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Protocol DNS DHCP SNMP
TCP/IP Suite Summary (continued)
Name Domain Name System Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Transport Layer Security Session Initiation Protocol Real-time Transport Protocol Description Resolves hostnames to IP addresses. Automatically assigns TCP/IP information. Used in network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that may need attention from an administrator. A security protocol designed to ensure privacy between communicating client/server applications. SIP is an application-layer protocol designed to establish and maintain multimedia sessions such as Internet telephony calls. The Internet-standard protocol for the transport of real-time data.
The Network+ Cram Sheet
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This Cram Sheet contains the distilled key facts about the CompTIA Network+ exam. Review this information as the last thing you do before you enter the testing center, paying special attention to those areas in which you feel you need the most review. You can transfer any of these facts from your head onto a blank sheet of paper immediately before you begin the exam.
TLS SIP RTP
. A router that uses a link-state protocol differs from a router that uses a distance-vector protocol because it builds a map of the entire network and then holds that map in memory. Link-state protocols include Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS). . Hops are the means by which distance-vector routing protocols determine the shortest way to reach a given destination. Each router constitutes one hop, so if a router is four hops away from another router, there are three routers, or hops, between itself and the destination.
. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distancevector routing protocol used for both the TCP/IP and IPX/SPX protocol suites. . Distance-vector protocols in use today include Routing Information Protocol (RIP and RIPv2), Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). . Switches introduce microsegmentation, by which each connected system effectively operates on its own dedicated network connection.
802.11 Wireless Standards
Frequency/ Speed Medium 5GHz 2.4GHz 2.4GHz 2.4GHz/ 5GHz Up to 54Mbps Topology Transmission Range 25 to 75 feet indoors; range can be affected by building materials. Up to 150 feet indoors; range can be affected by building materials. Up to 150 feet indoors; range can be affected by building materials. 175+ feet indoors; range can be affected by building materials. Access Method CSMA/CA CSMA/CA CSMA/CA CSMA/CA
Protocol FTP FTP SSH Telnet SMTP DNS
TCP/IP Port Assignments for Commonly Used Protocols
Port Assignment 20 21 22 23 25 53 Protocol HTTP POP3 NNTP NTP IMAP4 HTTPS Port Assignment 80 110 119 123 143 443 Protocol UDP Ports DHCP TFTP DNS BOOTPS DHCP SNMP Port Assignment 67 69 53 67 161
802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n
NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES TABLE 1
Protocol IP TCP UDP FTP SFTP TFTP
TCP/IP Suite Summary
Name Internet Protocol Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol File Transfer Protocol Secure File Transfer Protocol Trivial File Transfer Protocol Description A connectionless protocol used to move data around a network. A connection-oriented protocol that offers flow control, sequencing, and retransmission of dropped packets. A connectionless alternative to TCP used for applications that do not require the functions offered by TCP. A protocol for uploading and downloading files to and from a remote host. Also accommodates basic file-management tasks. A protocol for securely uploading and downloading files to and from a remote host. Based on SSH security. A file transfer protocol that does not have the security or error checking of FTP. TFTP uses UDP as a transport protocol and therefore is connectionless. A mechanism for transporting email across networks. A protocol for retrieving files from a web server. A secure protocol for retrieving files from a web server. Used to retrieve email from the server on which it is stored. Can only be used to retrieve mail. IMAP and POP cannot be used to send mail. Allows sessions to be opened on a remote host. Allows secure sessions to be opened on a remote host. Used on IP-based networks for error reporting, flow control, and route testing. Resolves IP addresses to MAC addresses to enable communication between devices. Resolves MAC addresses to IP addresses. Used to communicate time synchronization information between devices. Facilitates the access and downloading of messages from newsgroup servers. Allows files to be copied securely between two systems. Uses Secure Shell (SSH) technology to provide encryption services. A protocol used to access and query directory services systems such as Novell eDirectory and Microsoft Active Directory. Provides a mechanism for systems within the same multicast group to register and communicate with each other.
Ad hoc/ infrastructure Up to 11Mbps Ad hoc/ infrastructure Up to 54Mbps Ad hoc/ infrastructure Up to 600Mbps Ad hoc/ infrastructure
SMTP HTTP HTTPS POP3 /IMAP4 Telnet SSH ICMP ARP RARP NTP NNTP SCP LDAP IGMP
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure Post Office Protocol version 3/ Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 Telnet Secure Shell Internet Control Message Protocol Address Resolution Protocol Reverse Address Resolution Protocol Network Time Protocol Network News Transport Protocol Secure Copy Protocol Lightweight Directory Access Protocol Internet Group Management Protocol
. A MAC address is a 6-byte hexadecimal address that allows a device to be uniquely identified on the network. A MAC address combines numbers and the letters A to F. An example of a MAC address is 00:D0:59:09:07:51. . A Class A TCP/IP address uses only the first octet to represent the network portion, a Class B address uses two octets, and a Class C address uses three octets. . Class A addresses span from 1 to 126, with a default subnet mask of 255.0.0.0. . Class B addresses span from 128 to 191, with a default subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. . Class C addresses span from 192 to 223, with a default subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. . The 127 network ID is reserved for the local loopback. . Application protocols map to the application, presentation, and session layers of the OSI model. Application protocols include AFT, FTP, SFTP, TFTP, NCP, NTP, NNTP, SSH, Telnet, SCP, LDAP, and SNMP. . Transport protocols map to the transport layer of the OSI model and are responsible for transporting data across the network. Transport protocols include ATP, NetBEUI, SPX, TCP, and UDP.
. Default gateways are the means by which a device can access hosts on other networks for which it does not have a specifically configured route. . IP is a network protocol responsible for providing addressing and routing information. . The TCP/IP suite is used by all major operating systems and is a routable protocol. . DHCP/BOOTP is a network service that automatically assigns IP addressing information. . In a network that does not use DHCP, you need to watch for duplicate IP addresses that prevent a user from logging on to the network. . Subnetting is a process in which parts of the host ID portion of an IP address are used to create more network IDs. . APIPA is a system used on Windows to automatically self-assign an IP address in the 169.x.x.x range in the absence of a DHCP server. . DNS resolves hostnames to IP addresses. . NAT translates private network addresses into public network addresses.
NETWORK MEDIA AND TOPOLOGIES
. Peer-to-peer networks are useful for only relatively small networks. They are often used in small offices or home environments. . Client/server networks, also called server-centric networks, have clients and servers. Servers provide centralized administration, data storage, and security. The client system requests data from the server and displays the data to the end user. . The bus network topology is also known as a linear bus because the computers in such a network are linked using a single cable called a trunk or backbone. . If a terminator on a bus network is loose, data communications might be disrupted. Any other break in the cable will cause the entire network segment to fail. . In a star configuration, all devices on the network connect to a central device, and this central device creates a single point of failure on the network. . The wired mesh topology requires each computer on the network to be individually connected to every other device. This configuration provides maximum reliability and redundancy for the network. . A wireless infrastructure network uses a centralized device known as a wireless access point (AP). Ad hoc wireless topologies are a peer-to-peer configuration and do not use a wireless access point. . 802.2, the LLC sublayer, defines specifications for the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer in the 802 standard series. . 802.3 defines the carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) media access method used in Ethernet networks. This is the most popular networking standard used today. . Many factors cause EMI, including computer monitors and fluorescent lighting fixtures. . Copper-based media are prone to EMI, whereas fiber-optic cable is immune to it. . Data signals might also be subjected to crosstalk, which occurs when signals from two cables, or from wires within a single cable, interfere with each other. . The weakening of data signals as they traverse the media is called attenuation. . Half-duplex mode enables each device to both transmit and receive, but only one of these processes can occur at a time. . Full-duplex mode enables devices to receive and transmit simultaneously. A 100Mbps network card in full-duplex mode can operate at 200Mbps. . 802.11b/g uses 2.4GHz RF for transmissions, whereas 802.11a uses 5GHz RF. 802.11n uses 2.4 or 5GHz. . UTP cabling is classified by category. Categories 5/5e and 6 offer transmission distances of 100 meters. . F-type connectors are used with coaxial cable, most commonly to connect cable modems and TVs. F-type connectors are a screw-type connector. . SC, ST, LC, and MT-RJ connectors are associated with fiber cabling. ST connectors offer a twisttype attachment, and SC, LC, and MT-RJ connectors are push-on. . RJ-45 connectors are used with UTP cable and are associated with networking applications. RJ-11 connectors are used with telephone cables. . Plenum-rated cables are used to run cabling through walls or ceilings.
Comparing IPv4 and IPv6
IPv4 Address 127.0.0.1 IPv4 public address ranges 10.0.0.0 172.16.0.0 192.168.0.0 IPv4 automatic private IP addressing (169.254.0.0) IPv6 Address 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 (::1) Global unicast IPv6 addresses Site-local address ranges (FEC0::)
Address Feature Loopback address Network-wide addresses Private network addresses
Link-local addresses of FE80:: prefix
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switches. The term trunking refers to the use of multiple network cables or ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any one cable or port. . . In a crossover cable. the switch waits to receive the entire packet before beginning to forward it. into IP addresses. . servers. . Incremental backups back up all data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup. . Full backups do not use the archive bit. . . . . . . . .
. . . and more. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . gateway. . The horizontal cabling extends from the telecommunications outlet. . . . do not need power. . . . . . . . mask. Ethernet Standards TABLE 5 Summary of 802. . 4. Repeater The function a repeater provides typically is built into other devices. The method of sending data to all systems regardless of the intended recipient is called broadcasting. or network outlet with RJ-45 connectors. RAID 0 offers no fault tolerance and improves I/O performance. and more. . . . . . and filters outgoing client requests. 5 Fiber-optic 5 or greater RJ-45 SC. essential part of a network’s security strategy. . . . full-duplex 550 (multimode fiber). . full-duplex 5000 (single-mode fiber) 1000BaseCX Baseband 1000Mbps 25 meters for both full-duplex and half-duplex operations
Characteristic Transmission method Speed Distance
62. . By channeling data only to the connections that should receive it. . . They use the archive bit but do not clear it. Defines the method by which the medium is accessed. . . As data is passed up or down through the OSI model structure. Converts data from the session layer into a format that the application layer can understand. . . . These devices may include remote switches. . .5/125 and 50/125 multimode fiber. translates data formats is called a gateway. RAID 1.5/125 and 50/125 multimode fiber 1000BaseLX Baseband 1000Mbps Half-duplex 316 (multimode and single-mode fiber). .1X standard. . The logical topology refers to how a network looks to the devices that use it—how it functions. . . . . . RAID 5. . . CSU/DSU Translates digital signals used on CSU/DSU functionality is sometimes incorporated into a LAN to those used on a WAN. . . . . wires 1 and 3 and wires 2 and 6 are crossed. . . . including IP address. . switches reduce the number of collisions that happen on the network. . Any device that to another. . Proxy server Manages client Internet requests. It requires a minimum of two disks. . . . built-in interface. Has two distinct sublayers: LLC and MAC. . . . The main wiring closet for a network typically holds the majority of the network gear. full-duplex) Category 3. STP RJ-45 100BaseT4 Baseband 100Mbps 100 meters 100BaseFX Baseband 100Mbps 412 meters (multimode. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3z Gigabit Ethernet Characteristics
1000BaseSX Baseband 1000Mbps Half-duplex 275 (62. . . . . often associated with wireless security. Load balancer Distributes the network load. . . . . . . Provides compression and decompression functionality. . wireless access points. . Each port on a switch is a dedicated link between the switch and the connected computer. . at the client end. . A straight-through cable is used to connect systems to the switch or hub using the MDI-X ports. Port mirroring provides a way to monitor network traffic and monitor how well a switch is working. PoE is a technology that allows electrical power to be transmitted over twisted-pair Ethernet cable. . reducing cost and easing administrative difficulty. Handles error detection and notification to the peer layer on the other device. . . . In cut-through switching. Network card Enables systems to connect to Can be an add-in expansion card. half-duplex 316 (50-micron multimode fiber). . or backbone cable. . . Rather than forwarding data to all the connected ports. the switch reads only the part of the packet that enables it to identify fragments of a transmission. . Regenerates data signals. In store-and-forward switching. . Performs error detection and handling for the transmitted signals. . full-duplex 275 (62. . . father. . Displays incoming information and prepares outgoing information for network access. . Serves two key network functions: increases network performance by caching. . . . . . . Shaping by application: Administrators can control traffic based on the types of network traffic and assigning that category a bandwidth limit. In fragment-free switching. . disk striping with distributed parity. regardless of whether the data is intended for the system connected to the port. a switch forwards data only to the port on which the destination system is connected. along with data. such as a router with a WAN connection. headers are added (going down) or removed (going up) at each layer—a process called encapsulation (when added) or decapsulation (when removed). . . . The physical topology refers to how a network is physically constructed—how it looks. . . end and performs the reverse function at the receiving end. . . . . Defines hardware addressing through the MAC sublayer. Defines voltage/signal rates and the physical connection methods. . technologies with older 100BaseT networks or older copper standards with fiber. . . . Key Points Does not perform any tasks besides signal regeneration. . . ST Characteristic Transmission method Speed Distance Cable type Connector type
NETWORK DEVICES TABLE 9
Device Hub Switch
Network Devices Summary
Description Connects devices on an Ethernet twisted-pair network. .3ae Characteristics
62. . . refers to the media used to connect telecommunication rooms. . Differential backups back up all data since the last full or differential backup. . . . A network’s demarcation point refers to the connection point between the ISP’s part of the network and the customer’s portion of the network. . . including routers. . . . .
.000 meters (single-mode.or software-based. . . . . the switch begins to forward the packet as soon as it is received. Switches reduce collisions through a process called microsegmentation. . son) is a commonly implemented backup strategy. . . . . Main Distribution Frame (MDF) and Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF) define types of wiring closets. . . . . . Uses the software-configured network address to make forwarding decisions. . . Defines the network’s physical structure. One standard that specifies port authentication is the 802. . PCMCIA card. . . . CSU/DSU A conversion device that connects Acts as a translator between the LAN data format and a LAN and WAN. and more. . . Determines the ordering and priorities of data. Multifunction Combines network services. . subnet information. . disk mirroring. Handles the discovery of destination systems and addressing. . . .. all data is backed up. wiring. . . A switch makes forwarding decisions based on the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses of the devices connected to it to determine the correct port. . . . Monitors and controls bandwidth usage. Separate disk controllers can be used—a strategy known as disk duplexing. reading the MAC address. Passive hubs.3u Fast Ethernet Characteristics
100BaseTX Baseband 100Mbps 100 meters Category UTP. . . half-duplex). . . Hubs and switches have two types of ports: mediumdependent interface (MDI) and medium-dependent interface crossed (MDI-X). . . and remote locations and offices. . . . . Router Connects networks. . Gateway Translates from one data format Can be hardware.
. . DNS. . . Load balancing increases redundancy and performance by distributing the load to multiple servers. On busy networks. . other devices. . . . . Mapping network devices to the OSI model: Hub: Physical (Layer 1) Switch: Data link (Layer 2) Bridge: Data link (Layer 2) Router: Network (Layer 3) NIC: Data link (Layer 2) AP: Data link (Layer 2) .or software-based and is an between networks. Provides mechanisms for the routing of data between devices across single or multiple network segments. . Port authentication involves authenticating users on a port-by-port basis. DNS server Provides name resolution from Answers clients’ requests to translate hostnames hostnames to IP addresses. . requires a minimum of three disks—the total size of a single disk being used for the parity calculation.5-micron multimode fiber). Connects devices on a twisted-pair network. . . or the network. A hub forwards data to all ports. . . . . . . . . . . Modem Provides serial communication Modulates the digital signal into analog at the sending capabilities across phone lines. . . .
NETWORK MANAGEMENT TABLE 10
OSI Layer Application Presentation
Summary of the OSI Model
Description Provides access to the network for applications and certain end-user functions. . to provide power to remote devices. . . . VoIP equipment. . A hub takes data from one of the connected sending devices and forwards the message to all the other ports on the hub. .5-micron multimode fiber). Bandwidth shaper Manages network bandwidth. but they do clear it. . . Documentation should also include diagrams of the physical and logical network design. . . . Establishes. . . . . The power is transferred. which today are seen only on older networks. . . . . Synchronizes the data exchange between applications on separate devices. In a full backup. and they don’t regenerate the data signal. . . . and breaks connections between two devices. maintains. . . . A hardware device that combines multiple network device services into a single device. . Defines the physical topology. Media converter Interconnects older technology A hardware device that connects newer Gigabit Ethernet with new technology. Vertical cable. . . . . . server rooms. . . .
Session Transport Network Data link
Horizontal and Vertical Cable and Cross-Connect
. Active hubs regenerate a data signal before forwarding it to all the ports on the device and require a power supply.5-micron multimode fiber Up to 33 m Not used Not used 50-micron multimode fiber 300 m Not used Not used Single-mode fiber Not used 10 km 40 km
Forwards data to its destination by using the MAC address embedded in each packet. . . . . .
Summary of IEEE 802. GFS (grandfather. . . . It includes all cable from that outlet to the telecommunication room to the horizontal cross-connect. They use and clear the archive bit. . Converts data from the application layer into a format that can be sent over the network. such as switches. . broadcast communications can have a significant impact on overall network performance. . . . . two 10-micron single-mode optical fibers Fiber-optic connectors
Shielded copper cable
Nine-pin shielded connector
Summary of 1000BaseT Characteristics
Description Baseband 1000Mbps 75 meters Category 5 or better RJ-45
Characteristic Transmission method Speed Total distance/segment Cable type Connector type
Fiber SR/SW LR/LW ER/EW
Summary of 802. . the WAN data format. . Bridge Connects LANs to reduce overall Allows or prevents data from passing through it by network traffic. . . . full-duplex 550 (50-micron multimode fiber) 62.
. provides fault tolerance and requires two hard disks. . Firewall Provides controlled data access Can be hardware. . . Computers connect to a hub via a length of twistedpair cabling. . . . . . .
. . . . Performs error checking and verification and handles retransmissions if necessary. Encrypts and decrypts data. . DHCP server Automatically distributes IP Assigns all IP information. . . . . . . . . . .
HTTP. Specifically. Only the user interface. VNC. . wireless routers can be configured to restrict who can and cannot access the router based on the MAC address. . Most IDSs can detect potentially dangerous content by its signature. Information gathering: identify symptoms and problems. . and policies that are combined to allow users from the Internet or other unsecured public networks to securely exchange data. and more. standards. You can ping the local loopback adapter by using the command ping 127. . dig can be used for the same purpose on UNIX and Linux systems. Punchdown tools are used to attach twisted-pair network cable to connectors within a patch panel. This tunneling functionality is the basis for VPNs. For example. Authorization is the method used to determine if an authenticated user has access to a particular resource. . . If this command is successful. IPSec uses two separate protocols: Authentication Header (AH) and Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). Determine if escalation is necessary. ceilings. 3. ARP is the part of the TCP/IP suite whose function is to resolve IP addresses to MAC addresses. can be used. ipconfig /renew is used on Windows operating systems to renew the system’s DNS information. To create secure data transmissions. A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a collection of software.0. . . device. you know that the TCP/IP suite is installed correctly on your system and is functioning. and ICA protocols allow client systems to access and run applications on a remote system. Terminal Access Controller Access Control System+ (TACACS+) is a security protocol designed to provide centralized validation of users who are attempting to gain access to a router or Network Access Server (NAS). which build on the functionality of PPP. . 7.
. They are a security tool designed to search a network host for open ports on a TCP/IP-based network. It authenticates the computer and then the user. An IPS is a network device that continually scans the network. 9. Toner probes are used to locate cables hidden in floors.Steps in the Network Troubleshooting Methodology
1. Temperature monitors keep track of the temperature in wiring closets and server rooms. over which other connectivity protocols. looking for inappropriate activity. The private part of the public key cryptography system is never transmitted over a network. A firewall is considered a logical security measure and is one of the cornerstone concepts of network security. .
. and procedures that are combined to create a secure network. . . Throughput testers identify the rate of data delivery over a communication channel. A TDR is a device used to send a signal through a particular medium to check the cable’s continuity. Protocol analyzers can be hardware. . UDP. . A VPN extends a LAN by establishing a remote connection. A private key is the secret half of a cryptographic key pair that is used with a public key algorithm.0. . . The netstat -a command can be used on a Windows-based system to see the status of ports. . This is commonly determined through group association—a particular group may have a specific level of security clearance. The ifconfig command is the Linux equivalent of the ipconfig command. a connection tunnel. . . nbtstat is used to display protocol and statistical information for NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections. This includes passwords and biometrics.1. a firewall is a device that has more than one network interface and manages the flow of network traffic between those interfaces. This makes it possible to create dedicated point-to-point tunnels through a public network such as the Internet. It can shut down any potential threats. . VPNs are created and managed by using protocols such as PPTP and L2TP. using that system’s resources. The public key is freely given to all potential receivers. . A public key is a nonsecret key that forms half of a cryptographic key pair that is used with a public key algorithm. such as PPP. Authentication refers to the mechanisms used to verify the identity of the computer or user attempting to access a particular resource. . you disable the capability for traffic to pass through that port. . . and mouse movement are transferred between the client and server computers. AAA defines a spectrum of security measures. . Packet sniffers are either a hardware device or software that eavesdrop on transmissions that are traveling throughout the network. ipconfig shows the IP configuration information for all NICs installed in a system. Identify the results and effects of the solution. Kerberos is one part of a strategic security solution that provides secure authentication services to users. .
. policies. 8. 5. . applications. or walls and to track cables from the patch panel to their destination. tracert reports how long it takes to reach each router in the path. Implement and test the solution. A DMZ is part of a network on which you place servers that must be accessible by sources both outside and inside your network. Their primary function is to analyze network protocols such as TCP.or softwarebased. An IDS can detect malware or other dangerous traffic that may pass undetected by the firewall. . keystrokes. and network devices. An access control list (ACL) typically refers to specific access permissions assigned to an object or device on the network. . The nslookup command is a TCP/IP diagnostic tool used to troubleshoot DNS problems. netstat is used to view both inbound and outbound TCP/IP network connections. but on optical media. . you should ensure that the gateway is set correctly. Identify the affected areas of the network. Create an action plan and solution identifying potential effects. they connect twisted-pair wires to the IDC. . When looking for client connectivity problems using ipconfig. . . 2. Some are specifically designed to strip the outer sheathing from coaxial cable.
. . . 4.
. . or service that holds the corresponding private key. . At its most basic. Voltage event recorders are used to monitor the quality of power used on the network or by network hardware. It eliminates the insecurities caused by passwords being stored or transmitted across the network. Wire strippers come in a variety of shapes and sizes. An OTDR performs the same basic function as a wire media tester. . ipconfig /all is used to display detailed TCP/IP configuration information. . . PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is a protocol used to connect multiple network users on an Ethernet local area network to a remote site through a common device. Accounting refers to the tracking mechanisms used to keep a record of events on a system. When a port is blocked. Document the solution and the entire process. L2TP authenticates the client in a two-phase process. and others are designed to work with UTP cable. Determine if anything has changed. thereby filtering that traffic. . . PPTP creates a secure tunnel between two points on a network. The tracert command performs the same task on UNIX and Linux systems. . A wire crimper is a tool that you use to attach media connectors to the ends of cables. The RDP. Establish the most probable cause. 6. A certificate is a digitally signed statement that associates the credentials of a public key to the identity of the person. It’s a useful tool for isolating bottlenecks in a network. using a public network such as the Internet. . Port scanners are a software-based utility. FTP.