacciatore likewise had financial district streets (roughly one square kilometre in area) closed to private cars during daytime. Most major avenues are, however, gridlocked at peak hours. Following the economic mini-boom of the 1990s, record numbers started commuting by car and congestion increased, as did the time-honored Argentine custom of taking weekends off in the countryside.

Buenos Aires Cycling As of 2010, the city has constructed 36 km (22.37 mi) of protected bicycle lanes and has plans to construct another 80 km (49.71 mi).[80]

75

Local public transport
Public transport in Buenos Aires

Venezuela Station of new Line H of the Buenos Aires Underground

Buenos Aires Taxi

Colectivo in Buenos Aires

Puerto Madero Tramway

Buenos Aires Metrobus

Commuter rail in Buenos Aires

Commuter rail The Buenos Aires commuter rail system has seven lines: • • • • • • • Belgrano Norte Line Belgrano Sur Line Roca Line San Martin Line Sarmiento Line Mitre Line Urquiza Line

The Buenos Aires commuter network system is very extensive: every day more than 1.3 million people commute to the Argentine capital. These suburban trains operate between 4 am and 1 am. The Buenos Aires railway system also connects the city with long-distance rail to Rosario and Córdoba, among other metropolitan areas. There are four principal terminals for both long-distance and local passenger services in the city centre: Constitucion, Retiro, Federico Lacroze and Once.

Buenos Aires Underground The Buenos Aires Metro (locally known as subte, from "subterráneo" meaning underground or metro), is a high-yield system providing access to various parts of the city. Opened in 1913, it is the oldest underground system in the Southern Hemisphere and second oldest in the Spanish-speaking world after Madrid's in Spain. The system has six lines, named by letters (A to E, and H) There are 74 stations, and 52.3 km (32 mi) of route. An expansion program is underway to extend existing lines into the outer neighborhoods and add a new north-south line. Route length is expected to reach 89 km (55 mi) by 2011. Line "A" is the oldest one (service opened to public in 1913) and stations kept the "belle-époque" decoration, the trains still sport incandescent-bulb illumination and doors must be manually opened by the passengers, as in 1913. Daily ridership on weekdays is 1.7 million and on the increase.[81] [82] Fares are cheap and are in fact cheaper than the city buses. The Buenos Aires Metro has six lines which also have links to the commuter rail.[83] Current renovation and expansion The subway is currently undergoing renovation and expansion • At Line A two new stations after Carabobo are Buenos Aires Subway entrance on Avenida de Mayo under construction, being Nazca the new future terminal while newer metro carriages are slowly being introduced to handle the increased demand. • On Line B Since 2004, work began to expand the line to Villa Ortúzar and Villa Urquiza.[84] • On Line H further extensions are planned to run from Retiro to Nueva Pompeya once constructed. It will connect the Southern part of the city with the North, thus improving the flow to the centre of the city, and will be approximately 11 km (6.8 mi) long from end to end. The Line H will provide cross-connections with almost all the other lines.[85] • On Line E work has begun in 2009 to expand the line up to Retiro.[86] Planned underground lines New underground lines are planned and were presented by the Government of the City of Buenos Aires on 26 May 2007. There are currently three lines planned: Line F would join Constitución Station with Plaza Italia and would have an extension of 7.6 km (4.7 mi). It would be transverse-radial, according to the section, with strong integration with the rest of the network. Line G would connect the Retiro Station with the Cid Campeador and would have a length of 7.6 km (4.7 mi). It would be radial to connect the axes of high-density residential and commercial areas, and would bring the underground to the northwest of the city. Line I would run from the Emilio Mitre (Line E) Station to Plaza Italia, a distance of 7.3 km (4.5 mi). It would be the outermost transverse line of the network and would link the neighborhoods of the north, center and south of the city and link with the radial lines far from the city centre.

76

Current Underground System map

Buenos Aires Tramways Buenos Aires had an extensive street railway (tram) system with over 857 km (533 mi) of track, which was dismantled during the 1960s in favor of bus transportation and is now in the process of a slow comeback. The PreMetro or Line E2 is a 7.4 km (4.6 mi) light rail line that connects with Metro Line E at Plaza de los Virreyes station and runs to General Savio and Centro Cívico. It is operated by Metrovías. The official inauguration took place on 27 August 1987. A new 2 km (1.2 mi) tramway (LRT), Tranvía del Este, runs across the Puerto Madero district. Extensions planned would link the Retiro and La Boca terminal train stations. Other routes are being studied. A Heritage streetcar maintained by tram fans operates on weekends, near the Primera Junta line A metro station in the Caballito neighbourhood. Buses
MetroBus logo

77

Retiro Rail Terminal

There are over 150 city bus lines called Colectivos, each one managed by an individual company. These compete with each other, and attract exceptionally high use with virtually no public financial support.[87] Their frequency makes them equal to the underground systems of other cities, but buses cover a far wider area than the underground system. Colectivos in Buenos Aires do not have a fixed timetable, but run from 4 to several per hour, depending on the bus line and time of the day. With inexpensive tickets and extensive routes, usually no further than four blocks from commuters' residences, the colectivo is the most popular mode of transport around the city.[87] Buenos Aires has recently opened a two-lane 12 km (7.5 mi), BRT system, the MetroBus. The system uses modular median stations that serve both directions of travel, which enable pre-paid, multiple-door, level boarding. The system runs across the Juan B. Justo Ave has 21 stations and was inaugurated on 31 May 2011.[88] SUBE card The SUBE card is a contactless smart card system introduced in February 2009 for the public by Argentina's President.[89] It is used on public transport services within the Buenos Aires metropolitan area and was promoted by the Argentine Secretary of Transportation. It is valid on a number of different travel systems across the city including Buenos Aires Metro, buses and trains. One of the benefits of this change is that it has helped speed passengers on to the bus. People no longer had to wait to be issued a printed receipt as they each enter the bus. Environmentally this should help reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen because buses don't have to idle as long while passengers load, helping improve air quality in the city. The electronic ticket is eliminating the printed receipts thus lowering the amount of littering in the city. The city, in turn, no longer have to process, collect, count, and transport coinage received in payment of some 11 million trips per day.[90] Taxis A fleet of 40,000 black-and-yellow taxis ply the streets at all hours. License controls are not enforced rigorously. There have been numerous reports of organized crime controlling the access of taxis to the city airports and other major destinations. Taxi drivers are known for trying to take advantage of tourists.[91] Radio-link companies provide reliable and safe service; many such companies provide incentives for frequent users. Low-fare limo services, known as remises, have become popular in recent years.[92] [93]

Buenos Aires

78

Intercity transport
High-speed rail A new high-speed rail line between Buenos Aires, Rosario and Córdoba, with speeds up to 320 km/h is planned.[94] Long-distance bus terminal The main terminal for long-distance buses is Retiro bus station, near Retiro railway station, from where buses depart for all parts of Argentina and for neighbouring countries. Ferries Buenos Aires is also served by a ferry system operated by the company Buquebus that connects the port of Buenos Aires with the main cities of Uruguay, (Colonia del Sacramento, Montevideo and Punta del Este). More than 2.2 million people per year travel between Argentina and Uruguay with Buquebus. One of these ships is a catamaran, which can reach a top speed of about 80 km/h (50 mph), making it the fastest ferry in the world.[95]

Buquebus high-speed ferries connect Buenos Aires to coastal cities in Uruguay

Airports
The Buenos Aires international airport, Ministro Pistarini International Airport, is located in the suburb of Ezeiza and Pistarini International Airport terminal is often called "Ezeiza". The Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport, located in the Palermo district next to the riverbank, serves only domestic traffic and flights to Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. A smaller San Fernando Airport serves only general aviation.

Sports
Football is a passion for Argentines. Buenos Aires has the highest concentration of football teams of any city in the world (featuring no fewer than 24 professional football teams),[96] with many of its teams playing in the major league. The best-known rivalry is the one between River Plate and Boca Juniors. Watching a match between these two teams was deemed one of the "50 sporting things you must do before you die" by The Observer.[96] Other major clubs include San Lorenzo de Almagro, Vélez Sársfield, Asociación Atlética Argentinos Juniors, Club Atlético Huracán, Club Atlético All Boys and Club Ferro Carril Oeste.

Luna Park Arena

Buenos Aires

79

Diego Armando Maradona, born in Villa Fiorito, a villa miseria in the Lanús Partido (county) south of Buenos Aires, is widely hailed as one of the greatest football players of all time. Maradona started his career with Argentinos Juniors, later playing for Boca Juniors, the Argentina national football team and others (most notably FC Barcelona in Spain and SSC Napoli in Italy).[97] Buenos Aires has been a candidate city for the Summer Olympic Games on three occasions: for the 1956 Games, which were lost by a single vote to Melbourne; for the 1968 Summer Olympics, held in View of Estadio Pedro Bidegain, Stadium of San Mexico City; and in 2004, when the games were awarded to Athens. Lorenzo de Almagro However, Buenos Aires hosted the first Pan American Games (1951)[53] and was also host city to several World Championship events: the 1950 and 1990 Basketball World Championships, the 1982 and 2002 Men's Volleyball World Championships and, most remembered, the 1978 FIFA World Cup, won by Argentina on 25 June 1978, when it defeated the Netherlands by 3–1. In September 2013, the city will host the 125th IOC Session, where the International Olympic Committee will select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics as well as a new IOC President. Buenos Aires is currently bidding to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.[98] Juan Manuel Fangio won 5 Formula One World Driver's Championships, and was only outstripped by Michael Schumacher, with 7 Championships. The Buenos Aires Oscar Gálvez car-racing track hosted 20 Formula One events as the Argentine Grand Prix, between 1953 and 1998; it discontinued on financial grounds. The track features various local categories on most weekends. The 2009 and 2010 Dakar Rally started and ended in the city. Argentines' love for horses can be experienced in several ways: horse racing at the Hipódromo Argentino de Palermo racetrack, polo in the Campo Argentino de Polo (located just across Libertador Avenue from the Hipódromo), and pato, a kind of basketball played on horseback that was declared the national game in 1953. Buenos Aires native Guillermo Vilas (who was raised in Mar del Plata) was one of the great tennis players of the 1970s and 1980s,[53] and popularized tennis Nationwide in Argentina. He won the ATP Buenos Aires numerous times in the 1970s. Other popular sports in Buenos Aires are golf, basketball, rugby, field hockey and cricket.

International relations
Twin towns – Sister cities
Buenos Aires is twinned with the following cities:
• Brasília, Brazil (since 2002) Porto Alegre, Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil São Paulo, Brazil [103] Ottawa, Canada Santiago, Chile [103] [102] • • • • Berlin, Germany (since 19 May [99] 1994) Jerusalem, Israel (cooperation agreement) Tel Aviv, Israel (since 1976) Bergamo, Italy • • Warsaw, Poland [100] • Salamanca, Spain

• • • • • •

Lisbon, Portugal [100]

Santiago de Compostela, Spain Seville, Spain Vigo, Spain [101]

• •

Moscow, Russia

• •

Belgrade, Serbia

• • •

Cagliari, Italy Calabria, Italy (region) Genoa, Italy

• • •

Seoul, South Korea Almería, Spain Barcelona, Spain

• • •

Geneva, Switzerland [100] Kiev, Ukraine London, United Kingdom

Beijing, China (since [104] 1993)

Buenos Aires
• Miami, Florida, United States State of New Jersey, United States State of Ohio, United States Montevideo, Uruguay

80
• Lucca, Italy • Bilbao, Spain

• • •

Zagreb, Croatia (since [105] 1998) Prague, Czech Republic Most, Czech Republic [100]

• • • • • •

Milan, Italy Naples, Italy Rome, Italy Osaka, Japan Beirut, Lebanon (since 2006) Rotterdam, Netherlands

Cádiz, Spain [100] [106]

• • •

• • •

Guadix, Spain Madrid, Spain

• •

Cairo, Egypt

Toulouse, France

Oviedo, Spain (since 1983)

Partner city
• Paris[107] [108]

References
Primary sources
• • • • Encyclopædia Britannica [109] Microsoft Encarta [110] (Archived [111] 2009-10-31) General Information [112] (Spanish) Patricia Moglia, Fabián Sislián and Mónica Alabart, Pensar la historia Argentina desde una historia de América Latina, Buenos Aires:Plus Ultra

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] Travel+Leisure: Buenos Aires Reinventing Itself (http:/ / www. travelandleisure. com/ articles/ buenos-aires-steps-it-up) Official Website of the City of Buenos Aires (http:/ / www. bue. gov. ar/ ?ncMenu=785& & lang=en) "Argentina: Censo2010" (http:/ / www. censo2010. indec. gov. ar/ preliminares/ cuadro_totalpais. asp). . Retrieved 2011-02-25. "Aportes para el Desarrollo Humano en Argentina / 2009" (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ reports/ nationalreports/ latinamericathecaribbean/ argentina/ NHDR_Argentina_2009. pdf). . Retrieved 2011-06-01.

[5] http:/ / www. buenosaires. gov. ar/ [6] http:/ / www. bue. gov. ar/ ?lang=en [7] "Buenos Aires" (http:/ / education. yahoo. com/ reference/ dictionary/ entry/ Buenos Aires). The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2001. . [8] R.L. Forstall, R.P. Greene, and J.B. Pick, "Which are the largest? Why published populations for major world urban areas vary so greatly" (http:/ / www. uic. edu/ cuppa/ cityfutures/ papers/ webpapers/ cityfuturespapers/ session3_4/ 3_4whicharethe. pdf), City Futures Conference, (University of Illinois at Chicago, July 2004) – Table 5 (p.34) [9] www.lboro.ac.uk (http:/ / www. lboro. ac. uk/ gawc/ world2008t. html) The World According to GaWC 2008 – Retrieved on 2009-07-06 [10] "What is Porteño in English? – Porteño Spanish" (http:/ / www. portenospanish. com/ word/ 138/ Porteño). Portenospanish.com. . Retrieved 15 September 2011. [11] Travel + Leisure: Destinations (http:/ / www. travelandleisure. com/ travel-guide) [12] Buenos Aires Turismo: Arquitectura (http:/ / www. bue. gov. ar/ ?ncMenu=49) [13] Buenos Aires Turismo: Turismo Cultural (http:/ / www. bue. gov. ar/ ?ncMenu=204) [14] Argentina: A Short History by Colin M. Lewis, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 1-85168-300-3 [15] Guía visual de Buenos Aires centro histórico, Clarín Viajes, 2001. ISBN -X [16] We are Millions: Neo-liberalism and new forms of political action in Argentina, Marcela Lópéz Levy, Latin America Bureau, London, 2004. ISBN -X [17] Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (1 October 1996). "Constitución de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080122130413/ http:/ / www. legislatura. gov. ar/ 1legisla/ constcba. htm) (in Spanish). Archived from the original (http:/ / www. legislatura. gov. ar/ 1legisla/ constcba. htm) on 22 January 2008. . Retrieved 2007-12-13. [18] Infobae: Qué dice la Ley Cafiero (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. infobae. com/ contenidos/ 324047-100799-0-Qué-dice-la-Ley-Cafiero)]]

Buenos Aires
[19] ": Policía Metropolitana :" (http:/ / www. metropolitana. gob. ar/ nosotros. html). Metropolitana.gob.ar. . Retrieved 2011-09-15. [20] Senate of the Nation (http:/ / www. senado. gov. ar/ ). Retrieved 2007-12-25. [21] "Summary of 1947–2001 censuses" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 2/ p020201. xls). . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [22] "Demographics of Buenos Aires" (http:/ / www. reference. com/ browse/ wiki/ Buenos_Aires). Reference.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [23] "Indec:Instituto Nacional De Estadistica Y Censos De La Republica Argentina" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar?censo2001s2_2/ ampliada_index. asp?mode=02). Indec.mecon.ar?censo2001s2_2. . Retrieved 2011-06-01. [24] "2001 Census" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 2/ p020201. xls). . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [25] "Buenos Aires Statistical Monthly, June 2008" (http:/ / www. buenosaires. gov. ar/ areas/ hacienda/ sis_estadistico/ buscador. php?tipopubli=1& anio=& mes=& palabras=). Buenosaires.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [26] "Four million live in poverty in metropolitan Buenos Aires" (http:/ / en. mercopress. com/ 2009/ 06/ 19/ four-million-live-in-poverty-in-metropolitan-buenos-aires). En.mercopress.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [27] Government of Buenos Aires (http:/ / www. buenosaires. gov. ar/ ). Retrieved 2006-08-07. [28] 'Buenos Aires con quince comunas' (http:/ / www. pagina12. com. ar/ diario/ sociedad/ 3-55934-2005-09-02. html) by Pedro Lipcovich, Página/12, 2005-09-02 [29] Enrique Oteiza y Susana Novick sostienen que «la Argentina desde el siglo XIX, al igual que Australia, Canadá o Estados Unidos, se convierte en un país de inmigración, entendiendo por esto una sociedad que ha sido conformada por un fenómeno inmigratorio masivo, a partir de una población local muy pequeña.» (Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo. in línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, N° 14): http:/ / www. iigg. fsoc. uba. ar/ docs/ dt/ dt14. pdf) (http:/ / www. iigg. fsoc. uba. ar/ pobmigra/ archivos/ rc31. pdf); Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires:EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.; José Luis Romero (Romero, José Luis. «Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)», in La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64) [30] "Buenos Aires Introduction" (http:/ / www. geographia. com/ argentina/ buenosaires/ Index. htm). Geographia.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [31] "European Emigration to Argentina" (http:/ / www. casahistoria. net/ argentina_immigration. htm#1. General). Casahistoria.net. 17 July 2009. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [32] Weiner, Rebecca. "The Virtual Jewish History Tour – Argentina" (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ vjw/ Argentina. html). . Retrieved 2008-01-09. [33] "Presentación de PowerPoint" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2008/ 08/ 27/ um/ encuesta1. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [34] (http:/ / www. borello. com. ar/ Notas de Interes/ Notas_Riodelaplata. htm) (http:/ / www. argentinaxplora. com/ activida/ geogra/ geogra. htm) (http:/ / www. bue. gov. ar/ especiales/ ?id=2) [35] "Monthly Information of the city of Buenos Aires, January in the city of Buenos Aires, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Argentine National Meteorological Service)" (http:/ / www. smn. gov. ar/ ?mod=clima& id=8) (in Spanish). . Retrieved 2008-01-23. [36] "Atlas Ambiental de Buenos Aires" (http:/ / www. atlasdebuenosaires. gov. ar/ aaba/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=324& Itemid=160& lang=es) (in Spanish). AABA. 19 April 2010. . Retrieved 2010-04-19.> [37] "Monthly Information of the city of Buenos Aires, July in the city of Buenos Aires, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (Argentine National Meterological Service)" (http:/ / www. smn. gov. ar/ ?mod=clima& id=14) (in Spanish). . Retrieved 2008-01-23. [38] "Buenos Aires sees rare snowfall" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ americas/ 6286484. stm). BBC News. 10 July 2007. . Retrieved 2008-01-24. [39] "Buenos Aires gets first snow since 1918" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ world/ 2007-07-09-argentina-snow_N. htm). USA Today. 9 July 2007. . Retrieved 2008-01-24. [40] "Servicio Meteorológico Nacional" (http:/ / www. smn. gov. ar/ ?mod=clima& id=30& provincia=Capital Federal& ciudad=Buenos Aires). Smn.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [41] "(English) Características Climáticas Ciudad de Buenos Aires" (http:/ / www. smn. gov. ar/ ?mod=clima& id=5). . Retrieved December 2008. [42] "City of Buenos Aires Statistical Annual (2008)" (http:/ / buenosaires. gov. ar/ areas/ hacienda/ sis_estadistico/ buscador. php?tipopubli=4& subtipopubli=& titulo=& anio=2008& mes=). Buenosaires.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [43] (in Spanish) Economía (http:/ / estatico. buenosaires. gov. ar/ areas/ hacienda/ sis_estadistico/ anuario_2006/ tomo1/ 09. pdf). . Retrieved 2010-01-22. [44] (in Spanish). Producto Bruto Geografico. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ secpro/ dir_cn/ documentos/ producto_bruto_geografico. xls) on 13 March 2008. http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080313001135/ http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ secpro/ dir_cn/ documentos/ producto_bruto_geografico. xls. Retrieved 2010-01-22. [45] "City Mayors reviews the richest cities in the world in 2005" (http:/ / www. citymayors. com/ statistics/ richest-cities-2005. html). Citymayors.com. 11 March 2007. . Retrieved 2009-05-05. [46] "'Informe Argentino Sobre Desarrollo Humano'" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071009140109/ http:/ / www. desarrollohumano. org. ar/ IDHArgentina/ 98_nac/ 98_nac. html). Web.archive.org. 9 October 2007. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. desarrollohumano. org. ar/ IDHArgentina/ 98_nac/ 98_nac. html) on 9 October 2007. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [47] "abril 2008 para pdf.indd" (http:/ / buenosaires. gov. ar/ areas/ hacienda/ sis_estadistico/ SEC_abril_20082. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [48] "Puerto Buenos Aires: Estadísticas" (http:/ / www. puertobuenosaires. gov. ar/ estadisticas/ 11-2010w. pdf). .

81

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[49] World Port Source: Dock Sud (http:/ / www. worldportsource. com/ ports/ ARG_Port_of_Dock_Sud_187. php) [50] "Presupuesto 2011" (http:/ / estatico. buenosaires. gov. ar/ areas/ hacienda/ presupuesto2011/ pdf/ 02_proyecto_de_ley_de_presupuesto_2011. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2011-02-25. [51] 'Paris of the South' (http:/ / travel. canoe. ca/ Travel/ SouthAmerica/ 2005/ 03/ 06/ 953104-sun. html) by Kenneth Bagnell, Canoe travel, 2005-03-07. [52] Entertainment boom hits Buenos Aires (http:/ / www. variety. com/ article/ VR1118039096) by Charles Newbery (http:/ / www. variety. com/ biography/ 1827), Variety.com (http:/ / www. variety. com). Posted: Sat., 25 June 2011, 4:00 am PT [53] Time Out Guide: Buenos Aires, Cathy Runciman & Leticia Saharrea (eds), Penguin Books, London, 2001. ISBN 0-14-029398-1 [54] "La Noche de los Museos 2010" (http:/ / www. lanochedelosmuseos. gob. ar/ ). Lanochedelosmuseos.gob.ar. . Retrieved 2011-06-01. [55] Lunfardo & Tango lyrics (http:/ / web. ics. purdue. edu/ ~tango/ Articles/ 2001_Economist. pdf) [56] "Tango on UNESCO world heritage list" (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ 2009/ 09/ 30/ tango-on-unesco-world-her_n_304023. html). Huffington Post. 30 September 2009. . Retrieved 2011-06-01. [57] BAFWeek cumple 10 años (http:/ / vos. lavoz. com. ar/ content/ bafweek-celebra-en-grande) [58] http:/ / www. buenosairesaltamoda. com/ [59] http:/ / www. buenosairesmoda. com/ index. html [60] http:/ / www. buenosairesrunway. com [61] Buenos Aires Runway – Información (http:/ / www. buenosairesrunway. com/ informacion. html) [62] Buenos Aires, Argentina appointed UNESCO City of Design (http:/ / portal. unesco. org/ culture/ en/ ev. php-URL_ID=28228& URL_DO=DO_TOPIC& URL_SECTION=201. html) [63] Buenos Aires: UNESCO City of Design (http:/ / unesdoc. unesco. org/ images/ 0015/ 001592/ 159264e. pdf) [64] Portal Oficial de Turismo de Buenos Aires: Arquitectura (http:/ / www. bue. gov. ar/ ?ncMenu=49) (Spanish) [65] Clarín.com (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ sociedad/ Celebran-anos-cripta-Santisimo-Sacramento_0_504549647. html) " Celebran hoy los 100 años de la cripta del Santísimo Sacramento" 23 June 2011 [66] "Palacio Barolo" (http:/ / www. pbarolo. com. ar). Pbarolo.com.ar. . Retrieved 15 September 2011. [67] Clarín.com (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ ciudades/ capital_federal/ Vivir-Kavanagh-lujo-vecinos-perfil_0_523147815. html) "Vivir en el Kavanagh, un lujo para vecinos de perfil bajo" 24 July 2011 [68] "Clarín article" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2006/ 12/ 14/ um/ m-01327811. htm). Clarin.com. 14 December 2006. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [69] (http:/ / www. derecho. uba. ar/ academica/ asuntos_estudiantiles/ intercambio. php) (http:/ / www. fi. uba. ar/ alumnos/ index. php?m=280) (http:/ / portal. educ. ar/ noticias/ educacion-y-sociedad/ la-uba-apuesta-al-intercambio. php) [70] http:/ / www. buenosairesbus. com/ en/ [71] Clarin.com (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ ciudades/ Medio-millon-pasajeros-Bus-Turistico_0_521347973. html) "Medio millón de pasajeros ya viajó en el Bus Turístico" (Spanish) 21 July 2011 CE [72] www.wttc.travel (http:/ / www. wttc. travel/ ) Retrieved on 10 March 2008 [73] Buenos Aires was also voted world's best South American city of fashion Travel + Leisure Magazine worldsbest/2008 (http:/ / www. travelandleisure. com/ worldsbest/ 2008/ results. cfm?cat=cities) Retrieved on 9 July 2008 [74] http:/ / www. smithsonianmag. com/ travel/ Hola-Buenos-Aires. html?c=y& page=1 [75] "Judo-Do" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20041014182410/ http:/ / www. judo-do-amici. com. ar/ grados/ index. php?pag=ficha. php& id=5& cap=28). Web.archive.org. 14 October 2004. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. judo-do-amici. com. ar/ grados/ index. php?pag=ficha. php& id=5& cap=28) on 14 October 2004. . Retrieved 2009-07-25. [76] 'Avenida Rivadavia:Un largo recorrido de contrastes' (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2006/ 02/ 26/ laciudad/ h-05615. htm) by Nora Sánchez, Clarín, 2006-02-26 [77] IntermediaSP. 2007. "ADEFA" (http:/ / www. adefa. com. ar/ ). ADEFA. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [78] DNRPA (http:/ / www. dnrpa. gov. ar/ bolesta1/ boletin1021/ Pagina 3. htm) [79] "SS PP'!A1" (http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ download/ infoeco/ actividad_ied. xls#'1. 10). . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [80] Mejor en Bici (http:/ / mejorenbici. gob. ar/ ?id=2) [81] "Cuadros de Pasajeros" (http:/ / www. metrovias. com. ar/ V2/ CuadrosPasajeros. asp?op=11& Item=2& Lang=). . Retrieved 2011-06-01. [82] "Metrovías en Números" (http:/ / www. metrovias. com. ar/ V2/ MetroviasNumeros. asp?op=11& Item=3& Lang=). . Retrieved 2011-06-01. [83] "> South America > Argentina > Buenos Aires Subte (Metro)" (http:/ / www. urbanrail. net/ am/ buen/ buenos-aires. htm). UrbanRail.Net. . Retrieved 2010-03-25. [84] History: La Línea B (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071224012438/ http:/ / www. sbase. com. ar/ historia3. htm) (Spanish) [85] "Un nuevo subte unirá Pompeya con Retiro" (http:/ / www. lanacion. com. ar/ nota. asp?nota_id=75535). lanacion.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-25. [86] "Retorna la actividad en la línea E a Retiro" (http:/ / www. enelsubte. com/ noticias/ retorna-la-actividad-la-linea-e-retiro-117). enelSubte.com. 13 April 2009. . Retrieved 2010-03-25. [87] "Transportation Research Board, Buenos Aires Colectivo Buses and Experience with Privatization" (http:/ / trb. metapress. com/ content/ v5542g6mh27j6u44/ ). Trb.metapress.com. 15 January 2007. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [88] El metrobús ya une Palermo con Liniers, [[La Nación (Argentina)|La Nación (http:/ / www. lanacion. com. ar/ 1377920-el-metrobus-ya-une-palermo-con-liniers)], 1 June 2011]

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Buenos Aires
[89] "Sistema ц nico de Boleto ElectrцЁnico – SUBE hoy" (http:/ / www. sube. gob. ar/ SubeHoy. aspx). Sube.gob.ar. . Retrieved 15 September 2011. [90] Clarín: Volvieron las monedas a la calle (15 August 2009) (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2010/ 01/ 04/ um/ m-02112939. htm)]] [91] "La Nacion article" (http:/ / www. lanacion. com. ar/ Archivo/ Nota. asp?nota_id=76881). La Nacion article. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [92] "Argentina Handbook Transportation" (http:/ / argentina. gotolatin. com/ eng/ Info/ Hbook/ Xport. asp). Argentina.gotolatin.com. . Retrieved 2010-03-25. [93] "Radiotaxis & Remises de Argentina" (http:/ / www. radiotaxisyremises. com. ar/ templates/ bsasrem. htm). Radiotaxisyremises.com.ar. 22 February 2007. . Retrieved 2010-03-25. [94] Argentina sets a new course (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071023213711/ http:/ / www. railwaygazette. com/ news_view/ article/ 2007/ 08/ 7661/ argentina_sets_a_new_course. html). Railway Gazette International August 2007. [95] "Buquebus" (http:/ / www. buquebus. com/ cache/ HomeARG. html). Buquebus. . Retrieved 2009-08-09. [96] 50 sporting things you must do before you die (http:/ / observer. guardian. co. uk/ osm/ story/ 0,,1182710,00. html), The Observer, 2004-04-04 [97] Complete list here on the left (http:/ / www. diegomaradona. com/ ingles/ ihistoria. html) [98] "Buenos Aires, Argentina to bid for 2018 Youth Olympic Games" (http:/ / www. gamesbids. com/ eng/ youth_olympic_bids/ 1216135867. html). Games Bids Inc.. 30 August 2011. . Retrieved 30 August 2011. [99] "Berlin's international city relations" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080822100321/ http:/ / www. berlin. de/ rbmskzl/ staedteverbindungen/ index. en. html). Berlin Mayor's Office. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. berlin. de/ rbmskzl/ staedteverbindungen/ index. en. html) on 22 August 2008. . Retrieved 2009-07-01. [100] "Listado de ciudades hermanas" (http:/ / estatico. buenosaires. gov. ar/ areas/ internacionales/ hermanamientos. pdf). . Retrieved 2010-10-26. [101] Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica (http:/ / www. femp. es/ index. php/ femp/ content/ download/ 7117/ 65153/ file/ 070202_con_latinoamérica. pdf) (102,91 kB). [29-9-2008] [102] Prefeitura.Sp – Descentralized Cooperation (http:/ / www2. prefeitura. sp. gov. br/ secretarias/ relacoes_internacionais/ ingles/ descentralized_cooperation/ sister_cities/ 0001) [103] International Relations – São Paulo City Hall – Official Sister Cities (http:/ / www. prefeitura. sp. gov. br/ cidade/ secretarias/ relacoes_internacionais/ cidadesirmas/ index. php?p=1066) [104] "Sister Cities" (http:/ / www. ebeijing. gov. cn/ Sister_Cities/ Sister_City/ ). Beijing Municipal Government. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [105] "Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb" (http:/ / www1. zagreb. hr/ mms/ en/ index. html). 2006–2009 City of Zagreb. . Retrieved 2009-06-23. [106] "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas" (http:/ / www. munimadrid. es/ portal/ site/ munimadrid/ menuitem. dbd5147a4ba1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/ ?vgnextoid=4e84399a03003110VgnVCM2000000c205a0aRCRD& vgnextchannel=4e98823d3a37a010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD& vgnextfmt=especial1& idContenido=1da69a4192b5b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD). Madrid city council. Ayuntamiento de Madrid. . Retrieved 2009-07-22. [107] "Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération" (http:/ / www. paris. fr/ portail/ accueil/ Portal. lut?page_id=6587& document_type_id=5& document_id=16468& portlet_id=14974). Mairie de Paris. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. [108] "International relations: special partners" (http:/ / www. paris. fr/ en/ city_government/ international/ special_partners. asp). Mairie de Paris. . Retrieved 2007-10-14. [109] http:/ / wwwa. britannica. com/ ebi/ article-9273392 [110] http:/ / encarta. msn. com/ encyclopedia_761571750/ Buenos_Aires_(city). html [111] http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5kwQSlB2k [112] http:/ / worldfacts. us/ Argentina-Buenos-Aires. htm

83

External links
• Buenos Aires (city) travel guide from Wikitravel • Official tourism website (http://www.bue.gov.ar/home/index.php?&lang=en) • (Spanish) Official government website (http://www.buenosaires.gov.ar/) • OPENCities Monitor participant (http://opencities.britishcouncil.org/web/index.php?monitor_en)

Demographics of Argentina

84

Demographics of Argentina
Demographics of Argentina

Population of Argentina, 1961–2003 Population: Growth rate: Birth rate: Death rate: Life expectancy: –male: –female: Fertility rate: Infant mortality rate: 40,091,359 (2010 census [INDEC]) 1.036% (2010 est.)
[2] [1]

17.75 births/1,000 population (2010 est.) 7.39 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.) 76.76 years 73.52 years 80.17 years (2010 est.) 2.33 children born/woman (2010 est.) 11.11 deaths/1,000 live births Age structure:

0-14 years: 15-64 years: 65-over:

25.6% (male 5,369,477/female 5,122,260) 63.5% (male 12,961,725/female 13,029,265) 10.8% (male 1,819,057/female 2,611,800) (2010 est.) Sex ratio:

Total: At birth: Under 15: 15-64 years: 65-over:

0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.) 1.052 male(s)/female 1.05 male(s)/female 1 male(s)/female 0.7 male(s)/female Nationality:

Nationality: Major ethnic: Minor ethnic:

Argentine European 86.4%
[3]

Mestizo (mixed white and Amerindian ancestry) 8%, 4% Arab or East Asian heritage, Amerindian [3] 1.4% Language:

Official:

Spanish

Demographics of Argentina

85

Spoken:

German, Italian, Welsh, Guarani and many others are also spoken varying the region

This article is about the demographic features of Argentina, including population density, ethnicity, economic status and other aspects of the population. In the 2001 census [INDEC], Argentina had a population of 36,260,130 inhabitants, and preliminary results from the 2010 census [INDEC] census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants.[4] [5] Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2008 was estimated to be 0.92% annually, with a birth rate of 16.32 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.54 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The proportion of people under 15, at 24.6%, is somewhat below the world average (28%), and the cohort of people 65 and older is relatively high, at 10.8%. The percentage of senior citizens in Argentina has long been second only to Uruguay in Latin America and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina's population has long had one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates (recently, about 1% a year), and it also enjoys a comparatively low infant mortality rate. The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is of 76 years. According to an official cultural consumption survey conducted in 2006, 42.3% of Argentines speak English (though only 15.4% of those claimed to have a high level of English comprehension).[6]

Immigration to Argentina
As with other areas of new settlement such as Canada, Australia, and the United States, Argentina is considered a country of immigrants.[7] Most Argentines are descended from colonial-era settlers and of the 19th and 20th century immigrants from Europe. An estimated 8% of the population is Mestizo, and a further 4% of Argentines are of Arab or Asian heritage.[3] In the last national census, based on self-identification, 600,000 Argentines (1.6% of the population) declared to be Amerindians[8] Most of the 6.2 million European immigrants arriving between 1850 and 1950, regardless of origin, settled in several regions of the country. Due to this large-scale European immigration, Argentina's population more than doubled and consecuently increased the national population. Argentina was second only to the United States in the number of European immigrants received[9] The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy, Spain, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Belgium and several other regions. Italian population in Argentina arrived mainly from the northern italian regions varying between Piedmont, Veneto and Lombardy, later from Campania and Calabria;[10] Many Argentines have the gentilic of an Italian city, place, street or occupation of the immigrant as last name, many of them were not necessarily born Italians, but once they did the roles of immigration in Italy the name usually changed. Spanish immigrants were mainly Galicians and Basques.[11] [12] Millions of A crowd in the city of Rosario, Santa Fe reflects the importance of immigrants also came from France (notably Béarn and European immigration to Argentine ethnography and culture. the Northern Basque Country), Germany and Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Ireland, Greece, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.[13] The Welsh settlement in Patagonia, known as Y Wladfa, began in 1865; mainly along the coast of Chubut Province. In addition to the main colony in Chubut, a smaller colony was set up in Santa Fe and another group settled at Coronel Suárez, southern Buenos Aires Province.[14] Of the 50,000 Patagonians of Welsh descent, about 5,000 are Welsh speakers.[15] The community is centered around Gaiman, Trelew and Trevelin.[16]

Demographics of Argentina Eastern Europeans were also numerous, and arrived from Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and from Central Europe (particularly Poland, Hungary and Slovenia).[17] Sizable numbers of immigrants also arrived from Balkan countries (Bulgaria, Montenegro, Romania and Croatia).[18] Argentina has South America's largest population of Armenians. 130,000 Armenian Argentines are reported to live in Argentina, including a population of 65,000 in Buenos Aires.[19] Although relatively few in number, English immigrants to Argentina have played a disproportionately large role in forming the modern state. Anglo-Argentines were traditionally often found in positions of influence in the railway, industrial and agricultural sectors. The historical English Argentine status was complicated by an erosion of their economic influence during Perón's nationalization of many British-owned companies in the 1940s and, more recently, by the Falklands War in 1982.[13]

86

Indigenous peoples
According to the provisional data of INDEC's Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples (ECPI) 2004 - 2005, 600,000 indigenous persons (about 1.5% of the total population) reside in Argentina. An additional 8% are labeled as Mestizo.[20] The most numerous of these communities are the Mapuches, who live mostly in the south, the Kollas and Wichís, from the northwest, and the Tobas, who live mostly in the northeast.[21] The officially recognized indigenous population in the country, according to the 2004–05 "Complementary Survey of Indigenous Peoples", stands at approximately 600,000 (around 1.4% of the total population), the most numerous of whom are the Mapuche people.[8]

Asian
There are an estimated 180,000 Asian Argentines, 120,000 of which are of Chinese descent.,[22] 32,000 of Japanese descent, 25,000 of Korean descent,[23] and 2,000 of Lao descent. Asian-Argentines primarily migrated in three waves. The first wave was composed of Japanese immigrants (largely from Okinawa Prefecture), that arrived in small numbers during the early twentieth century. The Japanese-Argentine community, located mostly in Pablo Nougués city where a large temple was built, has fully integrated themselves into Argentine society today. Sources believe that 78% of the 4th generation Japanese-Argentine community is of mixed European ancestry, while the 3rd generation is 66% mixed, and a majority of them have non-Japanese ancestors and relatives. The Japanese-Argentine community is less visible due to the intermixing with the European immigrants that have also settled in Argentina like the Italians, Spaniards, German, French, Irish, Polish and Swiss. Today they are one of the most distinguishable communities in Argentina because of their mixed race. Many of their Asian features are almost not visible due to their ancestry. In Buenos Aires, the "Jardín Japonés" (Japanese Garden and Teahouse) has become a traditional landmark of the city since its opening 30 years ago. The second wave were primarily Korean entrepreneurs, settling in Buenos Aires during the 1960s. Koreans live primarily in the Balvanera and Flores (where the Koreatown is located) districts of Buenos Aires, and are mainly involved in the manufacturing and selling of textiles. The third wave consisted mostly of Chinese entrepreneurs, who settled in Buenos Aires during the 1990s. Meanwhile, the Chinese live in Chinatown with a Buddhist temple in Belgrano. Many of them are involved with grocery retailing, which has caused Chinese-owned stores to become a common feature of Buenos Aires. Today, Chinese are the fastest growing community, with 100,000 Chinese-born residing in the largest Argentine cities.[24]
[25] [26]

Demographics of Argentina

87

Jewish
The origins of Argentina's Jewish community go back to the days of the Spanish Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition, when Jews fleeing persecution settled in what is now Argentina.[27] Many of the Portuguese traders in the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata were Jewish, but an organized Jewish community developed only after Argentina gained independence from Spain in 1810. At that time, Jews from France and other parts of Western Europe began to settle in Argentina.[27] [28] The current Jewish population is 80% Ashkenazi.[29] Argentina has the largest Jewish population of any country in Latin America.[27] Today, approximately 250,000 Jews live in Argentina,[29] [30] [31] down from 310,000 in the early 1960s.[29] Most of Argentina's Jews live in Buenos Aires, Córdoba and Rosario.[32] Argentina's Jewish population is the largest Jewish community in Latin America, the third-largest in the Americas (after that of the United States and Canada), and the sixth-largest in the world.[29] [30] By law, the Jews are allowed two days of vacation on Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and the first two and last two days of Passover.[33]

African
According to David Levinson "Afro Argentines number about 50,000, nearly all of whom now live in Buenos Aires. Argentina did not import large numbers of slaves, and the Afro Argentine population today is descended from freed slaves and slaves who escaped to Argentina from Bolivia, Paraguay, and Brazil. As part of the Europeanization program of the late 1880s, Afro Argentines were pushed off their land. African identity was defined as inferior, and warfare, disease, and intermarriage decimated the population. Although largely ignored and relegated to low-level jobs, the Afro Argentine community continues to function as a distinct community in Buenos Aires."[34] Criticisms of the national census state that data has historically been collected using the category of national origin rather than race in Argentina, leading to undercounting Afro-Argentines and mestizos.[35] The 1887 Buenos Aires census was the last in which blacks were included as a separate category.[36]

Recent immigrants
According to the INDEC 1,531,940 of the Argentine resident population were born outside Argentina, representing 4.22% of the total Argentine resident population.[38] [39] Illegal immigration has been a recent factor in Argentine demographics. Most illegal immigrants come from Bolivia and Paraguay, countries which border Argentina to the north. Smaller Foreign born residents in Argentina by country of [37] [40] birth. numbers arrive from Peru, Ecuador and Romania. The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program called Patria Grande ("Greater Homeland")[41] to encourage illegal immigrants to regularize their status; so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.[42]

Languages
The official language of Argentina is Spanish, and it is spoken by practically the entire population in several different accents. The most common accent of Spanish in Argentina is Rioplatense Spanish, and it is so named because it evolved in the central areas around the Río de la Plata basin. Its distinctive feature is widespread voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú for the second person singular. Rioplatense Spanish is as different from the rest Spanish accents as American English is of English from the UK.

Demographics of Argentina

88

Non-indigenous minority languages
Many Argentines also speak other European languages (Italian, Portuguese, French, Welsh, German, Swedish and Croatian, as examples) due to the vast number of immigrants from Europe that came to Argentina.[2] English language is a required subject in many schools, and there are also many private English-teaching academies and institutions. Young people have become accustomed to English through movies and the Internet, and knowledge of the language is also required in most jobs, so most middle-class children and teenagers now speak, read and/or understand it with various degrees of proficiency. According to an official cultural consumption survey conducted in 2006, 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak some English (though only 15.4% of those claimed to have a high level of English comprehension).[6] Standard German is spoken by between 400,000[43] and 500,000[44] Argentines of German ancestry, though the number may be as high as 2,800,000 according to some sources.[45] German, is the third or fourth most spoken language in Argentina. There are sources of around one million Levantine Arabic speakers in Argentina,[43] as a result of immigration from the Middle East, mostly from Syria and Lebanon. There is a prosperous community of Argentine Welsh-speakers of approximately 25,000[46] in the province of Chubut, in the Patagonia region, who descend from 19th century immigrants.

Religion
The Constitution guarantees freedom of religion, but until 1994 the President and Vice President had to be Catholic. A very significant fact is that 61.1% of Argentines said to be related to God "on their own way", 72.9% said to "never" or "rarely" attend ceremonies of worship. Argentina has the largest Jewish population in South America with about 300,000(around 2% of the popularion). The community numbered about 400,000 after World War II, but the appeal of Israel and economic and cultural pressures at home led many to leave; recent The 17th century Cathedral of Córdoba instability in Israel has resulted in a modest reversal of the trend since 2003.[47] [48] Muslim Argentines number about 500,000–600,000, or approximately 1.5% of the population; 93% of them are Sunni.[47] Buenos Aires is home to one of the largest mosques in Latin America. A recent study found that approximately 11% of Argentines are non-religious, including those who believe in God, though not religion, agnostics (4%) and atheists (5%). Overall, 24% attended religious services regularly. Protestants were the only group in which a majority regularly attended services.[49]

Urbanization
Argentina is highly urbanized,[2] with the ten largest metropolitan areas accounting for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten living in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires proper, and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.[50] The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each,[50] and six other cities (Mendoza, Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe)[50] [51] have at least half a million people each. The population is unequally distributed amongst the provinces, with about 60% living in the Pampa region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires Province, and 3 million each in Córdoba Province, Santa Fe Province and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. Seven other provinces each have about one million people: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. Tucumán is the most densely populated

Demographics of Argentina (with 60 inhabitants/km², the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average), while the southern province of Santa Cruz has less than 1 inhabitant/km². Most European immigrants settled in the cities which offered jobs, education and other opportunities enabling them to enter the middle class. Many also settled in the growing small towns along the expanding railway system and since the 1930s many rural workers have moved to the big cities.[52] Urban areas reflect the influence of European immigration, and most of the larger ones feature boulevards and diagonal avenues inspired by the redevelopment of Paris. Argentine cities were originally built in a colonial Spanish grid style, centered around a plaza overlooked by a cathedral and important government buildings. Many still retain this general layout, known as a damero, meaning checkerboard, since it is based on a pattern of square blocks. The city of La Plata, designed at the end of the 19th century by Pedro Benoit, combines the checkerboard layout with added diagonal avenues at fixed intervals, and was the first in South America with electric street illumination.[53]

89

Largest cities

Gallery

Population pyramid for Argentina (2009)

Immigrant population Argentina (1869–1991)

Population distribution

Built in 1906 to welcome hundreds of newcomers daily, the Hotel de Inmigrantes is now a national museum.

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Censo 2010 Argentina (http:/ / www. censo2010. indec. gov. ar/ preliminares/ cuadro_totalpais. asp) Argentina (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ ar. html) entry at The World Factbook Ben Cahoon. "Argentina" (http:/ / www. worldstatesmen. org/ Argentina. html). World Statesmen.org. . "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001–2015" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 2/ proyecciones_provinciales_vol31. pdf) (in español) (pdf). Gustavo Pérez. INDEC. . Retrieved 2008-06-24.

[5] Censo 2010: Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. censo2010. indec. gov. ar/ )]] [6] Página/12, 27 December 2006. Los idiomas de los argentinos (http:/ / www. pagina12. com. ar/ diario/ sociedad/ 3-78287-2006-12-27. html). [7] "About Argentina" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ paginas. dhtml?pagina=1669). Government of Argentina. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [8] "Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas 2004–2005" (http:/ / www. indec. gov. ar/ webcenso/ ECPI/ index_ecpi. asp). National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina. .(Spanish) [9] CELS – Informe 1998 (http:/ / www. cels. org. ar/ Site_cels/ publicaciones/ informes_pdf/ 1998. Capitulo7. pdf) [10] "Federaciones Regionales" (http:/ / www. feditalia. org. ar/ arg/ federaciones/ feditalia_org_fed_regionales. html). Feditalia.org.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [11] "Historical references" (http:/ / www. cdtradition. net/ historical-references. php). Cdtradition.net. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [12] "Monografías" (http:/ / www. monografias. com/ trabajos14/ gallegos/ gallegos. shtml). Monografias.com. 2007-05-07. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [13] Chavez, Lydia (1985-06-23). "New York Times: A bit of Britain in Argentina" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1985/ 06/ 23/ travel/ fare-of-the-country-teatime-a-bit-of-britain-in-argentina. html?sec=travel). Nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [14] Birt, Paul W. (2005). "Welsh (in Argentina)". In Diarmuid Ó Néill (ed.). Rebuilding the Celtic Languages. Talybont: Y Lolfa. p. 146. ISBN 0-86243-723-7. [15] "Wales and Argentina" (http:/ / www. wales. com/ en/ content/ cms/ english/ wales_and_argentina/ wales_and_argentina. aspx). Wales.com website. Welsh Assembly Government. 2008. . Retrieved 24 December 2010. [16] Berresford Ellis, Peter (1983). The Celtic revolution: a study in anti-imperialism (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=cfQRcvqSW7UC& pg=PA176& dq="Y+ Wladfa"& hl=en& ei=JHnxTKLJNaqqhAfrj8GDDA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2&

Demographics of Argentina
ved=0CCgQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q="Y Wladfa"& f=false). Talybont: Y Lolfa. pp. 175–178. ISBN 0-86243-096-8. . [17] "Inmigración a la Argentina: Daguerrotipistas y fotógrafos" (http:/ / www. monografias. com/ trabajos14/ inmg-fotografos/ inmg-fotografos. shtml#RUMAN) – Monografías.com (Spanish) [18] "Montenegrinos Argentinos" (http:/ / www. montenegrinos. com. ar/ ). Montenegrinos.com.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [19] "Armenia Diaspora Conference Official Site: Population" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080327062045/ http:/ / www. armeniadiaspora. com/ followup/ population. html). ArmeniaDiaspora.com. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. armeniadiaspora. com/ followup/ population. html) on March 27 2008. . Retrieved 21 December 2010. [20] Argentina Turismo, Información, Información general (http:/ / www. turismo. gov. ar/ esp/ menu. htm) accessed: 2006-08-30. [21] INDEC (http:/ / www. indec. gov. ar/ webcenso/ ECPI/ index_ecpi. asp) [22] 27/9/2010 clarin.com January 2009 (http:/ / www. clarin. com. / sociedad/ comunidad-china-duplico-ultimos-anos_0_343165728. html) [23] 재외동포현황/Current Status of Overseas Compatriots (http:/ / www. mofat. go. kr/ consul/ overseascitizen/ compatriotcondition/ index6. jsp?TabMenu=TabMenu6), South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 2009, , retrieved 2009-05-21 [24] Peopledaily.com (http:/ / spanish. peopledaily. com. cn/ 31621/ 6415237. html) ,Peopledaily 2008 [25] Maldonado-Salcedo, Melissa (2007). "From South Korea to Argentina – Argentina in South Koreans" (http:/ / www. imaginingglobalasia. org/ index. php?option=com_content& task=view& id=175& Itemid=71). Imagining Global Asia 1. . Retrieved 2008-10-25 [26] Sánchez, Nora (2008-08-31). "Una multitud celebró como en Japón" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2008/ 08/ 31/ um/ m-01750328. htm). Clarín. . Retrieved 2010-01-04 [27] Weiner, Rebecca. "The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Argentina" (http:/ / www. jewishvirtuallibrary. org/ jsource/ vjw/ Argentina. html). . Retrieved 2008-01-09. [28] "Americas - Argentina; History" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20071022225906/ http:/ / www. jdc. org/ p_amer_arg_history. html). American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. jdc. org/ p_amer_arg_history. html) on 2007-10-22. . Retrieved 2008-01-09. [29] LeElef, Ner. "World Jewish Population" (http:/ / www. simpletoremember. com/ vitals/ world-jewish-population. htm#_ftnref1). . Retrieved 2008-01-09. [30] The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute; Annual Assessment, 2007 (http:/ / www. jpppi. org. il/ JPPPI/ SendFile. asp?DBID=1& LNGID=1& GID=489) [31] United Jewish Communities; Global Jewish Populations (http:/ / www. ujc. org/ section. html?id=29) [32] http:/ / www. jdc. org/ p_amer_arg_pop. html [33] Fiestas judías no laborables - Edición Nacional (http:/ / www. edicionnacional. com/ edicion/ 2006/ 4/ 24/ articulo/ 25573) [34] Levinson, David (1998). Ethnic groups worldwide: a ready reference handbook (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=uwi-rv3VV6cC& lpg=PA314). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9781573560191. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [35] "Racial Discrimination in Argentina" (http:/ / academic. udayton. edu/ race/ 06hrights/ georegions/ southamerica/ argentina01. htm). Academic.udayton.edu. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [36] Ruthie Ackerman, Chronicle Foreign Service (2005-11-27). "Blacks in Argentina – officially a few, but maybe a million" (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/ article. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2005/ 11/ 27/ MNGH0FU3UG1. DTL). Sfgate.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [37] Población extranjera empadronada en el país por lugar de nacimiento (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 2/ migracion1. xls) INDEC [38] Tendencias recientes de la inmigración internacional (http:/ / www. indec. gov. ar/ webcenso/ aquisecuenta/ Aqui12. pdf) INDEC [39] Investigación de la Migración Internacional en Latinoamérica (IMILA) (http:/ / www. eclac. cl/ migracion/ imila/ ) Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía (CELADE). Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL). [40] "El varieté de la calle Florida" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2007/ 03/ 04/ sociedad/ s-01373795. htm) (Editorial) – Clarín (Spanish) [41] "Patria Grande" (http:/ / www. patriagrande. gov. ar). Patriagrande.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [42] "Alientan la mudanza de extranjeros hacia el interior – Sociedad –" (http:/ / www. perfil. com/ contenidos/ 2007/ 07/ 21/ noticia_0035. html). Perfil.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [43] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Languages of Argentina (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=AR), Retrieved on 2007-01-02. [44] WorldLanguage website (http:/ / www. worldlanguage. com/ Italian/ Countries/ Argentina. htm). Retrieved on 2007-01-29 [45] "Rápida recuperación económica tras la grave crisis" (http:/ / www. swissinfo. org/ spa/ swissinfo. html?siteSect=43& sid=7080052) [46] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). "Language of Argentina" (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=AR). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. SIL International. . Retrieved 2008-08-21. "Welsh (25,000)" [47] "Argentina" (http:/ / www. state. gov/ g/ drl/ rls/ irf/ 2006/ 71446. htm). International Religious Freedom Report. U.S. Department of State. 2006. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [48] "Clarín" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2003/ 12/ 22/ i-03001. htm). Clarin.com. 2003-12-22. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [49] "Encuesta CONICET sobre creencias" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2008/ 08/ 27/ um/ encuesta1. pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [50] "Major Cities" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ paginas. dhtml?pagina=1484). Government of Argentina. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. [51] "Ubicacion" (http:/ / turismo. municipalidad-salta. gov. ar:8081/ ubicacion. aspx). Directorate-General of Tourism, Municipality of the City of Salta. . Retrieved 2009-09-03. (Spanish) [52] Rock, David. Argentina, 1516–1982. University of California Press, 1987.

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[53] "EDELAP – 120 años de alumbrado público" (http:/ / www. edelap. com. ar/ 120/ llego. htm). Edelap.com.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [54] "3218.0 - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Argentina, 2006-07" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. gov. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 4/ EPHcont_1trim08. pdf). INDEC. 2008-03-31. . Retrieved 2008-06-06.

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External links
• Population cartogram of Argentina (http://www.worldmapper.org/countrycartograms/carto_arg.htm)

Languages of Argentina

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Languages of Argentina
Languages of Australia Official language(s) None; de facto Spanish

Regional language(s) Araucano, Guaraní, Quechua[1]

The spoken languages of Argentina number at least 40 although Spanish is dominant. Others include native and other immigrant languages; two languages are extinct and others are endangered, spoken by elderly people whose descendants do not speak the languages.[2] Argentina is predominantly a Spanish-speaking country — the fourth largest after Mexico, Spain, and Colombia (according to a compilation of national census figures and United Nations estimates, see List of countries with Spanish-speaking populations). Based on the 2010 national census and supporting research, there are about 40.9 million Spanish speakers in Argentina (almost the entire population). [3] [4] Argentines are amongst the few Spanish-speaking countries (like Uruguay, El Salvador and Honduras) that almost universally use what is known as voseo—the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú (the familiar "you"). The most prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, whose speakers are located primarily in the basin of the Río de la Plata. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the accent of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires (known as porteños) is closer to that of the Neapolitan dialect of Italian than to that of any other spoken language. Italian immigration influenced Lunfardo, the slang spoken in the Río de la Plata region, permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other regions as well. As in other large countries, the accents vary depending on geographical location. Extreme differences in pronunciation can be heard within Argentina. One common accent notable to Argentina is the “sh” sounding y and ll. In most Spanish speaking countries the letters y and ll are pronounced like “y” in yo-yo, however in most parts of Argentina will be pronounced like “zh” As previously mentioned voseo is commonly used in Argentina while with its own slight variation. These variations are most obvious in informal commands. When using the Spanish tú form the following sentence would look like this, “venid” (for vosotros, "come [here] [you all]") or “ven tú” [come you], in Argentine Castellano it would be “vení vos” (the imperative form of the verb is illustrated here). Usually, the vos form of verb conjugation (in the indicative) is simply done by dropping the “i” from the vosotros conjugation. See the article on voseo for more details. In many of the central and north-eastern areas of the country the “rolling r” takes on the same sound as the ll and y ('zh' - a voiced palatal fricative sound, similar to the "s" in the English pronunciation of the word "vision".) For Example, “Río Segundo” sounds like “Zhio Segundo” and “Corrientes” sounds like “Cozhientes”. For those looking to learn this specific dialect, General Linguistics offers a program focusing on "Voseo" Spanish [5]. The ISO639 code for Argentinian Spanish is "es-AR".

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Italian
Argentina has more than 1,500,000 Italian speakers; this tongue is the second most spoken language in the nation. Italian immigration from the beginning of the 20th century made a lasting and significant impact on the pronunciation and vernacular of the nation's spoken Spanish, giving it an Italian flair. In fact, Italian has contributed so much to Rioplatense that many foreigners mistake it for Italian.[6]

Levantine Arabic
There are sources of around one million Levantine Arabic speakers in Argentina,[2] as a result of immigration from the Middle East, mostly from Lebanon, Syria, Palestine and Israel .

More than 100,000 speakers
Quechua
South Bolivian Quechua is a Quechuan language spoken by some 800,000 people, mostly immigrants who have arrived in the last years. There are 70,000 estimated speakers in Salta Province. The language is also known as Central Bolivian Quechua, which has six dialects. It is classified as a Quechua II language and is referred to as Quechua IIC by linguists.[2]

German
Standard German is spoken by between 400,000[2] and 500,000[7] Argentines of German ancestry, though it has also been stated that there could be as many as 1,800,000.[8] German today, is the third most spoken language in Argentina.

Yiddish
There are around 200,000 Yiddish speakers in Argentina.[7]

Mapudungun
Mapudungun is spoken by 100,000 Mapuche people in the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Buenos Aires, and La Pampa.[9]

More than 1,000 speakers
Welsh language is spoken by over 35,000 people in the Chubut province.[6] Chinese language is spoken by at least half of the over 60,000 Chinese immigrants, mostly in Buenos Aires.[10] Mocoví is spoken by 4,525 people in Santa Fe Province, while Mbyá Guaraní has 3,000 speakers in the northeast.[2] Pilagá is spoken by about 2,000 people in the Chaco.[2] There are 1,500 Iyo'wujwa Chorote speakers, 50% of whom are monolingual;[2] Iyo'wujwa Chorote is spoken in the Chaco region and along the Pilcomayo river.[11]

More than 100 speakers
Several native American languages spoken in Argentina by the native people (1% of the population) are declining at rates that may result in only a handful of speakers within a generation. Kaiwá has 512 speakers, Nivaclé 200, Tapieté and Wichí Lhamtés Nocten only 100. These indigenous languages have suffered slow linguistic and cultural genocide. In this category in terms of number of speakers, one can also include many immigrant languages (e.g., Plautdietsch with only 140).

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Endangered languages
Some Argentine languages are critically endangered, spoken only by a handful of isolated elderly people whose children don't speak the language;[2] they are likely to become dead languages once the remaining speakers die. Vilela has about 20 speakers; Puelche has 5 or 6 speakers; Tehuelche has 4 speakers as of the year 2000, out of about 200 ethnic Tehuelche people, (2000 W. Adelaar); and Selknam (also known as Ona) has 1 to 3 speakers (1991) and is nearly extinct; full blooded Ona people are already extinct.

Extinct languages
Abipón and Chané are now extinct languages that were spoken by people indigenous to Argentina before European contact; Chané was spoken in the Salta Province.[2] Cocoliche, a Spanish-Italian creole, was spoken mainly by first and second-generation immigrants from Italy, but is no longer in daily use; it is sometimes used in comedy. Some Cocoliche terms were adopted into Lunfardo slang.

Other languages
Catalan, Occitan, Turoyo, Ukrainian, and Vlax-Romani are all reportedly spoken, but the number of speakers are not known.[2] Many Aymará speakers have migrated to Argentina for sugar mill and other work; of more than 2.2 million speakers globally, many are in Argentina.[12] There are Mandarin-, Cantonese-, Japanese-, Korean-, and Russian-speaking immigrant communities. Chiripá is also spoken.[13] There are also notable communities of Afrikaans speakers, who emigrated from South Africa during or after the Boer War. Irish (Gaelic) is also spoken by some of the estimated 500,000 Irish - Argentine descendants. If the Argentine claim to the Falklands were proved legitimate, there would be a small English speaking population also. However, English is commonly studied as a second language.

Notes
[1] "Argentina – Language" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ paginas. dhtml?pagina=1687). argentina.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2011-06-12. [2] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Languages of Argentina (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_country. asp?name=AR), Retrieved on 2007-01-02. [3] INDEC national census estimates (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ ) [4] Aún hay niños que sólo hablan el guaraní y no entienden el castellano (http:/ / www. fmlaruta. com/ noticias/ ver_nota. php?id=8936) [5] http:/ / www. generallinguistics. com/ [6] Ethnologue (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=cym) [7] WorldLanguage website (http:/ / www. worldlanguage. com/ Italian/ Countries/ Argentina. htm). Retrieved on 2007-01-29 [8] "Rápida recuperación económica tras la grave crisis" (http:/ / www. swissinfo. org/ spa/ swissinfo. html?siteSect=43& sid=7080052) [9] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Mapudungun (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=arn), Retrieved on 2007-01-02 [10] Jóvenes Argenchinos (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2006/ 09/ 22/ conexiones/ t-01276347. htm) Clarin.com 22 September 2006 [11] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Chorote, Iyo'wujwa (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=crq), Retrieved on 2007-01-02 [12] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Aymara, Central (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=ayr), Retrieved on 2007-01-02 [13] Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Online version: Chiripá (http:/ / www. ethnologue. com/ show_language. asp?code=nhd), Retrieved on 2007-01-02

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External links
• • • • • Academia Argentina de Letras - Argentine Academy (http://www.aal.edu.ar/:). Royal Spanish Academy (http://www.rae.es/rae.html:) Asociación de Centros de Idiomas - Association of Language Centres (http://www.idiomas.org.ar/:). Spanish in Argentina (http://www.spanishinargentina.org.ar/:). The Dante Alighieri Society of Buenos Aires (http://www.dante.edu.ar/:).

96

Geography
Geography of Argentina
Geography of Argentina

Continent Region Coordinates Area

South America Southern Cone 34°00′S 64°00′W Ranked 8th 2766890 km2 ( sq mi) % land 1.09% water Chile 5,308 km Paraguay 1,880 km Brazil 1,261 km Bolivia 832 km Uruguay 580 km

Borders

Highest point Cerro Aconcagua, 6,960 m Lowest point Laguna del Carbón, -105 m Longest river Paraná River, 4,700 km Largest lake Lake Buenos Aires 1,850 km²

Argentina is a country in southern South America, situated between the Andes in the west and the southern Atlantic Ocean in the east. It is bordered by Paraguay and Bolivia in the north, Brazil and Uruguay in the northeast and Chile in the west. Argentina is the second largest country of South America after Brazil, and the 8th largest country in the world. Its total area is approximately 2.7 million km². Argentina claims a section of Antarctica (Argentine Antarctica) but has agreed to suspend sovereignty disputes in the region as a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty. Argentina also asserts claims to several South Atlantic islands administered by the United Kingdom.

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97

Geographical zones
The country's provinces are divided in 7 zones regarding climate and terrain. From North to South, West to East: • Argentine Northwest: Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja • Gran Chaco: Formosa, Chaco, Santiago del Estero • • • • • Mesopotamia: Misiones, Corrientes Central: Córdoba, Entre Ríos Cuyo: San Juan, Mendoza, San Luis The Pampas: Santa Fe, La Pampa, Buenos Aires Patagonia: Rio Negro, Neuquén, Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego

Land use
• • • • Arable land: 10.03% Permanent crops: 0.36% Other: 89.61% (2005) Irrigated land: 15,500 km² (2003)

Claims
• Land claims • Falkland Islands • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands • Argentine Antarctica • Maritime claims on Argentine Sea • • • • Contiguous zone: 24 nmi (44.4 km; 27.6 mi) Continental shelf: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi) or to the edge of the continental margin Exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (370.4 km; 230.2 mi) Territorial sea: 12 nmi (22.2 km; 13.8 mi)

Mountains and hills
The Argentinean Andes contain some of the tallest mountains in South America, including Cerro Bonete 6,872, Ojos del Salado 6,893 m, Cerro Mercedario 6,768 m, and Cerro Aconcagua,[1] which at 6,960 m is the tallest peak on the continent and in the entire Western Hemisphere. Both of these peaks are located near the Chile border southwest of San Juan. The Andes region is also home to arid basins, lush foothills covered with grape vineyards, glacial mountains, and half of the Los Lagos Region (Lake District) (the other half is in Chile). The Lake District, named for the many glacial lakes carved out of the mountains and subsequently filled by melt-water and rain, is located in the southern Andes and boasts a diverse natural landscape of glaciers, native old growth forests, lakes, rivers, fjords, volcanoes, and sentinel mountains. Throughout the Andes that separate Chile and Argentina there are more than 1,800 volcanoes, 28 of which are considered to be active. These account for approximately one-fifth of the Earth's active volcanoes. Patagonia, the southern region of Argentina, is a combination of pastoral steppes and glacial regions. Located in this region near the Chilean border is Parc Nacional Los Glaciares (Glacier National Park ), where some 300 glaciers make up part of the Patagonian Ice Cap (21,760 km2). The ice cap, flowing into the Pacific oceans from the Andes, is the largest in the Southern Hemisphere outside of Antarctica. Thirteen of the glaciers feed lakes in the region. The Upsala glacier, at 60 km long and 10 km wide, is the largest in South America and can only be reached by boat, since it floats in Lago Argentino. The next largest is the 4.8 km wide Perito Moreno, which stretches about 35 km to

Geography of Argentina Lago Argentino, where it forms a natural dam in the lake. Jagged mountain peaks formed from granite include Cerro Fitz Roy 3,405 m, Cerro Torre 3,102 m, and Cerro Pináculo 2,160 m. Smaller mountain ranges also exist in central South America. These ranges cut across the center of the country and serve as the divider between the southern Patagonia region and the northeastern Pampas. From west to east these ranges are the Sierra Lihuel-Calel, the Sierra de la Ventana, and the Sierra del Tandil.

98

Plateaus
The Somuncurá Plateau is a basalt plateau with alternating hills and depressions. It stretches across the Río Negro and Chubut provinces, or the area from the Chubut River north to the Negro River. The region undergoes severe climate changes between the winter and summer months. The area has lava formations and contains many fruit and alfalfa plantations. Cattle ranchers find this area to be ideal for raising their livestock. A smaller plateau, the Atacama Plateau, occupies the region just east of the Andes Mountains in northern Argentina and extends east to the city of San Miguel de Tucumán.

Rivers and lakes
Rivers
Except in the Northeast there are few large rivers, and many have only seasonal flows. Nearly all watercourses drain eastward toward the Atlantic, but a large number terminate in lakes and swamps or become lost in the thirsty soils of the Pampas and Patagonia. The four major rivers systems are those that feed into the Río de la Plata estuary, those made up of the Andean streams, those of the central river system, and those of the southern system. The Paraná, the second-longest river in South America after the Amazon, flows approximately 4,900 km and forms part of the borders between Brazil and Paraguay, and Paraguay and Argentina. Its upper reaches feature many waterfalls. It is joined by the Iguazú River (Río Iguaçu) where it enters Argentina in the northeast. This area is well known throughout the world for the spectacular Iguazú Falls (Cataratas Iguaçu, meaning "great water"). One of the world's great natural wonders, they are located on the border between Argentina and Brazil with two-thirds of the falls in Argentina. They include approximately 275 falls, ranging between 60 and 80 m high. These falls are higher and wider than Niagara Falls on the border of the United States and Canada. Other tributaries of the Paraná, which feed in from the west, are the Bermejo, Bermejito, Salado, and Carcarañá. The Uruguay River 1,600 km forms part of the borders between Argentina and Brazil and Argentina and Uruguay. It is navigable for about 300 km from its mouth to Concordia. The 2,550 km Paraguay River forms part of the border between Paraguay and Argentina, and flows into the Paraná north of Corrientes and Alto Paraná. These all join to flow into the Río de la Plata, and eventually into the Atlantic Ocean in northern Argentina. Where these rivers meet, a wide estuary is formed, which can reach a maximum width of 222 km. In north central Argentina, Lake Mar Chiquita is supplied with its water by several rivers. The Dulce River originates near San Miguel de Tucumán and flows southwest into the lake. From the southwest it is also fed by the Primero and Segundo Rivers. In the northern Patagonia region, the major rivers are the Colorado and Negro Rivers, both of which rise in the Andes and flow to the Atlantic Ocean. The Colorado is fed by the Salado River, which flows from Pico Ojos del Salado in a southeasterly direction to the Colorado. Tributaries of the Salado include the Atuel, Diamante, Tunuyán, Desaguadero, and the San Juan, all of which originate in the northwest Andes. The Negro also has two main tributaries of its own, the Neuquén and the Limay. In the central Patagonia region the Chubut rises in the Andes and flows east to form a sizable lake before making its way to the ocean. The Lake District is also coursed by its share of rivers, all originating in the mountains and flowing to the Atlantic. These include the Deseado, Chico, Santa Cruz, and Gallegos Rivers.

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Lakes
The Los Lagos Region (Lake District), on the border of Chile and Argentina in the Andes mountain region, contains many glacial lakes that are carved out of the mountains then filled by melt-water and rain. The most significant of these is Lago Buenos Aires, also known as General Carrera, located in southern Argentina and shared with Chile. It is the largest lake in the country and the fifth largest in all of South America with an average surface area of 2,240 km2. Moving south along the border one would encounter Lago San Martín, Lago Viedma, and finally Lago Argentino, the second largest lake in this region with an area of 1466 km2. Not far from Lake Buenos Aires on the Castillo Plain near Comodoro Rivadavia is Lake Colhue Huapi. One of the world's largest salt lakes, and the second largest lake in Argentina, is Lake Mar Chiquita (Little Sea), located in central Argentina. Its surface area varies from year to year and season to season, but has in it wettest periods spanned 5,770 km2. The reservoir created by the Chocón dam, located on the Río Negro, is one of the country's largest manmade lakes.

Wetlands
Iberá, in the northeast of Argentina, is a biologically rich region, with more than sixty ponds joined to marshes and swampland. The area is extremely humid, and is home to hundreds of bird species and thousands of insects, including a wide variety of butterflies. The area hosts a diverse array of flora and fauna, notably the royal water lily, silk-cotton trees, alligators, and capybara, the largest rodent species in the world.

Environment
Current issues: Environmental problems (urban and rural) typical of an industrialising economy such as soil degradation, desertification, air pollution, and water pollution. Argentina is a world leader in setting voluntary greenhouse gas targets. Natural hazards: • San Miguel de Tucumán and Mendoza areas in the Andes subject to earthquakes • Pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike the Pampas and northeast • Heavy flooding in the Mesopotamia

Geographical politics
International agreements: • Party to: Antarctic Treaty, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling • Signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation Strategic importance: • Location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

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Regions of

Argentina
Argentine Northwest Gran Chaco Mesopotamia Cuyo Pampas Patagonia Antártida Argentina

Antipodes
Argentina is largely antipodal to central and coastal China, the exceptions being the north bordering Paraguay and the area around Buenos Aires, which are opposite ocean, including the coast down to Bahía Blanca, which is close to antipodal with the Chinese port of Tianjin. Large Chinese cities antipodal to Argentina are Canton and Hong Kong (with the northwest corner), Amoy and Fuzhou (near the border with Paraguay), Shanghai (near the border with Uruguay), Hangzhou, the wartime capital of Nanjing (not far from Rosario), Changsha, Nanchang, Wuhan, Taiyuan, Jinan, Qingdao, and the capital Beijing (inland from Viedma). Taipei, the capital of ROC Taiwan, is antipodal to Argentina near the Paraguayan border. Central Patagonia is largely antipodal with Mongolia, and its southern end and Tierra del Fuego with Russia in southern Siberia.

References
[1] "Travel map of the Andes" (http:/ / andes. zoom-maps. com/ ). Nelles Map. . Retrieved 2011-01-08.

Bibliography
•  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents (https://www.cia.gov/library/ publications/the-world-factbook/index.html) of the CIA World Factbook. •  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents (http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ ei/bgn/index.htm) of the United States Department of State (Background Notes). • UT Perry–Castañeda Map - Argentina Map (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/argentina_rel96.jpg) Website Map

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Climate of Argentina
Argentina is subject to a variety of climates. The north of the country, including latitudes in and below the Tropic of Capricorn, is characterized by very hot, humid summers (which result in a lot of swamp lands) with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts during the winter season. Central Argentina has hot summers with tornadoes and thunderstorms (in western Argentina producing some of the world's largest hail), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions. The hottest and coldest temperature extremes recorded in South America have occurred in Argentina. A record high temperature of 47.3 °C (117.1 °F), was recorded at Campo Gallo, Santiago del Estero Province on October 16, 1936. The lowest temperature recorded was −40 °C (−40 °F) at Valle de los Patos Superior, San Juan, July 8, 1966. The Sudestada (literally “southeastern”) could be considered similar to the Noreaster, though snowfall is rarely involved (but is not unprecedented). Both are associated with a deep Arid and hot weather predominate in the northern region. winter low pressure system. The sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas, and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the coasts of central Argentina and in the Río de la Plata estuary. The southern regions, particularly the far south, experience extremely long periods of daylight from November to February (up to fifteen hours), and extended nights from May to June. All of Argentina uses UTC-3 time zone. The country does not observe daylight saving time occasionally, the last summertime being started at 0:00 December 30, 2007 and being finished at 0:00 March 16, 2008. Extremities Argentina's eastermost continental point is northeast of the town of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones (26°15′S 53°38′W), the westernmost in the Mariano Moreno Range in Santa Cruz (49°33′S 73°35′W). The northernmost point is located at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Mojinete rivers, Jujuy (21°46′S 66°13′W), and the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego (55°03′S 66°31′W).[1]

The Andean range over the province of Santa Cruz.

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Seasons
Winter
In winter major winds include the cool Pampero blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas after a cold front; a warm wind that can blow from the north in mid and late winter creating mild conditions; and the Zonda, a hot and dry wind (see also foehn wind), affecting west-central Argentina. Argentina also gets some snow in many southern and central places.

Spring
In Northern region, spring is very short, but progressively lasting more southwards (around 3 months at Buenos Aires' latitude). During mid-October a large variety of wild and urban flora fully blossom. Thunderstoms and hailstorms are frequent. Temperatures are mild and nights are cool.

Summer
In summer temperatures are more diverse, with an average of 9 °C (48.2 °F) in the south and 27 °C (80.6 °F) in the north. Temperatures can reach up to 45 °C (113 °F) in rn parts, but by a short period. Cold fronts are frequent, lowering temperatures as much as 15 °C (27.0 °F).
Average annual rainfall in Argentina (without Tierra del Fuego Province)

Autumn
Is generally mild, windy and progressively lasting more southwards (around 3 months at Buenos Aires' latitude). Some forests and vineyards can bring along the autumn foliage, with its red and orange leafs, specially in mid-April. During these season, the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier but later on it becomes a distraction.

Regions
Argentina possesses exceptional natural beauties, for it embraces a very diverse territory of mountains, plains and highlands containing all possible weathers. It has various climatic regions with particular sceneries.

Mesopotamia
The Mesopotamia has a sub-tropical weather in the northern part and a milder climate in the southern one. It has a very diverse flora and fauna, and its territory contains hillocks, lagoons and marshes, and is crossed by large rivers. In the far north, summers are very long and humid, but not as extreme as in the Chaco region, staying most often in the 30°C to 35°C range (18°C to 24°C at night) Falls are also warm and humid, often reaching 30°C as well, and winters are mostly mild, with highs between 20°C and 24°C, and lows around 10°C. However, temperatures still reach 30°C on occasion, but also fall to 0°C every once in a while, and it is not uncommon to see rainy days with high temperatures hovering around 10°C and strong winds from the south. Precipitation reaches up to 2,500 mm, producing a thick jungle. As we move south towards Entre-Rios, summers become shorter, and we perceive four distinct seasons, with pleasant falls between 20°C and 25°C, cool winters with highs in the 15°C to 18°C range, common night frosts and mild, windy springs. Precipitation is high throughout the year, especially in early and late summer, reaching between 1,200 and 1,800 mm.

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Northwest
In the Northwest region stands out for its warm weather; with mountains of various colours, the Puna highlands, valleys and ravines, and the characteristic towns and cities of great historical value. Cities like Salta and Jujuy, at about 1,200 m of altitude, have pleasant, monsoon-like weather, with warm, rainy summers with pleasant nights (26°C to 29°C during the day, 14°C to 18°C at night), and extremely dry winters with mild days (19°C to 21°C) and cool nights (2°C to 5°C). Rainfall in the summer can reach 200 mm per month, but in the winter, it is less than 10 mm per month. The first ranges of the Andes receive very high precipitation, over 2,000 mm, and are immersed in a thick fog for most of the year, producing a thick jungle. Further west, in the Puna region next to Bolivia, altitudes range from 3,000 to 4,000 m and temperatures are much colder: nighttime lows average -8°C in July and 7°C in January, daytime highs range from 21°C in November to 15°C in June, and precipitation is low (300 mm), falling exclusively in the summer. At low altitudes further east and south, in the Chaco, the weather is extreme: a short, mild winter from May to August, with temperatures from 20°C to 24°C and lows between 8°C and 12°C (and occasional frost) gives way to an extremely hot and dry spring and early summer, with high temperatures escalating to 30°C to 40°C and heat waves reaching 45°C, provoking tremendous droughts. Then, starting in December, rainfall arrives in the form of severe thunderstorms, but temperatures still remain hot, climbing to 35°C to 37°C on average, with nights in the 20°C to 25°C degree range. Fall is pleasant and warm, with 25°C to 28°C, and cooler nights.

Cuyo
The region of Cuyo has mountainous characteristics (the Aconcagua Mountain rises in the area), and is extremely arid: many places receive less than 200 mm of rainfall annually, which fall almost exclusively between November and February. Temperatures are, on average, similar to those in the Pampas, but they tend to be more extreme: they are known for reaching extremes of up to 45°C during heat waves, although humidity is lower than in other regions, but in some areas they can also fall below -10°C and in parts of southern Mendoza province (Malargüe), they can reach -20°C as well, with frequent (albeit thin) snow cover. In the winter, strong Zonda winds can blow down from the Andes, melting the snow and pushing the temperatures up to 25°C even at relatively high altitudes. In the Andes, precipitation increases to about 600 mm in the south and 400 mm in the north, which fall mostly in the winter as snow: places above 2000 m in the south and above 2800 m in the north have ample snow cover for winter sports, and the passes to Chile, which reach over 4000 m, are often closed. The Central sierras of Córdoba and San Luis possess a very benign mild and dry weather, with temperatures very similar to those of the Pampas, but cooler summer nights due to the altitude, and extremely dry winters: although nights are cold, daytime temperatures are pleasant. Snow happens yearly but in small quantities due to the dryness, and thunderstorms in the summer can be very violent. Some spots in Córdoba receive over 1,000 mm of rain from these, and in the highest areas of the sierras, temperatures can reach -20°C on occasion.

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Pampas
The Pampas region, possesses the most productive lands in the country for agricultural and livestock activities. The plain is only interrupted by the Tandil and Ventana sierras. It has long and crowded beaches facing the Atlantic Ocean towards the east. Rainfall ranges from 1200 mm in the northeast, to a general 700 – 850 mm in most regions, to under 600 mm in the south and west. Summers are long and hot, with average high temperatures between 29°C and 32°C (except along the Atlantic coast, where they range from Rural areas cover the region of Las Pampas. 25°C to 28°C) and nighttime lows between 18°C at the northern edge and 14°C in the south. Afternoon thunderstorms are common, as well as heat waves that can bring temperatures in the 36°C to 40°C range for a few days. These are usually followed a day or two of strong Pampero winds from the south, which bring cool, dry air with high temperatures in the low 20s and nights often below 12°C to 15°C. Precipitation in the summer is high, with most places averaging between 90 mm and 160 mm monthly during the season. The fall arrives in March and brings periods of very rainy weather followed by dry, mild stretches and cool nights. Across the region, daytime temperatures range from 24°C to 28°C in March (nights range from 12°C to 16°C), from 20°C to 24°C in April (nights 9°C to 12°C), and from 17°C to 21°C in May (nights from 5°C to 9°C). Places in the east receive rainfall throughout the fall, whereas in the west it quickly becomes very dry, and many places receive less than 15 mm in May. Frost arrives in early April in the southernmost areas, but only in late May in the north. June, July and August are the core of the winter in the Pampas, and there are often drastic changes in temperature. When winds blow from the north, it is not uncommon to see temperatures between 22°C and 25°C (although nights remain cold) and some spots in the western part may even hit 30°C; however, after cold fronts from the south, highs might not reach 5°C in the west and 8°C in the east, and night time temperatures can fall below -5°C. Generally speaking, highs range from 12°C to 19°C and lows from 1°C to 5°C, frost is common and precipitation is very scarce in the west. Snowfall is very rare in most parts, although there have been snowstorms in the past: in 2007, most of the northern pampas were covered with snow up to 20 cm in some areas, and low temperatures plummeted to -12°C in parts of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. A common feature is a strong, southeasterly wind called Sudestada, which is often accompanied by drizzle, cool weather and rough seas along the coast. Spring is known for being very windy, and for its tremendous cold fronts and heat waves: one week, places in the Pampas can be baking with 35°C, and a week later, they can be frosty with highs around 12°C. It is also the season for violent thunderstorms and hail, but also of drought. Generally speaking, temperatures increase from the 18°C-22°C range in September (5°C-9°C at night) to 25°C-29°C in November (10°C-15°C) at night. The last frosts happen in mid-September in the north, and in November in the southernmost parts.

Patagonia
The Patagonia is the most extensive region, with much colder weather accentuated in the southern part. The west is mostly constituted by a mountainous landscape scored by spectacular woods, lakes and glaciers; it has an arid plain in the centre, and long beaches with varied marine fauna to observe to the east. The south end of this region is the southernmost point in the world except for Antarctica. The Lake District on the eastern Andean slopes has at low altitudes, pleasant, dry summers between 20°C and 24°C, where temperatures over 30°C are very rare, and cold nights between 4°C and 8°C, with frost not uncommon. Winds blow constantly from the west and there can be long stretches of sunny weather; however, after cool changes, temperatures might stay around 10°C even in the middle of the summer, and low-altitude snow is not unprecedented. Fall is wet, with highs from 12°C to 15°C in April and 8°C to 11°C in May. Cold fronts can bring some early

Climate of Argentina snowfall, and temperatures down to -8°C. Winter is also very rainy, but there is often sleet and snow as well, and large snowstorms with up to 30 cm of snow can happen. Temperatures are usually between 3°C and 9°C during the day, and between -5°C and 3°C at night; however, with clear skies, they often fall below -10°C and they can reach -20°C (with highs in the -5°C to -2°C) during extreme winters. Long stretches of subzero temperatures are very rare, but intense frost is very common. Spring is mild and dry though with cold nights and frequent frosts. Snow persists in the mountains until mid-summer at 2,000 m, and never melts above 2,500 m. The central Patagonian plateau experiences marked contrasts: in the summer, temperatures climb to 28°C in the north and 22°C in the south, with extremes beyond 30°C; however, nights are cold with lows in the 5°C to 9°C range. Winters range between 2°C and 9°C during the day, and between -7°C and -3°C at night; however, when cold air masses move in from Antarctica, temperatures drop to incredibly low values: it is not uncommon to have large areas below -20°C, and some spots have reached -35°C. Snowfall is common but quantities are small, and there can be longer periods of frost. Along the coast, it is significantly warmer, with most winter days reaching about 10°C and nights around 2°C, and rarely below -10°C. The region is among the windiest on earth, with average speeds of up to 35 km per hour in the spring, and behind cold fronts, the whole region is swept with winds between 100 and 160 kilometers per hour. Precipitation on the Patagonian plateau is very low and uniformly distributed: annual averages are typically around 200 millimetres (8 in) with high variability. Extreme southerly areas in Tierra del Fuego are known for their storminess: in Ushuaia, at sea level, summer days average from 12°C to 16°C, and temperatures only reach 20°C a few times every year. Snow can happen anytime, but only becomes frequent in April; however, temperatures are not extreme in the winter because of the Ocean: the average days are about 0°C to 5°C, nights from -5°C to 0°C, and it is very rare to see nighttime temperatures fall below -12°C on the coast (but they fall to -20°C inland, with heavy snowcover) Snow can fall in large quantities some years. The ice fields in Santa Cruz have an extreme climate, with up to 4,000 mm falling as snow, subzero temperatures, winds over 150 kilometers per hour and constant cloud cover.

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References
[1] "Argentine topography, hydrography, and climate" (http:/ / www. hcdsc. gov. ar/ biblioteca/ ISES/ geografiaargentina. asp) (in Spanish). Chamber of Deputies of the Province of Santa Cruz. .

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Sports
Sport in Argentina

Pato, the national sport of Argentina.

Culture of Argentina

Architecture Cinema Comics Cuisine Dance Holidays Humor Literature Music Newspapers Painting Radio Sports Television

The practice of sports in Argentina is varied due to the country's multicultural population and its mostly mild climate. However, football is by far the most popular sport in the country. Other sports played professionally and recreatively are athletics, auto racing, basketball, boxing, cricket, cycling, field hockey, fishing, golf, handball, mountaineering, padel tennis, polo, roller hockey, rowing, rugby union, sailing, skiing, swimming, tennis and volleyball. Much Argentine sport success is in team sports, but boxing, tennis, golf and, in the past, rowing, are exceptions to the rule. Though it is the national sport, pato is not very popular. Argentina is one of the most important sport powers in the region, ending at the top of the medal count at the South American Games since 1978, exceptions being 2002 and 2010. At a continental level, Argentina holds fourth place

Sport in Argentina in the all-time medal table of the Pan American Games, behind the United States, Canada and Cuba. Despite a relative lack of success at the Olympic level in more traditionals sports like athletics, swimming and gymnastics, Argentina has had successful participations in other popular sports like football, basketball, tennis, volleyball and boxing.

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Football
Football Football is not only a sport, but part of the country's culture. The sport is played by children during breaks at school and by grown-ups in the plenty of both indoor and outdoor fields located throughout the country. The Argentina national football team has won the World Cup twice (in 1978 and 1986), successive Olympic gold medals (in 2004 and 2008), fourteen Copa América, one Confederations Cup and six Youth World Championship's. Argentine clubs have won the Copa Libertadores (the top continental competition) a record 22 times, and have won the Intercontinental Cup/FIFA Club World Cup 9 times, a record shared with Brazilian clubs. The Argentine Primera División is the top level domestic competition. The country's most famed national football idol historically is Diego Maradona. Argentina's fiercest rival is Brazil. The rivalry is sometimes known as the Battle of the South Americans. They have played Argentine national team captain Daniel Passarella lifts the each other numerous times in the Copa América and in the trophy of the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Confederations Cup, and the clubs of these countries have met several times in the Copa Libertadores finals. Argentina is one of the few national teams in football that have beat Brazil in a regural basis, although in the latest years Brazil has turned the situation in its favor. The youth teams have also met at various tournaments. At the 2008 Olympics, the under-23 teams met in the semifinal clash, with Argentina winning 3–0 in a hard-fought game. Women's football is far behind in terms of popularity and professionalism. Nevertheless, the Argentina women's national football team has competed in the Sudamericano Femenino since 1995, finishing as runner-up three times before finally winning the competition in 2006, with a 5–0 victory over Brazil in the last match of the final group stage. The national team also played in the 2003 and the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cups, but finished last in its group in both occasions.

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Basketball
Basketball is also a popular sport, mostly in the provinces of Argentina. The Basketball Clubs' Association organizes the Liga Nacional de Básquet, the top level of the country's league system. Although the Argentine national team won the first FIBA World Championship in 1950, the sport did not gain country-wide popularity until the 2000s, when the national team conquered the Olympic gold medal at the 2004 Summer Olympics, and had a good performance in the 2002 and 2006 World Championship finishing respectively in second and fourth position. Argentine NBA star Emanuel Ginóbili also won NBA rings in 2003, 2005 and 2007 as a member of the San Antonio Spurs, the last one with compatriot Fabricio Oberto.

Former Pres. Néstor Kirchner (left) with Argentine national team player Emanuel Ginóbili, 2005.

Though women's basketball is not professional in Argentina, the national team participates in most of the international competitions, reaching its highest point at the 2006 FIBA World Championship for Women, when they finished in 9th place.

Rugby union
Rugby is a popular sport in Argentina, but still largely amateur; however, there are many professional players. Nevertheless, Los Pumas (the national team) have become one of the most powerful rugby national teams, finishing third in the 2007 Rugby World Cup played in France; they rose as high as third in the IRB World Rankings immediately after their World Cup run, and are now eighth.[1] Since November 2004, Argentina have picked up at least one win Ignacio Corleto on his way to score a try against France- Argentina at the 2007 over all the participants in Europe's Six Rugby World Cup. Nations Championship, drawn with the British and Irish Lions, and narrowly lost to the All Blacks (who had to survive a last-second assault on their try line). In particular, they have had an enviable record in recent years against France—going 7–2 since 2000, with the losses by a combined total of 7 points. Most important Argentine players emigrate to Europe (mainly to England and France) where they play professionally. Probably the best known players are Hugo Porta (played during the 1970s and the 1980s); current Pumas captain Felipe Contepomi; his immediate predecessor as captain, Agustín Pichot; current star utility back Juan Martín Hernández; Marcelo Loffreda, a former Puma who coached the team during their 2007 World Cup run before leaving to take up the coaching post at English club power Leicester Tigers; and the current head coach, 1990s Pumas star Santiago Phelan. There has always been discussion regarding the possibility of Argentina joining the Tri Nations alongside the main Southern Hemisphere powers of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, although this proposal and a similar one to join the Super 14 Southern Hemisphere professional league have both been consistently denied. More recently,

Sport in Argentina Argentina has lobbied for inclusion in the Six Nations, which arguably makes more sense for the country, considering that most top Argentine players are based in Europe. In 2006, both Pichot and Loffreda publicly urged that Argentina be admitted to the Six Nations, with both on record as being willing to have the Pumas play their "home" fixtures in Europe (possibly in Spain or Portugal) to alleviate travel issues for all teams involved. However, while these discussions were ongoing, The Sunday Times of London reported in February 2007 that the sport's world governing body, the International Rugby Board, was brokering a deal with Tri Nations organiser SANZAR that could have seen Los Pumas admitted to that competition as early as 2008. However, this plan was not implemented; ultimately, after the Pumas' 2007 World Cup run, it was decided that the earliest that the team could enter a major international competition would be 2012, and that the Pumas would eventually join the Tri Nations. SANZAR has since extended a provisional invitation for Argentina to join an expanded Tri Nations in 2012.

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Tennis
Tennis is quite popular among people of all ages, ever since the 1970s with Guillermo Vilas and later with Gabriela Sabatini in the 1980s both reached the number 2 position and winning several Grand Slams. Even though no Argentine player reached the first place at the ATP rankings, there are many Argentine players within the most important in the circuit. During the 2000s, a number of Argentine players were among the top 10 of the ranking. The highlights of that succes were an all-Argentine final in the 2004 French Open, the hit of David Nalbandian winning the 2005 Tennis Masters Cup to world number 1 Roger Federer. In that edition of the Tennis Masters Cup were gathering the top 8 players of the season there were 4 Argentine players, a record for any nationality in the history of the Masters Tournament. Most recently, Juan Martín del Potro has emerged as one of the leading players in the world, having won the 2009 US Open, beating Roger Federer, days before David Nalbandian and fans at the 2006 the Argentine turn 21 years old. Argentina won the World Team Cup four Australian Open. times, in 1980, 2002, 2007 and 2010 . The Argentine team also reached the semifinals of the Davis Cup 6 times in the last 9 years, losing in the finals of 2006 and 2008, to Russia in Moscow, and to Spain in Mar del Plata, Argentina, respectively. Increasing this defeats in the last stage of the competition is the loss in the final of 1981 against United States in Cincinnati.

Field hockey
Las Leonas (Argentina's national women's team) is one of the usual contenders in all the premier tournaments in women's Field Hockey. They conquered the Women's World Hockey Cup in 2002 and 2010. In the Olympics they won a silver medal in 2000, as well as bronze in 2004 and 2008. Also Las Leonas won the annual Hockey Champions Trophy in four occasions, 2001, 2008, 2009 and 2010.

Las Leonas

In the other hand the men's team hasn't been able to win any major tournament except for the hockey tournaments at the 1971 and 2003 Pan American Games, although they won the 2005 and 2007 Champions Challenges, and are usually positioned among the top ten teams in the world participating in the World Cups and Champions Trophies.

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Rink hockey
Rink hockey is mainly played in the Cuyo region (especially in San Juan Province). Argentine players have an international quality, with the men's national team has won 4 Rink Hockey World Championship titles. The woman national team also has won 3 World titles. Argentine Clubs such as Olimpia and UVT have also won international titles.

Boxing
For a list of Argentine boxers see Category:Argentine boxers Pascual Pérez was Argentina's first world boxing champion. There Argentine boxing legends such as Carlos Monzón, Santos Laciar and Juan Martin Coggi held the world champion's title in their categories. Argentine boxers have, as of 2004, earned 24 Olympic medals, including seven gold medals. Argentine boxer Victor Galindez was the third Hispanic to win the world's Light-Heavyweight title (after Puerto Rico's José Torres and Venezuela's Vicente Rondon, WBA-recognized champion during the middle 1970s). Galindez died after he was run over by a car during an auto racing competition that he took part of. In 1994, WBA world Middleweight champion Jorge Luis Firpo throws Jack Dempsey out of the ring in 1923; this was the basis for artist George Wesley Bellows' famous portrait. Castro knocked out John David Jackson in the ninth round to retain his title in Monterrey, Mexico. Since Castro was on the brink of suffering a technical knockout loss when he won the fight, the punch with which he beat Jackson has become known as boxing's version of Diego Maradona's Hand of God goal. Marcela Acuna is a world champion female boxer and arguably one of the most popular fighters of the 2000s in Argentina. Other fighters, such as Oscar Bonavena, Juan Roldán and Luis Firpo, did not win world championships but were also popular among boxing fans during their years as professional fighters. On 17 April 2010, Sergio Martínez outpointed American Kelly Pavlik in Atlantic City to become the lineal Middleweight champion of the world.

Volleyball
Volleyball has a professional male league. Argentina national volleyball team's best achievements are the bronze medals at the 1988 Summer Olympics and 1982 FIVB Men's World Championship. Male team is usually ranked by the FIVB among the best 10 national teams in the world. The boys volleyball team are ranked number one in the world, and they won a silver medal at the 2010 Summer Youth Olympics. Female volleyball is not played professionally. The national team is less important internationally than its male counterpart (FIVB's 17th place).

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Auto racing
From rally to Formula One, auto racing is a sport followed by a number of fans in Argentina. Formula one legend Juan Manuel Fangio was five time world champion and has held the record of most victories for many years. Years after Fangio's career was over, Carlos Reutemann was the best known Argentine driver of the 1970s. Argentine competitions include the TC 2000 and Turismo Carretera road racing series as well as Rally Argentina of the World Rally Championship. Argentina has also hosted the 2009 and 2010 edition of the Dakar Rally along with Chile. And will do it again in 2011. Former events include the defunct Formula One Argentine Grand Prix and World Sportscar Championship's 1000 km Buenos Aires.

Golf
Among the best in South America, important Argentine golfers include Antonio Cerdá, José Cóceres, Roberto DeVicenzo, Eduardo Romero, Ángel Cabrera, Andrés Romero and Ricardo González. DeVicenzo and Cerdá won the 1953 Canada Cup. In history argentines golfers won three Majors, DeVicenzo the British Open in 1967, and Ángel Cabrera the U.S. Open in 2007 and the Augusta Masters in 2009.

Polo
Argentina's polo team won their first Olympic Gold Medal in 1924. Adolfo Cambiaso, Gonzalo Pieres his brother Facundo, the Novillo Astrada brothers, the Heguy's, Tommy Iriarte are currently ranked amongst the best polo players in the world. The three most important polo tournaments in the world, The Argentine Open, The Hurlingham Open and the Tortugas Open are held in Argentina. Historically, Argentina have always been a leading country in this international handicapped sport and have been uninterrupted world champions since 1949 and Argentine players comprise most of the world's top ten players.

The Argentine Olympic polo team, 1936.

Cricket
Cricket has been played in Argentina since 1806, with the international side making its first appearance in 1868 against Uruguay. The sport regained some popularity due to the national team's participation at the World Cricket League, and the Argentina national women's cricket team at the Women's version of the ICC Americas Championship. Though a minority sport here, Argentina is the strongest team in mainland South America currently playing in division 4 of world cricket league. There is a huge scope of development of the sport in this country, given that there are a large number of British descendants in Argentina.

Olympic Games
Argentina was one of eight founding members of the International Olympic Committee and first participated in the Olympic Games in 1900 with one single athlete. Argentine olympic competitors have, from 1900 to 2004, garnered 60

Argentine cricket players, before their first wicket, 1949.

Sport in Argentina medals (gold, 15; silver, 23; bronze, 22); from 1924 to 1952 its athletes had good showings, giving the Argentine delegations global ranks of between 16th and 19th. From 1956 to 2000, however, Argentina did not win any gold medals, a situation that was reversed in 2004 when it acquired two and further so, in 2008.

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Sailing
Argentina has 8 olympic medals in this sport (4 silvers and 4 bronze), and Argentinian experience and level in this sport are high even between young children competing in optimist class boats.

Padel tennis
Padel Tennis is played by four and a half million amateur players in thirty five thousand courts: it is the most participated sport in Argentina.[2] Professional players compete in national circuit of tournaments and Argentinian professional wrestling.

References
[1] http:/ / www. irb. com/ rankings/ full. html [2] http:/ / www. paddleitalia. it/ numeri. htm

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Argentina national football team
Argentina
Nickname(s) Association La Albiceleste (The White and Sky blue) Asociación del Fútbol Argentino (Argentine Football Association) CONMEBOL (South America) Alejandro Sabella Lionel Messi Javier Zanetti (145) Gabriel Batistuta (56) El Monumental, Mario A. Kempes, Estadio Único ARG 10

Confederation Head coach Captain Most caps Top scorer Home stadium FIFA code FIFA ranking

Highest FIFA ranking 1 (March 2007, October 2007 – June 2008) Lowest FIFA ranking 24 (August 1996) Elo ranking Highest Elo ranking Lowest Elo ranking 7 1 (most recently in July 2007, 34 times in total) 28 (June 1990)

Home colours Away colours

First international Unofficial:  Uruguay 2–3  Argentina (Montevideo, Uruguay; 16 May 1901)1 Official:  Uruguay 0–6  Argentina [1] (Montevideo, Uruguay; 20 July 1902) Biggest win  Argentina 12–0 Ecuador  (Montevideo, Uruguay; 22 January 1942) Biggest defeat  Czechoslovakia 6–1 Argentina  (Helsingborg, Sweden; 15 June 1958)  Uruguay 5–0 Argentina  (Guayaquil, Ecuador; 16 December 1959)  Argentina 0–5 Colombia  (Buenos Aires, Argentina; 5 September 1993)  Bolivia 6–1 Argentina  (La Paz, Bolivia; 1 April 2009) World Cup Appearances Best result 15 (First in 1930) Winners, 1978 and 1986 Copa América

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38 (First in 1916) Winners, 1921, 1925, 1927, 1929, 1937, 1941, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1991, 1993 Confederations Cup

Appearances Best result

Appearances Best result

3 (First in 1992) Winners, 1992

The Argentina national football team (Spanish: Selección de fútbol de Argentina) represents Argentina in association football and is controlled by the Argentine Football Association (AFA), the governing body for football in Argentina. Argentina's home stadium is Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti and their head coach is Alejandro Sabella. Argentina has won the Copa América tournament 14 times. The team is currently tenth in the FIFA World Rankings.[2] Argentina has twice won the FIFA World Cup, in 1978 and 1986. Along with Brazil and Spain, they are the only teams that have won the competition outside their continental zone. Argentina has also won the Copa América (top continental competition) 14 times, the Confederations Cup in 1992 and the Olympic tournament in 2004 and 2008. Argentina and France are the only two national teams that have won the three most important men's titles recognized by FIFA: the World Cup, the Confederations Cup, and the Olympic tournament. They have both also won their respective continental championship (Copa América for Argentina, and UEFA European Football Championship for France).[3] [4]

History
La Selección (national team), also known as the Albicelestes (Sky blue and whites), has appeared in four World Cup finals, including the first final in 1930, which they lost 4–2 to Uruguay. Argentina won in their next final in 1978, beating the Netherlands 3–1. Argentina, led by Diego Maradona won again in 1986, a 3–2 victory over West Germany. Their most recent World Cup final was in 1990, which they lost 1–0 to Germany by a much disputed penalty. Argentina's World Cup winning managers are César Luis Menotti in 1978, and Carlos Bilardo in 1986. Argentina has been very successful in the Copa América, winning it fourteen times and also winning the 'extra' South American Championships in 1941, 1945 and 1946. The team also won the FIFA Confederations Cup and the Kirin Cup, both in 1992, and an Argentine team (with only three players of over 23 years of age included in the squad) won the Olympics football tournaments in Athens 2004 and Beijing 2008.[5] Argentina also won six of the fourteen football competitions at the Pan American Games, winning in 1951, 1955, 1959, 1971, 1995 and 2003. In March 2007, Argentina reached the top of the FIFA World Rankings for the first time.[6]

World Cup 1978
Argentina entered the 1978 World Cup and was placed in Group A and finished second in their group behind Italy. Since Argentina finished second in their group they were eligible to advance onto the second round. In the second round Argentina was placed in Group 1 with their South American rivals, Brazil. In their first game, Argentina beat Poland 2-0, with both goals from Mario Kempes. Their next game was against South American powerhouse Brazil in which the game ended with a 0-0 draw. Their last second round group game was against Peru in which Argentina easily defeated with a 6-0 win. Argentina were able to edge out Brazil in the group and went onto the finals. Argentina faced the Netherlands in the 1978 World Cup final. Mario Kempes gave Argentina a lead in the 38th minute but the Dutch were able to respond in the 82 minute with a goal of their own. The game went to extra time and Mario Kempes once again gave the Argentinians a lead and Daniel Bertoni added another goal which sealed the win for Argentina. Argentina became the second South American team to win the World Cup at their home country.

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World Cup 1986
After failing to reach the semi-finals in the 1982 World Cup, Argentina entered the 1986 World Cup with hope because of one player, Diego Maradona. Argentina was placed in Group A alongside Italy, Bulgaria, and South Korea. In their first game, Argentina was able to beat South Korea 3-1. Their second game was against Italy a tougher opponent. Italy was able to take lead in the 6th minute but Diego Maradona responded with a goal in the 34th minute. The game later ended with a 1-1 draw. Their last group game was against Bulgaria which resulted in a 2-0 Argentina win. Argentina entered the Round of 16 against their South American rival, Uruguay. The game ended in a 1-0 win for Argentina. Next, Argentina moved on to the quarter-finals playing England. The game started very evenly, with both teams getting chances to score but none were able to finish. The first-half ended with Argentina having the majority of possession but unable to get pass a tough defense. Six minutes following the second half Diego Maradona scored a controversial goal in which he Diego Maradona with the World Cup obtained in 1986. used his hand; dubbed the Hand of God. The goal began with a defensive error from Steve Hodge who passed the ball incorrectly back to the goalkeeper, Peter Shilton. At that time Diego Maradona was still continuing his run and reached the ball first and netted it in with his left fist. After the goal, Maradona encouraged his teammates to embrace the goal so the referee would allow it. After just four minutes from the Hand of God goal, Diego Maradona scored a goal in which people called "The Goal of the Century" because of the individual effort of Maradona. Maradona passed five English midfielders and dribbled around the goalkeeper and scored the goal. Argentina beat England, 2-1. Argentina defeated Belgium 2-0 in the semi finals to advance to the finals with West Germany. Argentina won a thrilling game in which they won their second World Cup title. Jose Luis Brown opened the scoring for Argentina. Argentina increased the lead with a goal from Jorge Valdano. Germany started a comeback with goals from Karl-Heinz Rummenigge and Rudi Voller which evened the game at 2-2. Jorge Burruchaga scored the winning goal in the 83rd minute giving Argentina a 3-2 victory over Germany.

World Cup 2006
Argentina had been eliminated at the group stage at Korea/Japan 2002 FIFA World Cup, although they had been among the pre-tournament favorites. There was a high expectation of a better performance in the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany. Argentina qualified for the knockout stages with wins over Ivory Coast (2–1) and Serbia and Montenegro (6–0), and a 0–0 draw with the Netherlands. In the round of sixteen, Argentina defeated Mexico 2–1 in extra-time, the winning goal by Maxi Rodríguez winning an online poll organized by FIFA, as the best goal of the World Cup.[7] In the quarter final, they lost 4–2 in a penalty shootout against hosts Germany after a 1–1 draw. A brawl erupted between the Argentines and Germans after the game ended. Unused substitute Leandro Cufré was sent off for kicking Per Mertesacker, while Maxi Rodríguez hit Bastian Schweinsteiger from behind. Following an investigation of video evidence, FIFA doled out 4-game and 2-game suspensions for Cufre and Rodriguez, respectively. Germany's Torsten Frings was suspended for the semifinal match for punching Julio Ricardo Cruz. Shortly after the elimination, coach José Pekerman resigned from his position. AFA appointed Alfio Basile, who had previously managed the national side during the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

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Copa América 2007
Argentina won all three games in the group stage, beating United States, Colombia and Paraguay. After convincing victories over Peru and Mexico in the quarter final and semi final respectively, they were favorites to beat Brazil in the final, but were defeated 0–3.

World Cup 2010
Prior to the World Cup, Diego Maradona was appointed head coach. Argentina was placed in Group B in the 2010 World Cup and won all their games in that group. Their first game was against Nigeria, Argentina netted a goal in the 6th minute but struggled to add another one throughout the game. The game ended with a 1–0 victory for Argentina. Their second game was against South Korea. This time Argentina was able to find the net more easily with a hat trick from Gonzalo Higuaín and a own goal from the opposing team. Argentina won the game 4–1. Argentina's last group game was against Greece in which they won 2–0. Argentina then advanced to the Round of 16 and played Mexico. The game started with controversy when Carlos Tévez headed a ball from Lionel Messi for a goal. Replay clearly shows that Carlos Tevez was offside. Eventually, Argentina beat Mexico 3–1 to advance to the quarter-finals. In a much hyped game Argentina was shocked after Germany thrashed them with a 4-0 win. Thomas Müller opened the scoring in the 3rd minute, Miroslav Klose had a brace, and Arne Friedrich netted a goal as well. Their 4–0 loss to Germany marked the end of Argentina in the 2010 World Cup.

Copa America 2011
The 2011 Copa America was the first major tournament for new coach Sergio Batista. Argentina started the 2011 Copa America with a shocking 1–1 tie against underdogs Bolivia. In their second game, they had a goalless draw against Colombia in Santa Fe but went on to win their third game 3–0 against Costa Rica. Argentina was to play Uruguay in the quarterfinals. After going down in 5 minutes to a Diego Pérez goal, Gonzalo Higuain equalized in the 17th minute. The score remained unchanged and Argentina lost 5–4 in a penalty shootout with a miss from Carlos Tevez. After the elimination, coach Sergio Batista was sacked, to be replaced by former Estudiantes coach Alejandro Sabella.

Competitive record
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup record Year 1930 1934 1938 to 1954 1958 1962 1966 1970 1974 Second group stage Group stage Group stage Quarter-final Round Runners-up First round Position 2nd 9th Pld W D 5 1 4 0 0 0 L GF GA 1 1 18 2 9 3 FIFA World Cup qualification record Pld W D L GF GA

Withdrew 13th 10th 5th 3 3 4 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 1 1 5 2 4 10 3 2 4 2 4 4 1 2 3 9 12 4 3 2 3 1 3 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 2 0 10 11 9 4 9 2 3 2 6 2

Did not qualify 8th 6

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1st 11th 1st 2nd 10th 6th 18th 6th 5th 15/19 7 5 7 7 4 5 3 5 5 5 2 6 2 2 3 1 3 4 1 0 1 3 0 1 1 2 0 1 3 0 2 2 1 1 0 1 15 8 14 5 8 10 2 11 10 4 7 5 4 6 4 2 3 6 80 – – 6 – 8 16 18 18 18 102 – – 4 – 4 8 13 10 8 59 – – 1 – 2 6 4 4 4 24 – – 1 – 2 2 1 4 6 19 – – 12 – 9 23 42 29 23 161 – – 6 – 10 13 15 17 20 96

1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 Total

Champions Second group stage Champions Runners-up Round of 16 Quarter-final Group stage Quarter-final Quarter-final 2 Titles

70 37 13 20 123

*Denotes draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. **Gold background color indicates that the tournament was won. Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil.

FIFA Confederations Cup
FIFA Confederations Cup record Year 1992 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2009 2013 2017 2021 Total Champions 3/9 10 5 3 2 22 14 To Be Determined Withdrew from 2001 Copa América Runners-up 2nd 5 2 2 1 [8] 10 10 Round Champions Runners-up Position 1st 2nd GP 2 3 W 2 1 D* 0 1 L 0 1 GS 7 5 GA 1 3

Did Not Qualify

Did Not Qualify

*Denotes draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks. **Gold background color indicates that the tournament was won. Red border color indicates tournament was held on home soil.

Copa América

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Copa América Total: 14 Titles Year Position Year 1939 1941 Position Withdrew Champions Year 1967 1975 1979 1983 1987 1989 1991 1993 Position Second place Round 1 Round 1 Round 1 Fourth place Third place Champions Champions

1916 Second place 1917 Second place 1919 Third place

1942 Second place 1945 1946 1947 1949 1953 1955 1956 1957 1959 Champions Champions Champions Withdrew Withdrew Champions Third place Champions Champions

1920 Second place 1921 Champions

1922 Fourth place 1923 Second place 1924 Second place 1925 Champions

1995 Quarter-finals 1997 Quarter-finals 1999 Quarter-finals 2001 2004 2007 Withdrew Second place Second place

1926 Second place 1927 1929 Champions Champions

1935 Second place 1937 Champions

1959 Second place 1963 Third place

2011 Quarter-finals

Pan American Games record
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1951 – Champions 1955 – Champions 1959 – Champions 1963 – Second place 1967 – Round 1 1971 – Champions 1975 – Third place 1979 – Third place 1983 – Round 1 1987 – Third place 1991 – Did not enter 1995 – Champions 1999 – Did not enter 2003 – Champions 2007 – Round 1 2011 – Second place

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Olympics record
Olympics Record Year 1896 1900–1920 1924 1928 1932 1936–1956 1960 1964 1968–1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Total 7/25 Champions Champions Runners-up Quarter-finals Round 1 Round 1 Runners-up Round Position GP W D L GS GA No football tournament Did not participate Did not qualify 2 5 3 1 1 24 7

No football tournament Did not qualify 3 2 2 0 0 1 1 1 6 3 4 4

Did not qualify 4 1 1 2 4 5

Did not qualify 2 6 3 2 1 13 6

Did not qualify 1 1 6 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 17 11 0 2

Did not qualify 2 Titles 32 21 5 6 78 28

Honours
Senior team
• FIFA World Cup • Winners (2): 1978, 1986 • Copa America • Winner (14): 1921, 1925, 1927, 1929, 1937, 1941, 1945, 1946 (extra edition), 1947, 1955, 1957, 1959, 1991, 1993. • FIFA Confederations Cup • Winners (1): 1992 • Artemio Franchi Trophy • Winners (1): 1993 • Nations' Cup • Winners (1): 1964 • Panamerican Championship: • Winners (1): 1960

Argentina national football team Friendly titles • Copa Kirin: • Winners (1): 1992 • Copa Centenario Revolución de Mayo 1910: • Winners (1): 1910 • Copa Roca: • Winners (4): 1923, 1939, 1940, 1971 • Copa Lipton: • Winners (18): 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1928, 1937, 1942, 1945, 1957, 1962, 1968, 1976, 1992 • Copa Newton: • Winners (17): 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909, 1911, 1916, 1918, 1924, 1927, 1928, 1937, 1942, 1945, 1957, 1973, 1975, 1976

120

Olympic team
A selection with limited team selection (only 3 players over 23 years could be included in the squad), won the following honours. The matches in these tournaments are generally not included in the statistics of the national team. • Gold medal (2): 2004, 2008 • Silver medal (2): 1928, 1996

Kit
1901–1910 1911–present

Managers
1. Angel Vázquez (1924–1925) 2. José Lago Millán (1927–1928) 3. Francisco Olazar (1928–1929) 4. Olazar & Tramutola (1929–1930) 5. Felipe Pascucci (1934–1934) 6. Manuel Seoane (1934–1937) 7. Ángel Fernández Roca (1937–1939) 8. Guillermo Stábile (1939–1960) 9. Victorio Spinetto (1960–1961) 10. José D'Amico (1961–1961) 11. Juan Carlos Lorenzo (1962–1963) 12. Alejandro Galán (1963–1963) 13. Horacio Amable Torres (1963–1964) 14. José María Minella (1964–1968) 15. Renato Cesarini (1968–1968) 16. Humberto Dionisio Maschio (1968–1969) 17. Adolfo Pedernera (1969–1969) 18. Juan José Pizzuti (1969–1972) 19. Enrique Omar Sívori (1972–1974) 20. Vladislao Cap (1974–1974) 21. César Luis Menotti (1974–1983) 22. Carlos Bilardo (1983–1990) 23. Alfio Basile (1990–1994) 24. Daniel Passarella (1994–1998) 25. Marcelo Bielsa (1998–2004) 26. José Pekerman (2004–2006) 27. Alfio Basile (2006–2008) 28. Diego Maradona (2008–2010) 29. Sergio Batista (2010–2011) 30. Alejandro Sabella (2011–present)

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Current coaching staff
Position Manager Alejandro Sabella Staff

Assistant managers Julián Camino, Claudio Gugnali Fitness coach Pablo Blanco

Goalkeeping coach Juan José Romero Physicians Physical therapists Last updated: 30 August 2011 [9] Source: AFA Dr. Daniel Martínez, Dr. Alejandro Rolón Luis García, Rubén Araguas

Results and Fixtures
2011 Copa América Group A
Team  Colombia  Argentina  Costa Rica  Bolivia Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 2 3 4 2 1 0 1 4 5 +3 +3 −2 −4 7 5 3 1

Recent and forthcoming matches
see also 2010–11 Argentina national team results. see also 2011–12 Argentina national team results. • • •  Argentina 1–0  Venezuela – Kolkata, India – September 2, 2011 – Friendly.[10] [11]  Nigeria 1–3  Argentina – Dhaka, Bangladesh – September 6, 2011 – Friendly.[10] [11]  Argentina 0–0  Brazil – Córdoba, Argentina – September 14, 2011 – 2011 Superclásico de las Américas.[12] [13]  Brazil 2–0  Argentina – Belém, Brazil – September 28, 2011 – 2011 Superclásico de las Américas[12] [14]  Argentina 4–1  Venezuela 1–0 qualifier.  Argentina 1–1  Colombia 1–2 qualifier.
Argentina line-up at a friendly match vs. Portugal in Geneva, February 2011.

• • • •

 Chile – Buenos Aires, Argentina – October 7, 2011 – 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifier.  Argentina – Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela – October 11, 2011 – 2014 FIFA World Cup  Bolivia – Mendoza, Argentina – November 11, 2011 – 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifier.  Argentina – Barranquilla, Colombia – November 15, 2011 – 2014 FIFA World Cup

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Players
Current squad
The following 24 players were called for the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying matches to be played against Bolivia and Colombia on 11 and 15 November 2011, respectively.[15] Caps and goals updated as of November 15, 2011.
# 1 12 21 2 3 4 6 13 15 18 24 5 8 11 14 17 19 22 23 7 9 10 16 20 Pos. GK GK GK DF DF DF DF DF DF DF DF MF MF MF MF MF MF MF MF FW FW FW FW FW Player Sergio Romero Mariano Andújar Agustín Orión Martín Demichelis Pablo Zabaleta Nicolás Burdisso Leandro Desábato Luciano Monzón Clemente Rodríguez Federico Fernández Marcos Rojo Fernando Gago José Ernesto Sosa Ricardo Álvarez Javier Mascherano Pablo Guiñazú Nicolás Gaitán Rodrigo Braña Javier Pastore Ezequiel Lavezzi Gonzalo Higuaín Lionel Messi (Captain) Sergio Agüero Germán Denis Date of Birth (Age) February 22, 1987 July 30, 1983 July 26, 1981 December 20, 1980 January 16, 1985 April 12, 1981 January 24, 1979 April 13, 1987 July 31, 1981 February 21, 1989 March 20, 1990 April 10, 1986 June 19, 1985 April 12, 1988 June 8, 1984 August 26, 1978 February 23, 1988 March 7, 1979 June 20, 1989 May 3, 1985 December 10, 1987 June 24, 1987 June 2, 1988 September 10, 1981 Caps 25 8 2 37 21 49 3 7 15 5 9 35 13 3 78 6 6 3 13 16 22 66 33 5 Goals 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 12 19 14 0 Sampdoria Catania Boca Juniors Málaga Manchester City Roma Estudiantes Nice Boca Juniors Napoli Spartak Moscow Roma Metalist Kharkiv Internazionale Barcelona Internacional Benfica Estudiantes Paris Saint-Germain Napoli Real Madrid Barcelona Manchester City Atalanta Club

Recent call-ups
The following players have been called up for the team in the last 12 months.

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Pos.

Player

Date of Birth (Age) February 12, 1984 January 26, 1991 May 6, 1984 October 10, 1985 July 3, 1986 March 16, 1988 January 29, 1987 February 12, 1988

Caps Goals

Club

Latest Call-up

GK Marcelo Barovero GK Esteban Andrada GK Juan Pablo Carrizo GK Adrián Gabbarini GK Oscar Ustari GK Agustín Marchesín GK Javier García DF Nicolás Otamendi

0 0 12 3 1 1 1 15

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Vélez Sarsfield Lanús Lazio Independiente Getafe Lanús Tigre Porto

v. v.

 Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)

2011 Copa América v. v. v. v.  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Nigeria, June 1, 2011 (Friendly)  Ecuador, April 20, 2011 (Friendly)  Venezuela, March 16, 2011 (Friendly)

v.  Venezuela, October 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v.  Venezuela, October 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v.  Venezuela, October 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v.  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)

DF Emiliano Insúa

January 7, 1989

4

0

Sporting

DF Nicolás Pareja

January 19, 1984

1

0

Spartak Moscow

DF Jonathan Bottinelli

September 14, 1984 September 5, 1981 July 29, 1981

3

0

San Lorenzo

DF Christian Cellay

2

0

Estudiantes

v.

 Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)

DF Sebastián Domínguez DF Emiliano Papa DF Iván Pillud DF Germán Ré

4

0

Vélez Sarsfield

v.

 Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)

April 19, 1982 April 24, 1986 November 2, 1981 September 1, 1989 March 20, 1986 October 10, 1986 September 7, 1980 August 10, 1973 March 17, 1987 August 26, 1990 April 7, 1983 October 2, 1988 October 23, 1990 July 29, 1985 March 13, 1988 October 18, 1989 June 29, 1988

8 5 0

0 0 0

Vélez Sarsfield Racing Estudiantes

v. v. v.

 Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)

DF Lisandro E. López

2

0

Arsenal

v.

 Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)

DF Cristian Ansaldi DF Ezequiel Garay DF Gabriel Milito

2 3 42

0 0 1

Rubin Kazan Benfica Independiente

v. v.

 Nigeria, September 6, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)  Nigeria, September 6, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)

2011 Copa América

DF Javier Zanetti DF Federico Fazio DF Mateo Musacchio DF Marcos Angeleri DF Ismael Quílez DF Julián Velázquez DF Jonathan Maidana DF Gastón Díaz DF Fernando Tobio MF Éver Banega

145 2 2 4 2 1 2 1 0 14

5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Internazionale Sevilla Villareal Sunderland Colón Independiente River Plate Vélez Sarsfield Vélez Sarsfield Valencia

2011 Copa América v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v.  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Nigeria, June 1, 2011 (Friendly)  Paraguay, May 25, 2011 (Friendly)  Paraguay, May 25, 2011 (Friendly)  Ecuador, April 20, 2011 (Friendly)  Venezuela, March 16, 2011 (Friendly)  Venezuela, March 16, 2011 (Friendly)

v.  Bolivia, November 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying)

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27 5

MF Ángel di María

February 14, 1988

Real Madrid

v.  Bolivia, November 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v.  Venezuela, October 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v.  Venezuela, October 11, 11 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v. v. v. v. v. v. v.  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)

MF Jonás Gutiérrez

July 5, 1983

22

1

Newcastle United Sporting

MF Fabián Rinaudo

May 15, 1987

4

0

MF Mario Bolatti MF Héctor Canteros MF Cristian Chávez MF Augusto Fernández MF Walter Montillo MF Agustín Pelletieri MF Andrés D'Alessandro MF Lucas Castro MF Diego Villar MF Víctor Zapata MF Juan Román Riquelme MF Diego Valeri MF Juan Sebastián Verón MF Lucho González MF Lucas Biglia MF Esteban Cambiasso MF Enzo Pérez MF Fernando Belluschi

February 17, 1985 March 15, 1989 June 16, 1986 April 10, 1986 April 14, 1984 May 17, 1982 April 15, 1981

12 2 4 2 1 0 25

1 0 1 0 0 0 3

Internacional Vélez Sarsfield Boca Juniors Vélez Sarsfield Cruzeiro Racing Internacional

April 9, 1989 April 24, 1981 January 20, 1979 June 24, 1978

0 0 2 51

0 0 0 17

Racing Godoy Cruz Vélez Sarsfield Boca Juniors

v. v. v. v.

 Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)

May 1, 1986 March 9, 1975

3 73

0 9

Lanús Estudiantes

v. v.

 Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)

January 19, 1981 January 30, 1986 August 18, 1980 February 22, 1986 September 10, 1983 January 2, 1986 September 11, 1987 January 9, 1985 April 4, 1988

44 6 52 5 5

7 0 5 2 0

Marseille Anderlecht Internazionale Benfica Porto

v.

 Nigeria, September 6, 2011 (Friendly)

2011 Copa América 2011 Copa América 2011 Copa América (preliminary squad) v.  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)

MF Nicolás Bertolo MF Alejandro Cabral

2 2

0 0

Palermo Vélez Sársfield

v. v.

 Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)

MF Alberto Costa MF Mauro Formica

1 1

0 0

Valencia Blackburn Rovers Sevilla Roma Godoy Cruz Racing Racing Atalanta

v. v.

 Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)

MF Diego Perotti MF Erik Lamela MF Ariel Rojas MF Luciano Aued MF Claudio Yacob MF Maximiliano Moralez MF Franco Razzotti

July 26, 1988 March 4, 1992 January 16, 1986 March 1, 1987 July 18, 1987 February 26, 1987

2 1 3 2 2 1

0 0 0 1 1 0

v. v. v. v. v. v.

 Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Paraguay, May 25, 2011 (Friendly)  Paraguay, May 25, 2011 (Friendly)  Ecuador, April 20, 2011 (Friendly)  Ecuador, April 20, 2011 (Friendly)  Venezuela, March 16, 2011 (Friendly)

February 6, 1985

1

0

Vélez Sarsfield

v.

 Venezuela, March 16, 2011 (Friendly)

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9 1

FW Rodrigo Palacio

February 5, 1982

Genoa

v.  Venezuela, October 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v.  Venezuela, October 11, 2011 (2014 FIFA World Cup qualifying) v. v.  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)

FW Eduardo Salvio

July 13, 1990

4

0

Atlético Madrid

FW Emanuel Gigliotti FW Gabriel Hauche

May 20, 1987 November 27, 1986 October 11, 1987 March 29, 1987 May 22, 1985 October 12, 1983 October 25, 1985

1 5

0 3

San Lorenzo Racing

FW Pablo Mouche FW Lucas Viatri FW Mauro Boselli FW Gastón Fernández FW Juan Manuel Martínez FW Diego Morales

5 3 4 0 2

2 0 1 0 0

Boca Juniors Boca Juniors Estudiantes Estudiantes Vélez Sarsfield

v. v. v. v. v.

 Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 28, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)  Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)

November 29, 1986 March 2, 1983 June 12, 1979 February 5, 1984 March 5, 1989 July 15, 1988 March 31, 1989 October 26, 1986 February 16, 1986

1

0

Tigre

v.

 Brazil, September 14, 2011 (Friendly)

FW Lisandro López FW Diego Milito FW Carlos Tévez FW Jonathan Cristaldo FW Franco Jara FW Pablo Piatti FW Marco Ruben FW Mauricio Sperdutti

7 24 62 1 4 1 1 2

1 4 13 0 1 0 1 0

Lyon Internazionale Manchester City Metalist Kharkiv Granada Valencia Villareal Newell's Old Boys Independiente

v.

 Nigeria, September 6, 2011 (Friendly) (withdrew)

2011 Copa América 2011 Copa América v. v. v. v. v.  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Poland, June 5, 2011 (Friendly)  Paraguay, May 25, 2011 (Friendly)

FW Matías Defederico

August 23, 1989

2

1

v.

 Venezuela, March 16, 2011 (Friendly)

Previous squads
FIFA World Cup • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1930 FIFA World Cup squad 1934 FIFA World Cup squad 1958 FIFA World Cup squad 1962 FIFA World Cup squad 1966 FIFA World Cup squad 1974 FIFA World Cup squad 1978 FIFA World Cup squad 1982 FIFA World Cup squad 1986 FIFA World Cup squad 1990 FIFA World Cup squad 1994 FIFA World Cup squad 1998 FIFA World Cup squad 2002 FIFA World Cup squad 2006 FIFA World Cup squad 2010 FIFA World Cup squad Copa America • • • • • • • • • • Confederations Cup 1992 FIFA Confederations Cup squad 1995 FIFA Confederations Cup squad 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup squad

1987 Copa América squad • 1989 Copa América squad • 1991 Copa América squad • 1993 Copa América squad 1995 Copa América squad 1997 Copa América squad 1999 Copa América squad 2004 Copa América squad 2007 Copa América squad 2011 Copa América squad

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Most capped players
As of November 15, 2011, the ten players with the most caps for Argentina are:
# Name Career 1994–present 1994–2007 1988–2002 1983–1994 1977–1994 1993–2010 1991–2002 2003–present 1995–2006 1975–1982 1996–2010 Caps 145 115 106 97 91 87 78 78 76 73 73 Goals 5 7 11 7 34 17 56 2 12 3 9

1. Javier Zanetti 2. Roberto Ayala 3. Diego Simeone 4. Oscar Ruggeri 5. Diego Maradona 6. Ariel Ortega 7. Gabriel Batistuta Javier Mascherano 9 Juan Pablo Sorín

10 Américo Gallego Juan Sebastián Verón

Top goalscorers
As of November 15, 2011, the ten players with the most goals for Argentina are:
# Name Career 1991–2002 1995–2007 1977–1994 1961–1967 1975–1981 1976–1986 1956–1962 1935–1942 1973–1982 1945–1956 1936–1950 2005-present Goals 56 35 34 24 22 22 21 21 20 19 19 19 Caps 78 63 91 25 45 70 29 19 43 31 34 66

1. Gabriel Batistuta 2. Hernán Crespo 3. Diego Maradona 4. Luis Artime 5. Leopoldo Luque – Daniel Passarella

7. José Sanfilippo – Herminio Masantonio

9. Mario Kempes 10 Norberto Méndez José Manuel Moreno Lionel Messi

Notable players
This section lists players who have appeared in 50 matches or scored at least 10 goals for Argentina.

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Sergio Agüero (2006– ) Pablo Aimar (1997–2009) Antonio Angelillo (1957) Osvaldo Ardiles (1974–1982) Luis Artime (1961–1967) Roberto Ayala (1995–2007) Rubén Ayala (1969–1974) Abel Balbo (1988–1998) Gabriel Batistuta (1991–2003) Daniel Bertoni (1974–1982) José Luis Brown (1983–1990) Nicolás Burdisso (2003–) Jorge Burruchaga (1983–1990) Esteban Cambiasso (2000–) Claudio Caniggia (1988–2002) Roberto Cherro (1926–1937) Hernán Crespo (1995–2007) Ramón Díaz (1979–1982) Rogelio Domínguez (1951–1963) Manuel Ferreira (1927–1930) Ubaldo Fillol (1972–1985)

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Rodolfo Fischer (1967–1972) Marcelo Gallardo (1995–2002) Américo Gallego (1975–1982) Ricardo Giusti (1983–1990) Kily González (1995–2005) Gabriel Heinze (2003– ) Gonzalo Higuaín (2009– ) René Houseman (1973–1979) Mario Kempes (1974–1982) Ángel Labruna (1942–1958) Claudio López (1995–2004) Félix Loustau (1945–1952) Leopoldo Luque (1975–1981) Oscar Más (1965–1972) Javier Mascherano (2003– ) Humberto Maschio (1956–1957) Diego Maradona (1977–1994) Rinaldo Martino (1942–1948) Rodolfo Micheli (1953–1956) José Manuel Moreno (1940–1947) Norberto Méndez (1945–1956) Lionel Messi (2005– )

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Jorge Olguín (1976–1982) Ermindo Onega (1960–1967) Ariel Ortega (1993–2010) Daniel Passarella (1974–1986) Carlos Peucelle (1928–1940) René Pontoni (1942–1947) Fernando Redondo (1992–1999) Juan Román Riquelme (1997–) Maxi Rodríguez (2003– ) Oscar Ruggeri (1982–1994) Walter Samuel (1999– ) José Sanfilippo (1957–1962) Javier Saviola (2001–2009) Roberto Sensini (1987–2003) Manuel Seoane (1924–1929) Diego Simeone (1991–2003) Juan Pablo Sorín (1995–2006) Héctor Rubén Sosa (1959–1962) Domingo Tarasconi (1922–1929) Alberto Tarantini (1974–1982) Carlos Tévez (2004– ) Juan Sebastián Verón (1995–2011) Javier Zanetti (1994– )

Miguel Ángel Brindisi (1969–1974) •

Omar Oreste Corbatta (1956–1962) •

Herminio Masantonio (1935–1942) •

Facts
• Argentina and Uruguay hold the record for the most international matches played between two countries.[1] The two teams have faced each other 198 times since 1901. The first match against Uruguay was the first official international match to be played outside the United Kingdom.[16] • Marcelo Trobbiani was a member of the Argentina World Cup squad in 1986, but he only managed two minutes of play in the entire tournament, he came on in the 88th minute of the World 1964 line-up for the Nations' Cup Cup Final against West Germany. This two minutes of football equalled the world record for the shortest World Cup career set by Tunisia's Khemais Labidi in 1978. • In the 2006 World Cup Leandro Cufré was given a red card and sent off after the end of the Quarter Final game with Germany for his part in the brawl after the match, even though he was a substitute and had not participated in the game itself. It is the only occasion of a player being sent off in a FIFA World Cup match after the final whistle. Four years earlier, in the 2002 World Cup Claudio Caniggia was sent off for swearing at a match official from the substitute bench.

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Jersey gallery

1978

1986

1994

1998–1999

2002

2002–2004

2004–2006

2006–2008

2006–2008 Away

2008–2009

2008–2009 Away

2010 Away

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Notes
1. The match between Uruguay and Argentina on 16 May 1901 was organized by Uruguayan club Albion, from whom the team, reinforced with players from rival club Nacional, was selected. The match ended 2–3 in favor of the Argentines. However, since clubs are not allowed to organize official international matches, the match is not considered official.[17]

References
[1] Pelayes, Héctor Darío (24 September 2010). "ARGENTINA-URUGUAY Matches 1902–2009" (http:/ / www. rsssf. com/ tablesa/ argurures. html). RSSSF. . Retrieved 7 November 2010. [2] FIFA.com – The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking (http:/ / fifa. com/ worldfootball/ ranking/ lastranking/ gender=m/ fullranking. html) [3] FIFA.com – Argentina on FIFA.com (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ associations/ association=arg/ index. html) [4] FIFA.com – Tournaments (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ tournaments/ index. html) [5] "Football gold for Argentina" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport2/ hi/ olympics_2004/ football/ 3607296. stm). BBC News. August 28, 2004. . Retrieved April 25, 2010. [6] FIFA.com – Argentina first for first time (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ worldfootball/ ranking/ news/ newsid=113242. html) [7] http:/ / fifaworldcup. yahoo. com/ 06/ en/ w/ bgt. html [8] Did Not Qualify through 2002 FIFA World Cup [9] http:/ / www. afa. org. ar/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=14950:practica-de-la-seleccion-nacional-en-india& catid=164:seleccion-mayor& Itemid=66 [10] "Lista de convocados para los amistosos ante Venezuela y Nigeria" (http:/ / www. afa. org. ar/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=14876:lista-de-convocados-para-los-amistosos-ante-venezuela-y-costa-rica& catid=164:seleccion-mayor& Itemid=66). AFA. . Retrieved 18 August 2011. [11] "Sabella pone en marcha dos selecciones" (http:/ / es. fifa. com/ worldfootball/ news/ newsid=1495080. html). FIFA. . Retrieved 18 August 2011. [12] "Brasil y Argentina se enfrentarán en septiembre" (http:/ / es. fifa. com/ worldfootball/ news/ newsid=1486247. html). FIFA. . Retrieved 18 August 2011. [13] "Acreditaciones de prensa para Argentina-Brasil" (http:/ / www. afa. org. ar/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=14928:acreditaciones-de-prensa-para-argentina-brasil& catid=164:seleccion-mayor& Itemid=66). AFA. . Retrieved 29 August 2011. [14] "Belém vai receber Brasil x Argentina, sem 'estrangeiros', em setembro" (http:/ / globoesporte. globo. com/ futebol/ selecao-brasileira/ noticia/ 2011/ 08/ copa-rocca-brasil-x-argentina-em-setembro-sera-em-belem-diz-cbf. html). O Globo. . Retrieved 18 August 2011. [15] "Lista de convocados para los partidos con Chile y Venezuela" (http:/ / www. afa. org. ar/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=15133:lista-de-convocados-para-el-partido-con-chile-y-venezuela& catid=164:seleccion-mayor& Itemid=66). AFA. . Retrieved 22 September 2011. [16] Although Canada and the United States played two internationals in 1885 and 1886, neither match is considered official; Canada did not play an official international until 1904 and the USA did not play one until 1916. [17] "FIFA/IFFHS: Reasons for excluding or including full A internationals (1901–1910)" (http:/ / www. iffhs. de/ ?f00b90b003e0f443e0f952bda55405fdcdc3bfcdc0aec70aeeda083c0a). IFFHS. . Retrieved 7 November 2010.

External links
• • • • Official website, at the Asociación del Fútbol Argentino's website (http://www.afa.org.ar/) RSSSF archive of results 1901–2002 (http://www.rsssf.com/tablesa/arg-intres.html) RSSSF archive of results 1999– (http://www.rsssf.com/tablesa/arg-intres-bielsa.html) RSSSF archive of most capped players and highest goalscorers (http://www.rsssf.com/miscellaneous/ arg-recintlp.html) • RSSSF archive of coaches 1901–90 (http://www.rsssf.com/miscellaneous/arg-coach-triv.html) • News and results of the Argentina national team (http://www.thenationalteam.com/index. php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49&country=Argentina) • Argentina Soccerway Profile (http://www.soccerway.com/teams/argentina/argentina/)

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Diego Maradona
Diego Maradona

Diego Maradona in 2010 Personal information Full name Date of birth Place of birth Height Diego Armando Maradona 30 October 1960 Lanús, Buenos Aires, Argentina 1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)

Playing position Attacking Midfielder Second Striker Youth career –1969 1970–1974 1975 Estrella Roja Los Cebollitas Argentinos Juniors Senior career* Years 1976–1981 1981–1982 1982–1984 1984–1991 1992–1993 1993–1994 1995–1997 Total National team 1977–1994 Argentina Teams managed 1994 1995 2008–2010 Mandiyú de Corrientes Racing Club Argentina 91 (34) Team Argentinos Juniors Boca Juniors Barcelona Napoli Sevilla Newell's Old Boys Boca Juniors Apps

(Gls)

167 40 36 188 26 5 30 492

(115) (28) (22) (81) (5) (0) (7) (258)

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2011– Al Wasl

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only. † Appearances (Goals).

Diego Armando Maradona (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈdjeɣo maɾaˈðona]; born 30 October 1960) is a retired Argentine football player. Many people, football critics, former and current players consider Maradona to be the greatest football player of all time.[1] Over the course of his professional club career Maradona played for Argentinos Juniors, Boca Juniors, Barcelona, Napoli, Sevilla and Newell's Old Boys, setting world-record contract fees. In his international career, playing for Argentina, he earned 91 caps and scored 34 goals. He played in four FIFA World Cup tournaments, including the 1986 tournament, where he captained Argentina and led them to their victory over West Germany in the final, winning the Golden Ball award as the tournament's best player. In that same tournament's quarterfinal round, he scored both goals in a 2–1 victory over England that entered football history, though for two different reasons. The first goal was via an unpenalized handball known as the "Hand of God", while the second goal followed a 60 m (66 yd) dribble through six England players, voted "The Goal of the Century". Maradona is considered one of the sport's most controversial and newsworthy figures. He was suspended from football for 15 months in 1991 after failing a drug test, for cocaine, in Italy, and he was sent home from the 1994 World Cup in the USA after testing positive for ephedrine. After retiring from playing on his 37th birthday in 1997,[2] he gained weight, suffered ill health and the effects of cocaine use. In 2005, a stomach stapling operation helped control his weight gain, and he overcame his cocaine addiction. His outspoken manners have sometimes put him at odds with journalists and sport executives. Although he had little managerial experience, he became head coach of the Argentina national team in November 2008, and held the job for eighteen months, until his contract expired after the 2010 World Cup.

Early years
Maradona was born in Lanús, but raised in Villa Fiorito, a shantytown on the southern outskirts of Buenos Aires,[3] to a poor family that had moved from Corrientes Province. He was the first son after three daughters. He has two younger brothers, Hugo (el Turco) and Eduardo (Lalo), both of whom were also professional football players. At age 10, Maradona was spotted by a talent scout while he was playing in his neighborhood club Estrella Roja. He became a staple of Los Cebollitas (The Little Onions), the junior team of Buenos Aires's Argentinos Juniors. As a 12-year-old ball boy, he amused spectators by showing his wizardry with the ball during the halftime intermissions of first division games.[4]

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Club career
Argentinos Juniors and Boca Juniors
On 20 October 1976, Maradona made his professional debut with Argentinos Juniors, ten days before his sixteenth birthday.[2] He played there between 1976 and 1981, scoring 115 goals in 167 appearances before his £1m transfer to Boca Juniors. Having joined the Boca squad midway through the 1981 season, Maradona played through 1982 earning his first league championship medal. Whilst playing for Argentinos Juniors, English club Sheffield United put in an offer of £180,000 for his services but the bid was rejected.

FC Barcelona
After the 1982 World Cup, in June, Maradona was transferred to Barcelona in Spain for a then world record £5m.[2] In 1983, under coach César Luis Menotti, Barcelona and Maradona won the Copa del Rey (Spain's annual national cup competition), beating Real Madrid, and the Spanish Super Cup, beating Athletic de Bilbao. However, Maradona had a difficult tenure in Barcelona.[5] First a bout with hepatitis, then a broken ankle caused by an ill-timed tackle by Maradona with Boca Juniors, 1981 Athletic's Andoni Goikoetxea threatened with jeopardizing Maradona's [2] career, but after treatment and therapy it was possible for him to soon be back on the pitch. At Barcelona, Maradona got into frequent disputes with the team's directors, especially club president Josep Lluís Núñez, culminating with a demand to be transferred out of Camp Nou in 1984. He was transferred to Napoli in Italy's Serie A for another record fee, £6.9m.

Napoli
At Napoli, Maradona reached the peak of his professional career. He quickly became an adored star among the club's fans, and in his time there he elevated the team to the most successful era in its history. Led by Maradona, Napoli won their only Serie A Italian Championships in 1986/87 and 1989/1990, placing second in the league twice, in 1987/88 and 1988/89. Other honors during the Maradona era at Napoli included the Coppa Italia in 1987, (second place in the Coppa Italia in 1989), the UEFA Cup in 1989 and the Italian Supercup in 1990. Maradona was the top scorer in Serie A in 1987/88. During his time in Italy, Maradona's personal problems increased. His cocaine use continued, and he received US $70,000 in fines from his club for missing games and practices, ostensibly because of 'stress'.[6] He faced a scandal there regarding an illegitimate son; and he was also the object of some suspicion over an alleged friendship with the Camorra.[7] [8] [9] [10] [11]
Diego Maradona with Napoli in 1985

Later on, in honor of Maradona and his achievements during his career at Napoli, the #10 jersey of Napoli was officially retired.[12]

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Sevilla, Newell's Old Boys and Boca Juniors
After serving a 15-month ban for failing a drug test for cocaine, Maradona left Napoli in disgrace in 1992. Despite interest from Real Madrid of Spain and Olympique Marseille of France, he signed for Sevilla of Spain, where he stayed for one year.[13] In 1993 he played for Newell's Old Boys and in 1995 he returned to Boca Juniors for two years.[2] Maradona also appeared for Tottenham Hotspur in a friendly match against Internazionale, shortly before the 1986 world cup. The match was Osvaldo Ardiles' testimonial, who insisted his friend Maradona played, which Tottenham won 2–1. He played alongside Glenn Hoddle, who gave up his number ten shirt for the Argentine. Maradona would go on to dribble past Hoddle during his "goal of the century" against England in the world cup that year.

International career
Along with his time at Napoli, international football is where Maradona found his fame. Playing for the Albicelestes of the Argentina national football team, he participated in four consecutive FIFA World Cup tournaments, leading Argentina to victory in 1986 and to second place in 1990. He made his full international debut at age 16, against Hungary on 27 February 1977. At age 18, he played the World Youth Championship for Argentina, and was the star of the tournament, shining in their 3–1 final win over the Soviet Union. On 2 June 1979, Maradona scored his first senior international goal in a 3–1 win against Scotland at Hampden Park.[14] He is the only player to win the Golden Ball at both the FIFA U-20 World Cup and FIFA World Cup, in 1979 and 1986.

Maradona and the Youth World Cup trophy in 1979

1982 World Cup
Maradona played his first World Cup tournament in 1982. In the first round, Argentina, the defending champions, lost to Belgium. Although the team convincingly beat Hungary and El Salvador to progress to the second round, they were defeated in the second round by Brazil and by eventual winners Italy. Maradona played in all five matches without being substituted, scoring twice against Hungary, but was sent off with 5 minutes remaining in the game against Brazil for serious foul play.

1986 World Cup
Maradona captained the Argentine national team to victory in the 1986 FIFA World Cup, winning the final in Mexico against West Germany. Throughout the 1986 World Cup Maradona asserted his dominance and was the most dynamic player of the tournament. He played every minute of every Argentina game, scored 5 goals and made 5 assists. After scoring two goals in the 2–1 quarter-final win against England his legend was cemented. This match was played with the background of the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom and emotions were still lingering in the air throughout the entire match. Replays showed that the first goal was scored by striking the ball with his hand. Maradona was coyly evasive, describing it as "a little with the head of Maradona and a little with the hand of God." It became known as the "Hand of God". Ultimately, on 22 August 2005 Maradona acknowledged on his television show that he had hit the ball with his hand purposely, and that he immediately knew the goal was illegitimate. This became known as an international fiasco in World Cup history. The goal stood, much to the wrath of the English players.[15]

Diego Maradona
“Maradona, turns like a little eel, he comes away from trouble, little squat man... comes inside Butcher and leaves him for dead, outside Fenwick and leaves him for dead, and puts the ball away... and that is why Maradona is the greatest player in the world.” —Bryon Butler (BBC Radio)
[16]

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Maradona's second goal was later voted by FIFA as the greatest goal in the history of the World Cup. He received the ball in his own half, swivelled around, and with 11 touches ran more than half the length of the field, dribbling past five English outfield players (Peter Beardsley, Steve Hodge, Peter Reid, Terry Butcher, and Terry Fenwick) and goalkeeper Peter Shilton. This goal was voted "Goal of the Century" in a 2002 online poll conducted by FIFA.[17] Right after the goal occurred, it left the television commentator "sobbing in joy", and apologizing for his outburst.[18] Maradona followed this with two more goals in the semi-final against Belgium, including another virtuoso dribbling display for the second goal. In the final, the opposing West German side attempted to contain him by double-marking, but he nevertheless found the space to give the final pass to Jorge Burruchaga for the winning goal. Argentina beat West Germany 3–2 in front of 115,000 spectators at the Azteca Stadium. During the course of the tournament, Maradona attempted or created more than half of Argentina's shots, embarked on 90 dribbles some three times more than any other player and was fouled 53 times winning his team twice as many free kicks as any player.[19] [20] Maradona also scored or assisted 10 of Argentina's 14 goals and despite being heavily marked during the final played a crucial part in all three winning goals ensuring that he would be remembered as one of the greatest names in football history.[21] [22] [23] By the end of the tournament, Maradona went on winning the Golden Ball as the best player of the tournament by a unanimous vote and was widely regarded to have won the World Cup virtually single-handedly.[24] [25] [26] [27] In a tribute to him, the Azteca Stadium authorities also built a statue of him scoring the "goal of the century" and placed it at the entrance of the stadium.[28]

1990 World Cup
Maradona captained Argentina again in the 1990 FIFA World Cup. An ankle injury affected his overall performance, and he was much less dominant than four years earlier. Argentina was almost eliminated in the first round, only qualifying in third position from their group. In the round of 16 match against Brazil, Claudio Caniggia scored the only goal after being set up by Maradona. In the quarter final, Argentina faced Yugoslavia, the match ending 0–0 after 120 minutes, and Argentina advancing on penalty kicks, despite Maradona missing one of the penalties in the shootout with a weak shot at the centre of the goal. The semifinal against the host nation Italy was also resolved on penalties after a 1–1 draw; this time, Maradona was successful with his effort, daringly placing the ball at exactly the same spot as his missed penalty in the previous round. In the final, Argentina lost 1–0 to West Germany, the only goal being a penalty by Andreas Brehme in the 85th minute after a controversial foul on Rudi Völler.

1994 World Cup
At the 1994 FIFA World Cup Maradona played in only two games, scoring one goal against Greece, before being sent home after failing a drug test for ephedrine doping. In his autobiography, Maradona argued that the test result was due to his personal trainer giving him the power drink Rip Fuel. His claim was that the U.S. version, unlike the Argentine one, contained the chemical and that, having run out of his Argentine dosage, his trainer unwittingly bought the U.S. formula. FIFA expelled him from USA '94 and Argentina were subsequently eliminated in the second round. Maradona has also separately claimed that he had an agreement with FIFA, on which the organization reneged, to allow him to use the drug for weight loss before the competition in order to be able to play.[29] According to Maradona, this was so that the World Cup would not lose prestige because of his absence. This allegation has never been proven.

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Playing style
Maradona had a compact physique and could withstand physical pressure well. His strong legs and low center of gravity gave him an advantage in short sprints. His physical strengths were illustrated by his two goals against Belgium in the 1986 World Cup. Maradona was a strategist and a team player, as well as highly technical with the ball. He could manage himself effectively in limited spaces, and would attract defenders only to quickly dash out of the melee (as in the second 1986 goal against England),[30] or give an assist to a free teammate. Being short, but strong, he could hold the ball long enough with a defender on his back to wait for a teammate making a run or to find a gap for a quick shot. One of Maradona's trademark moves was dribbling full-speed on the right wing, and on reaching the opponent's goal line, delivering accurate passes to his teammates. Another trademark was the Rabona, a reverse-cross pass shot behind the leg that holds all the weight. This maneuver led to several assists, such as the powerful cross for Ramón Díaz's header in the 1980 friendly against Switzerland. He was also a dangerous free kick taker. Maradona was dominantly left-footed, often using his left foot even when the ball was positioned more suitably for a right-footed connection. His first goal against Belgium in the 1986 World Cup semi-final is a worthy indicator of such; he had run into the inside right channel to receive a pass but let the ball travel across to his left foot, requiring more technical ability. During his run past several England players in the previous round for the "Goal of the Century", he did not use his right foot once, despite spending the whole movement on the right-hand side of the pitch. In the 1990 World Cup second round tie against Brazil, he did use his right foot to set up the winning goal for Caniggia due to two Brazilian markers forcing him into a position that made use of his left foot less practical.

Retirement and honours
Hounded for years by the press, Maradona once fired a compressed-air rifle at reporters who he claimed were invading his privacy. This quote from former teammate Jorge Valdano summarizes the feelings of many: He is someone many people want to emulate, a controversial figure, loved, hated, who stirs great upheaval, especially in Argentina... Stressing his personal life is a mistake. Maradona has no peers inside the pitch, but he has turned his life into a show, and is now living a personal ordeal that should not be imitated. [31]

Diego Maradona's blaugrana shirt at display in FC Barcelona Museum.

In 2000, Maradona published his autobiography Yo Soy El Diego ("I am The Diego"), which became an instant bestseller[32] in his home country. Two years later, Maradona donated the Cuban royalties of his book to "the Cuban people and Fidel."[33] FIFA conducted a fan poll on the Internet in 2000, to elect the FIFA Player of the Century. Maradona finished top of the poll with 53.6% of the vote. Subsequently, however, and contrary to the original announcement of how the award would be decided, FIFA appointed a "Football Family" committee of football experts that voted to award Pelé the title. Maradona protested at the change in procedure, and declared he would not attend the ceremony if Pelé replaced him. Eventually, two awards were made, one to each of the pair. Maradona accepted his prize, but left the ceremony without waiting to see Pelé receive his accolade.[1]

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In 2001, the Argentine Football Association (AFA) asked FIFA for authorization to retire the jersey number 10 for Maradona. FIFA did not grant the request, even though Argentine officials have maintained that FIFA hinted that it would.[34] Maradona has won other fan polls, including a 2002 FIFA poll in which his second goal against England was chosen as the best goal ever scored in a World Cup; he also won the most votes in a poll to determine the All-Time Ultimate World Cup Team. Argentinos Juniors named its stadium after Maradona on 26 December 2003. On 22 June 2005, it was announced that Maradona would return to Boca Juniors as a sports vice president in charge of managing the First Division roster (after a disappointing 2004–05 season, which coincided with Boca's centenary).[35] His Maradona at the Soccer Aid friendly contract began 1 August 2005, and one of his first recommendations proved to be match in 2006, after losing weight very effective: he was the one who decided to hire Alfio Basile as the new coach. With Maradona fostering a close relationship with the players, Boca went on to win the 2005 Apertura title, the 2006 Clausura title, the 2005 Copa Sudamericana and the 2005 Recopa Sudamericana. On 15 August 2005, Maradona made his debut as host of a talk-variety show on Argentine television, La Noche del 10 ("The Night of the no. 10"). His main guest on opening night was Pelé; the two had a friendly chat, showing no signs of past differences. However, the show also included a cartoon villain with a clear physical resemblance to Pelé. In subsequent evenings, he led the ratings on all occasions but one. Most guests were drawn from the worlds of football and show business, including Zidane, Ronaldo and Hernán Crespo, but also included interviews with other notable personalities such as Fidel Castro and Mike Tyson. On 26 August 2006, it was announced that Maradona was quitting his position in the club Boca Juniors because of disagreements with the AFA, who selected Basile to be the new coach of the Argentina national football team.[36] The award-winning Serbian filmmaker Emir Kusturica made a documentary about Maradona's life, entitled Maradona. In May 2006, Maradona agreed to take part in UK's Soccer Aid (a program to raise money for Unicef).[37] In September 2006, Maradona, in his famous blue and white number 10, was the captain for Argentina in a three-day World Cup of Indoor Football tournament in Spain. Also in 2006, Diego Maradona was appointed as a Goodwill Ambassador of IIMSAM the Intergovernmental Institution for the use of Micro-algae Spirulina Against Malnutrition.[38] On 22 March 2010, Maradona was chosen number 1 in The Greatest 10 World Cup players of all time by The Times,[39] a London based newspaper.

Managerial career
Club management
He attempted to work as a coach alongside former Argentinos Juniors midfield team mate Carlos Fren. The pair led Mandiyú of Corrientes (1994) and Racing Club (1995), but with little success.

International management
After the resignation of Argentina national football team coach Alfio Basile in 2008, Diego Maradona immediately proposed his candidacy for the vacant role. According to several press sources, his major challengers included Diego Simeone, Carlos Bianchi, Miguel Ángel Russo and Sergio Batista.

Diego Maradona On 29 October 2008, AFA chairman Julio Grondona confirmed that Maradona would be the head coach of the national side from December 2008. On 19 November 2008, Diego Maradona managed Argentina for the first time when Argentina played against Scotland at Hampden Park in Glasgow which Argentina won 1–0.[40] After winning his first three matches in charge of the national team, he oversaw a 6–1 defeat to Bolivia, equalling the team's worst ever margin of defeat. With two matches remaining in the qualification tournament for the 2010 World Cup, Argentina was in fifth place and faced the possibility of failing to qualify, but victory in the last two matches secured qualification for the finals.[41] [42] After Argentina's qualification, Maradona used abusive language at the live post-game press conference, telling members of the media to "suck it and keep on sucking it".[43] FIFA responded with a two month ban on all footballing activity, which expired on 15 January 2010, and a CHF 25,000 fine, with a warning as to his future conduct.[44] The friendly match scheduled to take place at home to the Czech Republic on 15 December, during the period of the ban, was cancelled. The only match Argentina played during Maradona's ban was a friendly away to Catalonia, which Argentina lost 4–2. At the World Cup finals in June 2010, Argentina started by winning 1–0 against Nigeria, and then defeated South Korea by 4–1, with a hat-trick from Gonzalo Higuain.[45] [46] In the final match of the group stage Argentina won 2–0 against Greece to win their the group and advance to a second round meeting with Mexico.[47] After defeating Mexico 3–1, Argentina was in turn routed by Germany, 4–0 in the quarter finals to go out of the competition.[48] Argentina was ranked 5th in the tournament. After the defeat to Germany Maradona admitted that he was considering his future as Argentina coach, "I may leave tomorrow," he said.[49] On 15 July 2010, the Argentine Football Association said that he would be offered a new 4 year deal that would keep him in charge through to the summer of 2014 when Brazil stages the World Cup,[50] however on 27 July the AFA announced that its board had unanimously decided not to renew his contract.[51] Afterwards on 29 July 2010, Maradona claimed that AFA president Julio Grondona and director of national teams Carlos Bilardo had "lied to" and "betrayed" and effectively sacked him from the role. Saying "they wanted me to continue, but seven of my staff should not go on, if he told me that, it meant he did not want me to keep working".[52]

137

Personal life
Family
His parents are Diego Maradona Snr and Dalma Salvadore Franco. His father is of Native American extraction.[53] [54] His maternal great-grandfather Mateo Kariolić was born in Korčula, Dalmatia, today's Croatia[55] (possibly then in the Austrian Empire), and emigrated to Argentina, where Maradona's grandmother Salvadora was born. Salvadora named her daughter Dalma after the Croatian region, after whom Maradona named his eldest daughter. Maradona married long-time fiancée Claudia Villafañe on 7 November 1989 in Buenos Aires, after the birth of their daughters, Dalma Nerea (born on 2 April 1987) and Giannina Dinorah (born on 16 May 1989), by whom he became a grandfather in 2009.[56] In his autobiography, Maradona admits he was not always faithful to Claudia, even though he refers to her as the love of his life. Maradona and Villafañe divorced in 2004. Daughter Dalma has since asserted that the divorce was the best solution for all, as her parents remained on friendly terms. They traveled together to Napoli for a series of homages in June 2005[57] and were seen together on many other occasions, including the Argentina matches during 2006 FIFA World Cup. During the divorce proceedings, Maradona admitted he was the father of Diego Sinagra (born in Naples on 20 September 1986). The Italian courts had already so ruled in 1993, after Maradona refused to undergo DNA tests for proving or disproving his paternity. Diego Jr. met Maradona for the first time in May 2003 after tricking his way onto a golf course in Italy where Maradona was playing.[58]

Diego Maradona After the divorce, Claudia embarked on a career as a theatre producer, and Dalma was seeking an acting career; she had expressed her desire to attend the Actor's Studio in Los Angeles.[59] [60] His younger daughter, Giannina, is now engaged to Manchester City striker Sergio Agüero, with whom she has a son, Benjamin, born in Madrid on 19 February 2009. His son Diego Sinagra is a footballer in Italy[61] His mother, Dalma, died on 19th November 2011. Diego was in Dubai at the time, and desperately tried to fly back in time to see her, but was too late. She was 81 years old.

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Drug abuse and health issues
From the mid-1980s until 2004 Diego Maradona was addicted to cocaine. He allegedly began using the drug in Barcelona in 1983.[62] By the time he was playing for Napoli he had a regular addiction, which began to interfere with his ability to play football.[63] Over the years following his retirement his health seriously deteriorated. On 4 January 2000, while vacationing in Punta del Este, Uruguay, Maradona had to be rushed to the emergency room of a local clinic. In a press conference, doctors stated that it was detected heart muscle damage due to "an underlying health issue". It was later known that traces of cocaine were found in his blood and Maradona had to explain the circumstances to the police. After this he left Argentina and went to Cuba in order to follow a drug rehab plan. On 18 April 2004, doctors reported that Maradona had suffered a major myocardial infarction following a cocaine overdose; he was admitted to intensive care in a Buenos Aires hospital. Scores of fans gathered around the clinic. He was taken off the respirator on 23 April and remained in intensive care for several days before being discharged on 29 April. He tried to return to Cuba, where he had spent most of his time in the years leading up to the heart attack, but his family opposed, having filed a judicial petition to exercise his legal guardianship. Maradona had a tendency to put on weight, and suffered increasingly from obesity from the end of his playing career until undergoing gastric bypass surgery in a clinic in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia on 6 March 2005.[64] His surgeon said that Maradona would follow a liquid diet for three months in order to return back his normal weight.[65] When Maradona resumed public appearances shortly thereafter, he displayed a notably thinner figure.[66] On 29 March 2007, Maradona was readmitted to a hospital in Buenos Aires. He was treated for hepatitis and effects of alcohol abuse, and was released on 11 April, but re-admitted two days later.[67] In the following days there were constant rumors about his health, including three false claims of his death within a month.[68] After transfer to a psychiatric clinic specialising in alcohol-related problems, he was discharged on 7 May.[69] On 8 May 2007, Maradona appeared on Argentine television and stated that he had quit drinking and had not used drugs in two and a half years.[70]
Maradona after gaining weight, March 2005

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Political views
Only in recent years, Maradona has shown sympathy to left-wing ideologies. Before that he had been vocal in his support of neoliberal Argentina President Carlos Menem, and especially of his Harvard University-educated economist Domingo Cavallo. He became friends with Cuban leader Fidel Castro while receiving treatment on the island. He also has a portrait of Fidel Castro tattooed on his left leg and one of Fidel's second in command, fellow Argentine Che Guevara on his right arm.[71] In his autobiography 'El Diego' he dedicated the book to several people and groups of people including Fidel Castro, he wrote "To Fidel Castro and, through him, all the Cuban people".[72] Maradona is also a supporter of Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. In 2005 he visited Venezuela with the specific aim of meeting Chávez, who received him in Miraflores. After this meeting Maradona claimed that he had come with the aim of meeting a "great man" ("un grande" in Spanish) but he had met instead a gigantic man ("un gigante" in Spanish, meaning he was more than great). "I believe in Chávez, I am Chavista. Everything Fidel does, everything Chávez does, for me is the best."[73] He has declared his opposition to what he identifies as imperialism, notably during the 2005 Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata, Argentina. There he protested George W. Bush's presence in Argentina, wearing a T-shirt labeled "STOP BUSH" (with the "s" in "Bush" being a swastika) and referring to Bush as "human garbage".[74] [75] In August 2007, Maradona went further, making an appearance on Chávez's weekly television show and saying: "I hate everything that comes from the United States. I hate it with all my strength." [76] In December 2007, Maradona presented a signed shirt with a message of support to the people of Iran: it is to be displayed in the Iranian Ministry of Foreign Affairs' museum.[77]

Financial problems
In March 2009 Italian officials announced that Maradona still owed the Italian government 37 million euros in taxes; 23.5 million euros of which was accrued interest on his original debt. They reported that thus far, Maradona has paid only 42,000 euros, two luxury watches and a set of earrings.[78] [79]

In popular culture
The American newspaper The Houston Chronicle wrote about Maradona: To understand the gargantuan shadow Maradona casts over his soccer-mad homeland, one has to conjure up the athleticism of Michael Jordan, the power of Babe Ruth – and the human fallibility of Mike Tyson. Lump them together in a single barrel-chested man with shaggy black hair and you have El Diego, idol to the millions who call him D10S, a mashup of his playing number and the Spanish word for God.[18] In Argentina, Maradona is considerer a symbol, a “Sport hero”. He is idolized, receiving the name of “God”. About this idolatry that exists in Argentina over Maradona, his former teammate Jorge Valdano said: "At the time that Maradona retired from active football, left traumatized Argentina. Maradona was more than just a great footballer. It was a special compensation factor for a
Religious display of Maradona in Naples

Diego Maradona country that in a few years lived several military dictatorships and social frustrations of all kinds". Valdano added that "Maradona offered to the Argentines way out of their collective frustration, and that's why people love him. There is a divine figure." Ever since 1986, it is common for Argentines abroad to hear Maradona's name as a token of recognition, even in remote places.[5] The Tartan Army sing a version of the Hokey Cokey in honour of the Hand of God goal against England.[80] In Argentina, Maradona is often talked about in terms reserved for legends. In the Argentine film El Hijo de la Novia ("Son of the Bride"), somebody who impersonates a Catholic priest says to a bar patron: "they idolized him and then crucified him". When a friend scolds him for taking the prank too far, the fake priest retorts: "But I was talking about Maradona". He's the subject of the film El Camino de San Diego, though he himself only appears in archive footage. Maradona was included in many cameos in the Argentine comic book El Cazador de Aventuras. After the closing of it, the authors started a new short-lived comic book titled "El Die", using Maradona as the main character. In Rosario, Argentina, locals organized the parody religion of the "Church of Maradona". The organization reformulates many elements from Christian tradition, such as Christmas or prayers, reflecting instead details from Maradona. It had 200 founding members, tens of thousands more[81] have become members via the church's official web site. Many Argentine artists performed songs in tribute to Diego, like: "Maradó" by El Potro Rodrigo, "Maradona" by Andrés Calamaro, "Para siempre Diego" (Diego forever) by Los Ratones Paranoicos, "Para verte gambetear" (For seeing you dribble) by La Guardia Hereje, "Francotirador" (Sniper) by Attaque 77, "Dale Diez" (C'mon Diez) by Julio Lacarra, "Maradona blues" by Charly García, "Santa Maradona" (Saint Maradona) by Mano Negra, "Si yo fuera Maradona" (If I Were Maradona) by Manu Chao, among others. And many films, like: Maradona, La Mano de Dios (Maradona, the Hand of God), El Camino de San Diego (Saint Diego's Road), Amando a Maradona (Loving Maradona), Maradona by Kusturica, etc. A television commercial[82] for Brazilian soft drink Guaraná Antarctica portrayed Maradona as a member of the Brazilian national football team, including wearing the yellow jersey and singing the Brazilian national anthem with Brazilian caps Kaká and Ronaldo. Later on in the commercial he wakes up realizing it was a nightmare after having drunk too much of the Brazilian soft drink. This generated some controversy in the Argentine media after its release (although the commercial was not supposed to air on the Argentine market, fans could see it via internet). Maradona replied that he has no problem in wearing the Brazilian national squad jersey, but that he would refuse to wear the shirt of River Plate, Boca Juniors' traditional rival.[83]

140

Career statistics
Club
• His overall average of goals scored per match in domestic club competitions is 0.526.

International
• • • • Started in 21 consecutive matches for Argentina in four World Cups (1982, 1986, 1990, 1994) Appeared 16 times as captain of the national team, a World Cup-record. Scored 8 goals and made 8 assists in 21 World Cup appearances, including 5 goals and 5 assists in 1986 Tied for second-highest goal-scorer from Argentina in World Cup finals (equaled Guillermo Stábile's mark in 1994; surpassed by Gabriel Batistuta in 1998)

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141

Statistics
Player
[84]

Club

Season

League

League

Cup

Continental

Other

Total

Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982–83 1983–84 1984–85 1985–86 1986–87 1987–88 1988–89 1989–90 1990–91 1992–93 Sevilla La Liga Napoli Serie A Boca Juniors Barcelona La Liga Argentinos Juniors Primera División 11 49 35 27 45 40 20 16 30 29 29 28 26 28 18 26 5 24 1 5 Argentina Spain Italy Career total 242 62 188 492 2 19 25 26 43 28 11 11 14 11 10 15 9 16 6 5 0 5 0 2 150 27 81 258 12 45 57 5 4 6 2 10 9 12 3 3 3 – – – – – 7 29 36 1 7 25 33 1 – 0 8 5 13 6 1 7 – – – – – – 3 1 3 2 7 6 7 2 2 3 2 2 12 5 4 – – – 0 4 3 – – 0 0 3 0 2 1 – – – – – – 4 0 4 – – – – – – 5 3 6 – – – – – – – 0 – – – – – – 4 11 49 35 27 45 40 35 23 36 31 41 39 50 36 26 29 5 24 2 5 242 87 259 589 2 19 25 26 43 28 23 15 17 13 17 21 19 18 10 8 0 5 0 2 151 46 115 311

1993–94 Newell's Old Boys Primera División 1995–96 1996–97 1997–98 Total Boca Juniors

• Other - League Cup (Spain) & Super Cup (Italy)
[85]

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142

Argentina national team Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Total Apps 3 1 8 10 2 10 0 0 10 10 6 3 7 10 0 0 4 7 91 Goals 0 0 3 7 1 2 0 0 6 7 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 34

Manager
Team Nat From To Record P W L D Win % Mandiyú de Corrientes Racing Club Argentina Al Wasl FC January 1994 May 1995 June 1994 12 1 6 5 8.33 18.18 73.68 60

November 1995 11 2 6 3 19 14 5 0 5 3 1 1

November 2008 July 2010 May 2011 Present

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143

Honours
Club
Boca Juniors • Primera División: 1981 Barcelona • Copa del Rey: 1983 • Copa de la Liga: 1983 • Supercopa de España: 1983 Napoli • • • • Serie A: 1987, 1990 Coppa Italia: 1987 UEFA Cup: 1989 Supercoppa Italiana: 1990

Country
Argentina • FIFA World Youth Championship: 1979 • FIFA World Cup: • Winner: 1986 • Runner-up: 1990 • Artemio Franchi Trophy: 1993 • 75th anniversary FIFA Cup: 1979

Individual
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Golden Ball for Best Player of the FIFA U-20 World Cup: 1979 Argentine league Top Scorer: 1979, 1980, 1981 Argentine Football Writers' Footballer of the Year: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1986 South American Footballer of the Year (El Mundo, Caracas):1979, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1992 Italian Guerin d'Oro: 1985 Argentine Sports Writers' Sportsman of the Year: 1986 Golden Ball for Best Player of the FIFA World Cup: 1986 L'Équipe Champion of Champions – 1986 United Press International Athlete of the Year Award: 1986 Best Footballer in the World Onze d'Or: 1986, 1987 World Player of the Year (World Soccer Magazine): 1986 Capocannoniere (Serie A top scorer): 1987–88 Golden Ball for services to football (France Football): 1996 Argentine Sports Writers' Sportsman of the Century: 1999 Marca Leyenda: 1999 Argentine Senate "Domingo Faustino Sarmiento" recognition for lifetime achievement: "FIFA Goal of the Century" (1986 (2–1) v. England; second goal): 2002 FIFA Player of the Century

Diego Maradona

144

References
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Diego Maradona
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[53] "Hand of God: The Life of Diego Maradona, Soccer's Fallen Star" (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=dHe12xX0J4EC& pg=PA63& lpg=PA63& dq=Diego+ Maradona+ is+ italian+ ancestry& source=bl& ots=3snPC8N8u2& sig=doCBsrJLTSApSv4B9MWbjDAxcT4& hl=en& ei=4uQvTN-bCoiDngf9jfmxAw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=9& ved=0CDMQ6AEwCA#v=onepage& q=indian italian mixed& f=false). Globe Pequot. 3 July 2010. . Retrieved 3 July 2010. [54] "True Stories – Maradona 1/7" (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=uYmJaXXj-7c& feature=related). Youtube. 4 July 2010. . Retrieved 4 July 2010. [55] http:/ / www. croatiantimes. com/ news/ Sports/ 2010-06-26/ 11927/ Maradona´s_grand-grandfather_comes_from_Praputnjak,_Croatia [56] La Liga (19 February 2009). "Diego Maradona Becomes A Grandfather As Sergio Aguero Junior Is Born" (http:/ / www. goal. com/ en/ news/ 722/ la-liga/ 2009/ 02/ 19/ 1117562/ diego-maradona-becomes-a-grandfather-as-sergio-aguero-junior-is-b). Goal.com. . Retrieved 12 June 2010. [57] ESPN Deportes – "Llega en son de paz" (http:/ / espndeportes. espn. go. com/ story?id=334497) Last retrieved 19 May 2006 [58] ESPN Deportes – "El amor al ídolo" (http:/ / espndeportes. espn. go. com/ story?id=334523) Last retrieved 19 May 2006 [59] Clarin.com – "Había una vez... un elenco para la selección" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2005/ 06/ 03/ espectaculos/ c-00811. htm) Last retrieved 19 May 2006 [60] Clarin.com – "Dalma Maradona: diario de una princesa" (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2005/ 06/ 19/ sociedad/ s-998340. htm) Last retrieved 19 May 2006 [61] "Diego Sinagra" (http:/ / www. resport. it/ leggi. asp?id=11196& idcat=5& t=n). Resport.it. . Retrieved 12 June 2010. [62] Maradona's fall from grace (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport2/ hi/ football/ 3639425. stm) John May, 19 April 2004, BBC Sport. Retrieved 18 August 2006. [63] "The New York Times: SOCCER; Maradona Sentenced" (http:/ / query. nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage. html?res=9D0CE5DE1F30F93AA2575AC0A967958260). 1991-19-09. . [64] "Maradona has surgery on stomach" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport2/ hi/ football/ 4322835. stm). BBC online. 6 March 2005. . Retrieved 28 June 2010. [65] & "Maradona has surgery on stomach " (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport2/ hi/ football/ 4322835. stm) – BBC Sport [66] Associated Press. "Maradona's gastric bypass inspires obese Colombians" (http:/ / soccernet. espn. go. com/ news/ story?id=344144& cc=5901). ESPN. . Retrieved 28 June 2010. [67] "Maradona back in hospital" (http:/ / home. skysports. com/ list. aspx?hlid=460655& CPID=219& clid=& lid=2& title=Maradona+ back+ in+ hospital& channel=football_home& ) – Sky Sports [68] "Malas lenguas" (http:/ / www. ole. clarin. com/ notas/ 2007/ 04/ 26/ 01407242. html) – Diario Olé (Spanish) [69] "Maradona leaves alcoholism clinic" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ world/ americas/ 6633391. stm). BBC News. 7 May 2007. . Retrieved 1 April 2010. [70] "Maradona says he no longer drinks" (http:/ / soccernet. espn. go. com/ news/ story?id=428701& cc=5901) – ESPNsoccernet [71] Taylor, Chris (6 November 2005). "A big hand" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ argentina/ story/ 0,,1635417,00. html). The Observer (UK). . Retrieved 19 June 2006. [72] El Diego – Diego Maradona. ISBN 0244071904 [73] Carroll, Rory (20 August 2007). "Maradona and Chávez laugh over 'hand of god' goal on chat show" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ venezuela/ story/ 0,,2152474,00. html). The Guardian (UK). . Retrieved 20 August 2007. [74] "Chávez and Maradona Lead Massive Rebuke of Bush" (http:/ / www. thenation. com/ doc/ 20051121/ timerman). The Nation. 5 November 2005. . Retrieved 20 June 2006. [75] "Image of Maradona wearing the STOP BU卐H shirt" (http:/ / www. commondreams. org/ headlines05/ images/ 1105-02. jpg). . Retrieved 12 June 2010. [76] "Ex-soccer star Maradona tells Chavez he hates U.S." (http:/ / uk. reuters. com/ article/ worldFootballNews/ idUKN1925170620070819). Reuters. 19 August 2007. . Retrieved 20 August 2007. [77] Naughton, Philippe (3 April 2008). "Diego Maradona makes a fan of President Ahmadinejad of Iran" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ middle_east/ article3673860. ece). The Sunday Times (London). . Retrieved 28 June 2010. [78] Police seize Maradona's earrings (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ europe/ 8264160. stm) BBC News, 19 September 2009 [79] Maradona Still Owes 37 million Euros (http:/ / news. yahoo. com/ s/ afp/ 20090328/ en_afp/ fblitaargmaradonatax;_ylt=Ah. 0zuDZJ5Aa4w8GhpxXEvBxFb8C) Yahoo News, 28 March 2009 [80] Shields, Tom. LET'S RAISE A GLASS TO MARADONA TOM SHIELDS SPORT DIARY (http:/ / findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_qn4156/ is_20060409/ ai_n16175117), Sunday Herald, 9 April 2006. [81] Maradona in intensive care (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ sport2/ hi/ football/ 3666357. stm) 28 April 2004. BBC Sport. Retrieved 18 August 2006. [82] "[ ARCHIVO 10 , Diego Maradona – Videos de publicidades" (http:/ / www. archivo10. com/ videos/ maradona_videos07. html). Archivo10.com. . Retrieved 6 May 2011. [83] "Maradona diz não se arrepender de usar camisa do Brasil na TV" (http:/ / www. adnews. com. br/ publicidade. php?id=28306). AdNews. . Retrieved 14 August 2008. [84] http:/ / expertfootball. com/ players/ maradona/ stats. php [85] "Diego Armando Maradona – International Appearances" (http:/ / www. rsssf. com/ miscellaneous/ maradona-intl. html). Rsssf.com. . Retrieved 6 May 2011.

146

Diego Maradona

147

External links
• Official website (http://www.diegomaradona.com/) • ESPN Profile (http://soccernet.espn.go.com/manager/_/id/131/diego-maradona?cc=5739&ver=global) • Complete List of International Appearances and Goals (http://www.rsssf.com/miscellaneous/maradona-intl. html) • Video: Maradona's "Goal of the Century" (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jk-kXwjASEE) • Gary Lineker interviews Diego (http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/4907924.stm) – BBC News 30 April 2006 • Diego admires Del Piero and Lavezzi (http://euro2008-blog.blogspot.com/2008/05/ diego-maradona-i-have-always-admired.html) • Maradona Wants a Soccer Project to Return to Calcutta (http://www.newkerala.com/topstory-fullnews-58718. html) • 50 Facts About the Argentine Legend (http://www.goal.com/en-gb/news/2871/special/2010/10/29/ 2188484/diego-maradonas-50th-birthday-50-facts-about-the-argentina) • Works by or about Diego Maradona (http://worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n90-719108) in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

Images
• Maradona: The Highs, the Lows (http://www.life.com/image/first/in-gallery/30882/ maradona-the-highs-the-lows) – slideshow by Life magazine • Photos: Diego Maradona's Quest for the World Cup (http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/ 0,29307,2001389_2160331,00.html) – slideshow by TIME magazine • Diego Maradona's Greatest 2010 World Cup Moments (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/07/03/ diego-maradona-greatest-w_n_634881.html#s109083) – slideshow by The Huffington Post

148

Economy
Economy of Argentina
Economy of Argentina
Currency Fiscal year Trade organisations Argentine Peso (ARS) Calendar year WTO, Mercosur, Unasur

Statistics GDP [1] $370.26 billion (nominal) [2] $642.4 billion (PPP) (22nd, 2010) 9.2% (2010) [1] $9,583 (nominal, 2011) $15,854 (PPP) (52nd, 2010) Agriculture, forestry and fishing, 9.2%; mining, 3.3%; manufacturing, 18.8%; construction, 5.2%; commerce and tourism, 13.5%; transport, communications and utilities, 8.5%; finance, real estate and business services, 15.0%; government, 6.3%; [1] education, health care and other, 20.2%. (2010) 10.9% (2010) Private estimate: 21.7% (3/2011) 12.0% (2010) [4] [3]

GDP growth GDP per capita

GDP by sector

Inflation (CPI) Population below poverty line Gini index Labour force

0.379 (2011, 1st third)

[5]

17 million (2007) categories: private-sector employees, 49%; employers and the self-employed, 27%; public-sector [6] employees, 21%; unpaid family workers, 3% (2001). Agricultural, 7.3%; manufacturing, 13.1%; construction, 7.6%; commerce and tourism, 21.4%; transport, communications and utilities, 7.8%; financial, real estate and business services, 9.4%; public administration and defense, 6.3%; social services [6] and other, 27.1%. (2006) 7.3% (12/2010) [7]

Labour force by occupation

Unemployment Main industries

Food processing, motor vehicles and auto parts, appliances and electronics, chemicals and petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, steel, aluminum, machinery, textiles, beverages, printing, furniture. 113th [8]

Ease of Doing Business Rank

External Exports Export goods US$68.5 billion (2010) Soybeans and byproducts, 25.3%; motor vehicles and parts, 11.8%; cereals (mainly maize and wheat), 6.9%; chemicals, 6.7%; natural gas and petroleum, 5.3%; refined fuel, 4.1%; aluminum and steel, 3.9%; fruit and vegetable products, 3.9%; electric machinery, 3.2%; gold, 3.0%; other industrial products, 6.5%; all other (mainly processed agricultural goods), 19.4%. [9] (2010) Brazil, 18.8%; China, 9.3%; Chile, 7.1%; United States, 6.4%. (2009)

Main export partners

Economy of Argentina

149

Imports Import goods

US$56.4 billion (2010) Capital goods and parts, 36.0%; intermediate goods, 31.3%; automobiles and parts, 8.7%; refined fuel and lubricants, 7.9%; [9] consumer durables (except auto), 4.9%; freight vehicles, 4.9%; all other (mostly consumer non-durables), 6.3%. (2010) Brazil, 31.1%; United States, 13.7%; China, 10.3%; Germany, 4.7%. (2009)

Main import partners FDI stock Gross external debt

$80.2 billion (12/2009)

[10] [10]

$118.0 billion (12/2009)

Public finances Public debt 41.2% of GDP, US$163.7 billion (Treasury securities, 68%; direct loans, 18%); of which external, US$61.9 bil. [10] (12/2010) US$112.9 billion (2010) (social security, 29.4%; value-added taxes, 26.3%; taxes on income and capital gains, 18.2%; [11] customs duties, 13.4%; taxes on assets, 7.2%; excise taxes and other, 5.5%) US$112.1 billion (2010) (social security, 31.4%; subsidies and infrastructure, 20.2%; health, 13.0%; debt service, 10.2%; [12] education, culture and research, 6.0%; social assistance, 5.9%; defense and security, 5.1%; other, 8.2%) B (Domestic) B (Foreign) B (T&C Assessment) [13] (Standard & Poor's) $52.4 billion (1/2011) [10] [14] Main data source: CIA World Fact Book All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars

Revenues

Expenses

Credit rating

Foreign reserves

The economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest,[15] with a high quality of life and GDP per capita.[16] An upper middle-income economy,[17] Argentina has a firm foundation for future growth for its market size, the levels of foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods.[18] The country benefits from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector and a diversified industrial base. Historically, however, Argentina's economic performance has been very uneven, in which high economic growth alternated with severe recessions, particularly during the late twentieth century, and income maldistribution and poverty increased. Early in the twentieth century it was one of the richest countries in the world and the richest in the Southern hemisphere,[19] though it is now an upper-middle income country. Argentina is considered an emerging market by the FTSE Global Equity Index, and is one of the G-20 major economies.

History
Prior to the 1880s, Argentina was a relatively isolated backwater, dependent on the salted meat, wool, leather, and hide industries for both the greater part of its foreign exchange and the generation of domestic income and profits. The Argentine economy began to experience swift growth after 1875 through the export of livestock and grain commodities, however,[20] as well as through British and French investment, marking the beginning of a significant era of economic expansion.[21] During its most vigorous period, from 1880 to 1905, this expansion resulted in a 7.5-fold growth in GDP, averaging about 8% annually.[22] One important measure of development, GDP per capita, rose from 35% of the United States average to about 80% during that period.[22] Growth then slowed considerably, though throughout the period from 1890 to 1939, the country's per capita income was similar to that of France, Germany and Canada[23] (although

Economy of Argentina income in Argentina remained considerably less evenly distributed).[20] The great depression caused Argentine GDP to fall by a fourth between 1929 and 1932.[24] Having recovered its lost ground by the late 1930s partly through import substitution, the economy continued to grow modestly during World War II (in sharp contrast to what had happened in the previous World War). Indeed, the reduced availability of imports and the war's beneficial effects on both the quantity and price of Argentine exports combined to create a US$ 1.7 billion cumulative surplus during those years.[25] Benefiting from innovative self-financing and government loans alike, value added in manufacturing surpassed that of agriculture for the first time in 1943, and employed over 1 million by 1947.[26] The administration of Juan Perón nationalized strategic industries and services from 1945 to 1955. Inflation first became a chronic problem during this period (it averaged 26% annually from 1944 to 1974) and Argentina did not become "industrialized" or fully "developed"; but, from 1932 to 1974, Argentina's economy grew almost fivefold (or 3.8% in annual terms),[27] while its population only doubled. Though unremarkable, this expansion was well-distributed and so resulted in very positive changes in Argentine society, most notably the development of the largest proportional middle class (40% of the population by the 1960s) in Latin America[27] as well as the region's best-paid, most unionized working class.[28] The partial enactment of Developmentalism after 1958 was followed by a promising fifteen years. The economy, however, declined during the military dictatorship from 1976 to 1983, and for some time afterwards.[29] The dictatorship's chief economist, José Alfredo Martínez de Hoz, advanced a disorganized, corrupt, monetarist policy of financial liberalization that increased the debt burden and interrupted industrial development and upward social mobility;[30] over 400,000 companies of all sizes went bankrupt by 1982,[24] and economic decisions made from 1983 through 2001 failed to reverse the situation. Record foreign debt interest payments, tax evasion and capital flight resulted in a balance of payments crisis that plagued Argentina with severe stagflation from 1975 to 1990. Attempting to remedy this, economist Domingo Cavallo pegged the peso to the U.S. dollar in 1991 and limited the growth in the money supply. His team then embarked on a path of trade liberalization, deregulation and privatization. Inflation dropped and GDP grew by one third in four years;[1] but external economic shocks and failures of the system diluted benefits, causing the economy to crumble slowly from 1995 until the collapse in 2001. That year and the next, the economy suffered its sharpest decline since 1930; by 2002, Argentina had defaulted on its debt, its GDP had shrunk, unemployment reached 25% and the peso had depreciated 70% after being devalued and floated.[1] Argentine debt restructuring offers in 2005 and 2010 resumed payments on the majority of its almost $100 billion in defaulted bonds from 2001. The economic minister Amado Boudou said that with the offer, the Argentine government hoped "to end the shame of 2001 once and for all."[31] Expansionary policies and commodity exports triggered a rebound in GDP from 2003 onwards. This trend has been largely maintained, creating millions of jobs and encouraging internal consumption. The socio-economic situation has been steadily improving and the economy grew around 9% annually for five consecutive years between 2003 and 2007, and 7% in 2008. The global recession of 2007–10 affected the economy in 2009, with growth slowing to 0.8%.[1] High economic growth resumed in 2010, and GDP expanded by over 8.5%.[32]

150

Sectors
Agriculture
Argentina is one of the world's major agricultural producers, ranking among the top producers and, in most of the following, exporters of beef, citrus fruit, grapes, honey, maize, sorghum, soybeans, squash, sunflower seeds, wheat, and yerba mate.[33] Agriculture accounted for 9% of GDP in 2010, and around one fifth of all exports (not including processed food and feed, which are another third). Commercial harvests reached 103 million tons in 2010, of which over 54 million were oilseeds (mainly soy and sunflower), and over 46 million were cereals (mainly maize, wheat,

Economy of Argentina and sorghum).[34] Soy and its byproducts, mainly animal feed and vegetable oils, are major export commodities with one fourth of the total; cereals added another 7%. Cattle-raising is also a major industry, though mostly for domestic consumption; beef, leather and dairy were 5% of total exports.[9] Sheep-raising and wool are important in Patagonia, though these activities have declined by half since 1990.[7] Fruits and vegetables made up 4% of exports: apples and pears in the Río Negro valley; rice, oranges and other citrus in the northwest and Mesopotamia; grapes and strawberries in Cuyo (the west), and berries in the far south. Cotton and tobacco are major crops in the Gran Chaco, sugarcane and chile peppers in the northwest, and olives and garlic in the west. Yerba mate tea (Misiones), tomatoes (Salta) and peaches (Mendoza) are grown for domestic consumption. Argentina is the world's fifth-largest wine producer, and fine wine production has taken major leaps in quality. A growing export, total viticulture potential is far from having been met. Mendoza is the largest wine region, followed by San Juan.[35] Government policy towards the lucrative agrarian sector is a subject of, at times, contentious debate in Argentina. A grain embargo by farmers protesting an increase in export taxes for their products began in March 2008,[36] and, following a series of failed negotiations, strikes and lockouts largely subsided only with the 16 July defeat of the export tax-hike in the Senate.[37] Argentine fisheries bring in about a million tons of catch annually,[7] and are centered around Argentine hake which makes up 50% of the catch, pollack, squid and centolla crab. Forestry has long history in every Argentine region, apart from the pampas, accounting for almost 14 million m³ of roundwood harvests.[38] Eucalyptus, pine, and elm (for cellulose) are all widely harvested, mainly for domestic furniture, as well as paper products (1.5 million tons). Fisheries and logging each account for 2% of exports.[7]

151

Natural resources
Mining is a growing industry, increasing from 2% of GDP in 1980 to nearly 4% today. The northwest and San Juan Province are the main regions of activity. Coal is mined in Santa Cruz Province. Metals mined include copper, zinc, magnesium, sulfur, tungsten, uranium silver, and particularly, gold, whose production was boosted by recent investments from Barrick Gold in San Juan. Metal ore exports soared from US$ 200 million in 1996 to US$ 1.2 billion in 2004,[39] and to over US$ 3 billion in 2010.[9] Around 35 million m³ each of petroleum and petroleum fuels are produced, as well as 50 billion m³ of natural gas, making the nation self-sufficient in these staples, and generating around 10% of exports. The most important oil fields lie in Patagonia and Cuyo. A network of pipelines (next to Mexico's, the second-longest in Latin America) send raw product to Bahía Blanca, center of the petrochemical industry, and to the La Plata-Buenos Aires-Rosario industrial belt.

Industry
Manufacturing is the largest single sector in the nation's economy (19% of GDP), and is well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, with half the nation's industrial exports being agricultural in nature.[7] Leading sectors by production value are: food processing, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, farming equipment and auto parts, iron, steel and aluminum, petroleum, as well as industrial machinery and home appliances. These latter include over three million big ticket items, as well as an array of electronics, kitchen appliances and cellular phones, among others. Beverages are another significant sector, and Argentina has long been among the top five wine producing countries in the world, though in 2000, beer overtook wine production, and today leads by nearly two billion liters a year to one.[1] [40] Other manufactured goods include textiles and leather, plastics and tires, forestry products, publishing, cement, glass and tobacco products. Nearly half the industries are based in and around Buenos Aires, although Córdoba, Rosario, and Ushuaia are also significant industrial centers. The latter city became the nation's leading center of electronics production during the 1980s, and will supply the majority of the nation's laptop market by 2013.[41] Construction

Economy of Argentina permits nationwide covered nearly 20 million m² (215 million ft²) in 2007. The construction sector accounts for over 5% of GDP, and two-thirds of the construction was for residential buildings.[7] Argentine electric output totaled over 117 billion Kwh in 2010.[1] This was generated in large part through well developed natural gas and hydroelectric resources. Nuclear energy is also of high importance,[42] and the country is one of the largest producers and exporters, alongside Canada and Russia of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope widely used in cancer therapy.

152

Services
The service sector is the biggest contributor to total GDP, accounting for over 60%. Argentina enjoys a diversified service sector, which includes well-developed social, corporate, financial, insurance, real estate, transport, communication services, and tourism. The telecommunications sector has been growing at a fast pace, and the economy benefits from widespread access to mobile telephony (more than 75% of the population having access to mobile phones),[43] Internet (more than 16 million people online),[44] and broadband services. Regular telephone services with 9.5 million lines[45] and mail services are robust. Exports and imports of services were US$12 billion each in 2009.[10] Business Process Outsourcing became the leading Argentine service export, and reached US$3 billion.[46] Advertising revenues from contracts abroad were estimated at over US$1.2 billion.[47] Tourism is increasingly important and provided 8% of economic output (over US$25 billion) in 2008; over 80% of tourism sector activity is domestic.[48] Banking Argentine banking, whose deposits exceeded US$90 billion in November 2010,[49] developed around public sector banks, but is now dominated by the private sector. The private sector banks account for most of the 85 active institutions (4,000 branches) and holds nearly 60% of deposits and loans, and there are as many foreign-owned banks as local ones.[50] The largest bank in Argentina by far, however, has long been the public Banco de la Nación Argentina. Not to be confused with the Central Bank, this institution now accounts for about a fourth of the total deposits and a seventh of its loan portfolio.[50] During the 1990s, Argentina's financial system was consolidated and strengthened. Deposits grew from less than US$15 billion in 1991 to over US$80 billion in 2000, while outstanding credit (70% of it to the private sector) tripled to nearly US$100 billion.[51] The banks largely lent US dollars and took deposits in Argentine pesos, and when the peso lost most of its value in early 2002, many borrowers again found themselves hard pressed to keep up. Delinquencies tripled to about 37%.[51] Over a fifth of deposits had been withdrawn by December 2001, when Economy Minister Domingo Cavallo imposed a near freeze on cash withdrawals. The lifting of the restriction a year later was bittersweet, being greeted calmly, if with some umbrage, at not having these funds freed at their full U.S. dollar value.[52] Some fared worse, as owners of the now-defunct Velox Bank defrauded their clients of up to US$800 million.[53] Credit in Argentina is still relatively tight. Lending to the private sector has been increasing 40% a year since 2004, and delinquencies are down to 3%. Still, credit outstanding is, in real terms, about a fifth less than in 2000, and as a percent of GDP (around 15%),[49] quite low by international standards. The prime rate, which had hovered around 10% in the 1990s, hit 67% in 2002. Although it returned to normal levels quickly, inflation, and more recently, global instability have been affecting it again. The prime rate was over 20% for much of 2009, and 17% in the first half of 2010.[49] Partly a function of this and past instability, Argentines have historically held more deposits overseas than domestically. The estimated US$140 billion in overseas accounts and investment exceeded the domestic monetary

Economy of Argentina base (M3) by nearly 50% in 2009.[10] Tourism The World Economic Forum estimated that, in 2008, tourism generated around US$25 billion in economic turnover, and employed 1.8 million. Tourism from abroad contributed US$ 4.3 billion, having become the third largest source of foreign exchange in 2004. Around 4.6 million foreign visitors arrived in 2007, yielding a positive balance vis-à-vis the number of Argentines traveling abroad.[48] [54] [55] Argentines, who have long been active travelers within their own country,[56] accounted for over 80%, and international tourism has also seen healthy growth (nearly doubling since 2001).[48] Stagnant for over two decades, domestic travel increased strongly in the last few years,[57] and visitors are flocking to a country seen as affordable, exceptionally diverse, and safe.[58] INDEC recorded 2.3 million foreign tourist arrivals in 2007 (a 12% increase), at the Ministro Pistarini International Airport, alone (around half the total); of these, 26 % arrived from Brazil, 25 % from Europe, 14 % from the United States and Canada, 8 % from Chile, 19 % from the rest of the Western Hemisphere and 8 % from the rest of the World.[59]

153

Trade and investment
Argentine exports are fairly well diversified. However, although agricultural raw materials were 20% of the total exports in 2010, agricultural goods including processed foods still account for over 50% of exports. Soy products alone (soybeans, vegetable oil) account for almost one fourth of the total. Cereals, mostly maize and wheat, which were Argentina's leading export during much of the twentieth century, make up less than one tenth now.[60] Industrial goods today account for over a third of Argentine exports. The country exported 448,000 motor vehicles in 2010, mostly to Brazil.[61] Motor vehicles and auto parts are the leading industrial export, about 10% of the industrial exports. Chemicals, steel, aluminum, machinery, and plastics account for most of the remaining industrial exports. Trade in manufactures has historically been in deficit for Argentina, however.[21] Accordingly, the system of non-automatic import licensing was extended in 2011,[62] and regulations were enacted for the auto sector establishing a model by which a company's future imports would be determined by their exports (though not necessarily in the same rubric).[63] A net energy importer until 1981, Argentina's fuel exports began increasing rapidly in the early 1990s and today account for about an eighth of the total. Refined fuels make up about half. Exports of crude petroleum and natural gas have recently been about around US$3 billion a year.[60] Argentine imports have historically been dominated by the need for industrial and technological supplies, machinery, and parts, which were US$38 billion in 2010 (two-thirds of total imports). Consumer goods including motor vehicles make up most of the rest.[60] Trade in services, historically in deficit for Argentina, is currently balanced at around US$12 billion each way.[10] Direct investment in Argentina by the U.S. is mainly in telecommunications, energy, financial services, chemicals, food processing, and vehicle manufacturing. The U.S. direct investment in Argentina approached $16 billion at the end of 1999, according to the embassy estimates. Investments from Canada, Europe, Chile, and other countries have also been significant. In all, foreign nationals hold around US$80 billion in direct investment.[10] Brazil has, since 2000, also became an important investor in Argentine assets and Spanish companies in particular have entered the Argentine market aggressively, with major investments in the petroleum and gas, telecommunications, banking, and retail sectors. Several bilateral agreements play an important role in promoting U.S. private investment. Argentina has an Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) agreement and an active program with the U.S. Export-Import Bank. Under the 1994 U.S.-Argentina Bilateral Investment Treaty, U.S. investors enjoy national treatment in all sectors except shipbuilding, fishing, nuclear-power generation, and uranium

Economy of Argentina production. The treaty allows for international arbitration of investment disputes. Argentina attracted $3.4 billion in foreign direct investment (FDI) in 2006;[64] as a percent of GDP, this FDI volume was below the Latin American average. Current Kirchner Administration policies and difficulty in enforcing contractual obligations had been blamed for this modest performance.[65] FDI then accelerated, reaching US$8 billion in 2008,[66] while slowing to US$4 billion in 2009 and recovering to US$6.2 billion in 2010.[67]

154

Energy
The electricity sector in Argentina constitutes the third largest power market in Latin America. It relies mostly on thermal generation (56% of installed capacity) and hydropower generation (41%), with new renewable energy technologies barely exploited. The country still has a large untapped hydroelectric potential. However, the prevailing natural gas-fired thermal generation is at risk due to the uncertainty about future gas supply. Faced with rising electricity demand (over 6% annually) and declining reserve margins, the government of Argentina is in the process of commissioning large projects, both in the generation and transmission sectors. To keep up with rising demand, it is estimated that about 1,000 MW of new generation capacity are needed each year. An important number of these projects are being financed by the government through trust funds, while independent private initiative is still limited as it has not fully recovered yet from the effects of the Argentine economic crisis. The electricity sector was unbundled in generation, transmission and distribution by the reforms carried out in the early 1990s. Generation occurs in a competitive and mostly liberalized market in which 75% of the generation capacity is owned by private utilities. In contrast, the transmission and distribution sectors are highly regulated and much less competitive than generation.

Infrastructure
Argentina's transport infrastructure is relatively advanced.[68] There are over 230,000 km (144,000 mi) of roads (not including private rural roads) of which 72,000 km (45,000 mi) are paved,[69] and 1,575 km (980 mi) are expressways,[70] many of which are privatized tollways. Having doubled in length in recent years, multilane expressways now connect several major cities with more under construction.[71] Expressways are, however, currently inadequate to deal with local traffic, as 9.5 million motor vehicles were registered nationally as of 2009 (240 per 1000 population).[72] The railway network has a total length of 34,059 km (21,170 mi).[73] After decades of declining service and inadequate maintenance, most intercity passenger services shut down in 1992 when the rail company was privatized, and thousands of kilometers of track (excluding the above total) are now in disuse. Metropolitan rail services in and around Buenos Aires remained in great demand, however, owing in part to their easy access to the Buenos Aires subway, and intercity rail services are currently being reactivated along numerous lines. Inaugurated in 1913, the Buenos Aires Metro was the first subway system built in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere.[74] No longer the most extensive in South America, its 52.3 km (32.5 mi) of track carry nearly a million passengers daily.[1] Argentina has around 11000 km (6835 mi) of navigable waterways, and these carry more cargo than do the country's freight railways.[75] This includes an extensive network of canals, though Argentina is blessed with ample natural waterways, as well; the most significant among these being the Río de la Plata, Paraná, Uruguay, Río Negro and Paraguay rivers. Aerolíneas Argentinas is the country's main airline, providing both extensive domestic and international service. Austral Líneas Aéreas is Aerolíneas Argentinas' subsidiary, with a route system that covers almost all of the country. LADE is a military-run commercial airline that flies extensive domestic services.

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Issues
The economy recovered strongly from the 2001–02 crisis, and remained the 22nd-largest in purchasing power parity terms in 2010.[2] Some observers have questioned whether the country should still have a place in the G20, however, considering that since the first G20 summit in 1999 it has slipped from being the world's 16th-largest economy to the 28th largest in 2010 (in nominal terms).[76] A lobby representing US creditors who refused to accept Argentina's debt-swap programmes has campaigned to have the country expelled from the G20.[76] These holdouts include numerous vulture funds which had rejected the 2005 offer, and had instead Compared economic performance of Argentina (100 = Latin American average resorted to the courts in a bid for higher GDP per capita PPP) returns on their defaulted bonds. These disputes had led to a number of liens against central bank accounts in New York and, indirectly, to reduced Argentine access to international credit markets.[77] Argentina’s economy grew by 9% in 2010, and officially, income poverty declined to around 13%;[7] an alternative mesurement conducted by CONICET found that income poverty declined to 22.6%.[78] [79] Argentina's unemployment rate in the fourth quarter of 2010 was reportedly down to 7.3% from 8.4% in the fourth quarter of 2009, according to INDEC data. Argentina's jobless rate has declined from 25% in 2002 largely because of both growing global demand for Argentine commodities and strong growth in domestic activity.[80]

Reliability of official statistics
Official CPI inflation figures released monthly by INDEC have been a subject of political controversy since 2007.[80] [81] [82] Official inflation data are disregarded by leading union leaders, even in the public sector, when negotiating pay rises.[83] Some private-sector estimates put inflation for 2010 at around 25%, much higher than the official 10.9% rate for 2010.[83] Inflation estimates from Argentina’s provinces are also higher than the government’s figures.[83] The government stands by the validity of its data, but has called in the International Monetary Fund to help it design a new nationwide index to replace the current one.[83] The government threatens inflation analysts with fine of up to 500,000 pesos if they don't report how they calculate their inflation estimates, which these economists consider as an attempt to limit the availability of independent estimates.[83]

Inflation
High inflation has been a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades.[84] Inflation was unofficially estimated to be running at more than 25% annually in December 2010, despite official statistics indicating less than half that figure;[85] this would be the highest level since the 2002 devaluation.[84] Food price increases, particularly that of beef, began to outstrip wage increases in 2010, leading Argentines decrease beef consumption per capita from 69 kg (152 lb) to 57 kg (125 lb) annually and to increase consumption of other meats.[84] [86] President Kirchner insists inflation is not a problem.[84]

Economy of Argentina Consumer prices for 2011 are expected to rise by 20 to 30%, leading the national mint to buy banknotes of its highest denomination (100 pesos) from Brazil at the end of 2010 to keep up with demand. The central bank is expected to pump at least 1 billion pesos into the economy in this way during 2011.[87]

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Income inequality
Argentina, in relation to other Latin American countries, has a low level of income inequality. Its Gini coefficient of 37.8 (2011) Ref [88] is below that of Brazil (55.0), Chile (52.0), Colombia (58.5), Mexico (51.6) Uruguay (47.1) or Venezuela (43.4). The social gap is worst in the suburbs of the capital, where beneficiaries of the economic rebound live in gated communities, and many of the poor (particularly undocumented immigrants) live in slums known as villas miserias.[89] In the mid-1970s, the most affluent 10% of Argentina's population had an income 12 times that of the poorest 10%. That figure had grown to 18 times by the mid-1990s, and by 2002, the peak of the crisis, the income of the richest segment of the population was 43 times that of the poorest.[89] These heightened levels of inequality had improved to 26 times by 2006,[90] and to 16 times at the end of 2010.[91] Economic recovery after 2002 was thus accompanied by significant improvement in income distribution: in 2002, the richest 10% absorbed 40% of all income, compared to 1.1% for the poorest 10%;[92] by 2010, the former received 29% of income, and the latter, 1.8%.[91] Argentina has an inequality-adjusted human development index of 0.622, compared to 0.509 and 0.634 for neighbouring Brazil and Chile, respectively.[93] As of October 2011 the poverty rate is 8% and extreme poverty 3%.

References
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[9] Intercambio Comercial Argentino (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 19/ ica_01_11. pdf)]] [10] MECON updates (http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ progeco/ dsbb. htm) [11] AFIP (http:/ / www. afip. gov. ar/ institucional/ estudios/ archivos/ serie2010. xls) [12] Economy Ministry: National budget (http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ peconomica/ basehome/ series_gasto. html) [13] "Sovereigns rating list" (http:/ / www. standardandpoors. com/ ratings/ sovereigns/ ratings-list/ en/ eu/ ?subSectorCode=39). Standard & Poor's. . Retrieved 26 May 2011. [14] https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ ar. html [15] "Argentina country profile" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ country_profiles/ 1192478. stm). news.bbc.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-01-31. [16] "UN Human Development Report 2010" (http:/ / hdr. undp. org/ en/ media/ HDR_2010_EN_Tables_reprint. pdf). UNDP. . [17] Argentina – World Bank (http:/ / data. worldbank. org/ country/ argentina) [18] Legatum Institute. Prosperity Index: Argentina (http:/ / www. prosperity. com/ country. aspx?id=AR) [19] Maddison, Angus. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective – cited at (http:/ / www. cei. gov. ar/ revista/ 06/ parte 4beng. pdf) [20] Johnson, Lyman. Distribution of Wealth in 19th century Buenos Aires Province. Univ. of New Mexico Press, 1994. [21] Rock, David. Argentina: 1516–1982. University of California Press, 1987. [22] Jorge Ávila (http:/ / www. jorgeavilaopina. com/ ?p=61) [23] Blattman (http:/ / www. chrisblattman. org/ BHW2004-NBERw10600pdf) [24] Lewis, Paul. The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1990. [25] National Geographic Magazine. March, 1975. [26] UN (http:/ / unstats. un. org/ unsd/ demographic/ products/ dyb/ dybsets/ 1956 DYB. pdf) [27] The Statistical Abstract of Latin America. University of California, Los Angeles. [28] St. James Encyclopedia of Labor History Worldwide.

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(Spanish)
[40] Evolución de la industria nacional argentina (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. gestiopolis. com/ recursos2/ documentos/ fulldocs/ eco/ evoindnalarg. htm)]] [41] "En 2013 el 90 % de las notebooks serán nacionales" (http:/ / www. sinmordaza. com/ noticia/ 106006-en-2013-el-90-por-ciento-de-las-notebooks-seran-nacionales. html). . [42] CNEA: Themes in Nuclear Energy and Physics (http:/ / www. cnea. gov. ar/ xxi/ divulgacion/ reactores/ c_reactores_fii. html) [43] Clarín (1 February 2006) (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2006/ 02/ 01/ elpais/ p-01301. htm)]] [44] Internet Usage Stats and Market Reports (http:/ / www. internetworldstats. com/ sa/ ar. htm) [45] Argentina (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ ar. html) entry at The World Factbook [46] Clarín: Exportación de servicios (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. ieco. clarin. com/ emprendedores/ Exportacion-servicios-puede-Argentina-Mundial_0_148200004. html)]] [47] Ad Latina: El boom de la publicidad argentina (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. adlatina. com/ notas/ noticia. php?id_noticia=39598)]] [48] World Economic Forum: Argentina (http:/ / www. weforum. org/ pdf/ ttcr09/ Argentina. pdf) [49] BCRA (http:/ / www. bcra. gov. ar/ pdfs/ polmon/ InfBanc1110. pdf) [50] ABA (http:/ / www. aba-argentina. com/ informes/ ranking_bancos/ PDF/ 2010/ RankingFebrero2010. xls) [51] ABA (http:/ / www. aba-argentina. com/ informes/ memoria_anual/ memoria-anual-2007/ Memoria2007versionEspanol. pdf) [52] Clarín (3 Dec 2002) (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / clarin. com/ diario/ 2002/ 12/ 03/ e-00801. htm)]] [53] IPS News (http:/ / ipsnews. net/ print. asp?idnews=39063) [54] World Economic Forum (http:/ / www. weforum. org/ ttcr08browse/ index. html) [55] WTO: World Tourism Barometer (http:/ / www. tourismroi. com/ Content_Attachments/ 27670/ File_633513750035785076. pdf) [56] National Geographic Magazine. November, 1939. [57] "Gran número de turistas eligieron la ciudad de Mar del Plata" (http:/ / www. hostnews. com. ar/ 2007/ sal/ 071159. htm). Hostnews.com.ar. . [58] Luongo, Michael. Frommer's Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007. [59] INDEC: turismo internacional (http:/ / www. aaavyt. org. ar/ estadisticas/ eti_octubre08. pdf) [60] INDEC: foreign trade (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 19/ ica_01_10. pdf) [61] ADEFA (http:/ / www. adefa. com. ar/ v2/ images/ stories/ estadisticas_ingles/ 2010/ Informe_de_Prensa_2010_12 def. xls) [62] "Licencias no Automáticas" (http:/ / tiempo. elargentino. com/ notas/ licencias-no-automaticas-consejos-para-entender-una-medida-polemica). Tiempo Argentino. . [63] "Automotrices deberán exportar un dólar por cada dólar que importen" (http:/ / tiempo. elargentino. com/ notas/ automotrices-deberan-exportar-dolar-cada-dolar-que-importen). Tiempo Argentino. . [64] ECLAC (http:/ / www. eclac. org/ publicaciones/ xml/ 3/ 29293/ Anexo_estadistico. pdf) [65] Clarín (18 June 2008) (http:/ / www. ieco. clarin. com/ 2008/ 06/ 18/ 01696111. html) [66] "Argentina, destino elegido por la inversión extranjera" (http:/ / www. argentina. ar/ _es/ economia-y-negocios/ C1892-argentina-destino-elegido-por-la-inversion-extranjera. php). Secretaría de Medios de Comunicación. . [67] "La inversión extranjera directa en la Argentina subió 54% en 2010" (http:/ / www. infobae. com/ notas/ 570918-La-inversion-extranjera-directa-en-la-Argentina-subio-54-en-2010. html). Infobae. .

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[68] Infrastructure. Argentina (http:/ / www. nationsencyclopedia. com/ economies/ Americas/ Argentina-INFRASTRUCTURE-POWER-AND-COMMUNICATIONS. html). National Economies Encyclopedia [69] ADEFA (http:/ / www. adefa. com. ar/ anuario_2007/ fscommand/ complementary_data. pdf) [70] Grupo Payne (http:/ / www. grupopayne. com. ar/ archivo/ 01/ 0112/ 011211/ institucionales/ institucionales. html) [71] La república digital. "Se dará inicio a las obras de la Autopista Mesopotámica" (http:/ / www. larepublicadigital. com. ar/ spip. php?article3058). . Retrieved 14 February 2008. [72] "DNRPA" (http:/ / www. dnrpa. gov. ar/ ). DNRPA. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [73] "Argentina.gov.ar" (http:/ / www. argentina. gov. ar/ argentina/ portal/ paginas. dhtml?pagina=257). Argentina.gov.ar. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [74] "Buenos Aires Transport Subway" (http:/ / www. kwintessential. co. uk/ articles/ article/ Argentina/ Buenos-Aires-Transport--Subway/ 26). Kwintessential.co.uk. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [75] Encyclopedia Britannica, Book of the Year (various issues): statistical appendix. [76] Argentina still tackling debt burden (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ business-11764535) BBC News [77] Clarín (12 January 2010) (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2010/ 01/ 12/ um/ m-02118566. htm)]] [78] "Línea de partida para combatir la pobreza, nota del diario" (http:/ / www. pagina12. com. ar/ diario/ economia/ 2-145350-2010-05-08. html). Página 12. . [79] "El Impacto de la Asignación Universal por Hijo en Argentina" (http:/ / www. ceil-piette. gov. ar/ docpub/ documentos/ AUH_en_Argentina. pdf). . [80] Argentina's 4Q Unemployment Rate Falls To 7.4% (http:/ / online. wsj. com/ article/ BT-CO-20110121-709136. html) Wall Street Journal [81] Forero, Juan. "Doctored Data Cast Doubt on Argentina: Economists Dispute Inflation Numbers" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/ 2009/ 08/ 15/ AR2009081502758. html). Washington Post, 16 Aug 2009. [82] Argentina's economy: Happy-go-lucky Cristina | The Economist (http:/ / www. economist. com/ node/ 16846418) The Economist [83] Argentina threatens inflation analysts with fine (http:/ / www. ft. com/ cms/ s/ 0/ ac2f3b10-2fc2-11e0-91f8-00144feabdc0. html#axzz1DUSJ9fUW) Financial Times [84] Inflation, an Old Scourge, Plagues Argentina Again (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 02/ 06/ world/ americas/ 06argentina. html?src=twrhp) New York Times [85] Latin America sees uncertain 2011 (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/ business-11821563) BBC News [86] "La mesa de los Argentinos" (http:/ / www. elargentino. com/ nota-112118-La-mesa-de-los-argentinos. html). 7 Días. . [87] Argentina can’t print enough pesos (http:/ / blogs. ft. com/ beyond-brics/ 2011/ 02/ 07/ argentina-cant-print-enough-pesos) Financial Times [88] http:/ / www. pagina12. com. ar/ diario/ economia/ 2-170183-2011-06-16. html [89] Rohter, Larry (2006-12-25). "Despite recovery, inequality grows in Argentina" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2006/ 12/ 25/ world/ americas/ 25iht-argentina. 4007058. html). New York Times. . [90] "La distribución del ingreso es peor" (http:/ / www. lanacion. com. ar/ 850024-la-distribucion-del-ingreso-es-peor-que-la-que-se-registraba-en-los-90). La Nación. . [91] "El 10% más rico acapara el 28.7% de ingresos" (http:/ / www. lavoz. com. ar/ noticias/ negocios/ 10-mas-rico-acapara-287-ingresos-totales). La Voz del Interior. . [92] "Income share held by highest 10%" (http:/ / data. worldbank. org/ indicator/ SI. DST. 10TH. 10). The World Bank. . [93] UN. International Human development indicators: Inequality-adjusted HDI value (http:/ / hdrstats. undp. org/ en/ indicators/ 73206. html)

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Further reading
• Bulmer-Thomas, Victor. The Economic History of Latin America since Independence (New York: Cambridge University Press). 2003. • The Crisis that Was Not Prevented: Lessons for Argentina, the IMF, and Globalisation, Jan Joost Teunissen and Age Akkerman (eds.), Fondad, 2003, book, pdf (http://www.fondad.org/publications/argentina/contents.htm) • Who Shot Argentina? The Finger Prints On the Smoking Gun Read ‘I.M.F.', Greg Palast, The Guardian (London) Sunday, 12 August 2001) (http://www.gregpalast.com/detail.cfm?artid=96&row=2) • Argentina: Life After Default (http://www.soundsandcolours.com/articles/argentina/ argentina-lessons-learnt-from-the-aftermath-of-default/) Article looking at how Argentina has, in the most part, recovered from defaulting in 2002

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External links
• Argentine Economy Ministry (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http://www. mecon.gov.ar/)]] • Argentine Central Bank (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http://www.bcra. gov.ar/)]] • Argentina's Economic Recovery: Policy Choices and Implications (http://www.cepr.net/documents/ publications/MWLS_ArgentinaRecovery_Formatted_PDF2.pdf) from the Center for Economic and Policy Research

Agriculture in Argentina
Agriculture is one of the bases of Argentina's economy. Argentine agriculture is relatively capital intensive, today providing about 7% of all employment,[1] and, even during its period of dominance around 1900, accounting for no more than a third of all labor.[2] Having accounted for nearly 20% of GDP as late as 1959, it adds, directly, less than 10% today.[1] Agricultural goods, however, whether raw or processed, still earn over half of Argentina's foreign exchange[1] and, arguably, remain an indispensable pillar of the country's social progress and economic prosperity. An estimated 10-15% of Argentine farmland is foreign owned.[3]

Soy field in Argentina's fertile pampas. The versatile legume makes up about half the nation's crop production and a fourth of its exports.

One fourth of Argentine exports of about US$86 billion in 2011 were composed of unprocessed agricultural primary goods, mainly soybeans, wheat and maize. A further one third were composed of processed agricultural products, such as animal feed, flour and vegetable oils.[4] The national governmental organization in charge of overseeing agriculture is the Secretariat of Agriculture, Cattle Farming, Fishing and Food (Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Alimentos, SAGPyA).[5]

History
Since its formal organization as a national entity in the second half of the 19th century, the country followed an agricultural and livestock export model of development with a large concentration of crops in the fertile Pampas, particularly in and around Buenos Aires Province, as well as in the littoral of the Paraná and Uruguay Rivers. largely limited to stock-raising activities and centerd around the export of cattle hides and wool, Argentine agriculture languished during the colonial era and well into the 19th century. The need for intensive agriculture was recognized as early as 1776; but, aside from the yerba mate harvest in the northeast, attempts to develop it suffered setbacks due to internal

Impression of a Buenos Aires slaughterhouse by Charles Pellegrini, 1829.

Agriculture in Argentina strife and lack of skill and machinery. The development of a cohesive state after 1852 led to the 1868 creation of Argentina's first Institute of Agronomy and the 1875 arrival of the first intact grain shipment from Argentina to the United Kingdom sparked a wave of local investment in cultivation and silos and British investment in railways and finance. The 1876 development of refrigerated beef shipping, likewise, led to the modernization of that sector and by the 1920s, Argentine exports reached US$1 billion annually, of which 99% was agricultural. Maize and wheat had, by then, largely overshadowed beef production and exports.[6] These developments were accompanied by a wave of European immigration and investments in education and infrastructure, all of which nearly reinvented Argentine society. Agricultural development, in turn, led to the first meaningful industrial growth, which, during the 1920s, was mainly centered around food processing and increasingly involved U.S. capital. Agricultural exports provided the Argentine Treasury with generous surpluses during both World Wars and helped finance a boom in machinery and consumer goods imports between the wars and after 1945. The creation of a single grain purchaser (the IAPI) by President Juan Perón produced mixed results, often shortchanging growers even as it benefited them with investments in infrastructure, machinery and pest control. Policies friendly to industrial investment during the Arturo Frondizi's tenure led to the establishment of FIAT and John Deere farm machinery makers locally, spurring further modernization, as did accelerated rural roadbuilding and electrification programs during the 1960s. Cost-cutting measures by the Juan Carlos Onganía regime led to the closure of 11 large sugar mills in 1966, however, even as agriculture generally continued to grow.[2] Domestic austerity policies pursued by the last dictatorship and Raúl Alfonsín's government led to record trade surpluses during much of the 1976–90 era, led by agricultural exports and, notably, the sudden boom in soybean cultivation, which displaced sunflower seeds as the leading oilseed crop in 1977. A severe shortage of domestic credit hampered the sector somewhat, however, as growing harvests soon outstripped transport and storage capacity.[7] A tie of the Argentine peso to the U.S. dollar implemented by The Agriculture Secretariat, an office promoted to economist Domingo Cavallo in 1991 reduced export competitiveness a cabinet-level post in 2009. somewhat, though the resulting stability led to record investments in agricultural infrastructure and led to strong growth in harvests during the late 1990s. These trends were accompanied by the federal approval of GMO crops in 1995. A devaluation of the peso in 2002 and a sustained rise in commodity prices since has further encouraged the sector, leading to record production and exports, helping finance record public works spending through export tariffs, a centerpiece of Néstor and Cristina Kirchner's economic policies. These, inturn, became a point of contention when President Cristina Kirchner advanced a hike in export tariffs, leading to the 2008 Argentine government conflict with the agricultural sector; the tariff increase was defeated in the Senate when Vice President Julio Cobos cast an unexpected, tie-breaking vote against the measure.[8]

160

Agriculture in Argentina

161

Production per commodity
All data refers to 2004 information by the FAO and by 2007 data from the Argentine Ministry of the Economy. Around 10% of the country is cultivated, while about half of it is used for cattle, sheep and other livestock.

Cereals
One of the main exports of the country are cereals, centered around corn, wheat and sorghum, with rice and barley produced mainly for national consumption. With a total area of around 210.000 km², the annual production of cereals is around 50 million tonnes.

Sunflower field in Buenos Aires Province

Oilseeds
Oilseeds became important as their international price rose during the late 20th century. Of the approximately 52 million tonnes produced annually, around 92% are soybeans and 7% are sunflower seeds. The total cultivated area for oilseeds is around 41.000 km². Oilseed farming in Argentina has been prominent from the early 20th century, when the country was the world's primary exporter of flax (linseed). The collapse of that market in the 1930s and the crop's soil denuding qualities, however, ended its dominance within the sector.

Gauchos roping cattle, Corrientes Province

Meats
Beef and other meats are some of the most important agricultural export products of Argentina. Nearly 5 million tonnes of meats (not including seafood) are produced in Argentina, long the world's leading beef consumer on a per capita basis. Beef accounts for 3.2 million tonnes (not counting 500,000 tonnes of edible offal). Then, following in importance: chicken, with 1.2 million tonnes; pork, with 265,000 and mutton (including goat meat), over 100,000. Cattle is mainly raised in the provinces of Buenos Aires and Santa Fe.

Vineyard in Salta Province

Fruit
Grapes (mostly for the wine harvest), together with lemons, apples and pears are the most important fruit harvests, produced mainly in the Río Negro valleys of Río Negro Province and Neuquén Province, as well as Mendoza Province. Other important crops include peaches and other citruses. With an area of around 6.000 km², the fruit production is around 18 million annual tonnes. The value of Argentine wine production reached 3.4 billion USD in 2011, of which 40% was exported.[9]

Sugarcane fields and mill, Tucumán Province

Sugar cane

Agriculture in Argentina The cultivation of sugar cane and its derivates over an area of 3.000 km², mainly in the Tucumán Province, yields around 19 million tonnes annually. There are also sugar-cane factories (ingenios azucareros) for the production of sugar and cellulose.

162

Cotton
In 2007, on 393,000 ha, 174,000 net tons of cotton was produced, of which 7,000 tons was exported. The main production area is Chaco Province and, though the crop is being replaced in many areas with soybeans due to production costs, production has more than doubled since the 2002 low.

Dairy
Milk production is of around 10 billion annual liters and eggs, about 650 million dozen. Their production, as well as that of related dairy industries (half a million tons of cheese, particularly), was favored by the 2002 devaluation of the Argentine peso, as this placed production costs well below the international price. This increased milk and dairy product exports; but has also raised their local prices.

Vegetables
Vegetables, mainly potatoes, onions and tomatoes, are cultivated all over the country, almost exclusively for the domestic market. Other important products include sweetpotato, pumpkins, carrots, beans, peppers and garlic. An approximate area of 3.000 km² produces over five million tonnes of vegetable every year.

Fish and seafood
Fish and other sea foods are less important to the export economy, and are not widely consumed by Argentines. Most of the 900.000 tonnes fished is frozen and exported. The most important product is hake (merlucciidae), followed by Cephalopod (squid) and other molluscs and Crustaceans.

Agricultural production
30 most cultivated commodities by harvested production (2006–2007)[10]
Rank Commodity Area harvested (thousand ha) 16150 2790 305 5507 2410 590 219 83 42 338 40 170 [11] Quantity Percent of world's total produced (thousand tonnes) 47600 21800 20480 14550 3605 3000 2779 2558 1504 1268 1220 1060 22.0 2.8 1.3 2.4 13.4 4.6 4.2 0.8 11.5 1.0 1.9 0.2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Soybeans Maize Sugar cane Wheat Sunflower seed Sorghum Grape Potato Lemon Barley Apples Rice, paddy

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13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Orange Yerba mate Onion Tomato Groundnuts Cotton Pear Mandarin Beans Squash 51 166 30 20 212 393 19 36 251 20 938 783 735 687 575 550 510 432 328 325 292 281 273 272 268 243 161 136 1.5 50.3 1.2 0.5 1.7 0.8 2.5 1.6 1.7 4.1 0.8 0.2 5.4 1.6 1.0 1.0 2.5 0.9

Green tea (India) 36 Sweet potato Grapefruit Peach Carrot Oat Tobacco Garlic 18 12 29 11 138 83 14

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Ministerio de Economía y Producción – República Argentina (http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ ) Rock, David. Argentina: 1516–1982. University of California Press, 1987. Voss, Peer. "farmland as inflation hedge" (http:/ / www. argentina-estancias. com/ inflationhedge-farmland. htm). . Retrieved 2011-07-30. INDEC, Foreign Trade, Export Complexes (http:/ / www. indec. gov. ar/ principal. asp?id_tema=5187). Secretariat of Agriculture, Cattle Farming, Fishing and Food (http:/ / www. sagpya. mecon. gov. ar/ ). Official website. Historical Dictionary of Argentina. London: Scarecrow Press, 1978.

[7] National Geographic Magazine. August 1986. [8] Sur del Sur. Argentina: Economic Activities (http:/ / www. surdelsur. com/ economia/ indexingles. html) [9] "La vitivinicultura mueve por año casi $ 14 mil millones" (http:/ / www. losandes. com. ar/ notas/ 2011/ 10/ 30/ vitivinicultura-mueve-casi-millones-603426. asp). Los Andes. . [10] Información Económica al Día (production statistics) (http:/ / www. mecon. gov. ar/ peconomica/ basehome/ infoeco. html), mecon.gov.ar [11] FAO (http:/ / www. faostat. fao. org/ site/ 567/ )

External links
• CAMPONOVA (http://www.camponova.com.ar/) (in Spanish) (based in Argentina) • Agritotal .:. El sitio oficial de Revista CHACRA (http://www.agritotal.com/) (in Spanish) (based in Argentina) • Informe Rural (http://www.informerural.com.ar/) (in Spanish) (based in Coronel Pringles, Buenos Aires, Argentina) • Bienvenidos a la portada (http://www.entreagro.com.ar/) "Entreagro" (in Spanish) (based in Chajarí, Entre Ríos, Argentina) • Crónica Rural (http://www.cronicarural.com.ar/) (in Spanish) (based in Concepción del Uruguay, Entre Ríos, Argentina) • AgroRegion.com.ar (http://www.agroregion.com.ar/) (in Spanish) (based in Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina) • Campo en Acción (http://www.campoenaccion.com/) (in Spanish) (based in Paraná, Entre Ríos,Argentina)

Agriculture in Argentina • // La Verdad Interior // (http://www.laverdadinterior.com/detallenoticias.php) (in Spanish) (based in Junín, Buenos Aires, Argentina) • GuiaMedia.com.ar (http://www.guiamedia.com.ar/index2.php) (in Spanish) (based in Marcos Juárez, Córdoba, Argentina) • TODOAGRO :: Actualidad – Negocios – Capacitación – Comunidad (http://www.todoagro.com.ar/ todoagro2/default.asp) (in Spanish) (based in Marcos Juárez, Córdoba, Argentina) • El Agro Correntino – La voz y el sentir de nuestra gente (http://www.elagrocorrentino.com.ar/) (in Spanish) (based in Corrientes, Corrientes, Argentina) • Agroenlinea.com.ar (http://www.agroenlinea.com.ar/home/index.php) (in Spanish) (based in Posadas, Misiones, Argentina) • NuestroAgro.com.ar, Agricultura, Ganadería, Lechería. Edición on-line Revista Nuestro Agro, noticias y notas agropecuarias. (http://www.nuestroagro.com.ar/index.asp) (in Spanish) (based in Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina)

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Communications in Argentina
Communications in Argentina gives an overview of the postal, telephone, Internet, radio, television, and newspaper services available in Argentina.

Postal
The National Postal Service was established in 1854, privatized in 1997, and partly re-nationalized in 2003. There are no standard abbreviations for provinces' names; but the province name is optional and usually not needed if the postal code is correct. The format of the postal code was expanded in 1998 to include more specific information on location within cities; it now uses a letter that identifies the province, a four-digit number, and then three more letters (and slightly different numbers are used for different parts of a city, which was formerly done only in the case of Buenos Aires). See Argentine postal code for details.

Argentines have access to over 5,000 post offices nationwide, Latin America's best ratio.

The largest mail carrier nationally is the public Correo Argentino, followed by two private carriers operating nationwide (OCA and Andreani) and a number of regional ones.[1]

Telephone
The Argentine telephone system is more modern following privatization in the 1990s and, more recently, market deregulation. The network was initially developed primarily by ITT, and grew following the system's nationalization in 1948 and the creation of the ENTel State enterprise. Its limitations notwithstanding, ENTel gave Argentines the widest access to phone service in Latin America.[2] Following ENTel's privatization in 1990, a new numbering plan was enacted, and the number of lines grew to cover the majority of households. A sizable minority of households, do not have land line telephone service, however. The growth of the mobile telephone market since the beginning of the economic recovery in 2003 has been impressive, with new customers now preferring a comparatively cheap cellular phone to land line household service. As of January 2010, there are 9.2 million land lines, 50 million cellular phones and 143,000 public phones in the country.[3] The domestic telephone trunk network is served by microwave radio relay and a domestic satellite system

Communications in Argentina with 40 earth stations. It carries a monthly traffic of about 1.3 billion local calls, 400 million inter-city calls and around 24 million outgoing international calls.[3] International communications employ satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); two international gateways near Buenos Aires; Atlantis II submarine cable (1999). This system is largely replaced with a domestic fiber optic ring connecting the main cities (actually the main central offices). This link runs at 2.5 Gbit/s. From these head central offices, local calls are routed through 10 Gbit/s fiber optic links, or 3 × 155 Mbit/s microwave links. These links are spaced at about 30 km. Some of these links (the ones serving smaller towns) are spaced at 60 km and this makes communications unreliable in certain weather conditions. According to a report released in January 2006 by INDEC, mobile phone lines increased by 68.8% during 2005. Eleven million mobile phones were sold that year and, by then, these serviced three-quarters of the population over 14. A growing minority of users are children under 14, something that has raised concern and debate in Argentine society.[4] [5] A private study conducted by Investigaciones Económicas Sectoriales (IES), covering January–October 2006, found a 51.2% growth compared to the same period of 2005; by December 2007, the number of these units (40 million) exceeded Argentina's total population. Most of the phones (almost 90%) are imported from Brazil or Mexico.[6] The monthly volume of calls made with these units (over 4.6 billion) more than doubles the number made on land lines; a further 6 billion text messages are sent, monthly.[3]

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Companies
In the 1990s the Argentine telephone system (which was formerly property of a state-owned company, ENTEL) was sold to two private corporations looking to invest in the local market: Telefónica, a telco from Spain, and Telecom Argentina, owned by Telecom Italia and the Argentine Werthein Family. The country was divided in two zones, within which one of the companies was the exclusive provider of the service (a state-sanctioned monopoly). The service was then deregulated in several steps, first allowing the participation of other companies to provide international phone call services, then mobile services and finally the domestic service. Telecom has a subsidiary Internet service provider, Arnet group [9]), hire the facilities of Telecom and Telefónica.
[7]

. Other ISPs, such as Flash

[8]

(property of the Clarín

Several newcomer companies in the telephone market (2005) offer high-speed broadband access, Voice over IP and other services to a restricted market group (businesses and high-level residential users).

Internet
The number of Internet users in the country as of 2011 has been estimated at 27 million (two thirds of the population),[10] the number of registered domain names was approx. 1.7 million in August 2008[11] and the number of internet hosts in 2009, 6,025,000.[12] Besides monthly-paid Internet connections (either flat rate or with a number of free minutes), in Argentina there are also a number of Internet service providers that have commercial agreements with the telephone companies for charging a slightly higher communication rate to the user for that communication, though without any monthly fixed fee. There were around 12 million PCs registered in Argentina in 2011.[13] The number of residential and business internet networks totaled around 5.7 million in 2011, of which around 5.5 million were broadband connections, mainly ADSL.[14]

Those without residential access to a PC can avail themselves of Locutorios, the computer/postal service centers ubiquitous in Argentina.

The number of dial-up users has decreased drastically since 2005 in favor of broadband internet access. This latter service grew from under 800,000 networks in late 2005 (compared to over 500,000 dial-up connections), to nearly

Communications in Argentina 2.6 million by December 2007, and to over 5 million by late 2010 (82% of which were residential and 81% of which connected at a speed of least 512 kbit/s).[14] [15] [16] Wireless and satellite networks expanded markedly during 2008-09, and totaled over 1.5 million in March 2011.[14] Among residential users, 38.3% were located in Buenos Aires Province (including Greater Buenos Aires), 26.0% in the city of Buenos Aires, 8.2% in Córdoba and 7.4% in Santa Fe Province.[14] Among companies and organizations, 788,000 connection contracts were valid as of March 2011, 98% of which were broadband.[14] Among the total (in late 2010), 44.7% correspond to the city of Buenos Aires, 21.1% to the Buenos Aires Province, 7.6% to Santa Fe Province, 6.0% to Córdoba Province and 4.5% to Patagonia. The number of e-mail accounts in March 2011 was estimated at around 4.56 million, with a monthly traffic of 3 billion messages.[14] Argentina's Internet top-level domain is .ar. See also: Internet censorship in Argentina

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Broadband Internet access
ADSL first appeared in Argentina in 1998, through Speedy by Telefónica de España, a Spanish company. Fibertel, a cable provider, now offers Cablemodem service in a limited range of cities, and ADSL is monopolized by the 2 major phone companies: Telecom in the north with Arnet ADSL, and Telefónica in the south with Speedy ADSL. In 2004, Arnet announced new plans. Controversy ensued, as in small print it mentioned that it was capped to 4 GB monthly. This plans were never put in practice until late 2005, though they were modified from the original announcements. There are no longer any capped plans. As of June 2010, they currently offer from 1 Mbit/256 kbit/s download/upload at around 20 USD/mo to 20 Mbit/s / 512 kbit/s for home users at about 77 USD/mo.[17] Arnet has been slowly recovering its reputation, which was tarnished amongst connoisseurs due to their 2004 announcement.

Radio
Radio broadcasting in Argentina is predated only by radio in the United States, and began on August 27, 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was broadcast by a team of medical students (the "madmen on the roof") led Enrique Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo.[18] Only about twenty homes in the city had a receiver to tune in. The world's first radio station was the only one in the country until 1922, when Radio Cultura went on the air; by 1925, there were twelve stations in Buenos Aires and ten in other cities. The 1930s were the "golden age" of radio in Argentina, with live variety, news, soap opera and sport shows.[19]

Radio Mitre at the Buenos Aires International Book Fair.

The medium, which was nationalized by President Juan Perón between 1947 and 1953, has historically been broadcast by a combination of state and private-sector operators, and most of the highest-rated stations are presently owned by a number of media conglomerates.[20] Internet radio was first broadcast in Argentina in 2001 and by 2009, 61 stations did so, nationwide.[21] There are currently 260 AM broadcasting and 1150 FM broadcasting radio stations in Argentina.[22] Radio remains an important medium in Argentina. Music and youth variety programs dominate FM formats; news, debate, and sports are AM radio's primary broadcasts. Amateur radio is widespread in the country.

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Television
The Argentine television industry is large and diverse, widely viewed in Latin America, and its productions seen around the world. Many local programs are broadcast by networks in other countries, and others have their rights purchased by foreign producers for adaptations in their own markets. Argentina has five major networks. All provincial capitals and other large cities have at least one local station. Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America, similar to percentages in North America.[23] Many cable networks operate from Argentina and serve the Spanish-speaking world, including Utilísima Satelital, TyC Sports, Fox Sports en Español (with the United States and México), MTV Argentina, Cosmopolitan TV, and the news network Todo Noticias. Argentine television broadcasting began in 1951 with the inaugural of state-owned Channel 13 (since privatized). A technology jealously guarded by U.S. broadcasters at the time, this was largely the achievement of Russian-Argentine engineer and radio pioneer Jaime Yankelevich. Color television broadcasting, however, was not widely available until after 1978, when the government launched Argentina Televisora Color (ATC), now Channel 7 (Argentina's principal public television station). The prevalence of cable television, increasing steadily since the first CATV transmitter opened in the city of Junín in 1965, is now the third-widest in the world, reaching at least 78% of households.[24] Radio and television broadcasting, whose ownership structure had become increasingly concentrated since the 1980 Media Law, is regulated by a new law advanced by President Cristina Kirchner, and signed on November 11, 2009.[25] This new policy would restrict the number of media licences per proprietor and allocate a greater share of these to the state and NGOs, thereby limiting the influence of the Clarín Group (the largest media conglomerate in Argentina) and other media companies, such as the conservative La Nación.[26] There are currently 42 television broadcast stations and 12.5 million television sets in Argentina.[27]

Newspapers
The print media industry is highly developed and independent of the government, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national newspapers are from Buenos Aires, including the centrist Clarín, the best-selling daily in Latin America and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world.[28] Other nationally circulated papers are La Nación (center-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (left-wing), Ámbito Financiero (business conservative), Olé (sports) and Crónica (populist). Two foreign language newspapers enjoy a relatively high circulation: the Argentinisches Tageblatt in German and the Buenos Aires Herald, published since 1876. Major regional papers include La Voz del Interior (Córdoba), Río Negro (General Roca), Los Andes (Mendoza), La Capital (Rosario), El Tribuno (Salta) and La Gaceta (Tucuman). The most circulated newsmagazine is Noticias.[29] The Argentine publishing industry, which includes Atlántida, Eudeba, and Emecé, among numerous others, ranks with Spain's and Mexico's as the most important in the Spanish-speaking world, and includes the largest bookstore chain in Latin America, El Ateneo.

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References
[1] Mi Buenos Aires Querido (http:/ / www. mibuenosairesquerido. com/ xArgentina6. htm) [2] Encyclopedia Britannica. Book of the Year 1992. Statistical appendix: Argentina. [3] INDEC (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. gov. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 14/ esp_02_10. pdf) [4] Clarín (1 Feb 2006) (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2006/ 02/ 01/ elpais/ p-01301. htm)]] [5] Clarín (21 Sep 2005) (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. clarin. com/ diario/ 2005/ 09/ 21/ um/ m-01009162. htm)]] [6] (http:/ / www. notiexpress. com. ar/ notas. asp?notaid=84108) [7] http:/ / www. arnet. com. ar/ [8] http:/ / www. flash. com. ar/ [9] http:/ / www. grupoclarin. com/ content/ index. htm [10] "Argentina Internet Usage Stats and Market Reports" (http:/ / www. internetworldstats. com/ sa/ ar. htm). Internet World Stats. . Retrieved March 16, 2011. [11] Infobae (http:/ / www. infobae. com/ contenidos/ 400152-100918-0-La-"ñ"-llegó-a-internet) [12] CIA Factbook (https:/ / www. cia. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ ar. html) [13] "La PC cumple 30" (http:/ / www. elargentino. com/ nota-151755-La-PC-cumple-30. html). 7 Días. . [14] "Accesos a Internet" (http:/ / www. indec. mecon. ar/ nuevaweb/ cuadros/ 14/ internet_03_11. pdf) (in Spanish) (Press release). INDEC. June 14, 2011. . [15] Emprendedores (http:/ / www. emprendedoresnews. com/ notaR/ argentina_lidera_el_crecimiento_de_banda_ancha-5483-4. html) [16] Infobae (http:/ / tecnologia. infobaeprofesional. com/ notas/ 55474-Ya-hay-2-millones-de-conexiones-de-banda-ancha-en-la-Argentina. html+ Conexiones+ al+ internet+ + + Argentina& hl=en& ct=clnk& cd=10& gl=us) [17] Arnet prices (http:/ / venta. arnet. com. ar/ ) [18] Clarín: La historia de la radio en la Argentina (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / edant. clarin. com/ diario/ 2005/ 08/ 26/ sociedad/ s-04202. htm)]] [19] Radio With a Past in Argentina (http:/ / www. swl. net/ patepluma/ south/ misc/ argendx. html) Don Moore [20] Gente BA: La concentración mediática en la Argentina (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. genteba. com. ar/ politica/ notas/ pol_nota. php?id=5813)]] [21] notiinforma.com (http:/ / www. notiinforma. com. ar/ radios. html) [22] Mi Buenos Aires Querido. "Mi Buenos Aires Querido" (http:/ / www. mibuenosairesquerido. com/ xArgentina6. htm). Mi Buenos Aires Querido. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [23] Homes with Cable TV in Latin America (http:/ / lanic. utexas. edu/ project/ tilan/ statistics/ cable_table. html) Trends in Latin American networking [24] Liceus: Formatos repudiados y exitosos de la televisión (http:/ / www. liceus. com/ cgi-bin/ ac/ pu/ Formatos repudiados, formatos exitosos II. pdf) [25] iEco (Spanish)[[Category:Articles with Spanish language external links (http:/ / www. ieco. clarin. com/ empresas/ TV-Gobierno-propios-canales-digital_0_82200007. html)]] [26] BBC News en Español (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ mundo/ america_latina/ 2009/ 09/ 090917_0506_argentina_aprueban_ley_medios_irm. shtml) [27] Encyclopedia Britannica. Book of the Year 2009. Statistical appendix: Argentina. [28] "News" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. pl?ACCT=109& STORY=/ www/ story/ 08-11-2008/ 0004865228& EDATE=PRN). Prnewswire.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [29] "Editorial Perfíl" (http:/ / www. perfil. com/ ). Perfil.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25.

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Tourism in Argentina
Tourism in Argentina is favored by its ample and varied natural assets (made possible by its geographical extension) and by its cultural offerings. The country is lucky to have everything a tourist would ask for. It has been compared to the United States with all of the tourist attractions that it offers, its attractions are in a much smaller region compared to the United States.

Overview
The World Economic Forum estimated that, in 2008, tourism generated around US$25 billion in economic turnover, and employed 1.8 million. Domestic tourism amounted to over 80 % of this and tourism from abroad contributed US$ 4.3 billion, having become the third largest source of foreign exchange in 2004. Around 4.6 million foreign visitors arrived in 2007, yielding a positive balance vis-à-vis the number of Argentines traveling abroad.[2] [3] [4] Argentina has been increasing its worldwide presence with plenty of advertising for tourism in the country. The latest push can be seen by Aerolineas Argentinas, the country's national airline, add international routes from the United States and Europe. There are also rumors that they will join a major airline alliance soon. INDEC recorded 2.3 million foreign tourist arrivals in 2007 (a 12% increase), at the Ministro Pistarini International Airport, alone (around half the total); of these, 26 % arrived from Brazil, 25 % from Europe, 14 % from the United States and Canada, 8 % from Chile, 19 % from the rest of the Western Hemisphere and 8 % from the rest of the World.[5]

[1] Tourist regions of Argentina : The North (orange), Litoral (light green), Cuyo (beige), Córdoba (dark green), Buenos Aires (consisting of Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires Province; light blue) and Patagonia (dark blue).

Internl. tourist arrivals2007 [3] (x1000)

Internl. tourism receipts [3] 2007 (million USD)

Receipts per arrival 2007 (col 2)/(col 1) (USD)

Arrivals per capita per 1000 pop. (estimated) [3] [6] 2007

Receipts Revenues Tourism % Direct & World per as % revenues indirect Ranking capita of exports as % employment (Tourism [7] 2007 USD goods GDP in Competi [4] [4] and tourism tiveness) [6] [4] services 2007 2008 2008 2007

4,562

4,313

945

116

109

7.8

1.6

10.5

65

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Tourist regions
The Tourism in Argentina is divided in six regions[8] : Buenos Aires (consisting of Buenos Aires City and Buenos Aires Province), Córdoba, Cuyo, The North, Litoral and Patagonia.

Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is in the midst of a tourism boom, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council[9] , it reveals strong growth for Argentina Travel and Tourism in 2007 [10] and in coming years, and the prestigious travel and tourism publication; Travel + Leisure Magazine, a monthly publication leader in the world-wide market of travel magazines, travelers voted Buenos Aires the second most desirable city to visit after Florence, Italy[11] . Buenos Aires, regarded as the “Paris of South America,” offers elegant architecture, exquisite cuisine, a legendary nightlife, and fashionable shopping. Argentina has become famous for being rich in European flavor.

View of the city's district of Monserrat, in downtown.

The most popular tourist sites are found in the historic city core, comprising Montserrat and San Telmo. The city was originally constructed around the Plaza de Mayo, the administrative center of the Colony. To the east of the square is the Casa Rosada, the official seat of the executive branch of the government of Argentina. To the north, the Catedral Metropolitana which has stood in the same location since colonial times, and the Banco de la Nación Argentina building, a parcel of land originally owned by Juan de Garay. Other important colonial institutions were Cabildo, to the west, which was renovated during the construction of Avenida de Mayo and Julio A. Roca. To the south is the Congreso de la Nación (National Congress), which currently houses the Academia Nacional de la Historia (National Academy of History). Lastly, to the northwest, is City Hall. Avenida de Mayo links the Casa Rosada with the Argentine National Congress. On this avenue there are several buildings of cultural, architectural and historical importance, such as Casa de la Cultura, the Palacio Barolo and Café Tortoni. Underneath the avenue, the first subte (metro) line in South America, was opened in 1913. The avenue ends at Plaza del Congreso, which features a number of monuments and sculptures, including one of Auguste Rodin's few surviving original casts of "The Thinker." The Manzana de las Luces ("Illuminated Block") area features the San Ignacio church, the Colegio Nacional Buenos Aires, and the old city council building (1894 to 1931). This area features tunnels and catacombs, which crossed underneath the Plaza de Mayo during colonial times. In the neighbourhood of San Telmo, Plaza Dorrego hosts an antiques fair on Sundays, complete with tango shows. They also have tango shows daily at the famous plaza. On weekends they involve many tourists to learn how to dance. Frequent tours and activities are also available at the Church of Nuestra Señora de One of the beaches of Mar del Plata during Bethlehem, the San Pedro Telmo Parish and the Antonio Ballvé summer tourism season. Penintetiary Museum. The National Historical Museum in Parque Lezama is a few blocks south. The Ayres Porteños Hostel [12] is a very famous hostel as it is also a tourist attraction, it is decorated and painted by artists from La Boca and possesses a unique collection of local paintings among its walls. The borough of Recoleta is home to a number of places of interest, including the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, the Biblioteca Nacional, the Centro Cultural Recoleta, the Faculty of Law of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, the Basílica Nuestra Señora de Pilar, the Palais de Glace, the Café La Biela and the Cementerio de la Recoleta, where

Tourism in Argentina Eva Perón's crypt can be visited, among those of many other Argentine historical and cultural figures.

171

Buenos Aires Province
The Province of Buenos Aires is the most populous and largest province of Argentina (if territorial claims in the Antarctica and South Atlantic islands are not taken into account). The nation's rail and road network fans out from Buenos Aires and into the province, the temperate area centered around the Pampas. This region is characterized by its estancias (large cattle ranches) featuring a great deal of architectural styles, located in the middle of the Pampas, where tourist can learn about history and Creole customs. The province is The Sierras de Córdoba seen from the Córdoba also known by its many beaches in the coast of the Atlantic Ocean (the municipality of Nono. most visited being Mar del Plata), some lonely and others very crowded. The hilly region of Tandil and Ventana offers peaceful golf courses, paragliding rides and trekking. They are very different landscapes from each other and distant from the mouth of the Paraná River, where islands also invite tourists.

Córdoba
The Córdoba Province is one of the most important economic centers in the country. It has with many contrasting features— it is both a cultural and tourist-like destination, a traditional and modern city, with an industrialized as well as a home-made production. A hilly landscape and favorable weather conditions are distinctive in Córdoba, a place where natural sceneries are mixed with colonial monuments. Little towns, historical antiques and cave paintings are found in a pleasant valley landscape, high plains and gorges. Sierras de Córdoba rise toward the northwestern Pampas plains. They are part of the “Sierras Vineyards in Mendoza, the heart of the pampeanas” mountain range, reaching 2,790 m high in the Champaqui winemaking industry in Argentina. hill. All these hills are particularly appealing because of their fertile valleys, deserts and salt mines. All along the way northward, many 17th and 18th century chapels and farmhouses inherited from the Jesuits can be found. The Jesuit estancias (large cattle ranches) in Córdoba are a singular sample of the productive organization of the religious members of Compañía de Jesús in the country, and this is still shown in a carefully preserved architecture. Though history demonstrated that the farms were acquired for economic purposes in order to support schools and universities, the estancias were of course used “for missionary purposes, thus turning into religious centers.” Estancias in Jesús María, Caroya, Santa Catalina, La Candelaria and Alta Gracia can be visited along a 250 km circuit of picturesque undulating roads. These farms that date back to the 17th century —together with the Jesuit Block in the City of Córdoba— are all national historical monuments that were declared World Cultural Heritage in 2000.

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Cuyo
The Cuyo region consists of the provinces of La Rioja, San Juan, Mendoza and San Luis.[13] Cuyo is the region of the high peaks, the snow-covered volcanoes, and the large wilderness spreading from the Andes mountain range and foothills to the steppe. The visit to Ischigualasto - Talampaya Natural Parks, is a true journey to the dinosaurs era. Ischigualasto, also known as “Valle de la Luna” (Moon Valley) because of the diversity of forms and colours of its landscape shaped by erosion, is one of the world’s most important paleontologic sites. The Talampaya River Canyon Pucará de Tilcara, a pre-Inca fortification reveals multi-shaped layers in its high red walls. Pink flamingos, strategically located to provide good views over a long stretch of the Quebrada de Humahuaca. Andean ducks, “vicuñas” and “guanacos” cohabit freely in parks and natural reserves, while condors fly over the area. The region displays the full splendour of the Central Andean Range. The Aconcagua (6.959 m) is the highest peak in the Western Hemisphere, and its steep slopes are renown and respected by mountain climbers from all over the world. In the valleys of La Rioja, Mendoza and San Juan, among leaves of grapevines, farms and wineries, visitors can go along the Wine Road, an attraction of international renown.

The North
The North (Spanish: El Norte) consists of the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, Catamarca, Tucumán and Santiago del Estero.[14] Northern provinces feature traces of pre-Columbian cultures, mingled with ruins of natives’ villages, as well as forts and constructions dating back to the time of the Conquest and Colonization. In the high plateau of the Puna, a land full of mountain ranges, steep mountain paths, and gorges. Villages have been built in the small valleys. Multi-coloured and monochromatic hills covered with huge cactuses on the slopes surround the village. This region offers landscapes full of contrast for tourists to enjoy, from the high peaks to the plains, the salt pans, and the subtropical rain forests, where Latin American culture took root.

The Iguazú Falls, part of the Iguazú National Park and an UNESCO World Heritage Site shared with Brazil.

An ample diversity of natural landscapes and dramatic contrasts such as the densely vegetated Yunga forests, or the serenity of mountains, hills and brooks of the Calchaquí Valleys, provide great conditions for sport fishing. The rivers Juramento, Lipeo, Iruya and Bermejo are home to the dorado, and the mountain river rapids support trout. The whole region combines natural attractions with suitable areas for diverse activities such as mountaineering, trekking, horseback riding, mountain biking, ecotourism, bird-watching, rural tourism, and archeological trips. Sailing, canoeing and windsurfing are other sports that may be practiced in this region. Destinations of interest in this region are the Train to the Clouds, which offers a view to the stark contrasts of the province of Salta; the Quebrada de Humahuaca, which was declared a World Heritage Site in 2003, the Calchaquí Valleys, that ranges from the mountain desert to the subtropical forest; Pucará de Tilcara, a fort built by the humahuacas; Cafayate; Iruya; and Tafí del Valle, among others.

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Litoral
The "Litoral", Spanish for littoral, consists of the provinces of Chaco, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Misiones and Santa Fe.[15] This is a region of large rivers, humid tropics, red earth and a virgin forest full of huge trees and important flora and fauna. The Iguazú Falls on the border with Brazil are one of the world's natural wonders. Lined with dense forests, the Iguazú river flows into 275 waterfalls, plunging more than 70 meters with a deafening noise. As this huge volume of water reaches the bottom, spray rises, and lots of rainbows are formed in the sky. An incredible variety of fauna and flora completes the perfect setting for the waterfalls within the protection of the Iguazú National Park. This park, located at eighteen kilometres from Puerto Iguazú, was declared Natural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO. The famous falls are inside this park. The deep flowing waters of the river fall from a height of 70 metres through 275 falls over 2.7 Km. The frontier with Brazil goes through the Garganta del Diablo (Devil's Throat). The National Park is full of the exotic subtropical vegetation which surrounds the falls and has 2,000 plant species - gigantic trees, ferns, lianas, orchids, - 400 bird species - parrots, hummingbirds, toucans - jaguars and yacarés (caimans). Lying on the bluffs of the Paraná river, Posadas, capital city of Misiones and bordering with Encarnación (Paraguay), has colourful trees in its Plaza 9 de Julio, as well as interesting museums and artisan markets. If the course of the river is followed in a south-west direction, the Yacyretá hydroelectric plant, which is one of the biggest in the world, can be reached. Many ruins of the ancient Jesuit missions - some of which have been covered by the jungle - are located near Posadas. The most well-known ruins are in San Ignacio Miní, 56 Km away from the province’s capital. The ones in Candelaria, Loreto, Santa Ana and Santa María are also very interesting. These Jesuit reductions were declared World Heritage by the UNESCO. Fifty kilometers to the north of Colón lies El Palmar National Park, housing the last samples of Yatay palm trees, which are almost eight centuries old. The city of Concordia is connected to the city of Salto (Uruguay) through the Salto Grande hydroelectric plant. The Esteros del Iberá, a humid zone of 700.000 hectares can be reached from Posadas, Concepción or Mercedes. In Guaraní, Iberá means "Shining water". Its lagoons cover 31,500 hectares, its marshlands 52,000, and its inlands 260,000. This eco-system which gives life to turtles, yacarés (caimans), monkeys, swamp deer, capybaras - the largest rodent in the world - and up to 400 bird species, besides an extraordinary flora, extends over one million hectares. The city of Rosario lies on the banks of the Paraná River in the Province of Santa Fe. It has developed into an industrial and commercial center and destination for a significant number of people on business. On its riverside promenade stands the Monumento Nacional a la Bandera (National Monument to the Flag), where the Argentine National Flag was raised for the first time. Parque Independencia has a magnificent artificial lake, statues, a racecourse, and the Provincial History Museum.

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Patagonia
The patagonic region consists of the provinces of La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego.[16] • Los Glaciares National Park, where glaciers that drain the Southern Patagonian Ice Field end in the Lago Argentino, blocking one of its bays until the pressure of the water blows the ice dam. You can access the park via the city of Calafate. One of the most popular attractions is the Perito Moreno Glacier. • Ushuaia, the southernmost city in the world, located in Tierra del Fuego, is a typical destination in southern Patagonia.
The Perito Moreno Glacier, located in the World Heritage Los Glaciares National Park.

• Bariloche - San Carlos de Bariloche is a city in the Río Negro Province, situated on the foothills of the Andes, surrounded by lakes (Nahuel Huapi, Gutiérrez Lake, Moreno and Mascardi Lake) and mountains (Tronador, Cerro Catedral, Cerro López). It is famous for skiing but also great for family trips for older children and sight-seeing, water sports, trekking and climbing. Cerro Catedral is one of the most important ski centers in South America. • Punta Tombo is a coastal location where abundant wildlife congregates-specifically the seasonal breeding ground of large numbers of Magellanic penguins.[17] • Peninsula Valdés is widely considered to be one of the best places in the world for the observation of wildlife, mainly sea mammals. Although Southern Right Whales are the main attraction elephant seals, sea lions, Magellanic penguins and orcas are also well represented. • Santa Cruz Province is known for its remoteness and for landmarks such as the Perito Moreno Glacier, Laguna del Carbon (the lowest geographical point in the Americas), Mount Fitz Roy (shared with Chile) and the Petrified Forests National Monument, as well as the vast patagonian plateau and pebble beaches. Other destinations in the region include seaside Las Grutas (in Río Negro), Rada Tilly; The Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the western hemisphere and nearby Las Leñas ski resort; Villa La Angostura, San Martín de los Andes, Junín de los Andes, El Bolsón, Esquel, Trevelin, Los Antiguos, Copahue, Caviahue, near snow capped mountains with temperate rainforests and glacial lakes; San Rafael and Mendoza, where the best wines of Argentina are made. Tourism centering around fauna is also popular, particularly whale-watching in Puerto Madryn.

World Heritage
These are the UNESCO's World Heritage Sites in Argentina:[18] • • • • • Cave of the Hands (Cueva de las Manos), Río Pinturas. Has prehistoric cave paintings (WHS since 1999). Iguazú National Park, home of Iguazu Falls (1984). Ischigualasto / Talampaya National Parks and its paleontologic formations (2000). Jesuit Block and Estancias of Córdoba in Córdoba Province (Cultural Heritage) (2000). Jesuit missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa Maria Mayor (1984). • Los Glaciares National Park and the Perito Moreno Glacier (1981). • Península Valdés, a marine wildlife preserve (1999). • Quebrada de Humahuaca, World Cultural Landscape for its scenic natural beauty and historical sights (2003).

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Cueva de las Manos

Río Pinturas

Iguazú National Park

Ischigualasto National Park

Talampaya Natural Park

Estancias of Córdoba (Alta Gracia, Jesús María, Santa Catalina, Caroya, La Candelaria)

Jesuit Block

Los Glaciares National Park

Península Valdés

Quebrada de Humahuaca

Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis (San Ignacio Miní, Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa María la Mayor)

Tango (UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage)

National Parks
For a more comprehensive list, see List of national parks of Argentina. Argentina has an extensive National Park system, preserving sights of natural beauty, which includes the following: • • • • • • • • • • El Leoncito National Park El Palmar National Park Iguazú National Park Lanín National Park Los Alerces National Park Los Arrayanes National Park Nahuel Huapi National Park San Guillermo National Park Talampaya National Park Tierra del Fuego National Park

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Lanín National Park

Government Tourism Agencies
The Secretariate of Tourism was promoted to a full cabinet ministry in June 2010, naming Enrique Meyer the Minister of Tourism. Leonardo Boto is the Chairman of the National Institute of Tourism Promotion.

Safety and security
The U.S. Department of State warns travelers in Argentina that "drivers frequently ignore traffic laws[19] and vehicles often travel at excessive speeds . . . traffic accidents are the primary threat to life and limb in Argentina."[20] Argentina has the highest traffic mortality rate in South America, with Argentinian drivers causing 20 deaths each day (about 7,000 a year), with more than 120,000 people injured or maimed each year. These deaths have included tourists from various parts of the world.[21] Pedestrians should exercise extreme caution.

Ethical Traveler Destination
Argentina was included in the 2010 and 2011 lists of "The Developing World's 10 Best Ethical Destinations." This is an annual ranking produced by Ethical Traveler magazine, which is based on a study of developing nations from around the world to identify the best tourism destinations among them. The benchmarking uses categories such as environmental protection, social welfare, and human rights.[22] [23]

Image gallery

Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires

Mar del Plata

Sea Lions Island, Beagle Channel

Esquel, from the Old Patagonian Express

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San Martín de los Andes

Cathedral, San Carlos de Bariloche

Calamuchita Valley, Córdoba

Rosario and the Paraná River

Estancia La Oriental, Junin (Pampas region)

Tucumán Valley

Zonda Valley, San Juan Province

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Ministry of Tourism of Argentina: Regions (http:/ / www. turismo. gov. ar/ eng/ menu. htm) World Economic Forum (http:/ / www. weforum. org/ ttcr08browse/ index. html) WTO: World Tourism Barometer (http:/ / www. tourismroi. com/ Content_Attachments/ 27670/ File_633513750035785076. pdf) World Economic Forum: Argentina (http:/ / www. weforum. org/ pdf/ ttcr09/ Argentina. pdf) INDEC: turismo internacional (http:/ / www. aaavyt. org. ar/ estadisticas/ eti_octubre08. pdf) UNData: Argentina (http:/ / data. un. org/ CountryProfile. aspx?crName=Argentina) World Tourism Organization (2006). "Tourism Market Trends, Annex 12, 2006 Edition" (http:/ / unwto. org/ facts/ eng/ pdf/ indicators/ new/ ITR05_americas_US$. pdf) (PDF). . [8] Ministry of Tourism of Argentina: Regions (http:/ / www. turismo. gov. ar/ eng/ menu. htm) [9] www.wttc.travel (http:/ / www. wttc. travel/ ) Retrieved on 10 March 2008 [10] WTTC reveals strong growth for Argentina (http:/ / www. wttc. travel/ eng/ News_and_Events/ Press/ Press_Releases_2007/ WTTC_reveals_strong_growth_for_Argentina_Travel__and_Tourism/ ) Retrieved on 10 March 2008 [11] Travel +Leisure Magazine worldsbest/2007 (http:/ / www. travelandleisure. com/ worldsbest/ 2007/ results. cfm?cat=cities) Retrieved on 10 March 2008 [12] http:/ / www. ayresportenos. com. ar/ [13] "Cuyo" touristic region official website (http:/ / www. cuyoargentina. gov. ar/ ) [14] Official website of "The North" touristic region (http:/ / www. norteargentino. gov. ar/ ) [15] Litoral tourist region official website (http:/ / www. litoralargentina. gov. ar/ ) [16] Official Tourism Portal (http:/ / www. turismo. gov. ar/ eng/ menu. htm) [17] C. Michael Hogan (2008) Pali Aike, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham (http:/ / www. megalithic. co. uk/ article. php?sid=18657) [18] UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Argentina (http:/ / whc. unesco. org/ en/ statesparties/ ar) [19] A non-profit working for traffic safety in Argentina noted that "drivers did not respect the red traffic light approximately 1,903,560 times every day" and that although drivers knew the dangers of drinking and driving "83% (of survey respondents) admitted to 'driving after drinking alcohol'". [20] U.S Department of State Country Guide (http:/ / travel. state. gov/ travel/ cis_pa_tw/ cis/ cis_1130. html#safety) [21] See Luchemos por la Vida - Asociación Civil (http:/ / www. luchemos. org. ar/ ingles/ index. htm) [22] "Ethical travel destinations unveiled: Argentina, Barbados, Chile" (http:/ / www. independent. co. uk/ travel/ news-and-advice/ ethical-travel-destinations-unveiled-argentina-barbados-chile-2156629. html). The Independent. Relaxnews. 2010-12-10. . Retrieved 2010-12-11. [23] Jane Esberg, Jeff Greenwald and Natalie Lefevre. "The Developing World's 10 Best Ethical Destinations" (http:/ / www. ethicaltraveler. org/ destinations/ 2011/ report). Ethical Traveler. . Retrieved 2010-12-11.

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References
• (Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (http://www.indec.gov.ar) (INDEC), Encuesta de Turismo Internacional (ETI)

External links
• (English)(French)(German)(Italian)(Portuguese)(Spanish) Argentina National Tourism Promotion Institute (http://www.argentina.travel) • (Spanish)(English) Ministry of Tourism (http://www.turismo.gov.ar) • (English) Argentina travel guide from Wikitravel • (English) Let's fight for life (http://www.luchemos.org.ar/ingles/index.htm) • (English) U.S. Dept. of State Guide for Tourists to Argentina (http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/ cis_1130.html) • (English)(Spanish)(Portuguese) Official Promotion Portal for Argentina (http://www.argentina.ar/) • (English)(Spanish)(Portuguese) Tourism Argentina (http://www.inargentinatourism.com.ar/) • (English)(German)(Spanish)(French)(Portuguese)(Italian) All about wine tourism in Argentina (http://www. argentinawinetourism.com/)

Public holidays in Argentina
Culture of Argentina

Architecture Cinema Comics Cuisine Dance Holidays Humor Literature Music Newspapers Painting Radio Sports Television

The following are the National public holidays and other observances of Argentina. Though holidays of many faiths are respected, public holidays usually include most Catholic holidays. Historic holidays include the celebration of the May Revolution (25 May), Independence Day (9 July), National Flag Day (20 June) and the death of José de San Martín (17 August). The extended family gathers on Christmas Eve at around 9 p.m. for dinner, music, and often dancing. Candies are served just before midnight, when the fireworks begin. They also open gifts from Papá Noel (Father Christmas or "Santa Claus"). New Year's Day is also marked with fireworks. Other widely observed holidays include Good Friday, Easter, Labor Day (1 May) and Sovereignty Day (formerly Malvinas Day, 2 April).

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Public holidays
Date English name Local name Año Nuevo Jueves Santo Viernes Santo Lunes de Carnaval Martes de Carnaval Día de la Memoria por la Verdad y la Justicia Día del Veterano y de los Caídos en la Guerra de Malvinas Día del Trabajador International holiday International Catholic holiday International Catholic holiday (From year 2011 on) (From year 2011 on) [1] [1] Remarks

January 1 (²) New Year's Day floating floating floating Holy Thursday Good Friday Carnival (Monday) Carnival (Tuesday) March 24 and 25(²) Day of Remembrance for Truth and Justice Day of the veterans and the fallen in Malvinas War Labour Day

Anniversary of the coup d'état that started the 1976-1983 National Reorganization Process dictatorships.

April 2 (²)

Tribute to the fallen in, and the veterans of, the 1982 Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur)

May 1 (²) May 25 (²)

International holiday Anniversary of the 1810 May Revolution.

Day of the First Primer Gobierno National Government Patrio National Flag Day Día de la Bandera

June 20 (²)

Anniversary of the death of Manuel Belgrano, who created the Flag of Argentina. [1] (Not movable from 2011 on) Anniversary of the 1816 Argentine Declaration of Independence.

July 9 (²)

Independence Day

Día de la Independencia

(August 17) (³)

Anniversary of the Día del Libertador death of General José José de San Martín de San Martín Day of Respect for Cultural Diversity Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural

Anniversary of the death of José de San Martín, liberator of Argentina, Chile and Peru.

(October 12) (¹)

Celebrated on the second Monday of October. Former "Día de la raza" (English: Race day), anniversary of the arrival of Columbus to the Americas. Some indigenous communities and activists for their rights consider the arrival of Columbus the prelude of destruction for native civilizations in the Americas, and occasionally stage a protest/mourning holiday on October 11, the "last day of freedom". Celebrated on the fourth Monday of November. Anniversary of the 1845 Battle of Vuelta de Obligado against the Anglo-French blockade of the Río de la Plata (from [1] year 2010 on) Also known as Día de la Virgen ("Virgin Mary's Day")

(November 20) (¹)

Day of National Sovereignty

Día de la Soberanía nacional

December 8 (²) December 24 (²) December 25 (²) December 31 (²)

Immaculate Conception Day Christmas Eve

Día de la Inmaculada Concepción Nochebuena

Begins at midday.

Christmas Day

Navidad

International Christian holiday

New Year's Eve

Fin de Año

Final day of the Gregorian Calendar. Begins at midday.

• Notes: ¹ Moveable holidays: If the date falls on a Tuesday or Wednesday, the holiday is the preceding Monday. If it falls on a Thursday, a Friday, a Saturday, or a Sunday, then the holiday is the following Monday. ² Turistic holiday bridge: If the date of a non-movable holiday falls on Tuesday or Thursday, an extra holiday is added on the previous Monday or the following Friday, respectively.

Public holidays in Argentina ³ Always moved to the 3rd Monday of August In order to commemorate the bicentennial of the creation and swearing-in of the Argentine flag, the Argentine Congress passed a bill that will make Monday, 27 February 2012 a national holiday, so in 2012 Argentina will have eighteen public holidays.

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Other observances by law
The following are federal non-working national or religious holidays, during which people of the following faiths or ethnicities are excused from work: • Armenian Argentines: Day of Tolerance and Respect among Peoples (Armenian Genocide commemoration, 24th April)[2] • Eastern Orthodox: Christmas Day (January 7th) • Islam: Festival of Sacrifice, Muslim New Year and End of Ramadan • Judaism: Passover (first two days and last two days), Jewish New Year and Day of Atonement

Other observances
• Teacher's Day (Día del Maestro) on September 11, commemorating the death of D. F. Sarmiento; only observed by primary school students. • Student's Day/Spring Day (Día del Estudiante/Día de la Primavera) on September 21; only observed by high-school and university students. • Friend's day (Día del Amigo) on July 20; unofficial. • Mother's Day (Third Sunday of October) • Animal's Day (April 29) • Father's Day (Third Sunday of June) • Children's Day (Second Sunday of August)

References
[1] Interior Ministry (http:/ / www. mininterior. gov. ar/ asuntos_politicos_y_alectorales/ dinap/ feriados. php?idName=asuntos& idNameSubMenu=DiNAP& idNameSubMenuDer=DirNAPFeriados#feriados/ feriados2011. php) [2] "Dia de accion por la tolerancia y el respeto entre los pueblos", LEY 26.199 (http:/ / www. armenian-genocide. org/ Affirmation. 374/ current_category. 7/ affirmation_detail. html)

External links
• Official 2010 holidays published by the Ministry of Interior (http://www.mininterior.gov.ar/ asuntos_politicos_y_alectorales/dinap/feriados.php?idName=asuntos&idNameSubMenu=DiNAP& amp;idNameSubMenuDer=DirNAPFeriados#feriados/feriados2010.php)

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Culture
Culture of Argentina
Culture of Argentina

Architecture Cinema Comics Cuisine Dance Holidays Humor Literature Music Newspapers Painting Radio Sports Television

The culture of Argentina is as varied as the country's geography and mix of ethnic groups. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by European immigration although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African influences, particularly in the fields of music and art. Buenos Aires, its cultural capital, is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture.[1] Museums, cinemas and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centers, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows:

With the primitive Hispanic American reality fractured in La Plata Basin due to immigration, its inhabitants have come to be somewhat dual with all the dangers but also with all the advantages of that condition: because of our European roots, we deeply link the nation with the enduring values of the Old World; because of our condition of Americans we link ourselves to the rest of the continet, through the folklore of the interior and the old Castilian that unifies us, feeling somehow the vocation of the Patria Grande San Martín and Bolívar once imagined.


[2]

—Ernesto Sabato, La cultura en la encrucijada nacional (1976)

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Architecture
The architecture of Argentina can be said to start at the beginning of the Spanish colonisation, though it was in the 18th century that the cities of the country reached their splendour. Cities like Córdoba, Salta, Mendoza, and also Buenos Aires conserved most their historical Spanish colonial architecture in spite of their urban growth. The simplicity of the Rioplatense baroque style can be clearly appreciated in Buenos Aires, in the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella, in the churches of San Ignacio, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, the Cathedral and the Cabildo. Italian and French influences increased after the wars for independence at the beginning of the 19th century, though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century. Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, when the European tendencies penetrated into the country, reflected in numerous important buildings of Buenos Aires, such as the Santa Felicitam Church by Ernesto Bunge; the Central Post Office and Palace of Justice, by Norbert Maillart; and the National Congress and the Colón Opera House, by Vittorio Meano. The architecture of the second half of the 20th century continued adapting French neoclassical architecture, such as the headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina and the NH Gran Hotel Provincial, built by Alejandro Bustillo, and the Museo de Arte Hispano Fernández Blanco, by Martín Noel. Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscapes and, in recent decades, those around the world. Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulĉiĉ left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Rationalist architecture. Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally and César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities, worldwide. Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s, in particular, made him one of the world's most prestigious architects.

The pre-Inca fortification Pucará de Tilcara, Jujuy Province

Spanish Colonial architecture in the Jesuit Block, Córdoba

Baroque style church of San Ignacio Miní, Misiones Province

Neo-Renaissance Colón Theatre, Buenos Aires

Neoclassical NH Gran Hotel Provincial, Mar del Plata

Beaux-Arts Club Argentino, Bahía Blanca

Italianate Cultural complex, Santiago del Estero

Eclectic style Water Company Palace, Buenos Aires

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Art Nouveau Barolo Palace, Buenos Aires

Art Deco National Flag Memorial, Rosario

Rationalist Alas Building, Buenos Aires

Chalet marplatense, Mar del Plata

Brutalist Argentine National Library, Buenos Aires

Postmodern style Catalinas Norte, Buenos Aires

Cinema
Argentina is a major producer of motion pictures, and the local film industry produces around 80 full-length titles annually.[1] [3] The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.[4] Argentine cinema enjoyed a 'golden age' in the 1930s through the 1950s with scores of productions, many now considered classics of Spanish-language film. The industry produced actors who became the first movie stars of Argentine cinema, often tango performers such as Libertad Lamarque, Floren Delbene, Tito Lusiardo, Tita Merello, Roberto Escalada and Hugo del Carril. More recent films from the "New Wave" of cinema since the 1980s have achieved worldwide recognition, such as The Official Story (Best foreign film oscar in 1986), Man Facing Southeast, A Place in the World, Nine Queens, Son of the Bride, The Motorcycle Diaries, Blessed by Fire, and The Secret in Their Eyes, winner of the 2009 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Although rarely rivaling Hollywood productions in popularity, local films are released weekly and widely followed in Argentina and internationally. A number of local films, many of which are low-budget productions, have earned prizes in cinema festivals (such as Cannes), and are promoted by events such as the Mar del Plata Film Festival and the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema. The per capita number of screens is one of the highest in Latin America, and viewing per capita is the highest in the region.[5] A new generation of Argentine directors has caught the attention of critics worldwide.[6] Cinema is an important facet of local culture, as well as a popular pastime, and levels of cinema attendance are comparable to those of European countries.[7] Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov, Gustavo Santaolalla and Eugenio Zanetti have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score nods. Lalo Schifrin has received numerous Grammys and is best known for the Mission:Impossible theme.

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Comics
Cartoonists and comics creators have contributed prominently to national culture, including Alberto Breccia, Dante Quinterno, Oski, Francisco Solano López, Horacio Altuna, Guillermo Mordillo, Roberto Fontanarrosa, whose grotesque characters captured life's absurdities with quick-witted commentary, and Quino, known for the soup-hating Mafalda and her comic strip gang blood nation of childhood friends.

Cuisine
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, which include empanadas (a stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humitas and yerba mate, all originally indigenous Amerindian staples, the latter considered Argentina's national beverage. Other popular items include chorizo (a spicy sausage), facturas (Viennese-style pastry) and Dulce de Leche, a sort of milk caramel jam. The Argentine barbecue, asado as well as a parrillada, includes various types of meats, among them chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, The asado (1888), by Ignacio Manzoni. and morcilla (blood sausage). Thin sandwiches, sandwiches de miga, are also popular. Argentines have the highest consumption of red meat in the world.[8] The Argentine wine industry, long among the largest outside Europe, has benefited from growing investment since 1992; in 2007, 60% of foreign investment worldwide in viticulture was destined to Argentina.[9] The country is the fifth most important wine producer in the world,[7] with the annual per capita consumption of wine among the highest. Malbec grape, a discardable varietal in France (country of origin), has found in the Province of Mendoza an ideal environment to successfully develop and turn itself into the world's best Malbec.[9] Mendoza accounts for 70% of the country's total wine production. "Wine tourism" is important in Mendoza province, with the impressive landscape of the Cordillera de Los Andes and the highest peak in the Americas, Mount Aconcagua, 6952 m (22808 ft) high, providing a very desirable destination for international tourism.

Literature
Argentina has a rich literary history, as well as one of the region's most active publishing industries. Argentine writers have figured prominently in Latin American literature since becoming a fully united entity in the 1850s, with a strong constitution and a defined nation-building plan. The struggle between the Federalists (who favored a loose confederation of provinces based on rural conservatism) and the Unitarians (pro-liberalism and advocates of a strong central government that would encourage European immigration), set the tone for Argentine literature of the time.[5] The ideological divide between gaucho epic Martín Fierro by José Hernández, and Facundo[10] by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, is a great example. Hernández, a federalist, was opposed to the centralizing, modernizing and Europeanizing tendencies. Sarmiento wrote in support of immigration as the only way to save Argentina from becoming subject to the rule of a small number of dictatorial caudillo families, arguing such immigrants would make Argentina more modern and open to Western European influences and therefore a more prosperous society.[11] Argentine literature of that period was fiercely nationalist. It was followed by the modernist movement, which emerged in France in the late 19th century, and this period in turn was followed by vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes as an important reference. Jorge Luis Borges, its most acclaimed writer, found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to writers all over the globe. Borges is most famous for his works in short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph.

Culture of Argentina Some of the nation's notable writers, poets and intellectuals include: Juan Bautista Alberdi, Roberto Arlt, Enrique Banchs, Adolfo Bioy Casares, Silvina Bullrich, Eugenio Cambaceres, Julio Cortázar, Esteban Echeverría, Leopoldo Lugones, Eduardo Mallea, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Victoria Ocampo, Manuel Puig, Ernesto Sabato, Osvaldo Soriano, Alfonsina Storni and María Elena Walsh.

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Music
Tango, the music and lyrics (often sung in a form of slang called lunfardo), is Argentina's musical symbol. The Milonga dance was a predecessor, slowly evolving into modern tango. By the 1930s, tango had changed from a dance-focused music to one of lyric and poetry, with singers such as Carlos Gardel, Hugo del Carril, Roberto Goyeneche, Raúl Lavié, Tita Merello and Edmundo Rivero. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral groups too, like the bands of Osvaldo Pugliese, Anibal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan D'Arienzo. Incorporating acoustic music and later, synthesizers into the genre after 1955, bandoneon virtuoso Ástor Piazzolla popularized "new tango" creating a more subtle, intellectual and listener-oriented trend. Today tango enjoys worldwide popularity; ever-evolving, neo-tango is a global phenomenon with renown groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and the Gotan Project. Argentine rock, called rock nacional, is the most popular music among youth. Arguably the most listened form of Spanish-language rock, its influence and success internationally owes to a rich, uninterrupted development. Bands such as Soda Stereo or Sumo, and composers like Charly García, Luis Alberto Spinetta, and Fito Páez are referents of national culture. Mid-1960s Buenos Aires and Rosario were cradles of the music and by 1970, Argentine rock was well established among middle class youth (see Almendra, Sui Generis, Pappo, Crucis). Seru Giran bridged the gap into the 1980s, when Argentine bands became Progressive rock musician popular across Latin America and elsewhere (Enanitos Verdes, Charly García Fabulosos Cadillacs, Virus, Andrés Calamaro). There are many sub-genres: underground, pop-oriented and some associated with the working class (La Renga, Attaque 77, Divididos, Hermética, V8 and Los Redonditos). Current popular bands include: Babasonicos, Rata Blanca, Horcas, Attaque 77, Bersuit, Los Piojos, Intoxicados, Catupecu Machu, Carajo and Miranda!. European classical music is well represented in Argentina. Buenos Aires is home to the world-renowned Colón Theater. Classical musicians, such as Martha Argerich, Eduardo Alonso-Crespo, Daniel Barenboim, Eduardo Delgado and Alberto Lysy, and classical composers such as Juan José Castro and Alberto Ginastera are internationally acclaimed. All major cities in Argentina have impressive theaters or opera houses, and provincial or city orchestras. Some cities have annual events and important classical music festivals like Semana Musical Llao Llao in San Carlos de Bariloche and the multitudinous Amadeus in Buenos Aires.

Mercedes Sosa, the grande dame of Argentine folk music

Argentine folk music is uniquely vast. Beyond dozens of regional dances, a national folk style emerged in the 1930s. Perón's Argentina would give rise to Nueva Canción, as artists began expressing in their music objections to political themes. Atahualpa Yupanqui, the greatest Argentine folk musician, and Mercedes Sosa would be defining figures in shaping Nueva Canción, gaining worldwide popularity in the process. The style found a huge reception in Chile, where it took off in the 1970s and went on to influence the entirety of Latin American music.[12] Today, Chango Spasiuk and Soledad Pastorutti have brought folk back to younger generations. Leon Gieco's folk-rock bridged the

Culture of Argentina gap between Argentine folklore and Argentine rock, introducing both styles to millions overseas in successive tours.

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Painting and sculpture
Argentine painters and sculptors have a rich history dating from both before and since the development of modern Argentina in the second half of the 19th century. Artistic production did not truly come into its own until after the 1852 overthrow of the repressive regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas. Immigrants like Eduardo Schiaffino, Eduardo Sívori, Reynaldo Giudici, Emilio Caraffa and Ernesto de la Cárcova left behind a realist heritage influential to this day. Impressionism did not make itself evident among Argentine artists until after 1900, however, and never acquired the kind of following it Ceiling frescoes at the Galerías Pacífico arcade did in Europe, though it did inspire influential Argentine post-impressionists such as Martín Malharro, Ramón Silva, Cleto Ciocchini, Fernando Fader, Pío Collivadino, Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós, Realism and aestheticism continued to set the agenda in Argentine painting and sculpture, noteworthy during this era for the sudden fame of sculptor Lola Mora, a student of Auguste Rodin's. As Lola Mora had been until she fell out of favor with local high society, monumental sculptors became in very high demand after 1900, particularly by municipal governments and wealthy families, who competed with each other in boasting the most evocative mausolea for their dearly departed. Though most preferred French and Italian sculptors, work by locals Erminio Blotta, Ángel María de Rosa and Rogelio Yrurtia resulted in a proliferation of soulful monuments and memorials made them immortal. Not as realist as the work of some of his belle-époque predecessors in sculpture, Yrurtia's subtle impressionism inspired Argentine students like Antonio Pujía, whose internationally prized female torsos always surprise admirers with their whimsical and surreal touches, while Pablo Curatella Manes' sculptures drew from cubism. Becoming an intellectual, as well as artistic circle, painters like Antonio Berni, Lino Enea Spilimbergo and Juan Carlos Castagnino were friends as well as colleagues, going on to collaborate on masterpieces like the ceiling at the Galerias Pacifico arcade in Buenos Aires, towards 1933. As in Mexico and elsewhere, muralism became increasingly popular among Argentine artists. Among the first to use his drab surroundings as a canvas was Benito Quinquela Martín, whose vaguely cubist pastel-colored walls painted in his Buenos Aires neighborhood of La Boca during the 1920s and 1930s have become historical monuments and Argentine cultural emblems, worldwide. Lithographs, likewise, found a following in Argentina some time after they had been made popular elsewhere. In Argentina, artists like Adolfo Bellocq used this medium to portray often harsh working conditions in Argentina's growing industrial sector, during the 1920s and 1930s. Antonio Seguí, another lithographer, transferred his naïve style into murals in numerous nations, as did Ricardo Carpani, though in a realist style.

Culture of Argentina

187 The vanguard in culturally conservative Argentina, futurists and cubists like Xul Solar and Emilio Pettoruti earned a following as considerable as that of less abstract and more sentimental portrait and landscape painters, like Raúl Soldi. Likewise, traditional abstract artists such as Romulo Macció, Anselmo Piccoli, Eduardo Mac Entyre, Luis Felipe Noé and Luis Seoane coexisted with equal appeal as the most conceptual mobile art creators such as the unpredictable Pérez Celis, Gyula Kosice of the Argentine Madí Movement and Marta Minujín, one of Andy Warhol's most esteemed fellow Conceptual artists.

The emergence of avant-garde genres in Argentine sculpture also featured Pablo Curatella Manes and Roberto Aizenberg, and constructivists such as Nicolás García Uriburu and Leon Ferrari, one of the world's foremost artists in his genre, today. In the 1960s and 1970s, many of these figures' abstract art found their way into popular advertising and even corporate logos. Generally possessing of a strong sentimental streak, the Argentine public's taste for naïve art and simple pottery cannot be overlooked. Since Prilidiano Pueyrredón's day, artists in the naïve vein like Cándido López have captured the absurdity of war, Susana Aguirre and Aniko Szabó the idiosyncrasies of everyday neighborhoods, Guillermo Roux's watercolors, a circus atmosphere, and Gato Frías, childhood memories. Illustrator Florencio Molina Campos's tongue-in-cheek depictions of gaucho life have endured as collectors' items. To help showcase Argentine and Latin American art and sculpture, local developer and art collector Eduardo Constantini set aside a significant portion of his personal collection and, in 1998, began construction on Buenos Aires' first major institution specializing in works by Latin American artists. His foundation opened the Buenos Aires Museum of Latin American Art (MALBA) in 2001.

The effects of the Recession of 1890 were particularly severe in Argentina. Realistic Without Bread or Work by Ernesto de la Cárcova, 1893.

Sports
The official national sport of Argentina is pato,[13] played with a six-handle ball on horseback, but the most popular sport is association football.[14] The national football team has won 25 major international titles[15] including two FIFA World Cups, two Olympic gold medals and fourteen Copa Américas.[16] Over one thousand Argentine players play abroad, the majority of them in European football leagues.[17] There are 331,811 registered football players,[18] with increasing numbers of girls and women, who have organized their own national championships since 1991 and were South American champions in 2006. The Argentine Football Association (AFA) was formed in 1893 and is the eighth oldest national football association in the world. The AFA today counts 3,377 football clubs,[18] including 20 in the Premier The Superclásico between Boca Juniors and Division. Since the AFA went professional in 1931, fifteen teams have River Plate is an important event in Argentine won national tournament titles, including River Plate with 33 and Boca football Juniors with 24.[19] Over the last twenty years, futsal and beach soccer have become increasingly popular. The Argentine beach football team was one of four competitors in the first international championship for the sport, in Miami, in 1993.[20]

Culture of Argentina Basketball is the second most popular sport; a number of basketball players play in the U.S. National Basketball Association and European leagues including Manu Ginóbili, Andrés Nocioni, Carlos Delfino, Luis Scola and Fabricio Oberto. The men's national basketball team won Olympic gold in the 2004 Olympics and the bronze medal in 2008. Argentina is currently ranked first by the International Basketball Federation. Argentina has an important rugby union football team, "Los Pumas", with many of its players playing in Europe. Argentina beat host nation France twice in the 2007 Rugby World Cup, placing them third in the competition. The Pumas are currently eighth in the official world rankings.[21] Other popular sports include field hockey (particularly amongst women), tennis, auto racing, boxing, volleyball, polo and golf. The Vamos vamos Argentina chant is a trademark of Argentine fans during sporting events.

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Theatre
Buenos Aires is one of the great capitals of theater.[5] The Teatro Colón is a national landmark for opera and classical performances; built at the end of the 19th century, its acoustics are considered the best in the world,[1] and is currently undergoing a major refurbishment in order to preserve its outstanding sound characteristics, the French-romantic style, the impressive Golden Room (a minor auditorium targeted to Chamber Music performances) and the museum at the entrance. With its theatre scene of national and international caliber, Corrientes Avenue is synonymous with the art. It is thought of as 'the street that never sleeps' and sometimes referred to as the Broadway of Buenos Aires.[22] Many great careers in acting, music, and film have begun in its many theaters. The Teatro General San Martín is one of the most prestigious along Corrientes Avenue and the Teatro Nacional Cervantes functions as the national stage theater of Argentina. The Teatro Argentino de La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza and Libertador in Córdoba are also prominent. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the more prominent Argentine playwrights. Julio Bocca, Jorge Donn, José Neglia and Norma Fontenla are some of the great ballet dancers of the modern era.

History
Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo's creation of the colony's first comedy theatre (La Ranchería) in 1783. This development was complemented by the 1804 opening of the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires, the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic as well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina. The 1874 murder of Juan Moreira, a persecuted troubadour, provided dramatists with a new hero. Possessing all the elements of tragedy, the anecdote inspired Eduardo Gutiérrez's 1884 play Juan Moreira and the work made the gaucho the inspiration for the Argentine stage in subsequent years. Spanish literature began to overtake the gaucho following the 1897 relocation to Argentina of Spanish theatre producer

The "Open Theatre": a defense of freedom of expression during the last dictatorship.

Culture of Argentina María Guerrero and her company, who popularized professional stage theatre in the country. Making the Teatro Odeón a nerve center for the medium, her evolved stagecraft led to the creation of the national stage, the Cervantes Theatre, in 1921. The wave of European Immigration in Argentina created a need for a cultural shift in theatre addressed by Florencio Sánchez, a pioneer in professional theater locally and in Uruguay. Local color became the primary inspiration for Roberto Arlt, Gregorio de Laferrère, Armando Discépolo, Antonio Cunill Cabanellas and Roberto Payró during the 1920s and 1930s, while also helping amateur theatre revive locally. The Teatro Independiente movement created a counterwight to professional theatre and inspired a new generation of young dramatists in this vein such as Copi, Agustín Cuzzani, Osvaldo Dragún and Carlos Gorostiza. Gorostiza and other self-trained dramatists also popularized Realism in the Argentine theatre after 1950, a genre advanced by Ricardo Halac, Roberto Cossa and among others. Griselda Gambaro and Eduardo Pavlovsky popularized the theatre of the absurd in Argentina after 1960, a genre that found local variant in the grotesque works of Julio Mauricio and Roberto Cossa, whose La Nona became an iconic character in the Argentine theatre in 1977. Argentina's last dictatorship posed the greatest challenge to the development of local theatre since the Rosas era of the mid-19th century. Numerous actors, playwrights and technicians emigrated after 1976, though the dictators' own sense of the theatrical persuaded them to loosen pressures on artists around 1980. Seizing the opportunity, playwright Osvaldo Dragún marshalled colleagues to restore an abandoned sparkplug factory to organize the improvisational Argentine Open Theatre in 1981, a triumph dampened by their Picadero Theatre's fire-bombing a week later. The theatre thrived before and after the 1983 return to democracy. Established playwrights and directors such as Norman Briski, Roberto Cossa, Lito Cruz, Carlos Gorostiza, Pacho O'Donnell and Pepe Soriano and younger dramatists such as Luis Agostoni, Carlos María Alsina, Eduardo Rovner and Rafael Spregelburd. Works by these and other local authors, as well as local productions of international works, are among the over 80 theater works presented every weekend in Buenos Aires, alone. The stage also plays host to well-known comedy acts, such as those of satirist Enrique Pinti, female impersonator Antonio Gasalla, storyteller Luis Landriscina and the musical comedy troupe, Les Luthiers.

189

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Luongo, Michael. Frommer's Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007. Sabato, Ernesto (1976). La cultura en la encrucijada nacional, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, p. 17-18. "Cine Nacional" (http:/ / www. cinenacional. com/ ). Cine Nacional. 2006-12-18. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. "Giannalberto Bendazzi: Quirino Cristiani, The Untold Story of Argentina's Pioneer Animator" (http:/ / www. awn. com/ mag/ issue1. 4/ articles/ bendazzi1. 4. html). Awn.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [5] Wilson, Jason. Cultural Guide to the City of Buenos Aires'. Oxford, England: Signal Books, 1999. [6] About Gavin Esler's Argentina diary (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ programmes/ newsnight/ 4862388. stm) news.bbc.co.uk 3 April 2006. [7] Encyclopædia Britannica, Book of the Year (various issues): statistical appendix. [8] "Choices Article – Modern Beef Production in Brazil and Argentina" (http:/ / www. choicesmagazine. org/ 2006-2/ tilling/ 2006-2-12. htm). Choicesmagazine.org. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [9] "AWPro" (http:/ / awpro. wordpress. com/ 2008/ 06/ 11/ piano-piano/ ). Awpro.wordpress.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-25. [10] e-libro.net. Free digital books. Facundo (http:/ / www. e-libro. net/ E-libro-viejo/ gratis/ facundo. pdf)PDF (638 KB) [11] Levene, Ricardo. A history of Argentina. University of Noerth Carolina Press, 1937. [12] Music: 'El Derecho de vivir en paz' (http:/ / www. myfavouritemusic. info/ tovar42303030303938594c50. html) from http:/ / www. msu. edu/ ~chapmanb/ jara/ enueva. html [13] "Pato, Argentina's national sport" (http:/ / www. en. argentina. ar/ _en/ sports/ C480-pato-argentinas-national-sport. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [14] "Argentine sport" (http:/ / www. en. argentina. ar/ _en/ sports/ C777-argentine-sport. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [15] "Argentina" (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ associations/ association=arg/ ranking/ gender=m/ index. html). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [16] "Brazil is the Champion of America" (http:/ / www. conmebol. com/ articulos_ver. jsp?id=61156& slangab=E). South American Football Confederation. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.

Culture of Argentina
[17] "Argentine soccer players exported abroad" (http:/ / www. en. argentina. ar/ _en/ sports/ C1069-argentine-soccer-players-exported-abroad. php). Argentina.ar. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [18] "Argentina: country information" (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ associations/ association=arg/ countryInfo. html). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [19] "Primera División – Campeones" (http:/ / www. afa. org. ar/ index. php?option=com_content& view=article& id=1599:primera-division-campeones& catid=110:torneos-superiores& Itemid=78). Argentine Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01. [20] "History (of beach soccer)" (http:/ / www. fifa. com/ beachsoccerworldcup/ destination/ history/ index. html). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. . Retrieved 2009-09-01.As of October 2009, Argentina has earned the right to play the 2010 World Cup in South Africa for which it joins Nigeria, Korea Republic and Greece for qualifying in group B. [21] "World Rankings" (http:/ / www. irb. com/ rankings/ full. html). irb.com. . Retrieved 2010-08-30. [22] Adams, Fiona. (2001). Culture Shock Argentina. Portland, Oregon: Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company. ISBN 1-55868-529-4.

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External links
• Sistema Nacional de Consumos Culturales (http://www.consumosculturales.gov.ar) ("National System of Cultural Consumption") – Official website. It contains a report of a comprehensive, nationwide statistical study of cultural mores, undertaken in August 2005. • Argentine Culture, Riches and Diversity (http://www.argentina.ar/_en/culture/)

Architecture of Argentina
Culture of Argentina

Architecture Cinema Comics Cuisine Dance Holidays Humor Literature Music Newspapers Painting Radio Sports Television

The Architecture of Argentina can be said to start at the beginning of the Spanish colonisation, though it was in the 18th century that the cities of the country reached their splendour. Cities like Córdoba, Salta, Mendoza, and also Buenos Aires conserved most their historical Spanish colonial architecture in spite of their urban growth.

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History
The simplicity of the Rioplatense baroque style can be clearly appreciated in Buenos Aires, in the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella, in the churches of San Ignacio, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, the Cathedral and the Cabildo. Italian and French influences increased after the wars for independence at the beginning of the 19th century, though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century. Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th, when the European tendencies penetrated into the country, reflected in numerous important buildings of Buenos Aires, such as the Santa Felicitam Church by Ernesto Bunge; the Central Post Office and Palace of Justice, by Norbert Maillart; and the National Congress and the Colón Opera House, by Vittorio Meano. A number of young Italian architects, including Virginio Colombo, Francisco Gianotti and Mario Palanti who designed the Italian pavilion for the Exposición Internacional del Centenario (1910), went on to establish successful careers in Buenos Aires working in a number of styles, including Art Nouveau. Their buildings were some of the most important of the 20th century in Buenos Aires and those that remain continue to play a significant role in defining the city's architectural landscape. The architecture of the second half of the 20th century continued adapting French neoclassical architecture, such as the headquarters of the National Bank of Argentina and the NH Gran Hotel Provincial, built by Alejandro Bustillo, and the Museo de Arte Hispano Fernández Blanco, by Martín Noel. However, after the early 1930s, the influence of Rationalist architecture and of Le Corbusier became dominant among local architects, among whom Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams stand out in this new vein. The construction of skyscrapers proliferated in Buenos Aires after 1950, though a new generation started rejecting their "brutality," and tried to find an architectonic identity. This search for identity is reflected in the Banco de Londres building finished in 1967 by Clorindo Testa with Diego Peralta Ramos, Alfredo Agostini, and Santiago Sánchez Elía. In the following decades, the new generations of architects incorporate, as always, European vanguardist styles, and new techniques. Since the latter part of the 20th century, Argentine architects have become more prominent in the design of prime real estate projects in the country, such as the Le Parc tower and Torre Aqualina, by Mario Roberto Álvarez, and the Torre Fortabat by Sánchez Elía, as well as around the world, most notably the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers, both by César Pelli.

Gallery

Spanish colonial Cabildo as in its original status

The Neoclassical Argentine National Congress, Buenos Aires.

Mar del Plata style house, an example of Argentine domestic architecture

The Barolo tower, arguably Argentina's best-known Art Nouveau building.

Architecture of Argentina

192

Residential area in Buenos Aires. This combination of row houses and apartment buildings is typically Argentine.

Argentine Club building, Bahía Blanca. Second Empire and Beaux Arts designs were in demand until about 1930.

Example of rationalist architecture: Building of the Banco Holandés Unido (1936)

The Art Deco National Flag memorial, Rosario

The postmodern BankBoston Tower, Buenos Aires

César Pelli's YPF Tower

Argentine cuisine

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Argentine cuisine
Argentine cuisine may be described as a cultural blending of indigenous Mediterranean influences (such as those exerted by Italian-Spanish and Arabic populations) with the wide scope of livestock and agricultural products that are abundant in the country.[1] Argentine annual consumption of beef has averaged 100 kg (220 lbs) per capita,[2] approaching 180 kg (396 lbs) per capita during the 19th century; consumption averaged 67.7 kg (149 lbs) in 2007.[3] Beyond asado (the Argentine barbecue), no other dish more genuinely matches the national identity. Nevertheless, the country´s vast area and its cultural richness have led to a local cuisine of many more dishes.[1] [4]

Typical Argentine Asado (grill).

Argentinian people are known for their love of eating.[1] Social gatherings are commonly centered on sharing a meal. In fact, inviting people to have dinner at home is usually viewed as a symbol of friendship, warmth, and integration. Furthermore, Sunday family reunions are generally an occasion to eat asado or pasta.[1] Another feature of Argentine cuisine is the preparation of homemade food - to celebrate an occasion, to meet friends, or, especially, to honor someone. The tradition of locally preparing food is passed down from generation to generation, and homemade food is also seen as a way to show affection.[1] On the other hand, the scope of restaurant meals on offer is exceptional; people can choose among a great variety of cuisines, prices, and flavours.[1] Large cities count on unique gentrified restaurants offering international cuisine, and Argentina provides diners with other options, such as bodegones (inexpensive traditional hidden taverns), less stylish restaurants, and bars and canteens offering an enticing range of dishes at affordable prices.[1]

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] (http:/ / www. argentina. ar/ _en/ tourism/ gastronomy/ index. php), 'Argentine Gastronomy', June 6, 2008 National Geographic Magazine. March 1958. http:/ / www. comex. infobaeprofesional. com/ notas/ 62697. html "Cuisine of Argentina and Chile" (http:/ / gosouthamerica. about. com/ od/ cuisine/ a/ ArgChile. htm) - About.com (http:/ / www. about. com)

External links
• SaltShaker (http://www.saltshaker.net) - A daily exploration of the culture, food, and restaurants of Buenos Aires. • Argentina on two steaks a day (http://www.idlewords.com/2006/04/argentina_on_two_steaks_a_day.htm) • Cocina Pop (http://www.cocinapop.com) - Video-recipes of typical argentinean recipes, for anyone to be able to cook a typical argentinean meal anywhere in the world.

Music of Argentina

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Music of Argentina

Ariel Ramirez (at piano), President of the Argentine Society of Authors and Composers, with eminent folklore vocalist Mercedes Sosa, 1972.

Folk guitar virtuoso Eduardo Falú (right).

Culture of Argentina

Architecture Cinema Comics Cuisine Dance Holidays Humor Literature Music Newspapers Painting Radio Sports Television

The music of Argentina is known mostly for the tango, which developed in Buenos Aires and surrounding areas, as well as Montevideo, Uruguay. Folk, pop and classical music are also popular, and Argentine artists like Mercedes Sosa and Atahualpa Yupanqui contributed greatly to the development of the nueva canción. Argentine rock has also led to a defiant rock scene in Argentina.

Music of Argentina

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Folk music
Folk music—called música folklórica or folklore in Spanish, from transliteration of the English folklore—comes in many forms, developed in different parts of Argentina with different European and indigenous influences. Among the first traditional folk groups to record extensively in Argentina, three of the most influential were from the northwest: Los Chalchaleros and Los Fronterizos from the Province of Salta and the Ábalos brothers from Santiago del Estero Province. Becoming nearly instant successes following their first albums around 1950, they inspired a revival of the genre in Argentina. A famous soloist in the genre is guitarrist Eduardo Falú, known for the many compositions that set traditional poetry into music. Traditional folk music became increasingly important during the protest movement against the military dictatorship and the community divisions of the 1970s, with artists like Mercedes Sosa and Atahualpa Yupanqui, contributing to the development of nueva canción. Soledad Pastorutti ('La Sole') has brought folklore to a new audience, and in the early 21st century Juana Molina has proposed a fusion between electronic music and folklore with ambient sounds, a gentle voice and short zambas. A well-known venue for Argentine folklore music, the Cosquín National Folklore Festival, has been gathering musicians from the genre annually since 1961. A modest event at first, the festival has grown to include folk musicians from neighboring countries and Asia, as well as from throughout Argentina, itself. Focusing on folklore music, the festival nevertheless features talent from the worlds of tango, acoustic music and international culture.[1] On the same time of year is made the Cosquín Rock festival.[2] Cosquín National Folklore Festival typically includes representatives from all musical genres created or developed in Argentina:

Atahualpa Yupanqui, 1968.

Folk music quartet Los Fronterizos, 1959.

Los Chalchaleros quartet, 1958.

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196

The Ábalos brothers, 1945.

• • • • • • • • • • •

Baguala Bailecito Kaluyo Candombé Chacarera Chamamé Chaya Cifra Cielito

• • • • • • • • •

Cogollo o Cogoyo La Condición Copla (music) El Cuando Cumbia villera Décima Escondido La Firmeza Gato Huella

• • • • • • • • • • •

Malambo Media caña Milonga Murga Pala-Pala El Palito Payada Pericón Polka Refalosa El Sombrerito

• • • • • • • • •

Tango Nuevo tango Tonada Tristecito Triunfo Valsecito criollo Vidala Vidalita Yaraví Zamba

Carnavalito • Chamarrita •

Guaracha santiagueña •

Rasguido doble •

Andean music
In northern Argentina, on the borders with Bolivia and Chile, the music of the Andes reflects the spirit of the land with the sounds of local wind, percussion and string instruments. Jaime Torres is a famous Argentine/Bolivian charango player.

Chacarera
Originating in Santiago del Estero, this folk music is accompanied by Spanish guitars and bombo legüero. The name originates from the word "chacra" ("farm"), as it was usually danced in rural areas, but it slowly made its way to the cities of that area.It is one of the few Argentine dances for couples where the woman has an equal opportunity to show off.

An Indigenous Argentine quena, a traditional Andean instrument.

Chamamé
Accordion-based Chamamé arose in the northeastern region (provinces of Corrientes,Formosa & Misiones) an area with many settlers from Poland, Austria and Germany. Polkas, Mazurkas and Waltzes came with these immigrants, and soon mixed with the Spanish music already present in the area. Chamamé was not very popular internationally in the 20th century, though some artists, such as Argentine superstar Raúl Barboza, became popular later in the century. In the early 21st century Chango Spasiuk, a young Argentine of Ukrainian descent from Misiones province, has once again brought chamamé to international attention.The main basis of all the music of this area on the banks of the Paraná River is its roots in the music of Paraguay across the water.

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Popular music
Tango
Main articles: Tango music Tango arose in the brothels, bars and port areas of Buenos Aires, where waves of Europeans poured into the country mixing various forms of music. The result, tango, came about as a fusion of disparate influences including: • Old Milonga - songs of the rural gauchos (originating in Andalucia)[3] • • • • • Habanera - Cuban music Polka and Mazurka - Slavic music Contradanse - Spanish music Flamenco - from Andalucia Italian folk music That combination of European rhythms, brought to Argentina and Uruguay by traders and immigrants, developed into the swinging milonga around 1900.[4] The milonga quickly became the popular dance of Buenos Aires and slowly evolved into modern tango; since 1930, tango has changed from a dance-focused music to one of lyric and poetry, thanks to vocalists like Carlos Gardel, Roberto Goyeneche, Hugo del Carril, Tita Merello, Susana Rinaldi, Edmundo Rivero and Ignacio Corsini, was equally well known as a folk singer. The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored the golden age of Jazz and Swing in the United States, featuring large orchestral tango groups, too, like the bands (known as "Orquestas típicas") led by Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro, Osvaldo Pugliese, Anibal Troilo and Juan D'Arienzo. After 1955, as the Nueva canción and Argentine rock movements stirred, tango became more intellectual and listener-oriented, led by Ástor Piazzolla's new tango. Many of the musicians that helped Piazzolla promote nuevo tango went on to develop important careers of their own, like violinist Antonio Agri, fellow Tango icon Carlos Gardel bandoneón virtuosi José Libertella and Rodolfo Mederos and pianists Horacio Salgán and Pablo Ziegler, who earned a 2005 Grammy Award. Today, tango continues to produce new exponents, has experienced a major revival, and the rise of neo tango is a global phenomenon with groups like Tanghetto, Bajofondo and Gotan Project.
Francisco Canaro and his Tango Orchestra, circa 1930.

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Argentine rock
Argentine rock, or Rock Nacional, is a distinctive form of Argentine rock and roll. At the time[what time?], popular music was a style called ritmo latino, a mainstream pop genre. Bohemian hangouts in Buenos Aires and Rosario were the cradles of the genre, relying heavily on British rock influences, but in the mid-1960s musicians began exploring local musical roots, creating a local sound. Musicians like Litto Nebbia of Los Gatos began recording their own kind of rock. Los Gatos' La Balsa, released early in their year, established the distinctive sound of Argentine rock. By 1970 Argentine rock had become established among middle class youth (see Almendra, Sui Generis. In the 80s, Argentine rock bands became popular across Latin America and elsewhere (Serú Girán, Soda Stereo, Soda Stereo in concert. Enanitos Verdes, Sumo, Fabulosos Cadillacs, Virus, Andres Calamaro). Today it is a staple of popular culture with many sub-genres: underground, pop oriented, and some associated with the working class (La Renga, Divididos, Los Redonditos). Current popular bands include: Los Piojos, Babasónicos, La Renga, Las Pelotas, Divididos, Attaque 77, Intoxicados, De Bueyes and Bersuit. Argentine rock is the most listened-to music among youth; its influence and success has expanded internationally owing to a rich and uninterrupted evolution. Some of the most popular Argentine rock musicians are Charly García, Gustavo Cerati, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Fito Páez, and Pappo.

Electronic
Electronic dance parties and shows like Creamfields are favorites among thousands of young men. The 75,000 people that attended the fifth edition of one of the most important electronic music festivals of the world enjoyed more than 100 artists among DJs, producers and groups, distributed through 10 different spaces between tents and Main Stage. Indietronica bands like Entre Ríos or others, such as Bajofondo Tango Club and Lourdes, have also become popular. This musical genre is listened to by young men in the middle, upper middle and upper classes in Argentina.They also like the electric slide

Pop
Pop bands have seen great popularity, topped by Bandana, the most popular. Other artists in this genre include Miranda! with a touch of "electro" sound, and Babasónicos, of lasting popularity. Artists combining experimentation with glam include Airbag and Juana la Loca, in addition to Arbol, an artist combining hardcore with pop and violins.

Cumbia
Cumbia is an important part of contemporary Argentine music, originally derived from the Colombian cumbia, adopted by the lower classes in the bailantas, widespread in the 1990s, and then turning more aggressive and explicit in the 2000s with "shanty town cumbia" (cumbia villera).

Ballad crooner Sandro, 1966. "The Gypsy", as he is popularly known, was popular with female audiences.

Music of Argentina In the 1980s, South American migrants from Peru and Bolivia brought the so-called tropical music to higher prominence in Argentina, a mixture of Cumbia & Chicha (Peruvian rhythm) and Bolivian Cumbia, but originally from Colombian, folk rhythms, and Caribbean styles. Around the same time cuarteto in Córdoba, became a major musical genre. Cuarteto and chamamé from Corrientes made it to Buenos Aires alongside tropical music and migrants from the north. All these various musical styles were played in the crowded ballrooms in lower class neighborhoods.

199

Cuarteto
Cuarteto, or Cuartetazo, is a form of dance music similar to Merengue. It became popular in Argentina during the 1940s, beginning with the genre's namesake and innovator, Cuarteto Leo and was re-popularized in the 1980s, specially in Córdoba. A national idol emerged in the brief career of Rodrigo in the late 1990s. The most popular and enduring cuarteto singer is La Mona Jiménez, who has turned out more than 100 albums and continues recording; his work inspired other musicians in the genre.

Art music
Jazz
Though much of Argentina's jazz scene revolves around the new tango popularized by Ástor Piazzolla in the 1960s, Argentine musicians have created or interpreted a considerable body of be-bop, straight-ahead and latin jazz, since then. Among the first to garner a wide audience was guitarist Oscar Alemán who, after performing with Brazilian artists, moved to Paris and performed for legendary dancer Josephine Baker; his swing style earned him a loyal following through the 1940s and 1950s. The popularity of mambo and latin jazz, generally, during the 1950s opened doors for drummer Tito Alberti, who recorded frequently with Cuban "mambo king" Dámaso Pérez Prado and popularized the genre locally with his renowned "Jazz Casino." The later emergence of the use of synthesizers in jazz found an Argentine adherent in Jorge Anders, whose quartet became known for modal jazz compositions like Suave como un amanecer in 1965. One of his frequent collaborators, pianist Gustavo Kereztesachi, became acclaimed for his airy interpretations of John Coltrane and Oliver Nelson standards, as well as for compositions of his own like the swinging The gun and Como luces esta noche.

Tito Alberti, 1957.

Following the emergence of "new tango" in the 1960s, one of Piazzolla's fellow bandoneónists he influenced most became a noted jazz composer in his own right. Rodolfo Mederos' 1976 album Fuera de broma 8 fused be-bop with tango and acoustic rock; Mederos has since recorded numerous albums and film scores. His success with jazz fusion inspired others, like fellow bandoneónist Dino Saluzzi, guitarist Lito Epumer and alto sax man Bernardo Baraj. Later in the 1970s and through the 1990s, drummer Pocho Lapouble became well known for his jazz trio and film scores. Argentine jazz saxophonists have also

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become prominent in their genre. Alto saxophonist Andrés Boiarsky, who emerged in 1986 performing the film score for Hombre mirando al sudeste ("Man Facing Southeast"), records extensively to this day, collaborating with latin jazz greats like Paquito D'Rivera and Claudio Roditi. Carlos Franzetti's work and arrangements for the 1992 feature film, The Mambo Kings, earned him a Latin Grammy.

Tenorman Gato Barbieri, 1970.

The best-known Argentine jazz musician internationally is probably Leandro Gato Barbieri. The tenor saxophonist worked with renowned big band orchestra conductor Lalo Schifrin in the early 1960s, shortly before Schifrin became internationally known for his composition of the theme to Mission: Impossible. Hired by jazz trumpeter Don Cherry, the two recorded Complete Communion in 1965, an album that secured their reputation in the jazz world. Barbieri went on to record his influential Caliente! (1976), an album combining latin jazz and experimental work such as his own and jazz fusion great Carlos Santana's, as well as Qué pasa (1997), which draws more deeply from Argentine folklore roots. Growing from the Jazzología series begun by local jazz enthusiast Carlos Inzillo in 1984, the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival has, since 2002, attracted legends and newcomers from all major jazz genres, as well as avant-garde sounds. The festival has been graced by performers like Kenny Barron, Michael Brecker, Dee Dee Bridgewater, Herbie Hancock, Freddie Hubbard, Ron Carter and Chucho Valdés.

Classical music
The Buenos Aires Philharmonic has its home in the renowned Colón Opera House. Founded in 1946, it is considered one of the more prestigious orchestras in its nation and Latin America, and has received several honors in 60 years of history. Another well established orchestra is the Argentine National Symphony Orchestra. Prominent Argentine composers in the genre include symphonic composer Juan José Castro, Alberto Williams, who was known for his early fusion of nativist and classical genres, Carlos Guastavino, known for his romanticist works, and Alberto Ginastera, a composer considered one of the most important Latin American contributors to classical music. Internationally known performers include pianist Martha Argerich, violinist Alberto Lysy, guitarist María Isabel Siewers, tenor José Cura, mezzo-soprano Margherita Zimmermann, and pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim, who has directed the Orchestre de Paris, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Berlin State Opera.

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Multimedia
Selections: • 1] Fuga y misterio. Ástor Piazzolla, music. Dancers: Vincent Morelle and Marilyne Lefor. (New Tango) • 2] Por una cabeza. Carlos Gardel, music and vocals; Alfredo Le Pera, lyrics. (Classic Tango) • 3] Medley. John Michel, cello and Mats Lidstrom, piano. (Milonga)

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. aquicosquin. org/ http:/ / www. cosquinrock. com/ http:/ / www. renez. com/ birminghamballroom/ http:/ / www. history-of-tango. com/ couple-dancing. html

• Fairley, Jan and Teddy Peiro. "Vertical Expression of Horizontal Desire". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 304–314. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 • Fairley, Jan. "Dancing Cheek to Cheek...". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 315–316. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 • Fairley, Jan. "An Uncompromising Song". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 362–371. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 • Latin American Music Styles (http://home.swipnet.se/gersnaes/henriks/lamusic.html)

External links
• BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): Tango. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00v3zn1) Accessed November 25, 2010. • BBC Radio 3 Audio (60 minutes): The Humahuaca Valley. (http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00v7s7j) Accessed November 25, 2010. • www.argentina.ar: Argentine music history (http://www.argentina.ar/sw_seccion.php?id=24&idioma_sel=en) • Going Underground: New music from Argentina (http://www.soundsandcolours.com/articles/argentina/ going-underground-new-music-from-argentina/) Article looking at some of the new underground music coming from Argentina

Article Sources and Contributors

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Article Sources and Contributors
Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463844320  Contributors: -- April, -5-, .José, 0, 100110100, 10dkafka, 11mick, 11tas, 1234r00t, 16@r, 203.244.209.xxx, 2ArgArg, 2help, 2ko, 334a, 4twenty42o, 72Dino, 7D HMS, 9mm Sleeping Pill, A D 13, A. 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DantheCowMan, DeltaQuad, Efficacious, Fercho85, Jimp, Luckas Blade, Luokehao, Materialscientist, Maxcrc, Mild Bill Hiccup, Moebiusuibeom-en, Neelix, Netrat, Njardarlogar, Peter Horn, R'n'B, Sodemscand, Tkynerd, Underlying lk, Xfirefox, Zachlipton, 53 anonymous edits Sport in Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459595556  Contributors: Addshore, Againme, Alexf, Alias Flood, Ancientphoenixians, Andrwsc, Andycjp, AntonioMartin, Arielo, Ashwinosoft, BanyanTree, Bfigura's puppy, Biglez, Bleff, Bob247, Bobo192, Bocafan76, Buldożer, Chanheigeorge, ClemensMetternich, Colonies Chris, Cvene64, Dale Arnett, Danno uk, Darius Dhlomo, Darkwind, Davemcarlson, DivineAlpha, E2eamon, Excirial, Fabrictramp, Fache, FrkyBoy25, Gensanders, Gongshow, GordyB, Iain99, Iridescent, Ironcito, Italodal, J04n, JamesBWatson, Jevansen, Katieh5584, Kbdank71, Keilana, King of the North East, LeaveSleaves, LilHelpa, Lukester500, MIKHEIL, MacRusgail, Marianocecowski, Mazzaglia, Mcsee, Me2hero, Michellecrisp, Mtiedemann, Mwalcoff, Ohconfucius, Outside Center, PIO, PrincessofLlyr, Redfarmer, ReyBrujo, Salt Yeung, Sanmarcos, Spacepotato, Sselbor, Stanley Jacobsen, Tangerines, Tassedethe, Tesi1700, Tewapack, The Evil Spartan, The359, Tide rolls, Tombomp, Tomgarzon, Truthishly, Tswei, Turian, Urcool123, Vokoder, Vox Univoaks, Wallie, Warrax345, WikHead, Woohookitty, Yuckfoo, ‫ 442 ,ﺯﺭﺷﮏ‬anonymous edits Argentina national football team  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462598900  Contributors: 111xhulio, 1969, 2004-12-29T22:45Z, 26xbing, AJCham, AR2000, AXRL, Aajunkie, Aaron carass, Abdul Qayyum Ahmad, Academic Challenger, Adrian.benko, Aerol, Afasmit, Akkifokkusu, Akshays, Alansohn, AlasdairShaw, Ale2007, Alechuncho, Aleind, Alexf, Alexis Damián Rossi, Alii h, Alimpan barua, Amedyr, AnOrdinaryBoy, Andrwsc, Angmering, AniRaptor2001, Anteojito, Aparhizi, Appraiser, Apwj5060, Arbero, Archibald Leitch, Arg2k, Argentina810, Argentino, ArglebargleIV, Argsoccer, Arielo, 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LizardJr8, Lom c, Looper5920, Lord Pistachio, Loren.wilton, Lsaleh, Lsw10, Luckygaki, LukaKarabatic, Luna Santin, M1ss1ontomars2k4, MER-C, MK8, MONGO, MaIl1989, Macadotios, Macallinka, Mad chelsea fan, Madchester, Maelor, Makaristos, Manchesterunited1992, Mandel, Marek69, Marianocecowski, Marinelli6, Marlon.sahetapy, Marpicco, Martarius, Master Of Ninja, Master t789, Matilda Sharks, Matkatamiba, Matthew hk, Matticus78, Mattythewhite, Maurreen, Mav, Maxcheung, Maxdixon, Maxl, Mayumashu, McSly, Mcsee, Mechasheherezada, Medellia, MegaSloth, Megakirk, Megapixie, MegastarLV, Memty, Mentifisto, Merrrlo, Messi 1619, Mfield, Mgiganteus1, Mhausen77, Michael Hardy, Michaelbusch, MickWest, Micnasa, Micomico, Mifter, Migsythebest, Mike Selinker, Mikeo, Mikeoen, Million Little Gods, Miranda, MissEmmaLx, Missionary, Misteror, Mixi10, Miyagawa, Moe Epsilon, Moin 12345, Monkeymanman, Morhange, Mosmof, Mr. Slim, Mr. bubaloo, Mrom, Muddyb Blast Producer, Muntuwandi, Mushroom1234567, Musicandnintendo, Mutinus, Mxcatania, Mykola Granovskiy, Mzsabusayeed, Nama2818, Nameless User, Napra12345, Nasimk, Naujleunam, Necromancer23, NellieBly, Netizen, Nev1, Newnoise, Newone, Newt Winkler, Niallzemin, Nicholas 98, NickBush24, Nightmare SE, Nightrider 83, Nikal a, Ninel, Niteowlneils, Nkour, No Guru, Nordisk varg, Nubiatech, NuclearWarfare, Oalexander-En, Oatmeal batman, Ohconfucius, Ohnoitsjamie, Oldelpaso, Omicronpersei8, Omniarerum, Opelio, Orion6767, Orjanlothe, Osvaldo88, Owen, PMDrive1061, PS., Pablo-flores, Palecitrus, Palio10, PamD, Panto, Paradoctor, Paulinho28, Paulozin, Pawel Lewandowski, Peanut4, Pedro, Peoplesunionpro, Pepo 1000, Perique des Palottes, Persian Poet Gal, Perón, Peteinterpol, Peter, Phaedriel, Pharaoh of the Wizards, PhilHibbs, Philc 0780, Philip Trueman, Piano non troppo, Pilotguy, Piniricc65, Pinnappleyum, Pip2andahalf, Plasticup, Pokermanabc, Polskapilka, Porolavagna, Portillo, Pranking, Prashanthns, Pratanu.roy, Prowsej, Pruxo, Purpleturple, Quadell, Quarl, Quracley1, Qxz, R Lowry, RFBailey, Radon210, Raiderveli, Rambo's Revenge, Ramirez72, Rams87, RandomHumanoid, Raudys, Raven4x4x, Ravis51, Raymond Cruise, RazorICE, Razorflame, Reach Out to the Truth, Reconfirmer, Reconsider the static, Redthoreau, Redtigerxyz, Refsworldlee, Res2216firestar, Rex Germanus, RexNL, Rhadoo32, Rhone, RicardoC, Ricardoread, Rich Farmbrough, RickK, Righttovanish1, RikkDoc, Rjd0060, Rje, Rjwilmsi, Robert K S, Robert Merkel, Rockincon1, RodC, Rodri316, Rolando, Ronnymexico, Roslagen, RoyBoy, Rupert1904, Ryulong, SHIMONSHA, SaharaCharmont, Salsaman, Salvio giuliano, SalvoCalcio, Sam Hocevar, Sam Korn, Sam Pointon, Sam8, Samjohnson, Santi14R, Santiagorf, Sanya, Savidan, Sceptre, Schumi555, Scoelho86, SeanMack, Seaphoto, Seb14water, Sebastiankessel, Secretaria, Secretlondon, Sennen goroshi, Sepmix, Sexymax15, ShadowTerror10, Shadowjams, Shahin.shn, Shakehandsman, Shamrok, Shanes, Shockwavegal, Shoeofdeath, Shojego, Sic one, SidP, Simonyj, Singularity0, Sionus, Sir Paul, Sisyphus, Sivorian, Sjorford, Skarioffszky, Skinguo, Skinnyweed, Sliggy, Slumgum, Sm3a, Smafamp, Smalljim, Smilo Don, Snigbrook, Snowmanradio, Soliloquial, Someone97531, Soosed, Soprani, Spaade777, Spacenarwhal, Spartan-James, Speedoflight, Spencer, SpiceMan, Spiderone, Spike, Sportin, Sprecher, Squadoosh, SqueakBox, Srushe, StaticGull, Stocker08, Storkk, Stpaul, Struway, Stu.W UK, Stubid, StuffOfInterest, Su30, SubSeven, Sueisfine, Suffusion of Yellow, Sumbuddi, Sunilloui, Surge79uwf, Susfele, Tanvir Ahmmed, Tapered, Taragui, Taties20, Tavi554, Tazza no2, Tbhotch, Tcmcd, Teabag Yokel, Templarion, Thatguyflint, The Dan Sai Kid, The Thing That Should Not Be, The Vandal Warrior, The undertow, The wub, TheDarkArchon, TheEasterBunny, TheGoldenTime, Thecure101, Theevilkidyo, Thegoldentime1, Thehelpfulone, Theilert, Themodelcitizen, Themoodyblue, TheoClarke, Thierryhodgy, Thingg, Thonus, Throwaway85, Thumperward, Thuresson, Tiemposdelcolera, Timtranslates, Titocavalera, Tjtoml, Tod rumours, Toddst1, Tokyo12, Tommy2010, Tontotti, Tooga, Tpbradbury, Trefalcon, Tresiden, Triona, Tripod86, Triumvir, Troly2010, TuneyLoon, Twarb, Tyrenius, U.Steele, Udonknome, Ugur Basak, Ukexpat, Ulric1313, Un chien andalou, Unschool, Unyoyega, VALLE92, ValenShephard, Valirpaz, Vape, Vary, Vega84, Verloren, Versus22, Viajero, Virak, Virusbluemage, Voyagerfan5761, Vrenator, Vzbs34, WATP, Waggers, Wallerstein, Warith86, Wayfarer, Weightofglory, WereSpielChequers, Wesleyarts, Whomseems, WikHead, Wiki alf, Wiki brah, Wikipe-tan, Wikirockerfrog, Wikiwikikid, Wilbo1993, WilliamF1, Wjfox2005, Wknight94, Wmahan, Woody, Woohookitty, Wreckers, Wrecksdart, Wuhwuzdat, Ww2censor, Wæng, X!, XTomScottx, Xavier 21, Xswhc, Xtrlp, Xyzzyva, Yandman, YellowMonkey, Yerpo, Yoda1893, Yodokus, Yoshizoidburg, Youngpele, Youssefsan, Zahid Abdassabur, Zalgo, Zeitgeist, Zelda, Zhu Wuneng, Zidanefan, Zidanefan1211, Zigurat, Zimbabweed, Zimbricchio, Zizo7, ZoeZahraa, Zombie433, Zouhier, Zvn, Zvonko, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Óðinn, Саша Стефановић, ‫ ,ﻧﺴﺮ ﺑﺮﻟﻴﻦ ,הגמל התימני‬达伟, 2418 anonymous edits Economy of Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463374947  Contributors: Againme, Andrwsc, Bkwillwm, Caltas, Denverjeffrey, Download, Elberth 00001939, Eug.galeotti, Facundil, Gaius Cornelius, Green Giant, Guinsberg, Hashimzia, John of Reading, Jor70, Khazar, Luisserradell, Muhandes, Nick Number, Ohconfucius, R'n'B, Rconner, Retroqqq, RoadTrain, Ronz, Sherlock4000, Slaterino, Southamerica2010, Uhai, Underlying lk, Wikipelli, Win.monroe, Woohookitty, 42 anonymous edits Agriculture in Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=462826520  Contributors: Alan Liefting, Alexf, Cambalachero, Chanheigeorge, Chasnor15, CommonsDelinker, Crap12345, DaL33T, Deoomnisgloria, Dlrohrer2003, Dnfenner, FF2010, Gene Nygaard, Jncraton, Magnvss, Marianocecowski, Materialscientist, Meredyth, Michael Devore, Mr. Science, Mtiedemann, Neelix, Northamerica1000, NortyNort, Pablo-flores, Peer V, Qxz, Sherlock4000, Steven Walling, The Thing That Should Not Be, Underlying lk, Wavelength, Woohookitty, 67 anonymous edits Communications in Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=445088735  Contributors: Acntx, AndrewHowse, Andrés Baldrich, Bellemichelle, Bobblewik, Cambalachero, Chris the speller, Conversion script, D6, Daniel C, Eastlaw, Ellmist, Fakurkr, GiW, Graham87, Harryzilber, Hjf, HoodedMan, Int21h, Jak86, Jim.henderson, Jim88Argentina, Klamm, Koyaanis Qatsi, Lightmouse, Mamduh, Marc Lacoste, Marianocecowski, Mav, Nico89abc, Nihiltres, Olathe, Pablo-flores, Piccolo Modificatore Laborioso, PowerMacX, R'n'B, Rich Farmbrough, Ro2000, Sardanaphalus, Secretlondon, Shenme, Sherlock4000, SpiceMan, Tabletop, Underlying lk, W163, Warofdreams, ‫ 44 ,ﺯﺭﺷﮏ‬anonymous edits Tourism in Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=455625705  Contributors: ARGMGM, Aastrup, Adam.J.W.C., Ageo020, Aguzman, Alansohn, Ale jrb, Alexf, Anaguisado, Andris, Angr, Anklefear, AntonioMartin, Arthena, Ascidian, Barneca, Billyjones12, Bleff, Bloodshedder, CPashby, CalJW, Carl.bunderson, Cdeujm, Closedmouth, Cometstyles, CommonsDelinker, Cyrius, Darwinek, Dnfenner, Dsoubie, Epbr123, Ernrod2012, Frankenpuppy, Funandtrvl, Gadfium, Gaius Cornelius, Gat0r, Gilliam, Gorgongnu, Hadriann, Indech, Iridescent, J.delanoy, J04n, Jaedza, Jeff3000, Jmguerrera, Jonathan.s.kt, Jvs65, Khoikhoi, MIKHEIL, MK, Madeleine Price Ball, Marianocecowski, Mariordo, Moebiusuibeom-en, MrOllie, Nikai, Ohnoitsjamie, OneEuropeanHeart, Pablo-flores, Parrama, Peterbrabazon, Picapica, Sanmarcos, Sardanaphalus, Saulisagenius, Sebastiankessel, Secretlondon, Sherlock4000, Smith.katie, SpiceMan, Spraydelimon, Tangerines, Tapti3, The Thing That Should Not Be, The juggresurection, Tide rolls, Travelwizette, Tronovav, Umbertoumm, Underlying lk, Veronica123456, Vialactea, Warofdreams, William Avery, Woohookitty, Xmort, Zigger, Zundark, 135 anonymous edits Public holidays in Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=463737108  Contributors: 4twenty42o, 72Dino, Academic Challenger, Alan smithee, Alansohn, Amerika, Blamed, Bmearns, CalJW, Cambalachero, CambridgeBayWeather, Canuckguy, CieloEstrellado, Discospinster, ElfQrin, Fyyer, Gurbo, HJ Mitchell, Heroeswithmetaphors, Hurmata, IANVS, J.delanoy, JForget, JaGa, L Kensington, Marcelo.origoni, Marianocecowski, Mato, OneEuropeanHeart, PFHLai, Pablo-flores, Pgk, Philip Trueman, Plasticup, Pol098, Purslane, Sango123, Secretlondon, Shadowlynk, The Thing That Should Not Be, Underlying lk, Warofdreams, Wee Curry Monster, Wiki alf, William Avery, Woohookitty, Yodaawg, 95 anonymous edits Culture of Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464149274  Contributors: ACSE, Aitias, AleG2, Alexeon, Alexf, And dex, Arguss, Artep66, Beach1, Betacommand, Bhadani, Binksternet, Bleff, Bluerasberry, Brambleclawx, Brandon, Brian the Editor, BritishWatcher, Burschik, Cacuija, CalJW, Cambalachero, Carau, Chairboy, Chaosdruid, Chris the speller, Cold Phoenix, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, D, D-Rock, DanMS, Davewild, Dawn Bard, Deb, Diogeneselcinico42, Dnfenner, Dreadstar, Ed g2s, Ejrrjs, ElinorD, Epbr123, Fabrictramp, Fedex456, Gadfium, Galio, Gurch, Hairy Chode, Harmil, Hydrogen Iodide, IANVS, IRP, Inter, Iridescent, J.delanoy, J04n, Jbmurray, Jeff3000, Jonkerz, Joseph Solis in Australia, JustAGal, King of the North East, Kitkatcrazy, KuduIO, Kukini, Kungming2, KuroiShiroi, Kyoko, Lacrosse9090, Lasmithers, Little Mountain 5, MIKHEIL, MJ94, Majorly, Marianocecowski, MarkSutton, Mentifisto, Miquonranger03, Monotonehell, Mtiedemann, Muntuwandi, Mygerardromance, NawlinWiki, Neelix, Nikai, Nivix, NorwegianBlue, Number 77, Nuno Tavares, Ohconfucius, Olivier, OneEuropeanHeart, Pablo-flores, PandaSaver, Parrottse, Philip gainer, Piano non troppo, Plasticup, PrincessofLlyr, Raeky, Ramirez72, Rich Farmbrough, Ronhjones, Rrburke, SG, Sam Korn, Sardanaphalus, Sbowers3, Scarian, Secretlondon, Sfyuksadifh, ShelfSkewed, Sherlock4000, Sprotch, Super-Magician, SuperHamster, Supercoop, TShilo12, Tabletop, Thingg, Think outside the box, Tide rolls, TimVickers, Tommy2010, Tonywalton, Twsx, Uhai, Underlying lk, Violncello, Wack'd, Wady21, Warofdreams, Wayne Slam, Wiki libs, Woohookitty, XGustaX, Yamanbaiia, Youssefsan, 360 anonymous edits Architecture of Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=459936459  Contributors: Againme, Alan Liefting, Bleff, CommonsDelinker, DagosNavy, Dnfenner, EhSeuss, Elekhh, JamesAM, Jan1nad, King of the North East, Leszek Jańczuk, Lilac Soul, Marianocecowski, Mhockey, Moebiusuibeom-en, NielsenGW, Pablo-flores, Pruxo, Reinsalkas, Rising*From*Ashes, Sherlock4000, William Avery, 19 anonymous edits Argentine cuisine  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464153678  Contributors: 72Dino, A Train, Abb615, Acroterion, Againme, Ahoerstemeier, Ajw231197, Alansohn, Alexf, AlfajorNYC, Algebra, Alksub, BD2412, Bart133, Barticus88, Basketball110, Ben Ben, Bigbluefish, Billinghurst, Binksternet, Bkonrad, Blanchardb, Bleff, Blood sliver, Blue-Haired Lawyer, Bmk, Bogey97, BozMo, Bunchofgrapes, Bunnyhop11, Burschik, Calyponte, Camanda, Cambalachero, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Carl.bunderson, Ccacsmss, Chris the speller, Chuunen

205

Article Sources and Contributors
Baka, Cleanelephant, ColinFine, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Conversion script, Cyberedmund, D, Dakart, Daniel C, Dannown, Darth Mike, David Gerard, Dentren, Deor, Dinnertimeok, Dmperlman, Dogcow, Draeco, Edgar181, Elenseel, Eliyak, EmanWilm, Ensign beedrill, Epbr123, Erbres, Esvoboda, Fabrictramp, Fephisto, Ferkelparade, Fillibuster, Fluffernutter, Franzeska, Fratrep, Fsotrain09, GB fan, Gadfium, Gaius Cornelius, Garcilaso, GarryMann, Gary King, Garzo, Gaspy, Gastonl, Gilliam, Gimmetrow, GoingBatty, Graham87, Guiladg, Hbent, Heroeswithmetaphors, HighKing, Hmains, Hoo man, Hottentot, Hut 8.5, Icairns, Intoarut, Iridescent, Irishguy, Ithinkhelikesit, Izzedine, J.delanoy, J04n, J3ff, Javier Arambel, Jeepday, Jeff G., Jeff3000, Jerem43, Jevansen, Jfa, Jj137, Jmabel, Joehaer, Jonas Mur, K-UNIT, Kaaphi, Karmafist, Kate, Katieh5584, Keilana, Kember, Ken Gallager, Kingpin13, Kjaergaard, Klarkoes, Klichka, Kman543210, Kmp589, KnightofNEE, Kremtak, Krich, Krylonblue83, Lagringa, Larsypojke, Law, LemonMonday, Leptictidium, Lhoaxt, LilHelpa, Linkspamremover, Littlealien182, LlywelynII, Ludely, Luise.1988, Luqui, Lusitana, Macrakis, Macy, Mako098765, Marek69, Marianocecowski, Mattman723, Max rspct, MegaSloth, Mentifisto, Merovingian, Mets501, Mgiganteus1, Mimihitam, Modulatum, MrDarcy, Mscuthbert, Mtiedemann, Muadib24, NHRHS2010, Nakon, Natalie Erin, Natalya, Natl1, Navy.enthusiast, NawlinWiki, Ndkl, Neelix, Neutrality, NielsenGW, NinjaLore, Nordisk varg, Northamerica1000, NovelPost, Open2universe, Ozzy.m, Pablo-flores, Pb30, Pedro, Pekinensis, Pgk, Philip Trueman, Pietrow, Pilaf, PurnimaAnand, Quadell, Qxz, R'n'B, R9tgokunks, Radon210, Reddogsix, Remotelysensed, RexNL, Rich Farmbrough, Rmky87, RobDe68, Robmdza, Rpresser, SDY, SEWilco, Saga City, Salmar, SamuelTheGhost, Schoolisboring, Secretlondon, Selecciones de la Vida, Setanta747, Sherlock4000, SidP, SilkTork, SkerHawx, Smv1827, SpiceMan, Sprotch, Squamate, Squids and Chips, Stokerm, Stoni, Super Rad!, THB, TShilo12, TakuyaMurata, Tanner-Christopher, Taxman, Teh roflmaoer, Tehae, Tempodivalse, The Rambling Man, The Thing That Should Not Be, Themightyquill, Thingg, Thiseye, Tiddly Tom, Tide rolls, Topbanana, Trevor MacInnis, TubularWorld, Twicelines, Val42, Vampiric.Media, Vaquero100, Varaaki, Veinor, Versageek, Versus22, Vervin, WereSpielChequers, Wikieditor06, William Avery, Wolfling, Woohookitty, Ww2censor, XGustaX, YUL89YYZ, Yamamoto Ichiro, Zaui, Znode, 455 anonymous edits Music of Argentina  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=464125931  Contributors: -Majestic-, 1shaman, Adrian J. Hunter, Ahoerstemeier, Ajnewbold, Alexf, Alfonso", Altenmann, Alxdalfaro, Anaguisado, BD2412, Behrami, Bemoeial, Binksternet, Bleff, Bolivian0531, Breawycker, C777, Calabe1992, Calistemon, Capricorn42, Carnildo, Chris the speller, Chzz, Circeus, Coasterlover1994, CommonsDelinker, Courcelles, CroMagnon, Dakart, DanielDeibler, Danyg, Dinnerbone, Dnfenner, Dogposter, Dreadstar, Drmaik, Eyes drops, Ferbr1, Fercho85, Fibonacci, Gaius Cornelius, Hmains, J.delanoy, Jeff G., Jmabel, Jose Fernandez-Calvo, Kbuster, Kman543210, Kosebamse, Krash777, Kukini, Lawrence Cohen, Lemurbaby, Lukep913, Marianocecowski, Marraco, Mister Matt, Mlaffs, Moxy, Mtiedemann, Neelix, NewEnglandYankee, Nick Number, Nsaa, Opus88888, PDCA, Pablo-flores, Paul Farren, Pol098, Propaniac, Qiaozhi007, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, RoyBoy, Secretlondon, Sherlock4000, Sheryltopf, Skoosh, Slaterino, Slightsmile, Spencer, TUF-KAT, Template namespace initialisation script, The dugout, Voceditenore, Vokoder, Wik, Wiki alf, William Avery, Woohookitty, XGustaX, Xaviersc, YehudaMedinaMizrahi, Yuckfoo, Zundark, ‫ 691 ,ﺯﺭﺷﮏ‬anonymous edits

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

207

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Flag of Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Argentina.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Work of Dbenbenn about a national sign File:Coat of arms of Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Coat_of_arms_of_Argentina.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: (Spanish) Referencia. English:  Dexxter, based on the official National Symbol and on the before work by Tonyjeff. The sun was extracted from File:Sol de Mayo-Bandera de Argentina.svg, created by the user Barcex. Reference. File:Argentina_orthographic.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina_orthographic.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Addicted04 File:Increase2.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Increase2.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sarang Image:Speakerlink.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Speakerlink.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Woodstone. Original uploader was Woodstone at en.wikipedia File:SantaCruz-CuevaManos-P2210651b.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SantaCruz-CuevaManos-P2210651b.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Mariano File:La Reconquista de Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:La_Reconquista_de_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Arasara, Cambalachero File:Smartin.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Smartin.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: The exact author is disputed. Some sources atribute it to Jean Baptiste Madou, others to the art teacher of San Martin's daughter, and others suspect it to be the work of many different people. File:Evita y Perón.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Evita_y_Perón.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: No mencionado File:Frigerio discrepa con Frondizi.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Frigerio_discrepa_con_Frondizi.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Desconocido. File:Que digan dónde estan.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Que_digan_dónde_estan.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Pepe Robles File:Alfonsín entrega el mando a Menem - 1989.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Alfonsín_entrega_el_mando_a_Menem_-_1989.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Cambalachero, Man vyi, Pathoschild, Pikolas, Roblespepe, 1 anonymous edits File:Cristina con baston de mando.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cristina_con_baston_de_mando.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Presidencia. N. Argentina File:Casa Rosada - Argentine version of the White House.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Casa_Rosada_-_Argentine_version_of_the_White_House.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Juan Geracaris File:Plaza Congreso BA.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plaza_Congreso_BA.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: David Berkowitz from New York, NY, USA File:Palacio de justicia.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Palacio_de_justicia.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Roblespepe File:Dilma Rousseff Cristina Kirchner.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dilma_Rousseff_Cristina_Kirchner.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Roberto Stuckert Filho/PR File:Vista de Puerto Madero - Aduana de Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vista_de_Puerto_Madero_-_Aduana_de_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: File:Map of the Provinces of Argentina.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Map_of_the_Provinces_of_Argentina.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Dexxter File:Flag of Buenos Aires City.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Buenos_Aires_City.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Juan de Garay (original), Enrique Peña (historian), and Ordenanza N° 49,669. File:Bandera-bonaerense.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bandera-bonaerense.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Starchild File:Bandera_de_Catamarca.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bandera_de_Catamarca.svg  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: User:3188a File:Flag of Chaco province in Argentina 2007.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Chaco_province_in_Argentina_2007.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: AnonMoos, Care, Cycn, Fernandopascullo, Lu1g1-ktupq File:Flag of chubut province in argentina - bandera de chubut.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_chubut_province_in_argentina_-_bandera_de_chubut.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: ALE!, Lokal Profil, Ninane, PatagoniaArgentina, Thecurran, 1 anonymous edits File:Flag of Cordoba Province in Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cordoba_Province_in_Argentina.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Alakasam. File:Flag of Corrientes province in Argentina.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Corrientes_province_in_Argentina.gif  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:ALE!/Flags File:Flag of Entre Ríos.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Entre_Ríos.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Guilherme Paula File:Flag of Formosa.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Formosa.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Guilherme Paula File:Flag of Jujuy province in Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Jujuy_province_in_Argentina.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aramay2, BrightRaven, Cronholm144, Cycn, Fry1989, RoyFocker 12, Thecurran, VIGNERON File:Flag of La Pampa province.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_La_Pampa_province.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Juame Ollé (escudo), Dexxter (composición) File:Flag of La Rioja province in Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_La_Rioja_province_in_Argentina.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: La versión en gif fue realizada por Jaume Ollé. Fue subida en Commons por ALE! (Flag_of_La_Rioja_province_in_Argentina.gif) y la vectorización ( el paso de la imagen a svg.) fue realizada por Lu1g1-ktupq (talk). File:Flag of Mendoza Province, Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mendoza_Province,_Argentina.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: B1mbo. Coat created by Tonyjeff File:Flag of Misiones.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Misiones.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: w:User:MysidMysid File:Flag of Neuquen province in Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Neuquen_province_in_Argentina.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Flag_of_Neuquen_province_in_Argentina.gif: Jaume Ollé derivative work: User:Lu1g1-ktupq File:Flag of Río Negro Province.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Río_Negro_Province.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Hellerick File:Bandera Salta.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bandera_Salta.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Gorivero File:Flag of San Juan.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_San_Juan.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Guilherme Paula File:San luis prov arg.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:San_luis_prov_arg.png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:ALE!/Flags File:Bandera-Santa Cruz.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bandera-Santa_Cruz.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Gorivero File:Bandera-StaFe-argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bandera-StaFe-argentina.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Gorivero File:Flag of Santiago del Estero.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Santiago_del_Estero.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Guilherme Paula File:Flag of Tierra del Fuego province in Argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Tierra_del_Fuego_province_in_Argentina.svg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Alkari, Cycn, Denelson83, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Little Savage, Mattes, Ninane, Pertile, Sceptic, Telim tor, Thecurran, Urmas, Xufanc File:Provincia_de_tucuman.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Provincia_de_tucuman.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Acha1993 File:Argentina topo blank.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina_topo_blank.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Captain Blood

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Aconcagua ca. 1890 and 1923.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aconcagua_ca._1890_and_1923.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Iamunknown, Schaengel89 Image:Basecat.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Basecat.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Boscos Image:Talampaya NP.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Talampaya_NP.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Gino Lucas T. Image:A majestic line of Emperor penguins, Antarctica.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:A_majestic_line_of_Emperor_penguins,_Antarctica.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Glenn Grant, National Science Foundation Image:Nasua nasua climbing tree.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nasua_nasua_climbing_tree.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: LadyofHats Image:Cougar at Cougar Mountain Zoological Park 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cougar_at_Cougar_Mountain_Zoological_Park_2.jpg  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: Dcoetzee Image:Southern right whale10.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Southern_right_whale10.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Michaël CATANZARITI File:Puertoba.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Puertoba.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: unknown, scanned by en:User:Fercho85 Image:Agote 1a transfusión.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Agote_1a_transfusión.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Barcex, Csoliverez Image:Leloir festejando.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leloir_festejando.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Common Good, Gerkijel, 1 anonymous edits File:Aquarius SAC-D satellite.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aquarius_SAC-D_satellite.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: NASA File:Crdobay Corrientes Rosario 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Crdobay_Corrientes_Rosario_1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Pablo D. Flores File:Hotel Inmigrantes Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hotel_Inmigrantes_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: Free Art License  Contributors: Enrique A. Chaparro User:Cinabrium File:La Plata - Catedral - HDR.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:La_Plata_-_Catedral_-_HDR.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: José María Pérez Nuñez from Buenos Aires, Argentina File:Voseo Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Voseo_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Qqqqqq File:Buenos Aires Panorama.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Panorama.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich from Buenos Aires, Argentina File:Magnify-clip.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Magnify-clip.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Erasoft24 File:Jorgeluisborges1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jorgeluisborges1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aleposta, Mutter Erde, Quibik File:Buenos Aires - Las Nereidas.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Las_Nereidas.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Alexf, Barcex, Gustronico, Mrexcel File:Tango-Show-Buenos-Aires-01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tango-Show-Buenos-Aires-01.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Abu badali, Barcex, FlickreviewR, JotaCartas, Origamiemensch, 1 anonymous edits File:Carlos cambon boca.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carlos_cambon_boca.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Axel 123, Eduardozer, 3 anonymous edits File:Mate calabaza fondo blanco.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mate_calabaza_fondo_blanco.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Jorgealfonso File:Carne al Asador.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carne_al_Asador.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: seretide File:Humita from Argentina 00.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Humita_from_Argentina_00.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: seretide File:Cotoletta e patate al forno.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cotoletta_e_patate_al_forno.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Paolo Piscolla File:Vegetable empanadas.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vegetable_empanadas.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: jules File:Locro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Locro.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: 1029man, ALE!, Adrruiz, Joaquin palomeque, Opponent, Tomia File:DulceDeLeche.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DulceDeLeche.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: 17Drew, Adambro, Aotake, Chiewatc, FlickreviewR File:AlfajoresTriples.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AlfajoresTriples.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: ALE!, Amire80, Joolz, Julgon, Lobo, 1 anonymous edits File:Vino argentino.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vino_argentino.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: seretide File:Delantales blancos 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Delantales_blancos_2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: ALE!, Allforrous, Ezarate, GeorgHH, Lnjsch, Pathoschild, Roblespepe, 1 anonymous edits File:Buenos Aires - UBA - Facultad de Medicina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_UBA_-_Facultad_de_Medicina.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Barcex, Elsapucai, FedericoMP, Galio, Roberto Fiadone, 1 anonymous edits File:Openstreetmap logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Openstreetmap_logo.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: OpenStreetMap File:Juan Manuel de Rosas.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Juan_Manuel_de_Rosas.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Gaetano Descalzi (1809-1886) File:Sarmiento (1873).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sarmiento_(1873).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Christiano Junior Image:Julio A Roca.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Julio_A_Roca.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alejandro S. Witcomb. File:Yrigoyen en ventanilla del ferrocarril viaje a Santa Fe campaña electoral de 1926..jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yrigoyen_en_ventanilla_del_ferrocarril_viaje_a_Santa_Fe_campaña_electoral_de_1926..jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Alno, Gelpgim22, Roblespepe Image:Vista de Puerto Madero - Aduana de Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vista_de_Puerto_Madero_-_Aduana_de_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: File:Juan Peron con banda de presidente.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Juan_Peron_con_banda_de_presidente.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Cambalachero, Cinabrium, Gelpgim22, Man vyi, Martin Rizzo, Mrexcel, Pikolas, Roblespepe, Thuresson, 1 anonymous edits Image:Frondizi.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Frondizi.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Algún periodista Image:PP Illia.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PP_Illia.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Claudio Elias, Ferbr1 Image:Peron 1974.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Peron_1974.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Cambalachero Image:Jorge Rafael Videla.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jorge_Rafael_Videla.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Albasmalko, Cambalachero, Grondin, Pathoschild, Zeroth Image:Neuquen Monumento Malvinas.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Neuquen_Monumento_Malvinas.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Lu1g1-ktupq File:Ahora alfonsin.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ahora_alfonsin.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unión Cívica Radical Image:Carlos menem.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carlos_menem.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: No mention File:Cristina baston Kirchner.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cristina_baston_Kirchner.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Presidencia de la N. Argentina Image:PD-icon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PD-icon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alex.muller, Anomie, Anonymous Dissident, CBM, MBisanz, Quadell, Rocket000, Strangerer, Timotheus Canens, 1 anonymous edits File:Buenos Aires City Collage.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_City_Collage.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Bleff File:Escudo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Escudo_de_la_Ciudad_de_Buenos_Aires.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dexxter file:Argentina location map.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina_location_map.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: NordNordWest File:Red pog.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Red_pog.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie

208

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Loudspeaker.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Loudspeaker.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bayo, Gmaxwell, Husky, Iamunknown, Mirithing, Myself488, Nethac DIU, Omegatron, Rocket000, The Evil IP address, Wouterhagens, 16 anonymous edits File:Garay2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Garay2.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: José Moreno Carbonero (1858-1942) File:Cabildoabierto-Subercaseaux 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cabildoabierto-Subercaseaux_2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Cambalachero, Rec79 File:Buenos Aires-Jura de la Constitución (1854).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires-Jura_de_la_Constitución_(1854).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Alno, Barcex, Bhumiya, Cambalachero, Claudio Elias, Elsapucai, 1 anonymous edits File:BA1920.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BA1920.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fercho85 (talk) File:Callealem.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Callealem.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fercho85 (talk) File:Banco de Boston 1924.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Banco_de_Boston_1924.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Elsapucai File:Buenos Aires Barrio Norte9.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Barrio_Norte9.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Rafael Estrella File:Puerto Madero Panorama.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Puerto_Madero_Panorama.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich File:Avenida Corrientes y Reconquista SIGEN.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Avenida_Corrientes_y_Reconquista_SIGEN.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: English:  I´m the owner of this work, User:Roberto Fiadone File:Buenos Aires - Galerías Pacífico.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Galerías_Pacífico.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Rodrigo Galindez from Córdoba, Argentina File:Línea H, tren saliendo del túnel en la estación Venezuela (Buenos Aires, noviembre 2008).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Línea_H,_tren_saliendo_del_túnel_en_la_estación_Venezuela_(Buenos_Aires,_noviembre_2008).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Cristian O. Arone File:Buenos Aires City Hall Summer afternoon.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_City_Hall_Summer_afternoon.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Jon Gilbert Leavitt File:Palacio Legislativo - Ciudad Autónoma de Bs. As..jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Palacio_Legislativo_-_Ciudad_Autónoma_de_Bs._As..jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: orourkepatricio File:Buenos Aires Palacio del Congreso.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Palacio_del_Congreso.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Cezary Piwowarski File:Population of Buenos Aires 1740-2010.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Population_of_Buenos_Aires_1740-2010.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: ALE!, Demmo, Moebiusuibeom-en, Sanmarcos, 1 anonymous edits File:Buenos Aires -Argentina- 136.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-Argentina-_136.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Barcex, Eltitoskate, Facumissing File:Avenida Callao y Juncal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Avenida_Callao_y_Juncal.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: English:  I´m the owner of this work, Roberto Fiadone File:Avenida J. B. Alberdi.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Avenida_J._B._Alberdi.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Santiago matamoro File:Centro Cultural Islámico Rey Fahd, Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Centro_Cultural_Islámico_Rey_Fahd,_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Alpertron Image:Buenos Aires -area noche- flickr-photos-emaringolo-202376305.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-area_noche-_flickr-photos-emaringolo-202376305.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Esteban Maringolo from Buenos Aires, Argentina Image:Buenos Aires, city and vicinities, satellite image LandSat-5, 2011-08-21, near natural colors, 30 m resolution.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires,_city_and_vicinities,_satellite_image_LandSat-5,_2011-08-21,_near_natural_colors,_30_m_resolution.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Badzil, Bogomolov.PL File:Buenos Aires - Bolsa de Comercio.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Bolsa_de_Comercio.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Antonio García from Madrid, Spain File:Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: rickh710 File:Casa del Teatro Art Decó.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Casa_del_Teatro_Art_Decó.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Roberto Fiadone File:Teatro Colón, Buenos Aires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Teatro_Colón,_Buenos_Aires.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Robert Cutts File:Orquesta sinfónica nacional (Argentina).JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Orquesta_sinfónica_nacional_(Argentina).JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Dan Colter File:Milonga, Buenos Aires.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Milonga,_Buenos_Aires.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Ilan Costica File:Buenos Aires Tango.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Tango.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Jonathan Lewis from London File:BA Skyline.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:BA_Skyline.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich from Buenos Aires, Argentina File:Buenos Aires Décembre 2007 - Avenida 5 de Mayo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Décembre_2007_-_Avenida_5_de_Mayo.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Martin St-Amant (S23678) Image:Buenos Aires - Avenida de Mayo - Palacio Barolo - 2006.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Avenida_de_Mayo_-_Palacio_Barolo_-_2006.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: José from Buenos Aires, Argentina Image:Repsol YPF Tower.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Repsol_YPF_Tower.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich File:UBA Law School Panorama.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:UBA_Law_School_Panorama.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich File:Buenos Aires Tour Bus.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Tour_Bus.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires File:Caminito Farolito.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Caminito_Farolito.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich File:Buenos Aires - Retiro - Calle Florida.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Retiro_-_Calle_Florida.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Galio 01:53, 4 January 2008 (UTC) File:Obelisco-desde Corrientes-TM.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Obelisco-desde_Corrientes-TM.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: HalloweenHJB File:Buenos Aires - Plaza Dorrego - 20061204d.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Plaza_Dorrego_-_20061204d.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: English:  Taken by the uploader, w:es:Usuario:Barcex(Spanish) File:Puerto Madero towers.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Puerto_Madero_towers.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires File:Buenos Aires - Retiro - Av. Santa Fe y Marcelo T. de Alvear.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Retiro_-_Av._Santa_Fe_y_Marcelo_T._de_Alvear.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Robin Fernandes

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Buenos Aires - Jardín Japonés - 200806a.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Jardín_Japonés_-_200806a.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich from Buenos Aires, Argentina File:Recoleta-tower-TM.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Recoleta-tower-TM.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: HalloweenHJB File:Planetario (71607).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Planetario_(71607).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Matias Garabedian File:Cabildo-Plaza-HDR.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cabildo-Plaza-HDR.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Original uploader was HalloweenHJB at en.wikipedia File:Aguas Corrientes-full-HDR.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Aguas_Corrientes-full-HDR.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: HalloweenHJB File:Buenos Aires - Correo Central - 20051215.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Correo_Central_-_20051215.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: English:  Taken by the uploader, w:es:Usuario:Barcex(Spanish) File:Avenida General Paz entre Cabildo y Panamericana.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Avenida_General_Paz_entre_Cabildo_y_Panamericana.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ale4110 File:Línea H, Andén en la estación Venezuela 02 (Buenos Aires, noviembre 2008).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Línea_H,_Andén_en_la_estación_Venezuela_02_(Buenos_Aires,_noviembre_2008).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Cristian O. Arone File:Taxiba.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Taxiba.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fercho85 (talk) File:0391721LFavorita.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:0391721LFavorita.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Victor Daniel Nicolao (vmaster) File:TDESTE1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TDESTE1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fiorella Grinstein File:Metrobus BsAs.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Metrobus_BsAs.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Jpmorino File:Toshiba Electrico Ferrocarril Sarmiento Haedo.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Toshiba_Electrico_Ferrocarril_Sarmiento_Haedo.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Albasmalko File:Red de SBA y obras a diciembre 2010.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Red_de_SBA_y_obras_a_diciembre_2010.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Galio (talk) 22:15, 7 December 2010 (UTC) File:Buenos Aires Subte station plaza once.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_Subte_station_plaza_once.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Svenska84 File:Subte Retiro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Subte_Retiro.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Schummy File:Metrobus logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Metrobus_logo.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andres Rojas File:Buquebus silvia ana.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buquebus_silvia_ana.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Jaan-Cornelius K. from Buenos Aires, Argentina File:199 - Buenos Aires - Aéroport international Ezeiza - Janvier 2010.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:199_-_Buenos_Aires_-_Aéroport_international_Ezeiza_-_Janvier_2010.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Martin St-Amant (S23678) File:Buenos Aires-San Nicolás-Luna Park.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires-San_Nicolás-Luna_Park.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: ALE!, Alno, Ardfern, Barcex, Elsapucai, FlickreviewR, Loco085, Para, Roberto Fiadone, TFCforever File:Estadio Pedro Bidegain.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Estadio_Pedro_Bidegain.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Marianitens at en.wikipedia File:Flag of Brazil.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Brazil.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Germany.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Poland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Poland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of Spain.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Spain.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Israel.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Israel.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AnonMoos, Bastique, Bobika, Brown spite, Captain Zizi, Cerveaugenie, Drork, Etams, Fred J, Fry1989, Geagea, Himasaram, Homo lupus, Humus sapiens, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Luispihormiguero, Madden, Neq00, NielsF, Nightstallion, Oren neu dag, Patstuart, PeeJay2K3, Pumbaa80, Ramiy, Reisio, Rodejong, SKopp, Sceptic, SomeDudeWithAUserName, Technion, Typhix, Valentinian, Yellow up, Zscout370, 31 anonymous edits File:Flag of Portugal.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Portugal.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Vítor Luís Rodrigues, António Martins-Tuválkin, User:Nightstallion File:Flag of Russia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Russia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Italy.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Italy.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Serbia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Serbia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: sodipodi.com File:Flag of Canada.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of South Korea.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Various File:Flag of Switzerland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Marc Mongenet Credits: User:-xfiUser:Zscout370 File:Flag of Chile.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Chile.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: SKopp File:Flag of Ukraine.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ukraine.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Created by: Jon Harald Søby, colors by Zscout370 File:Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_People's_Republic_of_China.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, redrawn by User:Denelson83 and User:Zscout370 Recode by cs:User:-xfi- (code), User:Shizhao (colors) File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie, Mifter File:Flag of Croatia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Croatia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Nightstallion, Elephantus, Neoneo13, Denelson83, Rainman, R-41, Minestrone, Lupo, Zscout370, Suradnik:MaGaMaRazgovor sa suradnikom:MaGaGa (based on Decision of the Parliament) File:Flag of the United States.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: special commission (of code): SVG version by cs:-xfi-. Colors according to Appendix No. 3 of czech legal Act 3/1993. cs:Zirland. File:Flag of Egypt.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Open Clip Art File:Flag of Uruguay.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Uruguay.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alkari, CommonsDelinker, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Huhsunqu, Kineto007, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Lorakesz, Mattes, Neq00, Nightstallion, Pumbaa80, Reisio, ThomasPusch, Zscout370, ゆいしあす, 7 anonymous edits File:Flag of France.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_France.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Japan.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Japan.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Lebanon.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lebanon.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Traced based on the CIA World Factbook with some modification done to the colours based on information at Vexilla mundi. File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zscout370 File:Argentina-demography.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina-demography.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: ALE!, Cambalachero, Delimata, Demmo, Valérie75, 1 anonymous edits File:Immigrants in Argentina (2001).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Immigrants_in_Argentina_(2001).png  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Mariano1989

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Catedral de Córdoba, Argentina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Catedral_de_Córdoba,_Argentina.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Pablo D. Flores File:Argentina population pyramid 2009.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina_population_pyramid_2009.png  License: unknown  Contributors: Fred the Oyster, Sherlock4000, TheDJ File:Non-native population in Argentina.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Non-native_population_in_Argentina.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Pablo-flores File:Población Argentina por Provincias (2001).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Población_Argentina_por_Provincias_(2001).png  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ironside from Enciclopedia Libre Universal en Español Image:Argentina topo blank.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina_topo_blank.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Captain Blood Image:Lake Argentino northern arm Lago Argentino Brazo Norte Patagonia Argentina Luca Galuzzi 2005.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lake_Argentino_northern_arm_Lago_Argentino_Brazo_Norte_Patagonia_Argentina_Luca_Galuzzi_2005.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Luca Galuzzi (Lucag) Image:Salta-VallesCalchaquies-P3140151.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Salta-VallesCalchaquies-P3140151.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Marianocecowski File:Average annual rainfall in Argentina.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Average_annual_rainfall_in_Argentina.png  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Giornorosso Image:JUNIN La Oriental 001.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JUNIN_La_Oriental_001.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Germanramos Image:Patogame.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Patogame.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Original uploader was Y1997xf11 at en.wikipedia File:Escarapela argentina.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Escarapela_argentina.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Lobo argentino File:Passarella levanta la Copa Mundial.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Passarella_levanta_la_Copa_Mundial.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: B1mbo, J 1982, Pessottino Image:Ginobili y Kirchner-1jul05-presidencia-govar.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ginobili_y_Kirchner-1jul05-presidencia-govar.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: ALE!, Cambalachero, Dantadd, High Contrast, Pathoschild, Roblespepe, TFCforever, Väsk Image:2007 Corleto Paris.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2007_Corleto_Paris.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Fabienkhan Image:Nalbandian signing autographs at 2006 Australian Open.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Nalbandian_signing_autographs_at_2006_Australian_Open.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Hayabusa future Image:Las Leonas 2008 (completo).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Las_Leonas_2008_(completo).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Nick from Chelmsford, Essex Image:Firpo saca a Dempsey-Radiofoto del Gráfico.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Firpo_saca_a_Dempsey-Radiofoto_del_Gráfico.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: El GRáfico. Image:Equipo argentino polo MO 1936.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Equipo_argentino_polo_MO_1936.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Comité Olímpico Argentino Image:Lomas-cricket.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lomas-cricket.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Lomas Athletic File:Flag of Argentina (alternative).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Argentina_(alternative).svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fry1989, StuartBrady, Yaddah, 2 anonymous edits File:Flag of Ecuador.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ecuador.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: President of the Republic of Ecuador, Zscout370 File:Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Czechoslovakia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: (of code) cs:User:-xfiFile:Flag of Colombia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Colombia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: SKopp File:Flag of Bolivia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bolivia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp File:Maradonacopa1986.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradonacopa1986.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Desconocido File:Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946).svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Flanker File:Flag of Sweden.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of England.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_England.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anomie File:Flag of Mexico.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mexico.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alex Covarrubias, 9 April 2006 Based on the arms by Juan Gabino. File:Flag of South Africa.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg  License: unknown  Contributors: Adriaan, Anime Addict AA, AnonMoos, BRUTE, Daemonic Kangaroo, Dnik, Duduziq, Dzordzm, Fry1989, Homo lupus, Jappalang, Juliancolton, Kam Solusar, Klemen Kocjancic, Klymene, Lexxyy, Mahahahaneapneap, Manuelt15, Moviedefender, NeverDoING, Ninane, Poznaniak, Przemub, SKopp, ThePCKid, ThomasPusch, Tvdm, Ultratomio, Vzb83, Zscout370, 34 anonymous edits File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Unknown File:Flag of Qatar.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Qatar.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: (of code) cs:User:-xfiFile:Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Costa_Rica.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Drawn by User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe File:Argentine - Portugal - Argentine.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentine_-_Portugal_-_Argentine.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0  Contributors: Ludovic Péron File:Flag of Venezuela.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Venezuela.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alkari, Bastique, Denelson83, DerFussi, Fry1989, George McFinnigan, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Huhsunqu, Infrogmation, K21edgo, Klemen Kocjancic, Ludger1961, Neq00, Nightstallion, Reisio, Rupert Pupkin, ThomasPusch, Vzb83, Wikisole, Zscout370, 12 anonymous edits File:Flag of Nigeria.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Nigeria.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Jhs File:Flag of Paraguay.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Paraguay.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Republica del Paraguay File:Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bean49, David Descamps, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Evanc0912, Fry1989, Gabriel trzy, Howcome, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, Oreo Priest, Rocket000, Rodejong, Sir Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, Zscout370, 4 anonymous edits Image:Seleccion argentina 1964.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Seleccion_argentina_1964.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: no mencionado Image:ArgentinaShirt1978WorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt1978WorldCup.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:Camiseta-mexico-1986-manga-larga.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Camiseta-mexico-1986-manga-larga.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Stephanie2099 Image:ArgentinaShirt1994WorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt1994WorldCup.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:ArgentinaShirt1998WorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt1998WorldCup.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:ArgentinaShirt2002preWorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2002preWorldCup.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:ArgentinaShirt2002WorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2002WorldCup.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:ArgentinaShirt2004Olympics.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2004Olympics.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:ArgentinaShirt2006WorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2006WorldCup.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:ArgentinaShirt2006WorldCupAway.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2006WorldCupAway.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Sportingn Image:Eliminatoires coupe du monde 2010.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eliminatoires_coupe_du_monde_2010.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: moi Image:ArgentinaShirt2009preWorldCup.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2009preWorldCup.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Rodolfo Perez Peña Image:ArgentinaShirt2010WorldCupV.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ArgentinaShirt2010WorldCupV.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Synesx File:Maradona 2010-1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradona_2010-1.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic  Contributors: Alexandr Mysyakin File:Boca diego retro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Boca_diego_retro.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: no mention File:Maradona 1985.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradona_1985.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Daddy Kindsoul, Mosmof File:Maradona y la copa - Mundial Juvenil 1979 - Gente sept 1979.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradona_y_la_copa_-_Mundial_Juvenil_1979_-_Gente_sept_1979.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: no mention File:Maradona Barcelona shirt.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradona_Barcelona_shirt.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0  Contributors: Buffoleo File:Maradona Soccer Aid 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradona_Soccer_Aid_2.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Bastique, Briho, FlickreviewR, Fred J, Sking, Thuresson File:Diego-armando-maradona.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Diego-armando-maradona.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Brazil  Contributors: Ricardo Stuckert File:Maradona-212369675 3c30adbbb4 o.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Maradona-212369675_3c30adbbb4_o.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Abu badali, Albertomos, CityClass, DenghiùComm, FlickreviewR, Marianocecowski File:Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Arab_Emirates.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anime Addict AA, Avala, Dbenbenn, Duduziq, F l a n k e r, Fry1989, Fukaumi, Gryffindor, Guanaco, Homo lupus, Kacir, Klemen Kocjancic, Krun, Madden, Neq00, Nightstallion, Piccadilly Circus, Pmsyyz, RamzyAbueita, 4 anonymous edits File:Latin America GDP per capita 1991-2011.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Latin_America_GDP_per_capita_1991-2011.png  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: Underlying lk File:Sembrado de soja en argentina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sembrado_de_soja_en_argentina.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: User:Alfonso" File:Pellegrini Buenos Aires Matadero.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Pellegrini_Buenos_Aires_Matadero.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Charles Henri Pellegrini File:SecretarÃa de Agricultura.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SecretarÃa_de_Agricultura.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Carlos Adampol Galindo from DF, México File:Balcarce-buenosaires.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Balcarce-buenosaires.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Leandro Kibisz (Loco085) File:Yerra en Corrientes.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Yerra_en_Corrientes.jpg  License: Creative Commons world66  Contributors: No mention File:ViñedoCafayate.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:ViñedoCafayate.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Tokyo Tanenhaus File:Tucuman Ingenio Cruz Alta.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tucuman_Ingenio_Cruz_Alta.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Jlazarte File:Mercedes Correo.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mercedes_Correo.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Thialfi File:Locutorio Telefónica Rosario.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Locutorio_Telefónica_Rosario.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Pablo-flores File:Mitre-estudio-feria-libro.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mitre-estudio-feria-libro.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Loco085 File:Argentina tourist regions.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentina_tourist_regions.svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: Blank_Argentina_Map.svg: Dexxter derivative work: Bleff (talk) File:Diagonal Sur Buenos Aires 2011-02-11.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Diagonal_Sur_Buenos_Aires_2011-02-11.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: José María Pérez Núñez from Buenos Aires. Image:Línea A (SBA).svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Línea_A_(SBA).svg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Galio 23:18, 11 May 2007 (UTC) File:Mar-del-plata-playa.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mar-del-plata-playa.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: User:Loco085 File:Sierras de Córdoba cerca de Nono 2009-11.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sierras_de_Córdoba_cerca_de_Nono_2009-11.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: Alakasam, FlickreviewR File:Argentine Vineyards.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Argentine_Vineyards.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Tomas e, Zinoviev iof File:Jujuy-Tilcara-Pucara-P3130012.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jujuy-Tilcara-Pucara-P3130012.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Ferbr1, Marianocecowski, Pertile File:Iguazu Décembre 2007 - Panorama 4.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Iguazu_Décembre_2007_-_Panorama_4.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Martin St-Amant (S23678) File:PeritoMoreno002.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:PeritoMoreno002.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Christof Berger File:SantaCruz-CuevaManos-P2210079b.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SantaCruz-CuevaManos-P2210079b.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: Mariano Image:Iguazu falls argentina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Iguazu_falls_argentina.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Pablo H File:Ischigualasto national park.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ischigualasto_national_park.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5  Contributors: Original uploader was As578 at en.wikipedia Image:AltaGracia.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:AltaGracia.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: ALE!, Ardfern, Marianocecowski, Mrexcel, Pablo-flores, Pertile, Toksave Image:Cordoba-derecho1.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cordoba-derecho1.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: User:Cordobes Image:Iceberg Argentino lake.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Iceberg_Argentino_lake.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Calyponte Image:Peninsula Valdés STS-68.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Peninsula_Valdés_STS-68.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Ferbr1, Gryffindor, Kdhenrik, Nikai, Ultratomio Image:Jujuy-QuebradaDeHumahuaca-P3120108.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Jujuy-QuebradaDeHumahuaca-P3120108.JPG  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: ALE!, Alpertron, Arcibel, Marianocecowski Image:San Ignacio Mini.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:San_Ignacio_Mini.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Juan File:Tango in BA.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tango_in_BA.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Gustavo Brazzalle

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:Parque Lanin.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Parque_Lanin.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aastrup, Arcibel, Ardfern, Cambalachero, Elekhh, Moebiusuibeom-en File:CatalinasBuenosAires.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:CatalinasBuenosAires.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Fa95bri File:MDQ skyline.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MDQ_skyline.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Gonza77talk File:Beagle Channel - La Isla de Los Lobos.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Beagle_Channel_-_La_Isla_de_Los_Lobos.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: User:IlyaHaykinson File:Esquel desde Trochita.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Esquel_desde_Trochita.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Magui File:SAN MARTIN DE LOS ANDES LACAR.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SAN_MARTIN_DE_LOS_ANDES_LACAR.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Albasmalko, Pertile File:Catedral_de_San_Carlos_de_Bariloche.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Catedral_de_San_Carlos_de_Bariloche.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Dexxter File:Lago en Calamuchita.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lago_en_Calamuchita.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Fernandopascullo File:Rosario y el Parana.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Rosario_y_el_Parana.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Belgrano File:JUNIN_La_Oriental_003.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JUNIN_La_Oriental_003.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Germanramos File:TafidelValle_Tucuman.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TafidelValle_Tucuman.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Jlazarte, Pertile File:Estancia Maradona, provincia de San Juan, Argentina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Estancia_Maradona,_provincia_de_San_Juan,_Argentina.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Pelatusar File:Cordoba-derecho1.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Cordoba-derecho1.JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: User:Cordobes File:San Ignacio Mini.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:San_Ignacio_Mini.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Juan File:Buenos Aires-ColonTeatre-P3050009.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires-ColonTeatre-P3050009.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: ALE!, Barcex, Claudio Elias, Geofrog, Hailey C. Shannon, Marianocecowski File:Hotel Provincial de Mar del Plata.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hotel_Provincial_de_Mar_del_Plata.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Fernando Pascullo (User:Fernandopascullo) File:Bahia Blanca- club argentino.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bahia_Blanca-_club_argentino.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Chipppy 20:40, 6 August 2007 (UTC) File:Complejo Cultural de Santiago del Estero.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Complejo_Cultural_de_Santiago_del_Estero.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike  Contributors: Dario Alpern File:Buenos Aires - Avenida de Mayo - Palacio Barolo - 2006.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Buenos_Aires_-_Avenida_de_Mayo_-_Palacio_Barolo_-_2006.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0  Contributors: José from Buenos Aires, Argentina File:Monumento Nacional a la Bandera 2009 (2).JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Monumento_Nacional_a_la_Bandera_2009_(2).JPG  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: Roberto Ettore File:The Alas Building panorama.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Alas_Building_panorama.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Luis Argerich File:EstiloMDQ-3.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EstiloMDQ-3.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: DagosNavy File:Biblioteca-nacional-de-argentina.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Biblioteca-nacional-de-argentina.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Dan DeLuca File:Ignacio Manzoni - El asado.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ignacio_Manzoni_-_El_asado.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dornicke File:Charly García - Argentina - En Casa Rosada - 3JUN05 -presidenciagovar (2).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Charly_García_-_Argentina_-_En_Casa_Rosada_-_3JUN05_-presidenciagovar_(2).jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: no mention File:Mercedes Sosa 2.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mercedes_Sosa_2.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zeroth Image:20060128_-_Frescos_de_la_cúpula_de_Galerías_Pacífico_(Buenos_Aires).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:20060128_-_Frescos_de_la_cúpula_de_Galerías_Pacífico_(Buenos_Aires).jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: ALE!, Banfield, Barcex, FedericoMP, Miguel A. Monjas Image:Ernesto de la Cárcova - Sin pan y sin trabajo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ernesto_de_la_Cárcova_-_Sin_pan_y_sin_trabajo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Dornicke, Gryffindor, Roblespepe File:Teatro del Picadero - Teatro Abierto - 1981.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Teatro_del_Picadero_-_Teatro_Abierto_-_1981.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Barcex, Courcelles, Roblespepe File:El Cabildo por Emerix Vidal.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:El_Cabildo_por_Emerix_Vidal.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Emerix Vidal (1791 1861) File:Congreso 1910.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Congreso_1910.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ALE!, Barcex, Elsapucai, Jfa, Joolz, Marianocecowski, Skipjack File:Chalet-S.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Chalet-S.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: DagosNavy File:Boulevard San Isidro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Boulevard_San_Isidro.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Alpertron File:Banco Holandés Unido (B. Mitre y 25 de Mayo).JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Banco_Holandés_Unido_(B._Mitre_y_25_de_Mayo).JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Elsapucai File:Monumento Bandera (frente).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Monumento_Bandera_(frente).jpg  License: Copyrighted free use  Contributors: ALE!, JuanB-ARG, Pablo-flores File:Bkb tower 15-11-2005.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bkb_tower_15-11-2005.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: ALE!, Barcex, Dubstar, Elsapucai, Geofrog, Mrexcel, Ronaldino File:Torre YPF.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Torre_YPF.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Elsapucai File:Asado 2005.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Asado_2005.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Bleff Image:Mercedes Sosa, Félix Luna y Ariel Ramírez.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mercedes_Sosa,_Félix_Luna_y_Ariel_Ramírez.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Zeroth Image:EduardoFalu.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:EduardoFalu.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: Claudio Elias, Martinmartin Image:Don Atahualpa.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Don_Atahualpa.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Claudio Elias, Zeroth Image:Los Fronterizos -Alta Fidelidad (1959).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Los_Fronterizos_-Alta_Fidelidad_(1959).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Fronterizos Image:Los Chalchaleros - 1958.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Los_Chalchaleros_-_1958.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Los Chalchaleros Image:Hermanos Ábalos.gif  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hermanos_Ábalos.gif  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ferbr1, Zeroth Image:Quena01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Quena01.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported  Contributors: User:Deadstar, User:Jordi Coll Costa, User:Kanon6917, User:Muzeum lezajsk, User:Rotatebot Image:OTS-Canaro.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:OTS-Canaro.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Photosbal, Zeroth Image:Carlosgardel10.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Carlosgardel10.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aleposta Image:SodaenLima-2100924195.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SodaenLima-2100924195.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: Pedro Rivas Ugaz from Lima, Perú Image:Sandro-almayfuego-66.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sandro-almayfuego-66.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Roblespepe

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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:Tito Alberti.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tito_Alberti.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Roblespepe Image:Gato Barbieri.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gato_Barbieri.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Claudio Elias

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